WorldWideScience

Sample records for sport-related positive reinforcement

  1. Positive and Negative Themes Found in Sport-Related Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Hannah M; Olympia, Robert P; King, Tonya S; Wakefield, Bryan H; Weber, Chris J

    2017-06-01

    Sport participation is an important part of the development of children and adolescents in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine positive and negative themes found in a selected number of sport-related films. A total of 44 sport-related films were independently viewed and analyzed by four reviewers. The most common sports depicted were baseball (27%) and football (25%). The most common positive themes were positive interactions with the coach, positive interactions with family and friends, and positive interactions with teammates (2.04, 1.42, 1.2 mean events per hour). The most common negative themes were taunting/fighting/poor sportsmanship, negative interactions with the coach, and drinking/smoking/drug use (2.13, 1.10, 0.94 mean events per hour). In conclusion, the coviewing of sport films among pediatric athletes and their coaches, athletic trainers, and/or parents in order to focus on "teachable moments" may encourage the acquisition and development of positive themes and the avoidance and de-emphasis of negative themes.

  2. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Preventing and Managing Sport-Related Dental and Oral Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Trenton E.; Piland, Scott G.; Caswell, Shane V.; Ranalli, Dennis; Mills, Stephen; Ferrara, Michael S.; Courson, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To provide athletic trainers, health care professionals, and all those responsible for the care of athletes with clinical recommendations for preventing and managing sport-related dental and oral injuries. Background: Participation in competitive sports continues to grow at both the interscholastic and intercollegiate levels. Therefore, exposure to, and the incidence of athletic-related injury, including orofacial injury, will also likely increase. At the time of this writing, the leading governing agencies for interscholastic (National Federation of State High School Associations) and intercollegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association) sports require only protective orofacial equipment (eg, mouthguards) for 5 and 4, respectively, of their sanctioned sports. Although orofacial injuries represent a small percentage of all sport-related injuries, the financial burden associated with these injuries (eg, tooth avulsion) can exceed $15 000 over an adult life. Therefore, effective management of sport-related dental injuries is critical to the long-term financial, physical, and emotional health of people who have experienced dental trauma. Recommendations: Based upon the current evidence regarding sport-related orofacial injury, we provide recommendations related to planning considerations, education, and mouthguard efficacy, material, fabrication, and care considerations. Additionally, suggested best practices for managing sport-related dental injury are also given for athletic trainers and other health care professionals. PMID:27875057

  3. Role of neuropsychologists in the evaluation and management of sport-related concussion: an inter-organization position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echemendia, Ruben J; Iverson, Grant L; McCrea, Michael; Broshek, Donna K; Gioia, Gerard A; Sautter, Scott W; Macciocchi, Stephen N; Barr, William B

    2011-11-01

    Over the past 20 years, clinical neuropsychologists have been at the forefront of both scientific and clinical initiatives aimed at developing evidence-based approaches to the evaluation and management of sport-related concussion. These efforts have directly impacted current policy on strategies for injury assessment and return-to-play by athletes after concussion. Many states are considering legislation requiring (a) education of athletes, parents, coaches, and school/organization officials on the recognition, evaluation, and management of sport-related concussions; (b) removal from play of any youth athlete that is suspected of having sustained a concussion; and (c) not allowing the student to return to participation until the student is evaluated and cleared for return to participation in writing by an appropriate healthcare professional. It is the official position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN), American Board of Neuropsychology (ABN), Division 40 (Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN) that neuropsychologists should be included among the licensed health care professionals authorized to evaluate, clinically manage, and provide return to play clearance for athletes who sustain a sport-related concussion.

  4. Sport-related concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Coelho, Fernanda; Veitzman, Silvia; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson; Anghinah, Renato

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...

  5. Sport-related concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Natuline Ianof

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.

  6. Sport-Related Concussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Don; Brady, Flo

    2011-01-01

    Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…

  7. Sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A

    2015-04-01

    Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.

  8. Do Positive Reinforcement Programs Reduce Employee Absenteeism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Loretta M.; Heneman, Herbert G., III

    1980-01-01

    Although they express some reservations, the authors report that a consistent pattern of evidence from 10 studies suggests that implementation of a positive reinforcement program is accompanied by some reduction in employee absenteeism. (Author/IRT)

  9. Sports related to drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  10. Sports-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Scott R

    2015-08-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRC) are common in all ages and occur in all sports. The diagnosis based on clinical suspicion after more serious injury is ruled out. Symptoms of concussion are due to a temporary and reversible neurometabolic cascade resulting in blood flow changes, neuronal excitotoxicity, ionic shifts, and mitochondrial changes. Symptoms are nonspecific, and commonly include headache, cognitive complaints, photophobia, and phonophobia. Loss of consciousness is rare in SRC and has limited influence on recovery and prognosis. Imaging has a limited role in the management of concussion and should be used to evaluate for more serious intracranial pathology. Treatment is based on symptoms and an understanding of the typical, rapid (7-10 days) recovery. No athlete should return to play until their symptoms have resolved and they have completed a supervised, step-wise return to play protocol. The article covers the most recent literature on the diagnosis and management of SRC, including evidence-based recommendations and expert-based consensus opinion. The article will also discuss issues regarding medical retirement, legislation, and future concepts in concussion diagnosis and management.

  11. MRI EVALUATION OF SPORTS RELATED KNEE INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Basu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To investigate the accuracy of MRI in evaluation of sports related knee injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS From June 2015 to 1 st week of July 2016. Thirty patients referred for sports related knee pain have been included in this study. Patients were subjected to a dedicated MR knee study (GE HD XT 1.5T MR System and correlated knee arthroscopy and surgery. RESULTS The study included Thirty patients complaining of sports related knee pain, only 5 patients (16.67 % were with normal MRI findings and 25 patients (83.33% were with abnormal MRI findings. Among the 25 patients who had injuries of their knees, 15 patients (60% had ACL injuries, 6 patients (24% had PCL injuries, 10 patients (40% had meniscal injuries, 8 patients (32% had collateral ligament injuries, 5 patients (20% had bone injuries and 2 patients (8% had muscular injuries. Only 5 patients (20% were represented with isolated injury and 20 patients (80% were represented with combined injuries. In correlation with arthroscopies and surgeries, morphological analysis was true-positive in 23 (92% patients of the 25 injured patients, and true-negative in 1 (60% patient of the 2 normal patients. Morphological analysis revealed overall 92% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Regarding the 15 patients who had ACL injuries, 13 patients (86.6% were true-positive and 8 patients (80% of the 10 patients who had meniscal injuries were true-positive. CONCLUSION MRI represents the optimal imaging modalities in the evaluation of the sports related knee injuries, which has been shown to be an accurate and non-invasive method of diagnosing ligament, meniscal, cartilage and muscular knee injuries.

  12. Punishment and rate of positive reinforcement1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, William C.

    1968-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of several punishment intensities on two responses maintained by contrasting rates of reinforcement. The responses were concurrently reinforced according to two different variable-interval schedules. Because these schedules were independent of one another and programmed different rates of reinforcement, the two responses occurred at dissimilar rates. When responses were simultaneously suppressed by punishment, both rates were reduced proportionately until suppression was virtually complete. In other words, the per cent suppression resulting from punishment was independent of the rate at which the response was reinforced. Phenomena found in single-response studies were duplicated here. Responding tended to increase both within and between punishment sessions at mild and moderate punishment intensities. Cessation of punishment led to a “compensatory” overshooting beyond the prepunished response rate. PMID:5660709

  13. Safe treatment of sport related concussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, D.A.; Lovell, M.R.; Diercks, Ron

    2006-01-01

    Sport related concussion is a hot item. The Health Council of the Netherlands published its report on concussions in 2003 and there is much concern about the negative health effects of sports related concussion. Neuropsychological testing has recently been endorsed as a 'cornerstone' of concussion

  14. Emergency visits for sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, C W; Overpeck, M D

    2001-03-01

    We sought to estimate the effect and magnitude of patients with sports-related injuries presenting to hospital emergency departments in the United States and to examine differences in patient and visit characteristics between sports- and nonsports-related injuries. Data from the 1997 and 1998 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a national probabilistic sample of 496 US hospital EDs, were combined to examine emergency visits for sports-related injuries. Data from 16,997 sample ED encounter records for injuries that included narrative cause of injury text were analyzed. Narrative text entries were coded to 1 of 84 sport and recreational activity codes. Sample weights were applied to provide annual national estimates. Estimates of sports-related injury visits were based on 1,775 records with an assigned sports-related activity code. There were an average annual estimated 2.6 million emergency visits for sports-related injuries by persons between the ages of 5 and 24 years. They accounted for over 68% of the total 3.7 million sport injuries presented to the ED by persons of all ages. As a proportion of all kinds of injuries presenting to the ED, sports-related injuries accounted for more than one fifth of the visits by persons 5 to 24 years old. The use rate was 33.9 ED visits per 1,000 persons in this age group (95% confidence interval 30.3 to 37.5). The sports-related injury visit rate for male patients was more than double the rate for female patients (48.2 versus 19.2 per 1,000 persons between 5 and 24 years of age). Visits from sports-related activities for this age group were more frequent for basketball and cycling compared with other categories (eg, baseball, skateboarding, gymnastics). Compared with nonsports-related injuries for this age group, sports-related injuries were more likely to be to the brain or skull and upper and lower extremities. Patients with sports-related injuries were more likely to have a diagnosis of fracture and sprain or

  15. Hunger neurons drive feeding through a sustained, positive reinforcement signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiming; Lin, Yen-Chu; Zimmerman, Christopher A; Essner, Rachel A; Knight, Zachary A

    2016-08-24

    The neural mechanisms underlying hunger are poorly understood. AgRP neurons are activated by energy deficit and promote voracious food consumption, suggesting these cells may supply the fundamental hunger drive that motivates feeding. However recent in vivo recording experiments revealed that AgRP neurons are inhibited within seconds by the sensory detection of food, raising the question of how these cells can promote feeding at all. Here we resolve this paradox by showing that brief optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons before food availability promotes intense appetitive and consummatory behaviors that persist for tens of minutes in the absence of continued AgRP neuron activation. We show that these sustained behavioral responses are mediated by a long-lasting potentiation of the rewarding properties of food and that AgRP neuron activity is positively reinforcing. These findings reveal that hunger neurons drive feeding by transmitting a positive valence signal that triggers a stable transition between behavioral states.

  16. Sport-related anxiety: current insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jessica L; Ildefonso, Kenneth; Jones, Megan L; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2017-01-01

    To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety.

  17. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford JL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health

  18. Sport-related hematuria: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G R; Newhouse, I

    1997-04-01

    To present an overview and models of the potential causes and implications of sport-related hematuria in an athletic population as provided by a literature review. A total of 64 published scientific articles have been utilized to provide a review of sport-related hematuria. Reviewed studies were selected on the basis that they provided informative findings about the possible mechanisms of sport-related hematuria attributed to exercise duration and intensity. These studies used both normal adult and athletic populations. A review of the literature on the potential mechanisms of sport-related hematuria led to the classification of these mechanisms as either exercise duration related or exercise intensity related. Research has revealed an increased prevalence of hematuria in athletes. The mechanisms responsible may be traced to different sources or a combination thereof. Many explanations have been directed toward a potential cause; foot-strike hemolysis, renal ischemia, hypoxic damage to the kidney, the release of a hemolyzing factor, bladder and/or kidney trauma, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dehydration, increased circulation rate, myoglobinuria release, and the peroxidation of red blood cells. These mechanisms are presented in two models depicting the influence of either exercise intensity or exercise duration on sport-related hematuria. Athletes, coaches, and sports medicine professionals should be aware of this condition because frequent high-intensity and/or long-duration workouts and competitions may promote the symptoms. Repeated red blood cell loss through the urine may be a contributing factor toward promoting anemic conditions in competitive athletes. Recognition of the potential mechanisms can spare the time and expense of invasive testing.

  19. Sports Participation and Alcohol Use: Associations With Sports-Related Identities and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Heim, Derek; Levy, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Studies indicate that those participating in sports are a high-risk population for hazardous alcohol use. Previous research identifies psychosocial drivers underpinning this link between sports participation and risky drinking behavior; however, the evidence is restricted to cross-sectional prevalence studies. Theoretical evaluations suggest that psychologically constructed identities are a defining factor for behaviors in this context. Therefore, the present study sought to examine longitudinally the relationships among sports-related identities, well-being, and alcohol behaviors in those participating in sports. Respondents completed self-report questionnaires on their alcohol consumption, drinking motives, athlete identity (personal identity), sports group identification (social identity), and general well-being. A sample of 475 participants (male = 55.6%; mean age = 20.2 years) provided data at Time 1 for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal associations were conducted with 92 participants (male = 42.4%; mean age = 20.8 years) who provided follow-up data (Time 1 and 6 months later). Cross-sectional results revealed an association between social identity and alcohol consumption, which was fully mediated by positive reinforcement drinking motives. Correlation analysis found a significant positive relationship between Time 1 alcohol consumption and social identity 6 months later. Furthermore, social identity was positively associated with consumption, whereas athlete identity was negatively associated therewith. Finally, well-being was positively associated only with sports group identification over time. Our findings suggest that sport-related drinking may be an avenue for building group identification, and this identification is linked to well-being.

  20. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    From an applied behavior-analytic perspective, aggression in people with intellectual disabilities is mostly maintained by social reinforcement consequences. However, nonsocial consequences have also been identified in functional assessments on aggression. Behaviors producing their own reinforcement have been labeled "automatic" or "nonsocial" in…

  1. Sports-related injuries in primary health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A. N.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    Methods. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. Results. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related

  2. A Comparison of Positive Reinforcement and Punishment in Two Special Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Richard G.

    Compared was the effectiveness of punishment and positive reinforcement on the nonattending behaviors and academic achievement of 18 elementary grade children in two special classes for children with social or adjustment problems. During the positive reinforcement condition each student earned a slash mark whenever he was observed attending to…

  3. Sleep following sport-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Nadia; Lassonde, Maryse; Petit, Dominique; Leclerc, Suzanne; Mongrain, Valérie; Collie, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Sleep and vigilance disorders are among the most commonly reported symptoms following a concussion. The aim of the study was thus to investigate the effects of sport-related concussions on subjective and objective sleep quality. Ten concussed athletes and 11 non-concussed athletes were included. Concussed athletes had a history of 4.6+/-2.1 concussions with at least one concussion during the last year. They were recorded for two consecutive nights in the laboratory and during a 10-min period of wakefulness. They completed questionnaires related to sleep quality and symptoms as well as neuropsychological tests and the CogSport computer battery. Concussed athletes reported more symptoms and worse sleep quality than control athletes, but no between-group differences were found on polysomnographic variables or on REM and NREM sleep quantitative EEG variables. However, concussed athletes showed significantly more delta activity and less alpha activity during wakefulness than did control athletes. In spite of the subjective complaints in sleep quality of concussed athletes, no change was observed in objective sleep characteristics. However, concussions were associated with an increase in delta and a reduction in alpha power in the waking EEG. Sport-related concussions are thus associated with wakefulness problems rather than sleep disturbances.

  4. Development and modification of a response class via positive and negative reinforcement: a translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendres, Amber E; Borrero, John C

    2010-01-01

    When responses function to produce the same reinforcer, a response class exists. Researchers have examined response classes in applied settings; however, the challenges associated with conducting applied research on response class development have recently necessitated the development of an analogue response class model. To date, little research has examined response classes that are strengthened by negative reinforcement. The current investigation was designed to develop a laboratory model of a response class through positive reinforcement (i.e., points exchangeable for money) and through negative reinforcement (i.e., the avoidance of scheduled point losses) with 11 college students as participants and clicks as the operant. Results of both the positive and negative reinforcement evaluations showed that participants usually selected the least effortful response that produced points or the avoidance of point losses, respectively. The applied implications of the findings are discussed, along with the relevance of the present model to the study of punishment and resurgence.

  5. Sports Related Fractures Presenting To an Orthopaedic Department ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To profile the patients with sports related fractures. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study of patients sustaining a sport related fracture between January 2000 and December 2006. The medical records including the demographic data, type of sport, mechanism and location of injury, and treatment ...

  6. CDC's Approach to Educating Coaches about Sports-Related Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchko, Jane; Huitric, Michele; Sarmiento, Kelly; Hayes, Gail; Pruzan, Marcia; Sawyer, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Sports-related concussions can happen to any athlete in any sport. Each year in the United States, an estimated 1.6-3.8 million sports and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur, most of which can be classified as concussions. To help coaches prevent, recognize, and better manage sports-related concussions, the Centers for…

  7. Beyond Positive Reinforcement: OBM as a Humanizing Approach to Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Charles R.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the need to recognize that OBM already is a "positive psychology" for many more reasons than just that it embraces positive reinforcement as a cornerstone of workplace improvement. This paper suggests there are at least 10 ways in which OBM constitutes a distinctly "positive" and humanizing approach to management…

  8. Educating Parents on Sports-Related Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Ian; Hauber, Roxanne

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 30 million children and adolescents in the United States participate in various forms of organized sports, and incidents of traumatic brain injuries in emergency departments have increased to 62% from 2001 to 2009. Knowledge, information, and preventive interventions appear to have been well disseminated among athletic personnel at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels. Research regarding parents' perceptions and knowledge of sports-related concussions (SRCs) however is lacking. This project aims to determine the impact of interventions designed to improve parental awareness of SRCs. The study used a demographic information sheet and a postintervention survey design. These surveys were to determine the impact of three distinct educational tools presented on the perceptions and knowledge of SRCs in a group of parents with children actively involved in sports. Forty-seven participants completed the demographic information sheet, most of them African American and have at least one child competing in high school contact sports. Furthermore, 85.1% of the parents felt that SRCs are a critical issue, although only 46.8% of the parents have ever sought out information to learn more about SRC. Twenty-nine individuals participated in the posteducational survey after the intervention, and most parents perceived that all three educational tools were written and presented in a fashion that changed their perception, awareness, and knowledge base of SRCs. These parents however stated that none of the interventions captured their attention enough to want to go to a professional for further information. Findings from this study suggest that parents know what educational approaches work best for them. However, it also suggests that a one-time educational intervention is not sufficient to move many parents to be proactive. The scarcity of published studies speaks to the need for further research to determine the most effective approaches to engage all

  9. Positive and negative reinforcement activate human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eWeis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies suggest that reward modulates neural activity in sensory cortices, but less is known about punishment. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an auditory discrimination task, where participants had to judge the duration of frequency modulated tones. In one session correct performance resulted in financial gains at the end of the trial, in a second session incorrect performance resulted in financial loss. Incorrect performance in the rewarded as well as correct performance in the punishment condition resulted in a neutral outcome. The size of gains and losses was either low or high (10 or 50 Euro cent depending on the direction of frequency modulation. We analyzed neural activity at the end of the trial, during reinforcement, and found increased neural activity in auditory cortex when gaining a financial reward as compared to gaining no reward and when avoiding financial loss as compared to receiving a financial loss. This was independent on the size of gains and losses. A similar pattern of neural activity for both gaining a reward and avoiding a loss was also seen in right middle temporal gyrus, bilateral insula and pre-supplemental motor area, here however neural activity was lower after correct responses compared to incorrect responses. To summarize, this study shows that the activation of sensory cortices, as previously shown for gaining a reward is also seen during avoiding a loss.

  10. Developing and implementing a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in prison-based drug treatment: Project BRITE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, William M; St De Lore, Jef; Prendergast, Michael L

    2011-09-01

    Within prison settings, the reliance on punishment for controlling inappropriate or noncompliant behavior is self-evident. What is not so evident is the similarity between this reliance on punishment and the use of positive reinforcements to increase desired behaviors. However, seldom do inmates receive positive reinforcement for engaging in prosocial behaviors or, for inmates receiving drug treatment, behaviors that are consistent with or support their recovery. This study provides an overview of the development and implementation of a positive behavioral reinforcement intervention in male and female prison-based drug treatment programs. The active involvement of institutional staff, treatment staff, and inmates enrolled in the treatment programs in the development of the intervention along with the successful branding of the intervention were effective at promoting support and participation. However, these factors may also have ultimately impacted the ability of the randomized design to reliably demonstrate the effectiveness of the intervention.

  11. Ultrasound imaging of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)

  12. Sports-related injuries in primary health care

    OpenAIRE

    Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Sports activities play an important role in today’s society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in gener...

  13. Sports-related injuries in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G

    2011-02-01

    Sports activities play an important role in today's society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in general practice and to provide information about the nature and treatment of these injuries. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related injuries was 23.7 in 1000 patients and prevalence 27.8 in 1000 patients. Soccer-related injuries are most prominent in this population, lower extremities being three times more often involved than upper extremities. GPs often (60.9%) used a symptom-based diagnosis. In 80% of the cases, no additional diagnostic testing took place, while in 36.5% of the cases, only explanation and advice sufficed. Few patients were referred to the hospital (6.6%). Patients with sports-related injuries regularly consult GPs (on average one to two times per week). GPs tend to use non-specific diagnoses in sports-related injuries. In part, this may be due to the lack of specific diagnoses available in the current registration system (International Classification of Primary Care). Most often these injuries require only explanation and medical advice from the GP. Usually, additional tests or hospital referrals are not necessary. Presumably, mostly patients with mild sports-related injuries consult the GP.

  14. Sports-related injuries in primary health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Sports activities play an important role in today’s society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in general practice and to provide information about the nature and treatment of these injuries. Methods. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. Results. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related injuries was 23.7 in 1000 patients and prevalence 27.8 in 1000 patients. Soccer-related injuries are most prominent in this population, lower extremities being three times more often involved than upper extremities. GPs often (60.9%) used a symptom-based diagnosis. In 80% of the cases, no additional diagnostic testing took place, while in 36.5% of the cases, only explanation and advice sufficed. Few patients were referred to the hospital (6.6%). Discussion. Patients with sports-related injuries regularly consult GPs (on average one to two times per week). GPs tend to use non-specific diagnoses in sports-related injuries. In part, this may be due to the lack of specific diagnoses available in the current registration system (International Classification of Primary Care). Most often these injuries require only explanation and medical advice from the GP. Usually, additional tests or hospital referrals are not necessary. Presumably, mostly patients with mild sports-related injuries consult the GP. PMID:20923967

  15. Impact of Sport-related Games on High School Students’ Communication Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozturk Ozden Tepekoylu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Recent studies underline the fact that adolescents are, at many times, likely to experience serious communication problems with their families and close environments. So, the aim of this study is to determine positive impact of sport-related games, which are performed as extracurricular activities, on high school students’ communication skills. In the study, pre, & post-tests was utilized with the control group’s experimental patterns. Two participant groups were made up of totally 30 high school students, 15 of whom would be in the experimental group and the rest of whom were in the control group. The former group was given sport- related 20 applications for 10 weeks during which the latter group would not deal with any extracurricular activities. Meanwhile, before and after the applications, data was collected by means of “The Communication Skills Scale” which was developed by Korkut (1996 and then analysed through “two-way ANCOVA” test techniques. Results clarify that the considerable gap in scores of the students’ pre, & post-tests perception concerning their communication skills are clearly attributed to sport-related games and it was also established that scores of the students in the experimental group were meaningfully higher than ones in the control group. However, perception of communication skills in the both groups was not significantly different by sex of the students. Moreover, the common effect of sex and participation on sport- related games was not found statistically meaningful in terms of communication skills. Consequently, it could be said that sport-related games impact positively communication skills.

  16. Comparison of the Frequency and Effectiveness of Positive and Negative Reinforcement Practices in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Hukam; Ali, Riasat; Janjua, Muhammad Zaigham Qadeer; Shahzad, Saqib; Khan, Muhammad Saeed

    2010-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to compare the frequency and effectiveness of positive and negative reinforcement practices deployed by teachers in boys' and girls' secondary schools in urban and rural areas. It was hypothesized that there would be no difference in use of reward and punishment by teachers in secondary schools in urban and rural…

  17. Prevent-Teach-Reinforce: The School-Based Model of Individualized Positive Behavior Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Glen; Iovannone, Rose; Kincaid, Donald; Wilson, Kelly; Christiansen, Kathy; Strain, Phillip; English, Carie

    2010-01-01

    Solve serious behavior challenges in K-8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by…

  18. Preferred 'Learning Styles' in Students Studying Sports Related Programmes in Higher Education in the United Kingdom.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, D.M.; Jones, Gareth; Peters, John

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the 'preferred learning styles' and their relationship with grades for students undertaking sports-related undergraduate programmes at a higher education institution in the UK. Preferred 'learning styles' in students in this discipline have been identified as auditory, kinaesthetic and group, although the vast majority of students are multimodal in their learning preferences. Only individual learning style preference was found to be positively related to higher grade...

  19. Incidence and distribution of pediatric sport-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Dennis; Caine, Caroline; Maffulli, Nicola

    2006-11-01

    To provide a critical review of the available literature on the descriptive epidemiology of pediatric sport-related injuries. MEDLINE (1966 to 2006) and SPORTDiscus (1975 to 2006) were searched to identify potentially relevant articles. A combination of medical subject headings and text words was used (epidemiology, children, adolescents, athletic injuries, sports, injury, and injuries). Additional references from the bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Published research reports on the incidence and distribution of injury in children's and youth sports. Specific emphasis was placed on reviewing original studies, which report incidence rates (rate of injuries per unit athlete time). Forty-nine studies were selected for this review. Data summarized include incidence of injury relative to who is affected by injury (sport, participation level, gender, and player position), where injury occurs (anatomical and environmental location), when injury occurs (injury onset and chronometry), and injury outcome (injury type, time loss, clinical outcome, and economic cost). There is little epidemiological data on injuries for some pediatric sports. Many of the studies retrieved were characterized by methodological short-comings and study differences that limit interpretation and comparison of findings across studies. Notwithstanding, the studies reviewed are encouraging and injury patterns that should be studied further with more rigorous study designs to confirm original findings and to probe causes of injury and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Incidence and severity of injury are high in some child and youth sports. This review will assist in targeting the relevant groups and in designing future research on the epidemiology of pediatric sports injuries. Well-designed descriptive and analytical studies are needed to identify the public health impact of pediatric sport injury.

  20. Sports-related concussions and the Louisiana Youth Concussion Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Goldman, Rose; Testa, Marcia

    2012-01-01

    Concussion, also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), is defined as a "complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces." Various symptoms may be observed in patients with concussions. All of these might not be evident at the time of the injury and be intermittent in their nature. It is estimated that 300,000 of the yearly TBIs in the United States are sports-related, the second leading cause for TBIs after motor vehicle accidents among people aged 15 to 24 years old. Due to some recently reported high profile injuries and deaths of sports personalities, sports-related concussion has seen increasing media and public interest in the last decade. We review the role of football in youth concussions and analyze the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2007 to 2009 to elucidate the outcome and costs associated with sports-related concussions of the youth in the United States. We also review the latest state legislative efforts to decrease the incidence of dangerous sports-related concussions in youth--the Louisiana Youth Concussion Act.

  1. Corticosteroids in sports-related injuries: Friend or Foe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-03-16

    Mar 16, 2002 ... are thus seen as useful adjuncts in the treatment of some sports- related injuries. On the basis of their ability to down regulate the immune response, corticosteroids have been used extensively in the management of sports injuries to promote rapid return to the field of play. But to what extent do they affect ...

  2. Sports-related dentofacial trauma among high school students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of sports - related dentofacial injuries among athletes participating in Rugby and Football in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Seventeen Secondary schools participating in either or both Rugby tournaments and the ...

  3. Current topics in sports-related head injuries: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries.

  4. In-office management of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Erin; Collins, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    The field of sport-related concussion has grown exponentially over the past decade, with more concussion-specific clinics being identified in major hospital systems as well as independent practitioner's offices. To date, there is no standardized in-office protocol for managing ongoing symptoms. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Sports Concussion Program, established in 2000, is one of the largest programs in the USA, pioneering the way in clinical management, research, and education of sport-related concussion. This report will outline the essential components of a successful concussion clinic, using the UPMC Sports Concussion Program as a case example of best practice. We will share several case studies illustrating the individualized and complex nature of this injury, as well as review important rehabilitation components. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L

    2008-02-01

    With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.

  6. Sports-related concussions - media, science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-08-01

    Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports.

  7. A study of sports-related orbital fractures in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Jing Zhan; Hegde, Raghuraj; Young, Stephanie; Lim, Thiam Chye; Amrith, Shantha; Sundar, Gangadhara

    2017-10-01

    With an increased popularity of sport and active living worldwide, our study aims to explore the incidence and features of sports-related orbital fractures in Singapore. 1421 computer tomography (CT) imaging scans of the face and orbits done at the National University Hospital over a 24-month period from January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively for orbital fractures. We identified 483 orbital fractures of which sports injury was the fourth most common etiology (n = 65; 13.5%) after road traffic accident (n = 131; 27.1%), geriatric fall (n = 81; 16.8%) and workplace injury (n = 67; 13.9%). The three most common sport in orbital fractures were soccer (n = 20; 30.8%), bicycling (n = 11; 16.9%) and jogging (n = 8; 12.3%). The three most common fracture patterns were zygomatico-maxillary complex fractures (n = 24; 36.9%), isolated one wall blowout fractures (n = 19; 29.2%) and naso-orbito-ethmoid fractures (n = 7; 10.8%). Sports-related orbital fractures were associated with a low mean age of patients (45.9 years, range, 14-79 years), a higher proportion of males (n = 58; 89.2%) than that from geriatric falls (n = 37, 45.6%) (P Sports-related orbital fractures are the fourth most common cause of orbital fractures. Though commonly seen in young male adults, in view of the aging population and people exercising more regularly, education of safety measures among sports users is paramount to preventing sports-related orbital fractures.

  8. Sports-Related Emergency Preparedness in Oregon High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel T; Norcross, Marc F; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Hoffman, Mark A; Chang, Eunwook; Koester, Michael C

    Best practice recommendations for sports-related emergency preparation include implementation of venue-specific emergency action plans (EAPs), access to early defibrillation, and first responders-specifically coaches-trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator (AED) use. The objective was to determine whether high schools had implemented these 3 recommendations and whether schools with a certified athletic trainer (AT) were more likely to have done so. Schools with an AT were more likely to have implemented the recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. All Oregon School Activities Association member school athletic directors were invited to complete a survey on sports-related emergency preparedness and AT availability at their school. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the associations between emergency preparedness and AT availability. In total, 108 respondents (37% response rate) completed the survey. Exactly half reported having an AT available. Only 11% (95% CI, 6%-19%) of the schools had implemented all 3 recommendations, 29% (95% CI, 21%-39%) had implemented 2, 32% (95% CI, 24%-42%) had implemented 1, and 27% (95% CI, 19%-36%) had not implemented any of the recommendations. AT availability was associated with implementation of the recommendations (χ 2 = 10.3, P = 0.02), and the proportion of schools with ATs increased with the number of recommendations implemented (χ 2 = 9.3, P Schools with an AT were more likely to implement venue-specific EAPs (52% vs 24%, P schools were inadequately prepared for sports-related emergencies. Schools with an AT were more likely to implement some, but not all, of the recommendations. Policy changes may be needed to improve implementation. Most Oregon high schools need to do more to prepare for sports-related emergencies. The results provide evidence for sports medicine professionals and administrators to inform policy changes that ensure the safety of athletes.

  9. Fractionating negative and positive affectivity in handedness: Insights from the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Alan A; Mutinelli, Sofia; Corr, Philip J

    2017-07-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ), as modified by Briggs and Nebes [(1975). Patterns of hand preference in a student population. Cortex, 11(3), 230-238. doi: 10.1016/s0010-9452(75)80005-0] , was administered to a sample of 177 participants alongside the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire [RST-PQ; Corr, P. J., & Cooper, A. (2016). The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ): Development and validation. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1037/pas000 ], which measures two factors of defensive negative emotion, motivation and affectivity-the Behavioural Inhibition System (BIS) and the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (FFFS)-and one positive-approach dimension related to reward sensitivity, persistence and reactivity-the Behavioural Approach System. We sought to clarify the nature of negative, and positive, affectivity in relation to handedness. ANOVAs and multiple regression analyses converged on the following conclusions: left-handers were higher on the BIS, not the FFFS, than right-handers; in right-handers only, strength of hand preference was positively correlated with the FFFS, not the BIS. The original assessment method proposed by Annett was also used to assess handedness, but associations with RST-PQ factors were not found. These findings help us to clarify existing issues in the literature and raise new ones for future research.

  10. Using modeling and vicarious reinforcement to produce more positive attitudes toward mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Gary I; Malouff, John M

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of a video, developed for this study and using principles of cognitive learning theory, to produce positive attitudinal change toward mental health treatment. The participants were 35 men and 45 women who were randomly assigned to watch either an experimental video, which included 3 positive 1st-person accounts of psychotherapy or a control video that focused on the psychological construct of self. Pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 2-week follow-up levels of attitude toward mental health treatment were measured using the Attitude Toward Seeking Professional Help Scale (E. H. Fischer & J. L. Turner, 1970). The experimental video group showed a significantly greater increase in positive attitude than did the control group. These results support the effectiveness of using the vicarious reinforcement elements of cognitive learning theory as a basis for changing attitudes toward mental health treatment.

  11. Stress affects instrumental learning based on positive or negative reinforcement in interaction with personality in domestic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenchon, Mathilde; Lévy, Frédéric; Moussu, Chantal; Lansade, Léa

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated how stress affects instrumental learning performance in horses (Equus caballus) depending on the type of reinforcement. Horses were assigned to four groups (N = 15 per group); each group received training with negative or positive reinforcement in the presence or absence of stressors unrelated to the learning task. The instrumental learning task consisted of the horse entering one of two compartments at the appearance of a visual signal given by the experimenter. In the absence of stressors unrelated to the task, learning performance did not differ between negative and positive reinforcements. The presence of stressors unrelated to the task (exposure to novel and sudden stimuli) impaired learning performance. Interestingly, this learning deficit was smaller when the negative reinforcement was used. The negative reinforcement, considered as a stressor related to the task, could have counterbalanced the impact of the extrinsic stressor by focusing attention toward the learning task. In addition, learning performance appears to differ between certain dimensions of personality depending on the presence of stressors and the type of reinforcement. These results suggest that when negative reinforcement is used (i.e. stressor related to the task), the most fearful horses may be the best performers in the absence of stressors but the worst performers when stressors are present. On the contrary, when positive reinforcement is used, the most fearful horses appear to be consistently the worst performers, with and without exposure to stressors unrelated to the learning task. This study is the first to demonstrate in ungulates that stress affects learning performance differentially according to the type of reinforcement and in interaction with personality. It provides fundamental and applied perspectives in the understanding of the relationships between personality and training abilities.

  12. Outcome analysis of sports-related multiple facial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; You, Sun Hye; Lee, Hong Sik

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, we report a retrospective study of 236 patients with facial bone fractures from various sports who were treated at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea, between February 1996 and April 2007. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analyzed to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment of the sports-related facial bone fractures. The highest frequency of sports-related facial bone fractures was in the age group 11 to 20 years (40.3%); there was a significant male predominance in all age groups (13.75:1). The most common causes of the injury were soccer (38.1%), baseball (16.1%), basketball (12.7%), martial arts (6.4%), and skiing or snowboarding (11%). Fractures of the nasal bone were the most common in all sports; mandible fractures were common in soccer and martial arts, orbital bone fractures were common in baseball, basketball, and ice sports, and fractures of the zygoma were frequently seen in soccer and martial arts. The main causes of the sports injuries were direct body contact (50.8%), and the most commonly associated soft tissue injuries were found in the head and neck regions (92.3%). Nasal bone fractures were the most common (54.2%), and tripod fractures were the most common type of complex injuries (4.2%). The complication rate was 3.0%. Long-term epidemiological data regarding the natural history of sports-related facial bone fractures are important for the evaluation of existing preventative measures and for the development of new methods of injury prevention and treatment.

  13. Sport-Related Portal Vein Thrombosis: An Unusual Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumic, Igor; Tankosic, Nikola; Stojkovic Lalosevic, Milica; Alempijevic, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is an uncommon condition usually associated with hypercoagulable states or liver cirrhosis. PVT due to sports-related injuries is rarely reported and, to the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been reported thus far. Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a form of martial arts and is considered very safe with minimal risk for injury. It has growing popularity worldwide. Here, we report the first case of PVT secondary to abdominal trauma related to the practice of (BJJ) in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old man with no other traditional risk factors for PVT.

  14. Lived Experiences of Adolescent Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Wagner, Alyssa J; Bacon, Cailee E Welch

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have identified the effect of sport-related concussion on health-related quality of life through the use of patient-reported outcome measures. However, there has been little research exploring the underlying mechanisms that influence these perceptions of health-related quality of life among adolescent athletes who have sustained a sport-related concussion. To explore the psychosocial aspects of concussion among adolescent athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 12 interscholastic athletes (4 girls, 8 boys; mean ± SD age, 15.7 ± 1.7 years; grade level, 10.2 ± 1.4) were interviewed via a semistructured interview protocol between 15 and 30 days postinjury. Data analysis was guided by the consensual qualitative research tradition. Themes and categories emerged through consensus by a 3-person research team, and bias was minimized through the use of multiple-analyst triangulation. Participants identified numerous postconcussion symptoms that resulted in increasing difficulty with emotions (eg, irritable, easily frustrated), roles at school (eg, concentration difficulties, fatigue), and roles in their social environment (eg, letting the team down, not being able to contribute to sport). As a result, participants expressed how they tried to minimize or mask symptoms to decrease the potential of being viewed differently by their peers. Adolescent athletes perceived a significant effect of sport-related concussion on numerous areas of psychosocial and emotional health and well-being. Anticipatory guidance-with education regarding the possible signs and symptoms, risk factors, and recovery expectations following a concussion-is important to include in postinjury management. A better understanding of sport-related concussion and expected recovery could help to improve perceptions of this injury among interscholastic athletes. Additionally, best practices should be identified to assist health care professionals and school personnel in the

  15. The pediatric athlete: younger athletes with sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Proctor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Although much of the lay media attention surrounding sport-related concussion (SRC) focuses on professional athletes, SRC is a common injury in pediatric sports. The anatomy, biomechanics, and response to injury of the developing pediatric brain differ from those of the adult. Similarly, the neurocognitive abilities of the child are developing more rapidly than in an adult. The effects of concussive brain injury on the life of a child are different from those of an adult. This article focuses on the aspects of SRC that are specific to the younger athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sport-Related Portal Vein Thrombosis: An Unusual Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Dumic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is an uncommon condition usually associated with hypercoagulable states or liver cirrhosis. PVT due to sports-related injuries is rarely reported and, to the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been reported thus far. Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ is a form of martial arts and is considered very safe with minimal risk for injury. It has growing popularity worldwide. Here, we report the first case of PVT secondary to abdominal trauma related to the practice of (BJJ in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old man with no other traditional risk factors for PVT.

  17. The use of positive reinforcement in training zebra sharks (Stegostoma fasciatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marranzino, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) was used on 4 adult zebra sharks, Stegostoma fasciatum, housed at the Downtown Aquarium, Denver, to determine the ability of zebra sharks to become desensitized to various stimuli associated with veterinary procedures. One male and 3 female sharks were trained for 12 weeks. As a result of PRT, all 4 zebra sharks were desensitized to staying within a closed holding tank off of the main exhibit, the presence of multiple trainers in the closed holding tank, and tactile stimulation. One of the 4 zebra sharks was also successfully desensitized to the presence of a stretcher being brought into the holding tank. All of these procedures are common in veterinary examinations, and it is hoped that desensitization to these stimuli will reduce the stress associated with examinations. The training accomplished has allowed for easier maintenance of the zebra sharks by the aquarium staff and an improvement in the care of the sharks.

  18. Vestibular and balance issues following sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Hale, Troy D

    2015-01-01

    To review relevant literature regarding the effect of concussion on vestibular function, impairments, assessments and management strategies. REASONING: Dizziness and balance impairments are common following sport-related concussion. Recommendations regarding the management of sport-related concussion suggest including tests of balance within the multifactorial assessment paradigm for concussive injuries. The literature was searched for guidelines and original studies related to vestibular impairments following concussion, oculomotor and balance assessments and treatment or rehabilitation of vestibular impairments. The databases searched included Medline, CINAHL, Sport Discus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through October 2013. Dizziness following concussion occurs in ∼67-77% of cases and has been implicated as a risk factor for a prolonged recovery. Balance impairments also occur after concussion and last 3-10 days post-injury. Assessments of balance can be done using both clinical and instrumented measures with success. Vestibular rehabilitation has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with vestibular impairments, with one study demonstrating success in decreasing symptoms and increasing function following concussion. Best practices suggest that the assessment of vestibular function through cranial nerve, oculomotor and balance assessments are an important aspect of concussion management. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation for improving patient outcomes.

  19. A Review of Sport-Related Head Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2016-04-01

    We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns.

  20. Imaging of sports-related hip and groin injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lischuk, Andrew W; Dorantes, Thomas M; Wong, William; Haims, Andrew H

    2010-05-01

    A normally functioning hip joint is imperative for athletes who use their lower extremities with running, jumping, or kicking activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are far less frequent than injuries to the more distal aspect of the extremity, accounting for less than 10% of lower extremity injuries. Despite the lower incidence, hip and groin injuries can lead to significant clinical and diagnostic challenges related to the complex anatomy and biomechanical considerations of this region. Loads up to 8 times normal body weight have been documented in the joint in common daily activities, such as jogging, with significantly greater force expected during competitive athletics. Additionally, treatment for hip and groin injuries can obviate the participation of medical and surgical specialties, with a multidisciplinary approach frequently required. Delay in diagnosis and triage of these injuries may cause loss of time from competition and, potentially, early onset of degenerative changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip has proven to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of sports-related hip and groin injuries in the setting of negative radiographs. With its exquisite soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capabilities, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is unmatched in the noninvasive diagnosis of intra-articular and extra-articular pathology, as well as intraosseous processes. This review focuses on MRI of common athletic injuries of the hip and groin, including acetabular labral tears, femoral acetabular impingement syndrome, muscle injuries around the hip and groin (including athletic pubalgia), and athletic osseous injuries.

  1. Early symptom burden predicts recovery after sport-related concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296

  2. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riemsdijk, Lenka; Ingenbleek, Paul T M; van Trijp, Hans C M; van der Veen, Gerrita

    2017-12-14

    This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers' social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  3. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka van Riemsdijk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational to create an attractive position relative to their competitors. It also explains why some consumer segments, such as those with a specific thinking style, may experience a stronger effect of some strategies, giving directions on how to approach different types of consumers. Finally, building on research asserting that animal welfare is a credence product attribute, the article proposes moderating effects of two factors that help consumers to evaluate the credibility of animal welfare claims, namely corporate social responsibility strategy and the role of stakeholders. Here it concludes that companies selling animal-friendly products need to be aware of the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of positioning strategies for individual products and that, to gain consumer trust, they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations.

  4. Sport-Related Concussion Alters Indices of Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D. Wright

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sport-related concussion is known to affect a variety of brain functions. However, the impact of this brain injury on cerebral autoregulation (CA is poorly understood. Thus, the goal of the current study was to determine the acute and cumulative effects of sport-related concussion on indices of dynamic CA. Toward this end, 179 elite, junior-level (age 19.6 ± 1.5 years contact sport (ice hockey, American football athletes were recruited for preseason testing, 42 with zero prior concussions and 31 with three or more previous concussions. Eighteen athletes sustained a concussion during that competitive season and completed follow-up testing at 72 h, 2 weeks, and 1 month post injury. Beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure (BP and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv were recorded using finger photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Five minutes of repetitive squat–stand maneuvers induced BP oscillations at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz (20- and 10-s cycles, respectively. The BP–MCAv relationship was quantified using transfer function analysis to estimate Coherence (correlation, Gain (amplitude ratio, and Phase (timing offset. At a group level, repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that 0.10 Hz Phase was significantly reduced following an acute concussion, compared to preseason, by 23% (−0.136 ± 0.033 rads at 72 h and by 18% (−0.105 ± 0.029 rads at 2 weeks post injury, indicating impaired autoregulatory functioning; recovery to preseason values occurred by 1 month. Athletes were cleared to return to competition after a median of 14 days (range 7–35, implying that physiologic dysfunction persisted beyond clinical recovery in many cases. When comparing dynamic pressure buffering between athletes with zero prior concussions and those with three or more, no differences were observed. Sustaining an acute sport-related concussion induces transient impairments in the capabilities of the cerebrovascular

  5. [Sport-related sudden death and its prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Richard

    2010-10-01

    Sudden death of sportspersons is frequently in the news but is relatively uncommon when the total number of sudden deaths is taken into account (1500 vs 40 000 per year in France for example). Sport-related sudden death is often due to an unrecognized or underestimated cardiovascular disorder. The immediate causes of this dramatic event are age-dependent. Before 35, the most frequent causes are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, while complications of coronary atheroma predominate later. Prevention begins with screening, which remains imperfect. Patients with cardiovascular disorders at risk of sudden death must adapt their sports activities accordingly. Knowledge of life-saving first-aid procedures by those supervising sports activities can improve the prognosis.

  6. MR imaging in sports-related glenohumeral instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woertler, Klaus; Waldt, Simone

    2006-01-01

    Sports-related shoulder pain and injuries represent a common problem. In this context, glenohumeral instability is currently believed to play a central role either as a recognized or as an unrecognized condition. Shoulder instabilities can roughly be divided into traumatic, atraumatic, and microtraumatic glenohumeral instabilities. In athletes, atraumatic and microtraumatic instabilities can lead to secondary impingement syndromes and chronic damage to intraarticular structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is superior to conventional MR imaging in the diagnosis of labro-ligamentous injuries, intrinsic impingement, and SLAP (superior labral anteroposterior) lesions, and thus represents the most informative imaging modality in the overall assessment of glenohumeral instability. This article reviews the imaging criteria for the detection and classification of instability-related injuries in athletes with special emphasis on the influence of MR findings on therapeutic decisions. (orig.)

  7. What is the definition of sports-related concussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCrory, Paul; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Dvořák, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Various definitions for concussion have been proposed, each having its strengths and weaknesses. We reviewed and compared current definitions and identified criteria necessary for an operational definition of sports-related concussion (SRC) in preparation of the 5th Concussion Consensus...... Conference (Berlin, Germany). We also assessed the role of biomechanical studies in informing an operational definition of SRC. DESIGN: This is a systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: Data sources include MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central...... Register of Clinical Trials and SPORT Discus (accessed 14 September 2016). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Eligibility criteria were studies reporting (clinical) criteria for diagnosing SRC and studies containing SRC impact data. RESULTS: Out of 1601 articles screened, 36 studies were included...

  8. Legal and ethical implications in the evaluation and management of sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschen, Matthew P; Tsou, Amy; Nelson, Sarah Bird; Russell, James A; Larriviere, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    To examine the ethical and legal issues physicians face when evaluating and managing athletes with sports-related concussions, and to offer guidance to physicians as they navigate these situations. This position paper reviews and compares the components of sports-related concussion laws, including education, removal from play, and clearance for return to play. It highlights the challenges privacy laws present relevant to providing care to concussed athletes and suggests ways to help physicians overcome these obstacles. The report also explores the ethical considerations physicians should bear in mind as they evaluate and manage concussed athletes, addressing them through a framework that includes considerations of professionalism, informed decision-making, patient autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, conflicts of interest, and distributive justice. Physicians caring for concussed athletes have an ethical obligation to ensure that their primary responsibility is to safeguard the current and future physical and mental health of their patients. Physicians have a duty to provide athletes and their parents with information about concussion risk factors, symptoms, and the risks for postconcussion neurologic impairments. Physicians should facilitate informed and shared decision-making among athletes, parents, and medical teams while protecting athletes from potential harm. Additionally, including concussion evaluation and management training in neurology residency programs, as well as developing a national concussion registry, will benefit patients by the development of policies and clinical guidelines that optimize prevention and treatment of concussive head injury. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Child protection training in sport-related degrees and initial teacher training for physical education: An audit

    OpenAIRE

    Rossato, Claire; Brackenridge, Celia

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the results of an online survey of child protection training for students on sport-related degrees and Initial Teacher Training Physical Education courses, and on the views of recently-graduated teachers of the usefulness of such training in their everyday work. The results indicate that child protection training is provided on most courses but in varying amounts. Respondents to the survey reported positively, in the main, about the effects of new requirements for te...

  10. Training rhesus macaques for venipuncture using positive reinforcement techniques: a comparison with chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Kristine; Pranger, Lindsay; Maier, Adriane; Lambeth, Susan P; Perlman, Jaine E; Thiele, Erica; Schapiro, Steven J

    2008-01-01

    As more emphasis is placed on enhancing the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates, many research facilities have started using positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques to train primates to voluntarily participate in husbandry and research procedures. PRT increases the animal's control over its environment and desensitizes the animal to stressful stimuli. Blood draw is a common husbandry and research procedure that can be particularly stressful for nonhuman primate subjects. Although studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees can be trained for in-cage venipuncture using PRT only, fewer studies have demonstrated success using similar techniques to train macaques. It is often assumed that macaques cannot be trained in the same manner as apes. In this study, we compare PRT data from singly housed adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; n = 8) with data from group-housed adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes; n = 4). All subjects were trained to place an arm in a 'blood sleeve' and remain stationary for venipuncture. Both facilities used similar PRT techniques. We were able to obtain repeated blood samples from 75% of the macaques and all of the chimpanzees. The training time did not differ significantly between the 2 species. These data demonstrate that macaques can be trained for venipuncture in a manner similar to that used for chimpanzees.

  11. Positive reinforcement mediated by midbrain dopamine neurons requires D1 and D2 receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E Steinberg

    Full Text Available The neural basis of positive reinforcement is often studied in the laboratory using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS, a simple behavioral model in which subjects perform an action in order to obtain exogenous stimulation of a specific brain area. Recently we showed that activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine neurons supports ICSS behavior, consistent with proposed roles of this neural population in reinforcement learning. However, VTA dopamine neurons make connections with diverse brain regions, and the specific efferent target(s that mediate the ability of dopamine neuron activation to support ICSS have not been definitively demonstrated. Here, we examine in transgenic rats whether dopamine neuron-specific ICSS relies on the connection between the VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc, a brain region also implicated in positive reinforcement. We find that optogenetic activation of dopaminergic terminals innervating the NAc is sufficient to drive ICSS, and that ICSS driven by optical activation of dopamine neuron somata in the VTA is significantly attenuated by intra-NAc injections of D1 or D2 receptor antagonists. These data demonstrate that the NAc is a critical efferent target sustaining dopamine neuron-specific ICSS, identify receptor subtypes through which dopamine acts to promote this behavior, and ultimately help to refine our understanding of the neural circuitry mediating positive reinforcement.

  12. Positive Reinforcement Mediated by Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Requires D1 and D2 Receptor Activation in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Elizabeth E.; Boivin, Josiah R.; Saunders, Benjamin T.; Witten, Ilana B.; Deisseroth, Karl; Janak, Patricia H.

    2014-01-01

    The neural basis of positive reinforcement is often studied in the laboratory using intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), a simple behavioral model in which subjects perform an action in order to obtain exogenous stimulation of a specific brain area. Recently we showed that activation of ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons supports ICSS behavior, consistent with proposed roles of this neural population in reinforcement learning. However, VTA dopamine neurons make connections with diverse brain regions, and the specific efferent target(s) that mediate the ability of dopamine neuron activation to support ICSS have not been definitively demonstrated. Here, we examine in transgenic rats whether dopamine neuron-specific ICSS relies on the connection between the VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region also implicated in positive reinforcement. We find that optogenetic activation of dopaminergic terminals innervating the NAc is sufficient to drive ICSS, and that ICSS driven by optical activation of dopamine neuron somata in the VTA is significantly attenuated by intra-NAc injections of D1 or D2 receptor antagonists. These data demonstrate that the NAc is a critical efferent target sustaining dopamine neuron-specific ICSS, identify receptor subtypes through which dopamine acts to promote this behavior, and ultimately help to refine our understanding of the neural circuitry mediating positive reinforcement. PMID:24733061

  13. The Effect of Tow Shearing on Reinforcement Positional Fidelity in the Manufacture of a Continuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Matrix Composite via Pultrusion-Like Processing of Commingled Feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlick, Kent M.

    While the addition of short fiber to 3D printed articles has increased structural performance, ultimate gains will only be realized through the introduction of continuous reinforcement placed along pre-planned load paths. Most additive manufacturing research focusing on the addition of continuous reinforcement has revolved around utilization of a prefrabricated composite filament or a fiber and matrix mixed within a hot end prior to deposition on a printing surface such that conventional extrusion based FDM can be applied. Although stronger 3D printed parts can be made in this manner, high quality homogenous composites are not possible due to fiber dominated regions, matrix dominated regions, and voids present between adjacent filaments. Conventional composite manufacturing processes are much better at creating homogeneous composites; however, the layer by layer approach in which they are made is inhibiting the alignment of reinforcement with loads. Automated Fiber Placement techniques utilize in plane bending deformation of the tow to facilitate tow steering. Due to buckling fibers on the inner radius of curves, manufacturers recommend a minimum curvature for path placement with this technique. A method called continuous tow shearing has shown promise to enable the placement of tows in complex patterns without tow buckling, spreading, and separation inherent in conventional forms of automated reinforcement positioning. The current work employs fused deposition modeling hardware and the continuous tow shearing technique to manufacture high quality fiber reinforced composites with high positional fidelity, varying continuous reinforcement orientations within a layer, and plastic elements incorporated enabling the ultimate gains in structural performance possible. A mechanical system combining concepts of additive manufacturing with fiber placement via filament winding was developed. Paths with and without tension inherent in filament winding were analyzed through

  14. Marketing Animal-Friendly Products: Addressing the Consumer Social Dilemma with Reinforcement Positioning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingenbleek, Paul T.M.; van Trijp, Hans C.M.; van der Veen, Gerrita

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Modern production systems aimed at improving animal welfare are more costly than traditional systems. Animal-friendly products are therefore typically more expensive than mainstream products, which presents one of the main barriers to consumer animal-friendly product choice. To overcome this barrier, marketing strategies that associate animal welfare with different types of value, such as taste, healthiness or good feeling, may be useful. This article presents a theoretical framework with marketing strategies using various types of value, suitable for animal-friendly products to encourage consumers to buy animal-friendly instead of mainstream products. We also explain why some consumers, such as those with a rational or an intuitive thinking style, may be more sensitive to some strategies over others, giving directions to marketing managers on how to approach different types of consumers. Because the credibility of animal welfare claims is a critical issue in marketing animal-friendly products, we address this issue as well. Specifically, we propose that, to gain consumer trust, companies selling animal-friendly products need to take into account the impact of their overall strategy on the effectiveness of marketing strategies for individual products and that they may need to collaborate with relevant stakeholders, such as media or animal-interest organizations. Abstract This article presents a conceptual framework that aims to encourage consumer animal-friendly product choice by introducing positioning strategies for animal-friendly products. These strategies reinforce the animal welfare with different types of consumption values and can therefore reduce consumers’ social dilemma, which is a major barrier to animal-friendly consumer choices. The article suggests how animal-friendly products can use various types of consumption values (functional, sensory, emotional, social, epistemic and situational) to create an attractive position relative to

  15. Sports-related concussions: diagnosis, complications, and current management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jonathan G; Young, Jacob S; Bailes, Julian E

    2016-04-01

    Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are traumatic events that affect up to 3.8 million athletes per year. The initial diagnosis and management is often instituted on the field of play by coaches, athletic trainers, and team physicians. SRCs are usually transient episodes of neurological dysfunction following a traumatic impact, with most symptoms resolving in 7-10 days; however, a small percentage of patients will suffer protracted symptoms for years after the event and may develop chronic neurodegenerative disease. Rarely, SRCs are associated with complications, such as skull fractures, epidural or subdural hematomas, and edema requiring neurosurgical evaluation. Current standards of care are based on a paradigm of rest and gradual return to play, with decisions driven by subjective and objective information gleaned from a detailed history and physical examination. Advanced imaging techniques such as functional MRI, and detailed understanding of the complex pathophysiological process underlying SRCs and how they affect the athletes acutely and long-term, may change the way physicians treat athletes who suffer a concussion. It is hoped that these advances will allow a more accurate assessment of when an athlete is truly safe to return to play, decreasing the risk of secondary impact injuries, and provide avenues for therapeutic strategies targeting the complex biochemical cascade that results from a traumatic injury to the brain.

  16. Sports-related injuries in athletes with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, K; Lexell, J

    2014-10-01

    The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sport-related performance anxiety in young female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes. Copyright © 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Depression and sports-related concussion: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yrondi, Antoine; Brauge, David; LeMen, Johanne; Arbus, Christophe; Pariente, Jérémie

    2017-10-01

    Head injuries are risk factors for chronic depressive disorders, but this association remains poorly explored with regards to concussion. The objective of this review was to evaluate the incidence of depressive symptoms and depression after sports-related concussion. We also endeavored to identify the response elements regarding the pathophysiology of these symptoms. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase was conducted focusing on papers published until 1st December, 2016, according to PRISMA criteria The following MESH terms were used: (concussion or traumatic brain injury) and sport and (depression or depressive disorder). A depressive disorder can appear immediately after a concussion: depressive symptoms seem to be associated with the symptoms of the concussion itself. A depressive disorder can also appear later, and is often linked to the frequency and number of concussions. Furthermore, the existence of a mood disorder prior to a concussion can contribute to the onset of a depressive disorder after a concussion. There is an overall limit concerning the definition of a depressive disorder. In addition, when these studies had controls, they were often compared to high-level athletes; yet, practicing sport regularly is a protective factor against mood pathologies. Depressive symptoms after a concussion seem to be associated with postconcussion symptoms. Repeat concussions can contribute to later-onset major depressive disorders. However, playing sports can protect against major depressive disorders: thus, it is essential to evaluate concussions as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Sports-related Concussion in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refakis, Christian A; Turner, Christian D; Cahill, Patrick J

    2017-06-01

    Concussions are becoming increasingly important to manage properly as sports participation continues to rise. Repeated injuries occurring before the brain has had a chance to recover from an initial insult are particularly dangerous and must be prevented. Although much national media attention has been devoted to concussions in professional sports, it is important to appreciate that athletes in any age group, children and adolescents in particular, are at risk of sports-related concussion. It is crucial to remove an athlete from play any time concussion is suspected. Once removed from play, recovery then begins with a period of cognitive and physical rest, followed by a gradual return to cognitive and athletic activities as symptoms resolve. Children and adolescents pose a unique challenge to the clinician managing their recovery, as the physical and cognitive rest periods required often involve time away from school and sports, which can be academically detrimental and socially isolating. Recently developed sideline assessment tools have greatly aided the urgent sideline assessment of an athlete suspected of having a concussion. In this article, a brief review of current guidelines is presented in tandem with the authors' preferred treatment of concussion.

  20. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  1. Subject-specific increases in serum S-100B distinguish sports-related concussion from sports-related exertion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kiechle

    Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.

  2. Consumption of Sport-Related Dietary Supplements among NCAA Division 1 Female Student Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…

  3. Multidisciplinary Management of Pediatric Sports-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Reimer, Karen; Nijjar, Satnam; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Johnston, Janine; Mansouri, Behzad; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Girardin, Richard; Larkins, Shannon; Vis, Sara; Selci, Erin; Davidson, Michael; Gregoire, Scott; Sam, Angela; Black, Brian; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric sports-related concussion (SRC) patients who were evaluated and managed at a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and examine the healthcare resources and personnel required to meet the needs of this patient population. We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric SRC patients referred to the Pan Am Concussion Program from September 1st, 2013 to May 25th, 2015. Initial assessments and diagnoses were carried out by a single neurosurgeon. Return-to-Play decision-making was carried out by the multidisciplinary team. 604 patients, including 423 pediatric SRC patients were evaluated at the Pan Am Concussion Program during the study period. The mean age of study patients was 14.30 years (SD: 2.32, range 7-19 years); 252 (59.57%) were males. Hockey (182; 43.03%) and soccer (60; 14.18%) were the most commonly played sports at the time of injury. Overall, 294 (69.50%) of SRC patients met the clinical criteria for concussion recovery, while 75 (17.73%) were lost to follow-up, and 53 (12.53%) remained in active treatment at the end of the study period. The median duration of symptoms among the 261 acute SRC patients with complete follow-up was 23 days (IQR: 15, 36). Overall, 25.30% of pediatric SRC patients underwent at least one diagnostic imaging test and 32.62% received referral to another member of our multidisciplinary clinical team. Comprehensive care of pediatric SRC patients requires access to appropriate diagnostic resources and the multidisciplinary collaboration of experts with national and provincially-recognized training in TBI.

  4. Neuroimaging findings in pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Leiter, Jeff; Hall, Thomas; McDonald, Patrick J; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco

    2015-09-01

    The goal in this review was to summarize the results of clinical neuroimaging studies performed in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinar ypediatric concussion program. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records and neuroimaging findings for all patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age ≤ 19 years; and 2) physician-diagnosed SRC. All patients underwent evaluation and follow-up by the same neurosurgeon. The 2 outcomes examined in this review were the frequency of neuroimaging studies performed in this population (including CT and MRI) and the findings of those studies. Clinical indications for neuroimaging and the impact of neuroimaging findings on clinical decision making were summarized where available. This investigation was approved by the local institutional ethics review board. A total of 151 patients (mean age 14 years, 59% female) were included this study. Overall, 36 patients (24%) underwent neuroimaging studies, the results of which were normal in 78% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients underwent CT imaging; results were normal in 79% of cases. Abnormal CT findings included the following: arachnoid cyst (1 patient), skull fracture (2 patients), suspected intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient), and suspected hemorrhage into an arachnoid cyst (1 patient). Eleven percent of patients underwent MRI; results were normal in 75% of cases. Abnormal MRI findings included the following: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (1 patient); nonhemorrhagic contusion (1 patient); demyelinating disease (1 patient); and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, cerebellar volume loss, and nonspecific white matter changes (1 patient). Results of clinical neuroimaging studies are normal in the majority of pediatric patients with SRC. However, in selected cases neuroimaging can provide

  5. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshan P; Redshaw, Jeffrey D; Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, Thomas G; Erickson, Bradley A; Majercik, Sarah D; Gaither, Thomas W; Craig, James R; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B

    2015-07-01

    Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. We identified patients with AAST grades III-V blunt renal injuries from four level 1 trauma centres across the United States between 1/2005 and 1/2014. Patients were divided into "Sport" or "Non-sport" related groups. Outcomes included rates of hypotension (systolic blood pressure 110bpm), concomitant abdominal injury, and procedural/surgical intervention between sports and non-sports related injury. 320 patients met study criteria. 18% (59) were sports-related injuries with the most common mechanisms being skiing, snowboarding and contact sports (25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively). Median age was 24 years for sports and 30 years for non-sports related renal injuries (p=0.049). Males were more commonly involved in sports related injuries (85% vs. 72%, p=0.011). Median injury severity score was lower for sports related injuries (10 vs. 27, pinjury scale scores. Sports related trauma was more likely to be isolated without other significant injury (69% vs. 39% (psports and non-sports renal injuries (p=0.30). Sports injuries had lower transfusion (7% vs. 47%, psports vs. 18% non-sports, p=0.95). High-grade sports-related blunt renal trauma is more likely to occur in isolation without other abdominal or thoracic injuries and clinicians must have a high suspicion of renal injury with significant blows to the flank during sports activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Psychiatric outcomes after pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Cordingley, Dean; Chu, Stephanie; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the prevalence of emotional symptoms among children and adolescents with a sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and (2) to examine the prevalence, clinical features, risk factors, and management of postinjury psychiatric outcomes among those in this clinical population. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with SRC referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and October 2014. Clinical assessments carried out by a single neurosurgeon included clinical history, physical examination, and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scoring. Postinjury psychiatric outcomes were defined as a subjective worsening of symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder or new and isolated suicidal ideation or diagnosis of a novel psychiatric disorder (NPD). An NPD was defined as a newly diagnosed psychiatric disorder that occurred in a patient with or without a lifetime preinjury psychiatric disorder after a concussion. Clinical resources, therapeutic interventions, and clinical and return-to-play outcomes are summarized. One hundred seventy-four patients (mean age 14.2 years, 61.5% male) were included in the study. At least 1 emotional symptom was reported in 49.4% of the patients, and the median emotional PCSS subscore was 4 (interquartile range 1-8) among those who reported at least 1 emotional symptom. Overall, 20 (11.5%) of the patients met the study criteria for a postinjury psychiatric outcome, including 14 patients with an NPD, 2 patients with isolated suicidal ideation, and 4 patients with worsening symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder. Female sex, a higher initial PCSS score, a higher emotional PCSS subscore, presence of a preinjury psychiatric history, and presence of a family history of psychiatric illness were significantly associated with postinjury psychiatric outcomes

  7. Conflict on the courts: a review of sports-related violence literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2007-10-01

    Sports-related violence is a form of interpersonal violence. Violence that occurs in and around the sporting world can have potentially severe physical and psychological repercussions for those involved. Although scholars in a wide range of disciplines have addressed three of the subsets of sports-related violence, they have done so without regard to the interconnected nature of the subsets, choosing instead to look at hazing, brawling, and foul play as independent problems. By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognize that their connection to sport connects them, scholars fail to see how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. This review describes some of the academic literature, primarily from the United States, and identifies similar themes and prevention suggestions that appear across disciplines. It also argues that the three subsets are an interconnected whole of sports-related violence that deserves more detailed study.

  8. Positioning of steel rods inclusions in reinforced concrete simulant by Compton backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boldo, Emerson M.; Prestes, Ana A.P.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Fisica Nuclear Aplicada

    2011-07-01

    Reinforced concrete is susceptible to a range of environmental degradation factors that can limit its service life. There has always been a need for test methods to measure, in situ, the properties of concrete for quality assurance and to evaluate the condition of existing structures. Compton scattering of gamma radiation is a nondestructive technique used for the detection of defects and inclusions in materials and it can be employed on reinforced concrete. The methodology allows for one-side inspection of large structures and can be implemented with a relatively inexpensive, portable apparatus. In this work, we used the Compton backscattering technique to measure both the size and depth of steel rod inclusions in plaster block samples. The samples were irradiated with gamma rays from a {phi}2 mm collimated {sup 241}Am (100 mCi) source, and the inelastically scattered photons were collected at an angle of 135 deg by a high-resolution CdTe semiconductor detector. Scanning was achieved by lateral movement of the sample blocks across the field of view of the source and detector in steps of 1 mm. The tests on plaster blocks with steel rod inclusions suggest that, for a low-energy and low-activity gamma source, beam attenuation has greater effects on the scattered intensity than does increased material density. Density contrast analysis allows determination of the size and depth of steel rods. Furthermore, the experimental results agree with theoretical data obtained through Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  9. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...

  10. Factors influencing emergency medicine physicians' management of sports-related concussions: a community-wide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Stephen; Kothari, Rashmi; Koestner, Amy; Mohney, Gretchen; Baker, Robert

    2011-12-01

    Numerous guidelines to grade and manage sports-related concussions have been published. However, little is known about how frequently they are implemented in the emergency department. This study evaluates the current practices of emergency physicians (EPs) in managing sports-related concussions. To evaluate the current practice of EP evaluation and management of sports-related concussions. All EPs and emergency medicine residents in Kalamazoo County were surveyed regarding their management of sports-related concussions. The surveys obtained demographic data, participants' use of guidelines, and the importance of clinical and non-clinical factors in deciding when to allow a player to return to play. Of the 73 EP respondents, only 23% used a nationally recognized guideline, with no significant difference between attending and resident EPs. The symptomatic complaints of loss of consciousness, amnesia of the event, and difficulty concentrating were ranked most important by EPs in assessing patients with sports-related concussions. Among non-clinical factors, residents were significantly more likely than attendings to report that medical-legal, parental, and players' concerns were more likely to influence their decision in allowing a patient to return to play. EPs take into consideration important clinical factors in assessing patients with sports-related concussion. However, almost 75% do not use any nationally recognized guideline in their evaluation. Residents are more likely than attendings to be influenced by non-clinical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Positive reinforcement training for a trunk wash in Nepal's working elephants: demonstrating alternatives to traditional elephant training techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagen, Ariel; Acharya, Narayan; Kaufman, Gretchen E

    2014-01-01

    Many trainers of animals in the zoo now rely on positive reinforcement training to teach animals to voluntarily participate in husbandry and veterinary procedures in an effort to improve behavioral reliability, captive management, and welfare. However, captive elephant handlers in Nepal still rely heavily on punishment- and aversion-based methods. The aim of this project was to determine the effectiveness of secondary positive reinforcement (SPR) in training free-contact elephants in Nepal to voluntarily participate in a trunk wash for the purpose of tuberculosis testing. Five female elephants, 4 juveniles and 1 adult, were enrolled in the project. Data were collected in the form of minutes of training, number of offers made for each training task, and success rate for each task in performance tests. Four out of 5 elephants, all juveniles, successfully learned the trunk wash in 35 sessions or fewer, with each session lasting a mean duration of 12 min. The elephants' performance improved from a mean success rate of 39.0% to 89.3% during the course of the training. This study proves that it is feasible to efficiently train juvenile, free-contact, traditionally trained elephants in Nepal to voluntarily and reliably participate in a trunk wash using only SPR techniques.

  12. Nutritional Supplements for the Treatment and Prevention of Sports-Related Concussion-Evidence Still Lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Wang, David H; Leddy, John J

    Concussions are common neurologic events that affect many athletes. Very little has been studied on the treatment of concussions with supplements and medications. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reminds us that no supplement has been proven to treat concussions. Many animal studies show that supplements have potential for improving the effects of a brain injury but none have been shown to be of consistent benefit in human studies. Animal studies on severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may not therefore be applicable transfer to sports-related concussions (SRC).Of the many supplements reviewed in this article, omega-3 fatty acids (Ω-3 FA) have potential for SRC treatment but in the one human trial those taking higher dosages preinjury had more concussions. In animal studies, postinjury administration was as effective as pretreatment. N-acetyl-cysteine has demonstrated a positive short-term effect on blast injuries in soldiers if administered within 24 h, but there are no studies in SRC. Caffeine, conversely, may be detrimental if taken after SRC. Lower serum levels of vitamins D, C, or E preinjury have worse outcomes in animal studies. Preinjury correction of deficiencies may be of benefit. Current human trials for nicotinamide ribose, melatonin, and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may soon provide more evidence for the use of these supplements to reduce the impact of SRC in athletes.

  13. Employment-based abstinence reinforcement following inpatient detoxification in HIV-positive opioid and/or cocaine-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Kelly E; Fingerhood, Michael; Wong, Conrad J; Svikis, Dace S; Nuzzo, Paul; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    Employment-based reinforcement interventions have been used to promote abstinence from drugs among chronically unemployed injection drug users. The current study used an employment-based reinforcement intervention to promote opioid and cocaine abstinence among opioid and/or cocaine-dependent, HIV-positive participants who had recently completed a brief inpatient detoxification. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to an abstinence and work group that was required to provide negative urine samples in order to enter the workplace and to earn incentives for work (n = 16), a work-only group that was permitted to enter the workplace and to earn incentives independent of drug use (n = 15), and a no-voucher control group that did not receive any incentives for working (n = 15) over a 26-week period. The primary outcome was urinalysis-confirmed opioid, cocaine, and combined opioid/cocaine abstinence. Participants were 78% male and 89% African American. Results showed no significant between-groups differences in urinalysis-verified drug abstinence or HIV risk behaviors during the 6-month intervention. The work-only group had significantly greater workplace attendance, and worked more minutes per day when compared to the no-voucher group. Several features of the study design, including the lack of an induction period, setting the threshold for entering the workplace too high by requiring immediate abstinence from several drugs, and increasing the risk of relapse by providing a brief detoxification that was not supported by any continued pharmacological intervention, likely prevented the workplace from becoming established as a reinforcer that could be used to promote drug abstinence. However, increases in workplace attendance have important implications for adult training programs.

  14. Objective vestibular testing of children with dizziness and balance complaints following sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guangwei; Brodsky, Jacob R

    2015-06-01

    To conduct objective assessment of children with balance and vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions and identify the underlying deficits by analyzing laboratory test outcomes. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Medical records were reviewed of 42 pediatric patients with balance and/or vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions who underwent comprehensive laboratory testing on their balance and vestibular function. Patients' characteristics were summarized and results analyzed. More than 90% of the children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion had at least 1 abnormal finding from the comprehensive balance and vestibular evaluation. The most frequent deficit was found in dynamic visual acuity test, followed by Sensory Organization Test and rotational test. Patient's balance problem associated with concussion seemed to be primarily instigated by vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, semicircular canal dysfunction was involved more often than dysfunction of otolith organs. Yet, sports-related concussion. Vestibular impairment is common among children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion. Our study demonstrated that proper and thorough evaluation is imperative to identify these underlying deficits and laboratory tests were helpful in the diagnosis and recommendation of following rehabilitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  15. Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-11-01

    Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.

  16. Establishing a clinical service for the management of sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Erin; Collins, Michael W; Mucha, Anne; Troutman-Ensecki, Cara

    2014-10-01

    The clinical management of sports-related concussions is a specialized area of interest with a lack of empirical findings regarding best practice approaches. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Sports Concussion Program was the first of its kind; 13 years after its inception, it remains a leader in the clinical management and research of sports-related concussions. This article outlines the essential components of a successful clinical service for the management of sports-related concussions, using the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Sports Concussion Program as a case example. Drawing on both empirical evidence and anecdotal conclusions from this high-volume clinical practice, this article provides a detailed account of the inner workings of a multidisciplinary concussion clinic with a comprehensive approach to the management of sports-related concussions. A detailed description of the evaluation process and an in-depth analysis of targeted clinical pathways and subtypes of sports-related concussions effectively set the stage for a comprehensive understanding of the assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation model used in Pittsburgh today.

  17. An automated system for positive reinforcement training of group-housed macaque monkeys at breeding and research facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, Jennifer; Zimmermann, Jonas B; Farningham, David; Jackson, Andrew

    2017-06-15

    Behavioural training through positive reinforcement techniques is a well-recognised refinement to laboratory animal welfare. Behavioural neuroscience research requires subjects to be trained to perform repetitions of specific behaviours for food/fluid reward. Some animals fail to perform at a sufficient level, limiting the amount of data that can be collected and increasing the number of animals required for each study. We have implemented automated positive reinforcement training systems (comprising a button press task with variable levels of difficulty using LED cues and a fluid reward) at the breeding facility and research facility, to compare performance across these different settings, to pre-screen animals for selection and refine training protocols. Animals learned 1- and 4-choice button tasks within weeks of home enclosure training, with some inter-individual differences. High performance levels (∼200-300 trials per 60min session at ∼80% correct) were obtained without food or fluid restriction. Moreover, training quickly transferred to a laboratory version of the task. Animals that acquired the task at the breeding facility subsequently performed better both in early home enclosure sessions upon arrival at the research facility, and also in laboratory sessions. Automated systems at the breeding facility may be used to pre-screen animals for suitability for behavioural neuroscience research. In combination with conventional training, both the breeding and research facility systems facilitate acquisition and transference of learning. Automated systems have the potential to refine training protocols and minimise requirements for food/fluid control. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating the international burden of sport-related death: a review of data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Kristen L; Fortington, Lauren V; Wolff, Catherine S; Marshall, Stephen W; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-02-01

    Despite detailed recommendations for sports injury data capture provided since the mid-1990s, international data collection efforts for sport-related death remains limited in scope. The purpose of this paper was to review the data sources available for studying sport-related death and describe their key features, coverage, accessibility and strengths and limitations. The outcomes of interest for this review was death occurring as a result of participation in organised sport-related activity. Data sources used to enumerate death in sport were identified, drawing from the authors' knowledge/experience and review of key references from international organisations. The general purpose, case identification, structure, strengths and limitations of each source in relation to collection of data for sport-related death were summarised, drawing on examples from the international published literature to illustrate this application. Seven types of resources were identified for capturing deaths in sport. Data sources varied considerably in their ability to identify: participant status, sport relatedness of the death, types of sport-related deaths they capture, level of detail provided about the circumstances and medical care received. The most detailed sources were those that were dedicated to sports surveillance. Sport relatedness and type of sport may not be reliably captured by systems not dedicated to sports injury surveillance. Only one source permitted international comparisons and was limited to one sport (soccer). Data on sport-related death are currently collected across a wide variety of data sources. This review highlights the need for robust, comprehensive approaches with standardised methodologies enabling linkage between sources and international comparisons. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Policies, Procedures, and Practices Regarding Sport-Related Concussion in Community College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddack, Michael; DeWolf, Ryan; Covassin, Tracey; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    College sport organizations and associations endorse concussion-management protocols and policies. To date, little information is available on concussion policies and practices at community college institutions. To assess and describe current practices and policies regarding the assessment, management, and return-to-play criteria for sport-related concussion (SRC) among member institutions of the California Community College Athletic Association (CCCAA). Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 55 head athletic trainers (ATs) at CCCAA institutions. Data about policies, procedures, and practices regarding SRC were collected over a 3-week period in March 2012 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Fisher exact test, and the Spearman test. Almost half (47%) of ATs stated they had a policy for SRC assessment, management, and return to play at their institution. They reported being in compliance with baseline testing guidelines (25%), management guidelines (34.5%), and return-to-play guidelines (30%). Nearly 31% of ATs described having an SRC policy in place for academic accommodations. Conference attendance was positively correlated with institutional use of academic accommodations after SRC (r = 0.44, P = .01). The number of meetings ATs attended and their use of baseline testing were also positively correlated (r = 0.38, P = .01). At the time of this study, nearly half of CCCAA institutions had concussion policies and 31% had academic-accommodation policies. However, only 18% of ATs at CCCAA institutions were in compliance with all of their concussion policies. Our findings demonstrate improvements in the management of SRCs by ATs at California community colleges compared with previous research but a need for better compliance with SRC policies.

  20. What is the definition of sports-related concussion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Paul; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Dvořák, Jiří; Cassidy, J David; McIntosh, Andrew; Vos, Pieter E; Echemendia, Ruben J; Meeuwisse, Willem; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2017-06-01

    Various definitions for concussion have been proposed, each having its strengths and weaknesses. We reviewed and compared current definitions and identified criteria necessary for an operational definition of sports-related concussion (SRC) in preparation of the 5th Concussion Consensus Conference (Berlin, Germany). We also assessed the role of biomechanical studies in informing an operational definition of SRC. This is a systematic literature review. Data sources include MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and SPORT Discus (accessed 14 September 2016). Eligibility criteria were studies reporting (clinical) criteria for diagnosing SRC and studies containing SRC impact data. Out of 1601 articles screened, 36 studies were included (2.2%), 14 reported on criteria for SRC definitions and 22 on biomechanical aspects of concussions. Six different operational definitions focusing on clinical findings and their dynamics were identified. Biomechanical studies were obtained almost exclusively on American football players. Angular and linear head accelerations linked to clinically confirmed concussions demonstrated considerable individual variation. SRC is a traumatic brain injury that is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by biomechanical forces with several common features that help define its nature. Limitations identified include that the current criteria for diagnosing SRC are clinically oriented and that there is no gold/standard to assess their diagnostic properties. A future, more valid definition of SRC would better identify concussed players by demonstrating high predictive positive/negative values. Currently, the use of helmet-based systems to study the biomechanics of SRC is limited to few collision sports. New approaches need to be developed to provide objective markers for SRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  1. Effects of positive reinforcement training techniques on the psychological welfare of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Ori; Terkel, Joseph

    2009-08-01

    Captive environments encompass various factors that can elevate stress levels and jeopardize the wellbeing of the captive animals. The use of positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enables researchers and caretakers to reduce tension directly associated with potentially stressful procedures and states. The current study tested the general effect of PRT on the wellbeing of zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) by measuring behaviors that reflect poor and good welfare and that were not directly connected to the specific aim of the training session. The behavior of a group of twelve chimpanzees was measured throughout the day from the exhibition yard, at baseline (12 weeks) and during the PRT period (10 weeks). The results show a significant decrease in abnormal and stress-related behaviors and a significant rise in prosocial affiliative behaviors following implementation of the training program. The training was shown to have a greater positive effect on low-ranking individuals compared with high-ranking ones. This research shows for the first time that PRT offers an enrichment effect whose general influence lasts throughout the day, irrespective of any direct link to a specific trained behavior. Consequently, it can be claimed that PRT presents an effective enrichment tool that can be implemented with captive animals. Because of the above-noted differential effect between high- and low-ranking chimpanzees, however, this should be taken into consideration when combining PRT with the non-human primates' daily routine.

  2. Epidemiology, trends, assessment and management of sport-related concussion in United States high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Proctor, Mark R; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P

    2012-12-01

    Sport-related concussion affects athletes at every level of participation. The short and long-term effects of concussions that occur during childhood and adolescence are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to describe the current burden of disease, current practice patterns and current recommendations for the assessment and management of sport-related concussions sustained by United States high school athletes. Millions of high school students participate in organized sports in the United States. Current estimates suggest that, across all sports, approximately 2.5 concussions occur for every 10 000 athletic exposures, in which an athletic exposure is defined as one athlete participating in one game or practice. At schools that employ at least one athletic trainer, most high school athletes who sustain sport-related concussions will be cared for by athletic trainers and primary care physicians. Approximately 40% will undergo computerized neurocognitive assessment. The number of high school athletes being diagnosed with sport-related concussions is rising. American football has the highest number of concussions in high school with girls' soccer having the second highest total number. Fortunately, coaches are becoming increasingly aware of these injuries and return-to-play guidelines are being implemented.

  3. Adult sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to

  4. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2011-11-01

    Little existing data describe which medical professionals and which medical studies are used to assess sport-related concussions in high school athletes. To describe the medical providers and medical studies used when assessing sport-related concussions. To determine the effects of medical provider type on timing of return to play, frequency of imaging, and frequency of neuropsychological testing. Descriptive epidemiology study. All concussions recorded by the High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) injury surveillance system during the 2009 to 2010 academic year were included. χ(2) analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Fisher exact test was used for nonparametric data. Logistic regression analyses were used when adjusting for potential confounders. Statistical significance was considered for P sport-related concussions, representing 14.6% of all injuries. Most (94.4%) concussions were assessed by athletic trainers (ATs), 58.8% by a primary care physician. Few concussions were managed by specialists. The assessment of 21.2% included computed tomography. Computerized neuropsychological testing was used for 41.2%. For 50.1%, a physician decided when to return the athlete to play; for 46.2%, the decision was made by an AT. After adjusting for potential confounders, no associations between timing of return to play and the type of provider (physician vs AT) deciding to return the athlete to play were found. Concussions account for nearly 15% of all sport-related injuries in high school athletes. The timing of return to play after a sport-related concussion is similar regardless of whether the decision to return the athlete to play is made by a physician or an AT. When a medical doctor is involved, most concussions are assessed by primary care physicians as opposed to subspecialists. Computed tomography is obtained during the assessment of 1 of every 5 concussions occurring in high school athletes.

  5. Assessment and Management of Sport-Related Concussions in United States High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P.; d’Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Background Little existing data describe which medical professionals and which medical studies are used to assess sport-related concussions in high school athletes. Purpose To describe the medical providers and medical studies used when assessing sport-related concussions. To determine the effects of medical provider type on timing of return to play, frequency of imaging, and frequency of neuropsychological testing. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods All concussions recorded by the High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) injury surveillance system during the 2009 to 2010 academic year were included. χ2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Fisher exact test was used for nonparametric data. Logistic regression analyses were used when adjusting for potential confounders. Statistical significance was considered for P sport-related concussions, representing 14.6% of all injuries. Most (94.4%) concussions were assessed by athletic trainers (ATs), 58.8% by a primary care physician. Few concussions were managed by specialists. The assessment of 21.2% included computed tomography. Computerized neuropsychological testing was used for 41.2%. For 50.1%, a physician decided when to return the athlete to play; for 46.2%, the decision was made by an AT. After adjusting for potential confounders, no associations between timing of return to play and the type of provider (physician vs AT) deciding to return the athlete to play were found. Conclusion Concussions account for nearly 15% of all sport-related injuries in high school athletes. The timing of return to play after a sport-related concussion is similar regardless of whether the decision to return the athlete to play is made by a physician or an AT. When a medical doctor is involved, most concussions are assessed by primary care physicians as opposed to subspecialists. Computed tomography is obtained during the assessment of 1 of every 5 concussions occurring in high school athletes

  6. A comparison of positive reinforcement training techniques in owl and squirrel monkeys: time required to train to reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, Jessica; Sherenco, Katrina; Malling, Rachel; Thiele, Erica; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve; Williams, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) techniques enhance the psychological well being of nonhuman primates by increasing the animal's control over his or her environment and desensitizing the animal to stressful stimuli. However, the literature on PRT in neotropical primates is limited. Here PRT data from owl monkeys and squirrel monkeys are presented, including the length of time to train subjects to target, present hand, and present foot, important responses that can be used to aid in health inspection and treatment. A high percentage of the squirrel and owl monkeys were successfully trained on target and present hand. Present foot, a less natural response, was harder to train and maintain. Although squirrel monkeys did learn to target significantly faster than owl monkeys, the 2 genera did not differ on time to train on subsequent behavior. These data demonstrate that although owl monkeys may require slightly more time to acclimate to a PRT program, it is still possible to establish a PRT program with neotropical primates, and once animals have been introduced to the program, they can learn new responses in a relatively few short sessions.

  7. Lack of effect of Pitressin on the learning ability of Brattleboro rats with diabetes insipidus using positively reinforced operant conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, J F; Gartside, I B

    1985-08-01

    Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (BDI) received daily subcutaneous injections of vasopressin in the form of Pitressin tannate (0.5 IU/24 hr). They were initially deprived of food and then trained to work for food reward in a Skinner box to a fixed ratio of ten presses for each pellet received. Once this schedule had been learned the rats were given a discrimination task daily for seven days. The performances of these BDI rats were compared with those of rats of the parent Long Evans (LE) strain receiving daily subcutaneous injections of vehicle (arachis oil). Comparisons were also made between these two groups of treated animals and untreated BDI and LE rats studied under similar conditions. In the initial learning trial, both control and Pitressin-treated BDI rats performed significantly better, and manifested less fear initially, than the control or vehicle-injected LE rats when first placed in the Skinner box. Once the initial task had been learned there was no marked difference in the discrimination learning between control or treated BDI and LE animals. These results support the view that vasopressin is not directly involved in all types of learning behaviour, particularly those involving positively reinforced operant conditioning.

  8. Pediatric sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were recorded in the NTDB, and these injuries represented 11,614 incidents nationally after sample weighting. Fall or interpersonal contact events were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (47.4%). Mild TBI represented 87.1% of the injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital and ICU were 2.68 ± 0.07 days and 2.73 ± 0.12 days, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%, and the prevalence of medical complications was 2.1% across all patients. Severities of head and extracranial injuries were significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Hypotension on admission to the ED was a significant predictor of failure to discharge to home (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07, p sports was independently associated with prolonged hospital LOS compared with FIC events (mean increase

  9. Epidemiology of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries in young athletes in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Yamasaki, Ai; Brown, Kelly

    2017-07-01

    Over the past several decades there has been increased participation in sports by children and adolescents at earlier ages in the United States, as well as more intense participation and specialization in sports at very early ages. This trend has also partly contributed to the patterns of injuries seen in young athletes, and especially in recent years, injuries previously seen in mature athletes are being seen in young athletes. Overall, the vast majority of sport-related musculoskeletal injuries in children and adolescents are due to repetitive overuse and acute macrotrauma is less frequently seen in young athletes. Epidemiological data on sports injuries are provided by several national surveys. Investigators have used different methods to define sports injuries and the most widely used definition is based on athlete-exposure time. Certain aspects related to adolescent growth and development modulate the pattern of injuries. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries seen in children and adolescents.

  10. [Sports-related concussions: are we (fully) aware of the consequences?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnechère, B; Beauthier, J-P; Rooze, M; Jan, S Van Sint

    2015-01-01

    Contact sports and sports with high risk of head traumatism are increasingly becoming more popular. This trend leads to a 60% increase of sport-related concussions in the decade. It is therefore important to summarize the current knowledge in this field (diagnosis, risk factors...) in order to help clinicians to improve this pathology management. Short and long term consequences are too often minimized by clinicians, while related clinical disorders should not be neglected (e.g. headaches, cognitive troubles, vestibular troubles, depression...). Complications risks are directly linked to the number of concussions or if patients return to play before complete recovery. Correct knowledge of symptoms and of the various assessment tests are consequently therefore important to know in order identity and tackle long term complications of sport-related concussions.

  11. A systematic review of potential long-term effects of sport-related concussion

    OpenAIRE

    Manley, Geoff; Gardner, Andrew J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Bailes, Julian; Cantu, Robert C; Castellani, Rudolph J; Turner, Michael; Jordan, Barry D; Randolph, Christopher; Dvořák, Jiří; Hayden, K. Alix; Tator, Charles H; McCrory, Paul; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. Data sources Ten electronic databases. Study selection Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined as >10 years after the injury. Data extraction Study population, exposure/outcome measures, clinica...

  12. Epidemiology of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries in young athletes in United States

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Dilip R.; Yamasaki, Ai; Brown, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Over the past several decades there has been increased participation in sports by children and adolescents at earlier ages in the United States, as well as more intense participation and specialization in sports at very early ages. This trend has also partly contributed to the patterns of injuries seen in young athletes, and especially in recent years, injuries previously seen in mature athletes are being seen in young athletes. Overall, the vast majority of sport-related musculoskeletal inju...

  13. Assessment of Parental Knowledge and Attitudes Toward Pediatric Sports-Related Concussions

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Ann C.; Salzman, Garrett A.; Bachman, Shelby L.; Burke, Rita V.; Zaslow, Tracy; Piasek, Carolina Z.; Edison, Bianca R.; Hamilton, Anita; Upperman, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Parents of young athletes play a major role in the identification and management of sports-related concussions. However, they are often unaware of the consequences of concussions and recommended management techniques. Hypothesis: This study quantitatively assessed parental understanding of concussions to identify specific populations in need of additional education. We predicted that parents with increased education and prior sports- and concussion-related experience would have mo...

  14. The effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on neurocognitive impairment and symptoms after sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrinko, Alicia; Pearce, Kelly; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Johnson, Eric; Collins, Michael; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-04-01

    Researchers have reported that sleep duration is positively related to baseline neurocognitive performance. However, researchers have yet to examine the effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on postconcussion impairments. To compare neurocognitive impairment and symptoms of athletes with preinjury sleep difficulties to those without after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The sample included 348 adolescent and adult athletes (age, mean ± SD, 17.43 ± 2.34 years) with a diagnosed SRC. The sample was divided into 2 groups: (1) 34 (10%) participants with preinjury sleep difficulties (sleeping less as well as having trouble falling asleep; SLEEP SX) and (2) 231 (66%) participants without preinjury sleep difficulties (CONTROL). The remaining 84 (24%) participants with minimal sleep difficulties (1 symptom) were excluded. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) and Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at baseline and 3 postinjury intervals (2, 5-7, and 10-14 days after injury). A series of repeated-measures analyses of covariance with Bonferroni correction, controlling for baseline non-sleep-related symptoms, were conducted to compare postinjury neurocognitive performance between groups. Follow-up exploratory t tests examined between-group differences at each time interval. A series of analyses of variance were used to examine total PCSS score, sleep-related, and non-sleep-related symptoms across time intervals between groups. Groups differed significantly in PCSS scores across postinjury intervals for reaction time (P SLEEP SX group performing worse than controls at 5-7 days (mean ± SD, 0.70 ± 0.32 [SLEEP SX], 0.60 ± 0.14 [CONTROL]) and 10-14 days (0.61 ± 0.17 [SLEEP SX]; 0.57 ± 0.10 [CONTROL]) after injury. Groups also differed significantly on verbal memory performance (P = .04), with the SLEEP SX (68.21 ± 18.64) group performing worse than the CONTROL group (76.76 ± 14

  15. Plasma soluble prion protein, a potential biomarker for sport-related concussions: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Pham

    Full Text Available Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrP(C as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrP(C in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrP(C in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrP(C is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making.

  16. Do family physicians, emergency department physicians, and pediatricians give consistent sport-related concussion management advice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, Jacqueline; Carson, James D; Garel, Alisha; Libfeld, Paula; Snow, Catherine L; Law, Marcus; Frémont, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    To identify differences and gaps in recommendations to patients for the management of sport-related concussion among FPs, emergency department physicians (EDPs), and pediatricians. A self-administered, multiple-choice survey was e-mailed to FPs, EDPs, and pediatricians. The survey had been assessed for content validity. Two community teaching hospitals in the greater Toronto area in Ontario. Two hundred seventy physicians, including FPs, EDPs, and pediatricians, were invited to participate. Identification of sources of concussion management information, usefulness of concussion diagnosis strategies, and whether physicians use common terminology when explaining cognitive rest strategies to patients after sport-related concussions. The response rate was 43.7%. Surveys were completed by 70 FPs, 23 EDPs, and 11 pediatricians. In total, 49% of FP, 52% of EDP, and 27% of pediatrician respondents reported no knowledge of any consensus statements on concussion in sport, and 54% of FPs, 86% of EDPs, and 78% of pediatricians never used the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2. Only 49% of FPs, 57% of EDPs, and 36% of pediatricians always advised cognitive rest. This study identified large gaps in the knowledge of concussion guidelines and implementation of recommendations for treating patients with sport-related concussions. Although some physicians recommended physical and cognitive rest, a large proportion failed to consistently advise this strategy. Better knowledge transfer efforts should target all 3 groups of physicians. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. Review of Assessment Scales for Diagnosing and Monitoring Sports-related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Alexa M; Yuk, Frank J; Maniya, Akbar Y; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan J; Lovell, Mark R; Choudhri, Tanvir F

    2017-12-07

    Sports-related concussion has emerged as a public health crisis due to increased diagnosis of the condition and increased participation in organized and recreational athletics worldwide. Under-recognition of concussions can lead to premature clearance for athletic participation, leaving athletes vulnerable to repeat injury and subsequent short- and long-term complications. There is overwhelming evidence that assessment and management of sports-related concussions should involve a multifaceted approach. A number of assessment criteria have been developed for this purpose. It is important to understand the available and emerging diagnostic testing modalities for sports-related concussions. The most commonly used tools for evaluating individuals with concussion are the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS), Standard Assessment of Concussion (SAC), Standard Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT3), and the most recognized computerized neurocognitive test, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The strengths and limitations of each of these tools, and the Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), CogSport, and King-Devick tests were evaluated. Based on the data, it appears that the most sensitive and specific of these is the ImPACT test. Additionally, the King-Devick test is an effective adjunct due to its ability to test eye movements and brainstem function.

  18. Beyond the Positive Reinforcement of Aggression: Peers' Acceptance of Aggression Promotes Aggression via External Control Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Janis; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an…

  19. Length of Recovery From Sports-Related Concussions in Pediatric Patients Treated at Concussion Clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Donald J; Coxe, Kathryn; Li, Hongmei; Pommering, Thomas L; Young, Julie A; Smith, Gary A; Yang, Jingzhen

    2018-01-01

    We quantified the length of recovery time by week in a cohort of pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics, and examined patient and injury characteristics associated with prolonged recovery. A retrospective, cohort design. Seven concussion clinics at a Midwest children's hospital. Patients aged 10 to 17 years with a diagnosed sports-related concussion presenting to the clinic within 30 days of injury. Length of recovery by week. Unadjusted and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to model the effect of patient and injury characteristics on length of recovery by week. Median length of recovery was 17 days. Only 16.3% (299/1840) of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than four weeks to recover. By 2 months postinjury, 6.7% of patients were still experiencing symptoms. Higher symptom scores at injury and initial visit were significantly associated with prolonged symptoms by week. Patients who presented to the clinic more than 2 weeks postinjury or who had 2 or more previous concussions showed increased risk for prolonged recovery. Females were at greater risk for prolonged recovery than males (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.49-2.89). Age was not significantly associated with recovery length. High symptom scores at injury and initial visit, time to initial clinical presentation, presence of 2 or more previous concussions, and female sex are associated with prolonged concussion recovery. Further research should aim to establish objective measures of recovery, accounting for treatment received during the recovery. The median length of recovery is 17 days among pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics. Only 16.3% of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than 4 weeks to recover.

  20. The epidemiology of sports-related injuries in older adults: a central European epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian

    2012-10-01

    The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.

  1. Sports-related eye and adnexal injuries in the Western Australian paediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskin, Annette K; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hanman, Kate; Lam, Geoffrey; Mackey, David A

    2016-09-01

    To identify the causes of sports-related eye and adnexal injuries in children in Perth, Western Australia, to determine which sporting activities pose the highest risk of eye and adnexal injury to children. We performed a 12-year retrospective review of children admitted to hospital from 2002 to 2013 with sports-related ocular and adnexal eye injuries. The main outcome measures were the cause and type of ocular and adnexal injuries, age and gender risk factors. A total of 93 cases of sports-related ocular and adnexal injury were identified in the 12-year time period. A peak in injuries occurred for 12- to 14-year-olds with a second peak in 6- to 8-year-olds; the median age was 8.82 years (range = 1.59-16.47). Cycling, football (including soccer and Australian Rules Football), tennis, trampolining, fishing and swimming were the sports responsible for the greatest number of injuries, a total of 63%. More than one-third (35%) of injuries resulted from being struck by a blunt object, and more than a quarter (26%) were as a result of contact with a blunt projectile. Serious ocular and adnexal injuries have occurred in children as a result of participating in sports, with cycling and football being the largest contributors in the 12-year period we assessed. As we continue to encourage children to spend more time participating in sports and recreational activities, identifying associated risk factors will help us develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Prevalence and clinical features of sports-related lumbosacral stress injuries in the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya

    2017-05-01

    Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.

  3. Sport-Related Structural Brain Injury: 3 Cases of Subdural Hemorrhage in American High School Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Gardner, Ryan M; Kuhn, Andrew W; Solomon, Gary S; Bonfield, Christopher M; Zuckerman, Scott L

    2017-10-01

    The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries. The goal of the current series is to describe, in detail, the presentation, management, and outcomes of examples of these rare injuries. During the fall of 2015, three high school football players presented with acute subdural hemorrhages following in-game collisions and were treated at our institution within a span of 2 months. For the 2 athletes who required surgical intervention, a previous SRC was sustained within 4 weeks before the catastrophic event. One year after injury, 2 players have returned to school, though with persistent deficits. One patient remains nonverbal and wheelchair bound. None of the athletes has returned to sports. Acute subdural hemorrhage resultant from an in-game football collision is rare. The temporal proximity of the reported SRSBIs to recent SRCs emphasizes the importance of return-to-play protocols and raises questions regarding the possibility of second impact syndrome. Although epidemiologic conclusions cannot be drawn from this small sample, these cases provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the presentation, management, and long-term outcomes of SRSBI in American high school football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sports-related muscle injuries of the lower extremity: MR imaging appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Marquez, A.; Gil-Garcia, M.; Valls, C.; Narvaez-Garcia, J.; Andia-Navarro, E.; Pozuelo-Segura, O.; Portabella-Blavia, F.

    1999-01-01

    Sports-related injuries of the lower extremity are frequent. Before magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was available, ultrasound, radionuclide scintigraphy and computed tomography were used to evaluate muscle trauma. Although relatively inexpensive, these imaging modalities are limited by their low specificity. The high degree of soft tissue contrast and multiplanar capability of MR imaging, allow direct visualization as well as characterization of traumatic muscle lesions. This pictorial review highlights the spectrum of traumatic muscle lesions on MRI, with emphasis on its typical appearances. (orig.)

  5. Sport related stress fracture of the clavicle with non-union: Case report and review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Demitri; Kastanos, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Stress fractures are relatively uncommon sports injuries and when they do occur, are mostly found in the lower limb. Stress fractures of the clavicle are particularly rare, having been described in a number of non-sport related pathologies, such as nervous tics and post radical neck dissection. In sport, there have only been seven cases reported in the literature. We report on a clavicle stress fracture in a 47-year-old male, partaking in recreational weight lifting activities. This is the first reported case of a non-union stress fracture of the clavicle. The patient underwent an open reduction and internal fixation and made a full recovery. PMID:21264151

  6. Predictors of delayed recovery following pediatric sports-related concussion: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score Concussions resulting from playing a nonhelmet sport were also associated with a higher risk for prolonged symptoms in

  7. Patterns of Recovery Following Sport-Related Concussion in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Laura; Harvey, Janice; Seabrook, Jamie A

    2016-05-01

    Time to symptom resolution, return to school, and return to play after a sport-related concussion in children and adolescents (8-17 years of age) was examined using a retrospective cohort design. A total of 198 patients aged 8 to 17 years were included, with a mean age of 13.5 years (SD = 2.2). Patients aged 8 to 12 years were symptom-free in a median of 12.0 (range 1-60) days whereas 13- to 17-year olds were symptom-free in a median of 14.0 (range 1-300) days (P = .04). Patients aged 8 to 12 years returned to learn in a median of 4.0 (range 0-30) days compared with 2.5 (range 0-55.0) days in 13- to 17-year-olds (P = .86). Patients aged 8 to 12 years returned to play in a median of 14.0 (range 4-75) days compared with a median of 19.5 (range 5-75) days in 13- to 17-year-olds (P = .06). These results indicate that children and adolescents generally take 2 to 4 weeks to recover from a sport-related concussion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Preliminary investigation of Brain Network Activation (BNA) and its clinical utility in sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reches, A; Kutcher, J; Elbin, R J; Or-Ly, H; Sadeh, B; Greer, J; McAllister, D J; Geva, A; Kontos, A P

    2017-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis and management of patients with sport-related concussion is largely dependent on subjectively reported symptoms, clinical examinations, cognitive, balance, vestibular and oculomotor testing. Consequently, there is an unmet need for objective assessment tools that can identify the injury from a physiological perspective and add an important layer of information to the clinician's decision-making process. The goal of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the EEG-based tool named Brain Network Activation (BNA) as a longitudinal assessment method of brain function in the management of young athletes with concussion. Athletes with concussion (n = 86) and age-matched controls (n = 81) were evaluated at four time points with symptom questionnaires and BNA. BNA scores were calculated by comparing functional networks to a previously defined normative reference brain network model to the same cognitive task. Subjects above 16 years of age exhibited a significant decrease in BNA scores immediately following injury, as well as notable changes in functional network activity, relative to the controls. Three representative case studies of the tested population are discussed in detail, to demonstrate the clinical utility of BNA. The data support the utility of BNA to augment clinical examinations, symptoms and additional tests by providing an effective method for evaluating objective electrophysiological changes associated with sport-related concussions.

  9. Tangible Reinforcement Plus Social Reinforcement versus Social Reinforcement Alone in Acquisition of Toothbrushing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolber, Greg; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Use of a tangible reinforcer plus social reinforcement was found to be more effective in training a 33-year-old male with profound mental retardation to brush his teeth than social reinforcement alone. Determination of true positive reinforcers and training staff members to carry out such treatment programs are also discussed. (Author/VW)

  10. A systematic review of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy findings in sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Stanwell, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Traditional structural neuroimaging techniques are normal in athletes who sustain sport-related concussions and are only considered to be clinically helpful in ruling out a more serious brain injury. There is a clinical need for more sophisticated, non-invasive imaging techniques capable of detecting changes in neurophysiology after injury. Concussion is associated with neurometabolic changes including neuronal depolarization, release of excitatory neurotransmitters, ionic shifts, changes in glucose metabolism, altered cerebral blood flow, and impaired axonal function. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS, or simply MRS) is capable of measuring brain biochemistry and has the potential to identify and quantify physiologic changes after concussion. The focus of the current review is to provide an overview of research findings using MRS in sport-related concussion. A systematic review of articles published in the English language, up to February 2013, was conducted. Articles were retrieved via the databases: PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, and Informit using key terms: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, neurospectroscopy, spectroscopy, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, correlation spectroscopy, J-spectroscopy, exchange spectroscopy, nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, NMR, MRS, COSY, EXSY, NOESY, 2D NMR, craniocerebral trauma, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, brain concussion, concussion, brain damage, sport, athletic, and athlete. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies were all included in the current review. The review identified 11 publications that met criteria for inclusion, comprised of data on 200 athletes and 116 controls. Nine of 11 studies reported a MRS abnormality consistent with an alteration in neurochemistry. The results support the use of MRS as a research tool for identifying

  11. Sport-related ankle injuries attending an accident and emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Man, Chi-Yin; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Cheung, Shui-Yuk; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated the sport-related ankle injuries attending an accident and emergency (A&E) department during a 1-year period. A total of 1715 sports injuries cases attending an A&E department from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005 were prospectively recorded. Details of each classified case were recorded in a computerised record system by the triage nurse. At the end of the study period, all sport-related ankle injury cases were analysed. A total of 240 sport-related ankle injury cases were reported. Most cases were sustained from basketball (32.9%), soccer (31.7%) and hiking (5.8%) sports. The majority of the cases was ligamentous sprains (81.3%) and fractures (10.4%). The mean age of all patients was 24.6 years (S.D. = 12.3). Four fifths (80.4%) were male patients. All cases were not life threatening. Most cases (99.2%) were referred to orthopedics specialty. Radiography was routinely employed in 99.2% of the cases. Ligamentous sprains were mostly sustained in basketball (37.4%) and soccer (28.7%), and were often treated with bandaging (60.0%) and analgesics (48.7%). Most cases were discharged with or without referral to physiotherapy and specialty clinic (95.4%). Fractures were mostly sustained in soccer (52.0%), basketball (20.0%) and hiking (16.0%), and were very often admitted to hospital wards (84.0%). The estimated A&E attendance rate for all sports injuries, ankle injuries, ligamentous sprains and fractures were 1.68, 0.24, 0.19 and 0.02/1000 person-year. The results of this study together with the previous study on ankle sprain epidemiology suggested the following sports ankle injury pattern in Hong Kong-major and serious ankle ligamentous sprains and fractures were sustained from basketball, soccer and hiking, leading to A&E attendance, while minor sprains were sustained in running and jogging and racquet sports. We suggested that the Sports medicine specialists in Hong Kong should emphasise the ankle injury prevention strategies in these sports.

  12. Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Wagner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11. While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests,

  13. Field of Genes: An Investigation of Sports-Related Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jennifer K.; Royal, Charmaine D.

    2012-01-01

    Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC) industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11). While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests, e-commerce generally may adequately protect DTC genetics consumers without new federal legislation or regulation. PMID:25562204

  14. Retirement-from-sport considerations following pediatric sports-related concussion: case illustrations and institutional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Mansouri, Behzad; Essig, Marco; Ritchie, Lesley

    2016-04-01

    The decision to advise an athlete to retire from sports following sports-related concussion (SRC) remains a persistent challenge for physicians. In the absence of strong empirical evidence to support recommendations, clinical decision making must be individualized and should involve a multidisciplinary team of experts in concussion and traumatic brain injury. Although previous authors have advocated for a more conservative approach to these issues in child and adolescent athletes, there are few reports outlining considerations for this process among this unique population. Here, the authors use multiple case illustrations to discuss 3 subgroups of clinical considerations for sports retirement among pediatric SRC patients including the following: those with structural brain abnormalities identified on neuroimaging, those presenting with focal neurological deficits and abnormalities on physical examination, and those in whom the cumulative or prolonged effects of concussion are suspected or demonstrated. The authors' evolving multidisciplinary institutional approach to return-to-play and retirement decision making in pediatric SRC is also presented.

  15. Clinical predictors of vestibulo-ocular dysfunction in pediatric sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael J; Cordingley, Dean M; Vis, Sara; Reimer, Karen M; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE There were 2 objectives of this study. The first objective was to identify clinical variables associated with vestibulo-ocular dysfunction (VOD) detected at initial consultation among pediatric patients with acute sports-related concussion (SRC) and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The second objective was to reexamine the prevalence of VOD in this clinical cohort and evaluate the effect of VOD on length of recovery and the development of PCS. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with acute SRC and PCS who were evaluated at a pediatric multidisciplinary concussion program from September 2013 to May 2015. Acute SRS was defined as presenting concussion should include VOD. Additional research is needed to elucidate the natural history of VOD following SRC and establish evidence-based indications for targeted vestibular rehabilitation.

  16. Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths in the young population of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Babken; Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Gräni, Christoph; Trachsel, Lukas D; Schmied, Christian M; Saguner, Ardan M; Eser, Prisca; Herzig, David; Bolliger, Stephan; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland. We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE), recreational sports (REC), and competitive sports (COMP). Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male); 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI)] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35-0.56)], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89-1.60)] and NONE [2.46 (2.27-2.66)]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD) with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI) was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD. The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD.

  17. What domains of clinical function should be assessed after sport-related concussion? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Echemendia, Ruben J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Solomon, Gary S; Hayden, K Alix; Turner, Michael; Dvořák, Jiří; Straumann, Dominik; Tarnutzer, Alexander A

    2017-06-01

    Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a clinical diagnosis made after a sport-related head trauma. Inconsistency exists regarding appropriate methods for assessing SRC, which focus largely on symptom-scores, neurocognitive functioning and postural stability. Systematic literature review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane-DSR, Cochrane CRCT, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus (accessed July 9, 2016). Original (prospective) studies reporting on postinjury assessment in a clinical setting and evaluation of diagnostic tools within 2 weeks after an SRC. Forty-six studies covering 3284 athletes were included out of 2170 articles. Only the prospective studies were considered for final analysis (n=33; 2416 athletes). Concussion diagnosis was typically made on the sideline by an (certified) athletic trainer (55.0%), mainly on the basis of results from a symptom-based questionnaire. Clinical domains affected included cognitive, vestibular and headache/migraine. Headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating and dizziness were the symptoms most frequently reported. Neurocognitive testing was used in 30/33 studies (90.9%), whereas balance was assessed in 9/33 studies (27.3%). The overall quality of the studies was considered low. The absence of an objective, gold standard criterion makes the accurate diagnosis of SRC challenging. Current approaches tend to emphasise cognition, symptom assessment and postural stability with less of a focus on other domains of functioning. We propose that the clinical assessment of SRC should be symptom based and interdisciplinary. Whenever possible, the SRC assessment should incorporate neurological, vestibular, ocular motor, visual, neurocognitive, psychological and cervical aspects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Sports-related injuries in youth athletes: is overscheduling a risk factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Anthony; Lazaro, Rondy M; Bergeron, Michael F; Keyser, Laura; Benjamin, Holly; Brenner, Joel; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Grady, Matthew; Philpott, John; Smith, Angela

    2011-07-01

    To examine the association between "overscheduling" and sports-related overuse and acute injuries in young athletes and to identify other potential contributing factors to create a working definition for "overscheduling injury." Survey. Six university-based sports medicine clinics in North America. Athletes aged 6 to 18 years (13.8 ± 2.6) and their parents and pediatric sports medicine-trained physicians. Questionnaires developed from literature review and expert consensus to investigate overscheduling and sports-related injuries were completed over a 3-month period. Physician's clinical diagnosis and injury categorization: acute not fatigue related (AI), overuse not fatigue related (OI), acute fatigue related (AFI), or overuse fatigue related (OFI). Overall, 360 questionnaires were completed (84% response rate). Overuse not fatigue-related injuries were encountered most often (44.7%), compared with AI (41.9%) and OFI (9.7%). Number of practices within 48 hours before injury was higher (1.7 ± 1.5) for athletes with OI versus those with AI (1.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.025). Athlete or parent perception of excessive play/training without adequate rest in the days before the injury was related to overuse (P = 0.016) and fatigue-related injuries (P = 0.010). Fatigue-related injuries were related to sleeping ≤6 hours the night before the injury (P = 0.028). When scheduling youth sporting events, potential activity volume and intensity over any 48-hour period, recovery time between all training and competition bouts, and potential between-day sleep time (≥ 7 hours) should be considered to optimize safety. An overscheduling injury can be defined as an injury related to excessive planned physical activity without adequate time for rest and recovery, including between training sessions/competitions and consecutive days.

  19. Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths in the young population of Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babken Asatryan

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD is unknown.We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland.We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE, recreational sports (REC, and competitive sports (COMP.Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male; 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35-0.56], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89-1.60] and NONE [2.46 (2.27-2.66]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD.The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD.

  20. Assessment of parental knowledge and attitudes toward pediatric sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ann C; Salzman, Garrett A; Bachman, Shelby L; Burke, Rita V; Zaslow, Tracy; Piasek, Carolina Z; Edison, Bianca R; Hamilton, Anita; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    Parents of young athletes play a major role in the identification and management of sports-related concussions. However, they are often unaware of the consequences of concussions and recommended management techniques. This study quantitatively assessed parental understanding of concussions to identify specific populations in need of additional education. We predicted that parents with increased education and prior sports- and concussion-related experience would have more knowledge and safer attitudes toward concussions. Cross-sectional survey. Level 5. Participants were parents of children brought to a pediatric hospital and 4 satellite clinics for evaluation of orthopaedic injuries. Participants completed a validated questionnaire that assessed knowledge of concussion symptoms, attitudes regarding diagnosis and return-to-play guidelines, and previous sports- and concussion-related experience. Over 8 months, 214 parents completed surveys. Participants scored an average of 18.4 (possible, 0-25) on the Concussion Knowledge Index and 63.1 (possible, 15-75) on the Concussion Attitude Index. Attitudes were safest among white women, and knowledge increased with income and education levels. Previous sports experience did not affect knowledge or attitudes, but parents who reported experiencing an undiagnosed concussion had significantly better concussion knowledge than those who did not. Parents with low income and education levels may benefit from additional concussion-related education. There exist many opportunities for improvement in parental knowledge and attitudes about pediatric sports-related concussions. Ongoing efforts to understand parental knowledge of concussions will inform the development of a strategic and tailored approach to the prevention and management of pediatric concussions.

  1. Audiovestibular symptoms as predictors of prolonged sports-related concussion among NCAA athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Stephen R; Suryadevara, Amar C; Nicholas, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    We looked to determine the rates of audiovestibular symptoms following sports-related concussions among collegiate athletes. Further, we assessed the correlation between these symptoms and the time to return to participation in athletic activity. Retrospective analysis of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA-ISS). The NCAA-ISS was queried from 2009 through 2014 for seven men's sports and eight women's sports across divisions 1, 2, and 3. Injuries resulting in concussions were analyzed for audiovestibular symptoms, duration of symptoms, and return to participation times. From 2009 to 2014, there were 1,647 recorded sports-related concussions, with athletes reporting dizziness (68.2%), imbalance (35.8%), disorientation (31.4%), noise sensitivity (29.9%), and tinnitus (8.5%). Concussion symptoms resolved within 1 day (17.1%), within 2 to 7 days (50.0%), within 8 to 30 days (25.9%), or persisted over 1 month (7.0%). Return to participation occurred within 1 week (38.3%), within 1 month (53.0%), or over 1 month (8.7%). Using Mann-Whitney U testing, overall symptom duration and return to competition time were significantly increased when any of these symptoms were present (P concussion symptom correlated with dizziness (P = 0.043) and noise sensitivity (P = 0.000), whereas return to participation times correlated with imbalance (P = 0.011) and noise sensitivity (P = 0.000). Dizziness and imbalance (odds ratio: 4.15, confidence interval: 3.20-5.38, P concussions. Dizziness and noise sensitivity correlated with the duration of concussive symptoms, whereas imbalance and noise sensitivity was correlated with prolonged return to competition time. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2850-2853, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  3. Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1996-01-01

    This report deals with stress and stiffness estimates of continuous reinforced concrete beams with different stiffnesses for negative and positive moments e.g. corresponding to different reinforcement areas in top and bottom. Such conditions are often met in practice.The moment distribution...

  4. Warming-up and stretching for improved physical performance and prevention of sports-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellock, F G; Prentice, W E

    1985-01-01

    Competitive and recreational athletes typically perform warm-up and stretching activities to prepare for more strenuous exercise. These preliminary activities are used to enhance physical performance and to prevent sports-related injuries. Warm-up techniques are primarily used to increase body temperature and are classified in 3 major categories: (a) passive warm-up - increases temperature by some external means; (b) general warm-up - increases temperature by nonspecific body movements; and (c) specific warm-up - increases temperature using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity. The best of these appears to be specific warm-up because this method provides a rehearsal of the activity or event. The intensity and duration of warm-up must be individualised according to the athlete's physical capabilities and in consideration of environmental factors which may alter the temperature response. The majority of the benefits of warm-up are related to temperature-dependent physiological processes. An elevation in body temperature produces an increase in the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, a lowering of the activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions, an increase in muscle blood flow, a reduction in muscle viscosity, an increase in the sensitivity of nerve receptors, and an increase in the speed of nervous impulses. Warm-up also appears to reduce the incidence and likelihood of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries. Improving flexibility through stretching is another important preparatory activity that has been advocated to improve physical performance. Maintaining good flexibility also aids in the prevention of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Flexibility is defined as the range of motion possible around a specific joint or a series of articulations and is usually classified as either static or dynamic. Static flexibility refers to the degree to which a joint can be passively moved to the

  5. Assessment of cognitive recovery following sports related head trauma in boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravdin, Lisa D; Barr, William B; Jordan, Barry; Lathan, William E; Relkin, Norman R

    2003-01-01

    To prospectively examine recovery of cognitive function within one month following subconcussive sports related head trauma. A prospective study of New York State licensed professional boxers who underwent testing of cognitive functioning before and after (within days, one week, and one month) a professional bout. Male professional athletes recruited from the New York State Athletic Commission and local boxing gyms. Twenty-six licensed professional boxers were enrolled in the protocol. Data is presented on the 18 participants who completed testing on at least three of the four time points. Serial neuropsychological assessment before and after the athletes engaged in competition. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning, including new learning and memory, information processing speed, and mental flexibility. A series of repeated measures MANOVAS revealed significant within subject differences across testing on complex information processing and verbal fluency. Post hoc analyses indicated significant differences between time 1 (baseline) and time 4 (one month post), with scores one month following the bout indicating significantly improved performance. Memory scores did not change significantly across testing; however, prior boxing exposure measured by total number of professional bouts was associated with poorer memory performance. Cognitive testing one month following participation in a professional boxing bout yielded scores suggestive of recovery to a level above the baseline. We conclude that baseline assessment taken during periods of intense training are likely confounded by other pre-bout conditions (i.e., sparring, rapid weight loss, pre-bout anxiety) and do not represent true baseline abilities. Instability of performance associated with mild head injury may complicate the interpretation of post-injury assessments. Practice effects may also confound the interpretation of serial assessments, leading to underestimation of the effects of sports

  6. School Nurses' Familiarity and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations for Student-Athletes Following Sport-Related Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…

  7. American Academy of Pediatrics. Clinical report--sport-related concussion in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Mark E; Walter, Kevin D

    2010-09-01

    Sport-related concussion is a "hot topic" in the media and in medicine. It is a common injury that is likely underreported by pediatric and adolescent athletes. Football has the highest incidence of concussion, but girls have higher concussion rates than boys do in similar sports. A clear understanding of the definition, signs, and symptoms of concussion is necessary to recognize it and rule out more severe intracranial injury. Concussion can cause symptoms that interfere with school, social and family relationships, and participation in sports. Recognition and education are paramount, because although proper equipment, sport technique, and adherence to rules of the sport may decrease the incidence or severity of concussions, nothing has been shown to prevent them. Appropriate management is essential for reducing the risk of long-term symptoms and complications. Cognitive and physical rest is the mainstay of management after diagnosis, and neuropsychological testing is a helpful tool in the management of concussion. Return to sport should be accomplished by using a progressive exercise program while evaluating for any return of signs or symptoms. This report serves as a basis for understanding the diagnosis and management of concussion in children and adolescent athletes.

  8. Assessment, management and knowledge of sport-related concussion: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Brughelli, Matt; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor

    2014-04-01

    Sport-related concussions are a subset of mild traumatic brain injuries and are a concern for many sporting activities worldwide. To review and update the literature in regard to the history, pathophysiology, recognition, assessment, management and knowledge of concussion. Searches of electronic literature databases were performed to identify studies published up until April 2013. 292 publications focussing on concussion met the inclusion criteria, and so they were quality rated and reviewed. Concussion is hard to recognize and diagnose. Initial sideline assessment via the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3), Child-SCAT3 or King-Devick test should be undertaken to identify athletes with concussion as part of a continuum of assessment modalities and athlete management. Sports medicine practitioners should be cognisant of the definition, extent and nature of concussion, and should work with coaches, athletes and trainers to identify and manage concussions. The most common reason for variations in management of concussion is lack of awareness of-and confusion about-the many available published guidelines for concussion. Future research should focus on better systems and tools for recognition, assessment and management of concussion. Sport participants' knowledge of concussion should be evaluated more rigorously, with interventions for sports where there is little knowledge of recognition, assessment and appropriate management of concussion.

  9. Sports-related injuries among high school athletes--United States, 2005-06 school year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-29

    Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.

  10. Rest and treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kathryn J; Leddy, John J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Seifert, Tad; McCrea, Michael; Silverberg, Noah D; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Iverson, Grant L; Hayden, Alix; Makdissi, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC). Systematic review. MEDLINE (OVID), CINAHL (EbscoHost), PsycInfo (OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (OVID), SPORTDiscus (EbscoHost), EMBASE (OVID) and Proquest DissertationsandTheses Global (Proquest) were searched systematically. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) original research; (2) reported SRC as the diagnosis; and (3) evaluated the effect of rest or active treatment/rehabilitation. Review articles were excluded. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria (9 regarding the effects of rest and 19 evaluating active treatment). The methodological quality of the literature was limited; only five randomised controlled trials (RCTs) met the eligibility criteria. Those RCTs included rest, cervical and vestibular rehabilitation, subsymptom threshold aerobic exercise and multifaceted collaborative care. A brief period (24-48 hours) of cognitive and physical rest is appropriate for most patients. Following this, patients should be encouraged to gradually increase activity. The exact amount and duration of rest are not yet well defined and require further investigation. The data support interventions including cervical and vestibular rehabilitation and multifaceted collaborative care. Closely monitored subsymptom threshold, submaximal exercise may be of benefit. PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039570. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Computerized neurocognitive testing in the management of sport-related concussion: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro

    2013-12-01

    Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.

  12. Balance Assessment in Sports-Related Concussion: Evaluating Test-Retest Reliability of the Equilibrate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.

  13. Video analysis of acute motor and convulsive manifestations in sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, P R; Berkovic, S F

    2000-04-11

    To describe the motor and convulsive manifestations in acute sports-related head injury. A total of 234 cases of concussive injuries during the 1995 through 1997 football seasons were obtained from the Australian Football League Medical Officers Association injury survey. Of these, 102 cases were recorded adequately on television videotape and were analyzed by two independent observers using a standardized recording form detailing injury mechanics and clinical features of the episodes. Motor and convulsive features were correlated with mechanical variables and with duration of loss of consciousness using linear modeling techniques. Tonic posturing occurred in 25 subjects, clonic movements in 6, righting movement in 40, and gait unsteadiness in 42. In one subject the tonic and clonic features were sufficiently prolonged to be deemed a concussive convulsion. The only risk factor for tonic posturing using logistic regression was the presence of loss of consciousness (p = 0.0001). There was a trend toward facial impact being an independent predictor of tonic posturing but this did not reach significance. No other independent variable predicted the development of clonic movements, righting movements, or gait unsteadiness. Subtle motor manifestations such as tonic posturing and clonic movements commonly occur in concussion; the main predictive factor for tonic posturing is the presence of loss of consciousness. The authors speculate that these clinical features are due to brainstem dysfunction secondary to biomechanical forces inducing a transient functional decerebration.

  14. Identify Normative Values of Balance Tests Toward Neurological Assessment of Sports Related Concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Eimanipure

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Deterioration in postural control mechanisms is termed postural instability and results increased postural sway and many laboratory techniques and instruments are characterized by a wide range of neurological signs and symptoms to the medical management. Thus the current study designed to assess the reliability of commonly used clinical measures of balance and determined normal values. Also, the second purpose was scrutiny of effect age, length weight and body mass index (BMI on perform clinical balance tests. Methods: One hundred and thirty three participants (18-59 years, that have at least three time sports activity in one week, performed three timed tests: Time- up and Go (TUG, Tandem Gait (TG, and Walking on Balance Beam (WOBB on firm surface. Results: Reliability data were produced for each tests of motor performance. We found that the first performance of three trials was slower, and the relationship between some factors and these battery tests were examined. Means(±SD for each measure were averaged across three trials. Time to complete TG was 13.6±1.1s. TUG value was 6.9±1.03 and WOBB was 6.9±1.03s. Discussion: our results revealed that three clinical balance test batteries-TUG, TG and WOBB tests are the stability measures to assess of sports related concussion. Also, the results of current study appeared that the time to perform these tests was slower than the other studies.

  15. Normative Values of Balance Tests in Neurological Assessment of Sports Related Concussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Eemanipure

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Deterioration in postural control mechanisms is termed postural instability and results increased postural sway and many laboratory techniques and instruments are characterized by a wide range of neurological signs and symptoms to the medical management. Thus the current study designed to assess the reliability of commonly used clinical measures of balance and determined normal values. Also, the second purpose was to evaluate the scrutiny of age, length weight and body mass index (BMI effects on performing clinical balance tests. Methods: One hundred and thirty three participants (18-59 years, that have at least three time sports activity in one week, performed three timed tests including Time-up and Go (TUG, Tandem Gait (TG, and Walking on Balance Beam (WOBB on firm surface. Results: Reliability data were produced for each tests of motor performance. We found that the first performance of three trials was slower, and the relationship between some factors and these battery tests were examined. Means(±SD for each measure were averaged across three trials. Time to complete TG was 13.6±1.1s. TUG value was 6.9±1.03 and WOBB was 6.9±1.03s. Discussion: our results revealed that three clinical balance test batteries-TUG, TG and WOBB tests are the stability measures to assess the sports related concussion. Also, the results of current study showed that the time to perform these tests was slower than the other studies.

  16. Depression as a Modifying Factor in Sport-Related Concussion: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Since its third iteration in 2008, the international Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) has delineated several 'modifying factors' that have the potential to influence the management of sport-related concussions (SRC). One of these factors is co- and pre-morbidities, which includes migraines, mental health disorders, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), learning disability, and sleep disorders. Mental health disorders, and in particular, depression, have received some attention in the management of SRC and in this review we summarize the empirical evidence for its inclusion as a modifying factor. This review is divided into three main bodies of findings: (1) the incidence and prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in non-concussed and concussed athletes, with comparison made to the general population; (2) managing the post-concussion athlete and accounting for premorbid depressive symptoms; and (3) depression as a long-term effect of repetitive head trauma. Overall, it has been reported that certain subpopulations of athletes have similar or even higher rates of depressive symptoms when compared to the general population. The challenge of accounting for these baseline-depressive symptoms while managing the post-concussive athlete is stressed. And lastly, the prevalence of depression and its relationship to concussion in later-life is discussed.

  17. A Multifactorial Approach to Sport-Related Concussion Prevention and Education: Application of the Socioecological Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register-Mihalik, Johna; Baugh, Christine; Kroshus, Emily; Y Kerr, Zachary; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2017-03-01

    To offer an overview of sport-related concussion (SRC) prevention and education strategies in the context of the socioecological framework (SEF). Athletic trainers (ATs) will understand the many factors that interact to influence SRC prevention and the implications of these interactions for effective SRC education. Concussion is a complex injury that is challenging to identify and manage, particularly when athletes fail to disclose symptoms to their health care providers. Education is 1 strategy for increasing disclosure. However, limited information addresses how ATs can integrate the many factors that may influence the effectiveness of SRC education into their specific settings. Public health models provide an example through the SEF, which highlights the interplay among various levels of society and sport that can facilitate SRC prevention strategies, including education. For ATs to develop appropriate SRC prevention strategies, a framework for application is needed. A growing body of information concerning SRC prevention indicates that knowledge alone is insufficient to change concussion-related behaviors. The SEF allows this information to be considered at levels such as policy and societal, community, interpersonal (relationships), and intrapersonal (athlete). The use of such a framework will facilitate more comprehensive SRC prevention efforts that can be applied in all athletic training practice settings. Clinical Applications: Athletic trainers can use this information as they plan SRC prevention strategies in their specific settings. This approach will aid in addressing the layers of complexity that exist when developing a concussion-management policy and plan.

  18. Validity of ImPACT for measuring processing speed following sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Grant L; Lovell, Mark R; Collins, Michael W

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing), a computerized neuropsychological test battery, for measuring attention and processing speed in athletes with concussions. This was accomplished by comparing the computerized testing to a traditional neuropsychological measure, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Participants were 72 amateur athletes who were seen within 21 days of sustaining a sports-related concussion (Mean = 9.4, SD = 5.4 days). As predicted, the SDMT correlated more highly with the Processing Speed and Reaction Time composites than the Verbal Memory and Visual Memory Composites from ImPACT. The composite scores from ImPACT and the SDMT were subjected to exploratory factor analysis, revealing a two-factor solution interpreted as Speed/Reaction Time and Memory. It appears as if the Processing Speed Composite, Reaction Time Composite, and SDMT are measuring a similar underlying construct in this sample of concussed amateur athletes.

  19. Anxiety and Mood Clinical Profile following Sport-related Concussion: From Risk Factors to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P

    2017-08-01

    Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.

  20. Most common sports-related injuries in a pediatric emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kathy W; Thrash, Chris; Sorrentino, Annalise; King, William D

    2011-01-01

    Participation in sports is a popular activity for children across the country. Prevention of sports-related injuries can be improved if details of injuries are documented and studied. A retrospective medical record review of injuries that occurred as a direct result of sports participation (both organized and non-organized play) from November 2006 to November 2007. Because the vast majority of injuries were a result of participation in football or basketball, these injuries were focused upon. The injuries specifically examined were closed head injury (CHI), lacerations and fractures. There were 350 football and 196 basketball injuries (total 546). Comparing injuries between the two groups fractures were found to be more prevalent in football compared to basketball (z = 2.14; p = 0.03; 95%CI (0.01, 0.16)). Lacerations were found to be less prevalent among helmeted patients than those without helmets. (z = 2.39; p = 0.02; 95%CI (-0.17,-0.03)). CHI was more prevalent among organized play compared to non-organized (z = 3.9; psports participants.

  1. Imaging of Sports-related Injuries of the Lower Extremity in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, M Cody; Jaramillo, Diego; Bancroft, Laura; Varich, Laura; Logsdon, Gregory; Servaes, Sabah

    2016-10-01

    With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports. However, some injuries that occur almost exclusively in high-level athletes (eg, athletic pubalgia) are reviewed to increase awareness and understanding of these entities among pediatric radiologists who may not be familiar with them and thus may not look for them. Injuries are described according to their location (ie, hip, knee, or foot and ankle) and pathologic process (eg, apophysitis, osteochondritis dissecans). Examples of abnormalities and normal variants of the anatomy that are often misdiagnosed are provided. The injuries reviewed represent a common and growing subset of pathologic processes about which all pediatric and musculoskeletal radiologists should be knowledgeable. Understanding physeal injury is especially important because missed diagnoses can lead to premature physeal closure and osteoarthritis. © RSNA, 2016.

  2. When to initiate integrative neuromuscular training to reduce sports-related injuries in youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Best, Thomas M.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities; and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Recent trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong regular physical activity. PMID:21623307

  3. Using Structured Positive and Negative Reinforcement to Change Student Behavior in Educational Settings in order to Achieve Student Academic Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kelly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Typically, classroom management approaches for dealing with disruptions and misbehavior from students involve the use of various forms of punishment: removal from the classroom, fines, in-school and out-of- school suspensions, or expulsions (Garret, 2015.  However, traditional classroom management methods have yielded very little positive results. Some would even argue that classroom behaviors are escalating out of control. Using research based approaches; this article’s goal is to help teachers discover student-centered approaches that will positively improve discipline inside the classroom.

  4. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  5. Social Interaction and Conditional Self-Discrimination under a Paradigm of Avoidance and Positive Reinforcement in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penagos-Corzo, Julio C.; Pérez-Acosta, Andrés M.; Hernández, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The experiment reported here uses a conditional self-discrimination task to examine the influence of social interaction on the facilitation of self-discrimination in rats. The study is based on a previous report (Penagos- Corzo et al., 2011) showing positive evidence of such facilitation, but extending the exposition to social interaction…

  6. A systematic review of potential long-term effects of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Geoff; Gardner, Andrew J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Bailes, Julian; Cantu, Robert C; Castellani, Rudolph J; Turner, Michael; Jordan, Barry D; Randolph, Christopher; Dvořák, Jiří; Hayden, K Alix; Tator, Charles H; McCrory, Paul; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-06-01

    Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. Ten electronic databases. Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined as > 10 years after the injury. Study population, exposure/outcome measures, clinical data, neurological examination findings, cognitive assessment, neuroimaging findings and neuropathology results. Risk of bias and level of evidence were evaluated by two authors. Following review of 3819 studies, 47 met inclusion criteria. Some former athletes have depression and cognitive deficits later in life, and there is an association between these deficits and multiple prior concussions. Former athletes are not at increased risk for death by suicide (two studies). Former high school American football players do not appear to be at increased risk for later life neurodegenerative diseases (two studies). Some retired professional American football players may be at increased risk for diminishment in cognitive functioning or mild cognitive impairment (several studies), and neurodegenerative diseases (one study). Neuroimaging studies show modest evidence of macrostructural, microstructural, functional and neurochemical changes in some athletes. Multiple concussions appear to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment and mental health problems in some individuals. More research is needed to better understand the prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurological conditions and diseases, and the extent to which they are related to concussions and/or repetitive neurotrauma sustained in sports. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Are Canadian clinicians providing consistent sport-related concussion management advice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James D; Rendely, Alexandra; Garel, Alisha; Meaney, Christopher; Stoller, Jacqueline; Kaicker, Jatin; Hayden, Leigh; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    To compare the knowledge and use of recommendations for the management of sport-related concussion (SRC) among sport and exercise medicine physicians (SEMPs) and emergency department physicians (EDPs) to assess the success of SRC knowledge transfer across Canada. A self-administered, multiple-choice survey accessed via e-mail by SEMPs and EDPs. The survey had been assessed for content validity. Canada. The survey was completed between May and July 2012 by SEMPs who had passed the diploma examination of the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine and by EDPs who did not hold this diploma. Knowledge and identification of sources of concussion management information, use of concussion diagnosis strategies, and whether physicians use common and consistent terminology when explaining cognitive rest strategies to patients after an SRC. There was a response rate of 28% (305 of 1085). The SEMP and EDP response rates were 41% (147 of 360) and 22% (158 of 725), respectively. Of the responses, 41% of EDPs and 3% of SEMPs were unaware of any consensus statements on concussion in sport; 74% of SEMPs used the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2 (SCAT2), "usually or always," whereas 88% of EDPs never used the SCAT2. When queried about how cognitive rest could best be achieved after an SRC, no consistent answer was documented. Differences and a lack of consistency in the implementation of recommendations for SRC patients were identified for SEMPs and EDPs. It appears that the SCAT2 is used more in the SEMP setting than in the emergency context. Further knowledge transfer efforts and research should address the barriers to achieving more consistent advice given by physicians who attend SRC patients. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  8. Baseline neurocognitive testing in sports-related concussions: the importance of a prior night's sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, D Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew J; Solomon, Gary S

    2014-02-01

    The management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) utilizes serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories to assess recovery and safety for return to play (RTP). Because postconcussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and a return to neurocognitive baseline levels, clinical decisions rest in part on understanding modifiers of this baseline. Several studies have reported age and sex to influence baseline neurocognitive performance, but few have assessed the potential effect of sleep. We chose to investigate the effect of reported sleep duration on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance and the number of patient-reported symptoms. We hypothesized that athletes receiving less sleep before baseline testing would perform worse on neurocognitive metrics and report more symptoms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively reviewed 3686 nonconcussed athletes (2371 male, 1315 female; 3305 high school, 381 college) with baseline symptom and ImPACT neurocognitive scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on self-reported sleep duration the night before testing: (1) short, sleep duration on baseline ImPACT performance. A univariate ANCOVA was performed to investigate the influence of sleep on total self-reported symptoms. When controlling for age and sex as covariates, the MANCOVA revealed significant group differences on ImPACT reaction time, verbal memory, and visual memory scores but not visual-motor (processing) speed scores. An ANCOVA also revealed significant group differences in total reported symptoms. For baseline symptoms and ImPACT scores, subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed these associations to be most significant when comparing the short and intermediate sleep groups. Our results indicate that athletes sleeping fewer than 7 hours before baseline testing perform worse on 3 of 4 ImPACT scores and report more symptoms. Because SRC management and RTP

  9. On-field predictors of neuropsychological and symptom deficit following sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michael W; Iverson, Grant L; Lovell, Mark R; McKeag, Douglas B; Norwig, John; Maroon, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    Investigate the relationship between on-field markers of concussion severity and postinjury neuropsychological and symptom presentation in an athlete-specific population. Case control study. Multicenter analysis of high school and college athletes. A total of 78 athletes sustaining sports-related concussion were selected from a larger sample of 139 concussed athletes. ASSESSMENT OF PREDICTOR VARIABLES: On-field presence of disorientation, posttraumatic amnesia, retrograde amnesia, and loss of consciousness. ImPACT, a computerized neuropsychological test battery, was administered pre-season and, on average, 2 days postinjury. Good postinjury presentation (n = 44) was defined as no measurable change, relative to baseline, in terms of both ImPACT memory and symptom composite scores. Poor presentation (n = 34) was defined as a 10-point increase in symptom reporting and 10-point decrease in memory functioning (exceeding the 80% confidence interval for measurement error on ImPACT). Athletes failing to meet good or poor selection criteria (n = 61) were not included in the analysis. Odds ratios revealed that athletes demonstrating poor presentation at 2 days postinjury were over 10 times more likely (P presentation. Similarly, athletes with poor presentation were over 4 times more likely (P poor presentation groups in terms of on-field loss of consciousness. The presence of amnesia, not loss of consciousness, appears predictive of symptom and neurocognitive deficits following concussion in athletes. Athletes presenting with on-field amnesia should undergo comprehensive and individualized assessment prior to returning to sport participation. Continued refinement of sports concussion grading scales is warranted in lieu of consistent findings that brief loss of consciousness is not predictive of concussion injury severity.

  10. Sports-related sudden cardiac death in Switzerland classified by static and dynamic components of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräni, Christoph; Chappex, Nina; Fracasso, Tony; Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Schmied, Christian; Saguner, Ardan M; Trachsel, Lukas D; Eser, Prisca; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths (SrSCDs) occur most frequently in highly dynamic and/or static sports. We aimed to assess the incidence and characteristics of SrSCDs in Switzerland and to compare SrSCD occurrence according to sports categories with the sports participation behaviour in the general population. Between 1999 and 2010, forensic reports of SrSCDs in young individuals (10-39 years of age) were retrospectively reviewed and categorised based on peak static (increasing from I to III) and dynamic sports components (increasing from A to C). Data were compared to the sports participation behaviour of the Swiss population. Sixty-nine SrSCDs were identified. Forty-eight (69.6%) occurred during recreational sports (REC) and 21 (30.4%) during competitive sports (COMP). Incidences (per 100,000 athlete person-years) for COMP and REC were 0.90 and 0.52, respectively (p = 0.001). Most SrSCDs occurred in IC (23 cases, 33.3%), followed by IIC (13, 18.9%), IIIA and IIIC (11 each, 15.9%), IIIB (6, 8.7%), IIA (4, 5.8%) and IB sports categories (1, 1.5%). No SrSCDs were found in IA and IIB sports categories. Incidences between sports categories (IIIA 0.25, IB 0.25, IC 0.18, IIC 0.33 and IIIC 0.25) were not significantly different except to IIA (0.94, p sports category. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the most common underlying pathology of SrSCD. In this Swiss cohort, incidence of SrSCD was very low and similar in all sports categories classified by their static and dynamic components. However, the incidence was higher in COMP compared to REC, and CAD proved to be the most common underlying cause of SrSCD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  11. Incidence of Sports-Related Concussion Among NCAA Women’s Ice Hockey Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Emily M.; Kroshus, Emily; Hu, Caroline H.; Gedman, Marissa; Collins, Jamie E.; Matzkin, Elizabeth G.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are limited data on the incidence of concussion and concussion symptom nondisclosure among collegiate women’s ice hockey athletes. Purpose: To determine the incidence of sports-related concussion (SRC) in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women’s ice hockey athletes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: An anonymous online survey was completed by 459 NCAA women’s ice hockey athletes. Players reported diagnosed concussions as well as incidents where they experienced an impact or blow to the head followed by symptoms associated with a concussion; reports spanned the duration of the 2014-2015 season and throughout players’ organized hockey career. Results: About half (n = 219, 47.7%) of respondents reported at least 1 diagnosed concussion over the duration of their entire organized ice hockey career. A total of 13.3% (n = 61) of respondents reported a diagnosed concussion during the 2014-2015 season. The incidence rate was 1.18 (95% CI, 0.92-1.51) per 1000 athlete-exposures to a game or practice and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.45-0.74) per 1000 hours of ice time. One-third (34.2%, n = 157) of players reported at least 1 impact where they experienced concussion-like symptoms during the 2014-2015 season; 82.8% of these players reported that they continued to play after at least 1 of these impacts, and 66.8% of players reported at least 1 impact where they never disclosed any symptoms. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of SRC in collegiate women’s ice hockey and a concerning level of symptom nondisclosure. Additional research is needed to understand the causes of concussion and reasons for the lack of symptom disclosure, including factors specific to female athletes and contextual issues specific to women’s collegiate ice hockey. PMID:28812036

  12. Approach to investigation and treatment of persistent symptoms following sport-related concussion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdissi, Michael; Schneider, Kathryn J; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Hinds, Sidney; Leddy, John J; McCrea, Michael; Turner, Michael; Johnston, Karen M

    2017-06-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding assessment and treatment modalities in patients with persistent symptoms following sport-related concussion (SRC). We searched Medline, Embase, SPORTSDiscus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane library and ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Global electronic databases. Studies were included if they were original research, reported on SRC as the primary source of injury, included patients with persistent postconcussive symptoms (>10 days) and investigated the role of assessment or treatment modalities. Of 3225 articles identified in the preliminary search, 25 articles met the inclusion criteria. 11 articles were concerned with assessment and 14 articles with treatment of persistent symptoms following SRC. There were three randomised control trials and one quasi-experimental study. The remainder consisting of cross-sectional studies, historical cohorts and case series. 'Persistent symptoms' following SRC can be defined as clinical recovery that falls outside expected time frames (ie, >10-14 days in adults and >4 weeks in children). It does not reflect a single pathophysiological entity, but describes a constellation of non-specific post-traumatic symptoms that may be linked to coexisting and/or confounding pathologies. A detailed multimodal clinical assessment is required to identify specific primary and secondary processes, and treatment should target specific pathologies identified. There is preliminary evidence supporting the use of symptom-limited aerobic exercise, targeted physical therapy and a collaborative approach that includes cognitive behavioural therapy. Management of patients with persistent symptoms is challenging and should occur in a multidisciplinary collaborative setting, with healthcare providers with experience in SRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  13. Evaluation of MRI-US Fusion Technology in Sports-Related Musculoskeletal Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-On, Manuel; Til-Pérez, Lluís; Balius, Ramón

    2015-06-01

    A combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with real-time high-resolution ultrasound (US) known as fusion imaging may improve visualization of musculoskeletal (MSK) sports medicine injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of MRI-US fusion technology in MSK sports medicine. This study was conducted by the medical services of the FC Barcelona. The participants included volunteers and referred athletes with symptomatic and asymptomatic MSK injuries. All cases underwent MRI which was loaded into the US system for manual registration on the live US image and fusion imaging examination. After every test, an evaluation form was completed in terms of advantages, disadvantages, and anatomic fusion landmarks. From November 2014 to March 2015, we evaluated 20 subjects who underwent fusion imaging, 5 non-injured volunteers and 15 injured athletes, 11 symptomatic and 4 asymptomatic, age range 16-50 years, mean 22. We describe some of the anatomic landmarks used to guide fusion in different regions. This technology allowed us to examine muscle and tendon injuries simultaneously in US and MRI, and the correlation of both techniques, especially low-grade muscular injuries. This has also helped compensate for the limited field of view with US. It improves spatial orientation of cartilage, labrum and meniscal injuries. However, a high-quality MRI image is essential in achieving an adequate fusion image, and 3D sequences need to be added in MRI protocols to improve navigation. The combination of real-time MRI and US image fusion and navigation is relatively easy to perform and is helping to improve understanding of MSK injuries. However, it requires specific skills in MSK imaging and still needs further research in sports-related injuries. Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.

  14. Impact of a State Law on Physician Practice in Sports-Related Concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Michael R; Raybould, Toby; Jamal-Allial, Aziza; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Lee, Jarone; Gervasini, Alice; Ginsburg, Richard; Mandell, Mark; Donelan, Karen; Masiakos, Peter T

    2016-11-01

    To determine physician-reported adherence to and support of the 2010 Massachusetts youth concussion law, as well as barriers to care and clinical practice in the context of legislation. Primary care physicians (n = 272) in a large pediatric network were eligible for a cross-sectional survey in 2014. Survey questions addressed key policy and practice provisions: concussion knowledge, state regulations and training, practice patterns, referrals, patient characteristics, and barriers to care. Analyses explored relationships between practice and policy, adjusting for physician demographic and practice characteristics. The survey response rate was 64% among all responders (173 of 272). A total of 146 respondents who had evaluated, treated, or referred patients with a suspected sports-related concussion in the previous year were eligible for analysis. The vast majority (90%) of providers agreed that the current Massachusetts laws regarding sports concussions are necessary and support the major provisions. Three-quarters (74%) had taken a required clinician training course on concussions. Those who took training courses were significantly more likely to develop individualized treatment plans (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-11.0). Physician training did not improve screening of youth with concussion for depression or substance use. Most physicians (77%) advised patients to refrain from computer, telephone, or television for various time periods. Physicians reported limited communication with schools. Primary care physicians report being comfortable with the diagnosis and management of concussions, and support statewide regulations; however, adherence to mandated training and specific legal requirements varied. Broader and more frequent training may be necessary to align current best evidence with clinical care and state-mandated practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Longitudinal assessment of local and global functional connectivity following sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Mayer, Andrew R

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that sports-related concussions (SRC) may lead to acute changes in intrinsic functional connectivity, although most studies to date have been cross-sectional in nature with relatively modest sample sizes. We longitudinally assessed changes in local and global resting state functional connectivity using metrics that do not require a priori seed or network selection (regional homogeneity; ReHo and global brain connectivity; GBC, respectively). A large sample of collegiate athletes (N = 43) was assessed approximately one day (1.74 days post-injury, N = 34), one week (8.44 days, N = 34), and one month post-concussion (32.47 days, N = 30). Healthy contact sport-athletes served as controls (N = 51). Concussed athletes showed improvement in mood symptoms at each time point (p's concussion (p's concussion. ReHo in sensorimotor, visual, and temporal cortices increased over time post-concussion, and was greatest at one month post-injury. Conversely, ReHo in the frontal cortex decreased over time following SRC, with the greatest decrease evident at one month post-concussion. Differences in ReHo relative to healthy athletes were primarily observed at one month post-concussion rather than the more acute time points. Contrary to our hypothesis, no significant cross-sectional or longitudinal differences in GBC were observed. These results are suggestive of a delayed onset of local connectivity changes following SRC.

  16. Changes in functional brain networks following sports-related concussion in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Makan, Nadia; Liu, Aiping; Smith-Forrester, Jenna; Franks, Chris; Wang, Z J

    2014-12-01

    Sports-related concussion is a major public health issue; however, little is known about the underlying changes in functional brain networks in adolescents following injury. Our aim was to use the tools from graph theory to evaluate the changes in brain network properties following concussion in adolescent athletes. We recorded resting state electroencephalography (EEG) in 33 healthy adolescent athletes and 9 adolescent athletes with a clinical diagnosis of subacute concussion. Graph theory analysis was applied to these data to evaluate changes in brain networks. Global and local metrics of the structural properties of the graph were calculated for each group and correlated with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores. Brain networks of both groups showed small-world topology with no statistically significant differences in the global metrics; however, significant differences were found in the local metrics. Specifically, in the concussed group, we noted: 1) increased values of betweenness and degree in frontal electrode sites corresponding to the (R) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the (R) inferior frontal gyrus and 2) decreased values of degree in the region corresponding to the (R) frontopolar prefrontal cortex. In addition, there was significant negative correlation between degree and hub value, with total symptom score at the electrode site corresponding to the (R) prefrontal cortex. This preliminary report in adolescent athletes shows for the first time that resting-state EEG combined with graph theoretical analysis may provide an objective method of evaluating changes in brain networks following concussion. This approach may be useful in identifying individuals at risk for future injury.

  17. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  18. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Abtahi, Mostafa; Heravi, Farzin; Hoseini, Mohsen; Shafaee, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading) showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  19. Evolution of the Telomere-Associated Protein POT1a in Arabidopsis thaliana Is Characterized by Positive Selection to Reinforce Protein-Protein Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilstein, Mark A; Renfrew, Kyle B; Song, Xiangyu; Shakirov, Eugene V; Zanis, Michael J; Shippen, Dorothy E

    2015-05-01

    Gene duplication is a major driving force in genome evolution. Here, we explore the nature and origin of the POT1 gene duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana. Protection of Telomeres (POT1) is a conserved multifunctional protein that modulates telomerase activity and its engagement with telomeres. Arabidopsis thaliana encodes two divergent POT1 paralogs termed AtPOT1a and AtPOT1b. AtPOT1a positively regulates telomerase activity, whereas AtPOT1b is proposed to negatively regulate telomerase and promote chromosome end protection. Phylogenetic analysis uncovered two independent POT1 duplication events in the plant kingdom, including one at the base of Brassicaceae. Tests for positive selection implemented in PAML revealed that the Brassicaceae POT1a lineage experienced positive selection postduplication and identified three amino acid residues with signatures of positive selection. A sensitive and quantitative genetic complementation assay was developed to assess POT1a function in A. thaliana. The assay showed that AtPOT1a is functionally distinct from single-copy POT1 genes in other plants. Moreover, for two of the sites with a strong signature of positive selection, substitutions that swap the amino acids in AtPOT1a for residues found in AtPOT1b dramatically compromised AtPOT1a function in vivo. In vitro-binding studies demonstrated that all three sites under positive selection specifically enhance the AtPOT1a interaction with CTC1, a core component of the highly conserved CST (CTC1/STN1/TEN1) telomere protein complex. Our results reveal a molecular mechanism for the role of these positively selected sites in AtPOT1a. The data also provide an important empirical example to refine theories of duplicate gene retention, as the outcome of positive selection here appears to be reinforcement of an ancestral function, rather than neofunctionalization. We propose that this outcome may not be unusual when the duplicated protein is a component of a multisubunit complex whose

  20. The epidemiology of competition and training-based surf sport-related injury in Australia, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Brighton, Barbara; Sherker, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of competition and training-based surf sport-related injury in Australia in the years 2003-2011. A retrospective epidemiological review. Information on surf sport-related injuries was obtained from Surf Life Saving Australia's SurfGuard Incident Reporting Database during 1 January 2003 to 20 August 2011. There were 2645 surf sport-related competition or training-related incidents. Males and females experienced similar proportions of injury by activity type, with older individuals experiencing a higher proportion of injuries during training than younger individuals. Minor first aid was required for 54.5% of the competition and 43.7% of the training-related incidents, with major first aid required in just over 10% of both incident types. Overall, inflatable rescue boats, beach flags, and surf boats were the most common activities performed at the time of the incident, with returning to shore and negotiating the break the most common possible contributing factors to surf boat incidents. Bruises/contusions, strains, inflammation/swelling, and sprains were the most common types of injuries that occurred during both competition and training. RICE--Rest-Ice-Compression-Elevation--was the most common form of initial treatment for the injury during both competition and training. Participation in surf sports is not without risk of injury. Information from this study will inform injury prevention efforts for surf sport and act as a guide for future research in this area, and towards improved injury surveillance for surf sport-related injuries. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Preliminary Report on Brain-Derived Extracellular Vesicle as Novel Blood Biomarkers for Sport-Related Concussions

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    Keisuke Kawata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to test the utility of unique panel of blood biomarkers as a means to reflect one’s recovery process after sport-related neurotrauma. We established a panel of biomarkers that reacted positive with CD81 (extracellular vesicle marker and various neuron- and glia-specific antigens [e.g., neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L, tau, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein]. We first evaluated test–retest reliabilities of brain-derived exosome markers, followed by an application of these markers in eight professional ice hockey players to detect cumulative neuronal burden from a single ice hockey season. During the season, two players were diagnosed with concussions by team physician based on an exhibition of symptoms as well as abnormality in balance and ocular motor testing. One player reached symptom-free status 7 days after the concussion, while the other player required 36 days for symptoms to completely resolve. Blood samples and clinical assessments including balance error scoring system and near point of convergence throughout recovery process were obtained. Biomarkers indicative of axonal damage, neuronal inflammation, and glial activation showed excellent test–retest reliabilities (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.713–0.998, p’s < 0.01. There was a statistically significant increase in the NF-L marker at post-season follow-up compared to pre-season baseline (Z = −2.100, P = 0.036; however the statistical significance did not withstand Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. In concussion cases, neuronal and microglia markers notably increased after concussions, with the unique expression patterns being similar to that of concussion recovery process. These longitudinal data coupled with excellent test–retest reliabilities of novel array of blood biomarkers potentially reflect the damage in neural cell

  2. Common data elements collected among universities for sport-related concussion studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Noble, James M; Torner, James; Schmidt, Paul; Cooper, Martha L

    2018-02-12

    Universities are increasingly implementing programs to effectively respond to and manage sport-related concussions (SRCs). One such effort is to develop common data elements (CDEs) and standardize data collection methods. The objectives of this study were to describe CDEs currently collected by Big Ten and Ivy League universities for SRC studies, and to compare the data collected with the core CDEs recommended by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional online survey among medical staff at the 14 Big Ten and 8 Ivy League universities (one per university) between September and October 2015. The survey instrument, including 9 questions corresponding to the concussion data collected before, during, and after a concussion, was developed and pilot-tested before field use. We analyzed patterns of the concussion CDEs being collected, including when, what, and how the data were collected and stored, and compared them with the NINDS' recommended core CDEs. A total of 19 out of 22 universities were included, with 13 from Big Ten and 6 from Ivy-League universities. All 19 participating universities currently collected concussion data with athletes before, during, and after a concussion. Great similarities in data collection were observed at baseline and acutely post-concussion across participating universities. All 19 universities collected at least one of the ten recommended acute symptoms checklists, and 18 universities collected one of the four recommended core neuropsychological function cognitive measures. However, CDEs in the sub-acute and chronic timeframes were limited, with only 9 (47%) universities collecting post-concussion short to long term outcome data. While over 60% of universities collected and stored concussion data electronically, only 17% to 42% of data collected were readily available for research. Significant inter-institutional similarities in acute concussion CDEs were found. Further

  3. Effects of Traditional Versus Horizontal Inertial Flywheel Power Training on Common Sport-Related Tasks

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    de Hoyo Moisés

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m, countermovement jump height (CMJH, 20 m change of direction ability (COD and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004 was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s, CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N in both groups (p < 0.05. However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04. In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.

  4. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  5. Sleep disturbance and neurocognitive function during the recovery from a sport-related concussion in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyun, Regina O; Milewski, Matthew D; Hafeez, Imran

    2015-03-01

    Sleep disturbances are a hallmark sign after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Poor sleep has been shown to adversely affect baseline neurocognitive test scores, but it is not comprehensively understood how neurocognitive function is affected by disrupted sleep during recovery from a concussion. To identify the correlation between adolescent athletes' neurocognitive function and their self-reported sleep quantity and sleep disturbance symptoms during recovery from SRC. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognition Testing (ImPACT) data were retrospectively collected for 545 adolescent athletes treated for SRC at a sports medicine concussion clinic. Patients were stratified into groups based on 2 criteria: self-reported sleep duration and self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms during postinjury ImPACT testing. Sleep duration was classified as short (9 hours). Sleep disturbance symptoms were self-reported as part of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) as either sleeping less than normal, sleeping more than normal, or having trouble falling asleep. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effects that sleep duration as well as self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms had on composite scores. A total of 1067 ImPACT tests were analyzed: test 1, 545; test 2, 380; and test 3, 142. Sleeping fewer than 7 hours the night before testing correlated with higher PCSS scores (P sleeping longer than 9 hours correlated with worse visual memory (P = .01), visual motor speed (P sleep disturbance symptoms, patients demonstrated worse composite scores during ImPACT testing when they self-reported sleeping more than normal (ImPACT test 1: verbal memory, P memory, P memory, P sleep had been disrupted. Adolescent patients who perceive that their sleep is somehow disrupted after SRC may report a greater number of concussion symptoms during their recovery. In addition, the study results suggest that sleeping more

  6. Sport-Related Traumatic Brain Injury with and without Helmets in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandte, Angela; Fritzsche, Friederike-Sophie; Emami, Pedram; Kammler, Getrud; Püschel, Klaus; Krajewski, Kara

    2018-03-01

    Soccer, bicycling, and horseback riding are sports most commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Germany. The latter 2 sports activities are commonly practiced with helmets, and data on helmet use and usefulness vary widely. On Ethics Committee approval, a retrospective analysis was performed for patients age 5-17 between January 2009 and August 2014 based on a diagnosis of TBI, using the electronic patient file for 2 university hospital locations. Descriptive data analysis and multivariate and univariate logistic regression were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A total of 380 children were identified, including 162 females (42.6%) and 218 males (57.4%), with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.8 years. Activities included bicycling (n = 64), horseback riding (n = 19), and soccer (n = 16). Helmet use was documented in 26 patients (14 cyclists, 12 riders), and nonuse was documented in 20 (all cyclists). Compared with not wearing a helmet, wearing a helmet was associated with a trend toward lower odds of loss of consciousness (OR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-2.52). A cohort of 251 patients with non-sports-related TBI (NSTBI) served as a control group for further analyses. Compared with the NSTBI group, the odds of amnesia were 2.9 times greater (95% CI, 1.1-21.6) in the patients with a riding-related TBI and 4.8 times greater (95% CI, 0.3-239) in those with a cycling-related TBI, and the odds of epidural hematoma were 2.2 times greater (95% CI, 0.4-12.3) in those with a cycling-related TBI and 4.9 times greater (95% CI, 0.5-50.4) greater in those with a soccer-related TBI. We gained important epidemiologic data on pediatric TBI in our region. Despite the descriptive nature of the data, a trend toward reduced odds of loss of consciousness was seen in the helmet wearers. Nevertheless, serious injury can occur despite helmet use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Strength and stability analysis of load-bearing structures of a high-rise building with account for actual positions of reinforced concrete structural members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belostotskiy Aleksandr Mikhaylovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The given paper is devoted to strength and stability analysis of load-bearing structures of a high-rise (54-storey building with allowance for actual positions of reinforced concrete structural members (columns and walls. Finite element method (FEM is used for structural analysis. The authors present formulations of problems, governing equations, information about basic three-dimensional finite element models (so-called “design” (ideal model, the first “actual” model (taking into account the deviations of positions of columns from the project and the second “actual” model (taking into account the deviations of positions of walls from the project of the coupled system “high-rise building - foundation” within ANSYS Mechanical software and their verification, numerical approach to structural analysis and corresponding solvers. Finite element models include mainly 4-node structural shell elements (suitable for analyzing foundation slabs, floor slabs and load-bearing walls and three-dimensional 2-node beam elements (suitable for analyzing beams and columns, special spring-damper elements and multipoint constraint elements. Detailed finite element mesh on the bottom foundation slab is agreed with the location of piles. The advanced model of Prof. Yu.K. Zaretsky is used for approximation of soil behavior. Construction sequence and various types of nonlinearities are taken into account. The results of modal analysis, static and dynamic analysis with various load combinations (gravity load, facade load, dead (constant loads, temporary loads, wind load, snow load, crown load etc. are considered, the results of the regulatory assessment of the strength of structures (obtained with the use of corresponding software in accordance with design codes of the Russian Federation are under consideration as well. The corresponding displacements, stresses, natural vibration frequencies can be used for research and development of the correct monitoring

  8. The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS): a study protocol for a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS). An argument-based method for investigation of design problems was used to structure the study protocol. The primary requirement of the protocol is to allow prospective studies over time and include exposure to both training and competition. To reflect the complexity of Paralympic sport with athletes' pre-existing impairments, use of assistive equipment, pain and other and medical issues, it is required that the data collection system is specifically adapted to Paralympic sport. To allow the collection of data, at the same time as there is limited access to coaches and medical personnel, it is advantageous that data can be collected online directly from the athletes. Based on this a self-report athlete monitoring system will be developed, where the athletes can enter data weekly via their mobile phones or lap-tops. Data will be collected from around 100 Swedish Paralympic athletes for approximately 1 year, which will allow us to i) prospectively estimate the annual incidence of sports-related injuries and illnesses and ii) explore risk factors and mechanisms for sustaining sports-related injuries and illnesses based on athlete exposure and training loads. For effective implementation of injury and illness prevention measures, comprehensive epidemiological knowledge is required. This study will be the first prospective longitudinal self-report study of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport over a longer period

  9. A new approach to assess gambling-like behavior in laboratory rats: using intracranial self-stimulation as a positive reinforcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie E Tedford

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling is one manifestation of impulse control disorders. The biological underpinnings of these disorders remain elusive and treatment is far from ideal. Animal models of impulse control disorders are a critical research tool for understanding this condition and for medication development. Modeling such complex behaviors is daunting, but by its deconstruction, scientists have recapitulated in animals critical aspects of gambling. One aspect of gambling is cost/benefit decision-making wherein one weighs the anticipated costs and expected benefits of a course of action. Risk/reward, delay-based and effort-based decision-making all represent cost/benefit choices. These features are studied in humans and have been translated to animal protocols to measure decision-making processes. Traditionally, the positive reinforcer used in animal studies is food. Here, we describe how intracranial self-stimulation can be used for cost/benefit decision-making tasks and overview our recent studies showing how pharmacological therapies alter these behaviors in laboratory rats. We propose that these models may have value in screening new compounds for the ability to promote and prevent aspects of gambling behavior.

  10. A new approach to assess gambling-like behavior in laboratory rats: using intracranial self-stimulation as a positive reinforcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, Stephanie E; Holtz, Nathan A; Persons, Amanda L; Napier, T Celeste

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling is one manifestation of impulse control disorders. The biological underpinnings of these disorders remain elusive and treatment is far from ideal. Animal models of impulse control disorders are a critical research tool for understanding this condition and for medication development. Modeling such complex behaviors is daunting, but by its deconstruction, scientists have recapitulated in animals critical aspects of gambling. One aspect of gambling is cost/benefit decision-making wherein one weighs the anticipated costs and expected benefits of a course of action. Risk/reward, delay-based and effort-based decision-making all represent cost/benefit choices. These features are studied in humans and have been translated to animal protocols to measure decision-making processes. Traditionally, the positive reinforcer used in animal studies is food. Here, we describe how intracranial self-stimulation can be used for cost/benefit decision-making tasks and overview our recent studies showing how pharmacological therapies alter these behaviors in laboratory rats. We propose that these models may have value in screening new compounds for the ability to promote and prevent aspects of gambling behavior.

  11. Association between Time of Day of Sports-Related Physical Activity and the Onset of Acute Myocardial Infarction in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Zhang, Zhen; Long, Qingqing; Ma, Yao; Lian, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yang; Gao, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Liansheng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between the time of day of sports-related physical activity and the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a coronary artery disease (CAD) population in China. Between February 2014 and March 2015, a total of 696 patients from Nanjing, China, who had CAD were studied and divided into two groups (Non-AMI and AMI groups). The work-related activity and sports-related physical activity information were obtained from a self-reporting predesigned patient questionnaire. Sports-related physical activity was associated with a lower risk of the onset of AMI, after adjusting the established and potential confounders, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47-0.94) compared with those who did not have any sports-related physical activity. A dose-response relationship was observed for intensity, duration, and frequency of sports-related physical activity. Further stratification analysis revealed that the protective effects of sports-related physical activity were significant in the morning and evening groups, and patients who exercised in the evening were at a lower risk of AMI than those doing sports-related physical activity in the morning. The adjusted ORs for doing sports-related physical activity in the morning and evening groups were 0.60(0.36-0.98) and 0.56(0.37-0.87), respectively, compared with inactivity (all Psports-related physical activity in the evening had an adjusted OR of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.54-1.64, P = 0.824) compared with in the morning group. Sports-related physical activity is associated with a lower risk of onset of AMI than inactivity in Chinese people. For CAD patients, we suggest they participate in sports-related physical activity of high intensity, long duration, and high frequency. Doing sports-related physical activity in the evening and in the morning have similar benefits on the prevention of the onset of AMI.

  12. Mechanisms of team-sport-related brain injuries in children 5 to 19 years old: opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael D; Cho, Newton; Amin, Khizer; Shirazi, Mariam; McFaull, Steven R; Do, Minh T; Wong, Matthew C; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports. We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football), basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed. There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP). Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%), followed by soccer (19.0%) and football (12.9%). In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post) among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females). Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.

  13. Mechanisms of team-sport-related brain injuries in children 5 to 19 years old: opportunities for prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Cusimano

    Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.

  14. Posttraumatic Cerebellar Infarction after Repeated Sport-related Minor Head Injuries in a Young Adult: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUMOTO, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    A healthy 23-year-old man suffered helmet-to-helmet collisions with an opponent during American football game twice within 3 days. He then experienced continuous vomiting and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed transient stenosis of the right superior cerebellar artery. Although minor head injury is not usually accompanied by complications, posttraumatic ischemic stroke has been reported on rare occasions. We report a case of cerebellar infarction after repeated sports-related minor head injuries in a young adult and discuss the etiology. PMID:25746313

  15. Sports-related sudden cardiac death in a competitive and a noncompetitive athlete population aged 12 to 49 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preparticipation screening programs have been suggested to reduce the numbers of sports-related sudden cardiac deaths (SrSCD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize all SrSCD aged 12-49 years and to address the difference in incidence rates between...... competitive and noncompetitive athletes. METHODS: All deaths among persons aged 12-49 years from 2007-2009 were included. Death certificates were reviewed. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries and autopsy reports were read. Sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) and Sr...

  16. Muscular Oxidative Capacity in Ovariectomized Rats Discussion on the Endurance Performance of Female Athletes with Sports-Related-Amenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Sasa, Takahiro; Sairyo, Koichi; Yoshida, Naoyuki; Ishikawa, Makoto; Fukunaga, Mari; Yasui, Natsuo

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old) Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group), and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group). One and four weeks after surgery, muscular oxidative capacity was measured using 31P-MR ...

  17. Premature return to play and return to learn after a sport-related concussion: physician's chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James D; Lawrence, David W; Kraft, Sari A; Garel, Alisha; Snow, Catherine L; Chatterjee, Ananda; Libfeld, Paula; MacKenzie, Heather M; Thornton, Jane S; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    To determine what proportion of patients experience an exacerbation of their symptoms as a result of premature return to play (RTP) and return to learn (RTL) following sport-related concussions. Retrospective study of electronic medical records from the office-based practice of one family and sport medicine physician who had systematically provided recommendations for cognitive and physical rest based on existing consensus recommendations. Two blinded authors independently reviewed each chart, which included Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) and SCAT2 symptom self-report forms to determine whether an athlete had returned to play or learn prematurely. If there was a discrepancy between the 2 reviewers then a third author reviewed the charts. A sport medicine and family practice in Ontario. The physician assessed sport-related concussions after self-referral or referral from other primary care physicians, teams, and schools. A total of 170 charts of 159 patients were assessed for sport-related concussion during a 5-year period (April 2006 to March 2011). All participants were students who were participating in sports at the time of injury. There were 41 concussions in elementary students, 95 concussions in high school students, and 34 concussions in college or university students. Premature RTP and RTL were defined as chart records documenting the recurrence or worsening of symptoms that accompanied the patients' RTP or RTL. Measures were compared using the earliest available SCAT forms and self-reporting. In 43.5% of concussion cases, the patient returned to sport too soon and in 44.7% of concussion cases, the patient returned to school too soon. Patients with a history of previous concussion required more days of rest before being permitted to participate in any physical activity than those patients without a previous history of concussion. Elementary school students required fewer days of rest before being permitted to return to any physical activity

  18. Muscarinic M4 Receptors on Cholinergic and Dopamine D1 Receptor-Expressing Neurons Have Opposing Functionality for Positive Reinforcement and Influence Impulsivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Klawonn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter acetylcholine has been implicated in reward learning and drug addiction. However, the roles of the various cholinergic receptor subtypes on different neuron populations remain elusive. Here we study the function of muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs in dopamine D1 receptor (D1R expressing neurons and cholinergic neurons (expressing choline acetyltransferase; ChAT, during various reward-enforced behaviors and in a “waiting”-impulsivity test. We applied cell-type-specific gene deletions targeting M4Rs in D1RCre or ChATCre mice. Mice lacking M4Rs in D1R-neurons displayed greater cocaine seeking and drug-primed reinstatement than their littermate controls in a Pavlovian conditioned place preference (CPP paradigm. Furthermore, the M4R-D1RCre mice initiated significantly more premature responses (PRs in the 5-choice-serial-reaction-time-task (5CSRTT than their littermate controls, indicating impaired waiting impulse control. In contrast, mice lacking M4Rs in cholinergic neurons did not acquire cocaine Pavlovian conditioning. The M4R-ChATCre mice were also unable to learn positive reinforcement to either natural reward or cocaine in an operant runway paradigm. Immediate early gene (IEG expression (cFos and FosB induced by repeated cocaine injections was significantly increased in the forebrain of M4R-D1RCre mice, whereas it remained normal in the M4R-ChATCre mice. Our study illustrates that muscarinic M4Rs on specific neural populations, either cholinergic or D1R-expressing, are pivotal for learning processes related to both natural reward and drugs of abuse, with opposing functionality. Furthermore, we found that neurons expressing both M4Rs and D1Rs are important for signaling impulse control.

  19. Behavior of Reinforced Retaining Walls with Different Reinforcement Spacing during Vehicle Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangkuk Ahn

    2015-01-01

    reinforcement spacing using LS-DYNA, a general finite-element program. Eight tons of truck weight was used for the numerical analysis model. The behavior of a reinforced retaining wall under variable reinforcement spacing and positioning was analyzed. The results indicated that the reinforcement material was an important resistance factor against external collision load.

  20. MUSCULAR OXIDATIVE CAPACITY IN OVARIECTOMIZED RATS DISCUSSION ON THE ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE OF FEMALE ATHLETES WITH SPORTS-RELATED-AMENORRHEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuo Yasui

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group, and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group. One and four weeks after surgery, muscular oxidative capacity was measured using 31P-MR spectra of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (GPS muscles group at rest and during electric stimulation. Wet weight and maximum tension of the whole GPS muscles group were also measured. From the MRS measurements, the muscle oxidative capacity in the OVX group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05 at both one and four weeks after surgery. The muscle's wet weight one week after surgery in the OVX group was the same as the Sham group, while four weeks after surgery it was significantly greater than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in maximum tension among the groups. In conclusion, in adult rats the oxidative capacity decreased due to ovariectomy despite the increase in muscle weight. It is suggested that the muscular endurance capacity in female adult athletes with sports related amenorrhea may deteriorate.

  1. Preliminary use of the PANESS for detecting subtle motor signs in adolescents with sport-related concussion: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Jaclyn A; Denckla, Martha B; McCambridge, Teri; Slomine, Beth S; Mahone, E Mark; Suskauer, Stacy J

    2018-02-08

    Sensitive examination tools are needed to optimize evaluation after sport-related concussion (SRC). We preliminarily examined the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs (PANESS) for sensitivity to motor changes in a pilot cohort of adolescents aged 13-17 with SRC. 15 Adolescents (5 females) with SRC were evaluated up to 3 times: within 2 weeks of injury, approximately 1 month later (mean 35 days between visits), and for those not recovered at the second visit, again following clinical recovery (mean 70 days between first and last visits for all participants). Comparison data were acquired from 20 age and sex-matched never-concussed healthy control athletes with no history of concussion who were evaluated twice (mean 32 days apart). Main effects of group, time, and interaction effects were evaluated with an analysis of covariance which controlled for socioeconomic status, times tested, and days between testing sessions. Adolescents with concussion had poorer PANESS performance than controls at all time points. Performance improved between visits within the concussion group with no change within the control group. These findings suggest that the PANESS merits additional study in larger cohorts and in combination with other markers of injury to facilitate an enhanced understanding of sports-related concussion and recovery.

  2. Sports related concussion and spinal injuries: the need for changing spearing rules at the National Capital Amateur Football Association (NCAFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jacques C

    2006-09-01

    Returning an athlete to play following a spinal or concussive injury remains a challenge for the health practitioner making the decision. Among the possible mechanisms responsible for such injuries in amateur football, the concept of "spearing" has attracted a great deal of attention in sport medicine. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the diagnosis and treatment of the potentially catastrophic neck and head injuries caused by spearing in Canadian amateur football and to suggest the role the chiropractic profession can have in their prevention. It proposes to follow the recommendations advocated by the National Capital Amateur Football Association (NCAFA) athletic trainers group, led by a chiropractor. Information regarding the concepts and prevention of "spearing", concussion and spinal injuries at the amateur football level in both the United States and Canada was obtained using the following computerized search methods: PubMed - MeSH (via the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); The Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL); Google Scholar Beta. Recent (2005) information on sports related spinal injuries and concussion were obtained by attendance at the 2005 Sports Related Concussion and Spine Injury Conference. Foxborough, Massachusetts. From a total of 698 references, 63 were retained. Literature search yields very little information regarding Canadian statistics for amateur football neck and head injuries. The author encourages such injury data collecting and proposes that original Canadian studies and statistical analyses be carried out, such as those from diverse sports groups in the United States and abroad.1, 2, 3 The NCAFA group of trainers recommends a changing of the rules for "spearing" within the league and advocates gathering of Canadian based sports injury statistics. It also recognizes the need for public presentations (of concussion/spinal injuries).5 This paper describes the different interpretations of spearing

  3. Athletic Trainers' Familiarity With and Perceptions of Academic Accommodations in Secondary School Athletes After Sport-Related Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richelle M.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context: Sport-related concussion can affect athletes' sport participation and academic success. With the recent emphasis on cognitive rest, student-athletes may benefit from academic accommodations (AA) in the classroom; however, athletic trainers' (ATs') perceived familiarity with, and use of, AA is unknown. Objective: To assess secondary school ATs' perceived familiarity with, attitudes and beliefs about, and incorporation of AA for student-athletes after sport-related concussion. A secondary purpose was to determine whether employment status altered familiarity and use of AA. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Online survey. Patients or Other Participants: Of 3286 possible respondents, 851 secondary school ATs accessed the survey (response rate = 25.9%; 308 men [36.2%], 376 women [44.2%], 167 respondents [19.6%] with sex information missing; age = 37.3 ± 10.1 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were solicited via e-mail to complete the Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge Following Pediatric Athlete Concussion among Athletic Trainers employed in the secondary school setting (BAKPAC-AT) survey. The BAKPAC-AT assessed ATs' perceived familiarity, perceptions, and roles regarding 504 plans, Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), and returning student-athletes to the classroom. Independent variables were employment status (full time versus part time), employment model (direct versus outreach), years certified, and years of experience in the secondary school setting. The dependent variables were participants' responses to the AA questions. Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to assess relationships and Mann-Whitney U and χ2 tests (P athletes whose sport-related concussions they managed received AA. Respondents employed directly by the school were more familiar with 504 plans (P < .001) and IEPs (P < .001) and had a greater belief that ATs should have a role in AA. Both the number of years certified and the years of experience at the

  4. Participation in Sports-Related Extracurricular Activities: A Strategy That Enhances School Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Amand, Jerome; Girard, Stéphanie; Hiroux, Marie-Hélène; Smith, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This article outlines a strategy that we, as high school teachers, used in the academic year 2012-2013 to improve a student's school engagement. Extracurricular activities such as sports have proven useful (among other strategies) to counter school disengagement, specifically in enhancing positive social relations among the teachers and students…

  5. Integrative training for children and adolescents: techniques and practices for reducing sports-related injuries and enhancing athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-02-01

    As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.

  6. Reinforced concrete tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariscotti, M.A.J.; Morixe, M.; Tarela, P.A.; Thieberger, P.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we describe the technique of reinforced concrete tomography, its historical background, recent technological developments and main applications. Gamma radiation sensitive plates are imprinted with radiation going through the concrete sample under study, and then processed to reveal the presence of reinforcement and defects in the material density. The three dimensional reconstruction, or tomography, of the reinforcement out of a single gammagraphy is an original development alternative to conventional methods. Re-bar diameters and positions may be determined with an accuracy of ± 1 mm 0.5-1 cm, respectively. The non-destructive character of this technique makes it particularly attractive in cases of inhabited buildings and diagnoses of balconies. (author) [es

  7. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University

  8. On-field management and return-to-play in sports-related concussion in children: Are children managed appropriately?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haran, Harini P; Bressan, Silvia; Oakley, Ed; Davis, Gavin A; Anderson, Vicki; Babl, Franz E

    2016-03-01

    On-field management and return-to-play guidelines aim to ensure the identification and appropriate management of the concussed athlete. Compliance with current guidelines in many settings is unknown. We assessed whether key components of current concussion guidelines are being followed in child athletes. Prospective observational study. Data were collected from children (5-18 years) presenting to a paediatric emergency department with sport-related concussion via researcher-administered surveys in the emergency department and during a follow up phone call. On hospital discharge all patients received a return to sports fact sheet based on the International Concussion in Sports Group. Ninety-three had sustained a concussion (mean age 12.7 (±0.27) years, 83% male). Sports played included Australian Football (47%), soccer (12%), rugby (9%) basketball (8%), other (25%). 82% participated in organised sports. Concussive signs or symptoms included loss of consciousness (41%), disorientation (36%), vomiting (23%), amnesia (30%), headache (60%). For concussive injury in organised sports (n=76), overall 42% were not managed according to recommended guidelines: 19% were not immediately removed from play, 29% were allowed to return to play on the same day and 27% were not assessed by qualified personnel. 93% of parents and 96% of patients were unaware of concussion or return-to-play guidelines from their organisations. Overall, 72% were compliant with provided return-to-play guidelines. Many children with sports related-concussion are not formally assessed on-field and continue to play. On-field concussion management and return to play practices are often suboptimal. Awareness and education of coaches, teachers, parents and children need to be improved. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Age Differences in Recovery After Sport-Related Concussion: A Comparison of High School and Collegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lindsay D; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Barr, William B; Hammeke, Thomas A; Randolph, Christopher; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Yanzhi; McCrea, Michael A

    2016-02-01

    Younger age has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for prolonged recovery after sport-related concussion, yet few studies have directly evaluated age differences in acute recovery. To compare clinical recovery patterns for high school and collegiate athletes. Prospective cohort study. Large, multicenter prospective sample collected from 1999-2003 in a sports medicine setting. Concussed athletes (n = 621; 545 males and 76 females) and uninjured controls (n = 150) participating in high school and collegiate contact and collision sports (79% in football, 15.7% in soccer, and the remainder in lacrosse or ice hockey). Participants underwent evaluation of symptoms (Graded Symptom Checklist), cognition (Standardized Assessment of Concussion, paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests), and postural stability (Balance Error Scoring System). Athletes were evaluated preinjury and followed serially at several time points after concussive injury: immediately, 3 hours postinjury, and at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 45 or 90 (with neuropsychological measures administered at baseline and 3 postinjury time points). Comparisons of concussed high school and collegiate athletes with uninjured controls suggested that high school athletes took 1 to 2 days longer to recover on a cognitive (Standardized Assessment of Concussion) measure. Comparisons with the control group on other measures (symptoms, balance) as well as direct comparisons between concussed high school and collegiate samples revealed no differences in the recovery courses between the high school and collegiate groups on any measure. Group-level recovery occurred at or before 7 days postinjury on all assessment metrics. The findings suggest no clinically significant age differences exist in recovery after sport-related concussion, and therefore, separate injury-management protocols are not needed for high school and collegiate athletes.

  10. Epidemiology of sports-related injuries in children and youth presenting to Canadian emergency departments from 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although injuries related to sports and recreation represent a significant burden to children and youth, few studies have examined the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injury since 2005, and some sports such as ringette have not been evaluated to date. The primary purpose of this study was to provide the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injuries treated in emergency departments for children and youth aged 5 – 19. Methods A retrospective data analysis was performed using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program [CHIRPP] from fiscal years (April – March) 2007/08 to 2009/10. CHIRPP is a computerized information system designed by the Public Health Agency of Canada that collects information about injuries to people evaluated in emergency departments across 11 pediatric hospitals and 5 general hospitals in Canada. Thirteen sports or activities were analyzed (baseball, basketball, cycling, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rugby, skiing, sledding, snowboarding, soccer, and volleyball). Descriptive statistics, including frequency by sport, age and sex, as well as the percent of concussions within each sport were calculated. Results Out of a total of 56, 691 reported sports and recreational injuries, soccer accounted for the largest proportion of injuries with 11,941 reported cases over the 3 year time period. Of these, approximately 30% were fractures. The 10 – 14 year age group reported the greatest proportion of injuries in 10 out of the 13 sports analyzed. In addition, males reported a greater number of overall injuries than females in 11 out of the 13 sports analyzed. The largest percentage of concussions was reported in ringette; these injuries accounted for 17.1% of overall injuries within this sport. Conclusions Injury prevention programs in Canada should focus on improving evidence-based programs to reduce the burden of injuries in all sports. PMID:24364875

  11. MODELLING THE INTERACTION IN GAME SPORTS - RELATIVE PHASE AND MOVING CORRELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lames

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Model building in game sports should maintain the constitutive feature of this group of sports, the dynamic interaction process between the two parties. For single net/wall games relative phase is suggested to describe the positional interaction between the two players. 30 baseline rallies in tennis were examined and relative phase was calculated by Hilbert transform from the two time-series of lateral displacement and trajectory in the court respectively. Results showed that relative phase indicates some aspects of the tactical interaction in tennis. At a more abstract level the interaction between two teams in handball was studied by examining the relationship of the two scoring processes. Each process can be conceived as a random walk. Moving averages of the scoring probabilities indicate something like a momentary strength. A moving correlation (length = 20 ball possessions describes the momentary relationship between the teams' strength. Evidence was found that this correlation is heavily time-dependent, in almost every single game among the 40 examined ones we found phases with a significant positive as well as significant negative relationship. This underlines the importance of a dynamic view on the interaction in these games.

  12. Avoiding sports-related sudden cardiac death in children with congenital channelopathy : Recommendations for sports activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, C N; Steinfurt, J; Odening, K E

    2017-04-01

    For the past few years, children affected by an inherited channelopathy have been counseled to avoid (recreational) sports activities and all competitive sports so as to prevent exercise-induced arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. An increased understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms, better anti-arrhythmic strategies, and, in particular, more epidemiological data on exercise-induced arrhythmia in active athletes with channelopathies have changed the universal recommendation of "no sports," leading to revised, less strict, and more differentiated guidelines (published by the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology in 2015). In this review, we outline the disease- and genotype-specific mechanisms of exercise-induced arrhythmia; give an overview of trigger-, symptom-, and genotype-dependent guidance in sports activities for children with long QT syndrome (LQTS), Brugada syndrome (BrS), catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT), or short QT syndrome (SQTS); and highlight the novelties in the current guidelines compared with previous versions. While it is still recommended for patients with LQT1 and CPVT (even when asymptomatic) and all symptomatic LQTS patients (independent of genotype) to avoid any competitive and high-intensity sports, other LQTS patients successfully treated with anti-arrhythmic therapies and phenotype-negative genotype-positive patients may be allowed to perform sports at different activity levels - provided they undergo regular, sophisticated evaluations to detect any changes in arrhythmogenic risk.

  13. Persistent, long-term cerebral white matter changes after sports-related repetitive head impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Janigro, Damir; Rozen, Eric; Roberts, Andrew; Javien, Hannah; Merchant-Borna, Kian; Abar, Beau; Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive head impacts (RHI) sustained in contact sports are thought to be necessary for the long-term development of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Our objectives were to: 1) characterize the magnitude and persistence of RHI-induced white matter (WM) changes; 2) determine their relationship to kinematic measures of RHI; and 3) explore their clinical relevance. Prospective, observational study of 10 Division III college football players and 5 non-athlete controls during the 2011-12 season. All subjects underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), physiologic, cognitive, and balance testing at pre-season (Time 1), post-season (Time 2), and after 6-months of no-contact rest (Time 3). Head impact measures were recorded using helmet-mounted accelerometers. The percentage of whole-brain WM voxels with significant changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) from Time 1 to 2, and Time 1 to 3 was determined for each subject and correlated to head impacts and clinical measures. Total head impacts for the season ranged from 431-1,850. No athlete suffered a clinically evident concussion. Compared to controls, athletes experienced greater changes in FA and MD from Time 1 to 2 as well as Time 1 to 3; most differences at Time 2 persisted to Time 3. Among athletes, the percentage of voxels with decreased FA from Time 1 to 2 was positively correlated with several helmet impact measures. The persistence of WM changes from Time 1 to 3 was also associated with changes in serum ApoA1 and S100B autoantibodies. WM changes were not consistently associated with cognition or balance. A single football season of RHIs without clinically-evident concussion resulted in WM changes that correlated with multiple helmet impact measures and persisted following 6 months of no-contact rest. This lack of WM recovery could potentially contribute to cumulative WM changes with subsequent RHI exposures.

  14. A systematic review of criteria used to define recovery from sport-related concussion in youth athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Nadir; Leddy, John J; Pavlesen, Sonja; Kluczynski, Melissa; Baker, John G; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey C; Willer, Barry S

    2017-07-22

    The Concussion in Sport Group guidelines recommend a multifaceted approach to help clinicians make return to sport decisions. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common multifaceted measures used to define clinical recovery from sport-related concussion in young athletes (high school and/or college level) and to summarise existing knowledge of criteria used to make return to sport decisions. Systematic review. The PubMed (MEDLINE), SPORTDiscus and Embase electronic databases were searched from 1 January 2000 to 1 March 2017 by three independent reviewers. Inclusion criteria: elementary, high school and college age groups, and a specific definition of clinical recovery that required two or more measures. review articles, articles using the same sample population, case studies, non-English language and those that used one measure only or did not specify the recovery measures used. Study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black Criteria. Of 2023 publications, 43 met inclusion criteria. Included articles reported the following measures of recovery: somatic symptom resolution or return to baseline (100%), cognitive recovery or return to baseline (86%), no exacerbation of symptoms on physical exertion (49%), normalisation of balance (30%), normal special physical examination (12%), successful return to school (5%), no exacerbation of symptoms with cognitive exertion (2%) and normalisation of cerebral blood flow (2%). Follow-up to validate the return to sport decision was reported in eight (19%) articles. Most studies were case-control or cohort (level of evidence 4) and had significant risk of bias. All studies of sport-related concussion use symptom reports to define recovery. A minority of studies used multiple measures of outcome or had clearly defined recovery criteria, the most common being a combination of a self-reported symptom checklist and a computerised neurocognitive test. Future studies ideally should define recovery a priori using

  15. Worsening dual-task gait costs after concussion and their association with subsequent sport-related injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David Robert; Buckley, Thomas; Lynall, Robert C; Meehan, William

    2018-02-28

    Prior studies suggest that concussion may lead to an increased risk of a subsequent time-loss sport-related injury, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We measured the symptom and dual-task gait outcomes for athletes initially post-concussion and after clinical recovery. Participants then self-reported any additional injuries incurred in the year after their concussion. Forty-two athletes (52% female, mean age=16.8±3.2 years) completed the study. They underwent a dual-task gait evaluation and symptom inventory within 21 days post-concussion, and again after they were deemed clinically recovered. Approximately one year later, participants documented if they had sustained any subsequent sport-related injuries. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate changes in dual-task gait and symptoms across time and between groups. A significant group*time interaction (p=0.02) indicated that the group who went on to sustain a subsequent time-loss injury after returning to sports (n=15) demonstrated significant average walking speed dual-task cost worsening across time (-17.9±9.1% vs. -25.1±12.5%; p=0.007). In contrast, the group who did not sustain an additional injury walked with consistent dual-task cost values across time (-25.2±9.2% vs. -24.6±8.4%; p=0.76). Symptoms improved for all participants (main effect of time p<0.001; PCSS= 25.0±16.9 vs. 2.8±7.5; p<0.001), but did not differ between groups (p=0.77). Significant dual-task gait cost worsening throughout concussion recovery was associated with time-loss injuries during sports in the year after a concussion. These findings indicate that worsening ability to execute a concurrent gait and cognitive task may relate to the risk of incurring an injury during sports after clinical concussion recovery.

  16. Modern pain neuroscience in clinical practice: applied to post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfliet, Anneleen; Leysen, Laurence; Pas, Roselien; Kuppens, Kevin; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, Paul; Huysmans, Eva; Goudman, Lisa; Ickmans, Kelly

    In the last decade, evidence regarding chronic pain has developed exponentially. Numerous studies show that many chronic pain populations show specific neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous system. These changes are reflected in clinical manifestations, like a generalized hypersensitivity of the somatosensory system. Besides a hypersensitivity of bottom-up nociceptive transmission, there is also evidence for top-down facilitation of pain due to malfunctioning of the endogenous descending nociceptive modulatory systems. These and other aspects of modern pain neuroscience are starting to be applied within daily clinical practice. However, currently the application of this knowledge is mostly limited to the general adult population with musculoskeletal problems, while evidence is getting stronger that also in other chronic pain populations these neuroplastic processes may contribute to the occurrence and persistence of the pain problem. Therefore, this masterclass article aims at giving an overview of the current modern pain neuroscience knowledge and its potential application in post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain problems. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Contributions of neuroimaging, balance testing, electrophysiology and blood markers to the assessment of sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G A; Iverson, G L; Guskiewicz, K M; Ptito, A; Johnston, K M

    2009-05-01

    To review the diagnostic tests and investigations used in the management of sports concussion, in the adult and paediatric populations, to (a) monitor the severity of symptoms and deficits, (b) track recovery and (c) advance knowledge relating to the natural history and neurobiology of the injury. Qualitative literature review of the neuroimaging, balance testing, electrophysiology, blood marker and concussion literature. PubMed and Medline databases were reviewed for investigations used in the management of adult and paediatric concussion, including structural imaging (computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging), functional imaging (single photon emission computerised tomography, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging), spectroscopy (magnetic resonance spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy), balance testing (Balance Error Scoring System, Sensory Organization Test, gait testing, virtual reality), electrophysiological tests (electroencephalography, evoked potentials, event related potentials, magnetoencephalography, heart rate variability), genetics (apolipoprotein E4, channelopathies) and blood markers (S100, neuron-specific enolase, cleaved Tau protein, glutamate). For the adult and paediatric populations, each test has been classified as being: (1) clinically useful, (2) a research tool only or (3) not useful in sports-related concussion. The current status of the diagnostic tests and investigations is analysed, and potential directions for future research are provided. Currently, all tests and investigations, with the exception of clinical balance testing, remain experimental. There is accumulating research, however, that shows promise for the future clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging in sport concussion assessment and management.

  18. Symptom Experience and Quality of Life in Children after Sport-Related Head Injuries: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilyadi, Michael; Macartney, Gail; Barrowman, Nick; Anderson, Peter; Dube, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Sports are a major cause of concussions, and little is known about the symptom experience and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children who remain symptomatic for over 3 months following such head injuries. A cross-sectional study of children aged 10-18 years was performed who were referred to the Neurosurgery Clinic at our centre following a head injury. Symptom experience was measured using the modified Concussion Symptom Scale, and HRQL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) was administered to assess neurocognitive and neurobehavioural sequelae. Symptoms with the highest mean symptom scores on a Likert scale of 0-6 in 35 children at the time of assessment included headaches (3.1), poor concentration (2.7), memory problems (2.1), fatigue (2.1) and sensitivity to noise (2.0). Compared with normative data, children in this study had ImPACT summary scores between the 28th and 38th percentiles and a comparably low Cognitive Efficiency Index score. Mean scores for females were consistently statistically significantly lower (p Children continue to experience many symptoms at least 3 months following sport-related head injuries that significantly impact their HRQL and neurocognitive abilities. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Delayed Presentation of Isolated Complete Pancreatic Transection as a Result of Sport-Related Blunt Trauma to the Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Healey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma is a rare but well-recognized cause of pancreatic transection. A delayed presentation of pancreatic fracture following sport-related blunt trauma with the coexisting diagnostic pitfalls is presented. Case Report: A 17-year-old rugby player was referred to our specialist unit after having been diagnosed with traumatic pancreatic transection, having presented 24 h after a sporting injury. Despite haemodynamic stability, at laparotomy he was found to have a diffuse mesenteric hematoma involving the large and small bowel mesentery, extending down to the sigmoid colon from the splenic flexure, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma arising from the pancreas. The pancreas was completely severed with the superior border of the distal segment remaining attached to the splenic vein that was intact. A distal pancreatectomy with spleen preservation and evacuation of the retroperitoneal hematoma was performed. Discussion/Conclusion: Blunt pancreatic trauma is a serious condition. Diagnosis and treatment may often be delayed, which in turn may drastically increase morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic difficulties apply to both paraclinical and radiological diagnostic methods. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in such cases, with a multi-modality diagnostic approach and prompt surgical intervention as required.

  20. Sport-related achievement motivation and alcohol outcomes: an athlete-specific risk factor among intercollegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R

    2013-12-01

    Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. © 2013.

  1. Prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors: Moderating effects of sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P

    2014-08-01

    Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Assessment of Sleep Quantity and Sleep Disturbances During Recovery From Sports-Related Concussion in Youth Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdaugh, Donna L; Ono, Kim E; Reisner, Andrew; Burns, Thomas G

    2018-02-07

    To determine the relation between sleep quantity and sleep disturbances on symptoms and neurocognitive ability during the acute phase (sports-related concussion (SRC; >21d). Prospective inception cohort study. General community setting of regional middle and high schools. A sample (N=971) including youth athletes with SRC (n=528) and controls (n=443) (age, 10-18y). Not applicable. Athletes completed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Partial correlation analyses and independent t tests were conducted to assess sleep quantity the night before testing. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess sleep disturbances and their interaction with age. Less sleep quantity was correlated with greater report of cognitive (P=.001) and neuropsychological (P=.024) symptoms specific to prolonged recovery from SRC. Sleep disturbances significantly affect each migraine, cognitive, and neuropsychological symptoms (Psleep disturbances and age (P=.04) at >21 days post-SRC. Findings emphasize that the continued presence of low sleep quantity and sleep disturbances in youth athletes with SRC should be a specific indicator to health professionals that these athletes are at an increased risk of protracted recovery. Further research should identify additional factors that may interact with sleep to increase the risk of protracted recovery. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. When to initiate integrative neuromuscular training to reduce sports-related injuries and enhance health in youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Bergeron, Michael F; Hewett, Timothy E

    2011-01-01

    Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities, and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Current trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 yr and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches, and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how-to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong, regular physical activity.

  4. Incidence and etiology of sports-related sudden cardiac death in Denmark--implications for preparticipation screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Theilade, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    death (n = 4), and coronary artery disease (n = 2). The incidence of SCD in the general population age 12 to 35 was 3.76 (95% CI: 3.42 to 4.14) per 100,000 person-years. CONCLUSION: In Denmark, SrSCD is a rare occurrence and the incidence rate is lower than that of SCD in the general population......BACKGROUND: Studies on incidences of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SrSCD) are few and data are needed for the discussion of preparticipation screening for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to chart the incidence and etiology of SrSCD in the young in Denmark (population 5.4 million...... reports, selected hospital records, and multiple registries was used to identify cases of SCD and SrSCD. SrSCD was defined as SCD occurring during or within 1 hour after exercise in a competitive athlete. The size of the athlete population was estimated from national survey data. RESULTS: Fifteen (range 0...

  5. The effect of footwear and sports-surface on dynamic neurological screening for sport-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John; Kvarnström, Johan; Olsson, Maria; Ydén, Tobias; Marshall, Stephen

    2010-07-01

    The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) is a standardised global assessment for the identification of sport-related concussion (SRC). An integral component of the SCAT is the neurological screen, which contains the assessment of motor performance including gait evaluation. However, it is not known how performance of gait is affected by the surface/footwear interactions encountered in various sporting environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of footwear and sporting surface on the time to perform a standardised Tandem Gait (TG) task. One hundred and eight amateur athletes were recruited, and three common sports-surfaces (grass, hardwood court, artificial turf) were compared. All groups were tested barefoot and with sports-surface specific footwear. Mixed model ANOVA, controlling for covariates and including a post hoc Bonferroni procedure, was used to investigate the influence of footwear and sports-surface on TG time. The study demonstrated that times for a defined TG task in healthy athletes depended on footwear, sports-surface, and the specific athletic population. The study demonstrated a significant interaction (F(2,104)=3.35, p=0.039) between groups (grass, hardwood court and artificial turf), and times were faster wearing footwear compared to barefoot (F(2,138)=26.31, p=0.001). In contrast to the footwear conditions, there was no statistical difference between the barefoot conditions on any of the sport-surfaces. These findings suggest that clinicians should standardise footwear and the testing surface at baseline in order to accurately assess motor performance tests when SRC is suspected. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing in the assessment of sport-related concussion: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrea, Michael; Meier, Timothy; Huber, Daniel; Ptito, Alain; Bigler, Erin; Debert, Chantel T; Manley, Geoff; Menon, David; Chen, Jen-Kai; Wall, Rachel; Schneider, Kathryn J; McAllister, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    To conduct a systematic review of published literature on advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing in the assessment of sport-related concussion (SRC). Computerised searches of Medline, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane Library from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016 were done. There were 3222 articles identified. In addition to medical subject heading terms, a study was included if (1) published in English, (2) represented original research, (3) involved human research, (4) pertained to SRC and (5) involved data from neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers or genetic testing collected within 6 months of injury. Ninety-eight studies qualified for review (76 neuroimaging, 16 biomarkers and 6 genetic testing). Separate reviews were conducted for neuroimaging, biomarkers and genetic testing. A standardised data extraction tool was used to document study design, population, tests employed and key findings. Reviewers used a modified quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool to rate the risk of bias, and a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to rate the overall level of evidence for each search. Results from the three respective reviews are compiled in separate tables and an interpretive summary of the findings is provided. Advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing are important research tools, but require further validation to determine their ultimate clinical utility in the evaluation of SRC. Future research efforts should address current gaps that limit clinical translation. Ultimately, research on neurobiological and genetic aspects of SRC is predicted to have major translational significance to evidence-based approaches to clinical management of SRC, much like applied clinical research has had over the past 20 years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise

  7. Systematic review of clinical studies examining biomarkers of brain injury in athletes after sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Linda; Ramia, Michelle M; Edwards, Damyan; Johnson, Brian D; Slobounov, Semyon M

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this study was to systematically review clinical studies examining biofluid biomarkers of brain injury for concussion in athletes. Data sources included PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database from 1966 to October 2013. Studies were included if they recruited athletes participating in organized sports who experienced concussion or head injury during a sports-related activity and had brain injury biomarkers measured. Acceptable research designs included experimental, observational, and case-control studies. Review articles, opinion papers, and editorials were excluded. After title and abstract screening of potential articles, full texts were independently reviewed to identify articles that met inclusion criteria. A composite evidentiary table was then constructed and documented the study title, design, population, methods, sample size, outcome measures, and results. The search identified 52 publications, of which 13 were selected and critically reviewed. All of the included studies were prospective and were published either in or after the year 2000. Sports included boxing (six studies), soccer (five studies), running/jogging (two studies), hockey (one study), basketball (one study), cycling (one study), and swimming (one study). The majority of studies (92%) had fewer than 100 patients. Three studies (23%) evaluated biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), one in both serum and CSF, and 10 (77%) in serum exclusively. There were 11 different biomarkers assessed, including S100β, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, tau, neurofilament light protein, amyloid beta, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, creatine kinase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein, prolactin, cortisol, and albumin. A handful of biomarkers showed a correlation with number of hits to the head (soccer), acceleration/deceleration forces (jumps, collisions, and falls), postconcussive symptoms, trauma to the body versus the head, and dynamics of different sports

  8. Sex-Based Differences as a Predictor of Recovery Trajectories in Young Athletes After a Sports-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kim E; Burns, Thomas G; Bearden, Donald J; McManus, Susan M; King, Harold; Reisner, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    To date, few studies have delineated clear sex-based differences in symptom resolution after a sports-related concussion (SRC), and equivocal results have been identified in sex-based differences on baseline assessments. To assess whether female athletes displayed prolonged recovery and more symptoms at baseline and after an SRC compared with male athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The current study assessed 135 male and 41 female athletes (10-18 years old) who participated in high-impact sports in metropolitan Atlanta middle and high schools. All athletes completed a baseline assessment and at least 1 postconcussion assessment from the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling was employed to examine individual-level variables and their associations with adolescents' rates of recovery in concussive symptoms after controlling for age and number of prior concussions. Aggregate symptoms were rated as higher in female athletes compared with male athletes at baseline (mean ± SD: females, 13.49 ± 11.20; males, 4.88 ± 8.74; F(1,175) = 10.59, P concussion (females: 16.75 ± 18.08; males: 10.58 ± 14.21; F(1,175) = 3.99, P = .05). There were no group differences in the slope of recovery between male and female athletes, indicating generally similar trajectories of change for both groups. Post hoc analyses revealed higher baseline levels of migraine and neuropsychological symptoms in female athletes. Although female athletes in the current study reported increased symptoms, identical recovery patterns were observed in both sexes, suggesting that sex-based differences in concussion recovery are better explained by increased symptom frequency among female athletes when compared with their male counterparts. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Expert consensus document: Mind the gaps—advancing research into short-term and long-term neuropsychological outcomes of youth sports-related concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Aaron J; Ferguson, Rennie; Cantu, Robert; Comstock, R Dawn; Dacks, Penny A; DeKosky, Steven T; Gandy, Sam; Gilbert, James; Gilliland, Chad; Gioia, Gerard; Giza, Christopher; Greicius, Michael; Hainline, Brian; Hayes, Ronald L; Hendrix, James; Jordan, Barry; Kovach, James; Lane, Rachel F; Mannix, Rebekah; Murray, Thomas; Seifert, Tad; Shineman, Diana W; Warren, Eric; Wilde, Elisabeth; Willard, Huntington; Fillit, Howard M

    2015-04-01

    Sports-related concussions and repetitive subconcussive exposure are increasingly recognized as potential dangers to paediatric populations, but much remains unknown about the short-term and long-term consequences of these events, including potential cognitive impairment and risk of later-life dementia. This Expert Consensus Document is the result of a 1-day meeting convened by Safe Kids Worldwide, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. The goal is to highlight knowledge gaps and areas of critically needed research in the areas of concussion science, dementia, genetics, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, neuroimaging, sports injury surveillance, and information sharing. For each of these areas, we propose clear and achievable paths to improve the understanding, treatment and prevention of youth sports-related concussions.

  10. The knowledge, attitude and practices of male sports participants to sports-related dental trauma in Khobar and Dammam, Saudi Arabia – A pilot survey

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Arfaj, Ibrahim; Al-Shammari, Ahmad; Al-Subai, Turki; Al-Absi, Ghanim; AlJaffari, Mohammad; Al-Kadi, Ahmad; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim

    2016-01-01

    The risk of dental trauma may increase during sports participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of sports participants concerning sports-related dental trauma and associated emergency/preventive practices. The study included 124 male subjects over 18 years of age participating in contact and non-contact sports in three clubs in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to assess past experience of dental trauma related to...

  11. Association of polymorphisms rs1800012 in COL1A1 with sports-related tendon and ligament injuries: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunguang; Li, Hao; Chen, Kang; Wu, Bing; Liu, Haifeng

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800012 in COL1A1 might be associated with the susceptibility to sports-related tendon and ligament injuries such as ACL injuries, Achilles tendon injuries, shoulder dislocations and tennis elbow. But the data from different studies have been conflicting. Here we attempted to systematically summarize and clarify the association between the SNP and sports-related tendon and ligament injuries risk. Six eligible studies including 933 cases and 1,381 controls were acquired from PubMed, Web Of Science and Cochrane library databases. Significant association was identified in homozygote model (TT versus GG: OR=0.17, 95%CI 0.08-0.35, PH=0.00) and recessive model (TT versus GT/GG: OR=0.21, 95%CI 0.10-0.44, PH=0.00). Our results indicated that COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism may be associated with the reduced risk of sports-related tendon or ligament injuries, especially in ACL injuries, and that rare TT may played as a protective role. PMID:28206959

  12. When the rules of the game are broken: what proportion of high school sports-related injuries are related to illegal activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, C L; Fields, S K; Comstock, R D

    2008-02-01

    To compare sport and gender differences in injury rates and proportions of injuries related to illegal activity and to describe the epidemiology of injuries related to illegal activity. Descriptive epidemiology study. 100 US high schools. Athletes participating in nine sports: boys' football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball plus girls' soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball. Illegal activity-related injuries were analyzed using data from the 2005-06 and 2006-07 National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. Nationally, an estimated 98 066 injuries were directly related to an action that was ruled illegal activity by a referee/official or disciplinary committee, giving an injury rate of 0.24 injuries per 1000 athletic competition-exposures. Boys' and girls' soccer had the highest rates of injuries related to illegal activity, and girls' volleyball, girls' softball, and boys' baseball had the lowest. Overall, 6.4% of all high school sports-related injuries were related to illegal activity, with the highest proportion in girls' basketball (14.0%), girls' soccer (11.9%), and boys' soccer (11.4%). A greater proportion of injuries related to illegal activity were to the head/face (32.3%) and were concussions (25.4%) than injuries not related to illegal activity (13.8% (injury proportion ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.82 to 3.04; preferees/officials may reduce sports-related injuries.

  13. The relationship between adherence behaviors and recovery time in adolescents after a sports-related concussion: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Heather M; Eisenhauer, Rita C; Killian, Kathleen D; Proudfoot, Nick; Henriques, Ashley A; Congeni, Joseph A; Reneker, Jennifer C

    2015-04-01

    Adherence to rehabilitation is widely accepted as vital for recovery and return to play following sports injuries. Medical management of concussion is centered around physical and cognitive rest, a theory largely based on expert opinion, not empirical evidence. Current research on this topic focuses on factors that are predictive of adherence to rehabilitation, but fails to examine if patient adherence leads to a better outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the adherence tendencies of adolescents to treatment recommendations provided by a sports-medicine physician after a concussion and to determine if adherence to each recommendation was a predictor of treatment duration. Observational. Participants were enrolled in the study at their initial visit to the Sports-Medicine Center for medical care after a sports-related concussion. Individual treatment recommendations provided by a sports-medicine physician for concussion were recorded over the course of each participant's care. Once released from medical care, each participant was contacted to complete an online questionnaire to measure self-reported adherence tendencies to each treatment recommendation. Adherence was measured by two constructs: 1) the reported receptivity to the recommendation and 2) the frequency of following the recommendation. Exploratory univariate Poisson regression analyses were used to describe the relationship between adherence behaviors and the number of days of treatment required before the participant was returned to play. Fifty-six questionnaires were completed, by 30 male and 26 female adolescent athletes. The self-reported adherence tendencies were very high. None of the measures of adherence to the treatment recommendations were significant predictors of the number of days of treatment; however, there was a clear tendency in five of the six rest parameters (physical rest, cognitive rest with restrictions from electronics, and cognitive rest with restrictions from school

  14. Patient-Specific Alterations in CO2 Cerebrovascular Responsiveness in Acute and Sub-Acute Sports-Related Concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Alan C. Mutch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPreliminary studies suggest that sports-related concussion (SRC is associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF regulation. Here, we use advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques to measure CBF and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR in individual SRC patients and healthy control subjects.Methods15 SRC patients (mean age = 16.3, range 14–20 years and 27 healthy control subjects (mean age = 17.6, range 13–21 years underwent anatomical MRI, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL MRI and model-based prospective end-tidal targeting (MPET of CO2 during blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MRI. Group differences in global mean resting CBF were examined. Voxel-by-voxel group and individual differences in regional CVR were examined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Leave-one-out receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the utility of brain MRI CO2 stress testing biomarkers to correctly discriminate between SRC patients and healthy control subjects.ResultsAll studies were tolerated with no complications. Traumatic structural findings were identified in one SRC patient. No significant group differences in global mean resting CBF were observed. There were no significant differences in the CO2 stimulus and O2 targeting during BOLD MRI. Significant group and patient-specific differences in CVR were observed with SRC patients demonstrating a predominant pattern of increased CVR. Leave-one-out ROC analysis for voxels demonstrating a significant increase in CVR was found to reliably discriminate between SRC patients and healthy control subjects (AUC of 0.879, p = 0.0001. The optimal cutoff for increased CVR declarative for SRC was 1,899 voxels resulting in a sensitivity of 0.867 and a specificity of 0.778 for this specific ROC analysis. There was no correlation between abnormal voxel counts and Postconcussion Symptom Scale scores among SRC patients

  15. Epidemiology of United States high school sports-related fractures, 2008-09 to 2010-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David M; Henke, Natalie M; Collins, Christy L; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2012-09-01

    High school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually, many of which are fractures. Fractures can severely affect athletes physically, emotionally, and financially and should be targeted with focused prevention methods. Patterns and primary mechanisms of fractures differ by sport and gender. Descriptive epidemiology study. High school sports-related injury data were collected from academic years 2008-09 to 2010-11 for 18 sports and from 2009-10 to 2010-11 for 2 additional sports. We used linear regression to describe annual fracture rate trends and calculated fractures rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs). From 2008-09 to 2010-11, certified athletic trainers reported a total of 21,251 injuries during 11,544,455 athlete exposures (AEs), of which 2103 (9.9%) were fractures, with an overall rate of 1.82 fractures per 10,000 AEs. Fracture rates were highest in football (4.37 per 10,000 AE), boys' ice hockey (3.08), and boys' lacrosse (2.59). Boys sustained 79.1% of all fractures, and the overall rates of fractures were greater in boys' sports than in girls' sports for competition (RR, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.45-3.24) and practice (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.07-2.86). The most commonly fractured body sites were the hand/finger (32.1%), lower leg (10.1%), and wrist (9.5%). Overall, 17.2% of fractures required surgery, which was higher than for all other injuries combined (IPR, 3.14; 95% CI, 2.81-3.52). The most common mechanism of fracture involved contact with another player (45.5%). Using linear regression, we found the proportion of all injuries that were fractures was inversely correlated with the athlete's age (P = .02) but was not correlated with the athletes' age- and gender-adjusted body mass index. Fractures are a significant problem for high school athletes. Targeted preventive interventions should be implemented to reduce the burdens these injuries cause the athletes.

  16. Near Point of Convergence After a Sport-Related Concussion: Measurement Reliability and Relationship to Neurocognitive Impairment and Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Kelly L; Sufrinko, Alicia; Lau, Brian C; Henry, Luke; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-12-01

    Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision deficit after a sport-related concussion (SRC). CI may result in visual discomfort and vision-mediated functional difficulties such as slowed reading and compromised attention, leading to impaired academic, work, and sport performance. To test the reliability of repeated near point of convergence (NPC) measurements in a sample of athletes after an SRC; compare the symptoms and cognitive impairment of athletes with normal NPC to those with CI after an SRC; and explore the relationship among age, sex, learning disability, migraine history, and CI. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 78 athletes (mean age, 14.31 ± 2.77 years) who were seen a mean 5.79 ± 5.63 days after an SRC were administered 3 trials of an NPC assessment, along with neurocognitive (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]) and symptom assessments. Patients were divided into normal NPC (NPC ≤ 5 cm; n = 45) and CI (NPC >5 cm; n = 33) groups. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) assessed the consistency of NPC across the 3 trials. The ANOVAs were employed to examine differences on neurocognitive composites and symptoms between the normal NPC and CI groups. Stepwise regressions (controlling for age and symptom scores on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale [PCSS]) were conducted to evaluate the predictive utility of the NPC distance for neurocognitive impairment. Groups did not differ on demographic or injury characteristics. NPC differed between trial 1 and trials 2 (P = .02) and 3 (P = .01) for the CI group but not the normal NPC group. Internal consistency was high across NPC measurements (ICC range, 0.95-0.98). Patients with CI performed worse on verbal memory (P = .02), visual motor speed (P = .02), and reaction time (P = .001, η(2) = .13) and had greater total symptom scores (P = .02) after the injury. Results of hierarchical

  17. Prevalence of Invalid Performance on Baseline Testing for Sport-Related Concussion by Age and Validity Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeare, Christopher A; Messa, Isabelle; Zuccato, Brandon G; Merker, Bradley; Erdodi, Laszlo

    2018-03-12

    Estimated base rates of invalid performance on baseline testing (base rates of failure) for the management of sport-related concussion range from 6.1% to 40.0%, depending on the validity indicator used. The instability of this key measure represents a challenge in the clinical interpretation of test results that could undermine the utility of baseline testing. To determine the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline testing and to assess whether the prevalence varies as a function of age and validity indicator. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included data collected between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016, from a clinical referral center in the Midwestern United States. Participants included 7897 consecutively tested, equivalently proportioned male and female athletes aged 10 to 21 years, who completed baseline neurocognitive testing for the purpose of concussion management. Baseline assessment was conducted with the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), a computerized neurocognitive test designed for assessment of concussion. Base rates of failure on published ImPACT validity indicators were compared within and across age groups. Hypotheses were developed after data collection but prior to analyses. Of the 7897 study participants, 4086 (51.7%) were male, mean (SD) age was 14.71 (1.78) years, 7820 (99.0%) were primarily English speaking, and the mean (SD) educational level was 8.79 (1.68) years. The base rate of failure ranged from 6.4% to 47.6% across individual indicators. Most of the sample (55.7%) failed at least 1 of 4 validity indicators. The base rate of failure varied considerably across age groups (117 of 140 [83.6%] for those aged 10 years to 14 of 48 [29.2%] for those aged 21 years), representing a risk ratio of 2.86 (95% CI, 2.60-3.16; P validity indicator and the age of the examinee. The strong age association, with 3 of 4 participants aged 10 to 12 years failing validity indicators, suggests that

  18. Positive Approaches to the Treatment of Severe Behavior Problems in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Review and Analysis of Reinforcement and Stimulus-Based Procedures. Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Edward G.; And Others

    This monograph reviews and analyzes a set of treatment procedures exemplifying a positive or nonaversive approach to the amelioration of severe behavior problems in persons with developmental disabilities. Target behaviors include self-injury, aggression, and tantrums. Approximately 100 research articles drawn from 21 journals and a number of…

  19. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation.

  20. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing...... reinforcement being located on or embedded in matrix material adjacent to the front face of the panel, the backing reinforcement being located in a plane or planes substantially parallel to the plane or planes of the facing reinforcement, and being substantially coextensive therewith, and spaced therefrom...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  1. Hospital-based, Multidisciplinary, youth mentoring and medical exposure program positively influences and reinforces health care career choice: "The Reach One Each One Program early Experience".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Omar K; Lokko, Carl; Mobley, Felicia; Dansby, Montreka; Maze, Michael; Bradley, Brene'; Williams, Elizabeth; Matthews, Leslie Ray; Harrington, Emma; Mack, Lisa; Clark, Clarence; Wilson, Ken; Beech, Derrick; Heron, Sheryl; Childs, Ed

    2017-04-01

    According to the National Center for Educational Statistics, underrepresented minorities (URMs) are more likely to leave science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields at higher rates than their peers during undergraduate studies. Many institutions of higher learning have implemented pipeline programs aimed at preparing and inspiring high school and college aged students in select careers in health sciences with varying levels of success. Research has shown that a health care workforce that mirrors the community they serve is more effective in reducing health disparities and increasing positive health outcomes. We hypothesize that a hospital-based, multidisciplinary youth mentoring and medical exposure program will enhance the decision of URM high school students to choose healthcare careers. A retrospective analysis of the Reach One Each One Program (ROEO) was performed. ROEO is a hospital based, 11-week multidisciplinary youth mentoring and medical exposure program for inner-city high school students. The analysis was based on a phone survey of the twenty-six (26) seniors who completed the program and subsequently graduated from high school between May 2013 and May 2015 to assess the following: 1) College enrollment/attendance, 2) Health profession majors, and 3) Pre-med status. The study was approved by the Morehouse School of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Of the twenty-six students, 23 were female and 3 were male; 25 (96%) of the students were African American and one student was a Caucasian female. Twenty-four (92.3%) of the students were enrolled in college and 2 (7.7%) were scheduled to begin in the spring semester of 2016. Twenty-one of the 24 attending college at the time of the survey (87.5%) were enrolled in a health science degree program and 16 (66.7%) confirmed that they were enrolled in pre-medical (Pre-med) curriculum. Hospital-based, multidisciplinary medical mentoring programs can have a positive impact on the lives and

  2. An evaluation of Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) athletes' self-reported practice of playing while concussed, knowledge about and attitudes towards sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lindsay; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Molcho, Michal

    2016-01-20

    Sports-related concussions are now recognized as a major public health concern. However, despite the association of concussion with short- and long-term health consequences, many young athletes still lack basic knowledge about concussion and seem to believe that concussions may be "toughed out" and do not require medical attention. This study assessed self-reported practice of playing in training or a match while concussed among Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) athletes in Ireland aged 13-25 years old (M=19.19, SD=3.54). This study also assessed knowledge about and attitudes towards sports-related concussion in GAA players in Ireland. Using a self-report questionnaire, data were captured electronically on GAA athletes aged 13-25 years old (n=80) regarding knowledge about the detection, assessment and management of sports-related concussion, as well as participant's attitudes towards concussion and self-reported practice of playing in training or a match while concussed. Data were collected from June to August 2013. This study revealed that approximately one in four athletes reported having played while concussed in practice or during a match. Males were significantly more likely to play while concussed than females (40.9% and 17.2%, respectively). Results from this study indicated participants lack a complete understanding of concussion, as common misconceptions about concussion prevailed. Analyses revealed that participants generally have safe attitudes towards concussion and concussion management. Generating awareness of the potential short- and long-term health consequences of concussion, coupled with the promotion of safer attitudes towards this injury, could minimize the number of players who return-to-play pre-maturely and promote a more safety-conscious sports culture in Ireland.

  3. Athletes' age, sex, and years of education moderate the acute neuropsychological impact of sports-related concussion: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougan, Brooke K; Horswill, Mark S; Geffen, Gina M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine which pre-existing athlete characteristics, if any, are associated with greater deficits in functioning following sports-related concussion, after controlling for factors previously shown to moderate this effect (e.g., time since injury). Ninety-one independent samples of concussion were included in a fixed+systematic effects meta-analysis (n = 3,801 concussed athletes; 5,631 controls). Moderating variables were assessed using analogue-to-ANOVA and meta-regression analyses. Post-injury assessments first conducted 1-10 days following sports-related concussion revealed significant neuropsychological dysfunction, postural instability and post-concussion symptom reporting (d = -0.54, -1.10, and -1.14, respectively). During this interval, females (d = -0.87), adolescent athletes competing in high school competitions (d = -0.60), and those with 10 years of education (d = -1.32) demonstrated larger post-concussion neuropsychological deficits than males (d = -0.42), adults (d = -0.25), athletes competing at other levels of competition (d = -0.43 to -0.41), or those with 16 years of education (d = -0.15), respectively. However, these sub-groups' differential impairment/recovery beyond 10 days could not be reliably quantified from available literature. Pre-existing athlete characteristics, particularly age, sex and education, were demonstrated to be significant modifiers of neuropsychological outcomes within 10 days of a sports-related concussion. Implications for return-to-play decision-making and future research directions are discussed.

  4. Axial Compression Tests on Corroded Reinforced Concrete Columns Consolidated with Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ding

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structure featured by strong bearing capacity, high rigidity, good integrity, good fire resistance, and extensive applicability occupies a mainstream position in contemporary architecture. However, with the development of social economy, people need higher requirements on architectural structure; durability, especially, has been extensively researched. Because of the higher requirement on building material, ordinary reinforced concrete structure has not been able to satisfy the demand. As a result, some new materials and structures have emerged, for example, fibre reinforced polymers. Compared to steel reinforcement, fibre reinforced polymers have many advantages, such as high tensile strength, good durability, good shock absorption, low weight, and simple construction. The application of fibre reinforced polymers in architectural structure can effectively improve the durability of the concrete structure and lower the maintenance, reinforcement, and construction costs in severe environments. Based on the concepts of steel tube concrete, fibre reinforced composite material confined concrete, and fibre reinforced composite material tubed concrete, this study proposes a novel composite structure, i.e., fibre reinforced composite material and steel tube concrete composite structure. The structure was developed by pasting fibre around steel tube concrete and restraining core concrete using fibre reinforced composite material and steel tubes. The bearing capacity and ultimate deformation capacity of the structure was tested using column axial compression test.

  5. Fiber reinforced engineering plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Rodney E. Jacobson; Karl D. Sears; John H. Underwood

    2001-01-01

    Although natural fiber reinforced commodity thermoplastics have a wide range of nonstructural applications in the automotive and decking industries, there have been few reports of cellulosic fiber-reinforced engineering thermoplastics. The commonly held belief has been that the only thermoplastics amenable to natural-fibre reinforcement are limited to low-melting (...

  6. Management of Reinforcement Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Møller, Per

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important cause for deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, both with regard to costs and consequences. Thermodynamically consistent descriptions of corrosion mechanisms are expected to allow the development of innovative concepts for the management...... of reinforcement corrosion....

  7. A reinforcement system and a method of reinforcing a structure with a tendon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    A reinforcement system for anchoring tendons for structural reinforcing a structure such as a concrete structure, said reinforcement system comprises at least one anchor and at least one tendon, said anchor is adapted to fix said tendon in and/or outside said structure, wherein said reinforcement...... system comprises a ductility element, which is positioned in structural connection between said tendon and said anchor, said ductility element comprising weakened deformation zones being deformable so that the length of the ductility is increased or decreased in an axial direction along the length...... of said tendon....

  8. Cranial nerve IX and X impairment after a sports-related Jefferson (C1) fracture in a 16-year-old male: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettling, Samuel D; Morscher, Melanie A; Masin, Jeffrey S; Adamczyk, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    Jefferson (C1) fractures are rare cervical spine injuries that usually do not result in cranial nerve (CN) impairment. However, case reports of Collet-Sicard syndrome (impairment of CNs IX-XII) and impairment of CNs IX, X, and XII have been reported. All reported cases involved adult patients in high-impact collisions, such as motor vehicle accidents or falls. To our knowledge, a Jefferson fracture with selective CN impairment due to a low-energy, sports-related injury in a pediatric patient has not been reported. Chart and radiographic data for a single case were reviewed and reported in a retrospective study approved by the Institutional Review Board of the participating hospital. A 16-year-old male was diagnosed with a Jefferson fracture after a head-to-chest football collision. On computed tomography, the distance between the atlas transverse process and styloid process of the skull was 5 mm right and 10 mm left. Before halo fixation, the patient had vague complaints of dysphagia. These complaints worsened which led to the diagnosis of CN IX and X impairment and placement of a feeding tube. The fracture healed uneventfully, the dysphagia symptoms resolved, and the halo fixation and feeding tube were removed. The patient returned to all activities, but was instructed to avoid participation in contact sports. This was the first report of selective CN impairment in a pediatric patient with a Jefferson fracture resulting from a low-impact sports-related injury. Careful monitoring of the patient complaints led to appropriate treatment. Further studies into the spatial relationship between the transverse process of the atlas in relation to the styloid process of the skull may be warranted. Level V, case report.

  9. Knowledge assessment of sports-related concussion among parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years enrolled in recreational tackle football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannings, Carol; Kalynych, Colleen; Joseph, Madeline Matar; Smotherman, Carmen; Kraemer, Dale F

    2014-09-01

    Sports-related concussion among professional, collegiate, and, more recently, high school athletes has received much attention from the media and medical community. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of research regarding parental knowledge of sports-related concussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental knowledge of concussion in young children who participated in recreational tackle football. Parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years attending recreational tackle football games were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports Quiz. The parents were asked about their level of agreement regarding statements that represent definition, symptoms, and treatment of concussion. A total of 310 of 369 parents (84% response rate) voluntarily completed the questionnaire, with 94% believing that their child had never had a concussion. However, only 13% (n = 41) could correctly identify all seven statements. Most did not identify that a concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury and can be achieved from something other than a direct blow to the head. Race, sex, and zip code had no significant association with correctly answering statements. Education (r = 0.24, p < 0.0001) and number of years the child played (r = 0.11, p = 0.049) had a small association. Fifty-three percent and 58% of the parents reported that someone had discussed the definition and the symptoms of concussion with them, respectively, with only about half reporting that information came from their health care provider. No parent was able to classify all symptoms listed as correctly related or not related to concussion. However, identification of correct concussion statements correlated with identification of correct symptoms (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). While most parents of young athletes demonstrated some knowledge regarding concussion, important misconceptions remain regarding the

  10. The substitutability of reinforcers

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Leonard; Freed, Debra E.

    1993-01-01

    Substitutability is a construct borrowed from microeconomics that describes a continuum of possible interactions among the reinforcers in a given situation. Highly substitutable reinforcers, which occupy one end of the continuum, are readily traded for each other due to their functional similarity. Complementary reinforcers, at the other end of the continuum, tend to be consumed jointly in fairly rigid proportion, and therefore cannot be traded for one another except to achieve that proportio...

  11. Reinforced Airfoil Shaped Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    and surrounds an internal volume of the body, a distance member that is connected to the facing inside the body and extends from the facing and into the internal volume of the body, and at least one reinforcing member that operates in tension for reinforcing the facing against inward deflections...

  12. Relationships between trait urgency, smoking reinforcement expectancies, and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Raina D; Hom, Marianne S; Geary, Bree A; Doran, Neal; Spillane, Nichea S; Guillot, Casey R; Leventhal, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Urgency (i.e., the tendency to act rashly during negative/positive affect) may increase vulnerability to a variety of risky behaviors. This cross-sectional study of nontreatment-seeking smokers examined the relationship between urgency, level of nicotine dependence, and smoking reinforcement expectancies. Both positive and negative urgency were associated with nicotine dependence. Mediational analyses illustrated that smoking reinforcement expectancies significantly accounted for urgency-dependence relations, with negative reinforcement expectancies displaying incremental mediational effects. If replicated and extended, these findings may support the use of treatments that modify beliefs regarding smoking reinforcement outcomes as a means of buffering the risk of nicotine dependence carried by urgency.

  13. Comparison of patient and proxy reporting of health-related quality of life in adolescent athletes who suffer a sports-related injury and require orthopaedic consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder Valier, Alison R; Swank, Elizabeth M; Lam, Kenneth C; Hansen, Matthew L; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C

    2013-11-01

    Accurate assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important for quality patient care. Evaluation of HRQoL typically occurs with patient self-report, but some instruments, such as the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), allow for proxy reporting. Limited information exists comparing patient and proxy reports of HRQoL after sport-related injury in adolescent athletes. To compare patient ratings and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL in adolescent athletes who suffer musculoskeletal injuries requiring orthopedic consultation. The authors hypothesized poor agreement between patient and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL. Cross-sectional study. Orthopedic practice. Thirteen adolescent patients with a sport-related musculoskeletal injury requiring orthopedic consultation and 1 of their parents participated. During the initial visit to the physician's office, each patient was asked to complete the PedsQL, and the patient's parent was asked to complete the parent-proxy version of the PedsQL. The PedsQL is a pediatric generic outcome measure that consists of a total score and 4 subscale scores: physical, emotional, social, and school functioning. Means and standard deviations were calculated for all scores, and comparisons between patient-self report and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL were made for the PedsQL total score and subscale scores using Pearson product-moment correlations (r). Pearson product-moment correlations showed little to fair insignificant relationships between patient self-report and parent-proxy report of the PedsQL for the total score (r = -.1) and all subscales (range r = .1 to .4). Our results suggest a lack of agreement between patient and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL, with patients rating their HRQoL lower than their parent. Patient perception of HRQoL may be more accurate than proxy report, which supports the use of patient-rated HRQoL in patient evaluation. Assessments of HRQoL made by proxies, even those close to the patient, may

  14. Epidemiology of Sport-Related Concussions in High School Athletes: National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION), 2011-2012 Through 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathryn L; Baker, Melissa M; Dalton, Sara L; Dompier, Thomas P; Broglio, Steven P; Kerr, Zachary Y

    2017-03-01

    Sports participation is one of the leading causes of concussions among nearly 8 million US high school student-athletes. To describe the epidemiology of sport-related concussion (SRC) in 27 high school sports during the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Aggregate injury and exposure data from 27 sports in 147 high schools in the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION). Boy and girl high school athletes during the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years. Sport-related concussion counts, percentages, rates per 10 000 athlete-exposures (AEs), rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Rate ratios and IPRs with 95% CIs not containing 1.0 were considered significant. Overall, 2004 SRCs were reported among 27 high school sports, for a rate of 3.89 per 10 000 AEs. Football had the highest SRC rate (9.21/10 000 AEs), followed by boys' lacrosse (6.65/10 000 AEs) and girls' soccer (6.11/10 000 AEs). The SRC rate was higher in competition than in practice (RR = 3.30; 95% CI = 3.02, 3.60). Among sex-comparable sports, the SRC rate was higher in girls than in boys (RR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.34, 1.81); however, the proportion of SRCs due to player-to-player contact was higher in boys than in girls (IPR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.27, 1.73). Common symptoms reported among all athletes with SRCs were headache (94.7%), dizziness (74.8%), and difficulty concentrating (61.0%). Only 0.8% of players with SRCs returned to play within 24 hours. The majority of athletes with SRCs (65.8%) returned to play between 7 and 28 days. More players had symptoms resolve after 7 days (48.8%) than less than a week (40.7%). Our findings provide updated high school SRC incidence estimates and further evidence of sex differences in reported SRCs. Few athletes with SRCs returned to play within 24 hours or a week. Most injured players returned after 7 days, despite a smaller

  15. Knowledge and attitudes about sports-related dental injuries and mouthguard use in young athletes in four different contact sports: water polo, karate, taekwondo and handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galic, Tea; Kuncic, Domagoj; Poklepovic Pericic, Tina; Galic, Ivan; Mihanovic, Frane; Bozic, Josko; Herceg, Mark

    2018-03-11

    The increasing popularity of participating in sports activities among children and adolescents has increased the risk of sports-retaled orofacial and dental injuries. Therefore, it is important to establish efficient preventive strategies regarding sports-related dental trauma The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of sports-related dental injuries in young athletes and to compare the frequency of such injuries between high-risk and medium-risk sports, along with assessing athletes' attitudes and habits regarding mouthguard use. A total of 229 young athletes from four different sports (water polo (n=59), karate (n=58), taekwondo (n=57) and handball (n=55), participated in this study. A standardized questionnaire about the frequency of orofacial and dental injuries was used. Questions were also asked about athletes' habits related to mouthguard use. Mean age of the participants was 12.9±3.2 years and the average time of playing experience was 4.8±3.1 years. Orofacial injury had been experienced by 58 athletes (25.3%), while 31 athletes (13.5%) suffered dental injury. Higher rate of dental injuries was observed in water polo (18.6%), karate (17.2%) and handball (21.8%) than in taekwondo (3.5%) (P=0.035). Most participants were aware of mouthguards for dental trauma prevention and considered them efficient for preventing dental injuries during sports activities, but only 94 (41%) used them. There was a statistically significant difference in the use of mouthguards between taekwondo (73.7%) and karate (70.7%) players compared to handball (14.5%) and water polo players (5.1%) (Pmartial art sport. Therefore, the classification of sports according to the risk of dental trauma should be reconsidered. It would be beneficial to make wearing a mouthguard mandatory in all high-risk sports, as well as in those with medium-risk for dental injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  16. Epidemiology of Sport-Related Concussions in High School Athletes: National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION), 2011–2012 Through 2013–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kathryn L.; Baker, Melissa M.; Dalton, Sara L.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Broglio, Steven P.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Sports participation is one of the leading causes of concussions among nearly 8 million US high school student-athletes. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of sport-related concussion (SRC) in 27 high school sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Aggregate injury and exposure data from 27 sports in 147 high schools in the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION). Patients or Other Participants: Boy and girl high school athletes during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sport-related concussion counts, percentages, rates per 10 000 athlete-exposures (AEs), rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Rate ratios and IPRs with 95% CIs not containing 1.0 were considered significant. Results: Overall, 2004 SRCs were reported among 27 high school sports, for a rate of 3.89 per 10 000 AEs. Football had the highest SRC rate (9.21/10 000 AEs), followed by boys' lacrosse (6.65/10 000 AEs) and girls' soccer (6.11/10 000 AEs). The SRC rate was higher in competition than in practice (RR = 3.30; 95% CI = 3.02, 3.60). Among sex-comparable sports, the SRC rate was higher in girls than in boys (RR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.34, 1.81); however, the proportion of SRCs due to player-to-player contact was higher in boys than in girls (IPR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.27, 1.73). Common symptoms reported among all athletes with SRCs were headache (94.7%), dizziness (74.8%), and difficulty concentrating (61.0%). Only 0.8% of players with SRCs returned to play within 24 hours. The majority of athletes with SRCs (65.8%) returned to play between 7 and 28 days. More players had symptoms resolve after 7 days (48.8%) than less than a week (40.7%). Conclusions: Our findings provide updated high school SRC incidence estimates and further evidence of sex differences in reported SRCs. Few

  17. Trends in sports-related concussion diagnoses in the USA: a population-based analysis using a private-payor database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoo-Achampong, Kelms; Rosas, Samuel; Schmoke, Nicholas; Accilien, Yves-Dany; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McCormick, Frank

    2017-09-01

    To describe recent epidemiological trends in concussion diagnosis within the United States (US) population. We conducted a retrospective review of PearlDiver, a private-payor insurance database. Our search included International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes for sports-related concussions spanning 2010 through 2014. Overall study population included patients aged 5 to 39 with subgroup analysis performed on Cohort A (Youth), children and adolescents aged 5 to 19, and Cohort B (Adults), adults aged 20 to 39. Incidence was defined as the number of individuals diagnosed normalized to the number of patients in the database for each demographic. Our search returned 1,599 patients diagnosed during the study period. The average (±SD) annual rate was 4.14 ± 1.42 per 100,000 patients for the overall population. Youth patients were diagnosed at a mean annual rate of 3.78 ± 1.30 versus 0.36 ± 0.16 per 100,000 in Adults. Concussion normalized incidence significantly increased from 2.47 to 3.87 per 100,000 patients (57%) in the Youth cohort (p = 0.048). In Adults, rate grew from 0.34 to 0.44 per 100,000 patients (29%) but was not statistically significant (p = 0.077). Four-year compound annual growth rates for Youth and Adults were 26.3% and 20.4%, respectively. Youth patients comprised 1,422/1,599 (90.18%) of all concussion diagnoses and were predominantly male (75%). Adults also constituted 138/1,599 (8.63%) of the sample and were also largely male (80%). Midwestern states had highest diagnostic rates (Cohort A:19 per 100,000 and Cohort B:1.8 per 100,000). Both cohorts had the most total diagnoses made in the fourth quarter followed by the second quarter. Sports-related concussion diagnostic rates have grown significantly in the youth population. Quarterly, regional and gender distributions appear consistent with participation in concussion-prone sports. Utilization of individualized and multifaceted approaches are recommended to advance

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of a new ibuprofen 200mg plaster in patients with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Giannetti, Bruno; Connolly, Mark P; Lewis, Fraser; Bhatt, Aomesh

    2018-01-01

    Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of non-serious pain. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new ibuprofen plaster for the treatment of pain associated with acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (n = 130; 18-58 years of age) diagnosed with acute sports-related blunt soft tissue injury/contusion were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster or placebo plaster. Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was area under the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to three days (VAS AUC 0-3d ). Other endpoints included algometry AUC from 0 to three days (AUC 0-3d ) and 0 to five days (AUC 0-5d ), to evaluate improvement of sensitivity at the injured site, and patient and investigator global assessment of efficacy. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The ibuprofen plaster resulted in superior reduction in AUC 0-3d compared with placebo; the Least Squares (LS) mean difference was 662.82 mm*h in favour of the ibuprofen 200mg plaster (P = 0.0011). The greater improvement in VAS AUC of POM was also observed after 12 h, 24 h, and five days of therapy. Tenderness also significantly improved with the ibuprofen plaster compared with placebo; LS mean difference in algometry/tenderness AUC 0-3d was 1.87 N/cm 2 *d and AUC 0-5d was 1.87 N/cm 2 *d (P values ≤0.0004). At all study timepoints, a greater percentage of patients and investigators rated the effectiveness of the ibuprofen 200 mg plaster as good/excellent than the placebo plaster. Treatment-emergent adverse events for the ibuprofen plaster were few (≤1.5%) and were mild in severity. The results of this study indicate 200 mg plaster is effective and safe for the treatment of pain due to acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion in adults.

  19. Algorithms for Reinforcement Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is a learning paradigm concerned with learning to control a system so as to maximize a numerical performance measure that expresses a long-term objective. What distinguishes reinforcement learning from supervised learning is that only partial feedback is given to the learner about the learner's predictions. Further, the predictions may have long term effects through influencing the future state of the controlled system. Thus, time plays a special role. The goal in reinforcement learning is to develop efficient learning algorithms, as well as to understand the algorithms'

  20. The Behavior of Foundation Soil with and without Geosyntethic Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia NICULESCU-ENACHE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the computed diagrams showing the soil behavior in two alternative calculation hypotheses (with/without geogrid reinforcement will be compared, so that the positive effect of two geogrid layers used for reinforcement is revealed. The diagrams show that the use of reinforcement layers contributes to a more uniform distribution of loads and to the decrease of the pressure, thus increasing the bearing capacity of the soil.

  1. An alternative to the balance error scoring system: using a low-cost balance board to improve the validity/reliability of sports-related concussion balance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.

  2. Gender- and sex-specific sports-related injury research in emergency medicine: a consensus on future research direction and focused application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E

    2014-12-01

    Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  3. Toward objective markers of concussion in sport: a review of white matter and neurometabolic changes in the brain after sports-related concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimou, Stefan; Lagopoulos, Jim

    2014-03-01

    Abstract Sports-related concussion is an issue that has piqued the public's attention of late as concerns surrounding potential long-term sequelae as well as new methods of characterizing the effects of this form of injury continue to develop. For the most part, diagnosis of concussion is based on subjective clinical measures and thus is prone to under-reporting. In the current environment, where conventional imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are unable to elucidate the degree of white matter damage and neurometabolic change, a discussion of two advanced imaging techniques-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-is undertaken with a view to highlighting their potential utility. Our aim is to outline a variety of the approaches to concussion research that have been employed, with special attention given to the clinical considerations and acute complications attributed to concussive injury. DTI and MRS have been at the forefront of research as a result of their noninvasiveness and ease of acquisition, and hence it is thought that the use of these neuroimaging modalities has the potential to aid clinical decision making and management, including guiding return-to-play protocols.

  4. Alternate approach slab reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The upper mat of reinforcing steel, in exposed concrete bridge approach slabs, is prone to corrosion damage. Chlorides applied to the highways : for winter maintenance can penetrate this concrete layer. Eventually chlorides reach the steel and begin ...

  5. Modeling reinforced concrete durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This project developed a next-generation modeling approach for projecting the extent of : reinforced concrete corrosion-related damage, customized for new and existing Florida Department of : Transportation bridges and suitable for adapting to broade...

  6. Choice and reinforcement delay

    OpenAIRE

    Gentry, G. David; Marr, M. Jackson

    1980-01-01

    Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated th...

  7. Sports-related Head Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skiing/Snowboarding According to a John Hopkins Medicine-led study , approximately 10 million Americans ski or snowboard ... is not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific neurosurgical advice or assistance should consult ...

  8. Sport-related maxillofacial fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruslin, M.; Boffano, P.; ten Brincke, Y.J.D.; Forouzanfar, T.; Brand, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Sports and exercise are important causes of maxillofacial injuries. Different types of sports might differ in frequency and type of fractures. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible relation between the types of sport practiced and the frequency and nature of the facial bone

  9. The Effects of Variable-Time Delivery of Food Items and Praise on Problem Behavior Reinforced by Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Joanna E.; Fisher, Wayne W.; Kelley, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that reinforcement of an appropriate response (e.g., compliance) can produce concomitant reductions in problem behavior reinforced by escape when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999). These effects may be due to a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or to…

  10. An eHealth Application of Self-Reported Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport: Pilot Feasibility and Usability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Dahlström, Örjan; Timpka, Toomas; Lexell, Jan

    2017-11-29

    Sport participation is associated with a risk of sports-related injuries and illnesses, and Paralympic athletes' additional medical issues can be a challenge to health care providers and medical staff. However, few prospective studies have assessed sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport (SRIIPS) over time. Advances in mobile phone technology and networking systems offer novel opportunities to develop innovative eHealth applications for collection of athletes' self-reports. Using eHealth applications for collection of self-reported SRIIPS is an unexplored area, and before initiation of full-scale research of SRIIPS, the feasibility and usability of such an approach needs to be ascertained. The aim of this study was to perform a 4-week pilot study and (1) evaluate the monitoring feasibility and system usability of a novel eHealth application for self-reported SRIIPS and (2) report preliminary data on SRIIPS. An eHealth application for routine collection of data from athletes was developed and adapted to Paralympic athletes. A 4-week pilot study was performed where Paralympic athletes (n=28) were asked to weekly self-report sport exposure, training load, general well-being, pain, sleep, anxiety, and possible SRIIPS. The data collection was followed by a poststudy use assessment survey. Quantitative data related to the system use (eg, completed self-reports, missing responses, and errors) were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The qualitative feasibility and usability data provided by the athletes were condensed and categorized using thematic analysis methods. The weekly response rate was 95%. The athletes were of the opinion that the eHealth application was usable and feasible but stated that it was not fully adapted to Paralympic athletes and their impairments. For example, it was difficult to understand how a new injury or illness should be identified when the impairment was involved. More survey items related to the impairments were

  11. Sports-related sudden cardiac death in a competitive and a noncompetitive athlete population aged 12 to 49 years: data from an unselected nationwide study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza; Glinge, Charlotte; Ingemann-Hansen, Ole; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Ottesen, Gyda Lolk; Haunsø, Stig; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2014-10-01

    Preparticipation screening programs have been suggested to reduce the numbers of sports-related sudden cardiac deaths (SrSCD). The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize all SrSCD aged 12-49 years and to address the difference in incidence rates between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. All deaths among persons aged 12-49 years from 2007-2009 were included. Death certificates were reviewed. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries and autopsy reports were read. Sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) and SrSCD cases were identified. In the 3-year period, there were 881 SCDs, of which we identified 44 SrSCD. In noncompetitive athletes aged 12-35 years, the incidence rate of SrSCD was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.94) per 100,000 athlete person-years vs 2.95 (95% CI 1.95-4.30) in noncompetitive athletes aged 36-49 years. In competitive athletes, the incidence rate of SrSCD was 0.47 (95% CI 0.10-1.14) and 6.64 (95% CI 2.86-13.1) per 100,000 athlete person-years in those aged 12-35 years and 36-49 years, respectively. The incidence rate of SCD in the general population was 10.7 (95% CI 10.0-11.5) per 100.000 person-years. The incidence rates of SrSCD in noncompetitive and competitive athletes are not different. The study showed an increase in the incidence rate of SrSCD in persons aged 36-49 years in both noncompetitive and competitive athletes compared to those aged 12-35 years. Importantly, SCD in the general population is much more prevalent than is SrSCD in all age groups. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of a High-Intensity, Intermittent-Exercise Protocol on Neurocognitive Function in Healthy Adults: Implications for Return-to-Play Management After Sport-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Enda F; Gibbons, Nicola; Kerr, Grainne; Moran, Kieran A

    2015-12-03

    Determination of return to play (RTP) after sport-related concussion (SRC) is critical given the potential consequences of premature RTP. Current RTP guidelines may not identify persistent exercise-induced neurocognitive deficits in asymptomatic athletes after SRC. Therefore, postexercise neurocognitive testing has been recommended to further inform RTP determination. To implement this recommendation, the effect of exercise on neurocognitive function in healthy athletes should be understood. To examine the acute effects of a high-intensity intermittent-exercise protocol (HIIP) on neurocognitive function assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (SDMT) and Stroop Interference Test. Cohort study. University laboratory. 40 healthy male athletes (age 21.25 ± 1.29 y, education 16.95 ± 1.37 y). Each participant completed the SDMT and Stroop Interference Test at baseline and after random allocation to a condition (HIIP vs control). A mixed between-within-subjects ANOVA assessed time- (pre- vs postcondition) -by-condition interaction effects. SDMT and Stroop Interference Test scores. There was a significant time-by-condition interaction effect (P healthy athletes, the HIIP results in a reduction in neurocognitive function as assessed by the Stroop Interference Test, with no effect on function as assessed by the SDMT. Testing should also be considered after high-intensity exercise in determining RTP decisions for athletes after SRC in conjunction with the existing recommended RTP protocol. These results may provide an initial reference point for future research investigating the effects of an HIIP on the neurocognitive function of athletes recovering from SRC.

  13. Prevalence and Factors Associated with Substance Use and Misuse among Kosovar Adolescents; Cross Sectional Study of Scholastic, Familial-, and Sports-Related Factors of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Tahiraj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–AUDIT, and illegal drug use (dependent variables, as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables, were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25–2.75. The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10 is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87–1.48, while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35–2.95. The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent–average-poor is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.

  14. Risk Factors Associated With Sustaining a Sport-related Concussion: An Initial Synthesis Study of 12,320 Student-Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Benjamin L; Kuhn, Andrew W; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Zuckerman, Scott L

    2018-02-17

    The empirical identification of risk factors associated with sport-related concussion (SRC) may improve the management of student-athletes. The current study attempted to identify and quantify bio-cognitive risk factors associated with sustaining a SRC. Cross-sectional ambispective study; level of evidence, 3. Neurocognitive testing of 12,320 middle school, high school and collegiate athletes was completed at preseason baseline and post-SRC. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine which pre-injury variables accurately predicted the occurrence of SRC. A quantitative risk score for each variable was developed. Five of 13 variables maintained significance in the multivariable model with the associated weighted point scores: SRC history (21), prior headache treatment (6), contact sport (5), youth level of play (7), and history of ADHD/LD (2). Six stratified groups were formed based on probability of SRC, which produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 (95% CI 0.69-0.72, p < .001). Though the model was a significant predictor of SRC (X2 = 1,112.75, p < .001), the effect size was small and accounted for only 16% of the overall variance. An initial aggregate model of weighted bio-cognitive factors associated with increased odds of sustaining a SRC was developed. Previously validated factors were confirmed, yet a large source of variance remained unexplained. These findings emphasize the need to expand the host factors studied when assessing SRC risk, and that the existing, empirically based bio-cognitive factors do not adequately quantify the risk of SRC.

  15. Efficacy and safety assessment of acute sports-related traumatic soft tissue injuries using a new ibuprofen medicated plaster: results from a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Connolly, Mark P; Bhatt, Aomesh; Giannetti, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of a recently developed ibuprofen medicated plaster in the treatment of acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 3 study (EudraCT Number: 2012-003257-2) patients (n = 132; ages 18 to 60 years) diagnosed with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion to the upper or lower limbs were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster (n = 64) or placebo plaster (n = 68). Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was the area under the curve (AUC) of the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to 72 h (VAS 0-72 ). The ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with a reduction in pain on movement (POM) based on lower VAS AUC 0-72h (2399.4 mm*h) compared with placebo (4078.9 mm*h) (least squares mean difference: - 1679.5 mm*h; P ibuprofen medicated plaster compared with placebo at 12, 48, 24, and 120 h (P ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with greater reduction in tenderness/pain than placebo at each timepoint (P values ibuprofen plaster, and n = 6 [8.8%] for placebo). All drug-related AEs were administration site reactions and were mild in intensity. The results of this study indicate that ibuprofen medicated plaster results in rapid and clinically relevant reduction of pain in patients suffering from blunt musculoskeletal injuries or recurrent pain. The ibuprofen medicated plaster was well tolerated.

  16. Steel fiber reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, S.U.

    2005-01-01

    Steel-Fiber Reinforced Concrete is constructed by adding short fibers of small cross-sectional size .to the fresh concrete. These fibers reinforce the concrete in all directions, as they are randomly oriented. The improved mechanical properties of concrete include ductility, impact-resistance, compressive, tensile and flexural strength and abrasion-resistance. These uniqlte properties of the fiber- reinforcement can be exploited to great advantage in concrete structural members containing both conventional bar-reinforcement and steel fibers. The improvements in mechanical properties of cementitious materials resulting from steel-fiber reinforcement depend on the type, geometry, volume fraction and material-properties of fibers, the matrix mix proportions and the fiber-matrix interfacial bond characteristics. Effects of steel fibers on the mechanical properties of concrete have been investigated in this paper through a comprehensive testing-programme, by varying the fiber volume fraction and the aspect-ratio (Lid) of fibers. Significant improvements are observed in compressive, tensile, flexural strength and impact-resistance of concrete, accompanied by marked improvement in ductility. optimum fiber-volume fraction and aspect-ratio of steel fibers is identified. Test results are analyzed in details and relevant conclusions drawn. The research is finally concluded with future research needs. (author)

  17. Mechanically reinforced glass beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik; Olesen, John Forbes

    2007-01-01

    The use of glass as a load carrying material in structural elements is rarely seen even though glass is a popular material for many architects. This is owed to the unreliable and low tensile strength, which is due to surface flaws and high brittleness of the material. These properties lead...... to breakage without any warning or ductility, which can be catastrophic if no precautions are taken. One aspect of this issue is treated here by looking at the possibility of mechanically reinforcing glass beams in order to obtain ductile failure for such a structural component. A mechanically reinforced...... presented. The experiments show that it is possible to obtain a very ductile structural behavior using the right amount of reinforcement. A Finite Element Model including - in a simple manner - the effects of cracking of glass is presented. Based on a comparison between experimental and model results...

  18. Soil reinforcement with geosynthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessaim Mohammed Mustapha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportionality of existence of land with good bearing to erect any building or building is very small, to remedy this deficiency it is necessary to resort to techniques of reinforcement of the soils which can constitute a very important development. Among these methods of remediation, there is reinforcement by the geosynthetics which constitute an effective solution to these constraints. This process tends to stabilize the soil in question with increased load bearing capacity in civil engineering and geotechnical works such as embankments, slopes, embankments and hydraulic structures, with an inestimable gain in time, economy and durability while preserving the natural and environmental aspect.

  19. Study of the stress-strain state of compressed concrete elements with composite reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Yurii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency analysis of the application of glass composite reinforcement in compressed concrete elements as a load-carrying component has been performed. The results of experimental studies of the deformation-strength characteristics of this reinforcement on compression and compressed concrete cylinders reinforced by this reinforcement are presented. The results of tests and mechanisms of sample destruction have been analyzed. The numerical analysis of the stress-strain state has been performed for axial compression of concrete elements with glasscomposite reinforcement. The influence of the reinforcement percentage on the stressed state of a concrete compressed element with the noted reinforcement is estimated. On the basis of the obtained results, it is established that the glass-composite reinforcement has positive effect on the strength of the compressed concrete elements. That is, when calculating the load-bearing capacity of such structures, the function of composite reinforcement on compression should not be neglected.

  20. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  1. Self-Reinforcement Style and Covert Imagery in the Treatment of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellack, Alan S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Self-reinforcement through positive or aversive covert imagery was studied in obesity treatment. Subjects were randomly assigned to no-imagery, self-punishment followed by self-reward, and self-reward followed by self-punishment conditions. Neither order nor kind of reinforcement made any difference. Both reinforcement groups were superior to…

  2. Comparing Different Classes of Reinforcement to Increase Expressive Language for Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dale, Stephanie; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen H.; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John J.; Leaf, Ronald B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.

    2014-01-01

    One of the basic principles of applied behavior analysis is that behavior change is largely due to that behavior being reinforced. Therefore the use of positive reinforcement is a key component of most behavioral programs for individuals diagnosed with autism. In this study we compared four different classes of reinforcers (i.e., food, praise,…

  3. Human operant learning under concurrent reinforcement of response variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; Goot, M.H. van der

    2006-01-01

    This study asked whether the concurrent reinforcement of behavioral variability facilitates learning to emit a difficult target response. Sixty students repeatedly pressed sequences of keys, with an originally infrequently occurring target sequence consistently being followed by positive feedback.

  4. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  5. Epidemiology of High School Sports-Related Injuries Resulting in Medical Disqualification: 2005-2006 Through 2013-2014 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Jill; Brou, Lina; Khodaee, Morteza; Lefort, Roxanna; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn

    2016-11-01

    Although rare, season- or career-ending injuries in young athletes are concerning because they can result in time lost from sport participation and school, social costs, and economic costs of medical care. To describe rates and patterns of medically disqualifying (MDQ) injuries among United States high school athletes overall and by sport, sex, type of athletic activity, and mechanism. Descriptive epidemiological study. Sports-related injury data on high school athletes were collected during the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years from a large national sample of United States high schools via High School Reporting Information Online (RIO). MDQ injuries were defined as season- or career-ending injuries. From 2005-2006 through 2013-2014, High School RIO captured 59,862 total injuries including 3599 MDQ injuries (6.0% of all injuries). Most MDQ injuries (60.4%) occurred in competition. Football had the highest injury rate (26.5 per 100,000 athlete-exposures), followed by gymnastics (18.6) and wrestling (17.9). MDQ injury rates were higher among girls in the sex-comparable sports of basketball (rate ratio [RR], 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0), cross-country (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-7.5), soccer (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9), and track and field (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0). Player-player contact (48.2%) was the most common MDQ injury mechanism. The most commonly injured body site was the knee (33.7%). The most common MDQ injury diagnosis was sprains/strains (35.9%); the most common specific MDQ injury was knee sprains/strains (25.4%), with the anterior cruciate ligament being the most commonly injured knee structure. Among boys, fracture was the most common diagnosis in 3 sports, and sprain/strain was the most common in 6 sports. Among girls, sprain/strain was the most common diagnosis in 9 sports, and fracture was the most common only in softball. MDQ injuries vary by sport, sex, and type of athletic activity and occur most frequently as a result of player-player contact. These

  6. Epidemiology of Sports-Related Concussion in NCAA Athletes From 2009-2010 to 2013-2014: Incidence, Recurrence, and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Scott L; Kerr, Zachary Y; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron; Wasserman, Erin; Covassin, Tracey; Solomon, Gary S

    2015-11-01

    The epidemiology of sports-related concussion (SRC) among student-athletes has been extensively researched. However, recent data at the collegiate level are limited. To describe the epidemiology of SRC in 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. SRC data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years were analyzed. Concussion injury rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% CIs. National estimates were also calculated to examine linear trends across time. During the study period, 1670 SRCs were reported, representing a national estimate of 10,560 SRCs reported annually. Among the 25 sports, the overall concussion rate was 4.47 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs) (95% CI, 4.25-4.68). Overall, more SRCs occurred in competitions (53.2%). The competition rate (12.81 per 10,000 AEs) was larger than the practice rate (2.57 per 10,000 AEs) (competition vs practice, RR = 4.99; 95% CI, 4.53-5.49). Of all SRCs, 9.0% were recurrent. Most SRCs occurred from player contact (68.0%). The largest concussion rates were in men's wrestling (10.92 per 10,000 AEs; 95% CI, 8.62-13.23), men's ice hockey (7.91 per 10,000 AEs; 95% CI, 6.87-8.95), women's ice hockey (7.50 per 10,000 AEs; 95% CI, 5.91-9.10), and men's football (6.71 per 10,000 AEs; 95% CI, 6.17-7.24). However, men's football had the largest annual estimate of reported SRCs (n = 3417), followed by women's soccer (n = 1113) and women's basketball (n = 998). Among all SRCs, a linear trend did not exist in national estimates across time (P = .17). However, increases were found within specific sports, such as men's football, women's ice hockey, and men's lacrosse. The estimated number of nationally reported SRCs has increased within specific sports. However, it is unknown whether these increases are attributable to increased reporting or frequency of concussions. Many sports report more SRCs in practice

  7. Protective equipment and player characteristics associated with the incidence of sport-related concussion in high school football players: a multifactorial prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M Alison

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players' demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. A total of 2081 players (grades 9-12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%-11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%-11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%-12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  8. Monitoring device for reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Tetsuo; Saito, Koichi; Furukawa, Hideyasu.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor container made of reinforced concretes is monitored for the temperature at each of portions upon placing concretes under construction of a plant, upon pressure-proof test and during plant operation. That is, optical fibers are uniformly laid spirally throughout the inside of the concretes. Pulses are injected from one end of the optical fibers, and the temperature at a reflection point can be measured by measuring specific rays (Raman scattering rays) among lights reflected after a predetermined period of time. According to the present invention, measurement for an optional position within a range where one fiber cable is laid can be conducted. Accordingly, it is possible to conduct temperature control upon concrete placing and apply temperature compensation for the measurement for stresses of the concretes and the reinforcing steels upon container pressure-proof. Further, during plant operation, if the temperature of the concretes rises due to thermal conduction of the temperature in the container, integrity of the concretes can be ensured by a countermeasures such as air conditioning. (I.S.)

  9. Study on reinforced concrete beams with helical transverse reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthik Krishna, N.; Sandeep, S.; Mini, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    In a Reinforced Concrete (R.C) structure, major reinforcement is used for taking up tensile stresses acting on the structure due to applied loading. The present paper reports the behavior of reinforced concrete beams with helical reinforcement (transverse reinforcement) subjected to monotonous loading by 3-point flexure test. The results were compared with identically similar reinforced concrete beams with rectangular stirrups. During the test crack evolution, load carrying capacity and deflection of the beams were monitored, analyzed and compared. Test results indicate that the use of helical reinforcement provides enhanced load carrying capacity and a lower deflection proving to be more ductile, clearly indicating the advantage in carrying horizontal loads. An analysis was also carried out using ANSYS software in order to compare the test results of both the beams.

  10. Reinforcement with fluoroplastic additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.A.; Stewart, C.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Stahl, W.M.

    1991-05-01

    The use of high molecular weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a reinforcing additive to improve the tear strength of elastomers was studied in silicone rubber by the mid-1950s and in fluoroelastomers by the late-1960s. Although the PTFE is added as a powder, the shear developed during compounding into an elastomer fibrillates the power into a continuous network of nodes and fibers. This network structure effectively reinforces elastomers but it also leads to distortion of finished parts and unacceptably high hardness and modulus of vulcanizates. A new high molecular weight TFE/HFP fluoroplastic micropowder has recently been developed (Teflon MP1500, Du Pont) which forms short fibers, ribbons or platelets when compounded with sufficient shear into elastomers. The controlled structure developed during compounding allows high levels of incorporation of the micropowder into elastomers with uniform dispersion and results in significant improvements in tear strength and abrasion resistance, as well as reduced coefficients of friction.

  11. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  12. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  13. Deep Reinforcement Fuzzing

    OpenAIRE

    Böttinger, Konstantin; Godefroid, Patrice; Singh, Rishabh

    2018-01-01

    Fuzzing is the process of finding security vulnerabilities in input-processing code by repeatedly testing the code with modified inputs. In this paper, we formalize fuzzing as a reinforcement learning problem using the concept of Markov decision processes. This in turn allows us to apply state-of-the-art deep Q-learning algorithms that optimize rewards, which we define from runtime properties of the program under test. By observing the rewards caused by mutating with a specific set of actions...

  14. Reinforced aerodynamic profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to the prevention of deformations in an aerodynamic profile caused by lack of resistance to the bending moment forces that are created when such a profile is loaded in operation. More specifically, the invention relates to a reinforcing element inside an aerodynamic...... profile and a method for the construction thereof. The profile is intended for, but not limited to, useas a wind turbine blade, an aerofoil device or as a wing profile used in the aeronautical industry....

  15. Behavioral and neural properties of social reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Libby, Victoria; Glover, Gary; Voss, Henning U; Ballon, Douglas J; Casey, B J

    2011-09-14

    Social learning is critical for engaging in complex interactions with other individuals. Learning from positive social exchanges, such as acceptance from peers, may be similar to basic reinforcement learning. We formally test this hypothesis by developing a novel paradigm that is based on work in nonhuman primates and human imaging studies of reinforcement learning. The probability of receiving positive social reinforcement from three distinct peers was parametrically manipulated while brain activity was recorded in healthy adults using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Over the course of the experiment, participants responded more quickly to faces of peers who provided more frequent positive social reinforcement, and rated them as more likeable. Modeling trial-by-trial learning showed ventral striatum and orbital frontal cortex activity correlated positively with forming expectations about receiving social reinforcement. Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity tracked positively with modulations of expected value of the cues (peers). Together, the findings across three levels of analysis--social preferences, response latencies, and modeling neural responses--are consistent with reinforcement learning theory and nonhuman primate electrophysiological studies of reward. This work highlights the fundamental influence of acceptance by one's peers in altering subsequent behavior.

  16. Reinforcement in opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volovik, Daniel

    I consider the evolution and acceptance of a new opinion in a population of unaware agents by using physics-based models of contagion spread. These models rely upon agent-based dynamics, in which an agent changes opinion by interactions with neighbors according to specific interactions. Most of these models have the feature that only a single input is required to change the opinion of an agent --- an agent has no commitment to its current opinion and accepts a new idea at the slightest provocation. These single-input models fail to account for people's confidence in their own beliefs. Thus I study the concept of social reinforcement --- that an agent adopts a new opinion only after multiple reinforcing prompts. Building on single-input models, I introduce two models of opinion spreading that incorporate a social reinforcement mechanism. (a) In the irreversible innovation and in the transient fad spreading models, a development is initially known only to a small portion of the population and subsequently spreads. An individual requires M > 1 interactions with an adopter before adopting the development. The ultimate extent of a transient fad depends critically on the characteristic time the fad keeps the attention of an adopting agent. (b) In the confident voter model, a voter can be in one of two opinion states and can additionally have two levels of commitment to an opinion: confident and vacillating. Upon interacting with an agent of a different opinion, a confident voter becomes less committed, or vacillating, but does not change opinion. However, a vacillating agent changes opinion by interacting with an agent of a different opinion. In two dimensions, the distribution of consensus times is characterized by two distinct times one that scales linearly with N and another that appears to scale as N 3/2. The longer time arises from configurations that fall into long-lived states that consist of multiple single-opinion stripes before consensus is reached.

  17. Manifold Regularized Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2018-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel manifold regularized reinforcement learning scheme for continuous Markov decision processes. Smooth feature representations for value function approximation can be automatically learned using the unsupervised manifold regularization method. The learned features are data-driven, and can be adapted to the geometry of the state space. Furthermore, the scheme provides a direct basis representation extension for novel samples during policy learning and control. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on two benchmark control tasks, i.e., the inverted pendulum and the energy storage problem. Simulation results illustrate the concepts of the proposed scheme and show that it can obtain excellent performance.

  18. CENTRAL REINFORCING EFFECTS OF ETHANOL ARE BLOCKED BY CATALASE INHIBITION

    OpenAIRE

    Nizhnikov, Michael Edward; Molina, Juan Carlos; Spear, Norman

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol’s positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25–200 mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn’s response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol’s first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous sy...

  19. Factors that influence the reinforcing value of foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-09-01

    Behavioral economic principles state that as the cost of a product increases, purchasing or consumption of that product will decrease. To understand the impact of behavioral economics on ingestive behavior, our laboratory utilizes an operant behavior paradigm to measure how much work an individual will engage in to get access to foods and beverages. This task provides an objective measure of the reinforcing value. We have shown that consumption of the same high fat snack food every day for two weeks reduces its reinforcing value in lean individuals, but increases its reinforcing value in a subset of obese individuals. This increase in the reinforcing value of food predicts future weight gain. Similarly, we have shown that repeated intake of caffeinated soda increases its reinforcing value in boys, but not in girls. This increase in reinforcing value is not related to usual caffeine consumption, but may be associated with positive, subjective effects of caffeine that are more likely to be reported by boys than by girls. Because food and beverage reinforcement relates to real-world consumption, it is important to determine factors that increase or decrease the reinforcing value and determine the consequences of these responses. We are especially interested in determining ways to shift the behavioral economic curve in order to develop novel strategies to decrease the reinforcing value of less healthy snack foods and beverages, such as soda, potato chips and candy and to increase the reinforcing value of healthier foods and beverages, such as water, fruits, and vegetables. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  1. Behavior of Reworked Steel Reinforcement Bars in Reinforced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steel reinforcement bars are a key component in reinforced concrete and are mainly employed to carry tensile stresses since concrete on its own is weak in tension. Sometimes these bars are wrongly bent, straightened and re bent, resulting in the altering of their original characteristics. Some of such steel has been used ...

  2. Sex Differences in Reinforcement and Punishment on Prime-Time Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; Gowan, Darryl C.

    1980-01-01

    Television programs were analyzed for frequencies of positive reinforcement and punishment exchanged among performers varying in age and sex. Females were found to more often exhibit and receive reinforcement, whereas males more often exhibited and received punishment. These findings have implications for children's learning of positive and…

  3. Corrosion of reinforcement bars in steel ibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, Anders Ole Stubbe

    Steel fibres have been known as an alternative to traditional reinforcement bars for special applications of structural concrete for decades and the use of steel fibre reinforced concrete (SFRC) has gradually increased in recent years. Steel fibres lead to reduced crack widths in concrete formed......, among other reasons, due to shrinkage and/or mechanical loading. Steel fibres are nowadays also used in combination with traditional reinforcement for structural concrete, where the role of the fibres is to minimize the crack widths whereas the traditional reinforcement bars are used for structural...... purpose. Although such, so-called, combined reinforcement systems, are gaining impact within the construction industry, they are only marginally covered by existing guidelines for structural design and the literature concerning their mechanical and, in particular their durability aspects, is sparse...

  4. BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Smith, Tracy T.; Schassburger, Rachel L.; Buffalari, Deanne M.; Sved, Alan F.; Donny, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and nicotine, the primary psychoactive constituent in tobacco, drives sustained use. The behavioral actions of nicotine are complex and extend well beyond the actions of the drug as a primary reinforcer. Stimuli that are consistently paired with nicotine can, through associative learning, take on reinforcing properties as conditioned stimuli. These conditioned stimuli can then impact the rate and probability of behavior and even function as conditioning reinforcers that maintain behavior in the absence of nicotine. Nicotine can also act as a conditioned stimulus, predicting the delivery of other reinforcers, which may allow nicotine to acquire value as a conditioned reinforcer. These associative effects, establishing non-nicotine stimuli as conditioned stimuli with discriminative stimulus and conditioned reinforcing properties as well as establishing nicotine as a conditioned stimulus, are predicted by basic conditioning principles. However, nicotine can also act non-associatively. Nicotine directly enhances the reinforcing efficacy of other reinforcing stimuli in the environment, an effect that does not require a temporal or predictive relationship between nicotine and either the stimulus or the behavior. Hence, the reinforcing actions of nicotine stem both from the primary reinforcing actions of the drug (and the subsequent associative learning effects) as well as the reinforcement enhancement action of nicotine which is non-associative in nature. Gaining a better understanding of how nicotine impacts behavior will allow for maximally effective tobacco control efforts aimed at reducing the harm associated with tobacco use by reducing and/or treating its addictiveness. PMID:25638333

  5. Tangible Reinforcers: Bonuses or Bribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Objections to the use of tangible reinforcers, such as prizes, candy, cigarettes, and money, are discussed. Treatment programs using tangible reinforcers are recommended as powerful modifers of behavior to be implemented only after less powerful means of modification have been tried. (Author)

  6. Reinforcing adherence to antihypertensive medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Alessi, Sheila M; Byrne, Shannon; White, William B

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated a reinforcement intervention to improve adherence to antihypertensive therapy. Twenty-nine participants were randomized to standard care or standard care plus financial reinforcement for 12 weeks. Participants in the reinforcement group received a cell phone to self-record videos of adherence, for which they earned rewards. These participants sent videos demonstrating on-time adherence 97.8% of the time. Pill count adherence differed significantly between the groups during treatment, with 98.8%±1.5% of pills taken during treatment in the reinforcement condition vs 92.6%±9.2% in standard care (PBenefits persisted throughout a 3-month follow-up, with 93.8%±9.3% vs 78.0%±18.5% of pills taken (Pphone technology and financial reinforcement holds potential to improve adherence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Modelling reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Geiker, Mette Rica; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold is rea......, a numerical example is pre-sented, that illustrates the formation of corrosion cells as well as propagation of corrosion in a reinforced concrete structure.......A physio-chemical model for the simulation of reinforcement corrosion in concrete struc-tures was developed. The model allows for simulation of initiation and subsequent propaga-tion of reinforcement corrosion. Corrosion is assumed to be initiated once a defined critical chloride threshold...

  8. Evaluation of stainless steel reinforcement construction project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Stainless steel reinforcement has greater corrosion resistance than that of the conventional reinforcement. In this project, bridge A6059, the first in Missouri utilizing stainless steel reinforcement in the deck, was constructed, along with bridge A...

  9. Design of compression reinforcement in reinforced concrete membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Silva

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to design membrane elements of concrete with orthogonal mesh of reinforcement which are subject to compressive stress. Design methods, in general, define how to quantify the reinforcement necessary to support the tension stress and verify if the compression in concrete is within the strength limit. In case the compression in membrane is excessive, it is possible to use reinforcements subject to compression. However, there is not much information in the literature about how to design reinforcement for these cases. For that, this paper presents a procedure which uses the model based on Baumann's [1] criteria. The strength limits used herein are those recommended by CEB [3], however, a model is proposed in which this limit varies according to the tensile strain which occur perpendicular to compression. This resistance model is based on concepts proposed by Vecchio e Collins [2].

  10. Shear Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with GFRP Shear Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heecheul Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the shear capacities of concrete beams reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP plates as shear reinforcement. To examine the shear performance, we manufactured and tested a total of eight specimens. Test variables included the GFRP strip-width-to-spacing ratio and type of opening array. The specimen with a GFRP plate with a 3×2 opening array showed the highest shear strength. From the test results, the shear strength increased as the strip-width-to-strip-spacing ratio increased. Also, we used the experimental results to evaluate whether the shear strength equations of ACI 318-14 and ACI 440.1R can be applied to the design of GFRP shear reinforcement. In the results, the ACI 440 equation underestimated the experimental results more than that of ACI 318.

  11. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jen

    Long fibers are generally preferred for reinforcing foams for performance reasons. However, uniform dispersion is difficult to achieve because they must be mixed with liquid resin prior to foam expansion. New approaches aiming to overcome such problem have been developed at USC's Composites Center. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams with long fibers (over 6 mm in length) manufactured at USC's Composites Center have achieved promising mechanical properties and demonstrated lower density relative to conventional composite foams. Fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were synthesized from thermosetting polymeric microspheres (amino and phenolic microspheres), as well as thermoplastic PVC heat expandable microspheres (HEMs). Carbon and/or aramid fibers were used to reinforce the syntactic foams. Basic mechanical properties, including shear, tensile, and compression, were measured in syntactic foams and fiber-reinforced syntactic foams. Microstructure and crack propagation behavior were investigated by scanning electron microscope and light microscopy. Failure mechanisms and reinforcing mechanisms of fiber-reinforced syntactic foams were also analyzed. As expected, additions of fiber reinforcements to foams enhanced both tensile and shear properties. However, only limited enhancement in compression properties was observed, and fiber reinforcement was of limited benefit in this regard. Therefore, a hybrid foam design was explored and evaluated in an attempt to enhance compression properties. HEMs were blended with glass microspheres to produce hybrid foams, and hybrid foams were subsequently reinforced with continuous aramid fibers to produce fiber-reinforced hybrid foams. Mechanical properties of these foams were evaluated. Findings indicated that the production of hybrid foams was an effective way to enhance the compressive properties of syntactic foams, while the addition of fiber reinforcements enhanced the shear and tensile performance of syntactic foams. Another approach

  12. Ceramic fiber reinforced filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinton, David P.; McLaughlin, Jerry C.; Lowden, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    A filter for removing particulate matter from high temperature flowing fluids, and in particular gases, that is reinforced with ceramic fibers. The filter has a ceramic base fiber material in the form of a fabric, felt, paper of the like, with the refractory fibers thereof coated with a thin layer of a protective and bonding refractory applied by chemical vapor deposition techniques. This coating causes each fiber to be physically joined to adjoining fibers so as to prevent movement of the fibers during use and to increase the strength and toughness of the composite filter. Further, the coating can be selected to minimize any reactions between the constituents of the fluids and the fibers. A description is given of the formation of a composite filter using a felt preform of commercial silicon carbide fibers together with the coating of these fibers with pure silicon carbide. Filter efficiency approaching 100% has been demonstrated with these filters. The fiber base material is alternately made from aluminosilicate fibers, zirconia fibers and alumina fibers. Coating with Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 is also described. Advanced configurations for the composite filter are suggested.

  13. Reinforced Intrusion Detection Using Pursuit Reinforcement Competitive Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indah Yulia Prafitaning Tiyas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, information technology is growing rapidly,all information can be obtainedmuch easier. It raises some new problems; one of them is unauthorized access to the system. We need a reliable network security system that is resistant to a variety of attacks against the system. Therefore, Intrusion Detection System (IDS required to overcome the problems of intrusions. Many researches have been done on intrusion detection using classification methods. Classification methodshave high precision, but it takes efforts to determine an appropriate classification model to the classification problem. In this paper, we propose a new reinforced approach to detect intrusion with On-line Clustering using Reinforcement Learning. Reinforcement Learning is a new paradigm in machine learning which involves interaction with the environment.It works with reward and punishment mechanism to achieve solution. We apply the Reinforcement Learning to the intrusion detection problem with considering competitive learning using Pursuit Reinforcement Competitive Learning (PRCL. Based on the experimental result, PRCL can detect intrusions in real time with high accuracy (99.816% for DoS, 95.015% for Probe, 94.731% for R2L and 99.373% for U2R and high speed (44 ms.The proposed approach can help network administrators to detect intrusion, so the computer network security systembecome reliable. Keywords: Intrusion Detection System, On-Line Clustering, Reinforcement Learning, Unsupervised Learning.

  14. Reinforced concrete behavior due to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.; Bartley, R.; O'Brien, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    The assessment of the safety of nuclear reactors has necessitated the study of the effect of missiles on reinforced concrete containment structures. Two simple theoretical calculational methods have been developed to provide basic information. The first is based on a crude energy balance approach in which that part of the kinetic energy of the missile which is transferred into the containment structure, is absorbed only as bending strain energy. To determine the energy transferred into the structure it is assumed that during the loading the target does not respond. The energy input to the structure is thus equal to the kinetic energy it will possess immediately the impulse has been removed. The boundary of the responding zone is defined by the distance travelled by the shear stress wave during the time in which the impact force increases to the load at which the shear capacity reaches the ultimate shear resistance. The second method is based on the equation of motion for an equivalent one-degree-of-freedom system assuming that only the peak value of deflection is important and that damping can be ignored. The spring stiffness of the equivalent system has been based upon the stiffness of the actual disc configuration responding in the flexural mode only. The boundaries of the disc have been defined by using the elastic plate formulae and equating those positive and negative moments which will produce a specified yield line pattern which may be inferred from plastic plate formulae. The equation of motion is solved to indicate how the quantity of reinforcement included in the structure may modify the peak deflection. By limiting the ductility ratio of the reinforcement to some prescribed level it is possible to indicate the quantity of reinforcement w

  15. Evolutionary computation for reinforcement learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Wiering, M.; van Otterlo, M.

    2012-01-01

    Algorithms for evolutionary computation, which simulate the process of natural selection to solve optimization problems, are an effective tool for discovering high-performing reinforcement-learning policies. Because they can automatically find good representations, handle continuous action spaces,

  16. Modeling reinforced concrete durability : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Many Florida bridges are built of steel-reinforced concrete. Floridas humid and marine : environments subject steel in these structures : to corrosion once water and salt penetrate the : concrete and contact the steel. Corroded steel : takes up mo...

  17. Alterations in default-mode network connectivity may be influenced by cerebrovascular changes within 1 week of sports related concussion in college varsity athletes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Militana, Adam R; Donahue, Manus J; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S; Gregory, Andrew J; Strother, Megan K; Morgan, Victoria L

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this pilot study is to use complementary MRI strategies to quantify and relate cerebrovascular reactivity, resting cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity alterations in the first week following sports concussion in college varsity athletes. Seven college athletes (3F/4M, age = 19.7 ± 1.2 years) were imaged 3-6 days following a diagnosed sports related concussion and compared to eleven healthy controls with no history of concussion (5M/6F, 18-23 years, 7 athletes). Cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity were measured using functional MRI during a hypercapnia challenge and via resting-state regional partial correlations, respectively. Resting cerebral blood flow was quantified using arterial spin labeling MRI methods. Group comparisons were made within and between 18 regions of interest. Cerebrovascular reactivity was increased after concussion when averaged across all regions of interest (p = 0.04), and within some default-mode network regions, the anterior cingulate and the right thalamus (p concussed athletes within the default-mode network including the left and right hippocampus, precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (p concussed athletes. Significant resting cerebral blood flow changes were not detected between the two groups. This study provides evidence for increased cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity in the medial regions of the default-mode network within days of a single sports related concussion in college athletes. Our findings emphasize the utility of complementary cerebrovascular measures in the interpretation of alterations in functional connectivity following concussion.

  18. Deep Reinforcement Learning: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuxi

    2017-01-01

    We give an overview of recent exciting achievements of deep reinforcement learning (RL). We discuss six core elements, six important mechanisms, and twelve applications. We start with background of machine learning, deep learning and reinforcement learning. Next we discuss core RL elements, including value function, in particular, Deep Q-Network (DQN), policy, reward, model, planning, and exploration. After that, we discuss important mechanisms for RL, including attention and memory, unsuperv...

  19. Central reinforcing effects of ethanol are blocked by catalase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhnikov, Michael E; Molina, Juan C; Spear, Norman E

    2007-11-01

    Recent studies have systematically indicated that newborn rats are highly sensitive to ethanol's positive reinforcing effects. Central administrations of ethanol (25-200mg %) associated with an olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) promote subsequent conditioned approach to the CS as evaluated through the newborn's response to a surrogate nipple scented with the CS. It has been shown that ethanol's first metabolite, acetaldehyde, exerts significant reinforcing effects in the central nervous system. A significant amount of acetaldehyde is derived from ethanol metabolism via the catalase system. In newborn rats, catalase levels are particularly high in several brain structures. The present study tested the effect of catalase inhibition on central ethanol reinforcement. In the first experiment, pups experienced lemon odor either paired or unpaired with intracisternal (IC) administrations of 100mg% ethanol. Half of the animals corresponding to each learning condition were pretreated with IC administrations of either physiological saline or a catalase inhibitor (sodium-azide). Catalase inhibition completely suppressed ethanol reinforcement in paired groups without affecting responsiveness to the CS during conditioning or responding by unpaired control groups. A second experiment tested whether these effects were specific to ethanol reinforcement or due instead to general impairment in learning and expression capabilities. Central administration of an endogenous kappa opioid receptor agonist (dynorphin A-13) was used as an alternative source of reinforcement. Inhibition of the catalase system had no effect on the reinforcing properties of dynorphin. The present results support the hypothesis that ethanol metabolism regulated by the catalase system plays a critical role in determination of ethanol reinforcement in newborn rats.

  20. Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifen [Newton, MA; Wen, Jian Guo [Newton, MA; Lao, Jing Y [Chestnut Hill, MA; Li, Wenzhi [Brookline, MA

    2008-10-28

    Methods for producing reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials are disclosed. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  1. Role of Instructions and Reinforcement in Behavior Changes in Token Reinforcement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazdin, Alan E.

    1973-01-01

    Major findings were that: contingent reinforcement was effective in altering behavior; instructions did not augment the efficacy of contingent reinforcement; noncontingent reinforcement was effective for nondeviant students who were told that the reinforcement was actually contingent; and contingent reinforcement led to greater generalization than…

  2. Fun While Learning and Earning. A Look Into Chattanooga Public Schools' Token Reinforcement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William F.; Sanders, Frank J.

    A token reinforcement program was used by the Piney Woods Research and Demonstration Center in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Children who were from economically deprived homes received tokens for positive behavior. The tokens were redeemable for recess privileges, ice cream, candy, and other such reinforcers. All tokens were spent on the day earned so…

  3. Efficacy of positive reinforcement and self control in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment is a quasi-experimental type that adopted a pretest, post test treatment control group using a 3 x 2 factorial matrix, with the treatment conditions in the rows and gender in the columns. There were three experimental groups comprising of two treatment groups and a no treatment control group. The participants ...

  4. Social physique anxiety and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors in adolescents: moderating effects of sport, sport-related characteristics, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Therme, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    The involvement of adolescents presenting high levels of social physique anxiety (SPA) in sport practice has been hypothesized as potentially problematic in terms of being associated with disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEAB). Indeed, sport practice itself has been reported to be associated with higher levels of SPA and DEAB, and sport settings may sometimes promote unhealthy life habits. Nevertheless, current studies are few and present several limitations. The objective of the present study was to examine these relationships among adolescents involved or not in various types (i.e., leanness and individual) and contexts (i.e., organized and competitive) of sport practice. The sample included 766 French adolescents (337 boys and 429 girls), aged between 11 and 18 years, involved (n = 335) or not (n = 431) in sport practice. SPA and DEAB were assessed using French adaptations of the SPA scale and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results reveal a significant and positive association between SPA and the DEAB scales. Furthermore, they show a positive relationship between SPA and (a) vomiting-purging behaviors in adolescents involved in individual sports and (b) generic DEAB (i.e., a subscale covering fear of getting fat, food preoccupation, and eating-related guilt), particularly in adolescents involved in individual sports. The relationship between SPA and DEAB does not differ according to adolescents' involvement in sport practice or according to their involvement in organized, competitive, or leanness sport practice more specifically. However, higher levels of SPA and DEAB were observed in adolescents involved in individual sports.

  5. Reinforcement principles for addiction medicine; from recreational drug use to psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The transition from recreational drug use to addiction can be conceptualized as a pathological timeline whereby the psychological mechanisms responsible for disordered drug use evolve from positive reinforcement to favor elements of negative reinforcement. Abused substances (ranging from alcohol to psychostimulants) are initially ingested at regular occasions according to their positive reinforcing properties. Importantly, repeated exposure to rewarding substances sets off a chain of secondary reinforcing events, whereby cues and contexts associated with drug use may themselves become reinforcing and thereby contribute to the continued use and possible abuse of the substance(s) of choice. Indeed, the powerful reinforcing efficacy of certain drugs may eclipse that of competing social rewards (such as career and family) and lead to an aberrant narrowing of behavioral repertoire. In certain vulnerable individuals, escalation of drug use over time is thought to drive specific molecular neuroadaptations that foster the development of addiction. Research has identified neurobiological elements of altered reinforcement following excessive drug use that comprise within-circuit and between-circuit neuroadaptations, both of which contribute to addiction. Central to this process is the eventual potentiation of negative reinforcement mechanisms that may represent the final definitive criterion locking vulnerable individuals into a persistent state of addiction. Targeting the neural substrates of reinforcement likely represents our best chances for therapeutic intervention for this devastating disease. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Methods of veld reinforcement, their action and adaptability to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods of veld reinforcement are categorised on the basis of the disturbance caused to the vegetation and soil during their application. The extent of mixing of seed and fertilizer with the soil is also considered. Limitations imposed by landscape position and soil erodibility on the use of the various techniques are proposed ...

  7. Reinforcement learning and Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palminteri, Stefano; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, we report the first experimental explorations of reinforcement learning in Tourette syndrome, realized by our team in the last few years. This report will be preceded by an introduction aimed to provide the reader with the state of the art of the knowledge concerning the neural bases of reinforcement learning at the moment of these studies and the scientific rationale beyond them. In short, reinforcement learning is learning by trial and error to maximize rewards and minimize punishments. This decision-making and learning process implicates the dopaminergic system projecting to the frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. A large body of evidence suggests that the dysfunction of the same neural systems is implicated in the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome. Our results show that Tourette condition, as well as the most common pharmacological treatments (dopamine antagonists), affects reinforcement learning performance in these patients. Specifically, the results suggest a deficit in negative reinforcement learning, possibly underpinned by a functional hyperdopaminergia, which could explain the persistence of tics, despite their evident inadaptive (negative) value. This idea, together with the implications of these results in Tourette therapy and the future perspectives, is discussed in Section 4 of this chapter. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seismic performance of circular reinforced concrete bridge columns constructed with grade 80 reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This project assessed the use of ASTM A706 Grade 80 reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete columns. : Grade 80 is not currently allowed in reinforced concrete columns due to lack of information on the : material characteristics and column performanc...

  9. Effect of Reinforcement Architecture on Fracture of Selectively Reinforced Metallic Compact Tension Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abada, Christopher H.; Farley, Gary L.; Hyer, Michael W.

    2006-01-01

    A computer-based parametric study of the effect of reinforcement architectures on fracture response of aluminum compact-tension (CT) specimens is performed. Eleven different reinforcement architectures consisting of rectangular and triangular cross-section reinforcements were evaluated. Reinforced specimens produced between 13 and 28 percent higher fracture load than achieved with the non-reinforced case. Reinforcements with blunt leading edges (rectangular reinforcements) exhibited superior performance relative to the triangular reinforcements with sharp leading edges. Relative to the rectangular reinforcements, the most important architectural feature was reinforcement thickness. At failure, the reinforcements carried between 58 and 85 percent of the load applied to the specimen, suggesting that there is considerable load transfer between the base material and the reinforcement.

  10. Health monitoring of precast bridge deck panels reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    The present research project investigates monitoring concrete precast panels for bridge decks that are reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars. Due to the lack of long term research on concrete members reinforced with GFRP bars, lo...

  11. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.

    2016-01-01

    public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-dominated and centrally controlled technologies that were the main focus of the 1970s and 1980s studies. Yet this study concludes that there is general support for the reinforcement framework in the contemporary application of mobile technology in public sector home care.......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  12. Failure Criteria for Reinforced Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    Failure of materials is often characterized as ductile yielding, brittle fracture, creep rupture, etc., and different criteria given in terms of different parameters have been used to describe different types of failure. Only criteria expressing failure in terms of stress are considered in what...... follows. The reinforcement here consists of long bars or fibres and complete bond between matrix and reinforcement is assumed so that no problems arising from incomplete transfer of adhesive and frictional forces are discussed. During loading, the reinforcement may yield, but total failure does not take...... certain restrictions on the form of the failure criteria for anisotropic materials. In section 2, some failure criteria for homogenous materials are reviewed. Both isotropic and anisotropic materials are described, and in particular the constraints imposed on the criteria from the symmetries orthotropy...

  13. Quenched Reinforcement Exposed to Fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Idealized data are derived for the tensile strength of quenched and tempered prestressing steel and of quenched and self-tempered reinforcing bars for fire safety design. 0.2% stresses are derived as a function of the maximum temperature and in addition, 2.0% stresses are provided. A strain of 2.......0% is seldom found in “slack” (not prestressed) reinforcement, but 2.0% stresses might be relevant for reinforcement in T shaped cross sections and for prestressed structures, where large strains can be applied. All data are provided in a “HOT” condition during a fire and in a “COLD” condition after a fire....... The COLD condition is relevant for analyses of residual load bearing capacity of a structure after a fire exposure. It is also relevant for analyses of concrete structures exposed to fully developed fire courses. The reason is that compression zones of concrete are always the weakest in the cooling phase...

  14. Reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties of music in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ono, Haruka; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigated whether music has reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties in goldfish. Experiment 1 examined the discriminative stimulus properties of music. The subjects were successfully trained to discriminate between two pieces of music--Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) by J. S. Bach and The Rite of Spring by I. Stravinsky. Experiment 2 examined the reinforcing properties of sounds, including BWV 565 and The Rite of Spring. We developed an apparatus for measuring spontaneous sound preference in goldfish. Music or noise stimuli were presented depending on the subject's position in the aquarium, and the time spent in each area was measured. The results indicated that the goldfish did not show consistent preferences for music, although they showed significant avoidance of noise stimuli. These results suggest that music has discriminative but not reinforcing stimulus properties in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Olfactory preference conditioning changes the reward value of reinforced and non-reinforced odors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eTorquet

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Olfaction is a determinant for the organization of rodent behavior. In a feeding context, rodents must quickly discriminate whether a nutrient can be ingested or whether it represents a potential danger to them. To understand the learning processes that support food choice, aversive olfactory learning and flavor appetitive learning have been extensively studied. In contrast, little is currently known about olfactory appetitive learning and its mechanisms. We designed a new paradigm to study conditioned olfactory preference in rats. After 8 days of exposure to a pair of odors (one paired with sucrose and the other with water, rats developed a strong and stable preference for the odor associated with the sucrose solution. A series of experiments were conducted to further analyze changes in reward value induced by this paradigm for both stimuli. As expected, the reward value of the reinforced odor changed positively. Interestingly, the reward value of the alternative odor decreased. This devaluation had an impact on further odor comparisons that the animal had to make. This result suggests that appetitive conditioning involving a comparison between two odors not only leads to a change in the reward value of the reinforced odor, but also induces a stable devaluation of the non-reinforced stimulus.

  16. Constructive solutions for beamless capitalless floors with prestressed reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardysheva Yuliya Anatol'evna

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors present advanced constructions of prestressed reinforced concrete flat ceiling, where high-strength ropes in elastic shell are used as stressed reinforcement. The novelty of the solution lays in diagonal arrangement of hard valves and use of high-strength ropes in a flexible shell of "Monostrand" type. This type of prestress, in our opinion, is the most acceptable from technical point of view for selective reinforcement of separate tense rods or cables. The use of pre-stressed reinforcement in the form of individual rods or cables increases the rigidity and crack resistance of concrete beamless slabs. The use of high-strength ropes in the monostrand-type shell makes it possible to prestress in frames of single cell plate or floor in general and to reduce labour input for stressing armature. The paper presents original solution with diagonal position of the valve. The authors suggest the use of prestressed diagonal valves as in all cells of the floor with the cells of the same or only slightly different size and in separate cells of the floor (for roofs with different cells. The diagonal location of stressed reinforcement proposed in the work is an efficient solution for extending the range of dimensions and loads size.

  17. Reinforcing stimulus properties of drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, J.M. van

    1979-01-01

    The reinforcing efficacy of psychoactive drugs can reliably be studied in experimental animals by using procedures for drug self-administration. This property of drugs is used to predict qualitatively and quantitatively their abuse potential in humans. External factors like the dose of the drug, the

  18. Microfibre Reinforced Hot Mix Asphalt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zak Josef

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cracks are common disturbances in pavement structure. The ability of hot mix asphalt to withstand tensile stresses is limited. This paper presents influence of different microfiber reinforcement types ITERFIBRA to hot mix asphalt behaviour in its chosen properties. Bulk density of hot mix asphalt, stiffness , resistance to the permanent deformation and resistance to the crack propagation are taken into consideration.

  19. Silica reinforced triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theunissen, E.; Overbergh, N.; Reynaers, H.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of silica and polymer coated silica particles as reinforcing agents on the structural and mechanical properties of polystyrene-poly(ethylene/butylene)-polystyrene (PS-PEB-PS) triblock gel has been investigated. Different types of chemically modified silica have been compared in order...

  20. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  1. Dissociating error-based and reinforcement-based loss functions during sensorimotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashaback, Joshua G A; McGregor, Heather R; Mohatarem, Ayman; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    It has been proposed that the sensorimotor system uses a loss (cost) function to evaluate potential movements in the presence of random noise. Here we test this idea in the context of both error-based and reinforcement-based learning. In a reaching task, we laterally shifted a cursor relative to true hand position using a skewed probability distribution. This skewed probability distribution had its mean and mode separated, allowing us to dissociate the optimal predictions of an error-based loss function (corresponding to the mean of the lateral shifts) and a reinforcement-based loss function (corresponding to the mode). We then examined how the sensorimotor system uses error feedback and reinforcement feedback, in isolation and combination, when deciding where to aim the hand during a reach. We found that participants compensated differently to the same skewed lateral shift distribution depending on the form of feedback they received. When provided with error feedback, participants compensated based on the mean of the skewed noise. When provided with reinforcement feedback, participants compensated based on the mode. Participants receiving both error and reinforcement feedback continued to compensate based on the mean while repeatedly missing the target, despite receiving auditory, visual and monetary reinforcement feedback that rewarded hitting the target. Our work shows that reinforcement-based and error-based learning are separable and can occur independently. Further, when error and reinforcement feedback are in conflict, the sensorimotor system heavily weights error feedback over reinforcement feedback.

  2. Cracking of SHCC due to reinforcement corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Lukovic, M.; Pacheco Farias, J.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Saouma, V.; Bolander, J.; Landis, E.

    2016-01-01

    Reinforcement corrosion is the most important deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete infrastructures. After corrosion starts, expansive pressures are exerted onto the surrounding concrete, causing cracking and spalling of the cover concrete. The amount of cover cracking can possibly

  3. Thermal expansion of fibre-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1991-07-01

    The integral thermal expansion and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon and Kevlar fibre-reinforced composites were measured with high accuracy from 5 K to room temperature. For this, a laser dilatometer and a sophisticated measuring procedure were used. CTE dependence on the orientation angle ω of angle-ply laminates was determined for samples with 5 different fibre alignments (UD 0deg, +/-30deg, +/-45deg, +/-60deg and UD 90deg). A high variability of the CTE with the orientation angle was shown. At angles of approximately +/-30deg even negative CTEs were found. With suitable reinforcing fibres being selected, their absolute values rose up to 30-100% of the positive CTEs of metals. Hence, composites of this type would be suitable as compensating materials in metal constructions where little thermal expansion is desired. To check the lamination theory, theoretical computations of the CTE- ω -dependence were compared with the measured values. An excellent agreement was found. Using the lamination theory, predictions about the expansion behaviour of angle-ply laminates can be made now, if the thermal and mechanical properties of the unidirectional (UD) laminate are known. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out simulation computations aimed at investigating the influence of a single parameter of the UD-laminate (e.g. shear modulus) on the expansion of the angle-ply laminate. (orig.) [de

  4. Choice and the relative immediacy of reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Dunn, Roger; Fantino, Edmund

    1982-01-01

    The relative immediacy of reinforcement in concurrent-chain schedules was varied while the relative reduction in the overall average time to reinforcement associated with terminal-link entry was held constant. For each of four pigeons, choice did not vary with relative immediacy of reinforcement. Subsequently, choice by the same subjects was shown to be sensitive to relative reduction in average time to reinforcement.

  5. Applied Implications of Reinforcement History Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipkin, Claire St. Peter; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    Although the influence of reinforcement history is a theoretical focus of behavior analysis, the specific behavioral effects of reinforcement history have received relatively little attention in applied research and practice. We examined the potential effects of reinforcement history by reviewing nonhuman, human operant, and applied research and…

  6. Conditioned Reinforcement Value and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A.; Podlesnik, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of conditioned reinforcement value and primary reinforcement rate on resistance to change using a multiple schedule of observing-response procedures with pigeons. In the absence of observing responses in both components, unsignaled periods of variable-interval (VI) schedule food reinforcement alternated with…

  7. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate, without reinforcement fibre, exhibited a few fold superiority in tensile ...

  8. Buckling of Fiber Reinforced Composite Plates with Nanofiber Reinforced Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    2010-01-01

    Anisotropic composite plates were evaluated with nanofiber reinforced matrices (NFRM). The nanofiber reinforcement volumes ratio in the matrix was 0.01. The plate dimensions were 20 by 10 by 1.0 in. (508 by 254 by 25.4 mm). Seven different loading condition cases were evaluated: three for uniaxial loading, three for pairs of combined loading, and one with three combined loadings. The anisotropy arose from the unidirectional plates having been at 30 from the structural axis. The anisotropy had a full 6 by 6 rigidities matrix which were satisfied and solved by a Galerkin buckling algorithm. The buckling results showed that the NFRM plates buckled at about twice those with conventional matrix.

  9. Sports-related overuse injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launay, F

    2015-02-01

    Increased intensity of sports activities combined with a decrease in daily physical activity is making overuse injuries in children more common. These injuries are located mainly in the epiphyseal cartilage. The broad term for these injuries is osteochondrosis, rather than osteochondritis, which more specifically refers to inflammatory conditions of bone and cartilage. The osteochondrosis may be epiphyseal, physeal, or apophyseal, depending on the affected site. The condition can either be in the primary deformans form or the dissecans form. While there is no consensus on the etiology of osteochondrosis, multiple factors seem to be involved: vascular, traumatic, or even microtraumatic factors. Most overuse injuries involve the lower limbs, especially the knees, ankle and feet. The most typical are Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sever's disease; in both conditions, the tendons remain relatively short during the pubescent grown spurt. The main treatment for these injuries is temporary suspension of athletic activities, combined with physical therapy in many cases. Surgery may be performed if conservative treatment fails. It is best, however, to try to prevent these injuries by analyzing and correcting problems with sports equipment, lifestyle habits, training intensity and the child's level of physical activity, and by avoiding premature specialization. Pain in children during sports should not be considered normal. It is a warning sign of overtraining, which may require the activity to be modified, reduced or even discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of Sport-related Facial Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Amanda M; Patton, Declan A; Eliason, Paul H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2017-04-01

    There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment. Valid evidence can assist with addressing the resistance caused by prevailing beliefs and could be essential in influencing rule changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Jessica L; Ildefonso, Kenneth; Jones, Megan L; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2017-01-01

    Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of...

  12. Sports-related injuries of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochmuth, K.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L.

    2002-01-01

    Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [de

  13. Sports Related Injuries: Incidence, Management and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Stanger, Michael A.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...

  14. Evolution of Sports-related Headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvaterra, George

    2016-09-01

    The major focus of this review is to establish concussion in sport as a silent epidemic in our society that is not an accident. Brain injury has a definitive pattern and distinct nonrandom predictable characteristic. The development of successful head protection requires a scientific database approach to the mechanics of headgear. It is the responsibility of the health care clinician to help with the maintenance of protective standards for headgear and support rule changes to decrease the morbidity and mortality of athletes.

  15. Current Concepts in Sports-Related Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Dipal; Frumberg, David B; Mulchandani, Neil B; Eldib, Ahmed M; Xavier, Fred; Barbash, Scott E; Saha, Subrata; Urban, William P

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury, specifically concussion, is prevalent in contact sports. In the United States (US) each year, 170 million adults participate in physical recreational activities, and 38 million children and adolescents participate in organized sports. The Centers for Disease Control estimate that in this group ~1.6 to 3.8 million concussions occur annually. Recent class-action lawsuits in the US filed by professional athletes against their respective leagues allege negligence in protecting them from concussions, and this has contributed to the attention received in the popular media. In response, concussion-related publications have increased exponentially during the past several years. Recent studies have challenged earlier assumptions that the effects of concussion are transient. Stronger links between concussion and neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer's disease-like conditions, depression, and heightened risk for suicide are being elucidated. In this article, we explore the current knowledge on concussion, including pathophysiology, management, and long-term effects. We conclude that more evidence-based results regarding guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and return to play (RTP) are needed and should be the focus of future investigations. Attributing the etiology of certain neurodegenerative conditions to a history of concussion has been suggested in the current literature, but additional quantitative data regarding the pathophysiology and causality are needed as well. Bioengineers can have an important role in measuring the dynamic forces encountered during head impacts and their effects on the brain. These results can be effective in designing better helmets as well as improved playing surfaces to reduce the impact of such injuries. At this time, we believe that groups of people with heightened risk for concussion should be followed closely during longer periods of time and compared to matched controls. Such long-term studies are urgently needed to develop appropriate guidelines for safety and protect our young and adult athletes in the future.

  16. Democratic reinforcement: A principle for brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stassinopoulos, D.; Bak, P.

    1995-01-01

    We introduce a simple ''toy'' brain model. The model consists of a set of randomly connected, or layered integrate-and-fire neurons. Inputs to and outputs from the environment are connected randomly to subsets of neurons. The connections between firing neurons are strengthened or weakened according to whether the action was successful or not. Unlike previous reinforcement learning algorithms, the feedback from the environment is democratic: it affects all neurons in the same way, irrespective of their position in the network and independent of the output signal. Thus no unrealistic back propagation or other external computation is needed. This is accomplished by a global threshold regulation which allows the system to self-organize into a highly susceptible, possibly ''critical'' state with low activity and sparse connections between firing neurons. The low activity permits memory in quiescent areas to be conserved since only firing neurons are modified when new information is being taught

  17. Flexural Behavior of Textile-Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkova Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the flexural behaviour of textile-reinforced concrete (TRC. Two samples of TRC made of high strength reinforcing fabrics made of glass and carbon rovings were produced. Three-point bending test was carried out to examine the flexural performance of the developed samples. The maximum flexural strength and reinforcement efficiency were calculated. Experimental results showed that that all types of applied fabric reinforcement contributed to increases strength as compared to nonreinforced concrete. Furthermore, the deformation behavior of reinforced concrete was analyzed. The advantage is in higher residual load-bearing capacity, which allows maintaining the integrity of the structure.

  18. Alumina-Reinforced Zirconia Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2003-01-01

    Alumina-reinforced zirconia composites, used as electrolyte materials for solid oxide fuel cells, were fabricated by hot pressing 10 mol percent yttria-stabilized zirconia (10-YSZ) reinforced with two different forms of alumina particulates and platelets each containing 0 to 30 mol percent alumina. Major mechanical and physical properties of both particulate and platelet composites including flexure strength, fracture toughness, slow crack growth, elastic modulus, density, Vickers microhardness, thermal conductivity, and microstructures were determined as a function of alumina content either at 25 C or at both 25 and 1000 C. Flexure strength and fracture toughness at 1000 C were maximized with 30 particulate and 30 mol percent platelet composites, respectively, while resistance to slow crack growth at 1000 C in air was greater for 30 mol percent platelet composite than for 30 mol percent particulate composites.

  19. Wax Reinforces Honeycomb During Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towell, Timothy W.; Fahringer, David T.; Vasquez, Peter; Scheidegger, Alan P.

    1995-01-01

    Method of machining on conventional metal lathe devised for precise cutting of axisymmetric contours on honeycomb cores made of composite (matrix/fiber) materials. Wax filling reinforces honeycomb walls against bending and tearing while honeycomb being contoured on lathe. Innovative method of machining on lathe involves preparation in which honeycomb is placed in appropriate fixture and the fixture is then filled with molten water-soluble wax. Number of different commercial waxes have been tried.

  20. Carbon fiber reinforced asphalt concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahromi, Saeed G.

    2008-01-01

    Fibers are often used in the manufacture of other materials. For many years, they have been utilized extensively in numerous applications in civil engineering. Fiber-reinforcement refers to incorporating materials with desired properties within some other materials lacking those properties. Use of fibers is not a new phenomenon, as the technique of fiber-reinforced bitumen began early as 1950. In all industrialized countries today, nearly all concretes used in construction are reinforced. A multitude of fibers and fiber materials are being introduced in the market regularly. The present paper presents characteristics and properties of carbon fiber-reinforced asphalt mixtures, which improve the performance of pavements. To evaluate the effect of fiber contents on bituminous mixtures, laboratory investigations were carried out on the samples with and without fibers. During the course of this study, various tests were undertaken, applying Marshall Test indirect tensile test, creep test and resistance to fatigue cracking by using repeated load indirect tensile test. Carbon fiber exhibited consistency in results and as such it was observed that the addition of fiber does affect the properties of bituminous mixtures, i.e. an increase in its stability and decrease in the flow value as well as an increase in voids in the mix. Results indicate that fibers have the potential to resist structural distress in pavement, in the wake of growing traffic loads and thus improve fatigue by increasing resistance to cracks or permanent deformation. On the whole, the results show that the addition of carbon fiber will improve some of the mechanical properties like fatigue and deformation in the flexible pavement. (author)

  1. Lignocellulosic fiber reinforced rubber composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available polymerization reaction using Zieglar-Natta- hetergenous catalyst. The important components of NR are given in Table I. Lignocellulosic Fiber Reinforced Rubber Composites -253- Figure 1. Structure of natural rubber NR has a very uniform.... Grafting a second polymer onto the NR backbone Grafting is mostly carried out using vinyl monomers like methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene. The commercial available grafted copolymer of NR with poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is Heveaplus MG...

  2. Adolescent-specific patterns of behavior and neural activity during social reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca M; Somerville, Leah H; Li, Jian; Ruberry, Erika J; Powers, Alisa; Mehta, Natasha; Dyke, Jonathan; Casey, B J

    2014-06-01

    Humans are sophisticated social beings. Social cues from others are exceptionally salient, particularly during adolescence. Understanding how adolescents interpret and learn from variable social signals can provide insight into the observed shift in social sensitivity during this period. The present study tested 120 participants between the ages of 8 and 25 years on a social reinforcement learning task where the probability of receiving positive social feedback was parametrically manipulated. Seventy-eight of these participants completed the task during fMRI scanning. Modeling trial-by-trial learning, children and adults showed higher positive learning rates than did adolescents, suggesting that adolescents demonstrated less differentiation in their reaction times for peers who provided more positive feedback. Forming expectations about receiving positive social reinforcement correlated with neural activity within the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum across age. Adolescents, unlike children and adults, showed greater insular activity during positive prediction error learning and increased activity in the supplementary motor cortex and the putamen when receiving positive social feedback regardless of the expected outcome, suggesting that peer approval may motivate adolescents toward action. While different amounts of positive social reinforcement enhanced learning in children and adults, all positive social reinforcement equally motivated adolescents. Together, these findings indicate that sensitivity to peer approval during adolescence goes beyond simple reinforcement theory accounts and suggest possible explanations for how peers may motivate adolescent behavior.

  3. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  4. Tooling with reinforced elastomeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musch, G.; Bishop, W.

    During vacuum bag/autoclave processing of thermosetting advanced composite prepregs, problems often develop with the pressure distribution on the composite component. These problems can result in local variations in finished component thickness, shape, resin/fiber ratio and void content and lead to rejection of the part or make it necessary to carry out expensive and time consuming rework. These pressure distributions problems are discussed and the key difficulty of bridging of composite lay-ups in female corner zones is examined. Conventional, unreinforced elastomeric tooling concepts designed to overcome these pressure distribution problems are reviewed, and, working from the shortcomings associated with these techniques, a set of requirements is established for improved elastomeric tooling. Reinforced elastomeric tooling based on AIRPAD polyacrylic rubber is shown to meet these performance requirements and the overall concept is presented, together with a detailed examination of the key elements of this form of tooling. Basic design quidelines are given for reinforced elastomeric tooling, and tooling concepts for more complex applications are discussed. Finally, two practical applications of the reinforced elastomeric tooling concept are described and examined in detail to fully illustrate the techniques involved.

  5. Stress modulates reinforcement learning in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighthall, Nichole R; Gorlick, Marissa A; Schoeke, Andrej; Frank, Michael J; Mather, Mara

    2013-03-01

    Animal research and human neuroimaging studies indicate that stress increases dopamine levels in brain regions involved in reward processing, and stress also appears to increase the attractiveness of addictive drugs. The current study tested the hypothesis that stress increases reward salience, leading to more effective learning about positive than negative outcomes in a probabilistic selection task. Changes to dopamine pathways with age raise the question of whether stress effects on incentive-based learning differ by age. Thus, the present study also examined whether effects of stress on reinforcement learning differed for younger (age 18-34) and older participants (age 65-85). Cold pressor stress was administered to half of the participants in each age group, and salivary cortisol levels were used to confirm biophysiological response to cold stress. After the manipulation, participants completed a probabilistic learning task involving positive and negative feedback. In both younger and older adults, stress enhanced learning about cues that predicted positive outcomes. In addition, during the initial learning phase, stress diminished sensitivity to recent feedback across age groups. These results indicate that stress affects reinforcement learning in both younger and older adults and suggests that stress exerts different effects on specific components of reinforcement learning depending on their neural underpinnings.

  6. Repair of reinforced concrete beams using carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karzad Abdul Saboor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is part of an ongoing research on the behaviour of Reinforced Concrete (RC beams retrofitted with Externally Bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (EB-CFRP. A total of 5 large-scale rectangular beams, previously damaged due to shear loading, were repaired and strengthened with EB-CFRP and tested in this study. The major cracks of the damaged beams were injected with epoxy and the beams were wrapped with 2 layers of EB-CFRP discrete strips with 100mm width and 150mm center to center spacing. The beams were instrumented and tested to failure under three points loading in simply supported configuration. The measured test parameters were the beams deflection, maximum load, and the strain in the FRP strips. The failure mode was also observed. The results showed that applying EB-FRP strips increased the shear strength significantly relative to the original shear capacity of the beam. The results demonstrate that the application of EB-FRP strips used in this study is an effective repair method that can be used to repair and strengthen damaged beams.

  7. Concretes reinforced with acrylic fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amat, T.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on works, carried out at the IETcc, aimed to evaluate the behaviour of concretes reinforced with acrylic polyacrylonitrile fibres, and to study the influence they have on concrete physical and mechanical properties.

    El presente artículo está basado en trabajos realizados en el Instituto de Ciencias de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja, teniendo por objetivo evaluar el comportamiento de los hormigones reforzados con fibras acrílicas de poliacrilonitrilo, estudiando la influencia que tiene sobre sus propiedades físicas y mecánicas.

  8. Glassfibre Reinforced Concrete: a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, P. J. M.

    2017-09-01

    Introduced to construction about 40 years ago, GRC has come of age. It is now widely used all over the world and in quantities very likely greater than most of the other types of fibre reinforced concrete, although it remains less known. A brief history of GRC is followed by review of the basic make-up of this complex composite. Methods of production are identified, properties reviewed and modes of fracture which are unique to GRC are explained. Benefits which are already available and exploited by its users are summarised and the wide spectrum of current applications of GRC is outlined.

  9. Skew decks in reinforced concrete bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. ROCHA

    Full Text Available Abstract This research investigates reinforced concrete plates and shells with skew reinforcement whose directions are not aligned with the principal internal forces. Two normal forces, one tangential force, two bending moments, and one twisting moment are defined in the plane of the element. The analysis includes two shear forces in the transverse direction. The membrane and flexural forces are distributed between two panels at the upper and lower faces of the element. The smeared cracking model, equilibrium considerations, and plasticity approach yield the design equations of the skew reinforcement. The slab reinforcement of flat bridges, with and without lateral beams and girder bridges are compared considering different skew angles. The minimum reinforcement criteria of skew meshes are discussed. The results show that skew reinforcement yields higher steel and concrete stresses.

  10. Numerical modeling of reinforced foundation pads structures

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich; Tat’yannikov Daniil Andreevich

    2016-01-01

    The wide use of reinforced foundation pads is complicated because of the absence of technical rules and regulations on design of such structures. It is necessary to investigate the main parameters and regularities of such structures operation under loading. For this aim numerical study of the foundation was carried out, the parameters of which were improved by reinforced foundation pad. The numerical modeling of reinforced foundation pads was carried out in the Plaxis 2D for study of the basi...

  11. Amaranth as Reinforcement Source: A Rodent Study

    OpenAIRE

    González-Rivera, Ivette; Trejo, Diana; Saavedra, Nuria; Padrón, Erika; Silva, David; Carrillo, Paulina; Arevalo, Oscar; Castro, César; Sánchez-Castillo, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates amaranth as an alternative to reinforcers which are currently used in experimental laboratories with rodents. We compared some elements such as consumer preference, motivation and reinforcing value of three types of food (two types of pellets and amaranth) through four experiments with free radial maze and free consumption in 11 Wistar rats. The results show that amaranth has a high reinforcing value. Also, there was a preference for amaranth consumption compared with the...

  12. NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED POLYURETHANE RIGID FOAM

    OpenAIRE

    Seydibeyoglu, M.Ozgur; Demiroğlu, Sibel; Erdoğan, Fatma; Akın, Ecem; Ayvalık, Aynur; Karavana, Hüseyin Ata

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to prepare polyurethane foam reinforced with local Turkish natural resources. In this work, olive kernel and nutshell fibers were used for reinforcing the polyurethane foam. In order to characterize reinforced polyurethane samples, mechanical, chemical, thermal, and morphological methods were used. Mechanical properties of polyurethane foam were measured by compression test. With compression test, it was observed that compressive strength of polyurethane f...

  13. Reinforcement Learning in Repeated Portfolio Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Linan; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    How do people make investment decisions when they receive outcome feedback? We examined how well the standard mean-variance model and two reinforcement models predict people's portfolio decisions. The basic reinforcement model predicts a learning process that relies solely on the portfolio's overall return, whereas the proposed extended reinforcement model also takes the risk and covariance of the investments into account. The experimental results illustrate that people reacted sensitively to...

  14. Influence of fibre orientation on the performance of steel fibre-reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Grünewald, Steffen; Laranjeira de Oliveira, Filipe; Walraven, Joost; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Molins i Borrell, Climent

    2012-01-01

    The performance of fibre-reinforced materials in the hardened state depends on the material behaviour, the production method and influences related to the structure. The position and the orientation of fibres in a structure can differ from the homogenous distribution and the random orientation in a mixer. Due to the flow of the concrete, fibres are able to orient which makes the prediction of the structural behaviour of fibre-reinforced concrete more complex, but it also offers the potential ...

  15. Somatic and Reinforcement-Based Plasticity in the Initial Stages of Human Motor Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sidarta, Ananda; Vahdat, Shahabeddin; Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Ostry, David J.

    2016-01-01

    As one learns to dance or play tennis, the desired somatosensory state is typically unknown. Trial and error is important as motor behavior is shaped by successful and unsuccessful movements. As an experimental model, we designed a task in which human participants make reaching movements to a hidden target and receive positive reinforcement when successful. We identified somatic and reinforcement-based sources of plasticity on the basis of changes in functional connectivity using resting-stat...

  16. Procrastination in the pigeon: Can conditioned reinforcement increase the likelihood of human procrastination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Thomas R; Case, Jacob P; Andrews, Danielle M

    2017-11-29

    Procrastination is the tendency to put off initiation or completion of a task. Although people are typically known to procrastinate, recent research suggests that they sometimes "pre-crastinate" by initiating a task sooner than they need to (Rosenbaum et al. in Psychological Science, 25(7), 1487-1496, 2014). A similar finding of precrastination was reported by Wasserman and Brzykcy (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 1130-1134, 2015) with pigeons using a somewhat different procedure. In the present experiment, we used a procedure with pigeons that was more similar to the procedure used by Rosenbaum et al. Pigeons were given a choice between two sequences of events (concurrent chains). Choice of the procrastination chain resulted in color A, which 15-s later would change to color B and 5-s later resulted in reinforcement. Choice of the precrastination chain resulted in color C, which 5-s later would change to color D and 15-s later resulted in reinforcement. Thus, both chains led to reinforcement after 20 s. Results indicated that the pigeons procrastinated. That is, they preferred the 15-5 chain over the 5-15 chain. The results are consistent with Fantino's (Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12, 723-730, 1969) delay reduction theory, which posits that stimuli that signal a reduction in the delay to reinforcement, such as the 5-s stimulus that occurred immediately prior to reinforcement, serve as strong conditioned reinforcers and should be preferred. In support of this theory, the pigeons pecked most at the 5-s stimulus that led immediately to reinforcement, indicating that it had become a strong conditioned reinforcer. The results suggest that delay reduction theory, a theory that emphasizes the attraction to stimuli that predict reinforcement with a short delay, also may contribute to human procrastination behavior because when task completion comes just before the deadline, it may become a stronger conditioned reinforcer than if task completion

  17. Harambee : Reinforcing African Voices through Collaboration ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Outputs. Papers. Harambee : reinforcing African voices through collaborative processes and technologies. Download PDF. Reports. OPA (Online Proposal Appraisal) for Harambee : technical report. Download PDF ...

  18. Reinforcement of RC structure by carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissi B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to the increased spending on building maintenance work and restoration of built works. In all cases, it is essential to carry out methods of reinforcement or maintenance of structural elements, following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. This research focuses on the calculation of the necessary reinforcement sections of carbon fiber for structural elements with reinforced concrete in order to improve their load bearing capacity and rigidity. The different results obtained reveal a considerable gain in resistance and deformation capacity of reinforced sections without significant increase in the weight of the rehabilitated elements.

  19. Methodology of shell structure reinforcement layout optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafrański, Tomasz; Małachowski, Jerzy; Damaziak, Krzysztof

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an optimization process of a reinforced shell diffuser intended for a small wind turbine (rated power of 3 kW). The diffuser structure consists of multiple reinforcement and metal skin. This kind of structure is suitable for optimization in terms of selection of reinforcement density, stringers cross sections, sheet thickness, etc. The optimisation approach assumes the reduction of the amount of work to be done between the optimization process and the final product design. The proposed optimization methodology is based on application of a genetic algorithm to generate the optimal reinforcement layout. The obtained results are the basis for modifying the existing Small Wind Turbine (SWT) design.

  20. Assessing preference and reinforcer effectiveness in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicars, Sara M; Miguel, Caio F; Sobie, Jennifer L

    2014-03-01

    The paired-stimulus (PS) preference assessment has been shown to be effective in assessing preference with animal subjects, including dogs; however, evaluations on whether preferred stimuli would also function as reinforcers are lacking. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of the PS preference assessment as a predictor of reinforcer effectiveness in eight dogs. The assessment was followed by concurrent and progressive ratio schedules to evaluate the reinforcer efficacy of food items. Results showed that the preference assessment predicted reinforcer efficacy for all subjects. Benefits of using this assessment with dogs are discussed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Intranasal oxytocin enhances socially-reinforced learning in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Parr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. One hypothesis for these deficits is that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to attend to social cues because those cues are not implicitly rewarding. Therefore, any drug that could enhance the rewarding quality of social stimuli could have a profound impact on the treatment of ASD, and other social disorders. Oxytocin (OT is a neuropeptide that has been effective in enhancing social cognition and social reward in humans. The present study examined the ability of OT to selectively enhance learning after social compared to nonsocial reward in rhesus monkeys, an important species for modeling the neurobiology of social behavior in humans. Monkeys were required to learn an implicit visual matching task after receiving either intranasal (IN OT or Placebo (saline. Correct trials were rewarded with the presentation of positive and negative social (play faces/threat faces or nonsocial (banana/cage locks stimuli, plus food. Incorrect trials were not rewarded. Results demonstrated a strong effect of socially-reinforced learning, monkeys’ performed significantly better when reinforced with social versus nonsocial stimuli. Additionally, socially-reinforced learning was significantly better and occurred faster after IN-OT compared to placebo treatment. Performance in the IN-OT, but not Placebo, condition was also significantly better when the reinforcement stimuli were emotionally positive compared to negative facial expressions. These data support the hypothesis that OT may function to enhance prosocial behavior in primates by increasing the rewarding quality of emotionally positive, social compared to emotionally negative or nonsocial images. These data also support the use of the rhesus monkey as a model for exploring the neurobiological basis of social behavior and its impairment.

  2. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J; Daunizeau, Jean; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2009-07-29

    This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  3. Reinforcement learning or active inference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Friston

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the need for reinforcement learning or control theory when optimising behaviour. We show that it is fairly simple to teach an agent complicated and adaptive behaviours using a free-energy formulation of perception. In this formulation, agents adjust their internal states and sampling of the environment to minimize their free-energy. Such agents learn causal structure in the environment and sample it in an adaptive and self-supervised fashion. This results in behavioural policies that reproduce those optimised by reinforcement learning and dynamic programming. Critically, we do not need to invoke the notion of reward, value or utility. We illustrate these points by solving a benchmark problem in dynamic programming; namely the mountain-car problem, using active perception or inference under the free-energy principle. The ensuing proof-of-concept may be important because the free-energy formulation furnishes a unified account of both action and perception and may speak to a reappraisal of the role of dopamine in the brain.

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Adolescent Reinforcement Survey Schedule-Alcohol Use Version with College Student Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Kevin A; Greenfield, Brenna L; Ladd, Benjamin O

    2016-06-06

    Behavioral economic theories of drinking posit that the reinforcing value of engaging in activities with versus without alcohol influences drinking behavior. Measures of the reinforcement value of drugs and alcohol have been used in previous research, but little work has examined the psychometric properties of these measures. The present study aims to evaluate the factor structure, test-retest reliability, and concurrent validity of an alcohol-only version of the Adolescent Reinforcement Survey Schedule (ARSS-AUV). A sample of 157 college student drinkers completed the ARSS-AUV at two time points 2-3 days apart. Test-retest reliability, hierarchical factor analysis, and correlations with other drinking measures were examined. Single, unidimensional general factors accounted for a majority of the variance in alcohol and alcohol-free reinforcement items. Residual factors emerged that typically represented alcohol or alcohol-free reinforcement while doing activities with friends, romantic or sexual partners, and family members. Individual ARSS-AUV items had fair-to-good test-retest reliability, while general and residual factors had excellent test-retest reliability. General alcohol reinforcement and alcohol reinforcement from friends and romantic partners were positively correlated with past-year alcohol consumption, heaviest drinking episode, and alcohol-related negative consequences. Alcohol-free reinforcement indices were unrelated to alcohol use or consequences. The ARSS-AUV appears to demonstrate good reliability and mixed concurrent validity among college student drinkers. The instrument may provide useful information about alcohol reinforcement from various activities and people and could provide clinically-relevant information for prevention and treatment programs.

  5. A multicomponent approach to thinning reinforcer delivery during noncontingent reinforcement schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Sarah K; Grauerholz-Fisher, Emma; Peters, Kerri P; Vollmer, Timothy R

    2018-01-01

    We evaluated a noncontingent reinforcement procedure that involved initially providing three subjects with signaled, continuous access to the functional reinforcer for aggression and slowly increasing the amount of time subjects were exposed to the signaled unavailability of the reinforcer. Additionally, alternative potential reinforcers were available throughout the sessions. Results showed immediate and substantial reductions in aggression for all three subjects. The clinical utility of this intervention is discussed, and future research directions are recommended. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  6. Epidemiology of Sports-Related Concussions in National Collegiate Athletic Association Athletes From 2009-2010 to 2013-2014: Symptom Prevalence, Symptom Resolution Time, and Return-to-Play Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Erin B; Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Covassin, Tracey

    2016-01-01

    Limited data exist among collegiate student-athletes on the epidemiology of sports-related concussion (SRC) outcomes, such as symptoms, symptom resolution time, and return-to-play time. This study used the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) to describe the epidemiology of SRC outcomes in 25 collegiate sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. SRC data from the NCAA ISP during the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years were analyzed regarding symptoms, time to resolution of symptoms, and time to return to play. Findings were also stratified by sex in sex-comparable sports (ie, ice hockey, soccer, basketball, lacrosse, baseball/softball) and whether SRCs were reported as recurrent. Of the 1670 concussions reported during the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years, an average (±SD) of 5.29 ± 2.94 concussion symptoms were reported, with the most common being headache (92.2%) and dizziness (68.9%). Most concussions had symptoms resolve within 1 week (60.1%); however, 6.2% had a symptom resolution time of over 4 weeks. Additionally, 8.9% of concussions required over 4 weeks before return to play. The proportion of SRCs that required at least 1 week before return to play increased from 42.7% in 2009-2010 to 70.2% in 2013-2014 (linear trend, P concussions in male athletes included amnesia and disorientation; a larger proportion of concussions in female athletes included headache, excess drowsiness, and nausea/vomiting. A total of 151 SRCs (9.0%) were reported as recurrent. The average number of symptoms reported with recurrent SRCs (5.99 ± 3.43) was greater than that of nonrecurrent SRCs (5.22 ± 2.88; P = .01). A greater proportion of recurrent SRCs also resulted in a long symptom resolution time (14.6% vs 5.4%, respectively; P concussion management practices in which team medical staff members withhold players from participation longer to ensure symptom resolution. Concussion symptoms may differ by sex and recurrence. Future

  7. Structural Effects of Reinforced Concrete Beam Due to Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Hamidun Mohd; Idris, Nur'ain; Noor, Nurazuwa Md; Sarpin, Norliana; Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah

    2018-03-01

    Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete is one of the main issues among construction stakeholders. The main consequences of steel corrosion include loss of cross section of steel area, generation of expansive pressure which caused cracking of concrete, spalling and delaminating of the concrete cover. Thus, it reduces the bond strength between the steel reinforcing bar and concrete, and deteriorating the strength of the structure. The objective of this study is to investigate the structural effects of corrosion damage on the performance of reinforced concrete beam. A series of corroded reinforced concrete beam with a corrosion rate of 0%, 20% and 40% of rebar corrosion is used in parametric study to assess the influence of different level of corrosion rate to the structural performance. As a result, the used of interface element in the finite element modelling predicted the worst case of corrosion analysis since cracks is induced and generate at this surface. On the other hand, a positive linear relationship was sketched between the increase of expansive pressure and the corrosion rate. Meanwhile, the gradient of the graph is decreased with the increase of steel bar diameter. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of the structure where the higher corrosion rate generates a higher stress concentration at the mid span of the beam. This study could predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete beam under the corrosion using the finite element analysis. The experimental validation is needed on the next stage to investigate the quantitative relation between the corrosion rate and its influence on the mechanical properties.

  8. Learning alternative movement coordination patterns using reinforcement feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Hsiang; Denomme, Amber; Ranganathan, Rajiv

    2018-03-13

    One of the characteristic features of the human motor system is redundancy-i.e., the ability to achieve a given task outcome using multiple coordination patterns. However, once participants settle on using a specific coordination pattern, the process of learning to use a new alternative coordination pattern to perform the same task is still poorly understood. Here, using two experiments, we examined this process of how participants shift from one coordination pattern to another using different reinforcement schedules. Participants performed a virtual reaching task, where they moved a cursor to different targets positioned on the screen. Our goal was to make participants use a coordination pattern with greater trunk motion, and to this end, we provided reinforcement by making the cursor disappear if the trunk motion during the reach did not cross a specified threshold value. In Experiment 1, we compared two reinforcement schedules in two groups of participants-an abrupt group, where the threshold was introduced immediately at the beginning of practice; and a gradual group, where the threshold was introduced gradually with practice. Results showed that both abrupt and gradual groups were effective in shifting their coordination patterns to involve greater trunk motion, but the abrupt group showed greater retention when the reinforcement was removed. In Experiment 2, we examined the basis of this advantage in the abrupt group using two additional control groups. Results showed that the advantage of the abrupt group was because of a greater number of practice trials with the desired coordination pattern. Overall, these results show that reinforcement can be successfully used to shift coordination patterns, which has potential in the rehabilitation of movement disorders.

  9. Structural Effects of Reinforced Concrete Beam Due to Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Noh Hamidun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete is one of the main issues among construction stakeholders. The main consequences of steel corrosion include loss of cross section of steel area, generation of expansive pressure which caused cracking of concrete, spalling and delaminating of the concrete cover. Thus, it reduces the bond strength between the steel reinforcing bar and concrete, and deteriorating the strength of the structure. The objective of this study is to investigate the structural effects of corrosion damage on the performance of reinforced concrete beam. A series of corroded reinforced concrete beam with a corrosion rate of 0%, 20% and 40% of rebar corrosion is used in parametric study to assess the influence of different level of corrosion rate to the structural performance. As a result, the used of interface element in the finite element modelling predicted the worst case of corrosion analysis since cracks is induced and generate at this surface. On the other hand, a positive linear relationship was sketched between the increase of expansive pressure and the corrosion rate. Meanwhile, the gradient of the graph is decreased with the increase of steel bar diameter. Furthermore, the analysis shows that there is a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of the structure where the higher corrosion rate generates a higher stress concentration at the mid span of the beam. This study could predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete beam under the corrosion using the finite element analysis. The experimental validation is needed on the next stage to investigate the quantitative relation between the corrosion rate and its influence on the mechanical properties.

  10. Punching strength of reinforced concrete flat slabs without shear reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. P. Sacramento

    Full Text Available Punching strength is a critical point in the design of flat slabs and due to the lack of a theoretical method capable of explaining this phenomenon, empirical formulations presented by codes of practice are still the most used method to check the bearing capacity of slab-column connections. This paper discusses relevant aspects of the development of flat slabs, the factors that influence the punching resistance of slabs without shear reinforcement and makes comparisons between the experimental results organized in a database with 74 slabs carefully selected with theoretical results using the recommendations of ACI 318, EUROCODE 2 and NBR 6118 and also through the Critical Shear Crack Theory, presented by Muttoni (2008 and incorporated the new fib Model Code (2010.

  11. Seismic Behavior of Substandard RC Columns Retrofitted with Embedded Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polymer (AFRP Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin C. Seyhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many existing reinforced concrete structures were constructed with substandard characteristics. Low quality concrete, poor transverse reinforcement details and insufficient flexural strength are among the most common deficiencies. While substandard structures are in need of retrofitting, particularly in seismic areas, problems such as high costs and disturbance to occupants are major obstacles for retrofit interventions. Fiber reinforced polymers can provide feasible retrofit solutions with minimum disturbance to occupants. In this study, the basic aim is to investigate the flexural seismic performance of substandard reinforced concrete columns retrofitted with embedded longitudinal fiber reinforced polymer reinforcement without increasing the original dimensions of the columns. In the experimental study, the reference and retrofitted columns were tested under constant vertical and reversed cyclic lateral loads. Three different connection methods of aramid fiber reinforced polymer reinforcement to the footing were investigated experimentally. A significant enhancement was obtained in lateral flexural strength through the proposed retrofitting method. Furthermore, it was observed that the cyclic lateral drift capacities of the retrofitted columns were as high as 3%, which can be deemed as quite satisfactory against seismic actions. The comparison of the experimental data with analytical calculations revealed that a conventional design approach assuming composite action between concrete and fiber reinforced polymer reinforcement can be used for flexural retrofit design. Experimental results also demonstrated that strain limit for longitudinal fiber reinforced polymer (FRP reinforcement should be remarkably lower in case of reversed cyclic loading conditions.

  12. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened in bending with carbon fiber reinforced polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. VIEIRA

    Full Text Available The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP has been widely used for the reinforcement of concrete structures due to its practicality and versatility in application, low weight, high tensile strength and corrosion resistance. Some construction companies use CFRP in flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, but without anchor systems. Therefore, the aim of this study is analyze, through an experimental program, the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams flexural strengthened by CFRP without anchor fibers, varying steel reinforcement and the amount of carbon fibers reinforcement layers. Thus, two groups of reinforced concrete beams were produced with the same geometric feature but with different steel reinforcement. Each group had five beams: one that is not reinforced with CFRP (reference and other reinforced with two, three, four and five layers of carbon fibers. Beams were designed using a computational routine developed in MAPLE software and subsequently tested in 4-point points flexural test up to collapse. Experimental tests have confirmed the effectiveness of the reinforcement, ratifying that beams collapse at higher loads and lower deformation as the amount of fibers in the reinforcing layers increased. However, the increase in the number of layers did not provide a significant increase in the performance of strengthened beams, indicating that it was not possible to take full advantage of strengthening applied due to the occurrence of premature failure mode in the strengthened beams for pullout of the cover that could have been avoided through the use of a suitable anchoring system for CFRP.

  13. Reinforcement learning and its application to Othello

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. van Wezel (Michiel); N.J.P. van Eck (Nees Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we describe reinforcement learning, a machine learning technique for solving sequential decision problems. We describe how reinforcement learning can be combined with function approximation to get approximate solutions for problems with very large state spaces. One such

  14. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Reinforced concrete structures during their exploitation may be exposed to the common action of carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. Therefore, the related data seem to be interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the structures is the object of interest. This.

  15. Degradation of Waterfront Reinforced Concrete Structures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact , tension, compressive or fatigue cracking, degradation of waterfront structures are caused by mainly ... International, 2002). Corrosion of steel reinforcement contributes greatly to the deterioration of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion products accompany the .... selected piers and masonry walls have shown a.

  16. PROPERTIES OF CHITIN REINFORCES COMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    modulus of chitin reinforced (meth) acrylic resin varied between 1.2 and 5 GPa while the tensile strength was between 30 and 70 MPa depending on the number of the repeating units of acrylic acid resin. The mechanical properties of CHW reinforced poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) composites films with or without heat treatment ...

  17. Conditioned reinforcement and information theory reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Cunningham, Paul

    2015-03-01

    The idea that stimuli might function as conditioned reinforcers because of the information they convey about primary reinforcers has a long history in the study of learning. However, formal application of information theory to conditioned reinforcement has been largely abandoned in modern theorizing because of its failures with respect to observing behavior. In this paper we show how recent advances in the application of information theory to Pavlovian conditioning offer a novel approach to conditioned reinforcement. The critical feature of this approach is that calculations of information are based on reductions of uncertainty about expected time to primary reinforcement signaled by a conditioned reinforcer. Using this approach, we show that previous failures of information theory with observing behavior can be remedied, and that the resulting framework produces predictions similar to Delay Reduction Theory in both observing-response and concurrent-chains procedures. We suggest that the similarity of these predictions might offer an analytically grounded reason for why Delay Reduction Theory has been a successful theory of conditioned reinforcement. Finally, we suggest that the approach provides a formal basis for the assertion that conditioned reinforcement results from Pavlovian conditioning and may provide an integrative approach encompassing both domains. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Durability of fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1996-01-01

    The planned research will indicate, whether fibre reinforced concrete has better or worse durability than normal concrete. Durability specimens will be measured on cracked as well as uncracked specimens. Also the pore structure in the concrete will be characterized.Keywords: Fibre reinforced...... concrete, durability, pore structure, mechanical load...

  19. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reinforced concrete structures during their exploitation may be exposed to the common action of carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. Therefore, the related data seem to be interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the structures is the object of interest. This fact was a ...

  20. Reinforcement learning and human behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteingart, Hanan; Loewenstein, Yonatan

    2014-04-01

    The dominant computational approach to model operant learning and its underlying neural activity is model-free reinforcement learning (RL). However, there is accumulating behavioral and neuronal-related evidence that human (and animal) operant learning is far more multifaceted. Theoretical advances in RL, such as hierarchical and model-based RL extend the explanatory power of RL to account for some of these findings. Nevertheless, some other aspects of human behavior remain inexplicable even in the simplest tasks. Here we review developments and remaining challenges in relating RL models to human operant learning. In particular, we emphasize that learning a model of the world is an essential step before or in parallel to learning the policy in RL and discuss alternative models that directly learn a policy without an explicit world model in terms of state-action pairs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural Behavior of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP) Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovitigala, Thilan

    The main challenge for civil engineers is to provide sustainable, environmentally friendly and financially feasible structures to the society. Finding new materials such as fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) material that can fulfill the above requirements is a must. FRP material was expensive and it was limited to niche markets such as space shuttles and air industry in the 1960s. Over the time, it became cheaper and spread to other industries such as sporting goods in the 1980-1990, and then towards the infrastructure industry. Design and construction guidelines are available for carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), aramid fiber reinforced polymer (AFRP) and glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and they are currently used in structural applications. Since FRP is linear elastic brittle material, design guidelines for the steel reinforcement are not valid for FRP materials. Corrosion of steel reinforcement affects the durability of the concrete structures. FRP reinforcement is identified as an alternative to steel reinforcement in corrosive environments. Although basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) has many advantages over other FRP materials, but limited studies have been done. These studies didn't include larger BFRP bar diameters that are mostly used in practice. Therefore, larger beam sizes with larger BFRP reinforcement bar diameters are needed to investigate the flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams. Also, shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams was not yet studied. Experimental testing of mechanical properties and bond strength of BFRP bars and flexural and shear behavior of BFRP reinforced concrete beams are needed to include BFRP reinforcement bars in the design codes. This study mainly focuses on the use of BFRP bars as internal reinforcement. The test results of the mechanical properties of BFRP reinforcement bars, the bond strength of BFRP reinforcement bars, and the flexural and shear behavior of concrete beams

  2. Reinforcement Learning State-of-the-Art

    CERN Document Server

    Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together the...

  3. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1998-01-01

    Durability studies are carried out at BKM as part of the research project "Design Methods for Fibre Reinforced Concrete" (FRC) involving BKM, The Concrete Research Center at DTI, Building Technology at Aalborg University, Rambøll, 4K-Beton and Rasmussen & Schiøtz. Concrete beams with or without...... fibre reinforcement are exposed to a combination of mechanical and environmental load to indicate whether fibre reinforcement will improve the durability of cracked concrete structures. Secondly, it is the aim to identify important mechanisms for the effect of the fibre reinforcement on the durability......) and polypropylene fibres (PP) are used in the concrete beams as well as main reinforcement. Results of the durability tests on cracked FRC-beams are compared with results for uncracked FRC-beams and beams without fibres....

  4. STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE OF DEGRADED REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.I.; Miller, C.A.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Bezler, P.; Chang, T.Y.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a study to evaluate, in probabilistic terms, the effects of age-related degradation on the structural performance of reinforced concrete members at nuclear power plants. The paper focuses on degradation of reinforced concrete flexural members and shear walls due to the loss of steel reinforcing area and loss of concrete area (cracking/spalling). Loss of steel area is typically caused by corrosion while cracking and spalling can be caused by corrosion of reinforcing steel, freeze-thaw, or aggressive chemical attack. Structural performance in the presence of uncertainties is depicted by a fragility (or conditional probability of failure). The effects of degradation on the fragility of reinforced concrete members are calculated to assess the potential significance of various levels of degradation. The fragility modeling procedures applied to degraded concrete members can be used to assess the effects of degradation on plant risk and can lead to the development of probability-based degradation acceptance limits

  5. Long-term performance of GFRP reinforcement : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Significant research has been performed on glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) concrete reinforcement. : This research has shown that GFRP reinforcement exhibits high strengths, is lightweight, can decrease time of : construction, and is corrosion ...

  6. Systematic Review of Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Without Extinction for Individuals With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaul, Hannah L; Neely, Leslie C

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature on differential reinforcement of alternative behavior procedures without extinction for individuals with autism. Using predetermined inclusion criteria, a total of 10 studies were included and summarized in terms of the following: (a) participant characteristics (e.g., sex, age, and diagnosis), (b) treatment setting, (c) problem behavior, (d) function, (e) alternative behavior, (f) intervention, (g) outcomes, and (h) conclusiveness of evidence. Of the 10 studies, nine demonstrated positive effects and one mixed effects. Five studies successfully reduced problem behavior by manipulating different reinforcement parameters (magnitude, immediacy, and quality) and four manipulated the schedule of reinforcement. One study had mixed results with two of the three participants requiring extinction. The findings of this review suggest that variations of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior interventions without an extinction component may be considered promising practices for the treatment of challenging behavior in individuals with autism.

  7. Simulation of pre-breakdown phase of electrical discharge in reinforced concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, N. S.; Yudin, A. S.; Voitenko, N. V.

    2017-05-01

    The application of an electrical discharge technology for destructive recycling of the reinforced concrete is considered. Its main advantages, in comparison with the mechanical methods, are that the electrical discharge channel acting as a rock-breaking tool has an unlimited service life, and a lifetime of the electrode systems is much higher. The physical and mathematical model of the discharge development is described. The simulation results have shown that the discharge channel propagation velocity and the trajectory depend on the reinforcement locality and the voltage amplitude. The voltage affects the average speed of the discharge structure development which can reach the value of up to υ=5·103 m/s. It is also shown that the reinforcing elements located between the electrodes attract the growing discharge structure. The lower the distance between the vertical axis of the high voltage electrode and the metal reinforcement position, the more probability of the discharge channel orientation towards this element.

  8. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  9. Functional impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, Luke D; Jackson, Chris J

    2006-02-01

    In this article, we attempt to integrate Dickman's (1990) descriptive concept of Functional Impulsivity (FI) with Gray's (1970, 1991) Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST). Specifically, we consider that FI bears great conceptual similarity to Gray's concept of reward-reactivity, which is thought to be caused by the combined effects of a Behavioral Activation System (BAS) and Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS). In our first study, we examine the construct validity and structural correlates of FI. Results indicate that FI is related positively to measures of BAS and Extraversion, negatively to measures of BIS and Neuroticism, and is separate from Psychoticism and typical trait Impulsivity, which Dickman calls Dysfunctional Impulsivity (DI). In our second study, we use a go/no-go discrimination task to examine the relationship between FI and response bias under conditions of rewarding and punishing feedback. Results indicate that FI, along with two measures of BAS, predicted the development of a response bias for the rewarded alternative. In comparison, high DI appeared to reflect indifference toward either reward or punishment. We consider how these findings might reconcile the perspectives of Gray and Dickman and help clarify the broader understanding of Impulsivity.

  10. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...

  11. Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures Optimal reinforcing of reticular structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Santiago Mejía

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of Genetic Algorithms (GA and Finite Element Analysis (FEA to solve a structural optimisation problem on reticular plastic structures. Structural optimisation is used to modify the original shape by placing reinforcements at optimum locations. As a result, a reduction in the maximum stress by 14,70% for a structure with a final volume increase of 8,36% was achieved. This procedure solves the structural optimisation problem by adjusting the original mold and thereby avoiding the re-construction of a new one.Este artículo presenta una aplicación de Algoritmos Genéticos (GA y Análisis por Elementos Finitos (FEA a la solución de un problema de optimización estructural en estructuras reticulares plásticas. Optimización estructurales usada para modificar la forma original colocando refuerzos en posiciones óptimas. Como resultado se obtuvo una reducción en el esfuerzo máximo de 14,70% para una estructura cuyo volumen original aumento en 8,36%. Este procedimiento soluciona el problema de optimización estructural ajustando el molde original y evitando la manufactura de un nuevo molde.

  12. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  13. [Discussion on twirling reinforcing-reducing method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Te-Li

    2014-01-01

    The essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is discussed to provide theoretical guidance for clinical application of reinforcing-reducing method. Through retrospection on historical literature of twirling reinforcing-reducing method, records and explanatory notes are thoroughly explored. Several existing opinions are analyzed and explained for instance twirling method has connection with circulation direction of channels; twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot; twriling method is related to quantity of stimulus and operation time; twriling method belongs to spiral motion and so on. As a result, it is found that the key of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is the posture of needle-holding hand that defines three-dimensional motion. If twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot and so on, steric effects of lifting-thrusting movement that come along with twirling method could be ignored at the same time. It is that the essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is close to the principle of lifting-thrusting reinforcing-reducing method, enriching effect with slow insertion and fast withdrawal of needle while reducing effect with fast insertion and slow withdrawal, which is recorded in Miraculous Pivot: Nine needle and Twelve Yuan. With this principle as guide, manipulation could be avoided to become a mere formality and illusory metaphysics during clinical application of twirling reinforcing-reducing method.

  14. Strong reinforcing selection in a Texas wildflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Guerrero, Rafael F; Rausher, Mark D; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2014-09-08

    Reinforcement, the process of increased reproductive isolation due to selection against hybrids, is an important mechanism by which natural selection contributes to speciation [1]. Empirical studies suggest that reinforcement has generated reproductive isolation in many taxa (reviewed in [2-4]), and theoretical work shows it can act under broad selective conditions [5-11]. However, the strength of selection driving reinforcement has never been measured in nature. Here, we quantify the strength of reinforcing selection in the Texas wildflower Phlox drummondii using a strategy that weds a population genetic model with field data. Reinforcement in this system is caused by variation in two loci that affect flower color [12]. We quantify sharp clines in flower color where this species comes into contact with its congener, Phlox cuspidata. We develop a spatially explicit population genetic model for these clines based on the known genetics of flower color. We fit our model to the data using likelihood, and we searched parameter space using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. We find that selection on flower color genes generated by reinforcement is exceptionally strong. Our findings demonstrate that natural selection can play a decisive role in the evolution of reproductive isolation through the process of reinforcement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  16. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...... positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...

  17. FOAM CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT BY BASALT FIBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate that the foam concrete performance can be improved by dispersed reinforcement, including methods that involve basalt fibres. They address the results of the foam concrete modeling technology and assess the importance of technology-related parameters. Reinforcement efficiency criteria are also provided in the article. Dispersed reinforcement improves the plasticity of the concrete mix and reduces the settlement crack formation rate. Conventional reinforcement that involves metal laths and rods demonstrates its limited application in the production of concrete used for thermal insulation and structural purposes. Dispersed reinforcement is preferable. This technology contemplates the infusion of fibres into porous mixes. Metal, polymeric, basalt and glass fibres are used as reinforcing components. It has been identified that products reinforced by polypropylene fibres demonstrate substantial abradability and deformability rates even under the influence of minor tensile stresses due to the low adhesion strength of polypropylene in the cement matrix. The objective of the research was to develop the type of polypropylene of D500 grade that would demonstrate the operating properties similar to those of Hebel and Ytong polypropylenes. Dispersed reinforcement was performed by the basalt fibre. This project contemplates an autoclave-free technology to optimize the consumption of electricity. Dispersed reinforcement is aimed at the reduction of the block settlement in the course of hardening at early stages of their operation, the improvement of their strength and other operating properties. Reduction in the humidity rate of the mix is based on the plasticizing properties of fibres, as well as the application of the dry mineralization method. Selection of optimal parameters of the process-related technology was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 Software, developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The authors also

  18. Vicarious reinforcement learning signals when instructing others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Matthew A J; Lesage, Elise; Ramnani, Narender

    2015-02-18

    Reinforcement learning (RL) theory posits that learning is driven by discrepancies between the predicted and actual outcomes of actions (prediction errors [PEs]). In social environments, learning is often guided by similar RL mechanisms. For example, teachers monitor the actions of students and provide feedback to them. This feedback evokes PEs in students that guide their learning. We report the first study that investigates the neural mechanisms that underpin RL signals in the brain of a teacher. Neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) signal PEs when learning from the outcomes of one's own actions but also signal information when outcomes are received by others. Does a teacher's ACC signal PEs when monitoring a student's learning? Using fMRI, we studied brain activity in human subjects (teachers) as they taught a confederate (student) action-outcome associations by providing positive or negative feedback. We examined activity time-locked to the students' responses, when teachers infer student predictions and know actual outcomes. We fitted a RL-based computational model to the behavior of the student to characterize their learning, and examined whether a teacher's ACC signals when a student's predictions are wrong. In line with our hypothesis, activity in the teacher's ACC covaried with the PE values in the model. Additionally, activity in the teacher's insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex covaried with the predicted value according to the student. Our findings highlight that the ACC signals PEs vicariously for others' erroneous predictions, when monitoring and instructing their learning. These results suggest that RL mechanisms, processed vicariously, may underpin and facilitate teaching behaviors. Copyright © 2015 Apps et al.

  19. Lung Nodule Detection via Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death globally. As a preventive measure, the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommends annual screening of high risk individuals with low-dose computed tomography (CT. The resulting volume of CT scans from millions of people will pose a significant challenge for radiologists to interpret. To fill this gap, computer-aided detection (CAD algorithms may prove to be the most promising solution. A crucial first step in the analysis of lung cancer screening results using CAD is the detection of pulmonary nodules, which may represent early-stage lung cancer. The objective of this work is to develop and validate a reinforcement learning model based on deep artificial neural networks for early detection of lung nodules in thoracic CT images. Inspired by the AlphaGo system, our deep learning algorithm takes a raw CT image as input and views it as a collection of states, and output a classification of whether a nodule is present or not. The dataset used to train our model is the LIDC/IDRI database hosted by the lung nodule analysis (LUNA challenge. In total, there are 888 CT scans with annotations based on agreement from at least three out of four radiologists. As a result, there are 590 individuals having one or more nodules, and 298 having none. Our training results yielded an overall accuracy of 99.1% [sensitivity 99.2%, specificity 99.1%, positive predictive value (PPV 99.1%, negative predictive value (NPV 99.2%]. In our test, the results yielded an overall accuracy of 64.4% (sensitivity 58.9%, specificity 55.3%, PPV 54.2%, and NPV 60.0%. These early results show promise in solving the major issue of false positives in CT screening of lung nodules, and may help to save unnecessary follow-up tests and expenditures.

  20. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  1. Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelius, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    combinations of reinforcement and for variable slenderness ratios. Theoretical approaches will be evaluated and compared with the test results of several test series. The load bearing capacity of shear reinforced aircrete is highly dependent on the anchorage and bond behaviour of the shear reinforcement......Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different...

  2. Fatigue Performance of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jun, Zhang; Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to obtain basic data of fibre reinforced concrete under fatigue load and to set up a theoretical model based on micromechanics. In this study, the bridging stress in fiber reinforced concrete under cyclic tensile load was investigted in details. The damage...... mechanism of the interface between fiber and matrix was proposed and a rational model given. Finally, the response of a steel fiber reinforced concrete beam under fatigue loading was predicted based on this model and compared with experimental results....

  3. Structural response of reinforced concrete slabs to impulsive loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florence, A.L.

    1977-01-01

    The structure treated here is a clamped circular slab of reinforced concrete. The loading is a rectangular pulse uniformly distributed over a central area. The practical value of this problem is that it probably represents a most severe loading case for bending response among more realistic cases, because it replaces the local loaded area with a circular area at the slab center, and because it replaces the pulse with a rectangular pulse of the same peak pressure and impulse. In the theoretical treatment the pulse is assumed to produce plastic deformations large enough to neglect elastic deformation but small enough to neglect membrane action. Yielding of the reinforced concrete slab is assumed to be governed by the Johansen criterion and the associated flow rule. For simplicity, the analysis is restricted to isotropic slabs with top and bottom steel reinforcement arranged to provide the same yield moment magnitude for positive and negative curvature changes. A consequence of the assumed rigid-perfectly plastic behavior is that the deformation modes may be considered as simple mechanism governed by a yield circle. Moreover, the yield circle is stationary while the constant pressure is being applied and expands to the support once the pressure is removed. After the yield circle has arrived at the support, the remaining deformation occurs in the static collapse mode. The principal results are explicit simple formulas for permanent central deflection in terms of pressure, duration, loaded area radius, and plate properties (radius, density, yield moment)

  4. Alprazolam-reinforced medication use in outpatients with anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roache, J D; Stanley, M A; Creson, D R; Shah, N N; Meisch, R A

    1997-05-02

    The reinforcing effects of alprazolam were investigated in 14 patients who had generalized anxiety or panic disorder, but were not current users/abusers of other psychoactive substances. Using a double-blind outpatient choice procedure, color-coded alprazolam (0.5 mg) and placebo capsules were provided to patients for use 'as needed' in the treatment of anxiety symptoms. Comparisons of alprazolam and placebo during a 2 week sampling period in which placebo and alprazolam were available sequentially revealed no significant differences on measures of medication usage or anxiety levels, although alprazolam did increase subjective ratings of drug effects side effects. During a 4 week choice period, alprazolam was strongly preferred over placebo in 11 out of 14 patients indicating that alprazolam functioned as a reinforcer. Medication usage ranged from zero to 4.0 mg alprazolam in a day. Variations in daily medication-use were positively correlated with anxiety level fluctuations for a majority of patients. For a majority of patients, the results indicate that alprazolam functioned as a reinforcer without accompanying signs of abuse or addiction.

  5. Polymer reinforcement of cement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swamy, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    In the last couple of decades several cement- and concrete-based composites have come into prominence. Of these, cement-polymer composites, like cement-fibre composites, have been recognised as very promising, and considerable research and development on their properties, fabrication methods and application are in progress. Of the three types of concrete materials which incorporate polymers to form composites, polymer impregnated concrete forms a major development in which hardened concrete is impregnated with a liquid monomer which is subsequently polymerized to form a rigid polymer network in the pores of the parent material. In this first part of the extensive review of the polymer reinforcement of cement systems, the process technology of the various monomer impregnation techniques and the properties of the impregnated composite are assessed critically. It is shown that the high durability and superior performance of polymer impregnated concrete can provide an economic and competitive alternative in in situ strengthening, and in other areas where conventional concrete can only at best provide adequate performance. The review includes a section on radiation-induced polymerization. (author)

  6. Elastomer Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jared L.; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan

    2009-01-01

    Elastomers are reinforced with functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) giving them high-breaking strain levels and low densities. Cross-linked elastomers are prepared using amine-terminated, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), with an average molecular weight of 5,000 daltons, and a functionalized SWNT. Cross-link densities, estimated on the basis of swelling data in toluene (a dispersing solvent) indicated that the polymer underwent cross-linking at the ends of the chains. This thermally initiated cross-linking was found to occur only in the presence of the aryl alcohol functionalized SWNTs. The cross-link could have been via a hydrogen-bonding mechanism between the amine and the free hydroxyl group, or via attack of the amine on the ester linage to form an amide. Tensile properties examined at room temperature indicate a three-fold increase in the tensile modulus of the elastomer, with rupture and failure of the elastomer occurring at a strain of 6.5.

  7. Fiber reinforced polymer bridge decks : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A number of researchers have addressed the use of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) deck as a replacement solution for deteriorated bridge decks made of traditional materials. The use of new, advanced materials such as FRP is advantageous when the bridg...

  8. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available developed strategy offering promising results is to reinforce epoxy matrices with nano-sized organic and inorganic particles such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibres (CNFs), nanoclays, metal oxide nanoparticles, etc. and make new materials...

  9. Vegetated Reinforced Soil Slope Streambank Erosion Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sotir, Robbin B; Fischenich, J. C

    2003-01-01

    ...). The VRSS system is useful for the immediate repair or prevention of deeper failures providing a structurally sound system with soil reinforcement, drainage and erosion control typically on steepened...

  10. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for 4-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focused ...

  11. Corrosion resistant alloys for reinforced concrete [2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Deterioration of concrete bridges because of reinforcing steel corrosion has been recognized for four-plus decades as a major technical and economic challenge for the United States. As an option for addressing this problem, renewed interest has focus...

  12. Thin fiber and textile reinforced cementitious systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aldea, Corina-Maria

    2007-01-01

    This Special Publication (SP) contains ten papers which provide insight on the topics of state of the art of thin fiber and textile-reinforced cementitious systems both in academia and the industry...

  13. Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Delalibera, R. G.; Giongo, J. S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental prog...

  14. PUNISHMENT BY SD ASSOCIATED WITH FIXED-RATIO REINFORCEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMPSON, D M

    1965-05-01

    Two pigeons were trained with positive reinforcement on a multiple FR VI 2 schedule. The VI 2 component was held constant while the FR component was changed from ratios of 1 to 300. After responding had stabilized at each FR value, VI responses produced briefly either the fixed-ratio S(D) or a stimulus uncorrelated with either schedule component. Compared to the effects of the uncorrelated stimulus change, the fixed-ratio S(D) produced a decrease in VI responding proportional to the size of the FR requirement. It is concluded that stimuli associated with high FR schedules served as punishment for the ongoing behavior.

  15. Seismic Stability of Reinforced Soil Slopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzavara, I.; Zania, Varvara; Tsompanakis, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent decades increased research interest has been observed on the dynamic response and stability issues of earth walls and reinforced soil structures. The current study aims to provide an insight into the dynamic response of reinforced soil structures and the potential of the geosynthetics...... of the most significant parameters involved, such as the flexibility of the sliding system, the mechanical properties of the soil and of the geosynthetics material, the frequency content of the excitation and the interface shear strength....

  16. Rule Value Reinforcement Learning for Cognitive Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Child, C. H. T.; Stathis, K.

    2006-01-01

    RVRL (Rule Value Reinforcement Learning) is a new algorithm which extends an existing learning framework that models the environment of a situated agent using a probabilistic rule representation. The algorithm attaches values to learned rules by adapting reinforcement learning. Structure captured by the rules is used to form a policy. The resulting rule values represent the utility of taking an action if the rule`s conditions are present in the agent`s current percept. Advantages of the new f...

  17. Design Methods for Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil.......The present paper describes the outline of a research project on Fibre Reinforced Concrete (FRC) currently being carried out in Denmark under the supervision of Danish Council of Technology, Danish Technical Research Council and Danish Natural Science Research Counsil....

  18. Enhanced Experience Replay for Deep Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Reinforcement Learning Machine- learning algorithms can be broadly divided into “ supervised ” and “ unsupervised ” algorithms. Supervised algorithms rely on...other hand, unsupervised learning algorithms are more data-centric—usually trying to automatically find patterns or natural groupings in the data...Reinforcement learning is a particular unsupervised learning method that attempts to develop an optimal action policy by taking actions and observing

  19. Reinforced concrete wall under hydrogen detonation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarenheimo, A.

    2000-11-01

    The structural integrity of a reinforced concrete wall in the BWR reactor building under hydrogen detonation conditions has been analysed. Of particular interest is whether the containment integrity can be jeopardised by an external hydrogen detonation. The load carrying capacity of a reinforced concrete wall was studied. The detonation pressure loads were estimated with computerised hand calculations assuming a direct initiation of detonation and applying the strong explosion theory. The results can be considered as rough and conservative estimates for the first shock pressure impact induced by a reflecting detonation wave. Structural integrity may be endangered due to slow pressurisation or dynamic impulse loads associated with local detonations. The static pressure following the passage of a shock front may be relatively high, thus this static or slowly decreasing pressure after a detonation may damage the structure severely. The mitigating effects of the opening of a door on pressure history and structural response were also studied. The non-linear behaviour of the wall was studied under detonations corresponding a detonable hydrogen mass of 0.5 kg and 1.428 kg. Non-linear finite element analyses of the reinforced concrete structure were carried out by the ABAQUS/Explicit program. The reinforcement and its non-linear material behaviour and the tensile cracking of concrete were modelled. Reinforcement was defined as layers of uniformly spaced reinforcing bars in shell elements. In these studies the surrounding structures of the non-linearly modelled reinforced concrete wall were modelled using idealised boundary conditions. Especially concrete cracking and yielding of the reinforcement was monitored during the numerical simulation. (au)

  20. Oral hygiene indirect instruction and periodic reinforcements: effects on index plaque in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; dos Santos, Patrícia Aleixo; Baseggio, Wagner; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Garcia, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the indirect instruction and the influence of the periodic reinforcement on the plaque index in schoolchildren. Forty schoolchildren aged from 7 to 9 years old were selected from a public school. After determining the initial O'Leary Plaque Index all schoolchildren were submitted to a program for oral hygiene through indirect instruction -"The Smiling Robot". The schoolchildren were divided into 2 groups: with and without motivation reinforcement. The index plaque exam was performed in both groups after 30, 60 and 90 days of the educational program. Comparing the groups, the plaque index decreasing could be observed in the group with reinforcement with statistically significant difference. For the group with reinforcement, statistically significant difference among the evaluations was found. For the group without reinforcement, significant decrease in the plaque index was found after 30 days when compared to the first, third and fourth evaluations. The indirect instruction with "The Smiling Robot "promoted a positive initial impact on the decrease of plaque index in the schoolchildren. The periodic reinforcements showed more suitable results and significant reduction of the plaque index in the course of the evaluations.

  1. Learning to trade via direct reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J; Saffell, M

    2001-01-01

    We present methods for optimizing portfolios, asset allocations, and trading systems based on direct reinforcement (DR). In this approach, investment decision-making is viewed as a stochastic control problem, and strategies are discovered directly. We present an adaptive algorithm called recurrent reinforcement learning (RRL) for discovering investment policies. The need to build forecasting models is eliminated, and better trading performance is obtained. The direct reinforcement approach differs from dynamic programming and reinforcement algorithms such as TD-learning and Q-learning, which attempt to estimate a value function for the control problem. We find that the RRL direct reinforcement framework enables a simpler problem representation, avoids Bellman's curse of dimensionality and offers compelling advantages in efficiency. We demonstrate how direct reinforcement can be used to optimize risk-adjusted investment returns (including the differential Sharpe ratio), while accounting for the effects of transaction costs. In extensive simulation work using real financial data, we find that our approach based on RRL produces better trading strategies than systems utilizing Q-learning (a value function method). Real-world applications include an intra-daily currency trader and a monthly asset allocation system for the S&P 500 Stock Index and T-Bills.

  2. Replacing Relative Reinforcing Efficacy with Behavioral Economic Demand Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2006-01-01

    Relative reinforcing efficacy refers to the behavior-strengthening or maintaining property of a reinforcer when compared to that of another reinforcer. Traditional measures of relative reinforcing efficacy sometimes have led to discordant results across and within studies. By contrast, previous investigations have found traditional measures to be…

  3. Reinforcement Enhances Vigilance Among Children With ADHD: Comparisons to Typically Developing Children and to the Effects of Methylphenidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnik, Michelle G.; Hawk, Larry W.; Pelham, William E.; Waxmonsky, James G.; Rosch, Keri S.

    2014-01-01

    Sustained attention and reinforcement are posited as causal mechanisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), but their interaction has received little empirical study. In two studies, we examined the impact of performance-based reinforcement on sustained attention over time, or vigilance, among 9- to 12-year-old children. Study 1 demonstrated the expected vigilance deficit among children with ADHD (n=25; 12% female) compared to typically developing (TD) controls (n=33; 22% female) on a standard continuous performance task (CPT). During a subsequent visit, reinforcement improved attention more among children with ADHD than controls. Study 2 examined the separate and combined effects of reinforcement and acute methylphenidate (MPH) on CPT performance in children with ADHD (n=19; 21% female). Both reinforcement and MPH enhanced overall target detection and attenuated the vigilance decrement that occurred in no-reinforcement, placebo condition. Cross-study comparisons suggested that the combination of MPH and reinforcement eliminated the vigilance deficit in children with ADHD, normalizing sustained attention. This work highlights the clinically and theoretically interesting intersection of reinforcement and sustained attention. PMID:24931776

  4. Rumor spreading in online social networks by considering the bipolar social reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Li, Dandan; Tian, Zihao

    2016-04-01

    Considering the bipolar social reinforcement which includes positive and negative effects, in this paper we explore the rumor spreading dynamics in online social networks. By means of the generation function and cavity method developed from statistical physics of disordered system, the rumor spreading threshold can be theoretically drawn. Simulation results indicate that decreasing the positive reinforcement factor or increasing the negative reinforcement factor can suppress the rumor spreading effectively. By analyzing the topological properties of the real world social network, we find that the nodes with lower degree usually have smaller weight. However, the nodes with lower degree may have larger k-shell. In order to curb rumor spreading, some control strategies that are based on the nodes' degree, k-shell and weight are presented. By comparison, we show that controlling those nodes that have larger degree or weight are two effective strategies to prevent the rumor spreading.

  5. The cerebellum: A neural system for the study of reinforcement learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Swain

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In its strictest application, the term reinforcement learning refers to a computational approach to learning in which an agent (often a machine interacts with a mutable environment to maximize reward through trial and error. The approach borrows essentials from several fields, most notably Computer Science, Behavioral Neuroscience, and Psychology. At the most basic level, a neural system capable of mediating reinforcement learning must be able to acquire sensory information about the external environment and internal milieu (either directly or through connectivities with other brain regions, must be able to select a behavior to be executed, and must be capable of providing evaluative feedback about the success of that behavior. Given that Psychology informs us that reinforcers, both positive and negative, are stimuli or consequences that increase the probability that the immediately antecedent behavior will be repeated and that reinforcer strength or viability is modulated by the organism’s past experience with the reinforcer, its affect, and even the state of its muscles (e.g., eyes open or closed; it is the case that any neural system that supports reinforcement learning must also be sensitive to these same considerations. Once learning is established, such a neural system must finally be able to maintain continued response expression and prevent response drift. In this report, we examine both historical and recent evidence that the cerebellum satisfies all of these requirements. While we report evidence from a variety of learning paradigms, the majority of our discussion will focus on classical conditioning of the rabbit eye blink response as an ideal model system for the study of reinforcement and reinforcement learning.

  6. Nuclear Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Gregg G.; Worman, Howard J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The nucleus is the largest organelle and is commonly depicted in the center of the cell. Yet during cell division, migration and differentiation, it frequently moves to an asymmetric position aligned with cell function. We consider the toolbox of proteins that move and anchor the nucleus within the cell and how forces generated by the cytoskeleton are coupled to the nucleus to move it. The significance of proper nuclear positioning is underscored by numerous diseases resulting from genetic alterations in the toolbox proteins. Finally, we discuss how nuclear position may influence cellular organization and signaling pathways. PMID:23498944

  7. Negative reinforcement in applied behavior analysis: an emerging technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Iwata, B A

    1987-01-01

    Although the effects of negative reinforcement on human behavior have been studied for a number of years, a comprehensive body of applied research does not exist at this time. This article describes three aspects of negative reinforcement as it relates to applied behavior analysis: behavior acquired or maintained through negative reinforcement, the treatment of negatively reinforced behavior, and negative reinforcement as therapy. A consideration of research currently being done in these area...

  8. REVIEW OF STRENGTHENING REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING CFRP LAMINATE

    OpenAIRE

    SAGATOV BAHODIR UKTAMOVICH; SHODMONOV ANARQUL YULDASHEVICH; ALIYEV MASHRAB RAHMONQULOVICH; DJURAYEV UKTAM URALBAYEVICH

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Literature Review of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips to reinforced concrete (RC) as a strengthening solution for T-beams. Although a great deal of research has been carried out on Rectangular beams strengthened with Fibre-Reinforced Polymer composites (FRP), Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly studied for their application in the flexural or shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. A detailed discussion of the ...

  9. DESIGN OF COMPOSITION OF CONCRETE USING POLYPROPYLENE FIBRE REINFORCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Van Thanh1,*, Vu Hoang Hiep2, Nguyen Van Bac1, Hoang Gia Duong1

    2016-01-01

    Fibre-reinforced concrete is an emerging trend that delivers new materials with high quality for construction. Polyporpylene fibre, an organic textile, has high potential to be used for reinforcing concrete, but there has been little research conducted into using this fibre for concrete reinforcement worldwide and no research work on this fibre reinforced concrete has been published in Vietnam. Thereofore, researchinginto Polyporylene fibre reinforced concrete to establish fundamental underst...

  10. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  11. [Positive psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-08

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health.

  12. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  13. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  14. Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adom-Asamoah, Mark; Owusu Afrifa, Russell

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

  15. Vicarious Reinforcement In Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve W. C. Chang

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1 and/or rewards to another monkey (M2 with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in nonsocial control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  16. Vicarious reinforcement in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Steve W C; Winecoff, Amy A; Platt, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    What happens to others profoundly influences our own behavior. Such other-regarding outcomes can drive observational learning, as well as motivate cooperation, charity, empathy, and even spite. Vicarious reinforcement may serve as one of the critical mechanisms mediating the influence of other-regarding outcomes on behavior and decision-making in groups. Here we show that rhesus macaques spontaneously derive vicarious reinforcement from observing rewards given to another monkey, and that this reinforcement can motivate them to subsequently deliver or withhold rewards from the other animal. We exploited Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning to associate rewards to self (M1) and/or rewards to another monkey (M2) with visual cues. M1s made more errors in the instrumental trials when cues predicted reward to M2 compared to when cues predicted reward to M1, but made even more errors when cues predicted reward to no one. In subsequent preference tests between pairs of conditioned cues, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to M2 over cues paired with reward to no one. By contrast, M1s preferred cues paired with reward to self over cues paired with reward to both monkeys simultaneously. Rates of attention to M2 strongly predicted the strength and valence of vicarious reinforcement. These patterns of behavior, which were absent in non-social control trials, are consistent with vicarious reinforcement based upon sensitivity to observed, or counterfactual, outcomes with respect to another individual. Vicarious reward may play a critical role in shaping cooperation and competition, as well as motivating observational learning and group coordination in rhesus macaques, much as it does in humans. We propose that vicarious reinforcement signals mediate these behaviors via homologous neural circuits involved in reinforcement learning and decision-making.

  17. A study on the effects of some reinforcers to improve performance of employees in a retail industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, John Dilip; Nelson, John Abraham; Rao, K S P

    2006-11-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in the Business Information Technology Department of a major retail industry to analyze the impact of positive task performance reinforcers. The employees were divided into two broad groups - those performing complex tasks and those performing relatively simpler tasks. The first group was further divided into two subgroups, one being reinforced with money and paid leave and the other with feedback. Both the subgroups showed a significant improvement in performance behavior. However, feedback had a stronger effect on task performance even after the reinforcement was withdrawn. The second group of employees was allowed to choose reinforcers of their liking. Two simple techniques, a casual dress code and flexible working hours chosen by them, had a positive effect on their performance, which continued even after 6 months into the intervention. Besides, the procedure for the second group required no monetary or work-time loss to the employer.

  18. Providing Alternative Reinforcers to Facilitate Tolerance to Delayed Reinforcement Following Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Jillian E.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.

    2015-01-01

    The earliest stages of functional communication training (FCT) involve providing immediate and continuous reinforcement for a communicative response (FCR) that is functionally equivalent to the targeted problem behavior. However, maintaining immediate reinforcement is not practical, and the introduction of delays is associated with increased…

  19. The usage of carbon fiber reinforcement polymer and glass fiber reinforcement polymer for retrofit technology building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Meka, Randi; Nursyamsi

    2018-03-01

    Fiber Reinforcement Polymer has been used as a material technology since the 1970s in Europe. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer can reinforce the structure externally, and used in many types of buildings like beams, columns, and slabs. It has high tensile strength. Fiber Reinforcement Polymer also has high rigidity and strength. The profile of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer is thin and light, installation is simple to conduct. One of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer material is Carbon Fiber Reinforcement Polymer and Glass Fiber Reinforcement Polymer. These materials is tested when it is installed on concrete cylinders, to obtain the comparison of compressive strength CFRP and GFRP. The dimension of concrete is diameter of 15 cm and height of 30 cm. It is amounted to 15 and divided into three groups. The test is performed until it collapsed to obtain maximum load. The results of research using CFRP and GFRP have shown the significant enhancement in compressive strength. CFRP can increase the compressive strength of 26.89%, and GFRP of 14.89%. For the comparison of two materials, CFRP is more strengthening than GFRP regarding increasing compressive strength. The usage of CFRP and GFRP can increase the loading capacity.

  20. Influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation resistance of reinforced concrete slabs under hard missile impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbovic, Nebojsa, E-mail: nebojsa.orbovic@cnsc-ccsn.gc.ca; Sagals, Genadijs; Blahoianu, Andrei

    2015-12-15

    This paper describes the work conducted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) related to the influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs under “hard” missile impact (impact with negligible missile deformations). The paper presents the results of three tests on reinforced concrete slabs conducted at VTT Technical Research Centre (Finland), along with the numerical simulations as well as a discussion of the current code provisions related to impactive loading. Transverse reinforcement is widely used for improving the shear and punching strength of concrete structures. However, the effect of this reinforcement on the perforation resistance under localized missile impact is still unclear. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap in the current literature related to this topic. Based on similar tests designed by the authors with missile velocity below perforation velocity, it was expected that transverse reinforcement would improve the perforation resistance. Three slabs were tested under almost identical conditions with the only difference being the transverse reinforcement. One slab was designed without transverse reinforcement, the second one with the transverse reinforcement in form of conventional stirrups with hooks and the third one with the transverse reinforcement in form of T-headed bars. Although the transverse reinforcement reduced the overall damage of the slabs (the rear face scabbing), the conclusion from the tests is that the transverse reinforcement does not have important influence on perforation capacity of concrete slabs under rigid missile impact. The slab with T-headed bars presented a slight improvement compared to the baseline specimen without transverse reinforcement. The slab with conventional stirrups presented slightly lower perforation capacity (higher residual missile velocity) than the slab without transverse reinforcement. In conclusion, the performed tests show slightly

  1. Reducing Direct-Care Staff Absenteeism: Effects of a Combined Reinforcement and Punishment Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Renee M.

    1990-01-01

    Absenteeism of 130 direct-care staff in a residential facility for developmentally disabled persons was reduced by 27 percent through positive reinforcement for reliable attendance and punishment (progressive discipline) for attendance abuse. Reduced absenteeism was maintained for 12 months and overtime was reduced, but staff turnover increased.…

  2. Sex differences in snack food reinforcement in response to increasing dietary protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRACKGROUND: Protein is posited to play a dynamic role in energy balance and reward-driven eating behavior. However, little is known about the effect of increasing protein intake on snack food reinforcement. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the extent to which increasing dietary protein changes th...

  3. Reinforcement of natural rubber by silica/silane in dependence of different amine types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayichelaeh, C.; Reuvekamp, L. A. E. M.; Dierkes, W. K.; Blume, A.; Noordermeer, J. W. M.; Sahakaro, K.

    2017-01-01

    Diphenyl guanidine (DPG) is the most commonly used secondary accelerator in silica-reinforced rubber compounds because of its additional positive effect on the silanization reaction and deactivation of free silanol groups that are left over after the silanization. However, because of health and

  4. Reinforcement of Conducting Silver-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike JUNG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver is a well-known material in the field of contact materials because of its high electrical and thermal conductivity. However, due to its bad mechanical and switching properties, silver alloys or reinforcements of the ductile silver matrix are required. Different reinforcements, e. g. tungsten, tungsten carbide, nickel, cadmium oxide or tin oxide, are used in different sectors of switches. To reach an optimal distribution of these reinforcements, various manufacturing techniques (e. g. powder blending, preform infiltration, wet-chemical methods, internal oxidation are being used for the production of these contact materials. Each of these manufacturing routes offers different advantages and disadvantages. The mechanical alloying process displays a successful and efficient method to produce particle-reinforced metal-matrix composite powders. This contribution presents the obtained fine disperse microstructure of tungsten-particle-reinforced silver composite powders produced by the mechanical alloying process and displays this technique as possible route to provide feedstock powders for subsequent consolidation processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4889

  5. Origins of altered reinforcement effects in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripp Gail

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, characterized by hyperactivity, impulsiveness and deficient sustained attention, is one of the most common and persistent behavioral disorders of childhood. ADHD is associated with catecholamine dysfunction. The catecholamines are important for response selection and memory formation, and dopamine in particular is important for reinforcement of successful behavior. The convergence of dopaminergic mesolimbic and glutamatergic corticostriatal synapses upon individual neostriatal neurons provides a favorable substrate for a three-factor synaptic modification rule underlying acquisition of associations between stimuli in a particular context, responses, and reinforcers. The change in associative strength as a function of delay between key stimuli or responses, and reinforcement, is known as the delay of reinforcement gradient. The gradient is altered by vicissitudes of attention, intrusions of irrelevant events, lapses of memory, and fluctuations in dopamine function. Theoretical and experimental analyses of these moderating factors will help to determine just how reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD. Such analyses can only help to improve treatment strategies for ADHD.

  6. Global reinforcement training of CrossNets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaolong

    2007-10-01

    Hybrid "CMOL" integrated circuits, incorporating advanced CMOS devices for neural cell bodies, nanowires as axons and dendrites, and latching switches as synapses, may be used for the hardware implementation of extremely dense (107 cells and 1012 synapses per cm2) neuromorphic networks, operating up to 10 6 times faster than their biological prototypes. We are exploring several "Cross- Net" architectures that accommodate the limitations imposed by CMOL hardware and should allow effective training of the networks without a direct external access to individual synapses. Our studies have show that CrossNets based on simple (two-terminal) crosspoint devices can work well in at least two modes: as Hop-field networks for associative memory and multilayer perceptrons for classification tasks. For more intelligent tasks (such as robot motion control or complex games), which do not have "examples" for supervised learning, more advanced training methods such as the global reinforcement learning are necessary. For application of global reinforcement training algorithms to CrossNets, we have extended Williams's REINFORCE learning principle to a more general framework and derived several learning rules that are more suitable for CrossNet hardware implementation. The results of numerical experiments have shown that these new learning rules can work well for both classification tasks and reinforcement tasks such as the cartpole balancing control problem. Some limitations imposed by the CMOL hardware need to be carefully addressed for the the successful application of in situ reinforcement training to CrossNets.

  7. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... backgrounds, of membership in a minoritised[i] or majoritised group, and the influence of different theoretical and methodological outlooks on our common goal of trying to transcend existing othering and objectifying representations of Muslims in Western societies. This process sometimes entails a direct...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  8. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  9. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  10. Reinforcement Learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Manuela; Rohr, Christiane S; Dewey, Deborah; McCrimmon, Adam; Bray, Signe

    2017-01-01

    Early behavioral interventions are recognized as integral to standard care in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and often focus on reinforcing desired behaviors (e.g., eye contact) and reducing the presence of atypical behaviors (e.g., echoing others' phrases). However, efficacy of these programs is mixed. Reinforcement learning relies on neurocircuitry that has been reported to be atypical in ASD: prefrontal-sub-cortical circuits, amygdala, brainstem, and cerebellum. Thus, early behavioral interventions rely on neurocircuitry that may function atypically in at least a subset of individuals with ASD. Recent work has investigated physiological, behavioral, and neural responses to reinforcers to uncover differences in motivation and learning in ASD. We will synthesize this work to identify promising avenues for future research that ultimately can be used to enhance the efficacy of early intervention.

  11. Slipforming of reinforced concrete shield building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, M.C.; King, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The unique design and construction features of slipforming the heavily reinforced concrete cylindrical shield walls at the Satsop nuclear plant in Washington, D.C. site are presented. The shield walls were designed in compliance with seismic requirements which resulted in the need for reinforcing steel averaging 326 kg/m/sup 3/. A 7.6 m high, three-deck moving platform was designed to permit easy installation of the reinforcing steel, embedments, and blockouts, and to facilitate concrete placement and finishing. Two circular box trusses, one on each side of the shield wall, were used in combination with a spider truss to meet both the tolerance and strength requirements for the slipform assembly

  12. Performance of wulung bamboo reinforced concrete beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi, Agus Setiya; Rahmadi, A. P.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the flexural strength of concrete beam with Wulung Bamboo that has been in the notch as reinforcement. The notch is expected to increase the bonding effect and minimize the slip effects. This study used experimental laboratory method. Bamboo strip are processed and shaped with the notches of the v shape with the distance between the notches are 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70 mm. The specimen size used in the form of a concrete beam is 110x150x1700 mm. Static loading is done with third point loading system (ASTM C78). The experimental results showed the performance of bamboo strips notch reinforced concrete beams increased compared to bamboo reinforcement without notch and the maximum load will increase as the number of notches increases.

  13. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fujiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

  14. Evolution with reinforcement learning in negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yi; Zhan, Wenjie; Shao, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive behavior depends less on the details of the negotiation process and makes more robust predictions in the long term as compared to in the short term. However, the extant literature on population dynamics for behavior adjustment has only examined the current situation. To offset this limitation, we propose a synergy of evolutionary algorithm and reinforcement learning to investigate long-term collective performance and strategy evolution. The model adopts reinforcement learning with a tradeoff between historical and current information to make decisions when the strategies of agents evolve through repeated interactions. The results demonstrate that the strategies in populations converge to stable states, and the agents gradually form steady negotiation habits. Agents that adopt reinforcement learning perform better in payoff, fairness, and stableness than their counterparts using classic evolutionary algorithm.

  15. Simulating distributed reinforcement effects in concrete analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchertas, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of the bond slip is brought into the TEMP-STRESS finite element code by relaxing the equal strain condition between concrete and reinforcement. This is done for the elements adjacent to the element which is cracked. A parabolic differential strain variation is assumed along the reinforcement from the crack, which is taken to be at the centroid of the cracked element, to the point where perfect bonding exists. This strain relationship is used to increase the strain of the reinforcement in the as yet uncracked elements located adjacent to a crack. By the same token the corresponding concrete strain is decreased. This estimate is made assuming preservation of strain energy in the element. The effectiveness of the model is shown by examples. Comparison of analytical results is made with structural test data. The influence of the bonding model on cracking is portrayed pictorially. 5 refs., 6 figs

  16. Hypocretin / orexin involvement in reward and reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the hypocretins/orexins, a series of observations have indicated that these peptides influence a variety of physiological processes including feeding, sleep/wake function, memory, and stress. More recently, the hypocretins have been implicated in reinforcement and reward-related processes via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. Although investigation into the relationship between the hypocretins and reinforcement/reward remains in relatively early stages, accumulating evidence suggests that continued research into this area may offer new insights into the addiction process and provide the foundation to generate novel pharmacotherapies for drug abuse. The current chapter will focus on contemporary perspectives of hypocretin regulation of cocaine reward and reinforcement via actions on the mesolimbic dopamine system. PMID:22640614

  17. Modelling Tension Stiffening in Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Morten Bo; Nielsen, Mogens Peter

    1997-01-01

    Part I of the present thesis deals with crack formation in reinforced concrete and the phenomenon of tension stiffening in concrete tension rods reinforced with deformed bars.Two physical models are presented for uniaxial tension, and they are modified for application on beams subjected to pure...... predicted by the models are compared with experimental data from tests on tension rods as well as flexural beams.In the light of the simple assumptions made and the random nature of cracking, the accordance between the models and the test data is quite good.Part II of the present thesis deals...... flexure.In the first model, the yield zone model, it is assumed that the mean crack distance is a descending function of the reinforcement stress in a crack. Furthermore it is assumed that in certain zones between the cracks the concrete is carrying its full effective tensile strength, i.e. the concrete...

  18. Measurement of reinforcement corrosion in marine structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad Ismail; Nordin Yahaya

    1999-01-01

    The marine environment is known to be aggressive. Structures constructed on this belt need to undergo periodic assessment in order to ensure no defects or signs of deterioration had occurred. One of the most common deterioration that occurs on marine structures is corrosion of the reinforcement. Corrosion is an electrochemical process. The product of corrosion can increase the reinforcement volume, hence causing cracking on concrete cover. If no action is taken, delamination and spalling of concrete will follow and this will affect the structures integrity. It is therefore important to know the state of the structures condition by monitoring them periodically. NDT techniques that can detect the occurrence of corrosion of reinforcement in concrete uses half cell and resistivity meter. The method of application and interpretation of results are discussed. (author)

  19. Pointwise probability reinforcements for robust statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frénay, Benoît; Verleysen, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Statistical inference using machine learning techniques may be difficult with small datasets because of abnormally frequent data (AFDs). AFDs are observations that are much more frequent in the training sample that they should be, with respect to their theoretical probability, and include e.g. outliers. Estimates of parameters tend to be biased towards models which support such data. This paper proposes to introduce pointwise probability reinforcements (PPRs): the probability of each observation is reinforced by a PPR and a regularisation allows controlling the amount of reinforcement which compensates for AFDs. The proposed solution is very generic, since it can be used to robustify any statistical inference method which can be formulated as a likelihood maximisation. Experiments show that PPRs can be easily used to tackle regression, classification and projection: models are freed from the influence of outliers. Moreover, outliers can be filtered manually since an abnormality degree is obtained for each observation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Refining Linear Fuzzy Rules by Reinforcement Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Khedkar, Pratap S.; Malkani, Anil

    1996-01-01

    Linear fuzzy rules are increasingly being used in the development of fuzzy logic systems. Radial basis functions have also been used in the antecedents of the rules for clustering in product space which can automatically generate a set of linear fuzzy rules from an input/output data set. Manual methods are usually used in refining these rules. This paper presents a method for refining the parameters of these rules using reinforcement learning which can be applied in domains where supervised input-output data is not available and reinforcements are received only after a long sequence of actions. This is shown for a generalization of radial basis functions. The formation of fuzzy rules from data and their automatic refinement is an important step in closing the gap between the application of reinforcement learning methods in the domains where only some limited input-output data is available.

  1. Stimuli previously associated with reinforcement mitigate resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    Resurgence refers to the recurrence of an extinguished target behavior following subsequent suspension of alternative reinforcement. Delivery of reinforcers during extinction of alternative behavior has been shown to mitigate resurgence. The present experiment aimed to determine whether delivering stimuli associated with reinforcers during resurgence testing similarly mitigates resurgence. Three groups of rats pressed target levers for food according to variable-interval 15-s schedules during Phase 1. In Phase 2, lever pressing was extinguished, and an alternative nose-poke response produced alternative reinforcement according to a variable-interval 15-s schedule. Food reinforcement was always associated with illumination of the food aperture and an audible click from the pellet dispenser during Phases 1 and 2. Phase 3 treatments differed between groups. For one group, nose poking continued to produce food and food-correlated stimuli. Both of these consequences were suspended for a second group. Finally, nose poking produced food-correlated stimuli but not food for a third group. Target-lever pressing resurged in the group that received no consequences and in the group that received only food-correlated stimuli for nose poking. Resurgence, however, was smaller for the group that received food-correlated stimuli than for the group that received no consequences for nose poking. Target-lever pressing did not increase between phases in the group that continued to receive food and associated stimuli. Thus, delivery of stimuli associated with food reinforcement after suspension of food reduced but did not eliminate resurgence of extinguished lever pressing. These findings contribute to potential methodologies for preventing relapse of extinguished problem behavior in clinical settings. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. PRACTICAL STUDY ON THE CFRP REINFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina IANASI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the defining goals of this paper is getting new resistant material which combine the qualities of basic materials that get into its composition but not to borrow from them their negative properties. In recent years, carbon fiber composites have been increasingly used in different ways in reinforcing structural elements. Specifically, the use of CFRP composite materials as reinforcement for wood beams under bending loads requires paying attention to several aspects of the problem which are presented in this paper.

  3. Analysis and design of reinforced concrete slab

    OpenAIRE

    Kališnik, Žiga

    2014-01-01

    The graduation thesis examines the analysis and design of a reinforced concrete slab. Slab loads are based on guidelines from standards SIST EN 1990 and SIST EN 1991-1-1, and the design is made according to standard SIST EN 1992-1-1, which covers concrete structures' design. The slab is analysed with finite element method using Safe computer code. The process of modeling slab structure in Safe computer code is described. Based on loads from ultimate limit state reinforcement is calculated and...

  4. Theoretical and numerical analysis of reinforced concrete beams with confinement reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Delalibera

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the use of confinement in over-reinforced concrete beams. This reinforcement consists of square stirrups, placed in the compression zone of the beam cross-section, in order to improve its ductility. A parametric numerical study is initially performed, using a finite element computational program that considers the material nonlinearities and the confinement effect. To investigate the influence of the transverse reinforcing ratio on the beam ductility, an experimental program was also conducted. Four over-reinforced beams were tested; three beam specimens with additional transverse reinforcement to confine the beams, and one without it. All specimens were fabricated with a concrete designed for a compressive strength of 25 MPa. The experimental results show that the post-peak ductility factor is proportional to the confining reinforcement ratio, however the same is not observed for the pre-peak ductility factor, which varied randomly with changes in the confining reinforcement ratio. It was also observed from the experiments that the confinement effect tends to be smaller close to the beam neutral axis.

  5. Finite element modelling of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid fiber reinforced bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smring, Santa binti; Salleh, Norhafizah; Hamid, NoorAzlina Abdul; Majid, Masni A.

    2017-11-01

    Concrete is a heterogeneous composite material made up of cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water mixed in a desired proportion to obtain the required strength. Plain concrete does not with stand tension as compared to compression. In order to compensate this drawback steel reinforcement are provided in concrete. Now a day, for improving the properties of concrete and also to take up tension combination of steel and glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars promises favourable strength, serviceability, and durability. To verify its promise and support design concrete structures with hybrid type of reinforcement, this study have investigated the load-deflection behaviour of concrete beams reinforced with hybrid GFRP and steel bars by using ATENA software. Fourteen beams, including six control beams reinforced with only steel or only GFRP bars, were analysed. The ratio and the ordinate of GFRP to steel were the main parameters investigated. The behaviour of these beams was investigated via the load-deflection characteristics, cracking behaviour and mode of failure. Hybrid GFRP-Steel reinforced concrete beam showed the improvement in both ultimate capacity and deflection concomitant to the steel reinforced concrete beam. On the other hand, finite element (FE) modelling which is ATENA were validated with previous experiment and promising the good result to be used for further analyses and development in the field of present study.

  6. The possibility of using high strength reinforced concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Nobuaki

    1991-01-01

    There is recently much research about and developments in reinforced concrete using high strength concrete and reinforcement. As a result, some high-rise buildings and nuclear buildings have been constructed with such concrete. Reinforced concrete will be stronger in the future, but there is a limit to its strength defined by the character of the materials and also by the character of the reinforced concrete members made of the concrete and reinforcement. This report describes the merits and demerits of using high strength reinforced concrete. (author)

  7. [Effects and mechanisms of plant roots on slope reinforcement and soil erosion resistance: a research review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yan-Mei; Xia, Han-Ping; Li, Zhi-An; Cai, Xi-An

    2007-04-01

    Plant roots play an important role in resisting the shallow landslip and topsoil erosion of slopes by raising soil shear strength. Among the models in interpreting the mechanisms of slope reinforcement by plant roots, Wu-Waldron model is a widely accepted one. In this model, the reinforced soil strength by plant roots is positively proportional to average root tensile strength and root area ratio, the two most important factors in evaluating slope reinforcement effect of plant roots. It was found that soil erosion resistance increased with the number of plant roots, though no consistent quantitative functional relationship was observed between them. The increase of soil erosion resistance by plant roots was mainly through the actions of fiber roots less than 1 mm in diameter, while fiber roots enhanced the soil stability to resist water dispersion via increasing the number and diameter of soil water-stable aggregates. Fine roots could also improve soil permeability effectively to decrease runoff and weaken soil erosion.

  8. Capture efficiency measurement of pollutants over a workbench with the reinforced slot exhaust system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavelek M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the measurement of the capture efficiency of pollutants by the slot reinforced exhaust system situated in two positions over the workbench. The slot reinforced exhaust system, which is known as REEXS, is the traditional slot exhaust hood equipped with an air supply inlet that intensifies exhausting along the axis of the exhaust hood. It can operate in traditional or reinforced exhaust modes. Measurements were made for the same air velocity in the suction slot and with the different momentum flux ratio of supplied and exhausted air flow. The tracer gas method was used for the capture efficiency measurement of the system. As the tracer gas the carbon dioxide was chosen. The knowledge of the shape and range of the effective exhaust area for various configurations in front of the exhaust hood is important for the exhaust hood setting according to a source of pollutants.

  9. Flexural strength using Steel Plate, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) on reinforced concrete beam in building technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, Johannes; Patra, Fadel Muhammad; Sitorus, Torang

    2018-03-01

    Reinforced concrete structures are very commonly used in buildings because they are cheaper than the steel structures. But in reality, many concrete structures are damaged, so there are several ways to overcome this problem, by providing reinforcement with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) and reinforcement with steel plates. Each type of reinforcements has its advantages and disadvantages. In this study, researchers discuss the comparison between flexural strength of reinforced concrete beam using steel plates and Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP). In this case, the researchers use Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) as external reinforcements. The dimension of the beams is 15 x 25 cm with the length of 320 cm. Based on the analytical results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.991 times its initial, GFRP is 1.877 times while with the steel plate is 1.646 times. Based on test results, the strength of the beam with CFRP is 1.444 times its initial, GFRP is 1.333 times while the steel plate is 1.167 times. Based on these test results, the authors conclude that beam with CFRP is the best choice for external reinforcement in building technology than the others.

  10. Research on magnetic field characteristics and magnetic shield effect of reinforced concrete members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Noboru

    1986-01-01

    The steel frames and reinforcing bars used for structures are subjected to various magnetic history at the time of the manufacture, transport and processing, and are magnetized. Consequently, magnetically uneven fields are formed near steel materials in general structures. In the structures for accurate magnetic field measurements or geomagnetism observation, magnetic shield rooms or small magnetizing force or nonmagnetic materials are used. When the equipments requiring the control of weak magnetic fields are installed in general structures, the method of restraining the disturbance of magnetic fields caused by structural materials is demanded hereafter. In this report, when an electronic equipment assembling shop was constructed, the intensity of magnetic fields of reinforced concrete columns was measured, and the countermeasures to reduce their effect were experimentally examined, therefore these are described. The concept of a magnetic field in a reinforced concrete member, magnetic shield materials, measuring instruments, the method of measurement and the results are reported. Around reinforced concrete members, magnetic fields exist, but at a position more than 1 m distant from the surface of reinforced concrete, the magnetic field was negligible. Silicon steel sheets are effective for shielding such magnetic fields. (Kako, I.)

  11. The contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the personality-psychopathology hierarchical structure in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodskaya, Helena R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the contribution of reinforcement sensitivity to the hierarchical structure of child personality and common psychopathology in community samples of parent reports of children aged 2-18 (N = 968) and self-reports of adolescents aged 10-18 (N = 1,543) using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences-Short version (ICID-S), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ). A joint higher-order factor analysis of the ICID-S and SDQ scales suggested a 4-factor solution; congruence coefficients indicated replicability of the factors across the 2 samples at all levels of the personality-psychopathology hierarchy. The canonical correlation analyses indicated that reinforcement sensitivity and personality-psychopathology dimensions shared much of their variance. The main contribution of reinforcement sensitivity was through opposing effects of reward and punishment sensitivities. The superordinate factors Beta and Internalizing were best predicted by reinforcement sensitivity, followed by the Externalizing and Positive personality factors. These findings provide evidence for consistency of the hierarchical structure of personality and common psychopathology across informants and highlight the role of reinforcement systems in the development of normal and abnormal patterns of behavior and affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Deletion of the δ opioid receptor gene impairs place conditioning but preserves morphine reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Merrer, Julie; Plaza-Zabala, Ainhoa; Del Boca, Carolina; Matifas, Audrey; Maldonado, Rafael; Kieffer, Brigitte L

    2011-04-01

    Converging experimental data indicate that δ opioid receptors contribute to mediate drug reinforcement processes. Whether their contribution reflects a role in the modulation of drug reward or an implication in conditioned learning, however, has not been explored. In the present study, we investigated the impact of δ receptor gene knockout on reinforced conditioned learning under several experimental paradigms. We assessed the ability of δ receptor knockout mice to form drug-context associations with either morphine (appetitive)- or lithium (aversive)-induced Pavlovian place conditioning. We also examined the efficiency of morphine to serve as a positive reinforcer in these mice and their motivation to gain drug injections, with operant intravenous self-administration under fixed and progressive ratio schedules and at two different doses. Mutant mice showed impaired place conditioning in both appetitive and aversive conditions, indicating disrupted context-drug association. In contrast, mutant animals displayed intact acquisition of morphine self-administration and reached breaking-points comparable to control subjects. Thus, reinforcing effects of morphine and motivation to obtain the drug were maintained. Collectively, the data suggest that δ receptor activity is not involved in morphine reinforcement but facilitates place conditioning. This study reveals a novel aspect of δ opioid receptor function in addiction-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Steel plate reinforcement of orthotropic bridge decks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira de Freitas, S.

    2012-01-01

    The PhD research is focused on the reinforcement of fatigue cracked orthotropic steel bridge decks (OBD) by adding a second steel plate to the existing deck. The main idea is to stiffen the existing deck plate, which will reduce the stresses at the fatigue sensitive details and extend the fatigue

  14. Nonlinear solution algorithms for reinforced concrete plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, E.; Abdel Rahman, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    The mertis of using the Quasi-Newton method in the finite element nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete plates are investigated. Comparisons are made between Quasi-Newton methods and Newton-Raphson, modified Newton-Raphson and initial stress methods in terms of accuracy, limitations and efficiency.

  15. Fundamentals of fibre-reinforced soil engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a one-stop reference on fibre-reinforced soils. Over the past 30-35 years, the engineering behaviour of randomly distributed/oriented fibre-reinforced soil, also called simply fibre-reinforced soil, has been investigated in detail by researchers and engineers worldwide. Waste fibres (plastic waste fibres, old tyre fibres, etc.) create disposal and environmental problems. Utilization of such fibres in construction can help resolve these concerns. Research studies and some field applications have shown that the fibres can be utilized in large quantities in geotechnical and civil engineering applications in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. This book covers a complete description of fibres, their effects when included within a soil or other similar materials such as the fly ash, and their field applications. It gives a detailed view of fibre-reinforced soil engineering. The book will be useful to students, professional, and researchers alike, and can also ser...

  16. Shear assessment of reinforced concrete slab bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.; Van der Veen, C.; Walraven, J.C.; De Boer, A.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of reinforced concrete solid slab bridges in shear is assessed by comparing the design beam shear resistance to the design value of the applied shear force due to the permanent actions and live loads. Results from experiments on half-scale continuous slab bridges are used to develop a

  17. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Dowel Bar Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) dowel bars were installed on one new construction project and two dowel bar : retrofit projects to evaluate the performance of this type of dowel bar in comparison to steel dowel bars installed on the same : cont...

  18. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  19. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the action of chloride solutions may intensify the process of corrosion of steel reinforcement in comparison to the converse sequence of the action of mentioned media. At the same time the natrium chloride solution has been shown as a more aggressive medium opposite to the calcium and magnesium chloride solutions.

  20. Exhaust System Reinforced by Jet Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Germann; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Since 1985 the University of Aalborg and Nordfab A/S have been working on an exhaust principle which is quite different from traditional exhaust systems. The REEXS principle (Reinforced Exhaust System), which originally was designed for the agricultural sector, is particularly well-suited for ind...