... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...
Berlage, Gai Ingham
In a study of the similarities between childrens' competitive team sports and the typical corporate or business environment, two research questions were posed: (1) Does the structural organization of childrens' soccer and ice hockey organizations resemble that of American corporations?; and (2) Are the values of childrens' competitive sports…
Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Lyudmila N. Voloshina
Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.
Storm, Rasmus K.
Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....
Batey, Jo; Owton, Helen
Maintaining involvement in sport and exercise activities is a challenge for mothers with young children. This study therefore qualitatively explores the experiences of 7 mothers who have managed to remain physically active in team sports exploring how the team environment might meet their psychological needs. We analyse the results through Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Semi-structured interviews were thematically analysed to reveal the following themes: perceived benefits of sport, perceiv...
Cusimano, Michael D; Cho, Newton; Amin, Khizer; Shirazi, Mariam; McFaull, Steven R; Do, Minh T; Wong, Matthew C; Russell, Kelly
There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports. We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football), basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed. There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP). Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%), followed by soccer (19.0%) and football (12.9%). In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post) among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females). Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.
Michael D Cusimano
Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.
Bloom, Gordon A.; Loughead, Todd M.; Newin, Julie
Participation in youth sport generally begins to decline after the age of 12. Among the reasons for this are personal aspects such as lack of desire, and social aspects including negative experiences with coaches. One way that coaches can improve the sporting environment is through group activities that promote team building. The purpose of this…
Walters, Simon R.; Payne, Deborah; Schluter, Philip J.; Thomson, Rex W.
The childhood years are highlighted as a crucial time when ongoing participation in physical activity can be nurtured and maintained. The nurturing of a child's proclivity to participate in organised sport normally falls into the domain of adults. While both parents and coaches have been identified as key influences on children's enjoyment of…
Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard
of a team sports project as well as coaching and mentoring, the project goal was to challenge the boys to be part of a new shared and empowering community, so that they actively experienced the ability to take responsibility for themselves and others in the arenas where they lived. In close co......-operation with the local sports club ’Nørrebro United’, 26 volunteer coaches (coaching the boys in school), school staff, the local community and not least the young people themselves, the intervention gradually took it’s own form. The intention of this strong local co-operation, was to clarify the young participants...... bullet points. We will use voices from the project, like volunteer coaches and the local sports club Nørrebro United. This final discussion will broaden the local agenda of this research project towards a more general discussion with the participants....
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidstr?m, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies.
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies.
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies. PMID:25970581
Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others
This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)
Melnick, Merrill J.
Satisfaction of participants in team sports hinges on psychosocial needs of individual athletes. Team affiliation creates a ready-made social structure in which emotional rewards of close friendships, motivation to achieve particular goals, and social reinforcement through personal recognition are granted. Other factors include: (1) team size; (2)…
Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A
Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul
This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…
Vazquez, Federico; Ben-Naim, Eli; Redner, Sidney
What is the most interesting team sport? We answer this question via an extensive statistical survey of game scores, consisting of more than 1/4 million games in over a century. We propose the likelihood of upsets as a measure of competitiveness. We demonstrate the utility of this measure via a comparative analysis of several popular team sports including soccer, baseball, hockey, basketball, and football. We also develop a mathematical model, in which the stronger team is favored to win a game. This model allows to us conveniently estimate the likelihood of upsets from the more easily-accessible standings data.
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical an...
Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviors self-organize into a group synergy. Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts. Complex adaptive systems, synergies, group
Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L
Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.
Micheli, Lyle J.
Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)
A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements
Full Text Available Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv, degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviours self-organize into a group synergy.Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts.
Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian
The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.
Robertson, Sam; Joyce, David
The planned peaking for matches or events of perceived greatest priority or difficulty throughout a competitive season is commonplace in high-level team sports. Despite this prevalence in the field, little research exists on the practice. This study aimed to provide a framework for strategic periodisation which team sport organisations can use to evaluate the efficacy of such plans. Data relating to factors potentially influencing the difficulty of matches were obtained for games played in the 2014 Australian Football League season. These included the match location, opposition rank, between-match break and team "form". Binary logistic regression models were developed to determine the level of association between these factors and match outcome (win/loss). Models were constructed using "fixed" factors available to clubs prior to commencement of the season, and then also "dynamic" factors obtained at monthly intervals throughout the in-season period. The influence of playing away from home on match difficulty became stronger as the season progressed, whilst the opposition rank from the preceding season was the strongest indicator of difficulty across all models. The approaches demonstrated in this paper can be used practically to evaluate both the long- and short-term efficacy of strategic periodisation plans in team sports as well as inform and influence coach programming.
McDuff, David R; Garvin, Michelle
Athletes and coaches at all competitive levels will utilize sports performance and psychiatric services at very high rates if the services are offered on-site and free of charge and are broad in scope and culturally sensitive. Services should be available throughout the team year and cover areas such as team building, mental preparation, stress control, substance prevention, sleep and energy regulation, injury recovery, crisis intervention, and mental disorder treatment. The staff offering these services should be diverse by gender, profession, and culture, and the fees should be paid by the organization. When these services are endorsed by the team's leaders and integrated with the athletic training/medical/player development staff, their utilization will grow quickly and lead to positive outcomes individually and collectively.
Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel
In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.
Taft, Timothy N.
A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…
Soltani Hossein; Hojati Zahra; Reza Attarzadeh Hossini Seyed
Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate) and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball). The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Invent...
Vazha M. Devishvili; Marina O. Mdivani; Daria S. Elgina
Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The pape...
Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain
This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; pteam sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; pteam sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; pTeam sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter
This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.
providers ( sports medicine doctors, physical therapists, certified athletic trainers [ATC’s], podiatrists, and chiropractors) into one clinic. Core principals...Patellar Tendonitis), and 733.93 (Lower Leg Stress Fractures) are significantly lower than the corresponding PEB rates for NHCP Orthopedics and Sports ... Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Team) Center. SMART Centers address the multitude of muscular skeletal injuries encountered at Recruit Training
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is
Du Boullay, C T; Bardier, M; Cheneau, J; Bortolasso, J; Gaubert, J
Among 49 000 cases of infantile emergencies which were received in the BUCI (Bloc d'urgence chirurgical infantile: surgical infantile emergency unit), 5 546 were sport traumas. At an early age, they were caused by outdoor plays; during adolescence, the main cases were caused by team sports. Males are predominant. The number of cases has been regularly progressing, particularly since 1976. The fashion in sports is influenced by médias (i.e. skate board), and can be opposed to the continuous practice of popular sports (swimming, ball games, bycicle. There are winter, summer, school timed sports (the latter being influenced by the sportive scholar associations). The most frequent sports are cycling, football playing, swimming and horse riding, athleticism skating, Other are occasionnal. Changes in sport fashions, female increasing participation, such as horse riding and skating, democratisation (skiing, riding), the worsening of traumas; the pathology concerning bystanders, are described. Cranial and peripheric pathology are dominant. Trunk traumas are scarce but severe. Each sport has an elective pathologic localisation. Injury mechanisms are found, such as stirrup, saddle, ski baton pathology. There is traumatologic similarities; skate board and roller skating; judo and atheleticism; cycling and horse riding. Sport in children is not a replica of the one among adults. Riding a bike is not cycling. Some sports are dangerous: cycling, horse riding, rugby. A traumatological outline is revealed. Preventive measures should be taken. The socio-economical cost is heavy.
Gaines, Stacey A.
The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.
Full Text Available Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498
Spaaij, R.; Anderson, A.
The article examines the socialization of children into identification with a sports team. It presents a sociological approach which extends the insights obtained from research into psychological aspects of sports team identification. A conceptual model is presented which proffers an explanation of
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Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle
In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…
Stura, Claudia; Johnston, Linda M.
Since sports are increasingly used a way to bring formerly conflicting parties together post-conflict, more work needs to be done to ensure that sports are actually conducted in a way that promotes peace rather than exacerbates the conflict. Since many sports-for-peace programs cross cultural boundaries, this exploratory study was conducted to…
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky
This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome...... enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found...... in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which...
Stein, Manuel; Janetzko, Halldór; Seebacher, Daniel
in general. We identify challenges arising when facing these data sets and we propose a multi-facet view and analysis including pattern detection, context-aware analysis, and visual explanation. We also present applicable methods and technologies covering the heterogeneous aspects in team sport data.......Automatic and interactive data analysis is instrumental in making use of increasing amounts of complex data. Owing to novel sensor modalities, analysis of data generated in professional team sport leagues such as soccer, baseball, and basketball has recently become of concern, with potentially high...... or groups of players happened, and what the respective influencing factors are. We consider team sport as group movement including collaboration and competition of individuals following specific rule sets. Analyzing team sports is a challenging problem as it involves joint understanding of heterogeneous...
Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri
Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.
Perception of cohesion and imagery use among 45 elite team sport players in Botswana were assessed with the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985) and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998) to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables, and whether imagery use will ...
Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim
While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.
Full Text Available Today’s sport in many ways is like business. Numerous concepts as well as characteristics are adequate for both. The role of leaders in sports and business is invaluable when it comes to reaching goals or creating positive work environment. The aim of the paper is to identify the role of trust in relationships within a sport team, particularly between the leader and the rest of the group (trust in leader, and to highlight the impact of trust on the effectiveness of leaders’ work and successes achieved by a team.
Tacha, Karolyn K.; And Others
The Sports Fitness Program developed at Kansas State University offers children a way to develop or improve skills and learn physical education concepts. This summer program is an alternative to traditional sports programs since activities are not competitive and are less structured. Details of program organization are discussed. (DF)
Full Text Available Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally by one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the mean score of somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety among individual sport athletes was significantly higher than that of team sport athletes (p0.05. Conclusion: It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. It seems the individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.
Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa
Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.
Lusher, Dean; Robins, Garry; Kremer, Peter
This article reviews how current social network analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Social network analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, social network analysis can be seen as augmenting…
Jenkins, David W
This article reviews the history of sports medicine highlighting the "jogging boom" of the 1970s and the advocacy of Dr George Sheehan, which boosted the position of podiatry in sports medicine. Significant events in mainstream sports medicine that promoted the rise of podiatric medicine are discussed. Reasons as to why podiatric medicine should be a member of the sports medicine team are outlined, and lastly, examples that highlight podiatric medicine as participants alongside other specialties in the evaluation and care of athletes are given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koller, Dionne L
The recognition of sports medicine and promulgation of practice guidelines for team physicians will push general medical malpractice standards to evolve into a more specialized standard of care for those who practice in this area. To the extent that practicing medicine in the sports context involves calculations that do not arise in typical medical practice, the sports medicine community can help elucidate those issues and create appropriate guidelines that can serve to inform athlete-patients and educate courts. Doing so will help best set the terms by which those who practice sports medicine are judged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Burgess, Darren J; Naughton, Geraldine A
Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport.
Vazha M. Devishvili
Full Text Available Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy. Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball and team level (amateur and professional. To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index. which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes; 12-14 years (24 athletes and 18-25 years (41 athletes. Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05. For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05. and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05. Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group
Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J
Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.
Full Text Available Asthma is one of the chronic diseases which have are widely seen among the children. The disease has recently been in the increase all over the world and affects many children. In a study conducted with International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC method, it was found out that prevalence of childhood asthma was 17.1%. Participation in sportive activities by the children with asthma, which is today considered as a part of asthma treatment program, makes contributions to their physical, mental and psychological development and increases their quality of life. The most recommended sports for the children with asthma are swimming and water sports. Sports like tennis and volleyball are too advised. Choice of sports depends on severity of asthma, child and #8217;s choice and whether or not asthma is kept under control. Nursing approaches for the children with asthma include correction of symptoms, training of children and their families, assistance with disease adaptation, continuing asthma care at home and interventions to make children lead healthy activities of daily life of children. With protective measures to be taken by families and children; children should be encourage for sportive activities. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 241-244
The background of the article is the recurrent discussion about allocation of playing time in team sports involving children and young athletes. The objective is to analyse "why" playing time is a topic for discussion among parents, coaches and athletes. The following question is addressed: Under which condition is it "fair" to…
The present study aimed to examine how players’ positional data can be used to assess the transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports (basketball, football and rugby) in early specialized and diversified sport careers. Thirty-four college students were divided into early specialization and early diversification groups, according to information provided by a questionnaire designed to obtain detailed information about their sports career. In-game derived variables were calculated based on ...
International motor sport teams travel extensively. Over the years, the design and build of racing cars has improved so that morbidity and mortality in motor sport has been lessened. Those team members supporting the competitors need to be physically and mentally fit to perform complicated tasks, despite having traveled. This group of travelers has not been studied to any extent previously. An anonymous questionnaire asking some basic travel medicine related questions was distributed to the support team members of a Rally team, and Formula One Grand Prix team. Both teams were based in the UK, and competed in all the rounds of their respective world championships. Ten Rally team members and 18 Formula One team members responded to the questionnaire. The results showed moderate coverage of commonly used vaccinations; appropriate use of antimalarials and insect repellents, but by no means by all team members; little or no problems with traveler's diarrhea; some tendencies to problems related to jet lag, but no real attempt to prevent the problem; and finally some attempt at skin protection against solar damage. Support teams are reasonably well prepared for the combination of, the rigors of frequent travel, and a demanding job. There is a deficit in vaccine coverage, especially of both hepatitis A and B, some education is needed in preventing skin problems later in life due to sun exposure, and further study of jet lag and its implications might be appropriate.
Self-efficacy was found as a strong predictor of sport performance in many researches. In this paper we focus on self-efficacy in children doing sport and we observe the relationship between self-efficacy, competitive anxiety and sport performance in children. In theoretical part we define self-efficacy, its sources and types of self-efficacy measurements in sport and physical activity. We summarize knowledge from previous researches and we also give some information about sport in children, ...
Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S. Alexander; Mallett, Cliff J.; Steffens, Niklas K.; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip
Objectives. Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Design. Three professional football teams (N = 135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Methods. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players’ leadership quality in...
van der Does, Hendrike
Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,
One thing is certain: work is an important part of our lives. Work adds value to an individual in the form of self-actualisation, security and relationships. The purpose of this research was to explore employees' experiences of the benefits of organisational team sport activities. The qualitative exploration study was conducted ...
Clauset, A.; Kogan, M.; Redner, S.
We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size L and game time t . Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40 000 games across four professional or semiprofessional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.
Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Smith, Nathan J.
Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…
Direkoglu, Cem; O'Connor, Noel E.
We propose a novel physics-based model for analysing team play- ers’ positions and movements on a sports playing field. The goal is to detect for each frame the region with the highest population of a given team’s players and the region towards which the team is moving as they press for territorial advancement, termed the region of intent. Given the positions of team players from a plan view of the playing field at any given time, we solve a particular Poisson equation to generate a smooth di...
Filho, Edson; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Yang, Yanyun
A nomological network on team dynamics in sports consisting of a multiframework perspective is introduced and tested. The aim was to explore the interrelationship among cohesion, team mental models (TMMs), collective efficacy (CE) and perceived performance potential (PPP). Three hundred and forty college-aged soccer players representing 17 different teams (8 female and 9 male) participated in the study. They responded to surveys on team cohesion, TMMs, CE and PPP. Results are congruent with the theoretical conceptualisation of a parsimonious view of team dynamics in sports. Specifically, cohesion was found to be an exogenous variable predicting both TMMs and CE beliefs. TMMs and CE were correlated and predicted PPP, which in turn accounted for 59% of the variance of objective performance scores as measured by teams' season record. From a theoretical standpoint, findings resulted in a parsimonious view of team dynamics, which may represent an initial step towards clarifying the epistemological roots and nomological network of various team-level properties. From an applied standpoint, results suggest that team expertise starts with the establishment of team cohesion. Following the establishment of cohesiveness, teammates are able to advance team-related schemas and a collective sense of confidence. Limitations and key directions for future research are outlined.
Fransen, Katrien; Mertens, Niels; Feltz, Deborah; Boen, Filip
During the last decade, team confidence has received more and more attention in the sport psychology literature. Research has demonstrated that athletes who are more confident in their team's abilities exert more effort, set more challenging goals, are more resilient when facing adversities, and ultimately perform better. This article reviews the existing literature in order to provide more clarity in terms of the conceptualization and the operationalization of team confidence. We thereby distinguish between collective efficacy (i.e., process-oriented team confidence) and team outcome confidence (i.e., outcome-oriented team confidence). In addition, both the sources as well as the outcomes of team confidence will be discussed. Furthermore, we will go deeper into the dispersion of team confidence and we will evaluate the current guidelines on how to measure both types of team confidence. Building upon this base, the article then highlights interesting avenues for future research in order to further improve both our theoretical knowledge on team confidence and its application to the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Green Power Partnership webinar on the green power use by sports teams and their venues. Focused on how and why sports teams and venues use green power, review of available product options, and best practices for procuring renewable energy.
López-Vicente, Mónica; Tiemeier, Henning; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Sunyer, Jordi; White, Tonya
We studied cortical morphology in relation to sports participation and type of sport using a large sample of healthy children (n = 911). Sports participation data was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired, and different morphological brain features were quantified. Global volumetric measures were not associated with sports participation. We observed thicker cortex in motor and premotor areas associated with sports participation. In boys, team sports participation, relative to individual sports, was related to thinner cortex in prefrontal brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviors. This study showed a relationship between sports participation and brain maturation.
Zimmer, Adam; Piecora, Kyle; Schuster, Danielle; Webbe, Frank
With the advent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) mandating the presence and practice of concussion-management plans in collegiate athletic programs, institutions will consider potential approaches for concussion management, including both baseline and normative comparison approaches. To examine sport and team differences in baseline performance on a computer-based neurocognitive measure and 2 standard sideline measures of cognition and balance and to determine the potential effect of premorbid factors sex and height on baseline performance. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. A total of 437 NCAA Division II student-athletes (males = 273, females = 164; age = 19.61 ± 1.64 years, height = 69.89 ± 4.04 inches [177.52 ± 10.26 cm]) were recruited during mandatory preseason testing conducted in a concussion-management program. The computerized Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (Form A; SAC), and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Players on the men's basketball team tended to perform worse on the baseline measures, whereas soccer players tended to perform better. We found a difference in total BESS scores between these sports (P = .002). We saw a difference between sports on the hard-surface portion of the BESS (F6,347 = 3.33, P = .003, ηp(2) = 0.05). No sport, team, or sex differences were found with SAC scores (P > .05). We noted differences between sports and teams in the CRI indices, with basketball, particularly the men's team, performing worse than soccer (P sport differences, height was a covariate for the team (F1,385 = 5.109, P = .02, ηp(2) = 0.013) and sport (F1,326 = 11.212, P = .001, ηp(2) = 0.033) analyses, but the interaction of sex and sport on CRI indices was not significant in any test (P > .05). Given that differences in neurocognitive functioning and performance among sports and teams exist, the comparison of posttraumatic and baseline assessment may lead to more
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the prevailing content, trends and future developments of professional team sports economics. The purpose of this paper is not to provide a full record of all professional team sports related research with an economic content, but rather to point out the main issues that sports economics tackle since their birth and track the evolution of these issues as a response to the changing environment of team sports. League market structure, team objectives, demand, financing, labour markets and sports broadcasting are the most prominent areas of interest in professional team sports economics. Differences in organizational structure of professional team sports in Europe and U.S.A. shape the research agenda on the two sides of the Atlantic accordingly. Future developments should capture both economic and social aspects of contemporary professional team sports.
Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Mallett, Clifford J; Steffens, Niklas K; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip
Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey. The leadership quality in each of these roles was then calculated in a social network analysis by averaging the indegree centralities of the three best leaders in that particular role. Participants also rated their team's performance and its functioning on multiple indicators. As hypothesized, the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership on each of the four leadership roles excelled in all indicators of team effectiveness. More specifically, athletes in this team had a stronger shared sense of the team's purpose, they were more highly committed to realizing the team's goals, and they had a greater confidence in their team's abilities than athletes in the other teams. Moreover, this team demonstrated a higher task-involving and a lower ego-involving climate, and excelled on all measures of performance. High-quality athlete leadership is positively related to team effectiveness. Given the importance of high-quality athlete leadership, the study highlights the need for well-designed empirically-based leadership development programs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E
The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.
Pettigrew, Simone; Rosenberg, Michael; Ferguson, Renee; Houghton, Stephen; Wood, Lisa
It is likely that there are substantial subconscious effects of organizations’ efforts to associate their products with sport via sponsorships, but most research methods are unable to capture these effects. The present study employed a novel projective technique to explore children's implicit associations between popular sports and a range of sports sponsors. Children participated in an activity using magnets bearing the logos of numerous sports and sponsors. They were invited to arrange the magnets on a whiteboard without being advised that the activity related to sponsorship. Perth, Western Australia. Children (n 164) aged 5–12 years. Three-quarters (76 %) of the children aligned at least one correct sponsor magnet with the relevant sport. Just over half the children (54 %) correctly matched the most popular sport (an Australian Football League team) with its relevant sponsor (a fast-food chain). Given the unstructured nature of the projective task, the results provide some support for the argument that sports sponsorship can effectively reach child audiences. This is of concern given the current extent of sponsorship by alcohol and fast-food companies.
Valentina V. Barabanshchikova
Full Text Available The modern world imposes strict conditions on people in various types of activities. A huge amount of processed information, tight timelines and other factors may cause people’s inability to cope with their tasks. Thus, there is a popular habit to put off the work without thinking about the consequences. This trait called procrastination is inherent to a million people all over the world. The problem of procrastination is just beginning to develop in Russia. Nowadays lots of foreign research and foreign questionnaires are being translated and approbated. The aim of this research is to identify the level of athletes’ procrastination, and define the differences of procrastination patterns in individual and team sports athletes. Also we want to study the relationship between procrastination and athletes’ personal characteristics such as extroversion, neuroticism, control over the actions, motivation to success, anxiety, time perspective and decision-making style (coping, and also indicators of state anxiety using a sample of individual athletes (boxing, unarmed self-defence, judo, karate, kickboxing, wrestling, taekwondo and teams (hockey, football, volleyball. Correlation analysis shows structural differences of procrastination manifestations in different types of sport. Regression analysis shows that in athletes of individual sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusted R2 = 0,368 there is only one significant predictor of procrastination - the negative past (p = 0,007, β = 0,495. The negative past (p = 0,003, β = 0,463, the control over the planning of the action (p = 0,05, β = -0.220 and the monitoring of the implementation of the action (p = 0,003, β = -0,465 are the predictors of procrastination in team sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusred R2 = 0,368.
Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Magee, Christopher A; Okely, Anthony D
To investigate the longitudinal association between sports participation and parent-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in children. Cohort study that used data drawn from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children in waves 3 (2008) and 4 (2010). Participants were a nationally representative sample of 4042 Australian children ages 8.25 (SD = 0.44) years at baseline and followed-up 24 months later. After we adjusted for multiple covariates, children who continued to participate in sports between the ages of 8 and 10 years had greater parent-reported HRQOL at age 10 (Eta2 = .02) compared with children who did not participate in sports (P ≤ .001), children who commenced participation after 8 years of age (P = .004), and children who dropped out of sports before reaching 10 years of age (P = .04). Children who participated in both team and individual sports (P = .02) or team sports alone (P = .04) had greater HRQOL compared with children who participated in individual sports alone (Eta2 = .01). The benefits of sports participation were strongest for girls (P Children's participation in developmentally appropriate team sports helps to protect HRQOL and should be encouraged at an early age and maintained for as long as possible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J
The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.
Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.
畑, 攻; 柴田, 雅貴; 塚本, 正仁; 杉山, 歌奈子
Leadership is one of the most important elements for team sports management, and concerning to members morale, team morale, maturity, and performance. In sports science area, it is expected that sports leadership would be defined and clarified to attain their objective. The purpose of the study was to identify sports leaders' behavior and function concerning with members' satisfaction. This study employed a specially designed questionnaire which were consisted of general demographics, academi...
Fonseca, Sofia; Milho, João; Travassos, Bruno; Araújo, Duarte
Team sports represent complex systems: players interact continuously during a game, and exhibit intricate patterns of interaction, which can be identified and investigated at both individual and collective levels. We used Voronoi diagrams to identify and investigate the spatial dynamics of players' behavior in Futsal. Using this tool, we examined 19 plays of a sub-phase of a Futsal game played in a reduced area (20 m(2)) from which we extracted the trajectories of all players. Results obtained from a comparative analysis of player's Voronoi area (dominant region) and nearest teammate distance revealed different patterns of interaction between attackers and defenders, both at the level of individual players and teams. We found that, compared to defenders, larger dominant regions were associated with attackers. Furthermore, these regions were more variable in size among players from the same team but, at the player level, the attackers' dominant regions were more regular than those associated with each of the defenders. These findings support a formal description of the dynamic spatial interaction of the players, at least during the particular sub-phase of Futsal investigated. The adopted approach may be extended to other team behaviors where the actions taken at any instant in time by each of the involved agents are associated with the space they occupy at that particular time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moriarty, Micheline Wyn
The benefits of sport and physical activity are endorsed by a number of professionals as a means of improving children's health and their sense of well-being, and their unity with the natural world, other people and the Transcendent. For children, sport is a spiritual source of joy and wonder. Using Champagne's "spiritual modes of…
Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah
Background A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. Methods A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n?=?28 participants) or control (n?=?20 participants) grou...
Polglaze, Ted; Hogan, Cruz; Dawson, Brian; Buttfield, Alec; Osgnach, Cristian; Lester, Leanne; Peeling, Peter
To assess the efficacy of critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed movement for classifying intensity in team sport activity. Elite male hockey players (n = 12) completed a series of time trials (100 yd, 400 yd, 1500 yd) and a 3-min all-out test to derive both critical speed (CS) and critical power (CP). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each protocol. Participants (n = 10) then played 2 competitive hockey matches. Time spent >85% of HRmax was compared to time spent above CS (from the time trials) and CP (from the 3-min test). Between protocols, there was a moderate and non-significant association for CS (r = 0.359, P = 0.252), and a very large association for CP (r = 0.754, P = 0.005); the association was very large for peak HR (r = 0.866, P 85% HRmax and time spent above both CS (r = 0.719, P < 0.001) and CP (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). This relationship was stronger for CP compared to CS (Z = 3.29, P = 0.0007). Speed is not an appropriate parameter for the classification of team-sport activity comprising continual changes in speed and direction, however, critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed activity appears useful for this purpose.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is formation of a comprehensive hypothetical dynamic interactional process model structured by assumed constructs, i.e. processes or mechanisms that obtain real features and influences on athlete's performance and athletic achievement. Thus there are formed and assumed reciprocal relations between high training and competition - based stress as the input variable, cognitive appraisal and interpretation as the mediator, and mood state as the moderator based on the development of the dynamic systems theory. Also, proposed model uses basic assumptions of the Action-Theory approach and it is in accordance with the contemporary socialcognitive view of team functioning in sports. Within the process model, the output variables are measures of efficacy evident through athlete's individual and team performance and athletic achievement. The situation, the team and athlete attributes, the performance and the athletic achievement are joined variables, and the individual and the collective efficacy are the consequence of their reciprocal interaction. Therefore, there are complex and reciprocal interactive processes in real sports and explorative situations amongst the attributes of athlete and team and the behaviour and situation that determine performance and athletic achievement. This is probably the result of an integrated network of reciprocal multi-causal activity of a set of stated assumed constructs from different theories. Thus the hypothetical model is an effort to describe elaborate correlations and/or interdependencies between internal and external determinants which presumably affect athlete's performance and athletic achievement.
Steiner, Silvan; Macquet, Anne-Claire; Seiler, Roland
Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice. PMID:28894428
Wilke, Jan; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Krause, Frieder; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried
Fatigue protocols have been used over the years to examine muscular exhaustion. As an alternative to approaches in laboratory settings, functional agility protocols claiming to mimic the multifaceted loads of athletic activity have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effects of a functional agility short-term fatigue protocol (FAST-FP) on neuromuscular function. Twenty-eight healthy sports students (15 males, aged 24.3 ± 2.4 years) completed the FAST-FP, which consists of four components: three counter-movement jumps (90% of individual maximum), a 20-s bout of step-ups, three bodyweight squats and an agility run. Tasks were repeated until the participants no longer achieved the required jump height in two consecutive sets. Outcomes (pre-post) encompassed subjective exhaustion (visual analogue scale [VAS]), maximum isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF), reactive strength index (RSI), mean power frequency (MPF, measured using surface electromyography) and maximum knee range of motion (ROM). Post-intervention, VAS (+54 mm) increased significantly, while MIVF (-6.1%), RSI (-10.7%) and MPF (-4.1%) were reduced (p 0.05). The FAST-FP induces small-to-moderate impairments in neuromuscular function and considerable self-perceived fatigue. Current evidence on exhaustion developing in team sports suggests that this magnitude of fatigue is similar. The protocol might thus be valuable in the evaluation of treatments counteracting post-match fatigue in team sports.
Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P
Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective
The results indicate that the implementation process starts where top management initiates sporting activities and makes the employees aware of sporting events. The employees need to be informed through induction, presentations, electronic mail, sports competitions among different departments and videos.
Ramos, João; Lopes, Rui J; Araújo, Duarte
The evolution of performance analysis within sports sciences is tied to technology development and practitioner demands. However, how individual and collective patterns self-organize and interact in invasive team sports remains elusive. Social network analysis has been recently proposed to resolve some aspects of this problem, and has proven successful in capturing collective features resulting from the interactions between team members as well as a powerful communication tool. Despite these advances, some fundamental team sports concepts such as an attacking play have not been properly captured by the more common applications of social network analysis to team sports performance. In this article, we propose a novel approach to team sports performance centered on sport concepts, namely that of an attacking play. Network theory and tools including temporal and bipartite or multilayered networks were used to capture this concept. We put forward eight questions directly related to team performance to discuss how common pitfalls in the use of network tools for capturing sports concepts can be avoided. Some answers are advanced in an attempt to be more precise in the description of team dynamics and to uncover other metrics directly applied to sport concepts, such as the structure and dynamics of attacking plays. Finally, we propose that, at this stage of knowledge, it may be advantageous to build up from fundamental sport concepts toward complex network theory and tools, and not the other way around.
Park, J.H.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Wieling, M.
Athleticism is sexually attractive, indicating that it may serve as a sign of heritable fitness. We hypothesized that just as some sports may more honestly signal fitness than other sports, some positions within team sports may more honestly signal fitness than other positions, because success in
Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training. Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (<8 weeks has the potential to enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.
Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.
Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…
Full Text Available The main goal of study is extension of information about combining psychological, athlete's physical and sports fitness qualification in playing sports in training process while studying in university. This study took place on 24 athletes, boys 18 - 21 years of different skills (the candidate for the master of sports - 9, first-class sportsman - 12, second-class sportsman - 3. It is proved that the effectiveness of sports and gaming activities in team sports will then be productive when there be a switch in the relationship between leading and famous players from the "subject - object" to "subject -subjective ". It was determined that the main precondition for the effectiveness of competitive activity is before head identification and formation of leadership behavior in teams players of team sports, where leadership is behavioral interaction process for individuals or teams to achieve established goals.
... and the ability to understand and recall sports strategies. These children are typically ready to take on ... to determine his or her attitude toward the game. How much does each child play and how ...
Sánchez-Valverde Visus, F; Moráis López, A; Ibáñez, J; Dalmau Serra, J
Several health benefits have been attributed to sports practice, and an adequate nutrition status helps to maintain an optimal performance. Children most frequently practice non-competitive and non-endurance activities in a school setting. The dietary intake of children who practice sports should be similar to the general population, properly meeting their energy and nutrient requirements. During the activity performance, correct hydration should be aimed for, with water appearing to be an adequate source in most cases. General calorie and micronutrient supplementation should not be commonly recommended in children. Paediatricians must control nutritional status and dietary habits of children who practice sports, especially in those cases when weight-loss is aimed for, as well as take into account the psychological implications of competitive sports practice. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.
Bestman, Amy; Thomas, Samantha L; Randle, Melanie; Thomas, Stuart D M
In Australia, sport is saturated by the promotion of junk food, alcohol and gambling products. This is particularly evident on player jerseys. The effect of this advertising on children, who are exposed to these messages while watching sport, has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this research study was to investigate: (1) the extent to which children implicitly recalled shirt sponsors with the correct sporting team; (2) whether children associated some types of sponsors with certain sporting codes more than others; and (3) whether age of the children influenced the correct recall of sponsoring brands and teams. This experimental study conducted in New South Wales, Australia used projective techniques to measure the implicit recall of team sponsorship relationships of 85 children aged 5-12 years. Participants were asked to arrange two sets of magnets - one which contained sporting teams and one which contained brand logos - in the manner deemed most appropriate by them. Children were not given any prompts relating to sporting sponsorship relationships. Three quarters (77 %) of the children were able to identify at least one correct shirt sponsor. Children associated alcohol and gambling brands more highly with the more popular sporting code, the National Rugby League compared to the Australian Football League sporting code. Results showed that age had an effect on number of shirt sponsors correctly recalled with 9-12 year olds being significantly more likely than 5-8 year olds to correctly identify team sponsors. Given children's ability to implicitly recall shirt sponsors in a sporting context, Australian sporting codes should examine their current sponsorship relationships to reduce the number of unhealthy commodity shirt sponsors. While there is some regulation that protects children from the marketing of unhealthy commodity products, these findings suggest that children are still exposed to and recall these sponsorship relationships. Results suggest
Delaney, Jace A; Cummins, Cloe J; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M
The ability to accelerate, decelerate and change direction efficiently is imperative to successful team-sports performance. Traditional intensity-based thresholds for acceleration and deceleration may be inappropriate for time-series data, and have been shown to exhibit poor reliability, suggesting other techniques may be preferable. This study assessed movement data from one professional rugby league team throughout two full seasons and one pre-season period. Using both 5 Hz and 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) units, a range of acceleration-based variables were evaluated for their inter-unit reliability, ability to discriminate between positions, and associations with perceived muscle soreness. The reliability of 5 Hz GPS for measuring acceleration and deceleration ranged from good to poor (CV = 3.7-27.1%), with the exception of high-intensity deceleration efforts (CV = 11.1-11.8%), the 10 Hz units exhibited moderate to good inter-unit reliability (CV = 1.2-6.9%). Reliability of average metrics (average acceleration/deceleration, average acceleration and average deceleration) ranged from good to moderate (CV = 1.2-6.5%). Substantial differences were detected between positions using time spent accelerating and decelerating for all magnitudes, but these differences were less clear when considering the count or distance above acceleration/deceleration thresholds. All average metrics detected substantial differences between positions. All measures were similarly related to perceived muscle soreness, with the exception of high-intensity acceleration and deceleration counts. This study has proposed that averaging the acceleration/deceleration demands over an activity may be a more appropriate method compared to threshold-based methods, due to a greater reliability between units, whilst not sacrificing sensitivity to within and between-subject changes.
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.
This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…
Stein, Manuel; Janetzko, Halldor; Lamprecht, Andreas; Breitkreutz, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Philipp; Goldlucke, Bastian; Schreck, Tobias; Andrienko, Gennady; Grossniklaus, Michael; Keim, Daniel A
Analysts in professional team sport regularly perform analysis to gain strategic and tactical insights into player and team behavior. Goals of team sport analysis regularly include identification of weaknesses of opposing teams, or assessing performance and improvement potential of a coached team. Current analysis workflows are typically based on the analysis of team videos. Also, analysts can rely on techniques from Information Visualization, to depict e.g., player or ball trajectories. However, video analysis is typically a time-consuming process, where the analyst needs to memorize and annotate scenes. In contrast, visualization typically relies on an abstract data model, often using abstract visual mappings, and is not directly linked to the observed movement context anymore. We propose a visual analytics system that tightly integrates team sport video recordings with abstract visualization of underlying trajectory data. We apply appropriate computer vision techniques to extract trajectory data from video input. Furthermore, we apply advanced trajectory and movement analysis techniques to derive relevant team sport analytic measures for region, event and player analysis in the case of soccer analysis. Our system seamlessly integrates video and visualization modalities, enabling analysts to draw on the advantages of both analysis forms. Several expert studies conducted with team sport analysts indicate the effectiveness of our integrated approach.
Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn
Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.
Cairney, John; Veldhuizen, Scott
The relationship between sport participation and BMI in children and adolescents is unclear, with some studies showing no association at all and others suggesting that sport is linked to lower BMI. Another possibility, however, is that this relationship is bidirectional, with sport leading to lower BMI but BMI also influencing sport participation. Here, we examine the direction of this association by analyzing a longitudinal dataset. Data come from the Physical Health Activity Study Team (...
Within the sport domain, parents play an important role in youth sports. Previous research has shown that children are more likely to participate in sport if they receive parental support. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate children's perceptions of parental involvement in sport at primary and secondary public ...
Eime, Rochelle M; Casey, Meghan M; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Young, Janet A; Payne, Warren R
Many children are not physically active enough for a health benefit. One avenue of physical activity is modified sport programs, designed as an introduction to sport for young children. This longitudinal study identified trends in participation among children aged 4-12 years. Outcomes included continuation in the modified sports program, withdrawal from the program or transition to club sport competition. De-identified data on participant membership registrations in three popular sports in the Australian state of Victoria were obtained from each sport's state governing body over a 4-year period (2009-2012 for Sport A and 2010-2013 for Sports B and C). From the membership registrations, those who were enrolled in a modified sports program in the first year were tracked over the subsequent three years and classified as one of: transition (member transitioned from a modified sport program to a club competition); continue (member continued participation in a modified sport program; or withdraw (member discontinued a modified program and did not transition to club competition). Many modified sports participants were very young, especially males aged 4-6 years. More children withdrew from their modified sport program rather than transitioning. There were age differences between when boys and girls started, withdrew and transitioned from the modified sports programs. If we can retain children in sport it is likely to be beneficial for their health. This study highlights considerations for the development and implementation of sport policies and programming to ensure lifelong participation is encouraged for both males and females.
.... This report describes features of the Sports Medicine Research Team System (SMARTS) and reviews results of a SMARTS supported prospective study of male Marine Corps recruits undergoing basic training...
Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard
The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture Knud Ryom, Reinhard Stelter University of Copenhagen, Denmark Boys with migrant background have major difficulties to adjust and participate in the Danish school system and society (OECD,2010). This study aimed to investigate the possible...... effects of team sport as a social tool, used to develop social capability, identity and active citizenship in an area with major social challenges in Denmark. A team sport (football) was chosen because of positive results in social integration for individuals with a diverse cultural background...... (Hatzigeorgiadis et al,2013). The overall aim was to develop life-skills and social resilience by being part of a team sport. Furthermore, the goal was to enhance social capability and to increase the possibilities for acting actively and responsibly in one’s own life and in the local community...
Grehaigne, Jean-Francis; Caty, Didier; Godbout, Paul
Background: Sport Education and "Tactical decision learning model" (TDLM) are two curriculum models used by physical education teachers in France to help students in the development of a tactical intelligence of game play in the didactics of team sports. Purpose: Identify prototypic configurations of play in the sense that they represent…
Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Kompier, M.A.J.
This study examined: (a) whether athletes’ (N = 348) perceived autonomy support (i.e., showing interest in athletes’ input and praising autonomous behavior) differs across contexts (training vs. competition) and sport types (individual vs. team sports), and (b) whether the relationships between
Onal, Halil; Inan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Sinan
The aim of this research is to examine the mathematical thinking skills of licensed athletes engaged in individual and team sports. The research is designed as a survey model. The sample of the research is composed of 59 female and 170 male licensed athletes (n = 229) and (aged 14 to 52) licensed who do the sports of shooting, billiards, archery,…
Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli
Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports.
Full Text Available Given the importance of brand management of sport teams, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of relationship marketing dimensions, including team attachment, team trust, team involvement, and team selfexpression on team loyalty of fans of sport teams participating in Iran Azadeghan Football League. Sample size of this study included 480 fans of football teams, and structural equation modeling was used for analysis of data using Lisrel software. The results confirmed all hypotheses, except one hypothesis. Therefore, there is significant relationship between team self-expression and team attachment among football sport teams in Azadeghan Football League of Iran. The results show the importance of paying attention to fans of sports teams and use of their high potential and capacity that sports teams brand managers must pay particular attention to this enormous capacity. Regarding sports teams, the impact of relationship marketing, particularly dimensions of self-expression and team involvement was investigated for the first time in Iran.
Pearson, D T; Naughton, G A; Torode, M
Entrepreneurial marketing of sport increases demands on sport development officers to identify talented individuals for specialist development at the youngest possible age. Talent identification results in the streamlining of resources to produce optimal returns from a sports investment. However, the process of talent identification for team sports is complex and success prediction is imperfect. The aim of this review is to describe existing practices in physiological tests used for talent identification in team sports and discuss the impact of maturity-related differences on the long term outcomes particularly for male participants. Maturation is a major confounding variable in talent identification during adolescence. A myriad of hormonal changes during puberty results in physical and physiological characteristics important for sporting performance. Significant changes during puberty make the prediction of adult performance difficult from adolescent data. Furthermore, for talent identification programs to succeed, valid and reliable testing procedures must be accepted and implemented in a range of performance-related categories. Limited success in scientifically based talent identification is evident in a range of team sports. Genetic advances challenge the ethics of talent identification in adolescent sport. However, the environment remains a significant component of success prediction in sport. Considerations for supporting talented young male athletes are discussed.
A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); S.H. Bouthoorn (Selma); N. Pot (Niek); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractResearch on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play.
Wijtzes, A.I.; Jansen, W.; Bouthoorn, S.H.; Pot, J.N.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Raat, H.
Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. Methods: We
Johnson, Karen E; Kubik, Martha Y; McMorris, Barbara J
Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students. In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA. Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014). Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.
Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah
A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n = 28 participants) or control (n = 20 participants) groups. The team sport sessions were underpinned by psychological behaviour change theory and consisted of weekly 1-h team sport sessions for 12 weeks. Measures of aerobic fitness, physical activity behaviour, group cohesion, interaction and communication, psychological wellbeing, health, anthropometrics and workplace experiences were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Data were analysed using a series of mixed ANOVAs. After 12 weeks significant improvements were observed in VO 2 max (+ 4.5 ± 5.8 ml/min kg, P intervention group. A significant (P intervention group. Participation in team sport may be an effective method to improve the aerobic fitness and physical activity behaviour of employees, and promote interpersonal communication between colleagues. Individual health outcomes and social interactions have the capacity to influence the health of the organisation. The extent of which these findings are replicable across a scope of organisations should be examined objectively over the long term.
Gray, Adrian J; Shorter, Kathleen; Cummins, Cloe; Murphy, Aron; Waldron, Mark
Quantifying the training and competition loads of players in contact team sports can be performed in a variety of ways, including kinematic, perceptual, heart rate or biochemical monitoring methods. Whilst these approaches provide data relevant for team sports practitioners and athletes, their application to a contact team sport setting can sometimes be challenging or illogical. Furthermore, these methods can generate large fragmented datasets, do not provide a single global measure of training load and cannot adequately quantify all key elements of performance in contact team sports. A previous attempt to address these limitations via the estimation of metabolic energy demand (global energy measurement) has been criticised for its inability to fully quantify the energetic costs of team sports, particularly during collisions. This is despite the seemingly unintentional misapplication of the model's principles to settings outside of its intended use. There are other hindrances to the application of such models, which are discussed herein, such as the data-handling procedures of Global Position System manufacturers and the unrealistic expectations of end users. Nevertheless, we propose an alternative energetic approach, based on Global Positioning System-derived data, to improve the assessment of mechanical load in contact team sports. We present a framework for the estimation of mechanical work performed during locomotor and contact events with the capacity to globally quantify the work done during training and matches.
Simon, Alan E; Uddin, Sayeedha F G
Sports team participation has myriad benefits for girls. We used the 1999-2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey of US high school students, to examine time trends in sports team participation. Data from 2015 alone were examined for current differences in participation by sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and weight status. For both analyses, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions, with team participation as the dependent variable, were used. In 2015, 53% of US high school girls participated in team sports. Participation was higher among non-Hispanic white (60.7%) compared to Hispanic (40.7%) and Asian (35.6%) girls, and girls with normal-weight status (58.1%) compared to overweight (50.0%) and obese (36.5%) girls ( P team participation is imperative.
Washington, R L; Bernhardt, D T; Gomez, J; Johnson, M D; Martin, T J; Rowland, T W; Small, E; LeBlanc, C; Krein, C; Malina, R; Young, J C; Reed, F E; Anderson, S; Bolduc, S; Bar-Or, O; Newland, H; Taras, H L; Cimino, D A; McGrath, J W; Murray, R D; Yankus, W A; Young, T L; Fleming, M; Glendon, M; Harrison-Jones, L; Newberry, J L; Pattishall, E; Vernon, M; Wolfe, L; Li, S
Participation in organized sports provides an opportunity for young people to increase their physical activity and develop physical and social skills. However, when the demands and expectations of organized sports exceed the maturation and readiness of the participant, the positive aspects of participation can be negated. The nature of parental or adult involvement can also influence the degree to which participation in organized sports is a positive experience for preadolescents. This updates a previous policy statement on athletics for preadolescents and incorporates guidelines for sports participation for preschool children. Recommendations are offered on how pediatricians can help determine a child's readiness to participate, how risks can be minimized, and how child-oriented goals can be maximized.
Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Kidcaff, Andrew P; Berkelmans, Daniel M; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent J
Comparisons between reactive agility tests incorporating generic and sport-specific stimuli have been performed only in field-based team sports. The aim of this study was to compare generic (light-based) and sport-specific (live opponent) reactive agility tests in court-based team sport athletes. Twelve semi-professional male basketball players (age: 25.9±6.7 yr; stature: 188.9±7.9 cm; body mass: 97.4±16.1 kg; predicted maximal oxygen uptake: 49.5±5.3 mL/kg 7 min) completed multiple trials of a Reactive Agility Test containing light-based (RAT-Light) and opponent-based stimuli (RAT-Opponent). Multiple outcome measures were collected during the RAT-Light (agility time and total time) and RAT-Opponent (decision time and total time). Mean performance times during the RAT-Light (2.233±0.224 s) were significantly (Pagility time and RAT-Opponent decision time (r10=0.20), while a trivial relationship was apparent between total performance times across tests (r10=0.02). Low commonality was observed between comparable measures across tests (R2=0-4%). Reactive agility tests containing light-based and live opponent stimuli appear to measure different qualities in court-based team sport athletes. Court-based team sport coaches and conditioning professionals should not use generic and sport-specific reactive agility tests interchangeably during athlete assessments.
This study investigates whether net inbound migration and per capita income growth of a municipality is affected when a local sports team enters or exits the premium national leagues in ice hockey or soccer in Sweden. Local governments frequently support a local professional team through direct subsidies; beneficial funding of arenas, etc., which often is motivated by alleged, positive externalities through effects on the attractiveness of the municipality as a leisure-travel destination, or ...
Czyż, Stanisław H; Szmajke, Andrzej; Kruger, Ankebé; Kübler, Magdalena
The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2.0) had to pull a rope individually and collectively. Groups of two, three, four, and six persons were formed from among individuals with no previous sports experience, and of those who had engaged in individual and team sports. For each team, the sum of individual achievements of the individuals constituting a team was computed. This sum served as the anticipated result (expected value). The expected values were later compared to the actual achievements, i.e., the value achieved by the whole team. The results of the study suggested that previous experience in collective (team) sports eliminated the effect of social loafing. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.
The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…
Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Munir, Fehmidah
Physical inactivity is proven to be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases and all-cost mortality. Public health policy recommends community settings worldwide such as the workplace to promote physical activity. Despite the growing prevalence of workplace team sports, studies have not synthesised their benefits within the workplace. A systematic review was carried out to identify articles related to workplace team sports, including intervention, observational and qualitative studies. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings suggest team sport holds benefits not only for individual health but also for group cohesion and performance and organisational benefits such as the increased work performance. However, it is unclear how sport is most associated with these benefits as most of the studies included poorly described samples and unclear sports activities. Our review highlights the need to explore and empirically understand the benefits of workplace team sport for individual, group and organisational health outcomes. Researches carried out in this field must provide details regarding their respective samples, the sports profile and utilise objective measures (e.g., sickness absence register data, accelerometer data).
Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed
Full Text Available Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds, sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances. A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads during different performance phases (attack and defense in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3. Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed
Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of
TSAP) and formative assessment of invasion sport. The specific objectives were to determine the degree of agreement among expert observers, inter-observer reliability (internal consistency), and intra observer reliability (temporal reliability).
Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean
Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
To determine parents' and children's attitudes towards food, beverage and alcohol sponsorship of elite and children's sports and the acceptability of policies and alternative funding models to limit this sponsorship. Telephone surveys were conducted with parents in February-May 2011. One child from each household was invited to complete an online survey. Surveys assessed parents' perceptions about the influence of sponsorship on children and support for limiting sponsorship, and children's awareness of and attitudes towards sponsors. Randomly sampled households in New South Wales, Australia. Parents (n 825) and children aged 10–16 years (n = 243). Three-quarters of parents supported the introduction of policies to restrict unhealthy food, beverage and alcohol sponsorship of children's and elite sports. More parents (81 %) supported the introduction of alternative funding models to allow these companies to sponsor sport provided there was no visible branding. Two-thirds of children recalled sponsors of their favourite elite sports team/athlete, with 428 sponsors recalled. Of these, 11 % were food/beverage companies and 3 % were alcohol-related. For 39 % of sponsors, children reported feeling better about the company after it had sponsored a team/athlete. Australian parents support restrictions on unhealthy food, beverage and alcohol sport sponsorship. Children's positive associations regarding sponsors are likely to be linked to brand preferences and usage.
Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A
Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (preferee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage.
Orchard, John; Hoskins, Wayne
To compare the most commonly used and proposed injury definitions for surveillance systems in team sports and attempt to assess their suitability for consensus definitions in terms of reliability and functionality. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched for papers on team sports that discussed consensus definitions or compared various definitions of injury. A continuum between the most broad "tissue damage" definition and the most narrow "match time loss only" definition was developed. A "match time loss only" injury definition can be reliably and accurately applied but only captures a small percentage of the total pool of all "tissue damage" injuries. There are some inherent biases in using a match time loss only definition (late season matches, matches with unequal breaks between games), but these are clearly visible. All other definitions improve the volume of data captured but suffer serious theoretical and/or practical flaws with respect to accuracy and reliability. No study using a broad definition has demonstrated good reliability to date (eg, using 2 independent recorders at the same team). A "match time loss only" injury definition is the most accurate and reliable of those commonly used in team sports. Other injury definitions are broader and may be more appropriate for individual team and specific injury studies. However, a match time loss definition is the most accurate and reliable tool for comparing injury rates at different teams and between different seasons within teams. Hence, we recommend this as the basis for the injury definition in a consensus statement.
Riendeau, Catherine; Parent-Houle, Valérie; Lebel-Gabriel, Marie Eve; Gauvin, Patrick; Liu, Le Yu; Pearson, Isabelle; Hunt, Matthew R
Qualitative study using interpretive description methodology. The purpose of this study was to better understand how ethical issues are experienced by university sports team athletic therapists and physical therapists. In clinical practice, sports teams are associated with a range of ethical issues. Issues commonly reported in the literature include confidentiality, return-to-play decisions, conflicts of interest, advertising, doping, and use of local anesthetic. To date, there has been limited examination of how athletic therapists and physical therapists involved with sports teams experience these ethical issues, and limited exploration of how these ethical issues, when encountered, are shaped by therapists' professional roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 athletic or physical therapists working with sports teams in 5 Canadian provinces. The data were analyzed inductively, using a recursive approach and constant comparative techniques. Four key themes were developed relating to the participants' experiences of ethical issues: establishing and maintaining professional boundaries, striving for respectful and effective collaboration, seeking answers to ethical concerns, and living with the repercussions of challenging decisions. While many ethical issues reported by participants resemble those faced by sports medicine physicians, they are experienced in distinctive ways, due to differences in professional roles and identities. Issues concerning professional boundaries were also more prominent for the study participants than the literature has reported them to be for sports medicine physicians. Effective communication and enhanced collaboration appear to be key elements in managing these ethical challenges.
Sherwin, Ian; Campbell, Mark J; Macintyre, Tadhg Eoghan
Coaches are central to the development of the expert performer and similarly to continued lifelong participation in sport. Coaches are uniquely positioned to deliver specific technical and tactical instruction and mentoring programmes that support the psychological and social development of athletes in a challenging, goal-oriented and motivational environment. The current study aimed to qualitatively investigate current coach learning sources and coaches' educational backgrounds in team sports in Ireland. Coaches from five team sports in Ireland were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Subsequently male coaches (n = 19) from five team sports who completed the questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria were invited to attend a follow-up semi-structured interview. Inclusion criteria for coaches were that they possess at least 10 years' experience coaching their sport and were coaching more than 4 hours per week. Formal coach education does not meet the needs of high performance coaches who rely more on self-directed learning and coaching experience as their main sources of CPD. Although prior playing experience at a high level is both valuable and desirable, there are concerns about fast-tracking of ex-players into high performance coaching roles. Preferred sources of education and the best learning environment for coaches of team sports in Ireland are more informal than formal. Further research is needed to examine how this learning is applied in a practical manner by examining coaching behaviours and the impact it has on the athlete development process.
Full Text Available Dietary supplement (DS intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62 between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775 and team sports (n = 2008. To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44% compared to team sport athletes (35% (p < 0.001. Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations.
Scott, Macfarlane T U; Scott, Tannath J; Kelly, Vincent G
The use of global positioning systems (GPS) has increased dramatically over the last decade. Using signals from orbiting satellites, the GPS receiver calculates the exact position of the device and the speed at which the device is moving. Within team sports GPS devices are used to quantify the external load experienced by an athlete, allowing coaches to better manage trainings loads and potentially identify athletes who are overreaching or overtraining. This review aims to collate all studies that have tested either (or both) the validity or reliability of GPS devices in a team sport setting, with a particular focus on (a) measurements of distance, speed, velocities, and accelerations across all sampling rates and (b) accelerometers, player/body load and impacts in accelerometer-integrated GPS devices. A comprehensive search of the online libraries identified 22 articles that fit search criteria. The literature suggests that all GPS units, regardless of sampling rate, are capable of tracking athlete's distance during team sport movements with adequate intraunit reliability. One Hertz and 5Hz GPS units have limitations in their reporting of distance during high-intensity running, velocity measures, and short linear running (particularly those involving changes of direction), although these limitations seem to be overcome during measures recorded during team sport movements. Ten Hertz GPS devices seem the most valid and reliable to date across linear and team sport simulated running, overcoming many limitations of earlier models, whereas the increase to 15Hz GPS devices have had no additional benefit.
Honda, Yuki; Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki
The purpose of this study was to show that how the abolishment of company sports team influenced the organizational commitment in employees. In this study, Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1997) was tested with 16 employees (10 males, 6 females) of T Company in NAGANO prefecture. The average age of the participants was 44, 50 years (SD=±0.85). And from 16 employees, 3 male employees were measured on organizational commitment with interview test. According to the analysis, the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team was not positive significant correlation. Furthermore, results of interview test did not show the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team. However, results of interview test showed the relation with organizational commitment of players in T Company sports team. Consequently, the goal to possess a sports team in T Company was not to boost organizational commitment in employees. In addition, it is necessary to reconsider the correlation among employees engaged in T Company in the future.
Full Text Available As a practical and causal-comparative study, the present study was aimed at comparing the mental rotation performance in team and individual sports among students. The statistical population included all of the female and male athletes (N=1500 from different districts of Shiraz, Iran who participated in the sport clubs. The participants of this study included 240 students between 12-14 years old (120 girls and 120 boys who were selected randomly from four sport fields (Volleyball, Basketball, Karate, and Gymnastics. Finally, 30 athletes were selected from each field. The Mentrat Program, a kind of software for the Mental Rotation Test was used as an evaluation tool. Analyses of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures were conducted to analysis of data. The results indicated that the impact of the rotational angle was significant in both team and individual groups (p0.05. It was also observed that there was a significant difference between the mental rotation scores of the males in the individual groups contrary to the ones in the team groups (p<0.05. As a whole, it seems that as the rotational angle increases, the ability of the mental rotation in the individual fields of sport (males will be higher compared to the team groups. Keywords: Mental Rotation, Rotational Angle, Team and Individual Sports, Students
Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip
Although coaches and players recognise the importance of leaders within the team, research on athlete leadership is sparse. The present study expands knowledge of athlete leadership by extending the current leadership classification and exploring the importance of the team captain as formal leader of the team. An online survey was completed by 4,451 participants (31% females and 69% males) within nine different team sports in Flanders (Belgium). Players (N = 3,193) and coaches (N = 1,258) participated on all different levels in their sports. Results revealed that the proposed additional role of motivational leader was perceived as clearly distinct from the already established roles (task, social and external leader). Furthermore, almost half of the participants (44%) did not perceive their captain as the principal leader on any of the four roles. These findings underline the fact that the leadership qualities attributed to the captain as the team's formal leader are overrated. It can be concluded that leadership is spread throughout the team; informal leaders rather than the captain take the lead, both on and off the field.
Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P
With the evolving boundaries of sports science and greater understanding of the driving factors in the human performance physiology, one of the limiting factors has now become the technology. The growing scientific interest on the practical application of hypoxic training for intermittent activities such as team and racket sports legitimises the development of innovative technologies serving athletes in a sport-specific setting. Description of a new mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment. The system comprises two inflatable units-that is, a tunnel and a rectangular design, each with a 215 m(3) volume and a hypoxic trailer generating over 3000 Lpm of hypoxic air with FiO₂ between 0.21 and 0.10 (a simulated altitude up to 5100 m). The inflatable units offer a 45 m running lane (width=1.8 m and height=2.5 m) as well as a 8 m × 10 m dome tent. FiO₂ is stable within a range of 0.1% in normal conditions inside the tunnel. The air supplied is very dry-typically 10-15% relative humidity. This mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment is a promising technological advance within sport sciences. It offers an opportunity for team-sport players to train under hypoxic conditions, both for repeating sprints (tunnel configuration) or small-side games (rectangular configuration).
Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda; O'Connor, Helen; West, Cameron
Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the depth and scope of reported GPS and microtechnology measures used within individual sports in order to present the contemporary and emerging themes of GPS application within team sports. A systematic review of the application of GPS technology in team sports was conducted. We systematically searched electronic databases from earliest record to June 2012. Permutations of key words included GPS; male and female; age 12-50 years; able-bodied; and recreational to elite competitive team sports. The 35 manuscripts meeting the eligibility criteria included 1,276 participants (age 11.2-31.5 years; 95 % males; 53.8 % elite adult athletes). The majority of manuscripts reported on GPS use in various football codes: Australian football league (AFL; n = 8), soccer (n = 7), rugby union (n = 6), and rugby league (n = 6), with limited representation in other team sports: cricket (n = 3), hockey (n = 3), lacrosse (n = 1), and netball (n = 1). Of the included manuscripts, 34 (97 %) detailed work rate patterns such as distance, relative distance, speed, and accelerations, with only five (14.3 %) reporting on impact variables. Activity profiles characterizing positional play and competitive levels were also described. Work rate patterns were typically categorized into six speed zones, ranging from 0 to 36.0 km·h⁻¹, with descriptors ranging from walking to sprinting used to identify the type of activity mainly performed in each zone. With the exception of cricket, no standardized speed zones or definitions were observed within or
Covrig, Duane M.
Examines concepts of fairness potentially available to children who participate in scholastic competitive sport. Reviews meanings of fair play and fairness, examines how sports involvement may nurture or distort such meanings, and suggests techniques for improving sport's effects on children's developing concepts of fairness. Advocates Starratt's…
L. M. Makarov
Full Text Available The article presents data on contemporary views of the prevalence, causes, circumstances of sudden cardiac death, and its prevention measures in children and adolescents during sports activity. It notes a difficulty in defining the epidemiology of the above condition because the data are primarily based upon mass media news coverage. The incidence of sudden cardiac death is approximately 1 per 100,000 young athletes; more than 90% boys die. The sports, during which sudden cardiac death often occurs, include (both American and European football, basketball, and hockey. Sudden cardiac death due to cоmmоtio cordis (life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias resulting from a blow with a blunt instrument to the area of the heart during the vulnerable phase of the cardiac cycle is considered separately. Children who die suddenly during sports are frequently detected to have hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or myocarditis; but no changes are found in more than 50% of cases at autopsy, which is suggestive of primary arrhythmogenic death. The basis for prevention is the early detection of diseases that can cause sudden death during sports, regular examination, knowledge of ECG characteristics in athletes, and first aid techniques, including the use of automated external defibrillators.
Moran, Thomas E.; Block, Martin E.
Youth sports were created as opportunities for children to play, be active, and begin learning how to become better or more successful at a given sport. Unfortunately for many children with disabilities they may not get the same opportunities that are available to other children. There are a number of barriers that may inhibit children with…
Passer, Michael W.
Research on children's sport participation motives is examined to provide insight about potential sources of stress in organized youth sports. A four-stage model of stress is outlined, and topics that deserve further research are discussed. (CJ)
Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz
Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no evidence that religiousness influences doping behavior among male team-sport athletes. Therefore, sport-specific and gender-specific approach in studying possible relationships that exist
Flynn, John M; Lou, Julia E; Ganley, Theodore J
As children around the world become involved in increasingly competitive and more organized sports activities, the frequency and severity of both acute and overuse injuries continues to rise. Over the past year, several important studies have contributed to our knowledge in the prevention of sports injuries in children. Safety guidelines and protective equipment are crucial to minimizing pediatric recreational injuries. Protective headgear, mouth guards, and wrist and shin guards have all been shown to be effective in preventing injuries. Nutrition and nutritional supplements (eg, creatine) for the pediatric athlete have also received greater attention recently. Combined with appropriate physical activity programs, nutrition is essential in battling the increasing epidemic of childhood obesity. Increased attention has also been directed toward specific injuries and injury rates in the female athlete. Specific training for the female pediatric athlete may have a preventive effect in halting the rising injury rates.
Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O
Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.
Severe obesity (SO) in Canadian children remains poorly understood. However, based on international data, the prevalence of SO appears to be increasing and is associated with a number of psychosocial, bio-mechanical, and cardiometabolic health risks. The purpose of our national Team to Address Bariatric Care in Canadian Children (Team ABC3) is to develop and lead a series of inter-related studies to enhance the understanding and management of SO in Canadian children and adolescents (0-18 years). From 2015 to 2019, Team ABC3 will conduct a series of projects at the regional, provincial, and national levels using multiple methods and study designs to respond to key knowledge gaps by (i) generating evidence on the prevalence of SO and its impact on health services utilization in children using existing Canadian data sources from primary care settings, (ii) exploring contemporary definitions of SO that link with health outcomes, (iii) comparing and contrasting health risks across the continuum of SO, (iv) understanding potential barriers to and facilitators of treatment success in children with SO, and (v) examining innovative lifestyle and behavioral interventions designed to successfully manage SO in children and their families. Furthermore, to examine the impact of innovative interventions on the management SO, we will (vi) evaluate whether adding a health coach, who provides support via text, email, and/or phone, improves children's ability to adhere to a web-based weight management program and (vii) test the feasibility and impact of a community-based weight management program for pre-school children with SO and their parents that combines group-based parenting sessions with in-home visits. Our research aligns with national priorities in obesity research, brings together leading scientists, clinicians, and stakeholders from across Canada, and will inform health services delivery throughout the country to provide the best care possible for children with SO and
Sayed Ahmed, Batoul; Lamy, Marena; Cameron, Debra; Artero, Lisa; Ramdial, Sandra; Leineweber, Matthew; Andrysek, Jan
Individuals with limb absence benefit from participating in sports. While barriers and facilitators affecting sport participation are well documented for adults, they have not been explored for children with limb absence. To identify the perceived factors impacting participation in sports according to children with limb absence and their parents. This study uses a descriptive qualitative study design. Nineteen participants, consisting of children and their parents, were recruited from an outpatient hospital clinic for semi-structured interviews. The 11 interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were then coded and analyzed using the DEPICT model. The thematic analysis was guided by the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Analysis of our participant interviews identified six themes as having an influence on sport participation: "functionality of prosthesis", "plan in advance", "know what I can do" (understanding capabilities), "it's like every stroke, 2 million questions" (stigma and the social environment), "love for the game" (love for sport), and "these things are an investment" (the investment involved). The findings have the potential to inform the development and implementation of strategies to increase levels of participation in sports among children with limb absence. Information from this study may help to deepen the rehabilitation team's understanding of factors that impact engagement in sports among children with limb absence. Implications for Rehabilitation Children with limb absence present with unique barriers and facilitators to participating in sports, thus, what may be a facilitator or barrier for one child may not for another. Strategies to increase a child's participation in sports should consider both person and environmental factors. Rehabilitation professionals can play a crucial role in educating both families and the community on living and coping with a limb difference, services and
Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200–2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform con...
Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.
In professional rugby, competitions such as the Super Rugby and Currie Cup benefit from the lucrative money-generating opportunities offered. This study focuses on team performance and spectator attendance of the Super Rugby and Currie Cup competitions. Results indicated some interesting relationships between ...
Increased intensity of sports activities combined with a decrease in daily physical activity is making overuse injuries in children more common. These injuries are located mainly in the epiphyseal cartilage. The broad term for these injuries is osteochondrosis, rather than osteochondritis, which more specifically refers to inflammatory conditions of bone and cartilage. The osteochondrosis may be epiphyseal, physeal, or apophyseal, depending on the affected site. The condition can either be in the primary deformans form or the dissecans form. While there is no consensus on the etiology of osteochondrosis, multiple factors seem to be involved: vascular, traumatic, or even microtraumatic factors. Most overuse injuries involve the lower limbs, especially the knees, ankle and feet. The most typical are Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sever's disease; in both conditions, the tendons remain relatively short during the pubescent grown spurt. The main treatment for these injuries is temporary suspension of athletic activities, combined with physical therapy in many cases. Surgery may be performed if conservative treatment fails. It is best, however, to try to prevent these injuries by analyzing and correcting problems with sports equipment, lifestyle habits, training intensity and the child's level of physical activity, and by avoiding premature specialization. Pain in children during sports should not be considered normal. It is a warning sign of overtraining, which may require the activity to be modified, reduced or even discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Wann, Daniel L; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship between team identification and well-being, earlier studies focused solely on college student populations. The current study extended past work in this area by investigating the team identification/well-being relationship among older sport fans. A sample of older adults (N = 96; M age = 70.82) completed scales assessing demographics, identification with a local college basketball team, and measures of social psychological well-being. As hypothesized, team identification accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in two measures of social psychological health (collective self-esteem and loneliness).
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational climate and target orientations of team and individual athletes who participate in sports at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of faculties. A total of 200 athletes (students at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of Gazi University, Selçuk…
Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan
People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.
Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Systematic review. PubMed and Web of Science. This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate quality. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) original research evaluated players' physical recovery postmatch; (2) team/intermittent sports; and (3) at least two postmeasurements were compared with baseline values. Twenty-eight studies were eligible. Mean methodological quality was 11.2±1.11. Most used performance tests and biochemical markers were the countermovement jump test, sprint tests and creatine kinase (CK), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), respectively. The current evidence demonstrates that underlying mechanisms of muscle recovery are still in progress while performance recovery is already reached. CK recovery time courses are up to ≥72 hours. Soccer and rugby players need more time to recover for sprint performance, CK and C in comparison to other team ball sports. There are more high-quality studies needed regarding recovery in various team sports and recovery strategies on an individual level should be evaluated. Ongoing insufficient recovery can be prevented by the use of the presented recovery time courses as specific practical recovery guidelines.
Otrebski, Wojciech; Rutkowska, Katarzyna
Study aim: To determine the need of female junior volleyball players to collaborate with a psychologist, considering previous sport career of those players. Material and methods: A group of 78 female volleyball players aged 14-17 years from 7 top Polish junior teams participated in the study. They were requested to fill questionnaires on their…
Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Background: Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. Objective: To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Study design:
This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…
Donoso-Morales, Daniela; Bloom, Gordon A.; Caron, Jeffrey G.
Purpose: Winning several national championships is an extraordinary feat that very few university coaches have accomplished. The objective of this study was to investigate how some of Canada's most accomplished university team-sport coaches created and sustained a culture of excellence in their programs. Method: Six university coaches who had won…
Anne Benjaminse; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; J.M. Dallinga
Abstract BACKGROUND: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these
Ingram, Jeremy; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Wallman, Karen; Beilby, John
This study aimed to compare the efficacy of hot/cold contrast water immersion (CWI), cold-water immersion (COLD) and no recovery treatment (control) as post-exercise recovery methods following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise. Repeated sprint ability, strength, muscle soreness and inflammatory markers were measured across the 48-h post-exercise period. Eleven male team-sport athletes completed three 3-day testing trials, each separated by 2 weeks. On day 1, baseline measures of performance (10 m x 20 m sprints and isometric strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and hip flexors) were recorded. Participants then performed 80 min of simulated team sports exercise followed by a 20-m shuttle run test to exhaustion. Upon completion of the exercise, and 24h later, participants performed one of the post-exercise recovery procedures for 15 min. At 48 h post-exercise, the performance tests were repeated. Blood samples and muscle soreness ratings were taken before and immediately after post-exercise, and at 24h and 48 h post-exercise. In comparison to the control and CWI treatments, COLD resulted in significantly lower (pbenefit of CWI over control was a significant reduction in muscle soreness 24h post-exercise. This study demonstrated that COLD following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise offers greater recovery benefits than CWI or control treatments.
Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is
Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward
In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…
van der Does, H. T. D.; Brink, M. S.; Benjaminse, A.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing
Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.
Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)
Ryom, Knud Eske; Wikman, Johan Michael; Stelter, Reinhard
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study ...... and more supportive social environment, as the result of their participation. Implications of the presented results are discussed, as well as strategies for working with team sport and coaching in a school setting in deprived areas or beyond.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study...... (SDQ-II & YSEQ) and an interview study in a quasi-experimental design. A two-year intervention period was conducted with students in 7th, 8th and 9th grade. The interventions were a two-stringed effort with team sport and group coaching introduced to the participants. Quantitative results showed...
Presse, Cindy; Block, Martin E.; Horton, Mel; Harvey, William J.
The sport education model (SEM) has been widely used as a curriculum and instructional model to provide children with authentic and active sport experiences in physical education. In this model, students are assigned various roles to gain a deeper understanding of the sport or activity. This article provides a brief overview of the SEM and…
Waldron, Mark; Highton, Jamie
With the advancements in player tracking technology, the topic of fatigue and pacing in team sport has become increasingly popular in recent years. Initially based upon a pre-conceived pacing schema, a central metabolic control system is proposed to guide the movement of players during team sport matches, which can be consciously modified based on afferent signals from the various physiological systems and in response to environmental cues. On the basis of this theory, coupled with the collective findings from motion-analysis research, we sought to define the different pacing strategies employed by team sport players. Whole-match players adopt a 'slow-positive' pacing profile (gradual decline in total running intensity), which appears to be global across the different team sports. High-intensity movement also declines in a 'slow-positive' manner across most team sport matches. The duration of the exercise bout appears to be important for the selected exercise intensity, with the first introduction to a match as a substitute or interchange player resulting in a 'one bout, all out' strategy. In a limited interchange environment, a second introduction to the match results in a 'second-bout reserve' strategy; otherwise, the 'one bout, all out' strategy is likely to be adopted. These pacing profiles are proposed to reflect the presence of a central regulator that controls the movement intensity of the player to optimize performance, as well as avoiding the harmful failure of any physiological system. The presence of 'temporary fatigue' reflects this process, whereby exercise intensity is consciously modulated from within the framework of a global pacing schema.
Full Text Available This article contends that a new research avenue is open to comparative economics which is the economic comparison between American (closed and European (open professional team sports leagues. It starts with sketching the major institutional differences between the two leagues systems. Then it surveys the American modelling of competitive balance in these sports leagues that objects pro-competitive balance regulation as being non Walrasian when (American teams are profit maximising. A next step is to cover how the Walrasian model has been adapted to European open leagues and their regulation of win maximising clubs under a hard budget constraint. Such approach has recently been outdated by models where win maximising clubs operate with a flexible supply of talent in a non cooperative game, given the globalization of the labour market for sporting talent (namely after the Bosman case. Finally, the article ploughs into a new research path advocating for a disequilibrium model where clubs would have a "soft" budget constraint rooted in their weak governance, and empirically tests a vicious circle between TV rights revenues and wages in French football that may explain the aforementioned disequilibrium.
Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A
In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Macquet, A-C; Ferrand, C; Stanton, N A
This article aimed to gain an understanding of the process of debriefing during major competitions in elite team sports. Debrief interviews were conducted with 9 head coaches. The interview data were used to identify how head coaches divided up the tasks given to staff and team members prior to, and during the post-match debriefing. Results showed that debriefing consisted of two steps: preparation and presentation. Preparation referred to four successive tasks. Presentation to the team of players consisted of eight tasks relating to transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Coaches were shown to divide the labor within the staff and team. The data tend to support the view that in elite team sports, coaches are both transformational and transactional leaders, adapting their style of leadership to the situation, athletes and time available. This study provides insights into the task-work and team-work underlying team functioning and division of labor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Kerry S O'Brien
Full Text Available Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years. During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87% was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86% was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989, compared with the daytime (N = 235,233. In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1 than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94. Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.
O'Brien, Kerry S; Carr, Sherilene; Ferris, Jason; Room, Robin; Miller, Peter; Livingston, Michael; Kypri, Kypros; Lynott, Dermot
Estimate the amount of alcohol advertising in sport vs. non-sport programming in Australian free-to-air TV and identify children's viewing audience composition at different times of the day. Alcohol advertising and TV viewing audience data were purchased for free-to-air sport and non-sport TV in Australia for 2012. We counted alcohol advertisements in sport and non-sport TV in daytime (6 am-8.29 pm) and evening periods (8.30 pm-11.59 pm) and estimated viewing audiences for children and young adults (0-4 years, 5-13 years, 14-17 years, 18-29 years). During the daytime, most of the alcohol advertising (87%) was on sport TV. In the evening, most alcohol advertising (86%) was in non-sport TV. There was little difference in the mean number of children (0-17 years) viewing TV in the evening (N = 273,989), compared with the daytime (N = 235,233). In programs containing alcohol advertising, sport TV had a greater mean number of alcohol adverts per hour (mean 1.74, SD = 1.1) than non-sport TV (mean 1.35, SD = .94). Alcohol advertising during the daytime, when large numbers of children are watching TV, is predominantly in free-to-air sport TV. By permitting day-time advertising in sport programs and in any programs from 8.30 pm when many children are still watching TV, current regulations are not protecting children from exposure to alcohol advertising.
Full Text Available Sport involvement among children and adolescents has been a central field of research in sport science since years. This paper documents the participation of 11- to 15-year-olds in sport clubs and informal sport activities in Liechtenstein and examines possible gender- and age-specific differences. The analysis is based on four cross-sectional studies from 2004 to 2015 and includes the data of 1’262 children in primary (5th grade and secondary (7th and 9th grades school. According to our findings sports and exercise are considered to be one of the main leisure-time activities for all school levels (irrespective of gender. The percentage of fully sport-abstinent adolescents by 11- and 13-year-olds is about 5 %; by 15-year-olds is around 10 %. The culmination of sports club membership (with current 84.7 % appears to be at the age of 11 (5th grade. After the switch to secondary school the sports club commitment tends to decrease, while the high attendance of the informal sport activities (>85 % shows relatively stable age development. In contrast to other child and youth studies, our data indicates a levelling tendency and dissolution of classic gender differences not only in sports club commitment but also in informal sports among girls and boys.
Houghton, Laurence A; Dawson, Brian; Maloney, Shane K
Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal match-day attire alone (NORM) on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity. Ten match-fit field hockey players twice performed 4x15min exercise bouts consisting of repeated cycles of intermittent, varied-intensity 20m shuttle running (Loughborough intermittent shuttle test), once in COMP and once in NORM. Testing was conducted in an indoor gymnasium (ambient conditions: approximately 17 degrees C, approximately 60% relative humidity). Participants acted as their own controls. Heart rate (HR), 15m sprint time, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration, sweat rate and body core temperature (T(core)) were similar between trials (p>0.05). Mean skin temperature (T(skin)) was significantly higher in COMP than NORM (pteam sport exercise in temperate ambient conditions had no thermoregulatory benefits nor any detrimental effects on T(core), physiological performance or dehydration. However, the higher T(skin) may affect individual preference for wearing CGs as an undergarment during team sports.
Slimani, Maamer; Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B; Chéour, Foued
Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.
Abidin, Mohammad Zukuwwan Zainol; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Kasim, Maznah Mat
This paper proposes a suitable research procedure that can be referred to while conducting a Decision Support System (DSS) study, especially when the development activity of system artifacts becomes one of the research objectives. The design of the research procedure was based on the completion of a football DSS development that can help in determining the position of a player and the best team formation to be used during a game. After studying the relevant literature, we found that it is necessary to combine the conventional rainfall System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) approach with Case Study approach to help in structuring the research task and phases, which can contribute to the fulfillment of the research aim and objectives.
Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Button, Chris
Performance analysis is a subdiscipline of sports sciences and one-approach, notational analysis, has been used to objectively audit and describe behaviours of performers during different subphases of play, providing additional information for practitioners to improve future sports performance. Recent criticisms of these methods have suggested the need for a sound theoretical rationale to explain performance behaviours, not just describe them. The aim of this article was to show how ecological dynamics provides a valid theoretical explanation of performance in team sports by explaining the formation of successful and unsuccessful patterns of play, based on symmetry-breaking processes emerging from functional interactions between players and the performance environment. We offer the view that ecological dynamics is an upgrade to more operational methods of performance analysis that merely document statistics of competitive performance. In support of our arguments, we refer to exemplar data on competitive performance in team sports that have revealed functional interpersonal interactions between attackers and defenders, based on variations in the spatial positioning of performers relative to each other in critical performance areas, such as the scoring zones. Implications of this perspective are also considered for practice task design and sport development programmes.
Burke, Ed.; Kleiber, Douglas
There is a growing movement toward highly structured, competitive sports for children aged 7-12, who are at a crucial stage of physical and psychological development. Social play and gemes have important socialization and identity-formation functions. One argument supporting highly competitive sports for children is that they provide additional…
Youth sport programs must offer children the opportunity to participate successfully and without injury, and the optimum development of each child should be the ultimate aim of all sport programs. A classification system can achieve these goals by accurate testing and placement of participants. Classification is needed because children do not grow…
Bosser, Gilles; Moulin-Zinsch, Anne; Fischer-Atalla, Reem
The practice of physical activity is one of the essential elements for health in general but also for the well-being and the quality of life. It is highly desirable to encourage physical activities in children with congenital heart diseases, taking into account all the benefits associated with this practice (quality of life, life expectancy) and this especially since these children often have limited capacity (due to their heart disease but also often by relative deconditioning). While there is a transient increase in risk of cardiac complications during intense activity, it would nevertheless be inappropriate to contra-indicate physical activities considering the well-known benefits in the medium and long term. The risks associated with the practice of physical activity must be assessed, on one hand, in terms of the severity of the heart disease, and on the other hand, on the nature and intensity of the activity. The stress test is here an essential tool because it helps to assess the physical capacity and cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise. The international recommendations for competitive sports generally give an appropriate advice for a specific situation but the practice of moderate activity or leisure sports which are highly desirable should not be neglected and be strongly encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark
The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2 = 197; N Study 3 = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4 = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.
Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen
Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988
Patel, Dilip R; Pratt, Helen D; Greydanus, Donald E
A fundamental knowledge of normal child and adolescent development is essential to providing a developmentally appropriate sports experience for the child, and to providing guidance to parents regarding their child's sport participation. This article reviews neurodevelopment, normal child and adolescent development relevant to sport participation, and developmental readiness to participate in sports. Neurodevelopmental maturation is a complex, continuous process. The sense of social comparison is not achieved until after 6 years of age, and the ability to understand the competitive nature of sports is generally not achieved until 9 years of age. By about 12 years of age, most children are mature enough to comprehend the complex tasks of sports and are physically and cognitively ready to participate in competitive sports with appropriate supervision.
Physical education of physically handicapped and sensorily imparied children - with its general goals and, especially, its efforts to improve social integration - is understood as an essential part of rehabilitation. The pre-requisites, possibilities and limits of setting up sports teams are discussed on the basis of the types of disabilities suffered by the team members. In addition to homogenous and non-homogenous teams, sports teams should be developed in which the disabled are active alonside the non-disabled. More than ever, sports will be for those disabled who are able to participate - a means of enlarging social contacts. The personality of the sports teacher, who must have a broad knowledge of the methods applied in sports for the disabled, is considered a decisive factor on whom success or failure depends. The given examples are based on experiences gained by the author and his colleagues. The setting up of such sports teams should be followed by new approaches in the clubs and associations activities, as well as in the financing of sports for the disabled. Suggestions are made on how this can be realised.
Hubinette, Maria; Dobson, Sarah; Voyer, Stephane; Regehr, Glenn
Health advocacy, although recognised as a professional responsibility, is often seen as overwhelming, perhaps because it is framed conceptually as an activity that each physician should undertake alone rather than as a collaborative process. In the context of a study exploring how effective physician health advocates conceptualise their roles and their activities related to health advocacy, we uncovered data that speak directly of the issue of whether the activities of health advocates are enacted as individual or collective pursuits. We interviewed ten physicians, identified by others as effective health advocates, regarding their advocacy activities. We collected and analysed data in an iterative process, informed by constructivist grounded theory, continuously refining the interview framework and examining evolving themes. The final coding scheme was applied to all transcripts. Health advocacy was viewed by these physicians as a collective activity. This collective construction of advocacy presented in three ways: (i) as teamwork by interprofessional teams of individuals with clearly defined roles and functional, task-oriented goals; (ii) as a process involving networks of resources or people that can be accessed for both support and reinforcement, and (iii) as a process involving collaborative think-tanks in which members contribute different perspectives to enact collective problem solving at a conceptual level. Effective health advocates do not conceptualise themselves as stand-alone experts who must do everything themselves. Their collective approach makes it possible for these physicians to incorporate health advocacy into their clinical practice. However, although conceptualising health advocacy as a collective activity may make it less daunting, this way of understanding health advocacy is not compatible with current formal descriptions of the associated competencies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Pot, Niek; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein
Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. We analyzed data from 4726 ethnically diverse 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R Study. Variables were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires when the child was 6 years old. Low level of outdoor play was defined as outdoor play p p p p p research, including qualitative studies, is needed to explore more in detail the pathways relating family SEP and ethnic background to children's sports participation and outdoor play.
Lockhart, Barbara Day; Black, Nate; Vincent, William J
The Worth Index was administered to 176 Division I athletes who were competing in team and individual sports at Brigham Young University. The purpose of the study was to measure and compare their perceptions of worth and self-esteem. The Worth Index is a valid tool measuring whether an individual believes worth and self-esteem are earned by way of performance (conditional) or are inherent (unconditional). The Worth Index measures perceptions of basic human worth and worth as related to personal security, performance, and the physical self. The four subscales represent these four categories. There were no significant differences between the perceptions of athletes in team and individual sports on any of the subscales of the Worth Index. However, on each subscale, all participants combined rated themselves significantly higher on unconditional worth than conditional worth.
Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.
Full Text Available An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals towards different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.
Full Text Available Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participation in workplace team sport.Twenty-nine semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with office workers (58% female (36 ± 7.71 from manufacturing, public services, and educational services. Data was analysed through template analysis.Five sub-level (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and societal influences facilitate participation or create obstacles for participants. Participants were challenged by a lack of competence, self-efficacy, negative sporting ideals and amotivation. Unhealthy competition, an unstable work-life balance and unsupportive colleagues created obstacles to participation. An unsupportive organisation and workplace culture placed demands on workplace champions, funding, facilities and communication. Healthy competitions, high perceptions of competence and self-efficacy, and being motivated autonomously enabled participation. Further, relatedness and social support created a physical activity culture where flexible working was encouraged and team sport was promoted in accessible locations within the organisation. Researchers should consider accounting for complexity of these influences. A participatory approach may tailor interventions to individual organisations and the employees that work within them. Interventions whereby autonomy, competence and relatedness are supported are recommended. This may be achieved by adapting sports and training workplace champions.
Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.
This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…
Nur ÇAĞLAYAN; Yılmaz UÇAN
The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is any difference between self esteem scores of individuals who engaged in individual & team sports and non-athletes. Furthermore, self-esteem scores associated with age group, gender and years of playing experience variables were examined to determine the differences. Focus group consists of 304 athletes & nonathletes of 13–20 years old individuals living in Ankara, Istanbul and Sakarya. Rosenberg's self-esteem scale was used to measure...
Andrew Brinkley; Josie Freeman; Hilary McDermott; Fehmidah Munir
Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participa...
Santos, Sara D. L.; Memmert, Daniel; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno
Developing creativity in team sports players is becoming an increasing focus in sports sciences. The Creativity Developmental Framework is presented to provide an updated science based background. This Framework describes five incremental creative stages (beginner, explorer, illuminati, creator, and rise) and combines them into multidisciplinary approaches embodied in creative assumptions. In the first training stages, the emphasis is placed on the enrollment in diversification, deliberate play and physical literacy approaches grounded in nonlinear pedagogies. These approaches allow more freedom to discover different movement patterns increasing the likelihood of emerging novel, adaptive and functional solutions. In the later stages, the progressive specialization in sports and the differential learning commitment are extremely important to push the limits of the creative progress at higher levels of performance by increasing the range of skills configurations. Notwithstanding, during all developmental stages the teaching games for understanding, a game-centered approach, linked with the constraints-led approach play an important role to boost the tactical creative behavior. Both perspectives might encourage players to explore all actions possibilities (improving divergent thinking) and prevents the standardization in their actions. Overall, considering the aforementioned practice conditions the Creativity Developmental Framework scrutinizes the main directions that lead to a long-term improvement of the creative behavior in team sports. Nevertheless, this framework should be seen as a work in progress to be later used as the paramount reference in creativity training. PMID:27617000
Hodgson, Lisa; Gissane, Conor; Gabbett, Tim J; King, Doug A
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the most effective method of collecting injury data by using a definition that encompasses all injuries into the data collection system. The definition provides an accurate picture of injury incidence and also allows filtering of records so that data can be reported in a variety of comparable ways. A qualitative review of literature in team sports, plus expert opinion, served as the basis for data collection strategies. Articles were retrieved from SportsDiscus and PubMed using the terms "sports injury definition" and "injury definition." These terms were searched for the period 1966 to November 2006. One of the major results (from this paper) that supports the use of an all-encompassing injury definition is that 70% to 92% of all injuries sustained fall into the transient category--that is, by only recording injuries that result in missed matches, the majority of injuries are missed and therefore injury rates are underreported. An injury definition should be the most encompassing definition that enables a true, global picture of injury incidence to be seen in participation in any team sport.
Passos, P; Milho, J; Button, C
Collective behaviors in team sports result in players forming interpersonal synergies that contribute to performance goals. Because of the huge amount of variables that continuously constrain players' behavior during a game, the way that these synergies are formed remain unclear. Our aim was to quantify interpersonal synergies in the team sport of Rugby Union. For that purpose we used the Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis (UCM) to identify interpersonal synergies that are formed between ball carrier and support player in two-versus-one situations in Rugby Union. The inter-player angle close to the moment of the pass was used as a performance variable and players running lines velocities as task-relevant elements. Interpersonal synergies (UCM values above 1) were found in 19 out of 55 trials under analysis, which means that on 34% of the trials, the players' running line velocities contribute to stabilizing the inter-player angle close the moment of the pass. The strength of the synergy fluctuates over time indicating the existence of a location effect during attack phases in Rugby Union. UCM analysis shows considerable promise as a performance analysis tool in team sports to discriminate between skilled sub-groups of players.
Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
In nature, the interactions between agents in a complex system (fish schools; colonies of ants) are governed by information that is locally created. Each agent self-organizes (adjusts) its behaviour, not through a central command centre, but based on variables that emerge from the interactions with other system agents in the neighbourhood. Self-organization has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the tendencies for individual performers to interact with each other in field-invasion sports teams, displaying functional co-adaptive behaviours, without the need for central control. The relevance of self-organization as a mechanism that explains pattern-forming dynamics within attacker-defender interactions in field-invasion sports has been sustained in the literature. Nonetheless, other levels of interpersonal coordination, such as intra-team interactions, still raise important questions, particularly with reference to the role of leadership or match strategies that have been prescribed in advance by a coach. The existence of key properties of complex systems, such as system degeneracy, nonlinearity or contextual dependency, suggests that self-organization is a functional mechanism to explain the emergence of interpersonal coordination tendencies within intra-team interactions. In this opinion article we propose how leadership may act as a key constraint on the emergent, self-organizational tendencies of performers in field-invasion sports.
Kawamori, Naoki; Nosaka, Kazunori; Newton, Robert U
Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a standing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration performance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background performed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) analysis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = -0.52) and propulsive impulse (r = -0.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant correlations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results suggest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longitudinal training studies.
Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall
Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714
Alice J. Sweeting
Full Text Available The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS, local positioning systems (LPS, and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1 identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2 examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3 evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4 discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s−1. Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s−2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and
Sweeting, Alice J; Cormack, Stuart J; Morgan, Stuart; Aughey, Robert J
The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS), local positioning systems (LPS), and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1) identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2) examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3) evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s -1 . Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s -2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and acceleration
Soomro, Najeebullah; Sanders, Ross; Hackett, Daniel; Hubka, Tate; Ebrahimi, Saahil; Freeston, Jonathan; Cobley, Stephen
Intensive sport participation in childhood and adolescence is an established cause of acute and overuse injury. Interventions and programs designed to prevent such injuries are important in reducing individual and societal costs associated with treatment and recovery. Likewise, they help to maintain the accrual of positive outcomes from participation, such as cardiovascular health and skill development. To date, several studies have individually tested the effectiveness of injury prevention programs (IPPs). To determine the overall efficacy of structured multifaceted IPPs containing a combination of warm-up, neuromuscular strength, or proprioception training, targeting injury reduction rates according to risk exposure time in adolescent team sport contexts. Systematic review and meta-analysis. With established inclusion criteria, studies were searched in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AusSportMed. The keyword search terms (including derivations) included the following: adolescents, sports, athletic injuries, prevention/warm-up programs. Eligible studies were then pooled for meta-analysis with an invariance random-effects model, with injury rate ratio (IRR) as the primary outcome. Heterogeneity among studies and publication bias were tested, and subgroup analysis examined heterogeneity sources. Across 10 studies, including 9 randomized controlled trials, a pooled overall point estimate yielded an IRR of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.48-0.75; a 40% reduction) while accounting for hours of risk exposure. Publication bias assessment suggested an 8% reduction in the estimate (IRR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54-0.84), and the prediction interval intimated that any study estimate could still fall between 0.33 and 1.48. Subgroup analyses identified no significant moderators, although possible influences may have been masked because of data constraints. Compared with normative practices or control
The research for basketball has been focused upon the color effect on the team shirts by means of sports and colors. University basketball club members and university students (who did not belong to the university basketball club members) participated in this study. Colors of team shirts were analyzed by A.H. Munsell's method (Hue, Value, Chroma). To each of four games were given four different color conditions: The first is on condition that players of both teams wore different five-colored team shirts (white, red, blue, green, orange).The second is on condition that all players of both teams wore white team shirts. The third is on condition that all players of the one team wore red team shirts and the others wore orange. The fourth is on condition that all players of the one team wore blue team shirts and the others wore green. The questionnaire, the number of shots, and passes were analyzed of statistics (x2 :1 X m contingency table) on the above mentioned conditions. The results were as follows: (1) The number of successful shots that university basketball club members made were higher than university students. (2) The number of unsuccessful passes that university students made were higher than university basketball club members. (3) Analyzed by statistics (x2:1 X contingency table), the apparent distinction of the color effect was not found. These results could be due to players requirements of momentary judgement such as their recognition of the other players face or voice. This seems to depend upon different factors of the subject himself on a physical strength level as well as on a technical level.
Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda
Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT
Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark
Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…
Full Text Available Grounded in Self-Determination Theory, structural equation modeling (SEM with the aim of examining how parental support/pressure could influence their children´s motivational processes in sport was conducted, as well as the models´ differences in operability regarding gender. The sample size was 321 children ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old who were athletes from Extremadura, and 321 parents (included only the father or mother more involved with the sport of his or her child. 175 participants were male and 146 were female from individual (n = 130, and team sports (n=191. A questionnaire was conducted to assess parental perception of support/pressure and another questionnaire was conducted to measure satisfaction of basic psychological needs, type of motivation and enjoyment/boredom showed by their children towards sport practice. Results revealed that parental pressure negatively predicted satisfaction of the basic psychological needs. It also emerged as a strong positive predictor of intrinsic motivation and negative predictor of amotivation. Moreover, intrinsic motivation emerged as positive predictor of enjoyment and a negative predictor of boredom, whereas amotivation positively predicted boredom and negatively predicted enjoyment. Furthermore, results showed there were mean differences by gender: male athletes perceived greater parental pressure. Hence, it is necessary to decrease parental pressure towards their children in sport, with the aim of making them more motivated and enjoy, promoting positive consequences.
Thomas, William E; Brown, Rupert; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Vignoles, Vivian L; Manzi, Claudia; D'Angelo, Chiara; Holt, Jeremy J
Based on motivated identity construction theory (MICT; Vignoles, 2011), we offer an integrative approach examining the combined roles of six identity motives (self-esteem, distinctiveness, belonging, meaning, continuity, and efficacy) instantiated at three different motivational levels (personal, social, and collective identity) as predictors of group identification. These identity processes were investigated among 369 members of 45 sports teams from England and Italy in a longitudinal study over 6 months with four time points. Multilevel change modeling and cross-lagged analyses showed that satisfaction of four personal identity motives (individuals' personal feelings of self-esteem, distinctiveness, meaning, and efficacy derived from team membership), three social identity motives (individuals' feelings that the team identity carries a sense of belonging, meaning, and continuity), and one collective identity motive (a shared belief in group distinctiveness) significantly predicted group identification. Motivational processes underlying group identification are complex, multilayered, and not reducible to personal needs.
The purpose of this study was to explore sport stacking as an alternative intervention approach with typically developing children and in addition to improve DCD. Sport stacking consists of participants stacking and unstacking 12 specially designed plastic cups in predetermined sequences in as little time as possible.
Silva, Pedro; Garganta, Júlio; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Aguiar, Paulo
Previous research has proposed that team coordination is based on shared knowledge of the performance context, responsible for linking teammates' mental representations for collective, internalized action solutions. However, this representational approach raises many questions including: how do individual schemata of team members become reformulated together? How much time does it take for this collective cognitive process to occur? How do different cues perceived by different individuals sustain a general shared mental representation? This representational approach is challenged by an ecological dynamics perspective of shared knowledge in team coordination. We argue that the traditional shared knowledge assumption is predicated on 'knowledge about' the environment, which can be used to share knowledge and influence intentions of others prior to competition. Rather, during competitive performance, the control of action by perceiving surrounding informational constraints is expressed in 'knowledge of' the environment. This crucial distinction emphasizes perception of shared affordances (for others and of others) as the main communication channel between team members during team coordination tasks. From this perspective, the emergence of coordinated behaviours in sports teams is based on the formation of interpersonal synergies between players resulting from collective actions predicated on shared affordances.
O'Brien, James; Finch, Caroline F
Recently, the use of specific exercise programmes to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in team ball sports has gained considerable attention, and the results of large-scale, randomised controlled trials have supported their efficacy. To enhance the translation of these interventions into widespread use, research trials must be reported in a way that allows the players, staff and policymakers associated with sports teams to implement these interventions effectively. In particular, information is needed on core implementation components, which represent the essential and indispensable aspects of successful implementation. To assess the extent to which team ball sport injury prevention trial reports have reported the core implementation components of the intervention, the intervention target and the use of any delivery agents (ie, staff or other personnel delivering the intervention). To summarise which specific types of intervention, intervention target and delivery agents are reported. To develop consensus between reviewers on the reporting of these components. Six electronic databases were systematically searched for English-language, peer-reviewed papers on injury prevention exercise programme (IPEP) trials in team ball sports. The reporting of all eligible trials was assessed by two independent reviewers. The reporting of the three core implementation components were coded as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. For cases coded as 'yes', the specific types of interventions, intervention targets and delivery agents were extracted and summarised. The search strategy identified 52 eligible trials. The intervention and the intervention target were reported in all 52 trials. The reporting of 25 trials (48%) specified the use of delivery agents, the reporting of three trials (6%) specified not using delivery agents, and in the reporting of the remaining 24 trials (46%) the use of delivery agents was unclear. The reported intervention type was an IPEP alone in 43 trials (83
Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.
Wilson, Pamela E
This article focuses on the exercise needs of children who have disabilities, how these needs differ from able-bodied children, and what medical concerns are relevant for a given disability. The information presented also discusses some preventative options related to individual sports and a discussion of various organized recreational and competitive opportunities available both nationally and internationally. In addition, a listing of major disabled sports organizations is provided for reference.
Passos, Pedro; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia; Borges, João; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
The authors examined whether, similar to collective agent behaviors in complex, biological systems (e.g., schools of fish and colonies of ants), performers in team sports displayed functional coordination tendencies, based on local interaction rules during performance. To investigate this issue, they used videogrammetry and digitizing procedures to observe interpersonal interactions in common 4 versus 2 + 2 subphases of the team sport of rugby union, involving 16 participants aged between 16 and 17 years of age. They observed pattern-forming dynamics in attacking subunits (n = 4 players) attempting to penetrate 2 defensive lines (n = 2 players in each). Data showed that within each attacking subunit, the 4 players displayed emergent functional grouping tendencies that differed between the 2 defensive lines. Results confirmed that grouping tendencies in attacking subunits of team games are sensitive to different task constraints, such as relative positioning to nearest defenders. It was concluded that running correlations were particularly useful for measuring the level of interpersonal coordination in functional grouping tendencies within attacking subunits.
Donoso-Morales, Daniela; Bloom, Gordon A; Caron, Jeffrey G
Winning several national championships is an extraordinary feat that very few university coaches have accomplished. The objective of this study was to investigate how some of Canada's most accomplished university team-sport coaches created and sustained a culture of excellence in their programs. Six university coaches who had won more than 30 national titles participated in this study. Each coach participated in a semistructured interview, and the qualitative data were inductively analyzed using a thematic analysis. The coaches noted that hard work and daily attention to detail, effective emotional management of themselves and their athletes, and continuous self-assessment (self-reflection and seeking mentors) were crucial elements that led to sustained excellence in their programs. This study offers one of the first empirical accounts of how highly successful university coaches developed and maintained a culture of excellence and success in their high-performance sport setting.
Halouani, Jamel; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gabbett, Tim; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim
Small-sided games (SSGs) incorporating skills, sport-specific movements, at intensities sufficient to promote aerobic adaptations, are being increasingly implemented in professional team sport environments. Small-sided games are often employed by coaches based on the premise that the greatest training benefits occur when training simulates the specific movement patterns and physiological demands of the sport. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSG can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical and tactical skills in team sports. It is possible that with some modifications (e.g., number of players, pitch size, coach encouragement, and wrestling), such games may be physiologically beneficial for athletes with relatively high initial aerobic fitness levels. For instance, it has been shown that 3-a-side soccer SSG resulted in higher intensity (i.e., greater overall distance, less jogging and walking, higher heart rate, and more tackling, dribbling, goal attempts, and passes) than 5-a-side SSG. Likewise, when player numbers were kept constant, a larger playing area increased the intensity of the SSG with a smaller playing area having the opposite effect. It has also been demonstrated that energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than that obtained in a basketball court. Moreover, it has been demonstrated in rugby that wrestling can increase the physical demands of SSG. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, although most rule changes have trivial or no effect on exercise intensity. Further research is required to examine the optimal periodization strategies of SSG training for the long-term development of physiological capacity, technical skill, and tactical proficiency, while also minimizing the associated risk of injuries.
Full Text Available The paper substantiates the design of the training process of athletes in team sports during an annual training cycle on the basis of model training tasks. The model training tasks are developed along with micro-and mesocycles, periods, and annual cycle for preparation of elite female volleyball players. The ratio of the training means and various types of training loads in the periods of macrocycle were determined. Introduction of model training tasks into the training process in team sports allows to efficiently plan and optimize the preparation of athletes, as well as to implement the principle of individualization in the development of a coherent team.
Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Nistrup, Anne
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...
Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke J; Aughey, Robert J
To examine the difference in distance measured by two global positioning system (GPS) units of the same model worn by the same player while performing movements common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian football players completed two trials of the straight line movement (10, 20, 40 m) at four speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), two trials of the changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and five trials of a team sport running simulation circuit. To assess inter-unit variability for total and high intensity running (HIR) distance measured in matches, data from eight field players were collected in three Australian Hockey League (AHL) matches during the 2009 season. Each subject wore two GPS devices (MinimaxX v2.5, Catapult, Australia) that collected position data at 5 Hz for each movement and match trial. The percentage difference ±90% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine differences between units. Differences (±90% CI) between the units ranged from 9.9 ± 4.7% to 11.9 ± 19.5% for straight line running movements and from 9.5 ± 7.2% to 10.7 ± 7.9% in the COD courses. Similar results were exhibited in the team sport circuit (11.1 ± 4.2%). Total distance (10.3 ± 6.2%) and HIR distance (10.3 ± 15.6) measured during the match play displayed similar variability. It is recommended that players wear the same GPS unit for each exercise session to reduce measurement error. The level of between-unit measurement error should be considered when comparing results from players wearing different GPS units.
Freitas, Tomás T; Martinez-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Calleja-González, Julio; Alcaraz, Pedro E
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1) at least one CT intervention group; 2) training protocols ≥4-wks; 3) sample of team-sport players; 4) sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES) of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups) met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES) (ES = 0.73) were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41) in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01) and VJ (ES = 0.63) performance than control-groups. large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (training programs >12 total sessions (ES = 0.74). Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81). Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56); protocols with intracomplex rest intervals ≥2 min (ES = 0.55); conditioning activities with intensities ≤85% 1RM (ES = 0.64); basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55). Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42); interventions ≥6 weeks (ES = 0.45). CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning.
Winnick, Jason J; Davis, J Mark; Welsh, Ralph S; Carmichael, Martin D; Murphy, E Angela; Blackmon, Jill A
This study was designed to examine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) feedings on physical and central nervous system (CNS) function during intermittent high-intensity exercise with physical demands similar to those of team sports such as basketball. Twenty active men (N = 10) and women (N = 10), with experience competing in team sports, performed three practice sessions before two experimental trials during which they were fed either a 6% CHO solution or a flavored placebo (PBO). Experimental trials consisted of four 15-min quarters of shuttle running with variable intensities ranging from walking (30% VO(2max)), to running (120% VO(2max)), to maximal sprinting, and 40 jumps at a target hanging at 80% of their maximum vertical jump height. Subjects received 5 mL.kg(-1) of fluid before exercise and 3 mL.kg(-1) after exercise, in addition to 3 mL.kg(-1) over a 5-min span after the first and third quarters, and 8 mL.kg(-1) during a 20-min halftime. During each break, the subjects performed a battery of tests measuring peripheral and CNS function, including 20-m sprints, a 60-s maximal jumping test, internal and external mood evaluation, cognitive function, force sensation, tests of motor skills, and target-jumping accuracy. Compared with PBO, CHO feedings during exercise resulted in faster 20-m sprint times and higher average jump height in the fourth quarter (P intermittent high-intensity exercise similar to that of team sports benefited both peripheral and CNS function late in exercise compared with a flavored placebo.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m -2 ; estimated VO 2 max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1. Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8, basketball (n = 5, and handball (n = 3. They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT, the 30-s Wingate test (WingT, the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT, and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction with 30 s passive recovery in between. Pearson’s product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT and fatigue index (FI (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively. No significant relationship between VO 2 max and RSA peak sprint time (PT and total sprint time (TT was found. Nevertheless, VO 2 max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05. In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA.
Gharbi, Z; Dardouri, W; Haj-Sassi, R; Chamari, K; Souissi, N
The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m(-2); estimated VO2max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8), basketball (n = 5), and handball (n = 3). They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), the 30-s Wingate test (WingT), the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction) with 30 s passive recovery in between). Pearson's product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT) and fatigue index (FI) (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant relationship between VO2max and RSA peak sprint time (PT) and total sprint time (TT) was found. Nevertheless, VO2max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA.
Martin, Alanna C; Heazlewood, Ian T; Kitic, Cecilia M; Lys, Isabelle; Johnson, Liam
The research aim of this study was to determine possible hormone predictors of physical performance in adolescent team sport athletes. Saliva samples were collected immediately prior to performance testing sessions from 114 state squad athletes (77 male, 37 female) participating in either Australian football, basketball, hockey, or netball. Participants completed tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacity, agility, power and speed. Samples were collected over 22 months at quarterly, six-monthly and/or yearly intervals depending on the testing schedule of the athlete. Saliva was analysed for testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) levels. A strong negative correlation existed between multistage fitness test performance and T:E ratio (r=-0.76, p=0.01) in females not taking oral contraceptives and a strong positive correlation existed between repeat agility total time and estradiol levels (r=-0.71, p=0.001) in females taking oral contraceptives. In males, strong negative correlations were evident for individual changes in planned agility time and estradiol levels (r=0.87, p=0.02), and CMJ height and T:C (r=-0.88, p=0.01). In females taking oral contraceptives a strong positive correlation was noted between individual change in yo-yo intermittent recovery test performance and T:E (r=0.74, p=0.01) and a strong negative correlation was noted between 20m speed and T:P (r=0.73, p=0.01). In females not taking oral contraceptives a strong negative correlation was found between individual change in CMJ height and T:P (r=-0.72, p=0.02). The findings show that in adolescent team sport athletes the P:E, T:E and the T:P ratios are important predictors of performance in tests of physical capacity. The findings also indicate estradiol and progesterone have a predictive function in the physical performance of adolescent male team sport athletes.
Visek, Amanda J; Harris, Brandonn; Blom, Lindsey C
Working with youth athletes requires knowledge of the inherent variability in child and adolescent development that will impact the implementation of a mental training program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of developmental considerations that should be noted when doing mental training, particularly for athletes participating in sport at mid-childhood, early adolescence, and mid-adolescence. Gender differences at these stages of development are also highlighted. Additionally, we forward best practice recommendations and learning-activities that have been tailored for each developmental stage that can be used in the provision of a mental training program in a team setting.
Pound, Catherine M; Blair, Becky
Sports drinks and caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) are commonly consumed by youth. Both sports drinks and CEDs pose potential risks for the health of children and adolescents and may contribute to obesity. Sports drinks are generally unnecessary for children engaged in routine or play-based physical activity. CEDs may affect children and adolescents more than adults because they weigh less and thus experience greater exposure to stimulant ingredients per kilogram of body weight. Paediatricians need to recognize and educate patients and families on the differences between sport drinks and CEDs. Screening for the consumption of CEDs, especially when mixed with alcohol, should be done routinely. The combination of CEDs and alcohol may be a marker for higher risk of substance use or abuse and for other health-compromising behaviours.
Tuck, Geoffrey N.; Whitten, Athol R.
Annual draft systems are the principal method used by teams in major sporting leagues to recruit amateur players. These draft systems frequently take one of three forms: a lottery style draft, a weighted draft, or a reverse-order draft. Reverse-order drafts can create incentives for teams to deliberately under-perform, or tank, due to the perceived gain from obtaining quality players at higher draft picks. This paper uses a dynamic simulation model that captures the key components of a win-maximising sporting league, including the amateur player draft, draft choice error, player productivity, and between-team competition, to explore how competitive balance and incentives to under-perform vary according to league characteristics. We find reverse-order drafts can lead to some teams cycling between success and failure and to other teams being stuck in mid-ranking positions for extended periods of time. We also find that an incentive for teams to tank exists, but that this incentive decreases (i) as uncertainty in the ability to determine quality players in the draft increases, (ii) as the number of teams in the league reduces, (iii) as team size decreases, and (iv) as the number of teams adopting a tanking strategy increases. Simulation models can be used to explore complex stochastic dynamic systems such as sports leagues, where managers face difficult decisions regarding the structure of their league and the desire to maintain competitive balance. PMID:24312243
Cairney, John; Veldhuizen, Scott
The relationship between sport participation and BMI in children and adolescents is unclear, with some studies showing no association at all and others suggesting that sport is linked to lower BMI. Another possibility, however, is that this relationship is bidirectional, with sport leading to lower BMI but BMI also influencing sport participation. Here, we examine the direction of this association by analyzing a longitudinal dataset. Data come from the Physical Health Activity Study Team (PHAST) study, a prospective open cohort study including 2278 children at baseline, followed from 2004 to 2010. We fit 3 lagged mixed effects models: One examining the simultaneous relationship, one regressing past BMI on present sport participation, and one regressing sport participation on present BMI. Our baseline sample included 1999 children, of whom 50% were female. Mean BMI increased over the study period from 19.0 (SD = 3.7) to 21.2 (SD = 4.1), while organized sport participation declined. Model results showed that BMI and sport are weakly associated, and that each of these variables predicts the other, which generally supports a bidirectional relationship. Consistent with some previous reports, however, the effect size in both directions is very small. At the levels of participation in our sample, activity and BMI are very weakly related. Findings should not obscure the other benefits of physical activity.
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien
Sport injury rehabilitation has moved from predominately physical treatment to a more holistic care. However, limited research has explored the views and experiences of those involved in such an approach. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate sport psychology consultants' (SPCs') views and experiences of an interprofessional team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. A cross-sectional online survey previously used with athletic trainers was distributed via a US-based sport/exercise psychology list-serve (N = 1245). A total of 62 (27 men, 35 women, M age 38.2 years, age range: 22-73 years) participants with 10.6 (SD = 9.8) years of experience as an SPC were included in the final analyses. On average, SPCs felt that it was very important (M = 6.6; SD = 0.6) for athletes to have access to an interprofessional care team. Of the sample, 64.5% (n = 40) typically worked as part of an interprofessional care team 44.7% of the time. The SPCs (n = 28; 45.2%) also indicated that the primary treatment providers (e.g., athletic trainer, physical therapist) were typically serving as the primary point person for such teams. Since gaining entry to sport medicine can be an area SPCs struggle with, building effective working relationships with treatment providers can help promote and increase SPCs involvement in providing holistic, interprofessional care to athletes with injuries. To ensure athletes' successful biopsychosocial return to sport, different individuals and professionals should work together for the benefit of the athlete by adopting holistic care during sports injury rehabilitation.
Killowe, C; Mkandawire, N C
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an interview format. Among the players 37% had completed tertiary education and 60% had finished secondary school education. Most players had poor knowledge on prevention of injuries; had poor advice on diet; used illicit drugs or knew of fellow players using illicit drugs and believed in the role of magic in sports. All 13 team 'doctors' worked full-time in paramedical fields: 3 were orthopaedic clinical officers, 2 were physiotherapists and the rest were in various fields, such as dental technician, pharmacy assistant, medical assistant and dermatology technician, where trauma is not part of their basic training. Most team "doctors" were aware of the impact of HIV/AIDS on sports but few had good knowledge of the role of nutrition in sports and the effect of performance enhancing drugs in sports. Most believed in the role of magic in sports. Recommendations are made on the basis of these findings.
Waquet, Arnaud; Vincent, Joris
The First World War is traditionally considered in history as a temporary halt for cultural and sporting activities. If the Olympic Games and the Tour de France were actually cancelled, football and rugby were in fact stimulated by the circumstances of war. Indeed, the gathering of allied nations behind the Western Front emerged as the main factor in the development of these two sports. Reading the sporting press and military archives shows that international sporting exchanges were stimulated during the Great War. To be specific, France benefited from the golden opportunity provided by the presence of the masters of the game to strengthen its practices and affirm its status as a sporting nation. Inter-allied sporting exchanges were primarily characterised by informal encounters between military selections. Then, following the recognition of these sports by the military authorities, the number of exchanges increased. At the end of 1917, the official status acquired by sport within the military forces created the conditions for the structuring of the French sporting elite. From that point, we can witness the birth of the first French military rugby and football teams, as they demonstrate, through their good performances during the demobilisation period, the progressive build-up of the international dimension of French sport during the war years.
Ghosh, Dipanwita; Datta, Tarit K
While the positive effect of sports and exercise on physical and psychological well being is well documented within the general population, the effects of sports on the functional ability of a child with mental retardation are limited. To determine if sports activities have been detrimental in improving functional ability in sample of children with mental retardation based in Kolkata, a metropolis in India. Field level study. Six sports associations registered under the Sports Authority of India for training children with mental retardation were shortlisted on the basis of four criteria. From the register, every third name (gender irrespective) belonging to the second (12-15 years) and third (15-21 years) subclasses (out of the four categories laid down in the Special Olympics participation rules) against a constraint of at least two years active attendance in the sports facility for the child was selected. A sample of 31 children was drawn and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) 12-item version was administered to the caregiver-teacher-coach team of the sample. Relative changes in scores between the point when the survey was conducted and the point when the child joined the sports facility was used as the dependent variable for regression analysis. The number of years in active sports, in school age of the respondent and base score of the children when they joined school were the independent variables. For seven of the WHODAS 2.0 12-item attributes, the number of years in sports activities was found to have a statistically significant effect (p mental retardation. The number of years in school was also another statistically significant factor (p sports activities was a significant factor responsible for improving the functioning of children with mild to moderate mental retardation.
Crowther, Fiona; Sealey, Rebecca; Crowe, Melissa; Edwards, Andrew; Halson, Shona
A variety of recovery strategies are used by athletes, although there is currently no research that investigates perceptions and usage of recovery by different competition levels of team sport athletes. The recovery techniques used by team sport athletes of different competition levels was investigated by survey. Specifically this study investigated if, when, why and how the following recovery strategies were used: active land-based recovery (ALB), active water-based recovery (AWB), stretching (STR), cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT). Three hundred and thirty-one athletes were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent were found to utilise one or more recovery strategies. Stretching was rated the most effective recovery strategy (4.4/5) with ALB considered the least effective by its users (3.6/5). The water immersion strategies were considered effective/ineffective mainly due to psychological reasons; in contrast STR and ALB were considered to be effective/ineffective mainly due to physical reasons. This study demonstrates that athletes may not be aware of the specific effects that a recovery strategy has upon their physical recovery and thus athlete and coach recovery education is encouraged. This study also provides new information on the prevalence of different recovery strategies and contextual information that may be useful to inform best practice among coaches and athletes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%, low back (13.3%, elbow, and ankle (8.4% injuries were most common. Joint (41.6% and muscle (30.7% were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%, chuna manual therapy (16.0%, physical therapy (15.2%, taping (9.0%, and cupping (7.8% to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%. This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine.
Fowler, Peter M; Knez, Wade; Crowcroft, Stephen; Mendham, Amy E; Miller, Joanna; Sargent, Charlie; Halson, Shona; Duffield, Rob
This study aimed to determine the recovery timeline of sleep, subjective jet lag and fatigue, and team sport physical performance after east and west long-haul travel. Ten physically trained men underwent testing at 0900 h and 1700 h local time on four consecutive days 2 wk before outbound travel (BASE), and the first 4 d after 21 h of outbound (WEST) and return (EAST) air travel across eight time zones between Australia and Qatar. Data collection included performance (countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 [YYIR1] test) and perceptual (jet lag, motivation, perceived exertion, and physical feeling) measures. In addition, sleep was measured via wrist activity monitors and self-report diaries throughout the aforementioned data collection periods. Compared with the corresponding day at BASE, the reduction in YYIR1 distance after EAST was significantly different from the increase in WEST on day 1 after travel (P travel can impede team sport physical performance. Specifically, east travel has a greater detrimental effect on sleep, subjective jet lag, fatigue, and motivation. Consequently, maximal and intermittent sprint performance is also reduced after east travel, particularly within 72 h after arrival.
Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Rysman, Julien; Wehrlin, Jon P; Girard, Olivier
This study aims to investigate physical performance and hematological changes in 32 elite male team-sport players after 14 d of "live high-train low" (LHTL) training in normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h·d at 2800-3000 m) combined with repeated-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5-s sprints with 25 s of passive recovery) either in normobaric hypoxia at 3000 m (LHTL + RSH, namely, LHTLH; n = 11) or in normoxia (LHTL + RSN, namely, LHTL; n = 12) compared with controlled "live low-train low" (LLTL; n = 9) training. Before (Pre), immediately after (Post-1), and 3 wk after (Post-2) the intervention, hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in duplicate [optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method], and vertical jump, repeated-sprint (8 × 20 m-20 s recovery), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (YYIR2) performances were tested. Both hypoxic groups similarly increased their Hbmass at Post-1 and Post-2 in reference to Pre (LHTLH: +4.0%, P team-sport players, with benefits lasting for at least 3 wk postintervention.
Martín-González, Juan Manuel; de Saá Guerra, Yves; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Arriaza, Enrique; Valverde-Estévez, Teresa
Team sports are frequently studied by researchers. There is presumption that scoring in basketball is a random process and that can be described using the Poisson Model. Basketball is a collaboration-opposition sport, where the non-linear local interactions among players are reflected in the evolution of the score that ultimately determines the winner. In the NBA, the outcomes of close games are often decided in the last minute, where fouls play a main role. We examined 6130 NBA games in order to analyze the time intervals between baskets and scoring dynamics. Most numbers of baskets (n) over a time interval (ΔT) follow a Poisson distribution, but some (e.g., ΔT = 10 s, n > 3) behave as a Power Law. The Poisson distribution includes most baskets in any game, in most game situations, but in close games in the last minute, the numbers of events are distributed following a Power Law. The number of events can be adjusted by a mixture of two distributions. In close games, both teams try to maintain their advantage solely in order to reach the last minute: a completely different game. For this reason, we propose to use the Poisson model as a reference. The complex dynamics will emerge from the limits of this model.
Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke; Aughey, Robert J
To assess the validity and reliability of distance data measured by global positioning system (GPS) units sampling at 1 and 5 Hz during movement patterns common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian Football players each wearing two GPS devices (MinimaxX, Catapult, Australia) completed straight line movements (10, 20, 40 m) at various speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and a team sport running simulation circuit. Position and speed data were collected by the GPS devices at 1 and 5 Hz. Distance validity was assessed using the standard error of the estimate (±90% confidence intervals [CI]). Reliability was estimated using typical error (TE) ± 90% CI (expressed as coefficient of variation [CV]). Measurement accuracy decreased as speed of locomotion increased in both straight line and the COD courses. Difference between criterion and GPS measured distance ranged from 9.0% to 32.4%. A higher sampling rate improved validity regardless of distance and locomotion in the straight line, COD and simulated running circuit trials. The reliability improved as distance traveled increased but decreased as speed increased. Total distance over the simulated running circuit exhibited the lowest variation (CV 3.6%) while sprinting over 10 m demonstrated the highest (CV 77.2% at 1 Hz). Current GPS systems maybe limited for assessment of short, high speed straight line running and efforts involving change of direction. An increased sample rate improves validity and reliability of GPS devices.
Ali, Ajmol; O'Donnell, Jemma; Foskett, Andrew; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation on knee flexor and knee extensor strength before, during and after intermittent running exercise in female team-sport players taking oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Ten healthy females (24 ± 4 years; 59.7 ± 3.5 kg; undertaking 2-6 training sessions per week) taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives of the same hormonal composition took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-design trial. Sixty minutes following the ingestion of a capsule containing 6 mg∙kg -1 body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo), participants completed a 90-min intermittent treadmill-running protocol. Isometric strength performance and eccentric and concentric strength and power of the knee flexors and knee extensors (using isokinetic dynamometer), as well as countermovement jump (CMJ), was measured before, during and after the exercise protocol, as well as ~12 h post-exercise. Blood samples were taken before, during and post-exercise to measure glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). Caffeine supplementation significantly increased eccentric strength of the knee flexors ( P performance. FFA was elevated with caffeine supplementation over time ( P caffeine intake. Caffeine supplementation increased eccentric strength and power in female team-sport players taking OCS both during an intermittent running protocol and the following morning.
Smith, N C; Bellamy, M; Collins, D J; Newell, D
In this study, we tested some key postulates of Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory in a team sport. The participants were 12 elite male volleyball players who were followed throughout the course of a competitive season. Self-report measures of pre-match and in-game cognitive anxiety and mental effort were collected in groups of players high and low in dispositional anxiety. Player performance was determined from the statistical analysis of match-play. Sets were classified according to the point spread separating the two teams into one of three levels of criticality. Game momentum was also analysed to determine its influence on in-game state anxiety. Significant differences in in-game cognitive anxiety were apparent between high and low trait anxiety groups. An interaction between anxiety grouping and momentum condition was also evident in cognitive anxiety. Differences in set criticality were reflected in significant elevations in mental effort, an effect more pronounced in dispositionally high anxious performers. Consistent with the predictions of processing efficiency theory, mental effort ratings were higher in high trait-anxious players in settings where their performance was equivalent to that of low trait-anxious performers. The usefulness of processing efficiency theory as an explanatory framework in sport anxiety research is discussed in the light of these findings.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the attitudes of parents of young athletes to the educational process in youth. Objectives: to identify the expectations of the respondents in relation to the objectives, factors, key actors of the educational process. Material: parents (n = 22 pupils youth (Zaporozhye. Results : the main objectives of the educational process, parents believe their children purchasing habits for a healthy lifestyle. Just acquisition of skills necessary for socialization. Important goals are the recovery teaching loads and providing meaningful leisure activities for children. Found that the majority of parents are not supported targets educational process to achieve a higher athletic performance. As a result of the factors influencing the educational process called parents of the young athlete communication with the coach and team. Just overcoming their child difficulties encountered in training and competitions. Revealed that parents do not consider the planned educational activities effective factor in the educational process. Conclusions: from the educational process in the Youth parents expect improved health and assist in the socialization of children. Achieving these goals is associated with effective educational work of coaches, sports team influence, through their own efforts of the young athlete.
Lang, C N; Steinfurt, J; Odening, K E
For the past few years, children affected by an inherited channelopathy have been counseled to avoid (recreational) sports activities and all competitive sports so as to prevent exercise-induced arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. An increased understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms, better anti-arrhythmic strategies, and, in particular, more epidemiological data on exercise-induced arrhythmia in active athletes with channelopathies have changed the universal recommendation of "no sports," leading to revised, less strict, and more differentiated guidelines (published by the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology in 2015). In this review, we outline the disease- and genotype-specific mechanisms of exercise-induced arrhythmia; give an overview of trigger-, symptom-, and genotype-dependent guidance in sports activities for children with long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), or short QT syndrome (SQTS); and highlight the novelties in the current guidelines compared with previous versions. While it is still recommended for patients with LQT1 and CPVT (even when asymptomatic) and all symptomatic LQTS patients (independent of genotype) to avoid any competitive and high-intensity sports, other LQTS patients successfully treated with anti-arrhythmic therapies and phenotype-negative genotype-positive patients may be allowed to perform sports at different activity levels - provided they undergo regular, sophisticated evaluations to detect any changes in arrhythmogenic risk.
Examines the contemporary rationales of parents placing their preschool children in organized sports, including: (1) earlier is better; (2) parent peer pressure; (3) contemporary dangers; and (4) learning of self confidence, self esteem, cooperation and competition. Finds little value and much risk in engaging children at an early age in organized…
Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213
Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.
This article is divided into two parts: Part 1 consists of the position stand of The Canadian Association of Applied Sport Sciences on the involvement of children in competitive sports, and Part II presents scientific background and rationale pertinent to the position statements. Each part is divided into major categories reflecting the multi-disciplinary concerns of the participation of pre- and post-pubescent children in sport situations at all levels. Psychological considerations focus on the child learning a sense of competence and control through sport participation. Success in a sport should not be based solely on winning, but on one's own performance and attained goals. Sport involvement can provide one important avenue for a child's social development. Non-aggressive behaviour and a constructive problem-solving approach should be encouraged. Any form of discrimination towards sport participation or competition should be discouraged. From the physiological and medical point of view, it should be recognized that each child is different in his/her response and tolerance to exercise due to a great range of variability in growth rates, anthropometric indices, gender and state of health, even in children of a similar chronological age. Younger prepubertal children should be encouraged to participate in a wide variety of motor skills, whereas older post-pubertal children can become more specialized in their training and sport participation. A child's performance and adaptation to training should not be directly compared to an adult's as significant differences exist, especially during the years of accelerated growth. Environmental exercise tolerance is also more limited to children than adults. In younger children repetitive heavy loading of the musculoskeletal system should be approached with caution. With proper equipment design and usage, and rule modifications, serious injuries can be avoided. Medical disabilities should be evaluated on an individual basis and
Spittle, Michael; O'Meara, James; Garnham, Jennie; Kerr, Megan
The Out of School Hours Sports Program (OSHSP) aimed to provide structured sporting experiences and community links to local clubs for children in Out of School Hours Care (OSHC). The OSHSP involved 17 State Sporting Associations (SSAs), 71 OSHC Services and local club representatives. This study explored children's participation in sport in and outside the OSHSP and parental intention for participation in sport in and outside the OSHSP. Surveys were received from 211 children (76 girls and 125 boys; mean age=7.9 years, S.D.=1.7) and their parents/guardians (37.9% response rate). OSHC is characterised by freedom of choice of participation in activities by children. The OSHSP was used to provide an opportunity to choose to participate in a sport while attending OSHC. At the OSHC Services surveyed, between 7.1 and 100% of the children attending OSHC chose to participate in the OSHSP. Of those children who chose to participate, 85% were participating in a sport, usually a different sport to the one offered in the OSHSP. This participation was largely club-based (49.8%), most often once a week for training and competition (55.2%). Parental intentions for children's participation in the OSHSP sports varied with respect to the number of years attending the OSHSP, where children played and trained in their main sport, and how many times a week a child played and trained in their main sport. Older children tended to play and train for sport more times per week and had been attending the OSHC for more years than younger children.
Singh, Tarveen K R; Guelfi, Kym J; Landers, Grant; Dawson, Brian; Bishop, David
The aim was to compare the effect of a simulated team sport activity circuit (reflective of the activity demands of Australian football) either with or without body 'contact' on muscle soreness, damage, and performance when the circuit was repeated 48 h later. Eleven male, team-sport athletes completed a 'non-contact' (NCON) and a 'contact' (CON) version of the team sport activity circuit in a crossover design with at least 1 week between trials. The effect of CON and NCON on repeated 15m sprint and vertical jump performance was assessed by completing the same version of the circuit 48 h after the initial trial. The effect on perceived soreness and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation was also determined. Subsequent performance was affected to a greater extent by CON, with both best and mean sprint times significantly slower 48h following CON (psoreness and pressure sensitivity were elevated following both NCON and CON (psoreness was greater with CON (p=0.012). Both CON and NCON resulted in elevated serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase, while c-reactive protein increased following CON but not NCON. In conclusion, Greater perceived soreness and decrements in performance of the simulated team sport activity circuit when repeated 48 h later were observed following CON. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available During the last few decades, the role of the service sector in the overall economic activities has become more significant in many countries, particularly the most developed ones. This has provoked increased scholars' interest so they have begun researching many service markets more extensively. Their interest has been further stimulated by growing competition, development of new technologies and changes in consumer behaviour. These market changes have forced sport clubs' management to focus on providing higher service quality and strengthening team identification among consumers. The research presented in this paper was conducted on the fans of the Croatian football club Hajduk Split and it examines the relationship between service quality and team identification on the one hand and service quality and repurchase intention on the other as well as the intermediary role of word-of-mouth communication in the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions. The results show that there is an indirect positive influence of service quality on repurchase intention through word-of-mouth communication, as well as a direct positive link between team identification and repurchase intention.
Aziz, Peter F; Sweeten, Tammy; Vogel, Ramon L; Bonney, William J; Henderson, Jacqueline; Patel, Akash R; Shah, Maully J
The study sought to examine the prevalence and outcomes of sports participation (both competitive and recreational) in our single-center LQTS genotype positive pediatric population. The risks of sports participation in patients with long QT syndrome (LQTS) are not clearly elucidated. A retrospective review was performed on genotype positive patients referred for the evaluation and management of LQTS between 1998 and 2013 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Pediatric patients participating in competitive or recreational sports were included in the analysis and their charts were reviewed for documented LQTS events during follow-up. The cohort of genotype-positive LQTS patients included 212 patients, and 103 patients (49%, female n = 53, average follow-up 7.1 ± 4.0 years, average QTc 468 ± 42 ms) participated in sports. A total of 105 LQTS disease-causing mutations were identified: KCNQ1 n = 60 (58%), KCNH2 n = 36 (35%), SCN5A n = 6 (6%), KCNE1 n = 1 (1%), and KCNE2 n = 2 (2%). All patients were treated with beta-blockade, with noncompliance in 1 patient and intolerance in 1 patient. Twenty-six patients participated in competitive sports (26%, female n = 15, average follow-up 6.9 ± 4.1 years, average QTc 461 ± 35 ms). Seventy-seven patients (75%, female n = 35, average follow-up 7.3 ± 3.9 years, average QTc 470 ± 43 ms) participated in recreational sports. No patients had LQTS symptoms during sports participation. Five appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks occurred in 2 patients, though none were related to sports participation. In this series no cardiac events and no deaths were observed in treatment-compliant LQTS children while participating in sports in 755 patient-years of follow-up.
Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan
Full Text Available The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444 in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH. Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45, set 2 (p = 0.26, or set 3 (p = 0.23 between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01. Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02. Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %, post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 % and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01. In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140 conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution.
Killowe, C; Mkandawire, NC
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an interview format. Among the players 37% had completed tertiary education and 60% had finished secondary school education. Most players had poor knowledge on prevention of injur...
Malacko, Julijan; Doder, Dragan; Djurdjević, Slavisa; Savić, Biljana; Doder, Radoslava
In modern training technology, assessment of aerobic bioenergetic potential in athletes is commonly performed by standard laboratory procedures to determine basic or specific functional abilities for specific sport activity or discipline. The aim of study was to assess the aerobic bioenergetic potential of athletes participating in basketball, football and handball. The study included 87 athletes (29 basketball players, 29 football players, and 29 handball players) aged 21-24. Evaluation of the aerobic bioenergetic potential of athletes participating in basketball, football and handball was performed followed by both univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (MANOVA) statistical methods to determine differences among the athletes in relative (VO2 mL/kg/min) and absolute oxygen consumption (VO2 L/min). Statistically significant differences between absolute and relative oxygen consumption were found in basketball players (Mb), football players (Mf), and handball players (Mh) (MANOVA, p = 0.00). ANOVA also revealed significant differences in relative oxygen consumption (VO2 mL/kg/min) (p = 0.00). The football players (55.32 mL/kg/min) had the highest relative oxygen consumption, followed by the handball players (51.84 mL/kg/min) and basketball players (47.00 mL/kg/min). The highest absolute oxygen consumption was recorded in the basketball players (4.47 L/min), followed by the handball players (4.40 L/min) and footballers (4.16 L/min). Statistically significant differences in the aerobic bioenergetic potential, expressed by the relative oxygen consumption were found among atletes participating in different team sports. It can be assumed that the player from the sports in which it is necessary to cross greater distance in total during the match have a greater need for aerobic capacity.
Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob
There is limited information regarding the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement during team sports. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and intra-model reliability of different GPS devices for quantifying high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance. Two moderately trained males each completed eight bouts of a standard circuit that consisted of six laps around a 128.5-m course involving intermittent exercise. Distance and speed were collected concurrently at 1-Hz using six GPS devices (2 SPI-10, 2 SPI Elite and 2 WiSPI, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). Performance measures were: (1) total distance covered for each bout and each lap; (2) high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km h(-1), HIR); very high-intensity running distance (>20 km h(-1), VHIR) during each bout. Peak speed was also measured during a 20-m sprint at the start of each lap of the circuit (N=192). Actual distance was measured using a measuring tape. Mean (+/-SD) circuit total distance was significantly different between each of the GPS devices (PGPS devices. These results show that the GPS devices have an acceptable level of accuracy and reliability for total distance and peak speeds during high-intensity, intermittent exercise, but may not be provide reliable measures for higher intensity activities. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip
In a recent large-scale prevalence study of interpersonal violence (IV) against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium we found that 9% of adult respondents who participated in organized sports before the age of 18 had experienced severe psychological violence, 8% severe physical violence,
Higgins, Trevor R; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K
Higgins, TR, Greene, DA, Baker, MK. Effects of cold water immersion and contrast water therapy for recovery from team sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1443-1460, 2017-To enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within high level team sport. Initially, athletes relied solely on anecdotal support. As there has been an increase in the volume of research into recovery including a number of general reviews, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus specifically examining the use of hydrotherapy for recovery in team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data were extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with heterogeneity assessed using I. Twenty-three peer reviewed articles (n = 606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was beneficial for recovery at 24 hours (countermovement jump: p = 0.05, CI: -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p = 0.02, -0.056 to 0.801) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for recovery at 72 hours (fatigue: p = 0.03, CI: 0.061-1.418) and CWT was beneficial for recovery at 48 hours (fatigue: p = 0.04, CI: 0.013-0.942) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for neuromuscular recovery 24 hours following team sport, whereas CWT was not beneficial for recovery following team sport. In addition, when evaluating accumulated sprinting, CWI was not beneficial for recovery following team sports. In evaluating subjective measures, both CWI (72 hours) and CWT (24 hours) were beneficial for recovery of perceptions of fatigue, following team sport. However neither CWI nor CWT was beneficial for recovery, of perceptions of muscle soreness, following team sport.
Patrik Felipe Nazario
Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p86 Over the last 30 years there has been a considerable increase of research in the field of motor development. Although the first reports were based on biological factors, current discussions include the role of the environment in the process of motor develop-ment. The aim of this study was to compare the motor performance of children enrolled in sports centers to that of children only attending physical education classes. Eighty-seven children aged 8 to 10 years enrolled in centers offering training in rhythmic gymnastics (n=20, handball (n=26 and indoor soccer (n=16 and children attending only physi-cal education classes (n=25 participated in the study. Data were analyzed by inferential statistics using the Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney U test and discriminant analysis, adopting a level of significance of α=0.05. The results showed differences between groups (p<0.001. Children attending only physical education classes showed lower performance, whereas children enrolled in sports centers performed better in the motor skills related to the requirements of each discipline. The statistical model also discriminated and classified correctly 79.3% of the children participating or not in some sports discipline. Finally, it is possible to conclude that the sport context influences the level of motor performance and motor skills according to the requirements of the sport practiced.
Stracciolini, Andrea; Casciano, Rebecca; Levey Friedman, Hilary; Meehan, William P; Micheli, Lyle J
Significant knowledge deficits exist regarding sports injuries in the young child. Children continue to engage in physically demanding, organized sports to a greater extent despite the lack of physical readiness, predisposing themselves to injury. To evaluate sports injuries sustained in very young children (5-12 years) versus their older counterparts (13-17 years) with regard to the type and location of injuries, severity, and diagnosis. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review was performed on a 5% random probability sample (final N = 2133) of 5- to 17-year-old patients treated for sports injuries in the Division of Sports Medicine at a large, academic pediatric medical center between 2000 and 2009. Using descriptive statistics, correlates of injuries by age group, injury type, and body area are shown. Five- to 12-year-old patients differed in key ways from older patients. Children in this category sustained injuries that were more often traumatic in nature and more commonly of the upper extremity. Older patients (13-17 years) were more likely to be treated for injuries to the chest, hip/pelvis, and spine. A greater proportion of the older children were treated for overuse injuries, as compared with their younger counterparts (54.4% vs. 49.2%, respectively), and a much larger proportion of these injuries were classified as soft tissue injuries as opposed to bony injuries (37.9% vs. 26.1%, respectively). Injury diagnosis differed between the 2 age groups. The 13- to 17-year age group sustained more anterior cruciate ligament injuries, meniscal tears, and spondylolysis, while younger children were diagnosed with fractures, including physeal fractures, apophysitis, and osteochondritis dissecans. The 5- to 12-year-old patients treated for spine injuries were disproportionately female (75.8%); most of these injuries were overuse (78.8%) and bony (60.6%); over one third of the youngest children were diagnosed with spondylolysis. Surgery
Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner
group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training...
Darnis, Florence; Lafont, Lucile
Background: Within a socio-constructivist perspective, this study is situated at the crossroads of three theoretical approaches. First, it is based upon team sport and the tactical act model in games teaching. Second, it took place in dyadic or small group learning conditions with verbal interaction. Furthermore, these interventions were based on…
Smither, Katelyn; Xihe Zhu,
This study examined high school students' experiences in a Sport Education unit being implemented with smaller teams and fewer roles. The participants included one physical education teacher and her 70 ninth-grade students. Each week, we conducted two to three observations and four to six informal interviews with the participants for over eight…
Fox, Claudia K.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie
Background: Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose…
Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; Peeling, Peter
Over recent decades, the use of player tracking technology to monitor physical work output has become established practice in many team sports. Early tracking systems were manual in nature, relying on subjective assessments and arbitrary classifications of movement intensity. Poor spatial and temporal resolution meant that only gross displacement measures could be used to infer energy demands. However, the advent and evolution of automated systems, with higher sampling rates and improved accuracy, have enabled data collection to occur on a mass scale, and served as a catalyst for extensive research into the demands of team sport activity, including comparisons between different groups of athletes, and the effects of various interventions on performance. The inherent assumption with this research is that, based on steady-state models where energy cost is independent of speed, total distance and average speed are indicative of the amount and rate of work done, respectively. This assumption could be justified if the activity was performed at a constant speed in a straight line. However, team sport movement involves continual changes in both speed and direction, both of which increase energy cost. Accordingly, new models have emerged that incorporate both speed and acceleration to determine metabolic power. This provides a more complete measure of energy expenditure in intermittent activity, and is potentially more suitable than displacement variables for research into the demands of team sports.
ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is
Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Scott, Brendan R; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K
Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p sports conditioning program.
Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude.
Hudson, J; Davison, G; Robinson, P
Examinations of stress in coaches have mainly been qualitative and focused on chronic stressors. This exploratory study examined stress responses in coaches during competition, including psychological and physiological indices. Using reversal theory, we examined metamotivational state profiles during competition. Ten male team sport coaches (mean age 39.8 ± 13.12 years) reported levels of subjective stress, pleasant and unpleasant emotions, metamotivational state, and provided saliva samples, on a competition day: 15 min prior to the pre-match team talk; start of the match; end of the first half; start of the second half, and end of the match, then at equivalent times on a noncompetition day. Saliva samples were assayed for alpha-amylase activity. On competition day, alpha-amylase activity was significantly higher, as were subjective stress, arousal, and unpleasant emotions. Prior to and during active play, participants were mainly in the conformist, alloic (other-oriented), and mastery states, and at the end of the match, in the telic and sympathy states. Only 22 metamotivational state reversals were observed, mostly at the start and end of the match. The elevated levels of subjective stress, alpha-amylase activity, and unpleasant emotions suggest that educational programs may be useful for some coaches to manage psychological states during competition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Finberg, Matthew; Braham, Rebecca; Goodman, Carmel; Gregory, Peter; Peeling, Peter
To assess the efficacy of a 1-off electrostimulation treatment as a recovery modality from acute team-sport exercise, directly comparing the benefits to contrast water therapy. Ten moderately trained male athletes completed a simulated team-game circuit (STGC). At the conclusion of exercise, participants then completed a 30-min recovery modality of either electrostimulation therapy (EST), contrast water therapy (CWT), or a passive resting control condition (CON). Twenty-four hours later, participants were required to complete a modified STGC as a measure of next-day performance. Venous blood samples were collected preexercise and 3 and 24 h postexercise. Blood samples were analyzed for circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The EST trial resulted in significantly faster sprint times during the 24-h postrecovery than with CON (P .05). There were no differences in IL-6 or CRP across all trials. Finally, the perception of recovery was significantly greater in the EST trial than in the CWT and CON (P < .05). These results suggest that a 1-off treatment with EST may be beneficial to perceptual recovery, which may enhance next-day performance.
van der Does, H T D; Brink, M S; Benjaminse, A; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing stability after a single-leg jump landing and landing technique during a repeated counter movement jump by detailed 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. During the season 11 acute ankle injuries were reported along with 6 acute and 7 overuse knee injuries by the teams' physical therapist. Logistic regression analysis showed less landing stability in the forward and diagonal jump direction (OR 1.01-1.10, p≤0.05) in players who sustained an acute ankle injury. Furthermore landing technique with a greater ankle dorsiflexion moment increased the risk for acute ankle injury (OR 2.16, p≤0.05). A smaller knee flexion moment and greater vertical ground reaction force increased the risk of an overuse knee injury (OR 0.29 and 1.13 respectively, p≤0.05). Less one-legged landing stability and suboptimal landing technique were shown in players sustaining an acute ankle and overuse knee injury compared to healthy players. Determining both landing stability and technique may further guide injury prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Mauro; Locher, Joel; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
The authors reviewed the current English literature regarding apophyseal injuries affecting young athletes, to highlight the frequency and characteristics of these injuries, to clarify risk factors and specific prevention measures, and to identify future research objectives. The authors performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature, using the Medline database, including all English articles. Various combinations of the Keywords 'injury', 'sports', 'athletic injuries', 'avulsion fractures', 'physeal', 'physis', 'apophysis', 'apophysitis', 'growth plate' were used. Growth benefits from a moderate physical activity. Growth deficit may occur in young athletes involved in intensive practice of sport following apophysitis. Apophyseal injuries occurring during sport are less common than overall rate of injuries affecting the adolescent population. Growth disturbance occurs only rarely after an apophyseal injury. Further studies should consider analytical as well as descriptive components of apophyseal injuries, to allow the identification of new possible risk factors and preventive measures and to help early detection and proper treatment as well. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Damsgaard, R; Bencke, J; Matthiesen, G; Petersen, J H; Müller, J
The aim of this study was primarily to investigate anthropometric variables, body composition and pubertal development in children aged 9-13 participating in competitive sports. Secondly, the influence of age, sport, training hours and pubertal development/maternal menarcheal age on body composition and pubertal development was explored. A total of 183 (96 girls, 87 boys) children performing swimming (Sw), tennis (Te), European team handball (TH), and gymnastics (Gy) took part in the study. Anthropometric measurements and pubertal development were determined. The participants completed a questionnaire regarding hours of training per week and maternal menarcheal age. Significant differences in stature (z-scores) were found in both boys (Sw=0.06; Te=0.04; TH=0.05; Gy=-0.66, Psports. A regression analysis revealed that in girls, age and maternal menarcheal age were significantly associated with pubertal development (Psport was associated with the sum of skinfolds (Psports but are more evident in females. Most importantly, we did not find any effect of training on body composition or pubertal development, confirming previous data that children in competitive sports are selected due to constitutional factors.
Elliott, Sam; Velardo, Stefania; Drummond, Murray; Drummond, Claire
There is a widely held belief that sport participation inherently enhances health among youth. Such a perception often motivates parents to encourage children's initial and ongoing involvement in organised sport and physical activity. While sport certainly comprises an important vehicle for accruing physical activity, the sport environment may not…
Kelly, Bridget; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A
Sponsorship by manufacturers of unhealthy food can undermine the health promoting goals of sport. This study aimed to describe Australian children's exposure to organised sport, and compare time spent in specific sports with patterns of sponsorship of children's sport identified in previous studies. Cross-sectional survey on children's sport participation collected by proxy report using a random-digit-dialling survey of 3416 parents. Data from the 2009/10 Australian Sports Commission's Exercise, Recreation and Sport Survey were used to calculate weekly total person-time exposure to sports for Australian children, as a product of median weekly exposure (minutes) and the number of children participating. Exposures for children in NSW were calculated based on population distribution. Based on a previous survey of sport clubs in NSW, cumulative weekly exposure to food/beverage sponsorship at sports clubs was estimated for children living in NSW. 77.3% of Australian children aged 5-14 participated in organised sport. In NSW, weekly total person-time exposure for children was highest for outdoor soccer (91,200 children×median frequency of 2 sessions per week of 1h duration=182,400h/week). Considering rates of sponsorship at different sports, children would be exposed to food/beverage sponsorship to the greatest extent for rugby league and outdoor cricket. Children's high frequency of participation in organised sport and time spent engaging in these activities highlights the potentially huge reach of food/beverage sponsorship promotions. Policy interventions to limit children's exposure to this sponsorship should target those sports that have both the highest levels of children's participation and food/beverage sponsorship arrangements. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Kyungun; Ok, Gina; Jeon, Soeun; Kang, Minsoo; Lee, Sukho
Controversial results reported in past research pertaining to the effectiveness of sport-based physical activity interventions on weight loss. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight in children and adolescents using a meta-analysis. Academic Search Complete, Education Source, ERIC, Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO and SportDiscus databases were searched from January 2000 to April 2015. Eighteen studies met following inclusion criteria: sport-based intervention studies; subjects aged 6-18 years; reported body weight; published in peer-reviewed journals written in English. The mean intervention duration was 17.72 weeks. The overall effect size (ES) was 0.52 (Cohen's d (ES) = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.08, 0.95, P = 0.021), using a random effects model. Moderator analyses results showed that the Q statistic for the sport type (individual sport or team sport, Qbetween (Q b ) = 14.52, df = 1, P = 0.001) and diet control (Qbetween (Q b ) = 8.85, df = 1, P = 0.001), explained the heterogeneity of ESs. Our study showed that there was a moderate overall effect of sport-based physical activity intervention on body weight reduction. The team sport type (ES = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.44, 1.66) and diet control group (ES = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.26, 1.41) appeared to be more effective in reducing body weight.
Rodrigues, Daniela; Padez, Cristina; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M
This study investigated whether parental participation in organized and unorganized physical activity (PA) was associated with children's participation in extracurricular sport. The sample comprised 834 parents and their children (aged 6-10 years), living in central Portugal. Questionnaires assessed parental PA (organized and unorganized) and extracurricular sport participation in children (number of sports and frequency of participation). Multinomial logistic regression was applied to assess associations between parental and child physical behaviors. Having both parents active was significantly associated with frequent participation in more sports both in girls and boys but a strong relation according to gender was found. The odds of boys practicing more than one sport and more times per week were higher if they had an active father. Girls with physically active mothers, particularly with mothers practicing organized PA in a regular way, were engaged in more sports and practiced sport more times per week. The type of PA practiced by the parents was not related to boys' participation in sport. Future interventions should be family-based and focus on the promotion of higher levels of parental PA, including organized, in order to improve their children's active behaviors.
Cunniffe, Brian; Griffiths, Hywel; Proctor, Wayne; Jones, Ken P; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce
Use of Web-based data recording systems has received little attention in sport. An "online" training diary could provide a valuable alternative to pen-paper methods in the regular assessment of physical activity and illness occurrence in athletes. The objective of this study was to design and implement a user-friendly and efficient system to monitor incidences of illness in team sport athletes. Prospective monitoring study over a 48-week rugby season. Players were asked to register presence/absence of weekly illness symptoms with medical staff and also use an online training diary. Submitted self-reported diary illness data were compared with illness complaint data recorded by medical staff. Diary response rates were calculated from the number of completed diary entries against the number of available/required entries over the season. Web-based training diary. Thirty professional rugby union players. Comparison of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory illnesses (URIs) reported by players using an online diary and to medical staff. Incidences of URIs. The diary response rate in the reporting of weekly illnesses was 79% over the study period. Discrepancy existed between the number of self-reported URIs by players using the diary (118 URI incidences) compared with those reported to medical staff (23 URI incidences). Totaling all URI episodes (those self-reported + those registered by medical staff) revealed that players reported just 19% of URI episodes to medical staff. Players tend to underreport incidences of banal infections. Closer monitoring of self-reported illnesses using a similar system in the present study may provide a better alternative to previous methods in nonclinical illness assessment.
Fuller, Kate L; Juliff, Laura; Gore, Christopher J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Halson, Shona L
Actical ® actigraphy is commonly used to monitor athlete sleep. The proprietary software, called Actiware ® , processes data with three different sleep-wake thresholds (Low, Medium or High), but there is no standardisation regarding their use. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and bias of the sleep-wake thresholds for processing Actical ® sleep data in team sport athletes. Validation study comparing actigraph against accepted gold standard polysomnography (PSG). Sixty seven nights of sleep were recorded simultaneously with polysomnography and Actical ® devices. Individual night data was compared across five sleep measures for each sleep-wake threshold using Actiware ® software. Accuracy of each sleep-wake threshold compared with PSG was evaluated from mean bias with 95% confidence limits, Pearson moment-product correlation and associated standard error of estimate. The Medium threshold generated the smallest mean bias compared with polysomnography for total sleep time (8.5min), sleep efficiency (1.8%) and wake after sleep onset (-4.1min); whereas the Low threshold had the smallest bias (7.5min) for wake bouts. Bias in sleep onset latency was the same across thresholds (-9.5min). The standard error of the estimate was similar across all thresholds; total sleep time ∼25min, sleep efficiency ∼4.5%, wake after sleep onset ∼21min, and wake bouts ∼8 counts. Sleep parameters measured by the Actical ® device are greatly influenced by the sleep-wake threshold applied. In the present study the Medium threshold produced the smallest bias for most parameters compared with PSG. Given the magnitude of measurement variability, confidence limits should be employed when interpreting changes in sleep parameters. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.
Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding measurement of the flexibility of the hamstring as a predictive screening tool, as well as using the H
Skirstad, Berit; Waddington, Ivan; Safvenbom, Reidar
The focus of this article is on the organization of children's sport in Norway. More specifically, the paper sets out to examine (i) the changing pattern of relationships, and in particular the changing balance of conflict and cooperation, between the several organizations with responsibility for children's sport, and (ii) how sport for children…
Choi, Hong Suk; Johnson, Britton; Kim, Young K.
Sports competition can play an important role for children because it contributes to developmental outcomes for a healthy lifestyle. Through sports competition, children can learn about physical, social, and cognitive skills. Sports competition can be either positive or negative in terms of development, depending on how experiences are perceived…
Refakis, Christian A; Turner, Christian D; Cahill, Patrick J
Concussions are becoming increasingly important to manage properly as sports participation continues to rise. Repeated injuries occurring before the brain has had a chance to recover from an initial insult are particularly dangerous and must be prevented. Although much national media attention has been devoted to concussions in professional sports, it is important to appreciate that athletes in any age group, children and adolescents in particular, are at risk of sports-related concussion. It is crucial to remove an athlete from play any time concussion is suspected. Once removed from play, recovery then begins with a period of cognitive and physical rest, followed by a gradual return to cognitive and athletic activities as symptoms resolve. Children and adolescents pose a unique challenge to the clinician managing their recovery, as the physical and cognitive rest periods required often involve time away from school and sports, which can be academically detrimental and socially isolating. Recently developed sideline assessment tools have greatly aided the urgent sideline assessment of an athlete suspected of having a concussion. In this article, a brief review of current guidelines is presented in tandem with the authors' preferred treatment of concussion.
Wehbe, George; Gabett, Tim J; Dwyer, Dan; McLellan, Christopher; Coad, Sam
To compare a novel sprint test on a cycle ergometer with a countermovement-jump (CMJ) test for monitoring neuromuscular fatigue after Australian rules football match play. Twelve elite under-18 Australian rules football players (mean ± SD age 17.5 ± 0.6 y, stature 184.7 ± 8.8 cm, body mass 75.3 ± 7.8 kg) from an Australian Football League club's Academy program performed a short sprint test on a cycle ergometer along with a single CMJ test 1 h prematch and 1, 24, and 48 h postmatch. The cycle-ergometer sprint test involved a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-s sprint, a 1-min active recovery, and a 2nd maximal 6-s sprint, with the highest power output of the 2 sprints recorded as peak power (PP). There were small to moderate differences between postmatch changes in cycle-ergometer PP and CMJ PP at 1 (ES = 0.49), 24 (ES = -0.85), and 48 h postmatch (ES = 0.44). There was a substantial reduction in cycle-ergometer PP at 24 h postmatch (ES = -0.40) compared with 1 h prematch. The cycle-ergometer sprint test described in this study offers a novel method of neuromuscular-fatigue monitoring in team-sport athletes and specifically quantifies the concentric component of the fatigue-induced decrement of force production in muscle, which may be overlooked by a CMJ test.
Full Text Available Purpose: to study individual characteristics of personalities of team kinds of sports sportsmen, specializing in football. Material: in the research football players (n=28, age 18 - 20 years participated. Psycho-diagnostic testing by methodic 16PF of Kattel was used. Results: we found high correlation between factors, which were conditioned by caution in choosing partners for communication and active contacts. Such sportsmen express their emotions expressively. It facilitates improvement of relations in conditions of co-operation in little group. It was also found that one of personality’s leading characteristics in sportsmen is their activity in social contacts. The higher is courage the more active is communication. It promotes discussion of common interests and targets for the given group of people. Conclusions: Sportsmen, who have many emotional interests and are ready to risk (or having bent to adventures have to face non understanding of other players. In such case conflict can be inevitable. Especially it manifests, if opposite side has the same indicators in this factor. Just courage, risk and adventurism push them to conflict solution of problem situations.
Jackson, Benjamin M; Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; King, Trish; Peeling, Peter
To compare data from conventional GPS and new GNSS-enabled tracking devices, and to examine the inter-unit reliability of GNSS devices. Inter-device differences between 10 Hz GPS and GNSS devices were examined during laps (n=40) of a simulated game circuit (SGC) and during elite hockey matches (n=21); GNSS inter-unit reliability was also examined during the SGC laps. Differences in distance values and measures in three velocity categories (low 5 m.s -1 ) and acceleration/deceleration counts (>1.46 m.s -2 and GNSS reliability was examined using the coefficient of variation (CV) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-device differences (P GNSS) differences (P GNSS devices had a lower HDoP score than GPS devices in all conditions. These findings suggest that GNSS devices may be more sensitive than GPS in quantifying the physical demands of team sport movements, but further study into the accuracy of GNSS devices is required.
Larissa Rafaela Galatti
Full Text Available O estudo trata das possibilidades pedagógicas do livro didático (LD como recurso nas aulas de Educação Física, tendo por conteúdo o esporte e, em específico, os jogos esportivos coletivos (JECs. Foi desenvolvida uma revisão bibliográfica dos termos citados e, a partir desta, o estudo avança para a proposição de um livro didático em educação física na temática dos JECs, considerando dois referenciais: um técnico-tático e outro sócio-educativo. Para tal, recorremos a métodos provenientes da área da lingüística, com o desenvolvimento de uma Seqüência Didática que permitiu a seleção e distribuição dos conteúdos a serem apresentados no LD de forma ordenada e criteriosa. O foco nos JECs se justifica pela sua inserção sócio-cultural e pela necessidade de transformar estudos mais recentes em novos procedimentos pedagógicos para a prática dessas modalidades. O livro didático, bem como a preparação adequada dos profissionais que o utilizarão, é apontado como facilitador no processo de ensino, vivência e aprendizagem dos jogos esportivos coletivos.The study deals with the pedagogical possibilities of text books as a resource for Physical Education (PE classes based on sports, specifically team sports. It started from a bibliographical review on the cited terms and after that we advanced our studies in order to propose a didactic text book on Team Sports for PE classes considering two benchmarks: one technical-tactic and the other social-educational. In order to do so, we used methods from linguistics, and the development of a Didactic Sequence allowed the selection and distribution of the contents to be presented in the book in an orderly and judicious way. The focus in Team Sports is justified by its social-cultural insertion and by the need to transform recent studies into new pedagogical procedures for practicing them. The didactic text book, as well as the adequate preparation of the professionals who will use
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.
Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E
The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended.
Petersen, Jacob Vorup
levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...
Mäntyjärvi, M I
The accommodation of 324 school children aged 10 to 16 years was studied before and after a 12-minute reading session. One hundred and twenty children (81 girls and 39 boys) were wind instrument players in school bands, 93 children (48 girls and 45 boys) trained in an individual sport, and 111 children (65 girls and 46 boys) having no such activities were studied as a control group. At the end of the reading session, decreased accommodation (7 diopters or less) was found in 19 (15.8%) of the musicians, in six (6.5%) of the athletes, and in six (5.4%) of the control group. The difference was significant between the musicians and the control group, but not significant between the athletes and the control group. The majority of the children with low accommodation were girls; there was only one boy with decreased accommodation in each of the three groups.
Rankin, Paula; Lawlor, Michael J; Hills, Frank A; Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma J; Cockburn, Emma
The consumption of milk following eccentric exercise attenuates the effects of muscle damage in team-sport athletes. However, participation in team sport involves both concentric-eccentric loading and metabolic stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postexercise milk consumption on recovery from a cycling protocol designed to simulate the metabolic demands of team sport. Ten female team-sport athletes participated in a randomised crossover investigation. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500 mL of milk (MILK) or 500 mL of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint), muscle soreness and tiredness, serum creatine kinase, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and measures of oxidative stress (protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio) were determined at pre-exercise and 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postexercise. MILK had a possible beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180°/s) from baseline to 24 h (3.2% ± 7.8% vs. -6.2% ± 7.5%, MILK vs. CHO) and a possible beneficial effect in minimising soreness (baseline-48 h; baseline-72 h) and tiredness (baseline-24 h; baseline-72 h). There was no change in oxidative stress following the exercise protocol, though a likely benefit of milk was observed for GSH/GSSG ratio at baseline-24 h (0.369 ×/÷ 1.89, 1.103 ×/÷ 3.96, MILK vs. CHO). MILK had an unclear effect on all other variables. Consumption of 500 mL of milk after repeat sprint cycling had little to no benefit in minimising losses in peak torque or minimising increases in soreness and tiredness and had no effect on serum markers of muscle damage and inflammation.
Tine Vertommen; Filip Van Den Ede; Nicolette Schipper-van Veldhoven
Children worldwide are confronted with interpersonal violence (IV) on a daily basis. They encounter violence in children’s books, cartoons, on television and in the media or, more personally, in social media, at home, at school, in church or on the streets, with the acts being perpetrated by
De Wolf, Daniel; Matthys, Dirk
Sudden cardiac death in young athletes is a devastating event. Screening programs have been proposed to prevent sudden cardiac death in young athletes. Mortality rates and causes of death differ among young adults and children. Children have a considerably lower incidence of sudden cardiac death. Data lack to compare athletes and non-athletes in childhood, but 40-50 % of sudden cardiac death in this age group seems to be related to exercise. Screening programs including history and physical exam are not very sensitive or specific and will result in important numbers of false-positives and false-negatives. Especially, interpretation of ECG in children is different from ECG in adults, with less accurate diagnoses as a consequence. Secondary prevention by widespread education of simple resuscitation techniques and use of automatic external defibrillators if available will probably save as many lives as any screening program. Sufficient data are lacking to support general preparticipation screening with history, physical exam, and ECG in competitive children. Nevertheless, the impact of such a program, together with secondary preventive measures, should be evaluated in large prospective studies.
Background There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. Methods A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. Results A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. Conclusion It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a
Eime, Rochelle M; Young, Janet A; Harvey, Jack T; Charity, Melanie J; Payne, Warren R
There are specific guidelines regarding the level of physical activity (PA) required to provide health benefits. However, the research underpinning these PA guidelines does not address the element of social health. Furthermore, there is insufficient evidence about the levels or types of PA associated specifically with psychological health. This paper first presents the results of a systematic review of the psychological and social health benefits of participation in sport by children and adolescents. Secondly, the information arising from the systematic review has been used to develop a conceptual model. A systematic review of 14 electronic databases was conducted in June 2012, and studies published since 1990 were considered for inclusion. Studies that addressed mental and/or social health benefits from participation in sport were included. A total of 3668 publications were initially identified, of which 30 met the selection criteria. There were many different psychological and social health benefits reported, with the most commonly being improved self-esteem, social interaction followed by fewer depressive symptoms. Sport may be associated with improved psychosocial health above and beyond improvements attributable to participation in PA. Specifically, team sport seems to be associated with improved health outcomes compared to individual activities, due to the social nature of the participation. A conceptual model, Health through Sport, is proposed. The model depicts the relationship between psychological, psychosocial and social health domains, and their positive associations with sport participation, as reported in the literature. However, it is acknowledged that the capacity to determine the existence and direction of causal links between participation and health is limited by the fact that the majority of studies identified (n=21) were cross-sectional. It is recommended that community sport participation is advocated as a form of leisure time PA for children
S. O. Kljuchnikov
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to one of the urgent problems of modern medicine – osteoporosis. Modern trends in the national epidemiology, risk factors, and diagnostic approaches are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the ambiguity and inconsistency of information on osteoporosis in childhood and adolescence, as well as the lack of convincing studies of this issue in children’s sports medicine. The authors conduct an analysis of the generally accepted approaches to the identification of risk groups for the development of osteoporosis in children, the predisposing factors and complex issues of diagnosing this condition are discussed in detail. The publication presents the results of our own observations of the most complex clinical cases in a group of children and adolescents involved in sports, including elite sports. A separate section is devoted to the analysis of pharmacological agents for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in children and young athletes. All presented data are in accordance with the legislation and rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA, 2017.
Full Text Available Torrance tests of creative thinking have been widely used to measure the impact of different items such as creativity on different groups of children. In this study, we perform an empirical study to measure the effects of endurance, power-based and flexibility on a group of children's creativity, originality and flexibility. The study chooses a sample of 341 from 2978 preschool children and distributes a questionnaire among them where 153 were female and 188 of them were male. Cronbach alpha for creativity, originality and fluency were calculated as 0.814, 0.822 and 0.788, respectively. The results of our study indicate that there are some positive and meaningful relationship among three components of creativity, originality and fluency before and after accomplishing test. The impact of test was measured for three types of sport activities including endurance, power-based and flexibility tests. After applying 32 sessions of sporting games, flexibility games represent a mean value of 32.40, which is higher than the other two tests and it maintains meaningful value compared with two other sporting tests of endurance and power base tests.
Burgess, Darren J
Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.
Brendan H. Lazarus
Full Text Available Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers.Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks. Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences.Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders; 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards. Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear.Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.
Lazarus, Brendan H; Stewart, Andrew M; White, Kevin M; Rowell, Amber E; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G; Aughey, Robert J
Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.
Lazarus, Brendan H.; Stewart, Andrew M.; White, Kevin M.; Rowell, Amber E.; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G.; Aughey, Robert J.
Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription. PMID:29209229
Jaarsma, Eva A; Dijkstra, Pieter U; de Blécourt, Alida C E; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk
This study explored barriers and facilitators of sports participation of children with physical disabilities from the perspective of the children, their parents and their health professionals. Thirty children and 38 parents completed a questionnaire, and 17 professionals were interviewed in a semi-structured way. Data from the three groups were combined in a mixed-method design, after which the results were triangulated. Mean age (SD) of the children was 14.1 (2.9) years old, 58% were boys. Sixty-seven percent of the children had cerebral palsy and 77% participated in sports after school. Most commonly practiced sports were swimming, cycling and football. Children specifically experienced dependency on others as a barrier, parents did not have enough information about sports facilities, and professionals observed that the family's attitude had influence on the child's sports participation. Facilitators were health benefits, fun and social contacts. Sports participation of children with physical disabilities is a complex phenomenon because children, their parents and professionals reported different barriers. Sports participation is more physically challenging for children with severe physical disabilities, as their daily activities already require much energy. However, the psychosocial benefits of sports are applicable to all children with physical disabilities. IMPLICATION FOR REHABILITATION: Perceived barriers seemed to differ for children, parents and health professionals, suggesting that sports participation is a complex phenomenon. Sports might be more physically challenging for children with severe physical disabilities, as their daily activities already take much energy. The psychosocial benefits of sports should be emphasized by rehabilitation professionals when advising children with physical disabilities about sports.
Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ptraining led to higher (Pquestionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Most children in hospital have pain. Seeing your child in pain or discomfort is incredibly difficult. Pain in children is a public health concern of major significance in most parts of the world. We have learned that unrelieved pain causes the body to release certain chemicals that may actually delay healing, so it's important to work with child's nurses and doctors to help children for control the pain. On the other side, medication is not the only way to relieve pain. Pain in children should always be managed and pain expression is dependent on the child’s age, cognitive development, and socio cultural context and it is important to pay particular attention to developmental variations in any behavioural manifestations of pain. In this study to explain some ways for parents and healthcare team to manage pain in children.
Pitt, Hannah; Thomas, Samantha L; Bestman, Amy; Stoneham, Melissa; Daube, Mike
To investigate how children and adults recall the content and promotional channels for sports wagering marketing. A mixed methods study of 152 parent/child (8-16 years) dyads was conducted at AFL (Australian Football League), NRL (National Rugby League), and soccer sporting sites in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Questions related to the frequency of viewing AFL and NRL matches, sports wagering promotions and perceptions of the normalisation of wagering in sport. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyse data. Children recruited from NRL (n=75, 96.2%) and AFL (n=46, 92.0%) sites were significantly more likely to have recalled having ever seen a promotion for sports wagering as compared to children from Soccer sites (n=18, 75.0%) (pChildren and adults identified seeing sports wagering promotions in similar environments, most commonly on television, and at stadiums. Three-quarters of children (75.0%) and the majority of adults (90.0%) perceived that sports wagering was becoming a normal part of sport. This research shows that children engaged in particular sports have high awareness of wagering marketing, particularly as seen on television or at sporting matches. Regulation should comprehensively address the placement, quantity and content of wagering marketing aligned with sport to prevent current and/or future gambling harm. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.
Borg, David N; Osborne, John O; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T; Sims, Jesse N L; Minett, Geoffrey M
This study aimed to determine the reliability of 10 and 20km cycling time trial (TT) performance on the Velotron Pro in recreational cyclists, runners and intermittent-sprint based team sport athletes, with and without a familiarisation. Thirty-one male, recreationally active athletes completed four 10 or 20km cycling TTs on different days. During cycling, power output, speed and cadence were recorded at 23Hz, and heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every km. Multiple statistical methods were used to ensure a comprehensive assessment of reliability. Intraclass correlations, standard error of the measurement, minimum difference required for a worthwhile change and coefficient of variation were determined for completion time and mean trial variables (power output, speed, cadence, heart rate, RPE, session RPE). A meaningful change in performance for cyclists, runners, team sport athletes would be represented by 7.5, 3.6 and 12.9% improvement for 10km and a 4.9, 4.0 and 5.6% for 20km completion time. After a familiarisation, a 4.0, 3.7 and 6.4% improvement for 10km and a 4.1, 3.0 and 4.4% would be required for 20km. Data from this study suggest not all athletic subgroups require a familiarisation to produce substantially reliable 10 and 20km cycling performance. However, a familiarisation considerably improves the reliability of pacing strategy adopted by recreational runners and team sport athletes across these distances. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pitt, Hannah; Thomas, Samantha L; Bestman, Amy; Daube, Mike; Derevensky, Jeffrey
To explore children's awareness of sports betting advertising and how this advertising may influence children's attitudes, product knowledge and desire to try sports betting. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 48 children (8-16 years) from Melbourne, Victoria. The interview schedule explored children's recall and interpretations of sports betting advertising, strategies within advertisements that may appeal to children, children's product knowledge and understanding of betting terminology, and factors that may encourage gambling. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis was conducted. Children recalled in detail sports betting advertisements that they had seen, with humour the most engaging appeal strategy. They were also able to describe other specific appeal strategies and link these strategies to betting brands. Many children described how advertisements demonstrated how someone would place a bet, with some children recalling the detailed technical language associated with betting. Children had detailed recall of sports betting advertisements and an extensive knowledge of sports betting products and terminology. Implications for public health: To protect children from the potential harms associated with sports betting, governments should consider changing regulations and implementing evidence-based education campaigns to counter the positive messages children receive from the sports betting industry. © 2017 The Authors.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…
Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.
Training and competition are two important contexts within the sport domain. In this study, we examined: (a) consistency and differences in goal orientations across the training and competition contexts and whether these are moderated by sport type; and (b) whether goal orientations predict effort,
Roell, Mareike; Roecker, Kai; Gehring, Dominic; Mahler, Hubert; Gollhofer, Albert
The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA) system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK) during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory ( n = 56). A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF) and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF), Kalman-Filter (KF)] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6%) and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8%) both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6%) regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 - 17.8%). Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that IMU
Full Text Available The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory (n = 56. A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF, Kalman-Filter (KF] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6% and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8% both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6% regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 – 17.8%. Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that
Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George
The present aim was to investigate the effect of age and education on the moral reasoning of the same 535 individuals in sports for whom nature of sport experience was reported. All 535 participants (M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 8.3) were involved in sports at the time of the study as athletes (n = 342), referees (n = 145), or coaches (n = 48), and had a wide range of education. Analysis of variance of scores on the Defining Issues Test of Rest showed moral judgment in sports differs significantly amongst different age groups (F5.510 = 5.37, p education (F4.511 = 6.24, p education, higher moral judgment can be expected. It is apparent that moral development in sport is related to age and education, as also holds for a wider social setting.
Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P
During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marquis, Willa A; Baker, Bruce L
Sports participation is beneficial to health and socioemotional adjustment in youth across development. While there is some evidence indicating lower sports participation for children with developmental delays (DD) as compared with their typically developing (TD) peers, little is known as to the predictors of this differential participation. Given the increased risk of physical and mental health difficulties for children with DD, understanding more about this disparity is important. We examined sports participation in elementary school-aged children with or without DD and examined child and family predictors of three indices of sports participation: number of sports and highest relational sport at ages 6 and 8, and consistent sports from 6 to 8. Children with TD were significantly higher on all three indicators. Mother and child factors related significantly to sports participation indices. The number of sports related positively to mother education and positive perceptions and negatively to mother employment. Relational sports were higher in boys, children with higher social skills, and lower behavior problems. In regression analyses at child age 8 that included these other variables, delay status (DD or TD) did not have a significant effect. Perspectives on varying influences on sports participation and implications for intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Australian data indicate that 63% of children participated in sport in 2009, a 4% increase since 2000. Children's high participation in sport, and the association between sport and health, means that these settings provide an opportunity to promote other aspects of health, such as healthy eating, to children. This study aimed to determine healthy eating practices and policies at children's sports clubs. Sports clubs (n=108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5 to 14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas across one state and one territory in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire for sports club officials was developed to determine the food and beverages sold, provided and promoted at sports clubs and the availability of healthy-eating policies. The most frequently sold item at canteens was water, followed by sports drinks, chocolate/confectionery and soft drink. Only 20% of canteens promoted healthy food. Thirty-nine per cent of clubs made recommendations on the food and beverages to be consumed during sport, mostly relating to water consumption. The majority (76%) engaged in fundraising; many in collaboration with chocolate/confectionery companies. Only three clubs had a written policy on healthy eating. Addressing the low uptake of healthy eating policies would be a useful strategy to improve the healthiness of sports clubs. Policies could seek to reduce the availability and promotion of unhealthy food and beverages through canteens, vending machines and fundraising. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.
Full Text Available Specialized Training of Children and Youngsters in Selected Sports Games The study has two principal goals. The first one is the analysis of personal characteristics of coaches, who function with teams of youth in clubs participating in the top and second to top competitions of adults in handball, tennis and volleyball. Analysis brakes data down following criteria of age, level of education reached and gender. The second goal of our study is the analysis of the sport preparation of children and youth in mentioned sports games on their observation of federations’ recommendations about the content of training in respective age groups, including detection of their opinions on the beginning of specialized training for respective playing functions. Research sample was created all-together by 234 coaches (102 volleyball, 69 tennis, 63 handball, who responded to sent non-standard questionnaire with closed and halfopened queries (total rate of return was 67%. Used questionnaire contained eight identifying and five factual questions. Quantitative characteristics were expressed in absolute and relative frequencies, for synoptic presentation of results we have used graphical illustration of responses. Questions concerned players participating in competitions of age groups from about 8 to 19 years. As far as personal composition concerns, the prevailing part of observed sample is created by coaches of age category 30–40 years, out of which about 1/4 are women. We have found significant differences among respective games in the educational sphere. While in tennis and volleyball the university educated coaches creates simple majority (65% and 76% respectively, their portion in handball is only about 40%. The representation of P.E. teachers among respective sports games is similarly different – 83% and 76% respectively in tennis and volleyball, on the contrary to 29% in handball. Tennis possesses very low portion of coaches working with category of
Aughey, Robert J; Goodman, Craig A; McKenna, Michael J
To measure the activity profile, hydration status and core temperature of elite team sport athletes during matches in hot and cool conditions. Thirty-five professional Australian footballers (age 25.9 ± 3.5 yrs; height 188.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass 90.6 ± 8.8 kg), gave informed consent to participate in this study. Core temperature (T(c)), hydration and running performance were compared in eight hot and eight cool matches classified via a rating of the risk of heat illness from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). Core temperature was measured via an ingestible sensor before matches and after each quarter and player movement was recorded by 5 Hz GPS and expressed per period of the match (rotation), for distance; high-intensity running (HIR, 4.17-10.00 m s(-1)), sprinting (>4.17 m s(-1)) and maximal accelerations (2.78-10.00 m s(-2)). All data was compared for hot and cool matches and the magnitude of effects was analysed with the effect size (ES) statistic. Core temperature was elevated from rest at all time-points during matches (37.3-39.4 °C), with small additional elevations after the first and third quarters in hot matches (ES: 0.39 ± 0.40 and 0.37 ± 0.42 respectively). In hot matches 12 players had T(c)>40 °C but only one in cool matches. Total distance was reduced in the latter parts of each half (-6.5%, -0.49 ± 0.58; and -6.7%, -0.57 ± 0.59), yet the high intensity tasks of sprinting and accelerating were preserved. Players tolerated core temperatures up to 40.5 °C during hot matches but reduced the volume of running undertaken, thus preserving the ability to undertake high intensity activities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Cohen, Alysia; McDonald, Samantha; McIver, Kerry; Pate, Russell; Trost, Stewart
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and interrater reliability of the Observational System for Recording Activity in Children: Youth Sports (OSRAC:YS). Children (N = 29) participating in a parks and recreation soccer program were observed during regularly scheduled practices. Physical activity (PA) intensity and contextual factors were recorded by momentary time-sampling procedures (10-second observe, 20-second record). Two observers simultaneously observed and recorded children's PA intensity, practice context, social context, coach behavior, and coach proximity. Interrater reliability was based on agreement (Kappa) between the observer's coding for each category, and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for percent of time spent in MVPA. Validity was assessed by calculating the correlation between OSRAC:YS estimated and objectively measured MVPA. Kappa statistics for each category demonstrated substantial to almost perfect interobserver agreement (Kappa = 0.67-0.93). The ICC for percent time in MVPA was 0.76 (95% C.I. = 0.49-0.90). A significant correlation (r = .73) was observed for MVPA recorded by observation and MVPA measured via accelerometry. The results indicate the OSRAC:YS is a reliable and valid tool for measuring children's PA and contextual factors during a youth soccer practice.
Nielsen, Glen; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna
as questionnaire data about organised sports, family demography, resources and values were collected from 594 children of whom 67 had other ethnic background than Danish. Data were collected when the children were 6-7 years old and again later when the children were 9-10 years old. It was found that children from...... immigrant backgrounds were not less physically active than other children when their amounts of daily physical activity were measured by direct objective measures, despite their participation rate in organised sports being much lower. Using multiple logistic regression modelling, this study showed that lack...... of parental experience with organised sports and lack of economic/material resources explained much of the difference in sports participation. Children of immigrant background had significant lower participation in club sports but this did not affect their overall physical activity level....
Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.
Full Text Available Background: The workplace is a priority setting to promote health. Team sports can be an effective way to promote both physical and social health. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a workplace team sports intervention programme‘Changing the Game’ (CTG. This study was conducted in a FTSE 100 services organisation. This process evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collected from the participants in the intervention group prior to, during and at the end of the intervention using interviews (n = 12, a focus group (n = 5, and questionnaires (n = 17. Organisational documentation was collected, and a research diary was recorded by the lead author. The evidence collected was triangulated to examine the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the programme. Data was assessed through template analysis, and questionnaire data were analysed using multiple regression and a series of univariate ANOVAs. Results: CTG improved VO2 Max, interpersonal communication, and physical activity behaviour (efficacy over 12-weeks. This may be attributed to the supportive approach adopted within the design and delivery of the programme (implementation. Individual and organisational factors challenged the adoption and maintenance of the intervention. The recruitment and communication strategy limited the number of employees the programme could reach. Conclusion: The process evaluation suggests addressing the culture within workplaces may better support the reach, adoption and maintenance of workplace team sport programmes. Future research should consider investigating and applying these findings across a range of industries and sectors.
Nedergaard, Niels J; Robinson, Mark A; Eusterwiemann, Elena; Drust, Barry; Lisboa, Paulo J; Vanrenterghem, Jos
To investigate the relationship between whole-body accelerations and body-worn accelerometry during team-sport movements. Twenty male team-sport players performed forward running and anticipated 45° and 90° side-cuts at approach speeds of 2, 3, 4, and 5 m/s. Whole-body center-of-mass (CoM) accelerations were determined from ground-reaction forces collected from 1 foot-ground contact, and segmental accelerations were measured from a commercial GPS accelerometer unit on the upper trunk. Three higher-specification accelerometers were also positioned on the GPS unit, the dorsal aspect of the pelvis, and the shaft of the tibia. Associations between mechanical load variables (peak acceleration, loading rate, and impulse) calculated from both CoM accelerations and segmental accelerations were explored using regression analysis. In addition, 1-dimensional statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to explore the relationships between peak segmental accelerations and CoM-acceleration profiles during the whole foot-ground contact. A weak relationship was observed for the investigated mechanical load variables regardless of accelerometer location and task (R 2 values across accelerometer locations and tasks: peak acceleration .08-.55, loading rate .27-.59, and impulse .02-.59). Segmental accelerations generally overestimated whole-body mechanical load. SPM analysis showed that peak segmental accelerations were mostly related to CoM accelerations during the first 40-50% of contact phase. While body-worn accelerometry correlates to whole-body loading in team-sport movements and can reveal useful estimates concerning loading, these correlations are not strong. Body-worn accelerometry should therefore be used with caution to monitor whole-body mechanical loading in the field.
Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan
The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. Eighteen male team sports athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40 m maximum shuttle run test (MST), which incorporates 10x40 m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; non-caffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (S dec ;%), did not differ (p=0.209, ES=0.16; n=18) between CAF (5.00±2.84%) and PLA (5.43±2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (caffeine consumers (>130 mg/day, n=6) (3.98±2.57% vs. 3.80±1.79%, respectively; p=0.684, ES=0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.
Stavros Tachis; George Tzetzis
Research on consumer behavior in leisure settings has proposed the relationship among involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty. Nonetheless, very little attention has been given to the conceptualization of the relationship among these constructs in a sport spectator context. The present study examined the relationship among involvement, psychological commitment, and two dimensions of loyalty, namely the attitudinal and behavioral loyalty of sport fans. The participants of this study ...
Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M; Bressler, Shannon; Macphee, Fiona L; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Greiner, Andrew R; Coxe, Stefany; Raiker, Joseph S; Coles, Erika; Pelham, William E
The current study examined the relative efficacy of behavioral sports training, medication, and their combination in improving sports competence among youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 73 youth (74% male; 81% Hispanic) between the ages of 5 and 12 diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) ADHD enrolled in a Summer Treatment Program (STP). The study consisted of a 2 (medication: methylphenidate, placebo) × 2 (sports training: instruction and practice, recreational play) between-groups design and was conducted over a 3-week period during the STP. Sports training was conducted with a novel sport, badminton, to limit previous sport knowledge and to differentiate it from concurrent sports training that occurred within the STP. Objective and subjective measures of sports skills, knowledge, and behavior were collected. Results indicated that, relative to recreational play, brief sports training improved observed and counselor-rated measures of sports competence including sports skills, knowledge, game awareness, effort, frustration, and enjoyment. During sports training, medication incrementally improved children's observed rule following behavior and counselor-rated sportsmanship relative to placebo. In the absence of sports training, medication improved behavior, effort, and sport knowledge. Training in sports skills and rules produced the largest magnitude effects on sports-related outcomes. Therefore, skills training, rather than medication alone, should be used in conjunction with behavioral intervention to teach sports to youth with ADHD. It is recommended that medication be used only as an adjunct to highly structured sports skills training for youth who display high rates of negative behavior during sports activities.
The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear.
Koiter, J.; Genderen, F.R. van; Brons, P.P.T.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.
The aim of this study was to investigate participation in sports activities and risk-taking behaviour in children with haemophilia and the relationship to personal and health related factors. Ninety-nine children (mean age 12.6 years) completed questionnaires regarding participation in sports and
Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment that...
A.B. Kolosov; S.M. Voutenko
The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men). The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.
Full Text Available The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men. The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.
Somerset, Sarah; Hoare, Derek J
Numerous studies have detailed the physical health benefits of children's participation in sport and a growing body of research also highlights the benefits for mental health. Children who participate in sport have also been shown to be advantaged academically. However, despite the benefits there is evidence that children are leading increasingly sedentary lifestyles and are at greater risk of chronic disease than those with active lifestyles. Sport provides an important means for children to achieve their recommended amount of daily physical activity. This systematic review asks 'what are those barriers to children's participation in sport?' Literature searches were carried out in June 2015 using; EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and SportDiscus using the search terms barrier*, stop*, prevent*, participat*, taking part, Sports/, sport*, "physical education", PE, child*, young person*, adolescen*. These were supplemented with hand searches. A total of 3434 records were identified of which 22 were suitable for inclusion in the review, two additional studies were identified from Google Scholar in November 2016. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included. Study's included in the review assessed children up to 18 years of age. Study quality was assessed using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tools. Studies took place in the school environment (n = 14), sports club (n = 1), community setting (n = 8) and adolescent care setting (n = 1). Frequently reported barriers across quantitative studies were 'time' (n = 4), 'cost' (n = 3), 'opportunity/accessibility' (n = 3) and 'friends' (n = 2). Frequently reported barriers across qualitative studies were 'time' (n = 6), 'cost' (n = 5), 'not being good at sport' (n = 6) and 'fear of being judged/embarrassed' (n = 6). Policy makers, parents and teachers should all be aware that 'cost' and 'time' are key barriers to participation in sport. More local sports opportunities are needed where costs are reduced. Schools
Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R
Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2 = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted
Kemler, E; Vriend, I; Paulis, W D; Schoots, W; van Middelkoop, M; Koes, B
Physical activity and sports participation are promoted to counteract the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and young adults. Both high body mass index and physical activity level have been associated with an increased risk of sports injuries. The objective is to determine the relationship between sports injuries and overweight in sports participants (4-24 years), taking physical activity into account. Data were obtained from the 2006-2011 "Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands" survey. Analyses were based on a representative sample of 3846 sports participants (4-24 years). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between sports injury and weight status. Of all the sports participants, 14.7% were overweight. Compared with normal-weight sports participants, the odds of sustaining a sports injury was 0.73 [confidence interval (CI): 0.53-1.00, P = 0.050] for overweight sports participants; the odds for underweight sports participants was 0.80 (CI: 0.56-1.15, P = 0.226). There is some evidence that overweight sports participants (4-24 years) do not have an increased injury risk compared with normal-weight sports participants, even when the level of physical activity is taken into account. Additional research is recommended regarding overweight people who start to participate in a physically active lifestyle. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…
Live S. Luteberget
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the validity of position, distance traveled and instantaneous speed of team sport players as measured by a commercially available local positioning system (LPS during indoor use. In addition, the study investigated how the placement of the field of play relative to the anchor nodes and walls of the building affected the validity of the system.Method: The LPS (Catapult ClearSky T6, Catapult Sports, Australia and the reference system [Qualisys Oqus, Qualisys AB, Sweden, (infra-red camera system] were installed around the field of play to capture the athletes' motion. Athletes completed five tasks, all designed to imitate team-sports movements. The same protocol was completed in two sessions, one with an assumed optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (optimal condition, and once with a sub-optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (sub-optimal condition. Raw two-dimensional position data were extracted from both the LPS and the reference system for accuracy assessment. Position, distance and speed were compared.Results: The mean difference between the LPS and reference system for all position estimations was 0.21 ± 0.13 m (n = 30,166 in the optimal setup, and 1.79 ± 7.61 m (n = 22,799 in the sub-optimal setup. The average difference in distance was below 2% for all tasks in the optimal condition, while it was below 30% in the sub-optimal condition. Instantaneous speed showed the largest differences between the LPS and reference system of all variables, both in the optimal (≥35% and sub-optimal condition (≥74%. The differences between the LPS and reference system in instantaneous speed were speed dependent, showing increased differences with increasing speed.Discussion: Measures of position, distance, and average speed from the LPS show low errors, and can be used confidently in time-motion analyses for indoor team sports. The calculation of instantaneous speed from LPS raw data is not valid. To
This Digest examines violence in team sports and how manifestations of violence reflect the attitudes and behavior of players, coaches, and fans. Three theoretical explanations of sports violence are discussed--the biological theory, the psychological theory, and the social learning theory. The pressures of competitive sports on children are…
Prichard, Alison; Deutsch, Joe
Sports are popular across the nation and youth sport participation is at an all-time high, yet children are quitting youth sports at an alarming rate. If this trend is going to change, several areas of concern must be addressed. The climate created on youth teams can be polarizing, having the potential for significant positive or negative…
Abe, Takafumi; Kamada, Masamitsu; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Okada, Shinpei; Mutoh, Yoshiteru; Uchio, Yuji
Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a commonly reported symptom in youth sports players. Some sports-related risk factors have been reported, but previous studies on extrinsic risk factors did not focus on management of team members (e.g., regular or non-regular players, number of players) for reducing sports-related MSP. This study aimed to examine the association of playing status (regular or non-regular players) and team status (fewer or more teammates) with MSP in youth team sports. A total of 632 team sports players (age: 12-18 years) in public schools in Unnan, Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire to determine MSP (overall, upper limbs, lower back, and lower limbs) and playing status (regular or non-regular players). Team status was calculated as follows: teammate quantity index (TQI) = [number of teammates in their grade]/[required number of players for the sport]. Associations between the prevalence of pain and joint categories of playing and team status were examined by multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression. A total of 272 (44.3%) participants had MSP at least several times a week in at least one part of the body. When divided by playing or team status, 140 (47.0%) regular and 130 (41.7%) non-regular players had MSP, whereas 142 (47.0%) players with fewer teammates (lower TQI) and 127 (41.8%) players with more teammates (higher TQI) had MSP. When analyzed jointly, regular players with fewer teammates had a higher prevalence of lower back pain compared with non-regular players with more teammates (21.3% vs 8.3%; prevalence ratio = 2.08 [95% confidence interval 1.07-4.02]). The prevalence of MSP was highest in regular players with fewer teammates for all other pain outcomes, but this was not significant. Regular players with fewer teammates have a higher risk of lower back pain. Future longitudinal investigations are required.
María de la Caridad Veloso Pérez
Full Text Available The proposal to the problematic solution dealt with in the present investigation is constituted by competitive sport activities, which respond to its totality to the integral diagnosis and therefore, to the individual and group characteristics of the selected students as it is shown, being of this form in the heat of correspondence with their real necessities. This activities were developed during the partaking sport time and three stages framed during the course to the competitions. Its organization was based on the same principles on which the Program of the Special Olympic Games is fomented, extracting from the quarries of the base sport the sport talent, it is for that reason so important the work of preparation and participation in the bases, as from the whole scale practice it is that the quality is obtained or the sport talent within the ample range of sport disciplines. The work's objective is to apply competitive sport activities to improve the participation of late mental development children in the systematic training. These activities, proposed as solution, were very effective, since it was obtained a favorable atmosphere in all the school in students, teachers, specialists, family, community, making possible these children to improved their participation in the systematic training, their technical level improved a lot and, mainly, they demonstrated that the sport is one of the fundamental routes to the formation of values in this population group. The results thrown by the investigation are considered valuable since it is the base for the profit of good results in the competence.
Kawashita, Y; Fukuda, H; Kawasaki, K; Kitamura, M; Hayashida, H; Furugen, R; Fukumoto, E; Iijima, Y; Saito, T
To determine whether children advised by a pediatrician to take sports drinks consume them more frequently than do other children and whether these children have an increased risk of dental caries. The subjects were 522 mother/child pairs who attended a dental checkup for 3-year-olds at one of ten community health centers in Nagasaki, Japan. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of children with or without dental caries according to child-related variables. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between the presence of dental caries and child-related variables taken from a dental checkup and a questionnaire. A high frequency of sports drink consumption was strongly associated with dental caries in children. The highest proportion of mothers answered that they were advised by a pediatrician to give sports drinks to their children. However, these children consumed sports drinks significantly less frequently than did children who did so for reasons other than pediatrician recommendations. In addition, these children were significantly less likely to have dental caries than were children who consumed sports drinks for otherreasons. Pediatrician-recommended consumption of sports drinks does not lead to more frequent consumption of these beverages or to dental caries in 3-year-old children.
van der Does, Henrike Teunisje Dorothe; Brink, Michel Sanne; Otter, Ruby Tina Ardi; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen Alfons Plechelmus Marie
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if changes in perceived stress and recovery over the course of a season are risk factors for acute and overuse injuries. Design: A prospective nonexperimental cohort design. Setting: Data were gathered at the SportsFieldLab Groningen and at the
Young Dae Ko
Full Text Available Since the Korea Baseball League (KBL had nine teams, an odd number, in the 2013 season, one team was unable to compete at certain times in the rotation while the other eight teams played games. Therefore, it was necessary to consider several elements to generate an annual match schedule in terms of team equity. However, the annual match schedule created by the conventional method could not fully reflect the elements regarding team equity, and there were a great many complaints from teams and fans. As a result, applying an optimization technique was decided upon to derive an efficient annual match schedule for the 2014 season. All the required conditions for scheduling are formulated as one or more equations and several parameter values concerning team equity are calculated with the related equations. Due to the complicated scheduling conditions, a sequential solution approach is applied by dividing the overall planning horizon in three parts. The derived annual match schedule was used for the 2014 season after some modifications, and the staff of the KBL was satisfied with the performance of the proposed scheduling methodology. Currently, this sustainable scheduling methodology is still in use to generate an efficient annual match schedule for the KBL.
Macedo, Isabela Fornerolli de; Souza, Tania Vignuda de; Oliveira, Isabel Cristina Dos Santos; Cibreiros, Sylvia Alves; Morais, Rita de Cássia Melão de; Vieira, Rosana Fidelis Coelho
to describe nursing team care and discuss the nursing team's conception of companion families of hospitalized children. The study was based on the theoretical framework of Collière's theory of nursing care identity. this was a qualitative study with 14 members of a nursing team, conducted through an unstructured group interview. Thematic data analysis was employed. habitual and repair care was delegated to families, regardless of the child's clinical condition. the team's official discourse about the families of hospitalized children, as recommended by the literature, refers to the family's alterity and participation in care provision, with sights on discharge and defending family participation as beneficial to children. In practice, however, the nursing staff makes concessions about the presence of chaperoning families and delegates care. descrever os cuidados da equipe de enfermagem e discutir as concepções da equipe de enfermagem frente à família acompanhante da criança hospitalizada. O referencial teórico está vinculado à identidade do cuidado de enfermagem de Collière. Estudo qualitativo com quatorze membros da equipe de enfermagem, utilizando a técnica de entrevista não diretiva em grupo. Foi realizada análise temática dos dados. os cuidados habituais e de reparação prestados à criança estão sendo delegados à família, independentemente da situação clínica da criança. o discurso oficial da equipe de enfermagem frente à família acompanhante da criança hospitalizada, preconizado pela literatura, refere-se à alteridade e à participação da família nos cuidados à criança, prevendo sua alta e justificando a participação como benéfica para a criança. Em contrapartida, na prática, a enfermagem faz concessões sobre a permanência da família e delega os cuidados.
Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G
To assess the influence of playing standard and physical fitness on pacing strategies during a junior team-sport tournament. A between-groups, repeated-measures design was used. Twenty-eight junior team-sport players (age 16.6 ± 0.5 y, body mass 79.9 ± 12.0 kg) from a high-standard and low-standard team participated in a junior rugby league tournament, competing in 5 games over 4 d (4 × 40-min and 1 × 50-min game). Players wore global positioning system (GPS) microtechnology during each game to provide information on match activity profiles. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (level 1) was used to assess physical fitness before the competition. High-standard players had an initially higher pacing strategy than the low-standard players, covering greater distances at high (ES = 1.32) and moderate speed (ES = 1.41) in game 1 and moderate speed (ES = 1.55) in game 2. However, low-standard players increased their playing intensity across the competition (ES = 0.57-2.04). High-standard/high-fitness players maintained a similar playing intensity, whereas high-standard/low-fitness players reduced their playing intensities across the competition. Well-developed physical fitness allows for a higher-intensity pacing strategy that can be maintained throughout a tournament. High-standard/low-fitness players reduce playing intensity, most likely due to increased levels of fatigue as the competition progresses. Low-standard players adopt a pacing strategy that allows them to conserve energy to produce an "end spurt" in the latter games. Maximizing endurance fitness across an entire playing group will maximize playing intensity and minimize performance reductions during the latter stages of a tournament.
Spinks, Anneliese B; McClure, Roderick J
Injuries caused by sports and other forms of physical activity in young children constitute a significant public health burden. It is important to quantify this risk to ensure that the benefits of sport participation are not outweighed by the potential harms. This review summarises the literature reporting exposure-based injury rates for various forms of physical activity in children aged 15 years and younger. Forty eight studies were found, of which 27 reported injury rates per hourly based exposure measured and 21 reported injury rates according to some other measure. Fourteen different sports and activities were covered, mostly team ball sports, with soccer being the most widely studied. Injury definition and the method of ascertaining and measuring injuries differed between studies, which created a large variation in reported injury rates that did not necessarily represent actual differences in injury risk between activities. The highest hourly based injury rates were reported for ice hockey, and the lowest were for soccer, although the range of injury rates for both of these activities was wide. Very few studies have investigated sports-related injuries in children younger than 8 years or in unorganised sports situations.
Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community.
Watson, Jack C; Krantz, Andrew J
To identify the relations between new stadiums and home team performance and attendance for professional baseball (MLB) (n=14), basketball (NBA) (n=13), and football (NFL) (n=25) teams in the USA since 1950 dependent t tests assessed significance of increases in attendance in both MLB and the NBA and a significantly improved home winning percentage in MLB following the building of new stadiums. Implications include a better understanding of the rationales used by owners, fans, and players for building new stadiums.
Kirk, D; Carlson, T; O'Connor, A; Burke, P; Davis, K; Glover, S
The study investigated the socio-economic consequences for families of participation in junior sport. Two hundred and twenty families in Queensland and Victoria were surveyed from the sports of cricket, Australian football, gymnastics, hockey, netball and tennis and twenty seven of these interviewed. The study showed that parents make a substantial contribution in terms of financial support to their children's participation in junior sport. Each of the sports mode different financial demands on families depending on the yearly cycle of training and competition, distance from facilities and coaching, costs associated with coaching, equipment and uniforms, and representative level. It is concluded that family income and structure are the key factors in determining the likelihood of a child's involvement in junior sport, and that for many Australian children, financial factors may be barriers to their participation in junior sport.
O'Brien, James; Finch, Caroline F
Team ball sports such as soccer, basketball and volleyball have high participation levels worldwide. Musculoskeletal injuries are common in team ball sports and are associated with significant treatment costs, participation loss and long-term negative side effects. The results of recent randomized controlled trials provide support for the protective effect of injury-prevention exercise programmes (IPEPs) in team ball sports, but also highlight that achieving adequate compliance can be challenging. A key process in enhancing the ultimate impact of team ball sport IPEPs is identifying the specific implementation components that influence the adoption, execution and maintenance of these interventions. Despite this, no systematic review focussing on the specific implementation components of team ball sport IPEPs has been conducted. Our objective was to assess the reporting of specific implementation components in the published literature on team ball sport IPEPs using the Reach Efficacy Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Six electronic databases were systematically searched from inception to December 2012 for papers reporting team ball sport IPEP trials. All eligible papers were independently evaluated by two raters before reaching consensus on the reporting of individual RE-AIM items, using the RE-AIM Model Dimension Items Checklist (RE-AIM MDIC). A total of 60 papers, reporting 52 unique intervention trials, met eligibility criteria. Before consensus, the level of agreement across all trials between reviewers using the RE-AIM MDIC ranged from 81 to 91%. The RE-AIM MDIC dimension of 'efficacy' had the highest level of reporting, with the five individual items in this dimension reported in 19-100% of eligible trials (mean 58%). The RE-AIM MDIC dimension 'maintenance-setting level' had the lowest level of reporting, with none of the four individual items in this dimension reported. For other dimensions, the mean level of reporting and range across
Visek, Amanda J.; Harris, Brandonn; Blom, Lindsey C.
Working with youth athletes requires knowledge of the inherent variability in child and adolescent development that will impact the implementation of a mental training program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of developmental considerations that should be noted when doing mental training, particularly for athletes participating in sport at mid-childhood, early adolescence, and mid-adolescence. Gender differences at these stages of development are also highlighted. Addition...
Full Text Available The technologies developed in media and communication areas have played an important role in commercialization (industrialization of sport and especially football. While television channels which are visual elements of media, create great economic incomes for clubs in industrialized sports, they tired to meet the great numbers that they invested in sport with ciphered broadcast. Ciphered broadcast which settled in Turkey as of 1990 both changed the sports broadcast and create important changes on sport spectators. Individuals ,according to their income distribution s and residence stiuations, started to watch the contests via making payment whether in the stadiums or at home and public watch places such as coffee houses/cafes/cake shops . Public watch places especially such as coffee houses/cafes/cake shops both prov ide economic cycle and constitute a new culture. The aim of this study is to present whether the habits of children and teenagers’ watching contests are effective in displaying pathological (abnormal, violence, criminal attitudes or not. In this study, th e viewpoints of individuals, who watch the matches in public watch places such as coffee houses/cafes/cake shops and home atmosphere and are in different ages, genders and have different incomes, towards their own teams, rivals and referees are tried to be found out. For this, a questionnaire consists of 24 questions was applied to the 110 female students and 206 male students who are between 13 - 19 years old and reside in Batman. The datas obtained from the questionnaire study were analyzed with SPSS 21.0 p rogram. It was seen that the children and teenagers who took part in the study sample have a positive perception as to fanaticism. % 65,5 of females, and % 68 of males pointed out that they regard themselves as fanatic. % 27,8 of individulas declared that they watch all the contests on TV, % 56 of them declared that they watch some of the contests and % 16,1 of them declared
Köiter, J; van Genderen, F R; Brons, P P T; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M W G
The aim of this study was to investigate participation in sports activities and risk-taking behaviour in children with haemophilia and the relationship to personal and health related factors. Ninety-nine children (mean age 12.6 years) completed questionnaires regarding participation in sports and physical education, medication, health related quality of life, and perceived motor competence. Furthermore, weight, height, active range of motion, pain, and muscle strength were assessed. Based on a risk exposure factor (REF) we defined subgroups with low, medium, and high risk when participating in sport. Most children participate in sport five times a week (mean 140 min per week), and little absence during school sports was reported. In general, prophylaxis was not tailored to sport activities. Boys with haemophilia preferred other sports than their Dutch contemporaries. The top-5 being soccer, swimming, tennis, gymnastics, and cardio-fitness for the former; soccer, gymnastics, tennis, hockey, and swimming for the latter. Significant differences between the low risk group and both other groups were found for sport intensity, total energy expenditure (EE) and average risk factor (ARF), however the medium and high-risk groups did not differ in ARF. REF and sport participation increased associated with increasing interest in athletic and motor activities. No significant differences were found between REF groups regarding age, Z-BMI, Z-AROM, Z-Muscle force, and the presence of painful joints. As in normal peers motivation to participate in sport depends upon the enthusiasm and interest, in children with haemophilia choice of sports differs, probably related to sport advice.
Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Polglaze, Ted; Freiwald, Jürgen
This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction. During the circuit, athletes wore two devices of each positioning system. From the reported and filtered velocity data, the distances covered and sprint mechanical properties (i.e., the theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, force, and power output) were computed. The sprint mechanical properties were modeled via an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center of mass. The validity was determined by comparing the measured and criterion data via the typical error of estimate (TEE), whereas the reliability was examined by comparing the two devices of each technology (i.e., the between-device reliability) via the coefficient of variation (CV). Outliers due to measurement errors were statistically identified and excluded from validity and reliability analyses. The 18 Hz GPS showed better validity and reliability for determining the distances covered (TEE: 1.6-8.0%; CV: 1.1-5.1%) and sprint mechanical properties (TEE: 4.5-14.3%; CV: 3.1-7.5%) than the 10 Hz GPS (TEE: 3.0-12.9%; CV: 2.5-13.0% and TEE: 4.1-23.1%; CV: 3.3-20.0%). However, the 20 Hz LPS demonstrated superior validity and reliability overall (TEE: 1.0-6.0%; CV: 0.7-5.0% and TEE: 2.1-9.2%; CV: 1.6-7.3%). For the 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS, and 20 Hz LPS, the relative loss of data sets due to measurement errors was 10.0%, 20.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. This study shows that
O'Malley, Margaret; Evans, David S; Hewson, Antonia; Owens, Jenny
The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear. To determine the extent of mouthguard use, dental trauma and barriers to use among children. The survey also investigated school and sports club policy on mouthguard use in sport. A questionnaire was sent to parents of 1,111 children aged nine to 13 years attending 25 randomly selected schools in the Health Service Executive West region of Ireland. It sought information about children's sporting activities, mouthguard policy and use, barriers to use, and dental accidents. A total of 505 questionnaires were returned (46%). More than nine out of ten children were involved in sport. Mouthguards were worn by 22% of children during sport. Less than one-third of schools and sports clubs that children attended had a mouthguard policy. Significantly more children used mouthguards where there was a mouthguard policy. Reasons for not wearing mouthguards included cost, lack of knowledge and information, and lack of a mouthguard policy. One in ten children had suffered a sports accident in the previous year, of which 51% injured teeth. Of these, 72% visited a dentist within two hours. The dental profession and individual practitioners should promote mouthguard use for children during sport and be advocates for the development of policies in schools and sporting organisations.
Female sports stars featured in this annotated bibliography have excelled in a variety of sports, often overcoming prejudice and discrimination because of their gender or race. Nine general works and 41 works focusing on 28 individual athletes are cited. (SLD)
Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
BACKGROUND: In typically developing children, participation in sports has been proven to be positively correlated to both physical and psychosocial health outcomes. In children and adolescents with a physical disability or chronic disease participation in both recreational and competitive sports is
Lankhorst, K.; Ende-Kastelijn, K. van der; Groot, J. de; Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Backx, F.; Visser-Meily, A.; Takken, T.
Background: In typically developing children, participation in sports has been proven to be positively correlated to both physical and psychosocial health outcomes. In children and adolescents with a physical disability or chronic disease participation in both recreational and competitive sports is
Janke de Groot; Frank Backx; Anne Visser‑Meily; Tim Takken; Olaf Verschuren; Karin van der Ende-Kastelijn; Kristel Lankhorst; Maremka Zwinkels
BACKGROUND: In typically developing children, participation in sports has been proven to be positively correlated to both physical and psychosocial health outcomes. In children and adolescents with a physical disability or chronic disease participation in both recreational and competitive sports is
Davis, Elaine K
Youth and children's sports are becoming increasingly popular in America. Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents are not small adults in their responses to exercise and stress. As children around the world become involved in more competitive and organized sports activities, the frequency and severity of acute and overuse injuries continue to rise. Safety guidelines, protective equipment and prevention education are crucial to reducing pediatric recreational and sports injuries. Preventing injuries and ensuring safe athletic practices are necessary for children and adolescents to continue to receive benefits from organized sports and recreational activities. Efforts to minimize these injuries are warranted both to ensure the long-term health of children and to reduce medical costs.
Vandendriessche, Joric B; Vandorpe, Barbara F R; Vaeyens, Roel; Malina, Robert M; Lefevre, Johan; Lenoir, Matthieu; Philippaerts, Renaat M
Socioeconomic status (SES) is often indicated as a factor that influences physical activity and associated health outcomes. This study examined the relationship between SES and sport participation, morphology, fitness and motor coordination in a sample of 1955 Flemish children 6-11 years of age. Gender, age and SES-specific values for morphologic dimensions, amount and type of sport participation and fitness and motor coordination tests were compared. SES was positively and significantly associated with sport participation and sports club membership in both sexes. Although differences were not consistently significant, morphologic dimensions and tests of fitness and motor coordination showed a trend in favor of children from higher SES. The results suggest that public and local authorities should consider providing equal opportunities for children in all social strata and especially those in the lower SES to experience the beneficial effects of sport participation through which they can enhance levels of physical fitness and motor coordination.
Toselli, S; Belcastro, M G
Participation in sports has important implications, being associated with health and social features. The objectives of this study were to verify whether there were any differences in sport participation between immigrant and Italian children and whether there was any relation with their body composition and fitness characteristics. A survey was conducted on 1432 children attending primary school in the Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy). Anthropometric measurements, fitness characteristics, and data about participation in sports were considered. Italian children were more likely to participate in sports than immigrants and boys than girls. Among immigrants, the lowest values were observed in Asians. Eastern European males and Latin American females displayed the widest dimensions. Eastern Europeans generally showed the highest values of strength, while Latin Americans had the highest values of flexibility. Asian children showed the highest values of centripetal fat, and a high percentage of them exceeded the %F reference. These aspects, together with the low frequency of practicing sports, place Asians at greater risks for health. Sex and ethnic group are the most informative variables associated with participation in sports by children. Interventions including health education lessons and promoting the participation in sports for immigrant children attending schools need to be encouraged. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Te Velde, Saskia J; Singh, Amika; Jiménez-Pavón, David; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bere, Elling; Manios, Yannis; Kovacs, Eva; Jan, Nataša; Moreno, Luis A; Brug, Johannes
We assessed whether differences in children's sports participation and television time according to parental education were mediated by parental modeling. Moreover, we explored the differences between parental and child reports on parental sports participation and television time as potential mediators. 5729 children and 5183 parents participating in the EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY-project) during 2010 in seven European countries provided information on sports participation and television time using validated self-report questionnaires. Multilevel country-specific mediation models analyzed the potential mediation effect of parental self-reports and child-reports on parental sports participation and television time. Significant mediation effect was found for parental self-reported television time in four countries (Greece, Hungary, The Netherlands and Slovenia), with the highest proportion for Slovenia (40%) and the lowest for Greece (21%). Child-reported parental television time showed mediation effect in Greece only. Parental self-reported sports participation showed significant mediation effect only in Greece. With child-reported parental sports participation, significant mediation was observed in Greece and Norway. Parental behaviors appear to be important in explaining parental educational differences in children's sports participation and television time. However, child reports on parental behavior appear to be more relevant than parents' self-reports as correlates of children's own sports participation and television time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, J.K.; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Rhind, Daniel J.A.; Neels, Karel; Eede, Van Den Filip
The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed
Tannehill, Deborah; MacPhail, Ann; Walsh, Julia; Woods, Catherine
The Children's Sport Participation and Physical Activity (CSPPA) study is a unique multi-centre/discipline study undertaken by three Irish institutions, Dublin City University, University of Limerick and University College Cork. The study sought to assess participation in physical activity, physical education and sport (PAPES) among 10-18 year…
Vertommen, Tine; Kampen, Jarl; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Uzieblo, Kasia; Eede, Van Den Filip
The current article reports on perpetrator characteristics gathered in the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using retrospective web survey design, 4043 adults answered questions on their experiences in youth sport.
Winter, Gillian; And Others
This publication reports on competitive sports played by 6 to 12 year old children in Australia. The information in this two-part report is directed toward teachers, coaches, and parents. Part I, "Modified Approaches to Junior Sport," provides discussion of aspects of physical, social, and emotional development associated with children…
Davis, Louise; Appleby, Ralph; Davis, Paul; Wetherell, Mark; Gustafsson, Henrik
The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.
Light, Richard; Curry, Christina
Research on youth sport within the sport coaching and physical education literature has tended to overlook the nature of experience and the meanings that sport holds in the lives of children and young people. This paper makes a contribution toward redressing this imbalance by reporting on a close-focus case study on children's reasons for joining…
Full Text Available Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several factors, and the contribution of each member of the group's performance is different. We aim to assess the level of motivation of the members of sports groups. The research sample was composed of athletes (N=158, 55 females, 103 males from the sports groups within the city of Iasi, part of the first and second sports divisions (basketball, football, handball, rugby, and volleyball. The respondents answered to a adapted to the Romanian population 32-item questionnaire; the items were grouped into four factors: leadership (power needs, expertise / performance (achievement needs, bonding (affiliation needs, subsistence (existence needs. The homogeneity instrument was assessed for the entire scale, as well as independently for each factor. The lack of variance homogeneity made it impossible to get outcomes for the interaction of the independent variables such as the type of club and the status. No gender-based differences were found regarding the power needs. If the type of club does not influence the expert/performance factor, have identified a partial influences of this variable over the bonding factor. Professional athletes are more motivated to achieve the performance than semi professional athletes.
Saar, Meeli; Jürimäe, Toivo
This study of associations of sports participation with perceived and actual physical fitness, and total physical activity for 525 10- to 17-yr.-old boys and girls in groups of 10-11-yr. (56 boys and 64 girls), 12-13-yr. (68 boys and 68 girls), 14-15-yr. (70 boys and 71 girls), and 16-17-yr. (68 boys and 60 girls) was based on the Physical Activity Index derived from a questionnaire by Telama, Leskinen, and Young, and self-perceived endurance, strength, flexibility, and body composition. Questions about satisfaction with physical activity, participation in organized physical activity and competitions, or watching competitions were asked. Two EUROFIT tests were used, the 20-m endurance shuttle-run and sit-and-reach, plus the sum of 9 skinfold thicknesses. Children who participated in organized physical activity and in competitions had a higher Physical Activity Index. Passive watching of competitions was not related to children's physical activity or their perceived or measured motor abilities.
Lee, Soonhwan; Shin, Hongbum; Park, Jung-Jun; Kwon, Oh-Ryun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the attitudinal brand loyalty variables (i.e., cognitive, affective, and conative components), team identification, and customer satisfaction by developing a structural equation model, based on Oliver's (1997) attitudinal brand loyalty model. The results of this study confirmed…
Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César; Bataller, Ana Vanessa; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Moras, Gerard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto
To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements. Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6-10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD. Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.
Köklü, Y; Arslan, Y; Alemdaroğlu, U; Duffield, R
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement at various speeds and movement patterns as evident in team sport demands. Eleven amateur soccer players performed a 40 m straight sprint test (with 10-20-30 m split times), a zigzag test, 30 m walking, jogging and moderate intensity runs. Results indicated that the SPI ProX GPS measurements showed acceptable accuracy for all movement patterns for distance (coefficient of variation [CV]=0.14% to 3.73%; 95% ratio limits of agreement [95% ratio LOA]=0.97 x / ÷ 1.09 to 1.00 x / ÷ 1.05) and speed (CV=4.22% to 9.52%; 95%LOA=-0.17 ± 1.70 km h-1 to 2.30 ± 1.17 km h-1) compared with the measured distance and speed determined from timing gates, respectively. Furthermore, acceptable reliability of SPI ProX GPS measures for distance (CV=0.34% to 3.81%; 95%LOA=-0.09 ± 0.23 m to -0.34 ± 2.31 m) and speed (CV=3.19% to 6.95%; 95%LOA=-0.05 ± 3.90 km h-1 to 0.42 ± 3.68 km h-1) were also evident. Whilst SPI ProX GPS devices were within acceptable ranges of reliability, they remained significantly different to criterion measures of team sport movement demands.
Robert G Lockie
Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.
Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD
There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149
Vanrenterghem, Jos; Nedergaard, Niels Jensby; Robinson, Mark A; Drust, Barry
There have been considerable advances in monitoring training load in running-based team sports in recent years. Novel technologies nowadays offer ample opportunities to continuously monitor the activities of a player. These activities lead to internal biochemical stresses on the various physiological subsystems; however, they also cause internal mechanical stresses on the various musculoskeletal tissues. Based on the amount and periodization of these stresses, the subsystems and tissues adapt. Therefore, by monitoring external loads, one hopes to estimate internal loads to predict adaptation, through understanding the load-adaptation pathways. We propose a new theoretical framework in which physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways are considered separately, shedding new light on some of the previously published evidence. We hope that it can help the various practitioners in this field (trainers, coaches, medical staff, sport scientists) to align their thoughts when considering the value of monitoring load, and that it can help researchers design experiments that can better rationalize training-load monitoring for improving performance while preventing injury.
Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Claus M; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen
We investigated whether physical fitness and body composition in 8-10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. The study included 423 schoolchildren, comprising 209 girls and 214 boys, of whom 67 and 74%, respectively, were active in sports clubs. Yo-Yo Intermittent...... Recovery level 1 for Children (YYIR1C), balance, jump and coordination tests, together with DXA scans, were used to determine exercise capacity and body composition. Children active in sports clubs had better (P... engaged in sports club activity, especially ball game players, have better exercise capacity and superior body composition compared to children not active in sports clubs....
O'Connor, Briannon C; Fabiano, Gregory A; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Belin, Peter J; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Pelham, William E; Greiner, Andrew R; Roemmich, James N
Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children's sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD.
Full Text Available Physical inactivity is associated with poor physical fitness and increased body weight. This study examined the relationship between participation in organized sports and overweight as well as physical fitness in primary school children in southern Germany. Height, weight, and various components of physical fitness were measured in 995 children (7.6±0.4 years. Sports participation and confounding variables such as migration background, parental education, parental body weight, and parental sports participation were assessed via parent questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression as well as multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA was used to determine associations between physical fitness, participation in organized sports, and body weight. Participation in organized sports less than once a week was prevalent in 29.2%, once or twice in 60.2%, and more often in 10.6% of the children. Overweight was found in 12.4% of the children. Children participating in organized sports more than once per week displayed higher physical fitness and were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.52, P<0.01. Even though causality cannot be established, the facilitation of participation in organized sports may be a crucial aspect in public health efforts addressing the growing problems associated with overweight and obesity.
Steiner, Ronald P.; Brandstetter, Susanne; Klenk, Jochen; Wabitsch, Martin; Steinacker, Jürgen M.
Physical inactivity is associated with poor physical fitness and increased body weight. This study examined the relationship between participation in organized sports and overweight as well as physical fitness in primary school children in southern Germany. Height, weight, and various components of physical fitness were measured in 995 children (7.6 ± 0.4 years). Sports participation and confounding variables such as migration background, parental education, parental body weight, and parental sports participation were assessed via parent questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression as well as multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to determine associations between physical fitness, participation in organized sports, and body weight. Participation in organized sports less than once a week was prevalent in 29.2%, once or twice in 60.2%, and more often in 10.6% of the children. Overweight was found in 12.4% of the children. Children participating in organized sports more than once per week displayed higher physical fitness and were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.52, P sports may be a crucial aspect in public health efforts addressing the growing problems associated with overweight and obesity. PMID:23533728
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to the process of writing for publication in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, where three issues in particular are analyzed. The first one explains how to write an article for an international scientific publication, drawing the attention that it must be in accordance to the aims and the scope of the journal and that instructions regarding structure should be followed, as well as articles must be clear in regard to theory, method, results, conclusions, summary and key words. The second issue is a step-by-step guide to the review process, which involves the editor´s first decision, the decision to return the submission to the author or select two reviewers to revise the article; the feedback given by the reviewers to the editor, which decides and communicates the author; and, if the author must re-submission the article, the way how it happens. Last issue explains how Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy acts in regard to articles written in English as a foreign language.
Täuber, Susanne; Sassenberg, Kai
The present research investigates the applicability of the Normative Conflict Model of Dissent (NCMD; Packer, 2008) in the context of team sports. The core assumption of the NCDM is that strongly identified group members adhere to group norms less (i.e., deviate more) when these norms are
Hartman, Esther; Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris
This study aimed to examine motor performance in deaf elementary school children and its association with sports participation. The population studied included 42 deaf children whose hearing loss ranged from 80 to 120 dB. Their motor skills were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, and a questionnaire was used to determine…
Kingma, J; Ten Duis, HJ
505 kindergarten and primary school children from 4 to 13 years of age were treated for school sports injuries during the period 1990-1997. The incidence of injuries increased statistically significantly from .5 per 1,000 children 4- to 5-yr.-old to 4.8 injured children per 1,000 in 12- to
Houwen, Suzanne; Visscher, Chris; Hartman, Esther; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Gross motor skill performance of children with visual impairments and its association with the degree of visual impairment and sports participation was examined. Twenty children with visual impairments (M age = 9.2 years, SD = 1.5) and 100 sighted children (M age = 9.1 years, SD = 1.5) from mainstream schools participated. The results showed that…
This is an exploratory study of racism in a genre of children's literature that has been largely overlooked by research and teaching in multicultural children's literature: sports biographies and, in particular, the biographies of African American professional football players. By examining the race bias of this genre of children's literature, the…
Jorge Cuadrado Reyes
Full Text Available Abstract This research developed a logarithms for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR for players in team sports in game situations. The sample was made of thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3 to a Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test. Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE, were continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing.. Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.
Aughey, Robert J; Falloon, Cameron
Real-time (RT) GPS is used to monitor performance during Australian Football matches. Typically athlete targets monitored in RT are set from post-game (PG) data. The validity of RT compared to PG data is not yet known. This study compared RT data for key parameters to those obtained PG, using MinimaxX GPS. RT was different to PG for jog 4.2-5.0, run 5.0-6.9, sprint 6.9-10.0 m s(-1), and total distance (CV=6.4-19.6%). The signal to noise ratio was low for jog and run distance. For sprint noise exceeded the signal, with the opposite true for total distance. Caution must be applied if using RT data to monitor performance, especially if targets are set for players using PG data. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walker, Emily J; McAinch, Andrew J; Sweeting, Alice; Aughey, Robert J
To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. Cross sectional observation study. An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches. The algorithm was used to validate a metabolic power calculation used by Catapult Innovations (Scoresby Australia) in their proprietary GPS software. The SenseWear™ (Model MF-SW, Bodymedia, Pittsburgh, PA) armband was used to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis and was worn for 7 days leading into a match. Training, match and non-exercise activity thermogenesis data was summed for total daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for field training was estimated to be 2719±666kJ and for matches to be 5745±1468kJ. The estimated energy expenditure in the current study showed a large correlation (r=0.57, 90% CI 0.06-0.84) with the metabolic power calculation. The mean total daily energy expenditure for an in-season main training day was approximately 18,504kJ and match day approximately 19,160kJ with non-exercise activity thermogenesis contributing approximately 85% and 69% on training and match days, respectively. The MiniMax 4.0 and SenseWear™ armband accelerometers provide a practical, non-invasive and an effective method to successfully measure training and match energy expenditure, and non-exercise activity thermogenesis in field sport athletes. Taking methodological limitations into consideration, measuring energy expenditure allows for individualised nutrition programming to enhance performance and achieve body composition goals. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fabiano, Gregory A.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Belin, Peter J.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Pelham, William E.; Greiner, Andrew R.; Roemmich, James N.
Participation in youth sports can be very beneficial, but children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) may participate less often and less successfully. The current study evaluated functional sports outcomes for children with ADHD who attended an intensive behavioral treatment program that included a sports training component, and it compared outcomes to children with ADHD who did not attend the program. Results suggest that treatment resulted in significant improvements in many aspects of children’s sports functioning, including knowledge of game rules, in vivo game performance, and fundamental skill tasks (motor proficiency, ability to trap a soccer ball appropriately, reduced handball penalties in soccer, and improved ability to catch a baseball). Parents also reported improved sports skills and good sportsmanship in the treatment group. No differences between groups were evident on additional skill tasks evaluating accurately kicking a soccer ball, throwing a baseball, or hitting a baseball off a tee. These results suggest intensive behavioral intervention that includes sports training can significantly improve functional sports outcomes for young children with ADHD. PMID:24362766
Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. Furthermore, frequent or excessive intake of caloric sports drinks can substantially increase the risk for overweight or obesity in children and adolescents. Discussion regarding the appropriate use of sports drinks in the youth athlete who participates regularly in endurance or high-intensity sports and vigorous physical activity is beyond the scope of this report.
Nielsen, Glen; Hermansen, Bianca; Bugge, Anna; Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Danish children from immigrant backgrounds are less physically active than children from the ethnic majority, and to investigate the possible reasons for any differences found. Accelerometer measures of physical activity as well as questionnaire data about organised sports, family demography, resources and values were collected from 594 children of whom 67 had other ethnic background than Danish. Data were collected when the children were 6-7 years old and again later when the children were 9-10 years old. It was found that children from immigrant backgrounds were not less physically active than other children when their amounts of daily physical activity were measured by direct objective measures, despite their participation rate in organised sports being much lower. Using multiple logistic regression modelling, this study showed that lack of parental experience with organised sports and lack of economic/material resources explained much of the difference in sports participation. Children of immigrant background had significant lower participation in club sports but this did not affect their overall physical activity level.
Full Text Available Socialization is a process that a part of a specific culture and a specific member of society. The aim of this study is to discuss how sport effects to socialization of children and young, and re - socialization of adults.The study is a descriptive, theoretical and conceptive study. Acc ording to some studies that sport is an obtained gain in socialization process. Sport, especially team sports learned to children and young that how to behave in social group and how to control their behaviors. According a study, young people who after the start of sportive activities, its seen that “they evaluate their leisure time more beneficially” (98.6%, “they understand the importance of team working” (95.8%, “they are aware of their responsibility” (97.2% and “they gain planning study habit” (94,4 %. In addition to sport effected socialization that “understanding the importance of division of labor and solidarity” (93%, “be aware and be more careful of social rules” (92.3%, and “be tolerant of others idea and beliefs” (88.7% (Bulgu&Akcan, 2003;1 57 - 159. If the sportive activities be on children and young life, it’s an important and effective communication tools. Sport, improves social relationship and decrease social distance. Sport requires feel empathy with someone and improves the empathy hab it. Sport contributes the children and young for self - expression to be truer and better. Sport is an effective tool for to be important and meaningful part of group. Sport contributes the children and young for become integrated with a group. Also sport pl aying important role for reinforcement to solidarity and to gain the habit of obey the rules. Sport makes a major contribute socialization and re - socialization of children and young. Accordingly these results, sport has to play active role in social life a nd instructional program.
Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J
Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete-tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. This study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using global positioning system (GPS) data. Velocity and acceleration data from a professional soccer match were recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data were filtered using either a median or an exponential filter. Acceleration data were derived from velocity data over a 0.2-s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3-second time interval. High-speed-running (≥4.17 m/s 2 ), sprint (≥7.00 m/s 2 ), and acceleration (≥2.78 m/s 2 ) efforts were then identified using minimum-effort durations (0.1-0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Different velocity-filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (effect size [ES] 0.28-1.09) in the number of high-speed-running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.
Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.
Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…
This article takes as its point of departure the notion of juridification in sport and, in particular, the perspective that the term has previously often been used in sport and law literature in a too narrow and limiting sense. Using the work of Ken Foster as a platform, the article examines a more nuanced notion of juridification.
Smith, Moira; Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; McLean, Rachael
Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are widely available, discounted and promoted, and despite recommendations to the contrary, frequently consumed by children. They provide few nutritional benefits, and their consumption is implicated in a number of poor health outcomes. This study examined the nature of the beverages that sport-playing New Zealand (NZ) children associate with sport. It assessed how well the beverages aligned with nutrition guidelines and relevant regulations, and their likely impacts on health. Eighty-two children (38 girls and 44 boys) aged 10-12 years were purposively selected from netball, rugby and football clubs in low and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods, in Wellington, New Zealand (NZ). Children photographed beverages they associated with sport. The beverages were then purchased and analysed in accordance with NZ nutrition guidelines, and relevant content and labelling regulations, by: package and serving size; energy, sugar, sodium and caffeine content; pH; and advisory statements. The beverages the children associated with sport overwhelmingly had characteristics which do not support children in adhering to NZ nutrition guidelines. Implementing public health mechanisms, such as healthy food and beverage policies, widely promoting water as the beverage of choice in sport, and implementing healthy eating and drinking campaigns in sports clubs, would assist children who play organised sport to select beverages that are in keeping with children's nutrition guidelines. As part of a comprehensive public health approach they would also reduce the substantial, unnecessary and potentially harmful contribution sugar-sweetened beverages make to their diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guilherme F. Reis
Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position.Method: Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position.Results: The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost, while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost and severe injuries (>28 days lost. Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries.Conclusion: The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.
Heidemann, Malene Søborg; Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of a school based physical education (PE) program and the amount of leisure time sport (LTS) on children's bone health and to examine if LTS influences the impact of school type on children's bone health. METHODS: Children attending "sports" schools (6×45min PE...
Corder, Kirsten; Crespo, Noe C; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Sallis, James F; Shadron, Lisa M; Moody, Jamie S; Elder, John P
Few prospective studies have examined predictors of change in specific physical activity (PA) behaviours in different ethnic groups. To assess predictors of change in sports participation in Latino and non-Latino 5-8 year-old children in San Diego, California. Average sports participation frequency (days/week) was assessed by validated parent-report at baseline (Nov 2006-May 2008) and 1 year later in 541 children (45.0% male, 41.1% Latino; mean ± SD age: 6.6 ± 0.7 years) taking part in an obesity prevention study (Project MOVE). Biological (sex, age, Body Mass Index z-score), socio-cultural (ethnicity, income, care giver education), parental (PA rules, PA encouragement) and environmental factors (home PA equipment, PA location) were assessed at baseline. Associations between change in sports participation and potential predictors were studied using multilevel linear regression stratified by Latino ethnicity, adjusted for sex, baseline sport participation, study condition and recruitment area. Sports participation increased over 1 year (mean change: +0.5 days; pchildren showed a greater increase (p=0.03). The number of locations used for PA (p=0.024) and the total frequency of PA location use (p=0.018) were positively associated with increased sports participation among Latinos. No predictors were identified for non-Latino children. Only factors relating to PA location were identified as predictors of change in sports participation for Latino children. Interventions targeting specific PA behaviours such as sports participation may need to consider PA locations for Latino children and be tailored for specific ethnic groups.
Drenowatz, Clemens; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M
Even though the effect of single components contributing to weight gain in children have been addressed only limited research is available on the combined association of sports participation, physical fitness and time spent watching TV with body weight in children. Baseline data from 1594 children (809 male; 785 female), 7.1 ± 0.6 years of age participating in a large school-based intervention in southern Germany was used. Height and weight was measured and body mass index (BMI) percentiles (BMIPCT) were determined accordingly. Sports participation and time spent watching TV was assessed via parent questionnaire while fitness was determined via a composite fitness test. Combined and single associations of sports participation, TV time and fitness with BMIPCT and weight status were assessed via ANCOVA as well as logistic regression analysis, controlling for age and sex. A significant interaction of TV time, sports participation and fitness on BMIPCT occurred, despite low correlations among the three components. Further, there was a combined association of sports participation and TV time on BMIPCT. TV time and fitness were also independently associated with BMIPCT. Similarly, only increased TV time and lower fitness were associated with a higher odds ratio for overweight/obesity. These results underline the complex interaction of TV time, sports participation and fitness with BMIPCT. In children, TV time and fitness have a stronger influence on BMIPCT compared to sports participation. Sports participation, however, may not reflect overall activity levels of children appropriately. More research is necessary to examine the complex interaction of various behaviours and fitness with BMIPCT.
Rosenhagen, A; Pommerening, S; Vogt, L; Banzer, W
The promotion of sport talents in Germany is federally standardised. Apart from the training and management support, annual sports-medical investigations with standardised procedures are mandatory for athletes' health and safety. For the first time, this study evaluates the prevalence ratio of medical findings in Hessian top athletes. The data of all athletes presenting in one of the 27 licenced examination centres in Hesse during the period of investigation were evaluated for age, sex and sports discipline as well as medical findings and a trinomial classification of the sports-related health status. The completeness of this collection in the relevant period from November 2006 to October 2007 was assured by cross-checking the application charts of all related sports associations. Data of 1620 (m: 904, 14.8 +/- 2.5 years; w: 716, 14.3 +/- 2.6 years) of all 1713 athletes presenting during the evaluation period were used for analysis. Medical findings (e. g., resulting in follow-up evaluation or further consultations) were seen in 83.5 % of all athletes. A small group (3.6 %) was temporarily, and one single athlete was completely exempted from sports participation. These results underline (additionally to the preventive capability of sports-medical investigations) the need for an annual medical consultation of juvenile athletes. Further investigations should be extended to other districts and classes and might evaluate the direct and indirect costs of diseases.
Franciele M. Vanderlei
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.
Vanderlei, Franciele M; Vanderlei, Luiz C M; Bastos, Fabio N; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos M
The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.
Kobel, S; Kettner, S; Kesztyüs, D; Erkelenz, N; Drenowatz, C; Steinacker, J M
The increased prevalence of childhood obesity has also been attributed to low physical activity (PA) levels. Understanding factors affecting child PA levels is especially important considering the benefits PA offers to youth. This study therefore examined different correlates affecting habitual PA and sports participation in primary school children. Height and weight were measured during a school visit in 1714 children (7.1 ± .6 years). PA and behavioural correlates were assessed by parental questionnaire. The effect of various correlates on PA as well as participation in organized sports was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Significant correlates of PA and sports participation were engagement in sporting activities outside of clubs and children's weight status. Playing outdoors for more than 60 min/day was significant for PA, having well educated parents and being male. Participation in sports was influenced by children's media consumption, active travel to school and having active parents. No influence was found for migration, income, parental weight status and health consciousness. In this study, a multiplicity of independent correlates of PA and sports participation, which require a broad approach to promote an active lifestyle, have been considered. Understanding these factors might support the development of effective health-promoting interventions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to perceive a mutual connection of social - experien- tial features of children swimmers on one hand, and their success in sport on the other hand. According to the available methods and possibilities of their application, for this research the most relevant is empirical – unexperimental method or Survey method. An access in the obtained results shows that higher education of parents leads to less suc- cess of children in swimming. One more interesting social psychological category is a connection of parents’ pleasure and sports success. Here is also a connection negative – bigger parents’ pleasure leads more rare to sports success than less parents’ satisfac- tion (33,3 % versus 48,5 % . Probably it is being discussed about children swimmers of those parents who have more striking ambitions when the sports success of their children is concerned. Namely, their children are successful but they would like that they are mo- re successful. The reason for that attitude of those parents probably lies in the fact that all those things that they didn’t achieve in sport in their youth, they want to achieve and compensate through their children. Or vice versa, parents who are more prominently satisfied with the behaviour of their children do not have such great expectations when the success of their children in swimming is concerned. They are cheerful because their children do some sport and because they are not exposed to all those well-known temp- tations of young people today.
Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143 PMID:29016675
Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.
Raissaki, Maria; Apostolaki, Eleni; Karantanas, Apostolos H.
Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes
Raissaki, Maria [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Apostolaki, Eleni [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes.
Hohmann, Tanja; Obelöer, Hilke; Schlapkohl, Nele; Raab, Markus
We examined the effectiveness of video-based decision training in national youth handball teams. Extending previous research, we tested in Study 1 whether a three-dimensional (3D) video training group would outperform a two-dimensional (2D) group. In Study 2, a 3D training group was compared to a control group and a group trained with a traditional tactic board. In both studies, training duration was 6 weeks. Performance was measured in a pre- to post-retention design. The tests consisted of a decision-making task measuring quality of decisions (first and best option) and decision time (time for first and best option). The results of Study 1 showed learning effects and revealed that the 3D video group made faster first-option choices than the 2D group, but differences in the quality of options were not pronounced. The results of Study 2 revealed learning effects for both training groups compared to the control group, and faster choices in the 3D group compared to both other groups. Together, the results show that 3D video training is the most useful tool for improving choices in handball, but only in reference to decision time and not decision quality. We discuss the usefulness of a 3D video tool for training of decision-making skills outside the laboratory or gym.
Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E; Murphy, Rebecca C; Porcellato, Lorna A; Ussher, Michael; Garnham-Lee, Katy; Knowles, Zoe R; Foweather, Lawrence
SmokeFree Sports (SFS) was a multi-component sport-for-health intervention aiming at preventing smoking among nine to ten year old primary school children from North West England. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the process and implementation of SFS, examining intervention reach, dose, fidelity, acceptability and sustainability, in order to understand the feasibility and challenges of delivering such interventions and inform interpretations of intervention effectiveness. Process measures included: booking logs, 18 focus groups with children (n = 95), semi-structured interviews with teachers (n = 20) and SFS coaches (n = 7), intervention evaluation questionnaires (completed by children, n = 1097; teachers, n = 50), as well direct observations (by researchers, n = 50 observations) and self-evaluations (completed by teachers, n = 125) of intervention delivery (e.g. length of sessions, implementation of activities as intended, children's engagement and barriers). Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were applied to quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Overall, SFS reached 30.8% of eligible schools, with 1073 children participating in the intervention (across 32 schools). Thirty-one schools completed the intervention in full. Thirty-three teachers (55% female) and 11 SFS coaches (82% male) attended a bespoke SFS training workshop. Disparities in intervention duration (range = 126 to 201 days), uptake (only 25% of classes received optional intervention components in full), and the extent to which core (mean fidelity score of coaching sessions = 58%) and optional components (no adaptions made = 51% of sessions) were delivered as intended, were apparent. Barriers to intervention delivery included the school setting and children's behaviour and knowledge. SFS was viewed positively (85% and 82% of children and teachers, respectively, rated SFS five out of five) and recommendations to increase school engagement were provided. SFS was considered
Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.
Full Text Available In order to identify to what extent competitiveness trait is related to sport performance in soccer, and to what extent the age and sport category can influence these variables, a descriptive cross-sectional study has been developed. The variables age, sport category, sport performance, achievement motivation (Me, motivation to avoid the failure (Mef and competitiveness trait have been assessed in 151 men soccer players (between 14 and 24 y.o. of a Spanish sport club. The results indicated that the sport performance ascends with age. Consequently, a direct relationship between the sport category and the performance has been observed. Me, Mef and competitiveness trait have been associated with the performance and has varied based on the sport category. No correlation between Me, Mef, competitiveness and age of the sportsmen has been found
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50 less than or equal to IQ greater than or equal to 79) with that of 255 typically developing children, aged 7-12 years. Additionally, the relationship between the specific gross motor skills and organized sports participation was examined in…
Sturza -Milic, Nataša; Nedimovic, Tanja
Many social and cultural activities, including sport activities and physical activities of children, are under the influence of dominant codex and beliefs. A global trend is present for children to intensively train and compete at an increasingly younger age, before they are, in every way, ready. The main goal of the paper was to explore the…
Westendorp, Marieke; Houwen, Suzanne; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris
This study compared the specific gross motor skills of 156 children with intellectual disabilities (ID) (50
Foster, Wayne K.
Examines benefits to individuals and society of cooperative--as opposed to competitive--interpersonal relationships. Discusses children's sports, games, and play as means to promote cooperation and reviews research showing positive effects of children's cooperative play. Provides standards for a cooperative philosophy that would promote positive…
Richardson, Peggy A.; And Others
This profile constitutes a physical and psychological picture of children ranging between five and twelve years of age. It offers specific information about children's movement potentials so that teachers might better understand the characteristics of students involved in physical activity and sport. (JD)
Iversen, Maura D; von Heideken, Johan; Farmer, Elisabeth; Rihm, Jessica; Heyworth, Benton E; Kocher, Mininder S
Adult physical activity scales are used with children but may not be valid in this population. This study assesses the appropriateness and comprehensibility of currently used physical activity scales in children, identifies sources of response errors, and suggests scale modifications. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 30 children who had a lower extremity injury, purposefully sampled based on age and sex. Interviews were conducted to identify children's comprehension of 6 physical activity questionnaires: Tegner activity scale, Cincinnati Knee Rating System, KOOS-Child, Marx activity scale, HSS Pedi-FABS, and KOS sports activity scale. The Tegner scale uses complex activity level descriptions (eg, competitive vs. recreational sports, types of sports and inclusion of work-related physical activity). Activity frequency, description of movement, and sport type in the Cincinnati Knee Rating System led to response mapping issues in many children. Most children felt the KOOS-Child pictures depicting activities were helpful, but not all found the 7-day timeframe relevant. Whereas, most children found the Marx scale and HSS Pedi-FABS items clear, concise, and easy to answer. Children reported difficulties differentiating between endurance and duration items used in the HSS Pedi-FABS. The consistent response format of the KOS sports activity scale was considered a positive attribute although children had trouble comprehending terms such as grating and grinding. Children found some scales too difficult to answer, whereas others required modifications, particularly in general instruction, language, question format, and mapping (matching an answer to potential options) to adapt to the specific needs of children. Level II.
Bezodis, Neil E; North, Jamie S; Razavet, Jane L
A more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector is related to higher levels of sprint acceleration performance across a range of athletes. However, the effects of acute experimental alterations to the force vector orientation within athletes are unknown. Fifteen male team sports athletes completed maximal effort 10-m accelerations in three conditions following different verbal instructions intended to manipulate the force vector orientation. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were collected from the step nearest 5-m and stance leg kinematics at touchdown were also analysed to understand specific kinematic features of touchdown technique which may influence the consequent force vector orientation. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare findings between conditions. There was a likely more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector and a likely lower peak vertical force in the control condition compared with the experimental conditions. 10-m sprint time was very likely quickest in the control condition which confirmed the importance of force vector orientation for acceleration performance on a within-athlete basis. The stance leg kinematics revealed that a more horizontally oriented force vector during stance was preceded at touchdown by a likely more dorsiflexed ankle, a likely more flexed knee, and a possibly or likely greater hip extension velocity.
Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter
This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.
Wehbe, George M; Gabbett, Tim J; Hartwig, Timothy B; Mclellan, Christopher P
Given the importance of ensuring athletes train and compete in a nonfatigued state, reliable tests are required to regularly monitor fatigue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a cycle ergometer to measure peak power during short maximal sprint cycle efforts in running-based team sport athletes. Fourteen professional male Australian rules footballers performed a sprint cycle protocol during 3 separate trials, with each trial separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort, a 1-minute active recovery, and a second maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort. Peak power was recorded as the highest power output of the 2 sprint cycle efforts. Absolute peak power (mean ± SD) was 1502 ± 202, 1498 ± 191, and 1495 ± 210 W for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and SE of measurement for peak power between trials was 3.0% (90% confidence intervals [CIs] = 2.5-3.8%), 0.96 (90% CIs = 0.91-0.98), and 39 W, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change for relative peak power was 6.0%, which equated to 1.03 W·kg⁻¹. The cycle ergometer sprint test protocol described in this study is highly reliable in elite Australian rules footballers and can be used to track meaningful changes in performance over time, making it a potentially useful fatigue-monitoring tool.
Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W; Murphy, Aron J; Pruyn, Elizabeth C
The purpose of this research was to investigate the validity and the reliability of 5-Hz MinimaxX global positioning system (GPS) units measuring athlete movement demands. A team sport simulation circuit (files collected from each unit = 12) and flying 50-m sprints (files collected from each unit = 34) were undertaken, during which the total distance covered; peak speed; player load; the distance covered; time spent and number of efforts performed walking, jogging, running, high-speed running, and sprinting were examined. Movement demands were also separately categorized into low-intensity activity, high-intensity running, and very high-intensity running. The results revealed that GPS was a valid and reliable measure of total distance covered (p > 0.05, percentage typical error of measurement [%TEM] 0.05, %TEM 5-10%). Further, GPS was found to be a reliable measure of player load (%TEM 4.9%) and the distance covered, time spent, and number of efforts performed at certain velocity zones (%TEM 10%). The level of GPS error was found to increase along with the velocity of exercise. The findings demonstrated that GPS is capable of measuring movement demands performed at velocities GPS velocities >20 km·h(-1).
McLaren, Shaun J; Macpherson, Tom W; Coutts, Aaron J; Hurst, Christopher; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew
The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships. We searched six electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) for original research articles published up to September 2017. A Boolean search phrase was created to include search terms relevant to team-sport athletes (population; 37 keywords), internal load (dependent variable; 35 keywords), and external load (independent variable; 81 keywords). Articles were considered for meta-analysis when a correlation coefficient describing the association between at least one internal and one external measure of session load or intensity, measured in the time or frequency domain, was obtained from team-sport athletes during normal training or match-play (i.e., unstructured observational study). The final data sample included 122 estimates from 13 independent studies describing 15 unique relationships between three internal and nine external measures of load and intensity. This sample included 295 athletes and 10,418 individual session observations. Internal measures were session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), and heart-rate-derived training impulse (TRIMP). External measures were total distance (TD), the distance covered at high and very high speeds (HSRD ≥ 13.1-15.0 km h -1 and VHSRD ≥ 16.9-19.8 km h -1 , respectively), accelerometer load (AL), and the number of sustained impacts (Impacts > 2-5 G). Distinct training modes were identified as either mixed (reference condition), skills, metabolic, or
Slater, Penelope J
The administration team in the Queensland Children's Cancer Centre at the Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, included a team of 16 administration staff supporting the service and the state-wide clinical network. Shortly after the creation of a new expanded service, issues became apparent in administration team morale, relationships, communication, processes, leadership, support and training. The analysis of these issues included team interviews and surveys, consultation with senior administration staff and monthly sick leave monitoring. Strategies implemented included providing information; the joint development of a team business plan and individual performance plans; a review of the team's structure, workload and business processes; engaging staff in quality improvements; and the development of relationships and leadership. As a result, the team reported being more comfortable and supported in their roles, had improved morale and worked better together with more consistent and improving business processes. They had clear purpose and expectations of their roles, displayed better customer service and had reduced sick leave. The study shows that in a high stress environment, such as a children's cancer centre, attention to the team's culture, vision and purpose, providing information and improving communication and relationships, when combined with a team's enthusiasm, will improve the team's growth, cooperation and work outcomes.
Visek, Amanda J; Achrati, Sara M; Mannix, Heather; McDonnell, Karen; Harris, Brandonn S; DiPietro, Loretta
Children cite "fun" as the primary reason for participation in organized sport and its absence as the number-one reason for youth sport attrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework of fun using a novel mixed-method assessment of participants in sport (FUN MAPS) via concept mapping. Youth soccer players (n = 142), coaches (n = 37), and parents (n = 57) were stratified by age, sex, and competition level and contributed their ideas through (a) qualitative brainstorming, identifying all of the things that make playing sports fun for players; (b) sorting of ideas; and (c) rating each idea on its importance, frequency, and feasibility. The FUN MAPS identify the 4 fundamental tenets of fun in youth sport within 11 fun-dimensions composed of 81 specific fun-determinants, while also establishing the youth sport ethos. The FUN MAPS provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory (FIT), which is a multitheoretical, multidimensional, and stakeholder derived framework that can be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport.
Visek, Amanda J.; Achrati, Sara M.; Manning, Heather; McDonnell, Karen; Harris, Brandonn S.; DiPietro, Loretta
BACKGROUND Children cite ‘fun’ as the primary reason for participation in organized sport and its absence as the number one reason for youth sport attrition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical framework of fun using a novel mixed-method assessment of participants in sport (FUN MAPS) via concept mapping. METHODS Youth soccer players (n = 142), coaches (n = 37), and parents (n = 57) were stratified by age, sex, and competition level and contributed their “fun” ideas through: (a) qualitative brainstorming, identifying all of the things that make playing sports fun for players; (b) sorting of ideas; and (c) rating each idea on its importance, frequency, and feasibility. RESULTS The FUN MAPS identify the four fundamental tenets of fun in youth sport within 11 fun-dimensions composed of 81 specific fun-determinants, while also establishing the youth sport ethos. CONCLUSION The FUN MAPS provide pictorial evidence-based blueprints for the fun integration theory (FIT), which is a multi-theoretical, multidimensional, and stakeholder derived framework that can be used to maximize fun for children and adolescents in order to promote and sustain an active and healthy lifestyle through sport. PMID:24770788
Silva, Paula; Santos, Maria Paula
In outdoor activities, it seems reasonable that the longer children spend in spontaneous physical activity (PA), the higher the probability of being active. Indeed, the time spent outdoor has been identified as a variable consistently associated with the children's PA. Outdoor playing, such as the organized sports practice, appears associated with healthier lifestyle standards. All the recommendations mention the importance of increasing daily PA practice in children and teenagers, but few studies highlight the relationship between outdoor play and the recommended PA levels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the frequency of outdoor play, the frequency of the organized sports practice, and the compliance of the recommendations for PA practice in children in the inner city area of Porto. The sample of this study is composed of 422 individuals (mean age of 11.6 years). Two hundred and twenty-five of them were girls and 197 were boys from the sixth grade (elementary schools located in the inner city area of Porto). PA was objectively evaluated using accelerometers. Participants reported frequency of participation in different PA contexts, such as sports practice and outdoor play. The results show a predictor effect of participating in sports three or more times per week on compliance of PA guidelines. In conclusion, organized sports practice seems more effective than outdoor play to reach the recommended levels of PA in children.
Wang, Ming-Te; Chow, Angela; Amemiya, Jamie
Although sport involvement has the potential to enhance psychological wellbeing, studies have suggested that motivation to participate in sports activities declines across childhood and adolescence. This study incorporated expectancy-value theory to model children's sport ability self-concept and subjective task values trajectories from first to twelfth grade. Additionally, it examined if sport motivation trajectories predicted individual and team-based sport participation and whether sport participation in turn reduced the development of depressive symptoms. Data were drawn from the Childhood and Beyond Study, a cross-sequential longitudinal study comprised of three cohorts (N = 1065; 49% male; 92% European American; M ages for youngest, middle, and oldest cohorts at the first wave were 6.42, 7.39, and 9.36 years, respectively). Results revealed four trajectories of students' co-development of sport self-concept and task values: congruent stable high, incongruent stable high, middle school decreasing, and decreasing. Trajectory membership predicted individual and team-based sports participation, but only team-based sport participation predicted faster declines in depressive symptoms. The use of a person-centered approach enabled us to identify heterogeneity in trajectories of sport motivation that can aid in the development of nuanced strategies to increase students' motivation to participate in sports.
Full Text Available Purpose : considered the use of an integrated program of sports in physical education of children in pre-school educational institution. Material and methods : the experiment was attended with parental permission children 5-6 years. In the control group sessions were conducted with additional recreational gymnastic oriented. In the four experimental groups – mini-basketball, mini-handball and futsal. Results : the substantiation of the integrated use of sports games during physical education classes with children. The main starting points for the development of the methodology are: analysis of questionnaires on physical education specialists in preschool educational institutions, educators and parents considering the opinion and the results of previous studies of the level of physical development and physical readiness of preschool children, and analysis of test results to the success of children's possession of the ball. The results of the pedagogical experiment and given their analysis in terms of the influence of physical education classes through the use of sports games on physical development, physical fitness and functional status of children. The data that characterize the rate of growth results in the pedagogical experiment. Conclusions : it was established that the systematic use of sports complex will help to eliminate the deficit movements, balance maturation, children form healthy lifestyle habits.
Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
In typically developing children, participation in sports has been proven to be positively correlated to both physical and psychosocial health outcomes. In children and adolescents with a physical disability or chronic disease participation in both recreational and competitive sports is often reduced, while for this population an active lifestyle may be even more important in reaching optimal levels of physical and psychosocial health. Therefore, the aim of the Health in Adapted Youth Sports (HAYS) Study is to determine both negative and positive effects of sports on children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability. In this cross-sectional study differences will be compared in regards to physical and psychosocial health, cognitive functioning, school performance, daily physical activity and injuries between children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability who participate in sports and those who do not. Children and adolescents, both ambulatory and wheelchair dependent, in the age of 10-19 years with a physical disability or chronic disease will be included. "Sports" is defined as participation in an organized sport at least two times a week for a duration of 3 months or more prior to the assessment. Parametric and non-parametric statistics will be used to determine the differences between the two groups. This study provides insight in the effects of sports participation in relation to health, psychosocial functioning, physical activity and school performance in children and adolescents (10-19 years) with a chronic disease or physical disability. Results will guide healthcare professionals working with these children to better guide this population in reaching optimal levels of health and physical activity levels.
Paul J. Tofari
Full Text Available This study assessed the reliability of a ‘self-paced’ 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT. Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials. The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV < 5%, and < 6% for each 10-min activity block. All power variables exhibited a CV < 7.5%, except walking (CV 8.3-10.1%. The most reliable variables were maximum and mean sprint speed (CV < 2%. All variables produced a CV% greater than the SWC. A self-paced, team-sport running protocol performed on a NMT produces reliable speed/distance and power data. Importantly, a single familiarisation session allowed for adequate test-retest reliability. The self-paced design provides an ecologically-valid alternative to externally-paced team-sport running simulations.
Osborne, Hamish R; Quinlan, John F; Allison, Garry T
Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...
Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A
Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sport athletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sport athletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport.
Tofari, Paul J.; McLean, Blake D.; Kemp, Justin; Cormack, Stuart
This study assessed the reliability of a ‘self-paced’ 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT). Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials). The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV)] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC) was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV simulations. Key points Self-paced team-sport running protocols on a curved NMT that closely match the locomotor demands of competition deliver reliable test-retest measures of speed, distance and power. Such protocols may be sensitive to changes in running profile following an intervention that may not be detectable during externally-paced protocols. One familiarisation session is adequate to ensure test-retest reliability. PMID:25729291
Kinder, M; Lotze, M; Davids, S; Domin, M; Thoms, K; Wendt, J; Hirschfeld, H; Hamm, A; Lauffer, H
Functional imaging studies on responders and non-responders to therapeutic interventions in obese children are rare. We applied fMRI before and after a one-year sports therapy in 14 obese or overweight children aged 7-16 years. During scanning, participants observed a set of standardized pictures from food categories, sports, and pleasant and neutral images. We were interested in alterations of the cerebral activation to food images in association with changes in the BMI-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) after therapy and therefore separated the observation group into two outcome subgroups. One with reduction of BMI-SDS >0.2 (responder group) and one without (non-responder group). Before therapy fMRI-activation between groups did not differ. After therapy we found the following results: in response to food images, obese children of the responder group showed increased activation in the left putamen when compared with the non-responder group. Pleasant images evoked increased insula activation in the responder group. Only the responder group showed enhanced activity within areas known to store trained motor patterns in response to sports images. Both the putamen and the insula are involved in the processing of emotional valence and were only active for the therapy responders during the observation of food or pleasant stimuli. Elevated activity in these regions might possibly be seen in the context of an increase of dopaminergic response to emotional positive stimuli during intervention. In addition, sport images activated motor representations only in those subjects who profited from the sports therapy. Overall, an altered response to rewarding and pleasant images and an increased recruitment of motor engrams during observations of sports pictures indicates a more normal cerebral processing in response to these stimuli after successful sports therapy in obese children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Haran, Harini P; Bressan, Silvia; Oakley, Ed; Davis, Gavin A; Anderson, Vicki; Babl, Franz E
On-field management and return-to-play guidelines aim to ensure the identification and appropriate management of the concussed athlete. Compliance with current guidelines in many settings is unknown. We assessed whether key components of current concussion guidelines are being followed in child athletes. Prospective observational study. Data were collected from children (5-18 years) presenting to a paediatric emergency department with sport-related concussion via researcher-administered surveys in the emergency department and during a follow up phone call. On hospital discharge all patients received a return to sports fact sheet based on the International Concussion in Sports Group. Ninety-three had sustained a concussion (mean age 12.7 (±0.27) years, 83% male). Sports played included Australian Football (47%), soccer (12%), rugby (9%) basketball (8%), other (25%). 82% participated in organised sports. Concussive signs or symptoms included loss of consciousness (41%), disorientation (36%), vomiting (23%), amnesia (30%), headache (60%). For concussive injury in organised sports (n=76), overall 42% were not managed according to recommended guidelines: 19% were not immediately removed from play, 29% were allowed to return to play on the same day and 27% were not assessed by qualified personnel. 93% of parents and 96% of patients were unaware of concussion or return-to-play guidelines from their organisations. Overall, 72% were compliant with provided return-to-play guidelines. Many children with sports related-concussion are not formally assessed on-field and continue to play. On-field concussion management and return to play practices are often suboptimal. Awareness and education of coaches, teachers, parents and children need to be improved. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, Claus M.; Ørntoft, Christina Ø.; Randers, Morten B.; Manniche, Vibeke; Hansen, Lone; Hansen, Peter R.; Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter
Abstract Larsen, MN, Nielsen, CM, Ørntoft, CØ, Randers, M, Manniche, V, Hansen, L, Hansen, PR, Bangsbo, J, and Krustrup, P. Physical fitness and body composition in 8–10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3425–3434, 2017—We investigated whether physical fitness and body composition in 8–10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. The study included 423 schoolchildren, comprising 209 girls and 214 boys, of whom 67 and 74%, respectively, were active in sports clubs. Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 for children (YYIR1C), balance, jump and coordination tests, together with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were used to determine exercise capacity and body composition. Children active in sports clubs had better (p children not active in sports clubs. Ball game players had better (p children active in other sports. The study showed that 8‒10-year-old Danish children engaged in sports-club activity, especially ball game players, have better exercise capacity and superior body composition compared with children not active in sports clubs. PMID:28445225
Carter, Mary-Ann; Edwards, R; Signal, L; Hoek, J
The current systematic review aimed to identify and critically appraise research on food environments in sports settings, including research into the types of food and beverages available, the extent and impact of food and beverage sponsorship and marketing, and views about food environments among key stakeholders. A systematic review. Fourteen English-language studies (two were papers describing different facets of the same study), published between 1985 and 2011, were identified from searches of electronic databases and bibliographies of primary studies. Most studies originated from Australia (n 10), with the remaining studies originating in the UK (n 1), New Zealand (n 1), the USA (n 1) and Canada (n 1). Data were collected from observations in stadia, websites and televised sports events, through in-depth interviews, focus groups and surveys with sports club members, parents and quick serve restaurant managers. Literature exploring food environments in sports settings was limited and had some important methodological limitations. No studies comprehensively described foods available at clubs or stadia, and only one explored the association between food and beverage sponsorship and club incomes. Club policies focused on the impact of health promotion funding rather than the impact of sponsorship or food availability in sports settings. Further research, including comprehensive studies of the food environment in sports settings, is required to document the availability, sponsorship and marketing of food and beverages at national, regional and club levels and to estimate how sports settings may influence children's diets.
Judging a person's ability to engage in competitive sports is the task of the sports physician. However, in the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) or urinary abnormalities such as hematuria or microproteinuria, or in the event of Cakut-type congenital abnormalities a second, qualified opinion by a nephrologist may be needed. A group of pediatric nephrologists belonging to the Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding their attitude towards noncompetitive sports and their opinion on whether it is appropriate for them to express their judgment on the suitability/unsuitability of competitive sports activities in children and adolescents with CKD. Regarding noncompetitive sports the nephrologists' attitude was mostly positive, with the only exception of severe CKD. There were some reservations regarding unilateral renal agenesis and kidney transplant recipients. The situation with regard to competitive sports is more complex, as the expression of a favorable opinion often depends on the outcome of a series of instrumental examinations. There are no guidelines and no evidence-based positions on this issue. In order to make the opinions more uniform, the assessment methods should be standardized so that young people with CKD will be able to benefit from sports activities not only in terms of physical performance but also socialization and personal well-being.
McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Justin
Little research has been done on the physiological and performance effects of altitude training on team-sport athletes. Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp. Thirty elite AF players completed 19 days of living and training at either moderate altitude (~2130 m; ALT, n = 21) or sea level (CON, n = 9). TT performance and Hbmass were assessed preintervention (PRE) and postintervention (POST1) in both groups and at 4 wk after returning to sea level (POST2) in ALT only. Improvement in TT performance after altitude was likely 1.5% (± 4.8-90%CL) greater in ALT than in CON, with an individual responsiveness of 0.8%. Improvements in TT were maintained at POST2 in ALT. Hbmass after altitude was very likely increased in ALT compared with CON (2.8% ± 3.5%), with an individual responsiveness of 1.3%. Hbmass returned to baseline at POST2. Intramuscular carnosine did not change in either gastrocnemius or soleus from PRE to POST1. A preseason altitude camp improved TT performance and Hbmass in elite AF players to a magnitude similar to that demonstrated by elite endurance athletes undertaking altitude training. The individual responsiveness of both TT and Hbmass was approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. The maintenance of running performance for 4 wk, despite Hbmass returning to baseline, suggests that altitude training is a valuable preparation for AF players leading into the competitive season.
Chéron, Charlène; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
Sporting activities can cause injuries and overuse injuries of the extremities (OIE) in children have been shown to be more common than injuries caused by trauma. The lower extremity is more frequently affected than the upper extremity in OIE, but it is not known whether injury site and diagnosis vary in different sporting activities. To identify any differences between sports in relation to diagnoses and anatomical areas most likely to be injured. A search was made in November 2014 and again in June 2016 in PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycInfo and Web of Sciences. Search terms were: « overuse injuries OR cumulative trauma disorders OR musculoskeletal injuries » AND « extremity OR limb » AND « physical activity OR sport OR risk factor OR predictors OR exercises » AND « child OR adolescent OR young adults ». Inclusion criteria were: 1) prospective, retrospective, or cross-sectional study design; 2) age ≤19 years; 3) the articles must clearly state if reported cases were classified as traumatic or overuse injuries; 4) reporting on OIE in relation to a particular sports type, and 5) sample size >50. A blinded systematic review was conducted. In all, nine of the 736 identified articles were included, studying soccer, handball, orienteering, running, dance, and gymnastics. The incidence of OIE was given only in a few articles but at least the site and diagnosis of OIE were identifiable. The lower limb is more often affected than the upper in all sports covered, and, in general, the lower leg and knee are the two most often affected areas. However, in handball, the elbow was the second most often reported area, and in gymnastics injuries of the foot appeared to be more frequent than in the other sports. No differences in diagnoses were observed between sports types. Our work contributes new information, namely that the site of OIE in children and adolescents appears to vary only somewhat between different types of sports. Further well-designed surveillance studies
Informal roles are roles that are not formally prescribed by a group or organization and are being established through group interaction that takes place among group members. Previous literature has identified twelve roles within traditional sport, however to date limited research has been done within the field of role development within competitive computer gaming (eSports). The purpose of the present study was to explore the informal roles within the eSport setting and i...
Downward, Paul; Hallmann, Kirstin; Pawlowski, Tim
This study examines the effects of parental attitudes on children's physical activity. A measure of parental attitude (their sport participation when being young) that is independent of the child's behaviour is needed. Using data from the sixth wave of the Taking Part Survey (n =14,002 adults and n =1116 children), a matching estimator analysis is conducted. The results reveal that there are substantial intergenerational transfers of behaviours, in particular for male adults and male children. Furthermore, while an effect is observed for female adults and male children, female children's sport participation is only marginally influenced by female adult's physical activity when growing up. The results imply that promoting sport to the younger generation seems to be a fruitful strategy in creating a sporting habit and promoting sport participation when being older. However, there are challenges to be overcome in promoting female participation.
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
The creation of health promoting sports clubs may support the promotion and adoption of healthy behaviours by children. Sponsorship is one aspect of clubs, with potential influence on clubs and their participants. In particular, sponsorship influences brand awareness and attitudes, so that the sponsorship of children's sport by unhealthy food companies may contribute to food preferences and poor eating habits. This study aimed to determine the nature and extent of food and beverage sponsorship of children's sport. Sports clubs (n = 108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5-14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire was developed to determine the extent of sponsorship. Experts from different fields were approached (n = 10) to generate a consensus on the elements of sponsors that are more/less health promoting. The survey response rate was 99%. Of the 347 sponsors identified, 17% were food or beverage companies. Fifty percent of food company sponsorship arrangements did not meet criteria for healthy sponsors. For most clubs, less than a quarter of their income came from sponsorship. A considerable proportion of clubs with food company sponsors had the company's signage on players' uniforms (53%), distributed rewards using the company's name (24%) or gave vouchers to players for the company's products (29%). Any restriction of unhealthy food and beverage company sponsorship of children's sport may not result in major funding difficulties for clubs, as this funding represents a relatively small proportion of their income base, even though it provides major promotional opportunities to sponsors.
Zhou, Guangwei; Brodsky, Jacob R
To conduct objective assessment of children with balance and vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions and identify the underlying deficits by analyzing laboratory test outcomes. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Medical records were reviewed of 42 pediatric patients with balance and/or vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions who underwent comprehensive laboratory testing on their balance and vestibular function. Patients' characteristics were summarized and results analyzed. More than 90% of the children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion had at least 1 abnormal finding from the comprehensive balance and vestibular evaluation. The most frequent deficit was found in dynamic visual acuity test, followed by Sensory Organization Test and rotational test. Patient's balance problem associated with concussion seemed to be primarily instigated by vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, semicircular canal dysfunction was involved more often than dysfunction of otolith organs. Yet, sports-related concussion. Vestibular impairment is common among children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion. Our study demonstrated that proper and thorough evaluation is imperative to identify these underlying deficits and laboratory tests were helpful in the diagnosis and recommendation of following rehabilitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Obrusnikova, Iva; Bibik, Janice M.; Cavalier, Albert R.; Manley, Kyle
The use of therapy-dog teams in programs for children with disabilities is becoming increasingly popular in school and therapeutic settings and has been shown to provide physical, social, and emotional benefits for the children. This article describes the basic steps for implementing therapy dog-assisted activities in physical activity programs…
Hallingberg, Britt; Moore, Simon; Morgan, Joanne; Bowen, Katharine; van Goozen, Stephanie H M
There is a lack of research investigating organised activity participation and associated alcohol use in vulnerable groups. The purpose of this research was to test and compare associations between participation in organised activities and indicators of hazardous drinking between young offenders and young non-offenders. Two groups of 13-18 year-old males were recruited in Cardiff, UK: 93 young offenders and 53 non-offenders from secondary schools matched on estimated IQ, sex and socioeconomic status. Indicators of hazardous drinking were measured using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). Organised activity participation and externalising behaviour was measured by the Youth Self Report. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence was also administered. Young offenders participated in fewer organised activities and had higher FAST scores than non-offenders. Young offenders and non-offenders significantly differed on mean FAST scores if they participated in no organised activities but not if they participated in at least one team sport. Externalising behaviour problems were unrelated to participation in organised activities. Although young offenders were less likely to have participated in organised activities, for them, participation in a team sport was associated with less hazardous drinking. Vulnerable youths who might benefit most from sporting activities actually access them the least. Future research should identify the different barriers to participation that they face. © 2014 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wetton, Abigail R; Radley, Rebecca; Jones, Angela R; Pearce, Mark S
Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport.
Abigail R. Wetton
Full Text Available Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health, exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires ( and semistructured interviews ( to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers’ attitudes and shifting the media’s focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation’s female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport.
Crane, Jeff; Temple, Viviene
Leisure constraints theory was used as a framework to systematically review factors associated with dropout of organized sport among children and adolescents. Keyword searches for the population, context and construct of interest (i.e. dropout) identified articles from the entire contents of the following databases: Academic Search Complete, ERIC,…
Tsai, Eva Hiu-Lun; Fung, Lena
This study examined the experiences of parents of persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) as they sought inclusive sport participation for their children. To understand their experiences, in-depth interviews were conducted with 49 parents. Qualitative data analysis was conducted to identify common themes from the responses. The analysis showed…
The purpose of this study was to examine parents' perceptions of their children's experiences in physical education and youth sport. Qualitative research design was employed in this study. Data collection methods included phenomenological interviews and qualitative questionnaires. Forty-one questionnaires were collected and analyzed through…
Akyüz, Murat; Odabas, Cansu; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz; Senel, Ömer; Tas, Murat; Besikçi, Tolga
Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effects of regular sport training implemented at Integrated Disabled Athlete Department on autistic children's adolescence development of individual abilities as motor proficiencies. Method: The subject group of this study is composed of 12 boys with autism who practiced physical education programs…
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103) to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Most children (68%) could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47%) of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P sport performance (86% and 76%, respectively). Around one-third of children reported liking the company more after receiving these rewards. Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.
Halstead, Mark E; Walter, Kevin D
Sport-related concussion is a "hot topic" in the media and in medicine. It is a common injury that is likely underreported by pediatric and adolescent athletes. Football has the highest incidence of concussion, but girls have higher concussion rates than boys do in similar sports. A clear understanding of the definition, signs, and symptoms of concussion is necessary to recognize it and rule out more severe intracranial injury. Concussion can cause symptoms that interfere with school, social and family relationships, and participation in sports. Recognition and education are paramount, because although proper equipment, sport technique, and adherence to rules of the sport may decrease the incidence or severity of concussions, nothing has been shown to prevent them. Appropriate management is essential for reducing the risk of long-term symptoms and complications. Cognitive and physical rest is the mainstay of management after diagnosis, and neuropsychological testing is a helpful tool in the management of concussion. Return to sport should be accomplished by using a progressive exercise program while evaluating for any return of signs or symptoms. This report serves as a basis for understanding the diagnosis and management of concussion in children and adolescent athletes.
Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, Jarl K; Brackenridge, Celia H; Rhind, Daniel J A; Neels, Karel; Van Den Eede, Filip
The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed with respect to their experiences with childhood psychological, physical, and sexual violence while playing sports. Being the first of its kind in the Netherlands and Belgium, our study has a sufficiently large sample taken from the general population, with a balanced gender ratio and wide variety in socio-demographic characteristics. The survey showed that 38% of all respondents reported experiences with psychological violence, 11% with physical violence, and 14% with sexual violence. Ethnic minority, lesbian/gay/bisexual (LGB) and disabled athletes, and those competing at the international level report significantly more experiences of interpersonal violence in sport. The results are consistent with rates obtained outside sport, underscoring the need for more research on interventions and systematic follow-ups, to minimize these negative experiences in youth sport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Richard Alynn Henker
Full Text Available IntroductionA crisis team management (CTM simulation course was developed by volunteers from Health Volunteers Overseas for physicians and nurses at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The framework for the course was adapted from crisis resource management (1, 2, crisis team training (3, and TeamSTEPPs© models (4. The CTM course focused on teaching physicians and nurses on the development of team performance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Challenges to providing this course at AHC included availability of simulation equipment, cultural differences in learning, and language barriers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the impact of a CTM simulation course at AHC on attitudes and perceptions of participants on concepts related to team performance.MethodsEach of the CTM courses consisted of three lectures, including team performance concepts, communication, and debriefing followed by rotation through four simulation scenarios. The evaluation instrument used to evaluate the AHC CTM course was developed for Cambodian staff at AHC based on TeamSTEPPs© instruments evaluating attitude and perceptions of team performance (5. CTM team performance concepts included in lectures, debriefing sessions, and the evaluation instrument were: team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze pre- and post-test paired data from participants in the course.ResultsOf the 54 participants completing the three CTM courses at AHC, 27 were nurses, 6 were anesthetists, and 21 were physicians. Attitude and perception scores were found to significantly improve (p < 0.05 for team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, and communication. Team performance areas that improved the most were: discussion of team performance, communication, and exchange of information.ConclusionTeaching of non-technical skills can be effective in a setting with scarce
Henker, Richard Alynn; Henker, Hiroko; Eng, Hor; O'Donnell, John; Jirativanont, Tachawan
A crisis team management (CTM) simulation course was developed by volunteers from Health Volunteers Overseas for physicians and nurses at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The framework for the course was adapted from crisis resource management (1, 2), crisis team training (3), and TeamSTEPPs© models (4). The CTM course focused on teaching physicians and nurses on the development of team performance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Challenges to providing this course at AHC included availability of simulation equipment, cultural differences in learning, and language barriers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the impact of a CTM simulation course at AHC on attitudes and perceptions of participants on concepts related to team performance. Each of the CTM courses consisted of three lectures, including team performance concepts, communication, and debriefing followed by rotation through four simulation scenarios. The evaluation instrument used to evaluate the AHC CTM course was developed for Cambodian staff at AHC based on TeamSTEPPs© instruments evaluating attitude and perceptions of team performance (5). CTM team performance concepts included in lectures, debriefing sessions, and the evaluation instrument were: team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze pre- and post-test paired data from participants in the course. Of the 54 participants completing the three CTM courses at AHC, 27 were nurses, 6 were anesthetists, and 21 were physicians. Attitude and perception scores were found to significantly improve ( p < 0.05) for team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, and communication. Team performance areas that improved the most were: discussion of team performance, communication, and exchange of information. Teaching of non-technical skills can be effective in a setting with scarce resources in a Southeastern Asian country.
The basis of this final thesis is principle's and expert team's perception of teamwork with children with special needs in elementary school. In theoretical part we define the terms integration and inclusion. Furthermore, we present the legal basis for work with children with special needs and describe the 5-stage model of help for children with special needs. We also describe principles of teamwork. The 5-stage model of help anticipates intensive aid in class and afternoon class, social w...
Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Lankhorst, Kristel; van der Ende-Kastelijn, Karin; de Groot, Janke; Backx, Frank; Visser-Meily, Anne; Takken, Tim
Children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability have lower fitness levels compared to their non-disabled peers. Low physical fitness is associated with reduced physical activity, increased cardiovascular diseases, and lower levels of both cognitive and psychosocial functioning. Moreover, children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability participate less in both recreational and competitive sports. A variety of intervention studies have shown positive, but only temporary, effects of training programs. Next to issues related to the chronic condition itself, various personal and environmental factors play a key role in determining the extent to which they participate in sports or physical activities. Due to these barriers, sport participation in the immediate after-school hours seems to be a feasible solution to get these children and adolescents physical active structurally. To investigate if an after school sport program can sustain the positive effects of an intervention, a standardized interval training will be given to improve physical fitness levels. High-intensity Interval Training (HIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training in improving physical fitness in patients with chronic diseases. Therefore, the Sport-2-Stay-Fit study will investigate whether after school sport participation can increase the sustainability of a HIT program in children and adolescents with a chronic disease or physical disability. The Sport-2-Stay-Fit study is a clinical controlled trial. A total of 74 children and adolescents in the age of 6-19 years with a chronic disease or physical disability will be included. This could be either a cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disorder. Both children and adolescents who are ambulatory or propelling a manual wheelchair will be included. All participants will follow a HIT program of eight weeks to improve their physical fitness level. Thereafter, the
Hammami, Amri; Gabbett, Tim J; Slimani, Maamer; Bouhlel, Ezdine
This paper aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the training effects of small-sided games (SSG) on physical fitness and specific skills related to team sport according to the level of play and the period of the season. The search covered the following electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). The publications' search period ranged from 2000 to 2016. The terms (small- sided game, training, skill-based game, aerobic fitness, sprint, agility, jump and team sports) were used either singularly or combined in a systematic sequence. Appraisal of 16 articles (15 were meta-analysed) was performed after the application of exclusion criteria and quality assurance processes and the standardized mean effects were measured using random effects. The results revealed that SSG training had a large beneficial effect on maximal oxygen uptake VO2max (effect size 1.94; 95 % CL 0.15, 3.74; I2 = 94 %), agility (-1.49; 95% CL -2.27, -0.71; I2 = 80%), and repeated sprint ability (-1.19; 95% CL - 2.17, -0.21; I2= 53%).There was a moderate beneficial effect on 10- and 20-m sprint performance (-0.89; 95 % CL -1.7, -0.07; I2 =88%), jump height (0.68; 95% CL 0.03, 1.33; I2= 79%), and intermittent endurance (0.61; 95% CL 0.17, 1.05; I2= 0%). The results also showed greater positive effects on specific skills (specific endurance and agility tests and techniques) after SSG when compared with generic or agility training. Small-sided games may represent an effective strategy of multicomponent training that can induce greater positive effects on specific skills tasks when compared with interval or agility training and moderate to large improvements in team sport-related physical fitness.
Brock, Sheri; Hastie, Peter
In physical education (PE), children frequently participate in teams and the exchanges that transpire shape their perspectives and subsequently, influence learning. While Sport Education is one pedagogical model designed to enhance social exchanges through team membership, we previously identified the need for additional research to monitor these…
Papagiannopoulos, Dimitri; Gong, Edward
This review article explores sports and recreational precautions in children with solitary kidneys. In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics published recommendations for activity in children with medical conditions. Those with solitary kidneys were graded a "qualified yes": no restriction in noncontact sports, and individual assessment for limited-contact, contact, and collision sports. Recent trauma data suggest that classification according to the degree of contact is inaccurate. We propose an updated, data-driven classification of sports or recreation according to the risk of high-grade renal trauma or loss of renal unit. Given the paucity of literature on the topic and lack of consensus, children with congenital renal anomalies should exercise caution in both sports and recreation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kiluk, Brian D.; Weden, Sarah; Culotta, Vincent P.
Objective: Few studies have examined the psychological benefits of physical activity in children with ADHD who may be at higher risk for mood and anxiety problems. This study explores the relationship between participation in physical activity and emotional functioning in children with ADHD. Method: Scores on parent-reported measures of mood and…
Kinney, Sharon; Tibballs, James; Johnston, Linda; Duke, Trevor
The purpose of this work was to describe the frequency, characteristics, and outcomes of critical events and hospitalized children requiring medical emergency team review. We conducted an audit of prospectively collected medical emergency team forms and a retrospective review of medical charts during an 18-month period at a tertiary pediatric hospital in Australia. Critical events were defined as cardiac arrest, endotracheal intubation on the ward, reversal of analgesia or sedation, fluid resuscitation at >/=40 mL/kg, hyponatremia (serum sodium level of /=155 mmol/L), hypoglycemia (glucose level of metabolic acidosis (pH = 7.1). A total of 172 children had 225 medical emergency team calls (10.6 calls per 1000 hospital admissions and 2.0 calls per 1000 patient-days). Forty-two percent of calls were for infants <1 year old. Preexisting chronic disease was common, with 20% having a chronic underlying neurologic disorder. Forty-four percent of the children were postoperative. The mortality rate of the 172 children was 7.6% in the hospital and 13.4% within 1 year. Thirty-three children had a critical event, with reversal of analgesia being the most common event (n = 11). Postoperative children were more frequently seen in the critical-event group (64% vs 40%). Hospital and 1-year mortality rates were higher for children who had a critical event (16.1% vs 22.6%, respectively) than those who did not (5.7% vs 11.3%). Chronic and complex illnesses were prevalent among children provided with urgent medical assistance from the medical emergency team in a tertiary hospital. Children in the postoperative phase were overrepresented among those with a critical event. A critical event significantly increased the risk of hospital mortality. Greater knowledge of high-risk groups is required to further improve outcomes for hospitalized children.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare oxidative/antioxidative status in obese and sport trained children and to correlate obtained redox markers with anthropometrical measurements, body composition parameters, and adipokines levels. 78 (44 males obese (SG and 80 (40 males normal weight sport trained (CG children matched for age and Tanner stage were recruited for the study. Body composition parameters and basal metabolic rate (BMR were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Oxidative/antioxidative status was evaluated in plasma by total oxidative status (PerOX, oxidized-LDL cholesterol (oxLDL, total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOx, and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx. Leptin and adiponectin levels and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L were also investigated. OxLDL was higher in SG versus CG (P < 0.05, but ImAnOx and GPx were reduced in SG versus CG (P < 0.01. Redox markers correlated significantly with BMI Z-score, WHR, WHtR, body composition parameters, leptin (in boys only, and A/L ratio (in boys only in SG and in a whole studied population. PerOX significantly correlated with BMR in the CG. Antioxidative/oxidative status in obese children is significantly impaired and related adipose tissue excess and its hormonal activity. Oxidative status assessed by PerOx is also high in sport trained children but antioxidative defense is significantly more efficient with no overproduction of oxidized LDL.
Full Text Available It is well known that body activities are needed in child such as food and drink. Nowadays way of life causes reduced movement in whole population, such as in preeschool children. Reducing movement in preeschool children can result many postural disturbances and body deformities. In that case it was made systematic medical chackup in children 5-6 years old from ’’Cvrčak’’- Niš kindergarden on food deformities during last seven years (2004-2010. Received results showed desastrous level on food arch, reduced function of food muscules. The idea was that reason for that was childs` reduced body activities, from 2008. year it was made and start to realize the project „komunication and culture in sport“, in regard to grow up sport culture level in children, parents and teachers. As all of us is born having some predispozitions, it was given chance to sport clubs to present to children, teachers and parents all of sport-recreative bases. In cooperation with physical education expert service Office and coatches from sport clubs in Niš, it was made the sport-recreative Project. In one cyclus during one year children are included in next sports: rhythmic gymnastics, judo, tennis, basketball, vollyball, foodball, athledics, skating, skiing. The project gave wonderfull results: a great number of children joined sport clubs, more sport-recreative activities in children, growing right mind about body exercises needs, such as better statistic results after childrens` systematic medical chackup in 2009. and 2010. year. Mentioned Project is lasted till now.
Hinde, Sebastian; Allgar, Victoria; Richardson, Gerry; Spiers, Gemma; Parker, Gillian; Birks, Yvonne
Recent years have seen an increasing shift towards providing care in the community, epitomised by the role of Children's Community Nursing (CCN) teams. However, there have been few attempts to use robust evaluative methods to interrogate the impact of such services. This study sought to evaluate whether reduction in secondary care costs, resulting from the introduction of 2 CCN teams, was sufficient to offset the additional cost of commissioning. Among the potential benefits of the CCN teams is a reduction in the burden placed on secondary care through the delivery of care at home; it is this potential reduction which is evaluated in this study via a 2-part analytical method. Firstly, an interrupted time series analysis used Hospital Episode Statistics data to interrogate any change in total paediatric bed days as a result of the introduction of 2 teams. Secondly, a costing analysis compared the cost savings from any reduction in total bed days with the cost of commissioning the teams. This study used a retrospective longitudinal study design as part of the transforming children's community services trial, which was conducted between June 2012 and June 2015. A reduction in hospital activity after introduction of the 2 nursing teams was found, (9634 and 8969 fewer bed days), but this did not reach statistical significance. The resultant cost saving to the National Health Service was less than the cost of employing the teams. The study represents an important first step in understanding the role of such teams as a means of providing a high quality of paediatric care in an era of limited resource. While the cost saving from released paediatric bed days was not sufficient to demonstrate cost-effectiveness, the analysis does not incorporate wider measures of health care utilisation and nonmonetary benefits resulting from the CCN teams. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Mityukhlyaevа G. A.
Full Text Available according to the author, sport is one of the main sources of health promotion, its physical formation. The sport has had a major positive impact on the spiritual world and his attitude, emotions, ethical beliefs, aesthetic tastes, nurturing the harmoniously developed personality. Today the sport is used more often in the system of healing, recreation and education of children. And for the modern child sports is the one and only way not to be subjected to the influence of the streets, drugs, violence.
Jahagirdar, Ishanee; Venditti, Laura Anne; Duncan, Andrea; Reed, Nick; Fleming, Sean
This study looked at the relationship between participation in a structured sports program and gross-motor-skills development in children aged 3 to 6 years. Twenty-seven children participated in the study, with 16 children receiving an eight-week sports program intervention. Children were assessed at pre- and postintervention using a modified…
Full Text Available Whit the goal to describe anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities in groups of non sports and children which have some sports training activities, to calculate quantitative and qualitative difference between these groups of children in anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities, it is conduct survey with the sample of 150 entities, age from 11 to 13, different sports orientation (karate, judo, football and volleyball and non sports children (scholars. In analyze, it was used system of total 27 variables (12 morphological and 15 basic - motorical. Also, descriptive statistical procedures were done and in this paper we present only arithmetical means. For quantitative difference between combination per groups in anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities it was used ANOVA. According to quantitative and qualitative differences in anthropometric characteristics and motorical abilities from survey, the best anthropometric characteristic were get in groups of volleyball players, and in motorical abilities the best performance shown group of children which train a karate.
Larsen, Malte N; Nielsen, Claus M; Ørntoft, Christina
Recovery level 1 for Children (YYIR1C), balance, jump and coordination tests, together with DXA scans, were used to determine exercise capacity and body composition. Children active in sports clubs had better (P...), coordination (6%, 68±1 vs. 72±1 s) and balance test performances (9%, 19.3±0.5 vs. 21.2±0.7 falls/min) and lower fat mass index (16%, 3.8±0.1 vs. 4.5±0.2 kg(fat)·m) than children not active in sports clubs. Ball game players had better (P...We investigated whether physical fitness and body composition in 8-10-year-old Danish children are associated with sports club participation. The study included 423 schoolchildren, comprising 209 girls and 214 boys, of whom 67 and 74%, respectively, were active in sports clubs. Yo-Yo Intermittent...
Marcos Gimenes Fernandes
Full Text Available The present study had the following objectives: i to examine the inter-scale correlations between the three dimensions of responses (intensity, direction and frequency of the CSAI-2R and its relationship with competitive experience, and ii evaluate the effect of competitive experience anxiety (cognitive and somatic and self-confidence in the total sample and for different types of modalities (individual vs. team. The sample consisted of 267 athletes (196 male and 71 female, of different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M = 24.30, SD = 5.62. Athletes completed the Brazilian version of the CSAI-2, which included the addition of the dimensions of direction and frequency response. Spearman test and Manova were used for the data analysis. Overall, it was found that the competitive experience has a high multivariate and significant effect on the dimensions of competitive anxiety. Both individual and team athletes with low competitive experience showed a trend to report lower levels of self-confidence intensity, compared to counterparts with high competitive experience. These results were discussed in view of the theoretic framework and practical implications planning Sport Psychology intervention programs in local athletes with different backgrounds.
Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Pritchard-Peschek, Kellie R; Leveritt, Michael D; Aldred, Murry J
In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two different dynamic warm-up conditions, one that was inclusive of open skills (i.e., reactive movements) and one that included only preplanned dynamic activities (i.e., closed skills) on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes. Fourteen (six male, eight female) junior (mean +/- SD age, 16.3 +/- 0.7 year) basketball players participated in this study. Testing was conducted on 2 separate days using a within-subjects cross-over study design. Each athlete performed a standardized 7-minute warm-up consisting of general dynamic movements and stretching. After the general warm-up, athletes were randomly allocated into one of two groups that performed a dynamic 15-minute warm-up consisting entirely of open or closed skills. Each of the warm-up conditions consisted of five activities of 3 minute duration. At the completion of the warm-up protocol, players completed assessments of reactive agility, speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprints), change of direction speed (T-test), and vertical jump. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected among warm-up conditions for speed, vertical jump, change of direction speed, and reactive agility performances. The results of this study demonstrate that either open skill or closed skill warm-ups can be used effectively for team sport athletes without compromising performance on open skill and closed skill tasks.
Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando
Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.
Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne
Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566–2985 kcal and 1997–2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%–80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 min per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation. PMID:28208581
Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne
Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg -1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg -1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg -1 . However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.
Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.
Farrell, Charles S.
The members of the College Football Association are determined that college football not be "held hostage" to correct the economic imbalance of college sports. Self-determination for Division I-A football, academic standards, and TV coverage are discussed. (MLW)
Adams, Adi; Anderson, Eric
Despite decreasing homophobia, openly gay male athletes are still rare in organized, competitive teamsports. In this action research, we explore two aspects of homosexuality and sport: (1) the effect of a gay male soccer player coming out to his teammates; and (2) the effect of having an openly gay researcher in the field. This is, therefore, the…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Children's exposure to unhealthy food marketing influences their food knowledge, preferences and consumption. Sport sponsorship by food companies is widespread and industry investment in this marketing is increasing. This study aimed to assess children's awareness of sport sponsors and their brand-related attitudes and purchasing intentions in response to this marketing. Methods Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with children aged 10-14 years (n = 103 to examine their recall of local sports club and elite sport sponsors, and their attitudes towards sponsors and sponsorship activities. Results Most children (68% could recall sponsors of their sports club, naming a median of two sponsors, including a median of one food company sponsor each. Almost half (47% of children could recall any sponsors of their favourite elite sporting team. Children aged 10-11 years were more likely than older children to report that they thought about sponsors when buying something to eat or drink (P Conclusions Children's high recall of food and beverage company sport sponsors and their positive attitudes towards these sponsors and their promotions is concerning as this is likely to be linked to children's food preferences and consumption. Limiting children's exposure to this marketing is an important initiative to improve children's nutrition.
Background Although injuries related to sports and recreation represent a significant burden to children and youth, few studies have examined the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injury since 2005, and some sports such as ringette have not been evaluated to date. The primary purpose of this study was to provide the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injuries treated in emergency departments for children and youth aged 5 – 19. Methods A retrospective data analysis was performed using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program [CHIRPP] from fiscal years (April – March) 2007/08 to 2009/10. CHIRPP is a computerized information system designed by the Public Health Agency of Canada that collects information about injuries to people evaluated in emergency departments across 11 pediatric hospitals and 5 general hospitals in Canada. Thirteen sports or activities were analyzed (baseball, basketball, cycling, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rugby, skiing, sledding, snowboarding, soccer, and volleyball). Descriptive statistics, including frequency by sport, age and sex, as well as the percent of concussions within each sport were calculated. Results Out of a total of 56, 691 reported sports and recreational injuries, soccer accounted for the largest proportion of injuries with 11,941 reported cases over the 3 year time period. Of these, approximately 30% were fractures. The 10 – 14 year age group reported the greatest proportion of injuries in 10 out of the 13 sports analyzed. In addition, males reported a greater number of overall injuries than females in 11 out of the 13 sports analyzed. The largest percentage of concussions was reported in ringette; these injuries accounted for 17.1% of overall injuries within this sport. Conclusions Injury prevention programs in Canada should focus on improving evidenc