Jacob Rosendahl; Lenka van Riemsdijk; Klaus Grunert; Johan van Berkel
Chapter 8 in Comsumption Culture in Europe. This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major
Grunert, Klaus G; Rosendahl, Jacob; Andronikidis, Andreas I.
This chapter presents an analysis of what consumer in Europe drink and why they drink what they drink. The concept of drinking motives is developed and defined, and analysis of data on drinking motives shows that these can be grouped into two major classes: self-expressive and functional. This di...
Weaver, Cameron C; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Takamatsu, Stephanie K; Treloar, Hayley R; Pedersen, Eric R
Intercollegiate athletes report greater alcohol consumption and more alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Although college athletes share many of the same problems faced by non-athletes, there are some consequences that are unique to athletes. Studies have demonstrated that alcohol negatively affects athletic performance including increased dehydration, impeded muscle recovery, and increased risk for injury. Beyond risk factors for alcohol misuse that may affect college students in general, research has begun to examine risk factors that are unique to collegiate athletes. For example, research has found that off-season status, the leadership role, and athlete-specific drinking motives are associated with increased alcohol use. Given these findings, it is possible that other athlete-specific variables influence alcohol misuse. One such variable may be sport achievement orientation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between sport achievement orientation and alcohol outcomes. Given previous research regarding seasonal status and gender, these variables were examined as moderators. Varsity athletes (n=263) completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, which assesses sport-related achievement orientation on three scales (Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation). In addition, participants completed measures of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that Competitiveness, Win Orientation, and Goal Orientation were all significantly associated with alcohol use, but not alcohol-related problems. Moreover, these relationships were moderated by seasonal status and gender. These interactions, clinical implications, and limitations are discussed. © 2013.
Herring, Tracy E; Zamboanga, Byron L; Olthuis, Janine V; Pesigan, Ivan Jacob Agaloos; Martin, Jessica L; McAfee, Nicholas W; Martens, Matthew P
Research suggests that high school athletes are at greater risk for heavy alcohol use and alcohol-related problems than their non-athlete peers. Drinking motives unique to the athletic experience may contribute to elevated use. The Athlete Drinking Scale (ADS) was designed to assess sport-related motives for alcohol use, but has not yet been validated among high school athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the ADS among a sample of high school athletes. Participants were 216 high school student-athlete drinkers who completed anonymous self-report surveys. A confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a revised three-factor solution with a satisfactory overall model fit. Path analyses indicated that the Positive Reinforcement motives subscale was the only ADS subscale that was significantly associated with alcohol use and alcohol-related problems when controlling for the effects of the other factors (i.e., age and gender) in this population. The ADS may be a valuable assessment tool for researchers and clinicians involved in alcohol prevention efforts for high school athletes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foster, Dawn W.; Neighbors, Clayton; Prokhorov, Alexander
The current study seeks to evaluate relationships between drinking motives and alcohol-related ambivalence in the prediction of problem drinking. We expected that: 1) main effects would emerge such that alcohol-related ambivalence would be positively associated with peak drinking and problems; drinking motives would be positively associated with drinking and problems, and 2) interactions would emerge between motives and ambivalence in predicting problematic drinking such that drinking motives...
Fernandes-Jesus, Maria; Beccaria, Franca; Demant, Jakob Johan
• This paper assesses the validity of the DMQ-R (Cooper, 1994) among university students in six different European countries. • Results provide support for similar DMQ-R factor structures across countries. • Drinking motives have similar meanings among European university students....
Crutzen, R.M.M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Schelleman-Offermans, K.
Drinking motives are among the most proximal factors for drinking behavior and serve as a mechanism through which more distal factors are mediated. However, it is less clear whether drinking motives are precursors of drinking or, in contrast, shaped by previous drinking experiences (reciprocal
Graziano, Federica; Bina, Manuela; Giannotta, Fabrizia; Ciairano, Silvia
Although drinking motives have been largely studied, research taking into account the Mediterranean drinking culture and focusing on motives specifically associated to adolescents' developmental tasks is lacking. For these reasons the study investigates drinking motives in a group of Italian adolescents and their relationships with drunkenness and…
Wicki, Matthias; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Eichenberger, Yvonne
, differences across countries were tested in a multigroup analysis. RESULTS: The indirect effect (via alcohol use) was greater for injuries and academic problems than for more general outcomes such as life dissatisfaction and negative body image. For social, enhancement and coping motives, we found positive...... their alcohol use. [Wicki M, Kuntsche E, Eichenberger Y, Aasvee K, Bendtsen P, Dankulincová Veselská Z, Demetrovics Z, Dzielska A, Farkas J, de Matos MG, Roberts C, Tynjälä J, Välimaa R, Vieno A. Different drinking motives, different adverse consequences? Evidence among adolescents from 10 European countries...
Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Coelho, Fernanda; Veitzman, Silvia; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson; Anghinah, Renato
ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...
Skewes, Monica C; Decou, Christopher R; Gonzalez, Vivian M
Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behavior among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviors such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviors among students of various ethnic groups.
Monica C. Skewes
Full Text Available Background. Recent research has identified the use of caffeinated energy drinks as a common, potentially risky behaviour among college students that is linked to alcohol misuse and consequences. Research also suggests that energy drink consumption is related to other risky behaviours such as tobacco use, marijuana use and risky sexual activity. Objective. This research sought to examine the associations between frequency of energy drink consumption and problematic alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, symptoms of alcohol dependence and drinking motives in an ethnically diverse sample of college students in Alaska. We also sought to examine whether ethnic group moderated these associations in the present sample of White, Alaska Native/American Indian and other ethnic minority college students. Design. A paper-and-pencil self-report questionnaire was completed by a sample of 298 college students. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to examine the effects of energy drink use, ethnic group and energy drink by ethnic group interactions on alcohol outcomes after controlling for variance attributed to gender, age and frequency of binge drinking. Results. Greater energy drink consumption was significantly associated with greater hazardous drinking, alcohol consequences, alcohol dependence symptoms, drinking for enhancement motives and drinking to cope. There were no main effects of ethnic group, and there were no significant energy drink by ethnic group interactions. Conclusion. These findings replicate those of other studies examining the associations between energy drink use and alcohol problems, but contrary to previous research we did not find ethnic minority status to be protective. It is possible that energy drink consumption may serve as a marker for other health risk behaviours among students of various ethnic groups.
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Linden, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J
An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as intervening factors in the relationship between expectancies and alcohol outcomes. Consequently, the cross-sectional study presented here aimed to test the indirect effect of expectancies (i.e., social facilitation) on alcohol outcomes through drinking motives and PBS use. Participants were 520 (358 female) college student drinkers with a mean age of 20.80 (SD = 4.61) years. Students completed measures of expectancies, drinking motives, PBS use, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that drinking motives and PBS mediated the relationship between social expectancies and alcohol use. In particular, expectancies were associated with greater positive drinking motives, drinking motives were associated with less PBS use, and PBS was associated with less alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems. Given the key role of PBS in explaining drinking outcomes in our model, active efforts to incorporate PBS in alcohol interventions may be particularly beneficial for college students. Further, our findings support the consideration of PBS use as a part of the motivational model of alcohol use in future work.
Brady, Don; Brady, Flo
Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…
Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A
Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.
Linden, Ashley N; Kite, Benjamin A; Braitman, Abby L; Henson, James M
Protective behavioral strategy (PBS) use is associated with less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related problems. Further, greater endorsement of social or enhancement drinking motives (i.e., positive motives) is associated with less frequent PBS use. Limited research has, however, explored coping or conformity motives (i.e., negative motives) in relation to PBS. Consequently, the present study aimed to (1) identify the types of PBS most strongly associated with negative and positive motives and (2) examine different types of PBS as mediators of the relationship between each drinking motive and alcohol outcomes. Participants were college students (n=303; 70% women) who completed measures of drinking motives, PBS, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results indicated that greater endorsement of positive drinking motives were more strongly associated with less frequent use of PBS while drinking whereas negative motives were more strongly related to less frequent Alternatives to Drinking strategy use. Further, strategies used while drinking were more relevant in a model of positive drinking motives and Alternatives to Drinking strategies were more relevant in a model of negative motives. These findings may suggest that whereas individuals with stronger positive motives have difficulty using strategies while drinking, individuals who drink to cope or conform have greater difficulty utilizing Alternatives to Drinking strategies. Based on our results demonstrating that different types of PBS are more relevant for various types of drinkers, it may be important for future interventions to discuss not only the participant's PBS use but also their motivations for consuming alcohol. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doumas, Diana M.
This study examined differences in the relationship of drinking motives to drinking behavior among sanctioned and nonsanctioned 1st-year students (N = 298). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that for both sanctioned and nonsanctioned students, alcohol use was predicted by social and enhancement motives, and alcohol-related…
Kuntsche, E.N.; Cooper, M.L.
Most evidence on the motives-alcohol use link has come from cross-sectional research using retrospective assessments. It remains also to be demonstrated whether motives predict drinking in particular circumstances. In the present study, drinking motives assessed 2 weeks prior to a diary study were
Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy
Recent research indicates that individuals drank more heavily and experienced more harms on days they consumed alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs). Limited research, thus far, has examined predictors of AmED use on a daily level. Drinking motives, or reasons for drinking, are shown to discern AmED users from non-users, but the extent to which daily drinking motives covary with AmED use has not been tested. The current study used a daily diary design to determine how motives differ between AmED and other drinking occasions. Participants included 122 college students (73.8% women) with a mean age of 20.39years. Participants completed up to 14 daily surveys, resulting in 389 drinking days (40days involved AmED use). Participants reported on their drinking motives at baseline as well as on each drinking day. Multilevel models revealed that, after controlling for other motives, AmED use was more likely on days where conformity motives were higher than usual and was less likely when enhancement motives were higher. Daily social and coping motives as well as all motives measured at baseline were unassociated with AmED use. Our findings suggest that conformity motives, or drinking to fit in with others, are the most salient drinking motive predicting AmED use on a drinking day. Given that conformity motives are often less associated with alcohol use outcomes in general, these findings highlight AmEDs as a unique alcoholic beverage. Clinicians and interventionists working with frequent AmED users should consider the unique conditions under which AmEDs are consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Villarosa, Margo C; Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Noble, Jeremy J; Mohn, Richard S
The impact of social anxiety on negative alcohol-related behaviors among college students has been studied extensively. Drinking motives are considered the most proximal indicator of college student drinking behavior. The current study examined the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship that social anxiety symptoms have with problematic (alcohol consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences) and safe (protective behavioral strategies) drinking behaviors. Participants were 532 undergraduates who completed measures of social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, harmful drinking patterns, negative consequences of alcohol use, and protective behavioral strategy use. Our results show that students with higher levels of social anxiety symptoms who were drinking for enhancement motives reported more harmful drinking and negative consequences, and used fewer protective behavioral strategies. Thus, students who were drinking to increase their positive mood were participating in more problematic drinking patterns compared with students reporting fewer social anxiety symptoms. Further, conformity motives partially mediated the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and negative consequences. Thus, students with more symptoms of social anxiety who were drinking in order to be accepted by their peers were more likely than others to experience negative consequences. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Grant, Allison M.; Brown, B. Bradford; Moreno, Megan A.
Students report drinking for social reasons, yet the social benefits of alcohol use are less understood. Associations between social drinking motives, drinking behaviors, and college friendships were examined via in-person interviews with 72 college freshmen from a large Mid-western University. Consistent with previous research, social drinking…
Grimaldi, Elizabeth M; Ladd, Benjamin O; Anderson, Kristen G
Drinking, abstinence, and academic motives have been previously linked with alcohol consumption in high school and college students; however, little research has examined the impact of such sources of motivations concurrently. Drawing from self-determination theory (SDT; Ryan & Deci, 2000), the current study tested the hypothesis that alcohol-related and academic motives would be associated with one another along internal vs. external focused dimensions. We also examined the relative influence of these motives on alcohol consumption. College students (N=226) completed self-report measures assessing drinking motives, abstinence motives, academic motives, and alcohol-related outcomes. Findings suggest that drinking motives are related to abstinence motives but not academic motives. Both forms of alcohol-related motives were related to alcohol use and consequences; no associations between academic motives and alcohol variables were observed. The lack of associations among academic motives, alcohol-related motives, and alcohol variables departs from previous findings suggesting that academic motives impact alcohol use. The current findings indicate a greater understanding of the interplay of motivational sets related to salient issues for youth, such as academics, is needed in order to expand intervention models for alcohol use in such populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P
Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.
Laker, Scott R
Sports-related concussions (SRC) are common in all ages and occur in all sports. The diagnosis based on clinical suspicion after more serious injury is ruled out. Symptoms of concussion are due to a temporary and reversible neurometabolic cascade resulting in blood flow changes, neuronal excitotoxicity, ionic shifts, and mitochondrial changes. Symptoms are nonspecific, and commonly include headache, cognitive complaints, photophobia, and phonophobia. Loss of consciousness is rare in SRC and has limited influence on recovery and prognosis. Imaging has a limited role in the management of concussion and should be used to evaluate for more serious intracranial pathology. Treatment is based on symptoms and an understanding of the typical, rapid (7-10 days) recovery. No athlete should return to play until their symptoms have resolved and they have completed a supervised, step-wise return to play protocol. The article covers the most recent literature on the diagnosis and management of SRC, including evidence-based recommendations and expert-based consensus opinion. The article will also discuss issues regarding medical retirement, legislation, and future concepts in concussion diagnosis and management.
Jünger, Elisabeth; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Wiers, Corinde E; Sommer, Christian; Garbusow, Maria; Bernhardt, Nadine; Kuitunen-Paul, Sören; Smolka, Michael N; Zimmermann, Ulrich S
Alcohol-related cues can evoke explicit and implicit motivation to drink alcohol. Concerning the links between explicit and implicit motivation, there are mixed findings. Therefore, we investigated both concepts in 51 healthy 18- to 19-year-old males, who are less affected by neuropsychological deficits in decision-making that are attributed to previous alcohol exposure than older participants. In a randomized crossover design, adolescents were infused with either alcohol or placebo. Self-ratings of alcohol desire, thirst, well-being and alcohol effects comprised our explicit measures of motivation. To measure implicit motivation, we used money and drink stimuli in a Pavlovian conditioning (Pc) task and an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). Alcohol administration increased explicit motivation to drink alcohol, reduced Pc choices of alcoholic drink-conditioned stimuli, but had no effect on the AAT. This combination of results might be explained by differences between goal-directed and habitual behavior or a temporary reduction in rewarding outcome expectancies. Further, there was no association between our measures of motivation to drink alcohol, indicating that both self-reported motivation to drink and implicit approach tendencies may independently contribute to adolescents' actual alcohol intake. Correlations between Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores and our measures of motivation to drink alcohol suggest that interventions should target high-risk adolescents after alcohol intake. Clinical trials: Project 4: Acute Effects of Alcohol on Learning and Habitization in Healthy Young Adults (LeAD_P4); NCT01858818; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01858818.
Damme, J. van; Maes, L.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Crutzen, R.M.M.; Clercq, B. de; Lippevelde, W. van; Hublet, A.
Background and aims: The influence parental drinking on offspring's drinking is well-documented. However, longitudinal evidence on the mediating role of drinking motives in this relationship is lacking. This study longitudinally investigates the mediating role of drinking motives in the relationship
Wicki, M.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Eichenberger, Y.; Aasvee, K.; Bendtsen, P.; Dankulincová Veselká , Z.; Demetrovics, Z.; Dzielska, A.; Farkas, J.; Gaspar de Matos, M.; Roberts, C.; Tynjä lä , J.; Vä limaa, R.; Vieno, A.
Introduction and Aim. This study, which builds on previous research demonstrating that drinking motives are associated with adverse consequences, investigates the associations between drinking motives and non-alcohol-attributed adverse consequences and disentangles alcohol-related and direct
O'Hara, Ross E; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard
This study examined whether global drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation moderates negative mood-drinking contingencies and negative mood-motivation contingencies at the daily level of analysis. Data came from a daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 1,636; 53% female; Mage = 19.2 years). Fixed-interval models tested whether global DTC motivation moderated relations between daily negative mood and that evening's drinking and episodic DTC. Time-to-drink models examined whether global DTC motivation moderated the effects of weekly negative mood on the immediacy of drinking and DTC in the weekly cycle. More evening drinking occurred on days characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, and students were more likely to report DTC on days when they experienced greater sadness. However, only the daily Anxiety × Global DTC Motivation interaction for number of drinks consumed was consistent with hypotheses. Moreover, students reported drinking, heavy drinking, and DTC earlier in weeks characterized by relatively higher anxiety or anger, but no hypothesized interactions with global DTC motivation were found. RESULTS indicate that negative mood is associated with increased levels of drinking and drinking for coping reasons among college students but that the strength of these relations does not differ by global levels of DTC motivation. These findings raise the possibility that global DTC measures are insufficient for examining within-person DTC processes. Further implications of these results are discussed, including future directions that may determine the circumstances under which, and for whom, DTC occurs.
Müller, Stefanie; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
The association between the alcohol use of parents and their offspring is well established. However, little is known about the factors underlying, or mediating, this link. This study investigated whether drinking motives mediate the link between the drinking habits of parents and the frequency of their adolescent children's alcohol consumption and drunkenness. A nationally representative sample of 1,854 13- to 15-year-old students in Switzerland who drink alcohol was analyzed. Structural equation modeling was used to test mediation. As soon as drinking motives were included in the model, the previously significant link between the drinking habits of parents and the frequency of their adolescent children's alcohol consumption was reduced and was no longer significant for drunkenness. Thus, parents' drinking habits indirectly affected adolescent alcohol use via drinking motives, in terms of both the frequency of alcohol consumption and drunkenness. In particular, social, enhancement, and coping motives were prominent mediators in the link between parental drinking and adolescent alcohol consumption, whereas coping and enhancement motives played a key role in the link between parental drinking and adolescent drunkenness. The results of this study suggest that drinking habits of parents are not responsible for the widely reported link between the alcohol use of parents and their offspring, per se. Rather, results suggest that parental drinking shapes the drinking motives of adolescent children, which, in turn, influences adolescent alcohol use.
Whiteman, Shawn D.; Barry, Adam E.
The present study examined the nature and correlates of 252 student service members’/military veteran and civilian college students’ drinking motivations. Data was collected via electronic survey. Results revealed no differences between military affiliated and civilian students in mean levels of alcohol motivations. However, the links between alcohol motives and problem drinking differed for these two groups of students. Specifically, coping motivations were linked to problem drinking for stu...
Thrul, J.; Kuntsche, E.N.
While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals' drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict
Zhou, Jin; Heim, Derek; Levy, Andrew
Studies indicate that those participating in sports are a high-risk population for hazardous alcohol use. Previous research identifies psychosocial drivers underpinning this link between sports participation and risky drinking behavior; however, the evidence is restricted to cross-sectional prevalence studies. Theoretical evaluations suggest that psychologically constructed identities are a defining factor for behaviors in this context. Therefore, the present study sought to examine longitudinally the relationships among sports-related identities, well-being, and alcohol behaviors in those participating in sports. Respondents completed self-report questionnaires on their alcohol consumption, drinking motives, athlete identity (personal identity), sports group identification (social identity), and general well-being. A sample of 475 participants (male = 55.6%; mean age = 20.2 years) provided data at Time 1 for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal associations were conducted with 92 participants (male = 42.4%; mean age = 20.8 years) who provided follow-up data (Time 1 and 6 months later). Cross-sectional results revealed an association between social identity and alcohol consumption, which was fully mediated by positive reinforcement drinking motives. Correlation analysis found a significant positive relationship between Time 1 alcohol consumption and social identity 6 months later. Furthermore, social identity was positively associated with consumption, whereas athlete identity was negatively associated therewith. Finally, well-being was positively associated only with sports group identification over time. Our findings suggest that sport-related drinking may be an avenue for building group identification, and this identification is linked to well-being.
Pham Bich Diep
Full Text Available Background: This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Methods: Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Results: Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy.
Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E S; Knibbe, Ronald A; De Vries, Nanne
This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy.
Littlefield, Andrew K; Talley, Amelia E; Jackson, Kristina M
Affect regulation models of alcohol use posit individuals use alcohol to modify mood states. Importantly, these models hypothesize that individual differences in coping motives for drinking moderate the relation between drinking and negative moods. Despite consistently significant correlations among negative moods, coping motives, and alcohol involvement in numerous between-level studies, within-person analyses have yielded results inconsistent with theoretical models. Analytic techniques modeling time-to-drink have provided results more consistent with theory, though there remains a paucity of research using these methods. The purpose of the current study was to explore whether coping motives moderate the relation between negative moods and the immediacy of drinking using methodology outlined by Hussong (2007) and Armeli, Todd, Conner, and Tennen (2008). Overall, our study showed little evidence for hypothesized mood-motive-alcohol use relations, thus demonstrating that time-to-drink approaches may not provide more consistent support for these hypotheses. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Carmen C Moran, Anthony J SalibaSchool of Psychology, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW, AustraliaObjectives: Health as a positive reason for drinking wine (eg, antioxidant content has scant empirical data to inform policy. This study attempted to examine that motive by including health as one of six motives for drinking, along with measures of problem drinking (the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener [CAGE] questionnaire in an older adult population.Design: Four drinking motives (enhancement, coping, social, and conformity, plus taste and health were included within a larger national telephone survey on drinking behaviors. We also recorded beverage preference.Results: In this analysis, 705 participants drank a preferred beverage. Taste was the most highly endorsed motive. Just under one quarter of the sample endorsed health as a positive reason for drinking. After controlling for age, sex, and preferred alcoholic beverage, the internal psychological motives of enhancement and coping predicted CAGE scores, but external motives did not. Believing that alcohol is healthy was a negative predictor of CAGE scores. Our results showed a different pattern to those with younger drinkers reported in previous research. Our older group was less likely to drink for social reasons and internal motives were predictive of CAGE scores.Conclusion: A motives-based approach to managing problem drinking will need to take account of a wider range of age-related motives. Based on the current data, there is little reason to suspect drinking wine for health reasons is associated with potential problem drinking.Keywords: drinking behavior, wine and drinking motives, healthy drinking, wine and health
Mosher Ruiz, Susan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kemppainen, Maaria I; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S
Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. To evaluate drinking motivation, we asked abstinent long-term alcoholic men and women, and demographically similar nonalcoholic participants to complete the Drinking Motives Questionnaire, which includes Conformity, Coping, Social and Enhancement scales. Patterns of personality scale scores and drinking motives differed by alcoholism status, with alcoholics showing higher psychopathology and stronger motives for drinking compared with controls. Divergent gender-specific relationships between personality and drinking motives also were identified, which differed for alcoholics and controls. Alcoholic and control men and women differed with respect to the associations between personality traits and motives for drinking. A better understanding of how different personality traits affect drinking motivations for alcoholic men and women can inform individualized relapse prevention strategies. Men and women differed in their personality traits and their motivations for drinking, and these relationships differed for abstinent alcoholic and control groups. Additionally, alcoholics scored higher on Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality traits, and had lower Enhancement and Social Conformity drinking motives than nonalcoholic controls. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
LaBrie, Joseph W; Hummer, Justin F; Pedersen, Eric R; Lac, Andrew; Chithambo, Taona
Drinking motives are vital in identifying risk factors and better understanding alcohol-related outcomes. However, context-specific motivations could provide greater motivational perspective on high-risk context-specific alcohol use behaviors such as prepartying (consuming alcohol prior to attending one's intended destination) than general alcohol motivations. In the current study, students' open-ended responses to reasons for prepartying were collected from a large diverse sample (n=2497), and the most commonly offered reasons were used to create a prepartying motivations inventory (PMI) that was then administered to a different sample (n=1085). A split-half validation procedure was used for the purpose of evaluating the PMI's factor structure. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a final 16-item measure consisting of four distinct, but inter-related, factors: Interpersonal Enhancement, Situational Control, Intimate Pursuit, and Barriers to Consumption. Internal consistency reliability, discriminant validity, and criterion-related validity were empirically demonstrated. Results support the notion that individuals preparty for a variety of reasons that are distinct from general motives. Researchers are encouraged to use the PMI in future research with young adults to provide further understanding of prepartying behavior and its psychosocial correlates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Joyce, Kayla M; Hudson, Amanda; O'Connor, Roisin; Thompson, Kara; Hodgin, Megan; Perrot, Tara; Stewart, Sherry H
Alcohol use has been reported to fluctuate over women's menstrual cycles (MCs), with increased intake occurring premenstrually/menstrually (phases characterized by heightened negative affect) and during the ovulatory phase (a phase characterized by positive affect). This suggests women may drink for particular emotion-focused reasons at specific points in their cycles. However, no research had yet examined MC variability in drinking motives, or links between cycle-related changes in drinking motives and alcohol consumption. Ninety-four normally cycling women (M age = 22.9 years old, SD age = 4.7) completed daily diary measures (via Smartphone surveys), with questions pertaining to state drinking motives and quantity of alcohol consumed for the course of a full MC. Drinking motives differed by cycle phase. Women reported a slight increase in drinking to self-medicate for negative affect premenstrually, with drinking to cope peaking in the menstrual phase and declining mid-cycle. Women reported a slight increasing trend across the cycle in social motives for drinking, while enhancement motives remained relatively stable across the cycle. Cycle-related changes in drinking motives predicted increases in the quantity of alcohol consumed. Drinking to cope with negative affect predicted a greater number of drinks menstrually (days 1-5). While social motives predicted a greater number of drinks during the follicular and ovulatory phases (days 5-16), enhancement motives were unrelated to drinking quantity across cycle phase. Clinicians should be attentive to cycle phase when treating reproductive-aged women with alcohol disorders (e.g., encouraging the use of healthier means of coping with negative affect during menses). © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida
This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…
Linden, Ashley N.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.
The aim of the study was to examine the separate and combined influence of perceived norms, negative reinforcement drinking motives, and social anxiety on alcohol outcomes. Participants (N = 250) completed measures of injunctive norms, social anxiety, drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data collection occurred in 2010.…
Salemink, E.; Wiers, R.W.
Although studies on explicit alcohol cognitions have identified positive and negative reinforcing drinking motives that are differentially related to drinking indices, such a distinction has received less attention in studies on implicit cognitions. An alcohol-related Word-Sentence Association Task
Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Kilwein, Tess M; Wray, Tyler B; Stevenson, Brittany L; Sargent, Emily M
This study examined associations between drinking motivation, alcohol use, and sexual hookups among college students. Participants (n = 755 Midwest college student drinkers; 61% female) ranged in age from 18 to 24. Participants completed online measures of alcohol involvement (use and motives) and sexual activity. Alcohol use was positively linked to sexual hookups. Social and enhancement motives were positively and indirectly associated with sexual hookups via alcohol use. Drinking to cope had a direct association with sexual hookups. Social drinking was more strongly associated with hookups in men than in women, but both groups exhibited a positive association. This study is the first to highlight the relationships between distinct drinking motives and sexual risk behavior. The results indicate that specific motives may increase risk of sexual hookups both indirectly via alcohol use, as well as directly, at least among those that drink to cope with negative mood.
Foster, Dawn W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Garey, Lorra; Ditre, Joseph W; Schmidt, Norman B
There is a high co-occurrence of problem drinking and regular cigarette smoking, and cognitive processes (e.g., motivation to use, expectations about the consequences of use) related to each are positively associated with one another. We explored drinking motives in relation to cognitive-based smoking processes among smokers with problematic drinking. We expected that drinking coping motives would be associated with smoking consequences related to negative reinforcement and negative personal outcomes and inflexibility of smoking behavior; observed effects for coping motives would be unique from shared variance with other motives and incrementally evident beyond the variance accounted for by tobacco-related health problems, smoking rate, negative affectivity, cannabis use, and gender. The sample included 195 individuals recruited into a larger study of smoking cessation treatments (i.e., they were interested in quitting), who were heavy drinkers and smoked daily. Participants were primarily male (n = 122, 63%), fairly young (Mage = 30.3 years; SD = 12.46), and predominantly White/Caucasian (n = 175, 80%). Roughly 57% (n = 111) had at least one comorbid Axis I disorder, the most common being social anxiety (n = 21, 11%) and generalized anxiety disorder (n = 12, 6%). Coping drinking motives predicted negative smoking consequences, negative reinforcement, and smoking inflexibility. Enhancement drinking motives marginally predicted positive reinforcement. Conformity drinking motives predicted smoking consequences related to appetite/weight control. Social drinking motives predicted negative reinforcement and barriers to cessation and marginally predicted positive reinforcement. Theoretical models and clinical activities focused on smoking cessation among problem drinkers may benefit from considering the role of drinking motives, particularly coping-oriented motives, to better understanding cognitive-based smoking processes.
Desalu, Jessica M; Kim, Jueun; Zaso, Michelle J; Corriders, Sydnee R; Loury, Jacoby A; Minter, Monique L; Park, Aesoon
Experiences of racial discrimination have been associated with diverse negative health outcomes among racial minorities. However, extant findings of the association between racial discrimination and alcohol behaviors among Black college students are mixed. The current study examined mediating roles of depressive symptoms and coping drinking motives in the association of perceived racial discrimination with binge drinking and negative drinking consequences. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study of Black college students attending a predominantly White institution in the northeastern US (N = 251, 66% female, mean age = 20 years). Results from path analysis showed that, when potential mediators were not considered, perceived racial discrimination was positively associated with negative drinking consequences but not frequency of binge drinking. Serial multiple mediation analysis showed that depressive symptoms and in turn coping drinking motives partially mediated the associations of perceived racial discrimination with both binge drinking frequency and negative drinking consequences (after controlling for sex, age, and negative life events). Perceived racial discrimination is directly associated with experiences of alcohol-related problems, but not binge drinking behaviors among Black college students. Affective responses to perceived racial discrimination experiences and drinking to cope may serve as risk mechanisms for alcohol-related problems in this population. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.
Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Wiers, R.W.; Gasser, M.L.; Teachman, B.A.
Introduction: Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We
Smit, K.; Groefsema, M.M.; Luijten, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to test (a) whether drinking motives predict event-level drinking on weekend evenings; (b) whether the number of friends present in social situations was associated with drinking on weekend evenings; and (c) whether drinking motives moderate the association
Skewes, Monica C; Blume, Arthur W
This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm.
Van Kampen, D.A.; Lovell, M.R.; Diercks, Ron
Sport related concussion is a hot item. The Health Council of the Netherlands published its report on concussions in 2003 and there is much concern about the negative health effects of sports related concussion. Neuropsychological testing has recently been endorsed as a 'cornerstone' of concussion
Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Williams, Joah L
Elevated alcohol reward value (RV) has been linked to higher levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and there is evidence that specific drinking motives may mediate the relationship between demand and problematic alcohol use in college students, making these variables potentially important indicators of risk for high RV and alcohol problems. The present study evaluated these relationships in a high-risk sample of military veterans. Heavy-drinking (N = 68) veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom or Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) completed the alcohol purchase task (APT) measure of alcohol demand (RV), and standard assessments of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and drinking motives. RV was associated with overall alcohol consequences, interpersonal alcohol consequences, social responsibility consequences and impulse control consequences. Mediation analyses indicated significant mediation of the relationships between RV and a number of problem subscales by social motives, coping-anxiety motives, coping-depression motives and enhancement motives. This suggests that individuals who have a high valuation of alcohol may have increased motivation to drink in social, mood-enhancement, and coping situations, resulting in increased alcohol-related consequences. Demand and drinking motives should be examined as potential indicators of need for intervention services and as treatment targets in veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Simons, Raluca M; Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Jeffrey S; Murase, Hanako
This study examined the relationships between emotion dysregulation, peer drinking norms, drinking motives, and alcohol-related outcomes among 435 college students. We examined the mediating roles of drinking motives when predicting alcohol consumption and related problems from the subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS; Gratz and Roemer, 2004) via negative and positive reinforcement models. First, we hypothesized that individuals who lack in emotion regulation strategies or have difficulties in accepting negative emotions are more likely to drink to cope. Additionally, we hypothesized that individuals who act impulsively or become distracted when upset as well as those with higher peer drinking norms are more likely to drink for social and enhancement motives. The results of the path model indicated that limited access to emotion regulation strategies significantly predicted alcohol-related problems via both depression and anxiety coping motives, but did not predict alcohol consumption. Nonacceptance of emotional responses was not significantly associated with coping motives. Impulsivity had a significant direct relationship with alcohol problems. Difficulty in engaging in goal-directed behaviors predicted both enhancement and social motives, but only enhancement motives in turn predicted consumption. Norms indirectly predicted problems via enhancement motives and consumption. The results indicated that using alcohol to reduce negative or to increase positive emotions increases alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Overall, results advance our understanding of the mechanisms of increased alcohol use and problems among college students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Wicki, Matthias; Windlin, Béat
, and coping motives in northern than in southern/central Europe. CONCLUSIONS: The results from the largest drinking motive study conducted to date suggest that gender-specific prevention should take differences in the motivational pathways toward (heavy) drinking into account, that is, positive reinforcement......PURPOSE: To test whether differences in alcohol use between boys and girls and between northern and southern/central Europe are mediated by social, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. METHODS: Cross-sectional school-based surveys were conducted among 33,813 alcohol-using 11- to 19-year...... girls. Instead of mediation, gender-specific motive paths were found; 14- to 16-year-old girls drank more because of higher levels of coping motives and lower levels of conformity motives, whereas 14- to 19-year-old boys drank more because of higher levels of social and enhancement motives. Geographical...
Madson, Michael B; Villarosa, Margo C; Moorer, Kayla D; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil
Drinking motives are robust predictors of alcohol use behaviors among college students. However, less is known about the link between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors among African American college students. This study explored the associations between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors in a sample of 215 African American college students. The study also assessed whether protective behavioral strategies mediated the associations between drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors. A direct relationship emerged between enhancement motives and alcohol consumption, harmful drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. Protective behavioral strategies mediated each of these relationships. Clinical and research implications are discussed.
Full Text Available Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e. to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e. fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness and behavioral inhibition (BIS systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5,362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, conformity was also tested.Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness –alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness –risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the
O'Hara, Ross E.; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard
Prior investigations have established between-person associations between drinking motives and both levels of alcohol use and social-contextual factors surrounding that use, but these relations have yet to be examined at the within-person level of analysis. Moreover, exploring previously posited subtypes of coping motives (i.e., coping with depression, anxiety, and anger) may shed light on the within-person processes underlying drinking to cope. In this daily diary study of college student drinking (N = 722; 54% female), students reported each day how many drinks they consumed the previous evening in both social and nonsocial settings along with their motives for each drinking episode. Additionally, they reported whether they attended a party the evening before, the number of people they were with, the gender makeup of that group, and their perceptions of their companions’ drinking prevalence and quantity. External reasons for drinking—social and conformity motives—showed patterns largely consistent across levels of analysis and in agreement with motivational models. However, internal reasons for drinking—enhancement and coping motives—demonstrated divergent associations that suggest different processes across levels of analysis. Finally, coping subtypes showed differing associations with drinking levels and social-contextual factors dependent on the predisposing emotion and the level of analysis. These results suggest that internal drinking motives have unique state and trait components, which could have important implications for the application of motivational models to prevention and treatment efforts. We recommend including drinking motives (including coping subtypes) as within-person measures in future micro-longitudinal studies. PMID:25546143
Németh, Zsófia; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Urbán, Róbert; Farkas, Judit; Demetrovics, Zsolt
The aim of this study is to confirm the four-dimensional structure and other measurement properties of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised Short Form (DMQ-R SF) among young Hungarian adults in a recreational setting. In a 'Health Tent' at Europe's biggest music and cultural festival, 390 attendees (mean age 23.6, SD = 4.4) completed the DMQ-R SF and answered other alcohol-related questions. Data were analysed by confirmatory factor analysis, repeated measures anova and structural equation modelling. The results confirmed the good measurement properties of the DMQ-R SF in terms of factor loadings, model fit and internal consistency. These statistics were similar for men and women. For both genders, social motives were the most frequently indicated motivational dimension, followed by coping, conformity and enhancement. Social motives were consistently related to drinking, and coping to alcohol-related problems. It seems that the DMQ-R SF is a useful instrument for measuring the motivation to engage in drinking in recreational settings, such as parties, clubs and festivals, where hard-to-reach target groups vulnerable to risky drinking behaviour are present, but time for filling out questionnaires is restricted. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Terlecki, Meredith A; Buckner, Julia D
Individuals with clinically elevated social anxiety are at greater risk for alcohol use disorder, and the relation between social anxiety and drinking problems is at least partially accounted for by drinking more in negative emotional (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) situations. Identification of cognitive/motivational factors related to drinking in these high-risk situations could inform the development of treatment and prevention interventions for these high-risk drinkers. The current cross-sectional study examined the mediating effect of drinking motives on the relationship between social anxiety and drinking these high-risk situations among undergraduates (N=232). Clinically elevated social anxiety was associated with greater coping and conformity motives. Both coping and conformity motives mediated the relation between social anxiety and heavier alcohol consumption in negative emotional and personal/intimate contexts. Multiple mediation analyses indicated that these motives work additively to mediate the social anxiety-drinking situations relationship, such that heavy situational drinking among undergraduates with clinically elevated social anxiety can be jointly attributed to desire to cope with negative affect and to avoid social scrutiny. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cooper, R; Hildebrandt, S; Gerlach, A L
The high comorbidity of alcohol use disorders (AUD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) is often explained by excessive drinking in social situations to self-medicate social anxiety. Indeed, the motive to drink alcohol to lower social fears was found to be elevated in socially anxious persons. However, this social anxiety specific motive has not been directly investigated in primarily alcohol dependent individuals. We explored social anxiety, the motivation to drink alcohol in order to cope with social fears, and social anxiety as a consequence of drinking in AUD with and without comorbid SAD. Male AUD inpatients with (AUD+SAD group, N=23) and without comorbid SAD (N=37) completed a clinical interview and a questionnaire assessment. AUD+SAD patients reported higher levels of depression and an elevated motive to drink due to social anxiety but did not experience more social fears as a consequence of drinking. Previous results concerning alcohol drinking motives in order to relieve social fears could be replicated in a clinical AUD sample. Additionally, our findings suggest comorbid AUD+SAD patients to be more burdened regarding broader psychopathological symptoms. Thus, accessibility to SAD-specific screening and treatment procedures may be beneficial for primary AUD patients.
Ralston, T.E.; Palfai, T.P.; Rinck, M.
Background Research suggests that depressed mood is associated with alcohol-related problems, though its relation with drinking behavior has been inconsistent across studies. Efforts to better understand the link between depressed mood and alcohol use have examined drinking motives as a potentially
Carey, Kate B.; Henson, James M.; Carey, Michael P.; Maisto, Stephen A.
Heavy drinking among college students is common and is often harmful. A previously reported randomized trial revealed that a brief motivational intervention (BMI) reduced the alcohol consumption of heavy drinking college students (K. B. Carey, M. P. Carey, S. A. Maisto, & J. M. Henson, 2006). For this study, the researchers conducted supplemental…
Burt, C W; Overpeck, M D
We sought to estimate the effect and magnitude of patients with sports-related injuries presenting to hospital emergency departments in the United States and to examine differences in patient and visit characteristics between sports- and nonsports-related injuries. Data from the 1997 and 1998 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a national probabilistic sample of 496 US hospital EDs, were combined to examine emergency visits for sports-related injuries. Data from 16,997 sample ED encounter records for injuries that included narrative cause of injury text were analyzed. Narrative text entries were coded to 1 of 84 sport and recreational activity codes. Sample weights were applied to provide annual national estimates. Estimates of sports-related injury visits were based on 1,775 records with an assigned sports-related activity code. There were an average annual estimated 2.6 million emergency visits for sports-related injuries by persons between the ages of 5 and 24 years. They accounted for over 68% of the total 3.7 million sport injuries presented to the ED by persons of all ages. As a proportion of all kinds of injuries presenting to the ED, sports-related injuries accounted for more than one fifth of the visits by persons 5 to 24 years old. The use rate was 33.9 ED visits per 1,000 persons in this age group (95% confidence interval 30.3 to 37.5). The sports-related injury visit rate for male patients was more than double the rate for female patients (48.2 versus 19.2 per 1,000 persons between 5 and 24 years of age). Visits from sports-related activities for this age group were more frequent for basketball and cycling compared with other categories (eg, baseball, skateboarding, gymnastics). Compared with nonsports-related injuries for this age group, sports-related injuries were more likely to be to the brain or skull and upper and lower extremities. Patients with sports-related injuries were more likely to have a diagnosis of fracture and sprain or
Thrul, Johannes; Kuntsche, Emmanuel
While drinking motives are well-established proximal predictors of alcohol use, less is known about their role in event-level drinking behavior. The present study examines whether the interaction between individuals? drinking motives and the number of friends present at a given moment can predict alcohol consumption over the course of the evening. Using the Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), 183 young adults (53.0 % female, mean age =23.1) in French-speaking Swit...
Doumas, Diana M.
This study examined drinking motives as predictors of alcohol-related consequences among student athletes and nonathletes. Results indicated that the highest level of alcohol-related consequences was reported by student athletes with high levels of both coping and conformity motives. (Contains 2 tables and 2 figures.)
Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Kilwein, Tess M.; Wray, Tyler B.; Stevenson, Brittany L.; Sargent, Emily M.
Objective: This study examined associations between drinking motivation, alcohol use, and sexual hookups among college students. Participants: Participants (n = 755 Midwest college student drinkers; 61% female) ranged in age from 18 to 24. Methods: Participants completed online measures of alcohol involvement (use and motives) and sexual activity.…
Ostafin, Brian D.; Bauer, Chris; Myxter, Peter
Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol and drug use are influenced by automatic motivational responses to substance use cues. With increasing evidence that automatic alcohol motivation is related to heavy drinking, researchers have begun to examine interventions that may modulate the
Mushquash, Christopher J.; Stewart, Sherry H.; Comeau, Nancy; McGrath, Patrick J.
Objective: The factor structure of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was examined in a sample of First Nations (i.e., Mi'kmaq) adolescents. Results: Exploratory principal components analysis indicated a three-factor structure (conformity, coping, and positive reinforcement motives), with the positive reinforcement…
Mackinnon, Sean P; Couture, Marie-Eve; Cooper, M L; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; O'Connor, Roisin M; Stewart, Sherry H
This study tested the measurement invariance of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised Short Form (DMQ-R-SF) in undergraduates across 10 countries. We expected the four-factor structure to hold across countries, and for social motives to emerge as the most commonly endorsed motive, followed by enhancement, coping and conformity motives. We also compared individualistic and collectivistic countries to examine potential differences in the endorsement of drinking motives when countries were divided according to this broad cultural value. A sample of 8478 undergraduate drinkers from collectivistic (Portugal, Mexico, Brazil, Spain; n = 1567) and individualistic (Switzerland, Hungary, Canada, the Netherlands, the UK and Ireland, and the USA; n = 6911) countries completed the DMQ-R-SF. Countries were classified as individualistic or collectivistic based on world-wide norms. Using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis, the 4-factor model of the DMQ-R-SF showed configural and metric invariance across all 10 countries. As predicted, the rank order of undergraduates' drinking motive endorsement was identical across countries (social > enhancement > coping > conformity), although a mixed model analysis of variance revealed a significant interaction where undergraduates from individualistic countries more strongly endorsed social and enhancement motives relative to undergraduates from collectivistic countries. There was broad cross-cultural consistency in the factor structure and mean patterns of drinking motives. Undergraduate students appear to drink mainly for positive reinforcement (i.e. for social and enhancement reasons), although this tendency is particularly pronounced among those from more individualistic countries. [Mackinnon SP, Couture M-E, Cooper ML, Kuntsche E, O'Connor RM, Stewart SH, and the DRINC Team. Cross-cultural comparisons of drinking motives in 10 countries: Data from the DRINC project. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other
Zamboanga, Byron L; Audley, Shannon; Olthuis, Janine V; Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Tomaso, Cara C; Bui, Ngoc; Borsari, Brian
Playing drinking games can be characterized as a high-risk drinking activity because games are typically designed to promote heavy alcohol consumption. While research suggests that young adults are motivated to play drinking games for a variety of reasons (e.g., for thrills/fun, for the competition), the Motives for Playing Drinking Games measure has received limited empirical attention. We examined the psychometric properties of this measure with a confirmation sample of young adults recruited from Amazon's MTurk ( N = 1,809, ages 18-25 years, 47% men; 41% not currently enrolled in college) and a validation sample of college students ( N = 671; ages 18-23 years; 26% men). Contrary to the 8-factor model obtained by Johnson and Sheets in a study published in 2004, examination of the factor structure with our confirmation sample yielded a revised 7-factor model that was invariant across race/ethnicity and college student status. This model was also validated with the college student sample. In the confirmation sample, enhancement/thrills and sexual pursuit motives for playing drinking games were positively associated with gaming frequency/consumption and negative gaming consequences. Furthermore, conformity motives for playing drinking games were positively associated with negative gaming consequences, while competition motives were positively associated with gaming frequency. These findings have significant implications for research and prevention/intervention efforts.
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gabhainn, Saoirse Nic; Roberts, Chris
across Europe. As social motives were particularly closely linked to drunkenness among young adolescents, measures to impede the modeling of alcohol use and skills to resist peer pressure are particularly important in this age group. (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, 75, 428-437, 2014)....... the hypothesized fourdimensional factor structure. Social motives for drinking were most frequently indicated, followed by enhancement, coping, and conformity motives, in that order, in all age groups in all countries except Finland. This rank order was clearest among older adolescents and those from northern...... expectations, social motives were more closely related to drunkenness than were coping motives, particularly among younger adolescents. Conclusions: The findings reveal striking cross-cultural consistency. Health promotion efforts that are based on, or incorporate, drinking motives are likely to be applicable...
Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew
The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were
Marczinski, Cecile A.
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (2014) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers chose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590
Marczinski, Cecile A
Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Ehrenberg, Ethan; Armeli, Stephen; Howland, Maryhope; Tennen, Howard
Theory suggests that state- and trait-like factors should interact in predicting drinking to cope (DTC) motivation, yet no research to date has demonstrated this at the drinking episode level of analysis. Thus, we examined whether daily variation in positive and negative affect and avoidance and active coping were associated with DTC motivation during discrete drinking episodes and whether these associations were moderated by tension-reduction expectancies and other person-level risk factors. Using a secure website, 722 college student drinkers completed a one-time survey regarding their tension reduction expectancies and then reported daily for 30 days on their affect, coping strategies, drinking behaviors and motives for drinking. Individuals reported higher levels of DTC motivation on days when negative affect and avoidance coping were high and positive affect was low. We found only little support for the predicted interactive effects among the day- and person-level predictors. Our results support the state and trait conceptualizations of DTC motivation and provide evidence for the antecedent roles of proximal levels of daily affect and avoidance coping. Our inconsistent results for interaction effects including day-level antecedents raise the possibility that some of these synergistic processes might not generalize across level of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna
Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students.
Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes; Malbergier, André; Lima, Danielle Ruiz; Santos, Verena Castellani Vitor; Gorenstein, Clarice; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de
The aim of this study was to investigate whether cognitive variables proposed by the protection motivation theory (PMT) were predictive of occasional and frequent intention to drive after drinking in medical students. One hundred fifty-five students attending preclinical years at a Medical School in São Paulo, Brazil, participated in the study. They were asked about their last month substance use, history of drinking and driving, including driving after binge drinking, and risk perceptions based on a self-report questionnaire with statements about protection motivation, threat, and coping appraisals from the PMT model. Fifty-two students (33%) had previous experience of driving after drinking during the last year, and 54 students (35%) reported intention to drive after drinking within the next year. Regression analysis showed that higher scores in perception of personal vulnerability to risks were associated with occasional and frequent intention to continue pursuing this particular behavior. Poorer evaluations about short-term consequences of alcohol consumption and cognitions regarding external rewards were significantly associated with reported intention to continue driving after drinking. Considering the social and health impact of alcohol-impaired behaviors, our findings suggest the need of interventional efforts focused in increasing students' awareness about the negative consequences of drinking and driving aiming to enhance their motivation towards more adaptive behaviors.
Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R
There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Levitt, Ash; Leonard, Kenneth E.
Research and theory suggest that romantic couple members are motivated to drink to cope with interpersonal distress. Additionally, this behavior and its consequences appear to be differentially associated with insecure attachment styles. However, no research has directly examined drinking to cope that is specific to relationship problems, or with relationship-specific drinking outcomes. Based on alcohol motivation and attachment theories, the current study examines relationship-specific drinking-to-cope processes over the early years of marriage. Specifically, it was hypothesized that drinking to cope with a relationship problem would mediate the associations between insecure attachment styles (i.e., anxious and avoidant) and frequencies of drinking with and apart from one’s partner and marital alcohol problems in married couples. Multilevel models were tested via the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model using reports of both members of 470 couples over the first 9 years of marriage. As expected, relationship-specific drinking-to-cope motives mediated the effects of actor anxious attachment on drinking apart from one’s partner and on marital alcohol problems, but, unexpectedly, not on drinking with the partner. No mediated effects were found for attachment avoidance. Results suggest that anxious (but not avoidant) individuals are motivated to use alcohol to cope specifically with relationship problems in certain contexts, which may exacerbate relationship difficulties associated with attachment anxiety. Implications for theory and future research on relationship-motivated drinking are discussed. PMID:25799439
Young, Chelsie M; DiBello, Angelo M; Traylor, Zachary K; Zvolensky, Michael J; Neighbors, Clayton
The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over 2 years. First-year college student drinkers (n = 818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every 6 months over a 2-year period. Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Tudor Edu; Iliuță Costel Negricea; Alexandru Ionescu
The consumer is in the centre of any marketing endeavour. Finding out what the consumers (individual or organization) need, desire and demand is the starting point of a marketing approach.Our research is focused on determining consumer behaviour coordinates pertaining to cool drinks amongst South Africans under the age of 35. The findings of this study provide significant information concerning the buying motives considered when purchasing cool drinks which can be extended to other categories...
Ford, Jessica L; Ildefonso, Kenneth; Jones, Megan L; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna
To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety.
Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health
Keough, Matthew T; Badawi, Ghislaine; Nitka, Danit; O'Connor, Roisin M; Stewart, Sherry H
According to theory, those high in social anxiety (SA) are at risk for drinking alcohol for coping and conformity motives, which in turn lead to alcohol use and related problems. Empirical tests of this risk pathway in non-clinical samples have produced mixed results. Although those high on SA may drink to cope with anxiety and to reduce the likelihood of social rejection, they may also avoid drinking for fear of embarrassing themselves when intoxicated. Central to alcohol use by those high in SA is a temporary disregard of alcohol's potentially negative consequences. Accordingly, we hypothesized that SA would positively predict alcohol use and problems, but only at high levels of impulsivity (IMP). We expected these interactive effects to be mediated by coping and conformity motives. Undergraduates ( N = 461) completed self-reports. Partially supporting hypotheses, IMP moderated the association between SA and alcohol-related problems (but not use), such that SA predicted problems only at high IMP. This interactive effect was mediated by coping (but not conformity) motives, such that SA positively predicted coping motives (especially at high IMP), which in turn predicted problems. Results suggest that IMP and coping motives clarify SA-related drinking. Clinical interventions may consider targeting IMP.
Jones, G R; Newhouse, I
To present an overview and models of the potential causes and implications of sport-related hematuria in an athletic population as provided by a literature review. A total of 64 published scientific articles have been utilized to provide a review of sport-related hematuria. Reviewed studies were selected on the basis that they provided informative findings about the possible mechanisms of sport-related hematuria attributed to exercise duration and intensity. These studies used both normal adult and athletic populations. A review of the literature on the potential mechanisms of sport-related hematuria led to the classification of these mechanisms as either exercise duration related or exercise intensity related. Research has revealed an increased prevalence of hematuria in athletes. The mechanisms responsible may be traced to different sources or a combination thereof. Many explanations have been directed toward a potential cause; foot-strike hemolysis, renal ischemia, hypoxic damage to the kidney, the release of a hemolyzing factor, bladder and/or kidney trauma, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dehydration, increased circulation rate, myoglobinuria release, and the peroxidation of red blood cells. These mechanisms are presented in two models depicting the influence of either exercise intensity or exercise duration on sport-related hematuria. Athletes, coaches, and sports medicine professionals should be aware of this condition because frequent high-intensity and/or long-duration workouts and competitions may promote the symptoms. Repeated red blood cell loss through the urine may be a contributing factor toward promoting anemic conditions in competitive athletes. Recognition of the potential mechanisms can spare the time and expense of invasive testing.
Lee, Christina S.; López, Steven R.; Hernández, Lynn; Colby, Suzanne M.; Caetano, Raul; Borrelli, Belinda; Rohsenow, Damaris
Although the need for cultural adaptations is often noted in addiction research, there are few templates to guide the process. The rationale for a social contextual framework to culturally adapt Motivational Interviewing for an immigrant heavy drinking Latino population in the U.S. Northeast is presented. The aim of the pilot study was to obtain data on acceptability of this approach. Participant responses to the adaptation were examined qualitatively and quantitatively in a preliminary study. Procedure: Participants recruited from the community met criteria for risky drinking (men, ≥ 5 drinks/occasion or ≥14 drinks/week; women, ≥ 4 drinks/occasion or ≥7 drinks/week). Participants (n=25) who completed baseline assessments and a culturally adapted brief motivational interview (CAMI) were asked to complete a qualitative exit interview to give feedback on their interview experience. Participants reported being highly engaged with treatment (M=3.58 on a scale of 1 - 4, SD = .50), and felt very satisfied with treatment (M=3.58 on a scale of 1 - 4, SD = .93). Nearly all (95%) reported that understanding their culture was important to understanding their drinking behavior. Results support the acceptability and relevance of this adaptation from participants’ perspectives. PMID:21787064
Andrea L Howard
Full Text Available This study examined rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems in relation to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies in university students with a documented current diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; n = 31 compared with students with no history of ADHD (n = 146. Participants completed a Web-based questionnaire, and logistic regression models tested interactions between ADHD/comparison group membership and motives and protective strategies. Group differences in rates of heavy drinking and alcohol problems were not statistically significant, but medium-sized risk ratios showed that students without ADHD reported heavy drinking at a rate 1.44 times higher than students with ADHD and met screening criteria for problematic alcohol use at a rate of 1.54 times higher than students with ADHD. Other key findings were, first, that drinking to enhance positive affect (e.g., drinking because it is exciting, but not to cope with negative affect (e.g., drinking to forget your worries, predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Second, only protective behavioral strategies that emphasize alcohol avoidance predicted both heavy drinking and alcohol problems. Contrary to expectations, we found no ADHD-related moderation of effects of motives or protective strategies on our alcohol outcomes. Results of this study are limited by the small sample of students with ADHD but highlight tentative similarities and differences in effects of motives and strategies on drinking behaviors and alcohol problems reported by students with and without ADHD.
Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption.
Novik, Melinda G; Howard, Donna E; Boekeloo, Bradley O
This study examined the relationship between drinking motivations and college students' experiences with unwanted sexual advances. Undergraduates, from a public university in the mid-Atlantic region, who reported recent (30 day) alcohol use ( n = 289) completed an online survey midway through the spring 2007 academic semester. Experiencing an unwanted sexual advance was the outcome of interest for the present study. The independent variables included sociodemographics and a three-factor (social ease, social image or reputation, emotional distress) drinking motivation measure. Prevalence estimates as well as unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were produced. A strong relationship was found between having an unwanted sexual advance and recent binge drinking as well as drinking to remove emotional distress (OR = 3.40 and 2.73, respectively, for the total sample; OR = 7.27 and 2.82 for females). Findings suggest that experiencing an unwanted sexual advance is associated with specific drinking motivations and more likely to occur among females. Further research is needed to fully understand pathways and implications.
Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Kuntsche, Sandra
A short form of the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R; Cooper, 1994) was developed, using different item selection strategies based on a national representative sample of 5,617 12- to 18-year-old students in Switzerland. To confirm the concurrent validity of the short-form questionnaire, or DMQ-R SF, data from a second national sample…
Kenney, Shannon R.; Paves, Andrew P.; Grimaldi, Elizabeth M.; LaBrie, Joseph W.
Objective: Sleep problems and alcohol misuse are common issues experienced by college students that can have detrimental effects on overall health. Previous work indicates a strong relationship between poor sleep quality and alcohol risk in this population. This study explored the moderating effect of drinking motives in the relationship between…
Koyama, Chieko; Belli, Gabriella
Alcohol use, acculturative stress, and drinking motivations of 262 students in English as a second language programs in a U.S. community college were explored. Alcohol consumption was generally low, but differences between two groups with different legal statuses indicate the need to consider subgroups of international students for research…
Jasinski, Jana L.; Ford, Jason A.
Evidence indicates GLB individuals may be at greater risk for high rates of alcohol consumption; however, few studies have identified specific factors explaining why differences exist. Using data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study, we examined the ability of drinking motives and social norms to explain the relationship between sexual orientation…
Wakefield, Hannah M; Olympia, Robert P; King, Tonya S; Wakefield, Bryan H; Weber, Chris J
Sport participation is an important part of the development of children and adolescents in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine positive and negative themes found in a selected number of sport-related films. A total of 44 sport-related films were independently viewed and analyzed by four reviewers. The most common sports depicted were baseball (27%) and football (25%). The most common positive themes were positive interactions with the coach, positive interactions with family and friends, and positive interactions with teammates (2.04, 1.42, 1.2 mean events per hour). The most common negative themes were taunting/fighting/poor sportsmanship, negative interactions with the coach, and drinking/smoking/drug use (2.13, 1.10, 0.94 mean events per hour). In conclusion, the coviewing of sport films among pediatric athletes and their coaches, athletic trainers, and/or parents in order to focus on "teachable moments" may encourage the acquisition and development of positive themes and the avoidance and de-emphasis of negative themes.
Full Text Available PURPOSE To investigate the accuracy of MRI in evaluation of sports related knee injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS From June 2015 to 1 st week of July 2016. Thirty patients referred for sports related knee pain have been included in this study. Patients were subjected to a dedicated MR knee study (GE HD XT 1.5T MR System and correlated knee arthroscopy and surgery. RESULTS The study included Thirty patients complaining of sports related knee pain, only 5 patients (16.67 % were with normal MRI findings and 25 patients (83.33% were with abnormal MRI findings. Among the 25 patients who had injuries of their knees, 15 patients (60% had ACL injuries, 6 patients (24% had PCL injuries, 10 patients (40% had meniscal injuries, 8 patients (32% had collateral ligament injuries, 5 patients (20% had bone injuries and 2 patients (8% had muscular injuries. Only 5 patients (20% were represented with isolated injury and 20 patients (80% were represented with combined injuries. In correlation with arthroscopies and surgeries, morphological analysis was true-positive in 23 (92% patients of the 25 injured patients, and true-negative in 1 (60% patient of the 2 normal patients. Morphological analysis revealed overall 92% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Regarding the 15 patients who had ACL injuries, 13 patients (86.6% were true-positive and 8 patients (80% of the 10 patients who had meniscal injuries were true-positive. CONCLUSION MRI represents the optimal imaging modalities in the evaluation of the sports related knee injuries, which has been shown to be an accurate and non-invasive method of diagnosing ligament, meniscal, cartilage and muscular knee injuries.
Diep, Pham Bich; Schelleman-Offermans, K; Kuntsche, E; De Vries, Nanne; Knibbe, Ronald A
To investigate whether the links between alcohol expectancies (tension reduction; global positive change; improved cognitive and motor abilities; and change in social behavior) and alcohol outcomes (drinking volume, 6+ drinks, alcohol problems, and symptoms of alcohol dependence) are mediated by drinking motives (social, enhancement, conformity, and coping). A multi-stage sampling strategy was used in four Vietnamese provinces, resulting in a final sample of 4756 students (43.2% females) with mean age 20.6 (SD 1.8) years. Structural equation models, including indirect effects, were estimated for women and men separately. Overall, there were many cases of full mediation (indirect effects range from -0.006 to 0.083 and p-values from social motives also played a role in mediating the effects of expectancies on alcohol outcomes. Among women, full mediation was found far less often and less consistently. By confirming that, in Vietnam, motives mediate the link between expectancies and drinking behavior, this study supports the cultural robustness of a key assumption of the motivational model (i.e. that drinking motives are more closely associated with alcohol use than expectancies). Enhancement, coping and social motives are most frequently found as mediators among male students whereas coping motive only is most frequently found as a mediator among female students. As most of the effects of expectancies were mediated by motives, drinking motives appear to be a promising factor for interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Elena Fiabane,1,2 Marcella Ottonello,1,3 Valeria Zavan,4 Caterina Pistarini,1 Ines Giorgi5 1Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Institute of Genoa Nervi, Genoa, 2Department of Brain and Behavioral Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 3Department of Medicine, PhD Program in Advance Sciences and Technologies in Rehabilitation Medicine and Sport, Università di Tor Vergata, Rome, 4Alcohol Unit, Addiction Department, Alessandria, 5Psychology Unit, ICS Maugeri Spa SB, Scientific Institute of Pavia, Pavia, Italy Background: An inpatient 28-day rehabilitation program for alcohol dependence is focused on detoxification, enhancing motivation to change, and coping strategies for the management of emotional distress and temptation to drink. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 changes over time in motivation to change, anxiety, and depression in individuals undergoing residential rehabilitation treatment for alcohol addiction, and 2 which pretreatment factors are associated with posttreatment temptation to drink.Methods: We assessed 432 patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision consecutively recruited from seven residential rehabilitation centers in Northern Italy. Patients were assessed by means of self-report questionnaires at the beginning of rehabilitation (pretreatment and before their hospital discharge (posttreatment regarding motivation to change and self-efficacy (motivation assessment of change – alcoholism version, readiness to change and temptation to drink (visual analog scales, and depression and anxiety (cognitive behavioral assessment – outcome evaluation.Results: Results showed an overall improvement in motivation to change and a significant reduction over time in depression and anxiety levels for the total sample, particularly patients with low baseline level of temptation to drink
Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew
Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A. N.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Backx, Frank J. G.
Methods. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. Results. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related
Gilder, David A.; Luna, Juan A.; Calac, Daniel; Moore, Roland S.; Monti, Peter M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.
Thirty-six Native American tribal leaders and members living on contiguous rural Southwest California reservations were surveyed concerning their view of the acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention to youth (ages 8–18 years) who are drinking and their families. The results suggest that: (1) a substantial proportion of reservation youth would be willing to accept MI for behavior change; (2) relatively few are actually ready to change; (3) most reservation youth are in the pre-contemplation stage of change; and (4) MI may be well suited as an intervention to prevent underage drinking in that population. Supported by NIH. PMID:21210721
Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción; Fernández-Monroy, Margarita
This social marketing study focuses on street drinking behavior among young people. The objective is to divide the market of young people who engage in this activity into segments according to their motivations. For the three segments identified, a behavior model is created using the beliefs, attitudes, behavior, and social belonging of young people who engage in street drinking. The methodology used individual questionnaires filled in by a representative sample of young people. The results show that the behavior model follows the sequence of attitudes-beliefs-behavior and that social belonging influences these three variables. Similarly, differences are observed in the behavior model depending on the segment individuals belong to.
Choi, Jounghwa; Park, Dong-Jin; Noh, Ghee-Young
Understanding what types of social norms are more or less influential and how they operate with respect to other psychological variables can provide valuable insights into the design of effective social norm campaigns. To this end, this study explores the roles of two types of social norms (injunctive norms and descriptive norms) and two types of drinking motives (social motives and conformity motives) in collegiate drinking behavior in South Korea. A survey of Korean college students (N = 569) revealed significant positive effects of injunctive norms, descriptive norms, and social motives on students' drinking frequency and quantity. Conformity motives were positively related to the frequency of drinking but negatively related to the quantity of drinking. Furthermore, the results revealed significant effects of the interactions between descriptive norms and social motives (on both the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption), such that the positive effect of descriptive norms was more pronounced among individuals with stronger social motives. A similar pattern was observed in the interaction between injunctive norms and conformity motives (on frequency). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for social norm campaigns seeking to curb drinking among college students are discussed.
Gollust, Sarah E; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff
This study examines the public's motivated reasoning of competitive messages about sugary drink taxes, a public health policy approach attempted with some recent success in the United States. In an experiment embedded in a nationally representative survey fielded in the fall of 2012, we randomized participants ( N = 5,147) to receive one of four messages: control, a strong protax message, a two-sided message, or a message refuting arguments made in soda company antitax messages. The protax message showed no effects on tax support, while the two-sided message depressed Republicans' support. The refutation message boosted independents' support but produced backlash among Republicans. This motivated response was pronounced among Republicans who were plausibly previously exposed to the sugary drink tax debate. These findings reinforce the communication challenges in an increasingly politicized US health policy discourse. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.
Zaso, Michelle J; Desalu, Jessica M; Kim, Jueun; Suryadevara, Kavita; Belote, John M; Park, Aesoon
Black young adults have lower rates of alcohol use than other racial groups. Genetic factors may protect against drinking. Specifically, the ADH1B*3 allele is present almost exclusively in Black populations and has been protective against alcohol use and alcohol use disorder. The protective effects of the ADH1B*3 allele, however, may differ as a function of alcohol-promoting cognitions. The current study examined whether ADH1B*3 moderated relations of drinking motives with alcohol consumption among Black college drinkers. Participants were 241 undergraduate students of self-identified Black race (mean age = 20 years; 66% female) who reported consuming alcohol at least once in the past 30 days. ADH1B*3 was not significantly associated with drinking motives or drinking behaviors. However, significant, albeit small, interaction effects of ADH1B*3 with drinking motives on drinking behavior were found; the presence of an ADH1B*3 allele protected against greater drinking quantity among students with high social motives (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.95, 95% CI [0.92, 0.99]) and against frequent drinking among students with low coping motives (IRR = 1.06, 95% CI [1.01, 1.11]). These findings represent a novel demonstration of genetic modulation of alcohol-related cognitions within Black college drinkers, although replication is needed. Results represent an initial step toward better characterizing individual differences in associations of drinking motives with drinking behavior, with potential implications for interventions aimed at motivational processes in alcohol use.
Oliver, Jason A; Blank, Melissa D; Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; MacQueen, David A; Brandon, Thomas H; Drobes, David J
An extensive literature documents a close association between cigarette and alcohol use. The joint pharmacological effects of alcohol and nicotine on smoking and drinking motivation may help explain this relationship. This experiment was designed to test the separate and combined pharmacological effects of nicotine and a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 1-2 standard drinks) on substance use motivation using a double-blind and fully crossed within-subjects design. Participants (N = 87) with a wide range of smoking and drinking patterns completed 4 counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they consumed an alcohol (male: 0.3g/kg; female: 0.27g/kg) or placebo beverage and smoked a nicotine (.6 mg) or placebo cigarette. Outcome measures assessed the impact of drug administration (alcohol or nicotine) on craving to smoke, craving to drink, affect, and liking of the beverage and cigarette. Results indicated that combined administration produced higher cravings to smoke for the entire sample, as well as higher cravings to drink among women and lighter drinkers. Heavier users of either alcohol or cigarettes also exhibited enhanced sensitivity to the effects of either drug in isolation. Separate, but not interactive, effects of alcohol and nicotine on mood were observed as well as both same-drug and cross-drug effects on beverage and cigarette liking. Together, these findings support the notion that the interactive pharmacological effects of nicotine and low doses of alcohol play an important role in motivating contemporaneous use and suggest roles for cross-reinforcement and cross-tolerance in the development and maintenance of alcohol and nicotine use and dependence. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Gosselin, Nadia; Lassonde, Maryse; Petit, Dominique; Leclerc, Suzanne; Mongrain, Valérie; Collie, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques
Sleep and vigilance disorders are among the most commonly reported symptoms following a concussion. The aim of the study was thus to investigate the effects of sport-related concussions on subjective and objective sleep quality. Ten concussed athletes and 11 non-concussed athletes were included. Concussed athletes had a history of 4.6+/-2.1 concussions with at least one concussion during the last year. They were recorded for two consecutive nights in the laboratory and during a 10-min period of wakefulness. They completed questionnaires related to sleep quality and symptoms as well as neuropsychological tests and the CogSport computer battery. Concussed athletes reported more symptoms and worse sleep quality than control athletes, but no between-group differences were found on polysomnographic variables or on REM and NREM sleep quantitative EEG variables. However, concussed athletes showed significantly more delta activity and less alpha activity during wakefulness than did control athletes. In spite of the subjective complaints in sleep quality of concussed athletes, no change was observed in objective sleep characteristics. However, concussions were associated with an increase in delta and a reduction in alpha power in the waking EEG. Sport-related concussions are thus associated with wakefulness problems rather than sleep disturbances.
Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Henchoz, Yves; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard
Peer pressure (PP) has been shown to play a major role in the development and continuation of alcohol use and misuse. To date, almost all the studies investigating the association of PP with alcohol use only considered the PP for misconduct but largely ignored other aspects of PP, such as pressure for peer involvement and peer conformity. Moreover, it is not clear whether the association of PP with alcohol use is direct or mediated by other factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of different aspects of peer pressure (PP) with drinking volume (DV) and risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD), and to explore whether these associations were mediated by drinking motives (DM). A representative sample of 5521 young Swiss men, aged around 20 years old, completed a questionnaire assessing their usual weekly DV, the frequency of RSOD, DM (i.e. enhancement, social, coping, and conformity motives), and 3 aspects of PP (i.e. misconduct, peer involvement, and peer conformity). Associations between PP and alcohol outcomes (DV and RSOD) as well as the mediation of DM were tested using structural equation models. Peer pressure to misconduct was associated with more alcohol use, whereas peer involvement and peer conformity were associated with less alcohol use. Associations of drinking outcomes with PP to misconduct and peer involvement were partially mediated by enhancement and coping motives, while the association with peer conformity was partially mediated by enhancement and conformity motives. Results suggest that PP to misconduct constitutes a risk factor, while peer conformity and peer involvement reflect protective factors with regard to alcohol use. Moreover, results from the mediation analyses suggest that part of the association of PP with alcohol use came indirectly through DM: PP was associated with DM, which in turn were associated with alcohol use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moeller, Scott J; Crocker, Jennifer
Coping motives for drinking initiate alcohol-related problems. Interpersonal goals, which powerfully influence affect, could provide a starting point for this relation. Here we tested effects of self-image goals (which aim to construct and defend desired self-views) and compassionate goals (which aim to support others) on heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Undergraduate drinkers (N=258) completed measures of self-image and compassionate goals in academics and friendships, coping and enhancement drinking motives, heavy-episodic drinking, and alcohol-related problems in a cross-sectional design. As predicted, self-image goals, but not compassionate goals, positively related to alcohol-related problems. Path models showed that self-image goals relate to coping motives, but not enhancement motives; coping motives then relate to heavy-episodic drinking, which in turn relate to alcohol-related problems. Self-image goals remained a significant predictor in the final model, which accounted for 34% of the variance in alcohol-related problems. These findings indicate that self-image goals contribute to alcohol-related problems in college students both independently and through coping motives. Interventions can center on reducing self-image goals and their attendant negative affect. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Mezquita, Laura; Stewart, Sherry H; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Grant, Valerie V
This study aims to test the cross-cultural suitability of Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R) (Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell, & Conrod, 2007). The sample included 571 Spanish and 571 Canadian undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 22 (65.8% women). The confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated factorial invariance between samples. The regression analysis showed that social, enhancement and low conformity motives were related to drinking frequency and drinking quantity in the total sample. No moderation effect of country on predicting alcohol consumption was found. The results suggest that M DMQ-R is a suitable instrument for comparing drinking motives across Spanish and Canadian undergraduates, and that motives-focused prevention and treatment programmes developed in one country could be generalised to another.
Satre, Derek D; Delucchi, Kevin; Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Sterling, Stacy A; Weisner, Constance
This randomized study examined the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to reduce substance use among adults with depression in outpatient psychiatry. The sample consisted of 104 participants ages 18 and over who reported hazardous drinking (three drinks or more per occasion), illegal drug use or misuse of prescription drugs in the prior 30 days, and who scored ≥ 15 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Participants were randomized to receive either three sessions of MI or printed literature about alcohol and drug use risks, as an adjunct to usual outpatient depression care, and completed telephone follow-up interviews at 3 and 6 months (93 and 99% of the baseline sample, respectively). Among participants reporting any hazardous drinking at baseline (n=73), MI-treated participants were less likely than controls to report hazardous drinking at 3 months (60.0 vs. 81.8%, p=.043). MI is a promising intervention to reduce hazardous drinking among depression patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Damme, J. van; Hublet, A.; Clercq, B. de; Kuntsche, E.N.; Maes, L.; Clays, E.
Objective: Drinking alcohol during the exams can affect academic performance and future career options, but is rarely investigated. Drinking motives, socio-demographics and personality characteristics are investigated in non-abstainers and weekly drinkers during the exams. Participants: 7,181
Armeli, Stephen; Conner, Tamlin S; Covault, Jonathan; Tennen, Howard; Kranzler, Henry R
This study was performed to examine whether a polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the serotonin transporter gene was related to college students' reports of relief drinking (drinking-to-cope motives) and whether it moderated the associations between negative life events and drinking to cope. We examined reward drinking (drinking-to-enhance motives) as a comparison and to see whether these effects varied across gender. Using an Internet-based survey, college students (N = 360; 192 women) self-reported on drinking motives and negative life events for up to 4 years. Study participants provided saliva for genotyping the triallelic (LA vs LG or S) variants of 5-HTTLPR. Among men, individuals with two risk alleles (LG or S), compared with individuals with the LA/LA allele, displayed lower drinking-to-cope motives. Among women, individuals with one risk allele (either LG or S), compared with individuals with the LA/LA allele, displayed stronger drinking-to-enhance motives. The association between yearly changes in negative life events and drinking-to-cope motives varied across 5-HTTLPR genotype and gender and was strongest in the positive direction for women with the LA/LA variant. Our findings are not consistent with prior speculation that stronger positive associations between life stress and alcohol use among individuals with the LG or S allele are the result of increased use of alcohol as a method for coping with stress. The importance of examining gender differences in the relations between 5-HTTLPR, substance use, and related constructs is also noted.
Kilwein, Tess M; Looby, Alison
Risky sexual behaviors (e.g., sex without protection against pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections, sexual coercion, sex with unknown partners) are common among college students. To effectively decrease these behaviors, it is necessary to further understand factors associated with their occurrence. Drinking motives are a known predictor of both alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, which may theoretically include risky sex. This study aimed to understand how drinking motivation interacts with alcohol use to predict risky sexual behaviors among college student drinkers. One-hundred and eight primarily female (83.3%) college students (age: M=19.09, SD=1.16) who endorsed past-month alcohol use and lifetime history of sexual activity completed up to four weekly Internet surveys assessing daily quantity of alcohol use, drinking motives (i.e., social, enhancement, coping, conformity), and engagement in risky sexual behavior. From 403 reported drinking episodes, four Generalized Estimating Equations were used to predict risky sex from person-centered drinking quantity and drinking motives. Strong social motives significantly increased the odds of engaging in risky sexual behaviors (p=0.004). Additionally, there was a significant interaction, such that the relationship between risky sex and drinking depends on enhancement motives (p=0.021). Interventions targeting social and enhancement motives for drinking may be particularly effective in reducing the occurrence of risky sexual behaviors among college students, which may result in a reduction of the negative physical and psychological health outcomes accompanying these behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J; Kaur, Paramjit; Obasi, Ezemenari M
A motivational drinking framework is utilized to understand the relationship between minority stressors (e.g., race-related stress and acculturative stress) and alcohol use behaviors (risky alcohol use and coping-motivated drinking) among a large sample of Black American college students. Six hundred forty-nine Black college students from 8 colleges and universities in the United States were recruited as part of a large, multiwave, cross-sectional study investigating the stress and coping experiences of Black emerging adults. Results from the current investigation provide support for the independent contributions of acculturative stress and race-related stress to the risky alcohol use behavior of Black college students, while acculturative stress significantly predicted coping-motivated drinking behaviors in the sample. Findings underscore the need to better understand the unique relationships between minority stress and risky alcohol use behaviors of Black college students, namely, relationships not shared by their nonminority peers that increase their risk of problem drinking.
Armeli, Stephen; O'Hara, Ross E; Ehrenberg, Ethan; Sullivan, Tami P; Tennen, Howard
The goal of the present study was to examine whether within-person, episode-specific changes in drinking-to-cope (DTC) motivation from the previous evening were associated with concurrent daily mood and fatigue-related symptoms among college student drinkers (N = 1,421; 54% female). We conducted an Internet-based daily diary study in which students reported over 30 days on their previous night's drinking level and motivation and their current mood (i.e., sadness, anxiety, anger/hostility, and positive mood) and fatigue-related symptoms. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical linear models in which the current day's outcome was predicted by last night's levels of DTC motivation and drinking, controlling for drinking to enhance motivation, sex, current day's physical symptoms and drinking, and yesterday's level of the outcome. Subsequent models also predicted outcomes 2 days following the drinking event. Relative increases in previous night's DTC motivation were associated with higher levels of current day negative mood and fatigue-related symptoms and lower levels of positive mood. Also, the association between episode-specific DTC motivation and negative mood was stronger in the positive direction when individuals reported higher levels of nonsocial drinking from the previous night. Last, episode-specific DTC showed similar associations with sadness and anger/hostility 2 days after the drinking event. The results are generally consistent with the posited attention allocation and ego-depletion mechanisms. Findings suggest that the deleterious effects of repeated episodes of DTC, over time, could help to explain the increased likelihood of alcohol-related problems seen in prior studies.
Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo
While several researchers have proposed a causal relationship between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption and subsequent alcohol intake, there is a dearth of research exploring the potential mechanisms underpinning this association. Marczinski and colleagues (in press) report the results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-groups study assessing whether an initial AmED dose primes an increased motivation to drink relative to alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) received either alcohol (0.91 ml/kg vodka), energy drink (ED; 1.82 ml/kg Red Bull(®) ), AmED, or a placebo beverage and then self-reported their motivation to drink via the Desire-for-Drug scale. Subjective ratings of "desire more alcohol" were significantly higher than predrink in the placebo, alcohol, and AmED conditions, with this effect apparent at more time points in the AmED condition. While it was concluded that EDs may increase alcohol priming, between-condition analyses revealed that ratings did not differ significantly in AmED and alcohol conditions, with moderate magnitude treatment effects at most, and ratings of desire generally closer to 0 (absence of desire) than 100 (very much desire). While the study by Marczinski and colleagues fills an important gap in the literature, direct measurement of AmED priming's effect on subsequent alcohol consumption using a within-subjects design and appropriate statistical comparison is required to (i) establish the practical implications of these results for AmED consumers and (ii) discount any individual differences in such priming effects. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Cheng, Hui G; Phillips, Michael R; Zhang, Yuhong; Wang, Zhizhong
Drinking motives have been linked to alcohol consumption and drinking-related problems in western countries, but evidence about this relationship is largely lacking for Asian countries. We aim to assess the relationship between drinking motives and drinking-related outcomes in China, where alcohol use disorders are an increasingly important contributor to the overall burden of illness. Validated Chinese versions of the Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (DMQ-R) and the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) were used to assess drinking motives and drinking-related outcomes among 612 current drinkers identified from a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 2425 adults living in Ningxia Province in 2013. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate the relationships linking specific drinking motives ('enhancement', 'conformity', 'social' and 'coping') to drinking-related outcomes ('level of alcohol consumption', 'alcohol dependence' and 'adverse consequences'). The enhancement motive is significantly associated with the level of alcohol consumption (β=0.52, 95% CI=0.27, 0.78). The conformity motive is associated with higher levels of alcohol dependence (β=0.74, 95% CI=0.50, 0.98) and adverse consequences of drinking (β=0.43, 95% CI=0.04, 0.81). The social motive and drinking to cope motive are not significantly associated with any of the three drinking outcomes. The relationships between drinking motives and drinking-related outcomes in China are quite different from those reported in western countries. This study highlights the need to consider local context when adapting prevention or intervention strategies developed in western countries to address the problem of the harmful use of alcohol in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Objective: To profile the patients with sports related fractures. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study of patients sustaining a sport related fracture between January 2000 and December 2006. The medical records including the demographic data, type of sport, mechanism and location of injury, and treatment ...
Mitchko, Jane; Huitric, Michele; Sarmiento, Kelly; Hayes, Gail; Pruzan, Marcia; Sawyer, Richard
Sports-related concussions can happen to any athlete in any sport. Each year in the United States, an estimated 1.6-3.8 million sports and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) occur, most of which can be classified as concussions. To help coaches prevent, recognize, and better manage sports-related concussions, the Centers for…
Cecile A. Marczinski
Full Text Available Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED. However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers, 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.
Marczinski, Cecile A
Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking.
Marczinski, Cecile A.
Binge drinking in college students is widespread and known to cause significant harms and health hazards for the drinker. One factor that may be exacerbating hazardous drinking in young people is the new popular trend of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED). However, rates of AmED use and motivations for AmED consumption in college students have not been well established. In this study, 706 undergraduate college students from a university in the United States participated in a web-based survey that queried self-reported alcohol, energy drink, and AmED use. In addition, motivations for using AmEDs were assessed. The results indicated that for all participants, 81% reported that they have tried at least one energy drink in the past and 36% reported consumption of at least one energy drink in the past 2 weeks. Alcohol consumption patterns were similar to findings from U.S. national surveys of college drinking, as 37% of respondents were classified as binge drinkers and 23% abstained from drinking. In the whole sample (including the alcohol abstainers), 44% reported trying AmED at least once and 9% reported AmED consumption at least once in the past 2 weeks. 78% of respondents agreed with the statement that AmEDs appeal to underage drinkers. When AmED users were asked about various motivations for consuming AmEDs, users reported that they consumed these beverages to get drunk and reduce sedation compared to alcohol alone. In conclusion, the consumption of AmEDs is common in U.S. college students. Motivations for using AmEDs include the reduction of the sedative effects of alcohol, an important interoceptive cue that one should stop drinking. PMID:21909303
Macdonald, Ian; Hauber, Roxanne
Approximately 30 million children and adolescents in the United States participate in various forms of organized sports, and incidents of traumatic brain injuries in emergency departments have increased to 62% from 2001 to 2009. Knowledge, information, and preventive interventions appear to have been well disseminated among athletic personnel at the professional, collegiate, and high school levels. Research regarding parents' perceptions and knowledge of sports-related concussions (SRCs) however is lacking. This project aims to determine the impact of interventions designed to improve parental awareness of SRCs. The study used a demographic information sheet and a postintervention survey design. These surveys were to determine the impact of three distinct educational tools presented on the perceptions and knowledge of SRCs in a group of parents with children actively involved in sports. Forty-seven participants completed the demographic information sheet, most of them African American and have at least one child competing in high school contact sports. Furthermore, 85.1% of the parents felt that SRCs are a critical issue, although only 46.8% of the parents have ever sought out information to learn more about SRC. Twenty-nine individuals participated in the posteducational survey after the intervention, and most parents perceived that all three educational tools were written and presented in a fashion that changed their perception, awareness, and knowledge base of SRCs. These parents however stated that none of the interventions captured their attention enough to want to go to a professional for further information. Findings from this study suggest that parents know what educational approaches work best for them. However, it also suggests that a one-time educational intervention is not sufficient to move many parents to be proactive. The scarcity of published studies speaks to the need for further research to determine the most effective approaches to engage all
Bőthe, Beáta; Tóth-Király, István; Orosz, Gábor
This study was aimed at investigating the links between online gaming and online pornography use by considering gender, problematic Internet use, and different motives for alcohol drinking. University students (n=512; mean age=22.11 years; standard deviation=2.43 years; 64.06 percent women) filled in the Cyber Pornography Use Inventory, Hungarian version, the Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire, Hungarian version (POGQ-HU), the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire, Hungarian version (PIUQ-HU), and the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form, Hungarian version (DMQ-R-HU SF) questionnaires. According to hierarchical multiple regression analyses, the neglect factor of PIUQ-HU, the conformity factor of DMQ-R-HU SF, and the immersion and preoccupation factors of POGQ-HU have a significant predictive value on one's online pornography use, but gender does not. This research shows that independently from the effect of Internet and alcohol use dimensions, immersion and preoccupation factors of online gaming have significant effects on online pornography use. However, preoccupation has a negative effect on pornography use. Players scoring high on this subscale may think about gaming as the only interesting activity that rates higher than even pornography.
Jonker, A.; Kuntsche, E.N.
Background and aims: This study investigated whether adolescents who drink and those who are teetotal differ in the link between music motives and health-related outcomes (life satisfaction, self-rated health, school pressure, somatic complaints, depressed and aggressive mood, physical
Tollison, Sean J.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Lee, Christine M.; Ray, Anne E.; Larimer, Mary E.
The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings (Tollison et al., 2008) on the association between peer facilitator adherence to motivational interviewing (MI) microskills and college student drinking behavior. This study used a larger sample size, multiple follow-up time-points, and latent variable analyses allowing for…
Madden, Danielle R.
Introduction: The excessive consumption of alcohol by college students is a major public health problem in the U.S. Heavy alcohol use has been linked to numerous consequences ranging from less serious effects (i.e.., hangovers) to death. Decades of research have linked certain beliefs, attitudes or motivations to drinking behavior but intensive…
Palm, Anna; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Wennberg, Peter; Högberg, Ulf
The aim of this study was to analyse risk and binge drinking at 12-month follow-up in young women with risk drinking who received motivational interviewing compared with controls. Young women attending Swedish youth health centres were randomised into intervention or control groups. The intervention group members were asked about their alcohol consumption by a midwife/social worker using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption. A score of ⩾5 was used as the cut-off value for risk drinking. Participants with risk drinking in the intervention group received motivational interviewing within the same visit. Participants in the control group had a regular visit with a midwife/social worker and answered the same questions about alcohol consumption in a questionnaire after their visit. A questionnaire with the same questions was administered to participants 12 months after baseline. Of 1445 eligible young women, 1051 (73%) consented to randomisation and were enrolled in the study. The follow-up rate was 54%. There was a significant decrease in risk- and binge drinking, from baseline to follow-up, in both the intervention and the control groups. Generalised estimating equation analyses demonstrated no significant effect between groups. Of participants who did not have risk drinking at baseline, about 20% in both groups had developed high-risk drinking by the 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS NO SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN RISK DRINKING BETWEEN YOUNG WOMEN WHO RECEIVED MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING AND CONTROLS WERE FOUND THERE WAS A LARGE INTRA-INDIVIDUAL MOBILITY IN YOUNG WOMEN'S RISK DRINKING BEHAVIOUR THIS HIGHLIGHTS THE IMPORTANCE OF FINDING RELIABLE SCREENING TOOLS THAT CAN CAPTURE THE MOBILITY IN DRINKING BEHAVIOUR IN YOUTH MORE RESEARCH IS NEEDED BEFORE RECOMMENDATIONS CAN BE MADE. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.
Heavy alcohol consumption among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia: motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking.
Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul; Bofu, Tapuwa
Little is known about substance use among resettled refugee populations. This study aimed to describe motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 self-identified African refugees recruited from street-based settings in 2012-2013. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively to identify key themes. Participants gathered in public spaces to consume alcohol on a daily or near-daily basis. Three key motivations for heavy alcohol consumption were identified: drinking to cope with trauma, drinking to cope with boredom and frustration and drinking as a social experience. Participants reported experiencing a range of health and social consequences of their alcohol consumption, including breakdown of family relationships, homelessness, interpersonal violence, contact with the justice system and poor health. Strategies for managing drinking included attending counselling or residential detoxification programmes, self-imposed physical isolation and intentionally committing crime in order to be incarcerated. These findings highlight the urgent need for targeted harm reduction education for African young people who consume alcohol. Given the importance of social relationships within this community, use of peer-based strategies are likely to be particularly effective. Development and implementation of programmes that address the underlying health and psychosocial causes and consequences of heavy alcohol use are also needed.
Tupler, Larry A; Zapp, Daniel; DeJong, William; Ali, Maryam; O'Rourke, Sarah; Looney, John; Swartzwelder, H Scott
Many transgender college students struggle with identity formation and other emotional, social, and developmental challenges associated with emerging adulthood. A potential maladaptive coping strategy employed by such students is heavy drinking. Prior literature has suggested greater consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences (ARCs) in transgender students compared with their cisgender peers, but little is known about their differing experiences with alcohol-related blackouts (ARBs). We examined the level of alcohol consumption, the frequency of ARBs and other ARCs, and motivations for drinking reported by the largest sample of transgender college students to date. A Web survey from an alcohol-prevention program, AlcoholEdu for College™, assessed student demographics and drinking-related behaviors, experiences, and motivations of newly matriculating first-year college students. A self-reported drinking calendar was used to examine each of the following measures over the previous 14 days: number of drinking days, total number of drinks, and maximum number of drinks on any single day. A 7-point Likert scale was used to measure ARCs, ARBs, and drinking motivations. Transgender students of both sexes were compared with their cisgender peers. A total of 989 of 422,906 students (0.2%) identified as transgender. Over a 14-day period, transgender compared with cisgender students were more likely to consume alcohol over more days, more total drinks, and a greater number of maximum drinks on a single day. Transgender students (36%) were more likely to report an ARB than cisgender students (25%) as well as more negative academic, confrontation-related, social, and sexual ARCs. Transgender respondents more often cited stress reduction, social anxiety, self-esteem issues, and the inherent properties of alcohol as motivations for drinking. For nearly all measures, higher values were yielded by male-to-female than female-to-male transgender students. Transgender
Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.
Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G
Introduction. Sports activities play an important role in today’s society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in gener...
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G
Sports activities play an important role in today's society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in general practice and to provide information about the nature and treatment of these injuries. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related injuries was 23.7 in 1000 patients and prevalence 27.8 in 1000 patients. Soccer-related injuries are most prominent in this population, lower extremities being three times more often involved than upper extremities. GPs often (60.9%) used a symptom-based diagnosis. In 80% of the cases, no additional diagnostic testing took place, while in 36.5% of the cases, only explanation and advice sufficed. Few patients were referred to the hospital (6.6%). Patients with sports-related injuries regularly consult GPs (on average one to two times per week). GPs tend to use non-specific diagnoses in sports-related injuries. In part, this may be due to the lack of specific diagnoses available in the current registration system (International Classification of Primary Care). Most often these injuries require only explanation and medical advice from the GP. Usually, additional tests or hospital referrals are not necessary. Presumably, mostly patients with mild sports-related injuries consult the GP.
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G
Introduction. Sports activities play an important role in today’s society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in general practice and to provide information about the nature and treatment of these injuries. Methods. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. Results. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related injuries was 23.7 in 1000 patients and prevalence 27.8 in 1000 patients. Soccer-related injuries are most prominent in this population, lower extremities being three times more often involved than upper extremities. GPs often (60.9%) used a symptom-based diagnosis. In 80% of the cases, no additional diagnostic testing took place, while in 36.5% of the cases, only explanation and advice sufficed. Few patients were referred to the hospital (6.6%). Discussion. Patients with sports-related injuries regularly consult GPs (on average one to two times per week). GPs tend to use non-specific diagnoses in sports-related injuries. In part, this may be due to the lack of specific diagnoses available in the current registration system (International Classification of Primary Care). Most often these injuries require only explanation and medical advice from the GP. Usually, additional tests or hospital referrals are not necessary. Presumably, mostly patients with mild sports-related injuries consult the GP. PMID:20923967
Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Turrisi, Rob; Carney, JoLynn V.; Ray, Anne E.; Larimer, Mary E.
Importance of peer counselor post-training supervision on Motivational Interviewing microskills and post-intervention drinking outcomes were evaluated in a sample of heavy drinking undergraduate students completing BASICS (Dimeff et al., 1999). Two peer counselor groups were trained using identical protocols. Post-training, one group was randomized to receive supervision, while the other received no supervision. Groups were subsequently compared on MI microskills. College students (N=122) were randomly assigned to either assessment-only control, supervision, or no supervision groups and completed a BASICS intervention. Post-intervention drinking outcomes were examined. Results suggested supervision aided peer counselors in reducing use of closed-ended questions. Both treatment groups reduced total drinks per week and heavy drinking behaviors compared to control. No differences on peak BAC or alcohol related consequences were observed. Differences in supervision did not influence drinking outcomes; however post-training supervision for peer counselors deficient in MI microskills may be needed to improve BASICS fidelity. PMID:20673621
Mezquita, L.; Stewart, S.H.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Grant, V.V.
This study aims to test the cross-cultural suitability of Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M DMQ-R) (Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell, & Conrod, 2007). The sample included 571 Spanish and 571 Canadian undergraduates between the ages of 18 and 22 (65.8% women). The confirmatory
Fossos, Nicole; Kaysen, Debra; Neighbors, Clayton; Lindgren, Kristen P.; Hove, M. Christina
Sexually coercive experiences, heavy alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems occur at relatively high base rates in college populations. As suggested by the self-medication hypothesis, alcohol consumption may be a means by which one can reduce negative affect or stress related to experiences of sexual coercion. However, few studies have directly tested the hypothesis that coping motives for drinking mediate the relation between sexual assault and problem drinking behaviors, and no published studies have tested this in men. The current study tested this hypothesis using structural equation modeling in a sample of 780 male and female undergraduates. Results revealed that coping motives partially mediated the relation between sexual coercion and drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. In addition, direct and indirect paths between sexual coercion and drinking were found for men whereas only indirect paths were found for women. Results provide support for self-medication models of drinking and suggest the importance of exploring gender differences in mechanisms for drinking. PMID:21719202
Conn, Bridgid Mariko; Ejesi, Kida; Foster, Dawn W
Research has demonstrated a strong relationship between drinking motives and alcohol use among young adult populations. Further, there is substantial evidence of the association between psychosocial stressors and greater alcohol consumption. In the present study, we examined whether acculturative stress would moderate the relationship between major drinking motives and alcohol use behaviors and alcohol-related problems, and whether this relationship differs by racial/ethnic group. Six hundred diverse undergraduate students (mean age=21.50, SD=2.46; 82.8% female; 40.2% White/Caucasian) completed a series of measures, including demographic information, alcohol use/alcohol problems, and acculturative stress. Findings showed varying patterns in the moderating effect of acculturative stress on the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, particularly for self-identified Hispanic, Black, and Asian students. Stronger drinking motives were associated with greater alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems, and this relationship was stronger among Asian and Hispanic students who reported higher levels of acculturative stress. For Black students, greater acculturative stress was observed to weaken the relationship between coping, enhancement, and conformity motives and alcohol drinking frequency. Results are discussed in terms of incorporating acculturative stress in the development of tailored alcohol use interventions for vulnerable young adults, such as certain ethnic minority and immigrant groups. Clinical implications include screening for acculturative stress in primary care and counseling centers and early intervention programs to identify young adults who may be at-risk for or currently experiencing alcohol problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buckner, Julia D.; Shah, Sonia M.
Social anxiety nearly quintuples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Although accumulating data suggest that socially anxious persons drink to manage negative effect, socially anxious persons suffer from elevations in both anxiety and depression. Thus, the present study sought to determine whether social anxiety was related to drinking to cope with anxiety or depression and whether drinking motives accounted for the relation of social anxiety to drinking problems among 461 (74% fe...
Pensuksan, Wipawan C; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Williams, Michelle A
Excessive alcohol consumption, particularly among young males, is an important global health problem, in part because of the increased risks of intentional and non-intentional injuries, uses of illicit drug, crime, and psychiatric disorders. There are no data available to evaluate the extent to which interventions are effective in reducing hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption among young males in Thailand. We examined the efficacy of alcohol harm reduction strategies administered as a peer-drinking group motivational intervention (PD-GMI) among Thai male undergraduates. We used a quasi-experimental study design that included two student groups assessed at baseline and at two time points post-intervention. Participants were students enrolled in two public universities and who reported alcohol consumption during the current academic year. Students in one university were assigned to an assessment-only study group (n=110); and students in the other university were assigned to a 2-h PD-GMI (n=115). This intervention was designed to (1) increase the awareness of risks associated with hazardous/harmful alcohol consumption; (2) enhance students' motivation to change their drinking behaviours; and (3) encourage harm reduction strategies during episodes of alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption and adverse consequences were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index (RAPI). Students receiving the intervention had significant reductions in mean AUDIT scores; 50.4% at baseline to 1-month and 61.2% at baseline to 3-month post-intervention. Their mean RAPI scores were also reduced; 42.0% at baseline to 1-month and 42.9% at baseline to 3-month post-intervention. Reductions in alcohol consumption and the prevalence of harmful alcohol consumption patterns were statistically significant among students in the intervention group versus those in the control group. The reductions remained after adjustments for baseline
Gorka, Stephanie M; Hedeker, Donald; Piasecki, Thomas M; Mermelstein, Robin
Theory implies that individuals who use alcohol to cope with negative emotions experience the acute mood-altering effects they desire. However, no study to date has directly tested whether alcohol coping motives map onto alcohol-induced changes in mood in real-time or how co-occurring internalizing symptoms (i.e., depression and anxiety) impact the relation between coping motives and alcohol-induced changes in mood. The current study tested the unique and interactive effects of alcohol coping motives and internalizing symptoms on mood changes during drinking using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) in a sample of young adults (n=257). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires and a 7-day EMA assessment protocol. In general, alcohol use was associated with greater positive mood and reduced negative mood while drinking. However, individuals who reported that they use alcohol to cope with anxiety, but not depression, experienced less mood benefits from alcohol relative to those without mood coping motives. In contrast, individuals with high internalizing symptoms experienced greater mood benefits while drinking relative to those with low levels of internalizing symptoms; and at high levels of anxiety, alcohol consumption was reinforcing for everyone regardless of coping motives. Only at low levels of anxiety symptoms, did coping with anxiety motives attenuate alcohol's acute reinforcing effects. These results together confirm that alcohol has a robust impact on real-time mood in young adults and sheds light on the processes that may contribute to repeated alcohol use within individuals who do, and do not, use alcohol as a means of coping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Charee M; Romo, Lynsey K
College drinking continues to remain a public health problem that has been exacerbated by alcohol-related posts on social networking sites (SNSs). Although existing research has linked alcohol consumption, alcohol posts, and adverse consequences to one another, comprehensive explanations for these associations have been largely unexplored. Thus, we reasoned that students' personal motivations (i.e., espousing an alcohol identity, needing entertainment, and adhering to social norms) influence their behaviors (i.e., alcohol consumption and alcohol-related posting on SNSs), which can lead to alcohol problems. Using structural equation modeling, we analyzed data from 364 undergraduate students and found general support for our model. In particular, espousing an alcohol identity predicted alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting, needing entertainment predicted alcohol consumption but not alcohol-related SNS posting, and adhering to social norms predicted alcohol-related SNS posting but not alcohol consumption. In turn, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related SNS posting predicted alcohol problems. It is surprising that alcohol-related SNS posting was a stronger predictor of alcohol problems than alcohol consumption. We discuss the findings within their applied applications for college student health.
Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D
To improve the effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction mass media campaigns, this study aimed to (1) identify existing advertisements (ads) with greatest potential to motivate reduced alcohol consumption, (2) assess consistency across audience subgroups in ad effectiveness and (3) identify ad features associated with effectiveness. Cross-sectional online ad response study with random assignment to view ads. 2174 Australian adult weekly drinkers recruited from an online panel. Participants were randomly assigned to view three of 83 English-language alcohol harm reduction ads. Each ad was viewed and rated by a mean of 79 participants. After viewing each ad, participants reported the extent to which they felt motivated to reduce their drinking. Ads were ranked from most to least motivating using predicted means adjusted for demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption. We compared the characteristics of the top-ranked 15% of ads (most motivating) with the middle 70% and bottom 15%. An ad about the link between alcohol and cancer (' Spread ') was most motivating, whereas an ad that encouraged drinking water instead of beer (' Add nothing ') was least motivating. Top-ranked ads were more likely than other ads to feature a 'why change' message and less likely to carry a 'how to change' message; more likely to address long-term harms; more likely to be aimed at the general adult drinking population and more likely to include drinking guidelines. There was substantial overlap in top-ranked ads for younger versus older adults, men versus women and high-risk versus low-risk drinker subgroups. The effectiveness of alcohol harm reduction campaigns may be improved by directly communicating alcohol's long-term harms to the general adult population of drinkers along with drinking guidelines. By doing so, campaigns can also efficiently influence high-risk drinkers and key demographic subgroups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not
Nanda, Anil; Khan, Imad Saeed; Goldman, Rose; Testa, Marcia
Concussion, also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), is defined as a "complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by traumatic biomechanical forces." Various symptoms may be observed in patients with concussions. All of these might not be evident at the time of the injury and be intermittent in their nature. It is estimated that 300,000 of the yearly TBIs in the United States are sports-related, the second leading cause for TBIs after motor vehicle accidents among people aged 15 to 24 years old. Due to some recently reported high profile injuries and deaths of sports personalities, sports-related concussion has seen increasing media and public interest in the last decade. We review the role of football in youth concussions and analyze the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2007 to 2009 to elucidate the outcome and costs associated with sports-related concussions of the youth in the United States. We also review the latest state legislative efforts to decrease the incidence of dangerous sports-related concussions in youth--the Louisiana Youth Concussion Act.
Mar 16, 2002 ... are thus seen as useful adjuncts in the treatment of some sports- related injuries. On the basis of their ability to down regulate the immune response, corticosteroids have been used extensively in the management of sports injuries to promote rapid return to the field of play. But to what extent do they affect ...
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and pattern of occurrence of sports - related dentofacial injuries among athletes participating in Rugby and Football in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Seventeen Secondary schools participating in either or both Rugby tournaments and the ...
Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi
We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries.
Bravo, Adrian J; Pilatti, Angelina; Pearson, Matthew R; Mezquita, Laura; Ibáñez, Manuel I; Ortet, Generós
Recent research suggests that ruminative thinking (specifically problem-focused thoughts) may explain why individuals engage in drinking to cope (DTC) when dealing with depressive symptoms; which in turn leads to increased negative alcohol-related consequences. Cross-cultural studies addressing these phenomena are scarce. The present study cross-culturally tested whether four rumination facets (problem-focused thoughts, counterfactual thinking, repetitive thoughts, and anticipatory thoughts) uniquely mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and drinking motives/alcohol outcomes in a multicultural sample of college student drinkers (n=1429) from Spain, Argentina, and the U.S. Structural equation modeling was conducted to test the models, controlling for sex. Further, we conducted invariance testing to determine whether our models were culturally-specific or culturally-universal. Within both proposed models, no rumination facet uniquely mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and drinking motives. However, an exploratory model with a second-order latent factor of ruminative thinking did significantly mediate these associations (exception was conformity motives). Further, there were two significant double-mediated associations that suggested that increased depressive symptoms is associated with increased ruminative thinking, which is associated with higher DTC motives, which in turn is associated with higher alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. All models were found to be invariant across countries and sex, suggesting that these associations may be relatively universal. Rumination is relevant to understand the increased vulnerability of college drinkers to exhibit greater alcohol consumption and negative consequences via DTC motives when dealing with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Littlefield, Andrew K.; Agrawal, Arpana; Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Kristjansson, Sean; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Sher, Kenneth J.
Background Genetic risk for alcohol dependence has been shown to overlap with genetic factors contributing to variation in dimensions of personality. Though drinking motives have been posited as important mediators of the alcohol-personality relation, the extent to which the genetic covariance between alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms (i.e. abuse and dependence criteria) and personality is explained by genetic factors contributing to variation in drinking motives remains unclear. Methods Using data from 2,904 young adult female twins, the phenotypic and genetic associations among personality dimensions (constraint [measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire; Tellegen, 1982], conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness [measured by the NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985]), internal drinking motives (enhancement and coping motives [measured by the Drinking Motive Questionnaire; Cooper, 1994]), and AUD symptoms were tested. Results Significant genetic associations were found between all personality measures and AUD symptoms. Coping motives showed significant genetic overlap with AUD symptoms and most personality measures, whereas enhancement motives were not significantly heritable. Adjusting for coping motives, genetic correlations between AUD symptoms and traits of neuroticism and agreeableness were no longer statistically significant. Conclusions Findings suggest that genetic variation in drinking to cope might account for a considerable proportion of the genetic covariance between specific personality dimensions and AUD symptoms. PMID:21790670
Hormes, Julia M.
Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., “disordered SNS use”) using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between “disordered SNS use” and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for “disordered SNS use” were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic. PMID:28092186
Hormes, Julia M
Background and aims Excessive use of social networking sites (SNS) has recently been conceptualized as a behavioral addiction (i.e., "disordered SNS use") using key criteria for the diagnosis of substance dependence and shown to be associated with a variety of impairments in psychosocial functioning, including an increased risk of problem drinking. This study sought to characterize associations between "disordered SNS use" and attitudes towards alcohol, drinking motives, and adverse consequences resulting from alcohol use in young adults. Methods Undergraduate students (n = 537, 64.0% female, mean age = 19.63 years, SD = 4.24) reported on their use of SNSs and completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Temptation and Restraint Inventory, Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol and Drinking Motives Questionnaires, and Drinker Inventory of Consequences. Results Respondents meeting previously established criteria for "disordered SNS use" were significantly more likely to use alcohol to cope with negative affect and to conform to perceived social norms, reported significantly more conflicting (i.e., simultaneous positive and negative) attitudes towards alcohol, and had experienced significantly more, and more frequent adverse consequences from drinking in their inter- and intrapersonal, physical, and social functioning, compared to individuals without problems related to SNS use. Discussion and conclusions Findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting a link between excess or maladaptive SNS use and problems related to alcohol in young adults and point to emotion dysregulation and coping motives as potential shared risk factors for substance and behavioral addictions in this demographic.
Canale, Natale; Vieno, Alessio; Santinello, Massimo; Chieco, Francesca; Andriolo, Stefano
Although motivational processes may influence the intervention effects and help prevention programmes identify students at great risk for alcohol-related problems, no computerized alcohol intervention has yet to be tailored to drinking motives. To describe the development and initial pilot testing of a computer-delivered intervention tailored to drinking motives, to prevent alcohol abuse and its adverse consequences among university students in general and among baseline hazardous drinkers specifically. 124 college students attending a public university in northeastern Italy participated in this study in October of 2012 (89.2% female- mean age = 21.64-34% baseline hazardous drinkers). Two classes (one undergraduate, one graduate) were assigned to one of two conditions: intervention and control group. Both groups received profile-specific feedback and then the intervention group received profile-specific online training for 4 weeks. This profile was based on their risk type (high-low) and drinking motives (enhancement-social-conformity-coping). Controlling for corresponding baseline alcohol measures, analyses showed a significant interaction between intervention condition and hazardous drinkers at baseline. For hazardous drinkers at baseline, the alcohol intervention results showed a significant decrease in frequency and quantity of alcohol use at follow-up, while no difference was observed between intervention conditions for non-hazardous drinkers at baseline. The results suggest that hazardous drinkers (college students) who completed the specific training and received personalized feedback seemed to do better on frequency and quantity of alcohol use than hazardous drinkers (college students) who received only personalized feedback. These results seem to provide support for a larger trial of the intervention and for more appropriate evaluations.
Miller, Stephen M; Pedersen, Eric R; Marshall, Grant N
The current investigation sought to illustrate the etiology of adverse alcohol consequences in young adult veterans using a path analytic framework. A total of 312 veterans aged 19-34 were enrolled in a larger intervention study on alcohol use. At baseline, participants completed measures of combat severity, PTSD symptom severity, and drinking motives to cope. At one month follow-up, participants completed measures of perceived stigma of behavioral health treatment seeking and past 30-day alcohol consequences. After entering the covariates of age, gender, race/ethnicity, and past year behavioral health treatment utilization, a path analytic model demonstrated a good fit to the data predicting alcohol consequences in this population. Further, a separate exploratory analysis confirmed that both drinking motives to cope and perceived stigma of behavioral health treatment seeking mediated the link between PTSD symptom severity and alcohol consequences. The current model expands upon prior research showing the relationship between combat severity and alcohol use behavior in young adult veterans. Results support the notion that veterans with PTSD symptoms may drink to cope and that perceived stigma surrounding help seeking may further contribute to alcohol related problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Adding (social game elements can increase motivation to train, and while the mobile training did not appear to be more motivating, it also did not underperform compared to the regular training in this sample. This warrants more research into motivational elements for CBM training in younger audiences.
Dvorak, Robert D.; Kuvaas, Nicholas J.; Lamis, Dorian A.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Stevenson, Brittany L.
Emotional and behavioral regulation has been linked to coping and enhancement motives and associated with different patterns of alcohol use and problems. The current studies examined emotional instability, urgency, and internal drinking motives as predictors of alcohol dependence symptoms as well as the likelihood and severity of "Diagnostic…
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina
INTRODUCTION: A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. METHODS: The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and
Reynolds, Erin; Collins, Michael W
The field of sport-related concussion has grown exponentially over the past decade, with more concussion-specific clinics being identified in major hospital systems as well as independent practitioner's offices. To date, there is no standardized in-office protocol for managing ongoing symptoms. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Sports Concussion Program, established in 2000, is one of the largest programs in the USA, pioneering the way in clinical management, research, and education of sport-related concussion. This report will outline the essential components of a successful concussion clinic, using the UPMC Sports Concussion Program as a case example of best practice. We will share several case studies illustrating the individualized and complex nature of this injury, as well as review important rehabilitation components. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L
With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.
Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro
Although growing awareness about the potential long-term deleterious effects of sport-related concussion has led to increased attention to the risks of collision sports, calls to ban these sports, such as American football, might be premature. Collision sports have a relatively high incidence of concussions, but participation in these sports also confers a host of benefits. In addition, the associated risks of participation, including concussion, have not been definitively shown to outweigh the benefits they provide, and the risk-benefit ratio might vary among individuals. The risks of concussion and repetitive concussions associated with collision sports are unknown in the general population and not well characterized even in elite athlete populations. In this article, we discuss current knowledge on sports-related concussion, its neurological consequences, and implications for regulation of the practice of collision sports.
Lock, Jing Zhan; Hegde, Raghuraj; Young, Stephanie; Lim, Thiam Chye; Amrith, Shantha; Sundar, Gangadhara
With an increased popularity of sport and active living worldwide, our study aims to explore the incidence and features of sports-related orbital fractures in Singapore. 1421 computer tomography (CT) imaging scans of the face and orbits done at the National University Hospital over a 24-month period from January 2013 and December 2014 were reviewed retrospectively for orbital fractures. We identified 483 orbital fractures of which sports injury was the fourth most common etiology (n = 65; 13.5%) after road traffic accident (n = 131; 27.1%), geriatric fall (n = 81; 16.8%) and workplace injury (n = 67; 13.9%). The three most common sport in orbital fractures were soccer (n = 20; 30.8%), bicycling (n = 11; 16.9%) and jogging (n = 8; 12.3%). The three most common fracture patterns were zygomatico-maxillary complex fractures (n = 24; 36.9%), isolated one wall blowout fractures (n = 19; 29.2%) and naso-orbito-ethmoid fractures (n = 7; 10.8%). Sports-related orbital fractures were associated with a low mean age of patients (45.9 years, range, 14-79 years), a higher proportion of males (n = 58; 89.2%) than that from geriatric falls (n = 37, 45.6%) (P Sports-related orbital fractures are the fourth most common cause of orbital fractures. Though commonly seen in young male adults, in view of the aging population and people exercising more regularly, education of safety measures among sports users is paramount to preventing sports-related orbital fractures.
Johnson, Samuel T; Norcross, Marc F; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Hoffman, Mark A; Chang, Eunwook; Koester, Michael C
Best practice recommendations for sports-related emergency preparation include implementation of venue-specific emergency action plans (EAPs), access to early defibrillation, and first responders-specifically coaches-trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator (AED) use. The objective was to determine whether high schools had implemented these 3 recommendations and whether schools with a certified athletic trainer (AT) were more likely to have done so. Schools with an AT were more likely to have implemented the recommendations. Cross-sectional study. Level 4. All Oregon School Activities Association member school athletic directors were invited to complete a survey on sports-related emergency preparedness and AT availability at their school. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to analyze the associations between emergency preparedness and AT availability. In total, 108 respondents (37% response rate) completed the survey. Exactly half reported having an AT available. Only 11% (95% CI, 6%-19%) of the schools had implemented all 3 recommendations, 29% (95% CI, 21%-39%) had implemented 2, 32% (95% CI, 24%-42%) had implemented 1, and 27% (95% CI, 19%-36%) had not implemented any of the recommendations. AT availability was associated with implementation of the recommendations (χ 2 = 10.3, P = 0.02), and the proportion of schools with ATs increased with the number of recommendations implemented (χ 2 = 9.3, P Schools with an AT were more likely to implement venue-specific EAPs (52% vs 24%, P schools were inadequately prepared for sports-related emergencies. Schools with an AT were more likely to implement some, but not all, of the recommendations. Policy changes may be needed to improve implementation. Most Oregon high schools need to do more to prepare for sports-related emergencies. The results provide evidence for sports medicine professionals and administrators to inform policy changes that ensure the safety of athletes.
Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Verster, Joris C; Stewart, Karina
A UK student survey examined the motivations for consuming energy drinks alone and mixed with alcohol, and aimed to determine whether the type of motive had a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. The online survey (N = 1873) assessed alcohol consumption and motivations for consumption when mixed with energy drinks (AMED) and mixed with other non-alcoholic beverages (AMOB) using a within-subject design. The most frequent neutral motives reported for AMED consumption included "I like the taste" (66.5%), and "to celebrate a special occasion" (35.2%). 52.6% of AMED consumers reported consuming AMED for at least one of five negative motives, primarily "to get drunk" (45.6%). Despite these negative motives those students reported consuming significantly less alcohol and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences on AMED occasions compared to alcohol-only (AO) occasions. Although the motives for consuming AMED and AMOB were comparable, more participants reported consuming AMED "to celebrate a special occasion", "to get drunk", because they "received the drink from someone else" or "because others drink it as well". However, significantly more students reported consuming AMOB than AMED because "It feels like I can drink more alcohol". Alcohol consumption was significantly less on AMED occasions compared to AMOB occasions, and both occasions significantly less than AO occasions. The majority of reasons for consuming AMED relate to neutral motives. Although 52.6% of students reported one or more negative motives for AMED consumption (predominantly "to get drunk") this had no differential effect on total alcohol consumption. The differences in motives suggest AMED is consumed more to enjoy special occasions and as a group-bonding experience, however alcohol consumption is significantly lower on such occasions in comparison to when AMOB or AO are consumed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
BARNETT, NANCY P.; GOLDSTEIN, ABBY L.; MURPHY, JAMES G.; COLBY, SUZANNE M.; MONTI, PETER M.
Objective Alcohol use and its associated behaviors are among the most common reasons for medical treatment and disciplinary infractions among college students. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of students who had recent serious alcohol-related incidents and to identify predictors of motivation to change alcohol use and heavy drinking in particular, with specific attention to gender. Method Students (N = 227; 52% female) who had been mandated to attend a session of alcohol education following alcohol-related medical treatment and/or a disciplinary infraction were assessed on their alcohol use, alcohol problems, characteristics of their alcohol-related incident, reactions to the incident, attributions about the incident, and motivation to change drinking and heavy drinking. Path and regression analyses were used to identify the individual and incident-related characteristics that were related to motivation to change. Results Perceived aversiveness of the incident was directly and positively related to motivation to change drinking and heavy drinking. Alcohol consumption in the month before the incident and past-year alcohol problems were negatively related to motivation to change heavy drinking, and women were more motivated to change heavy drinking than men. The more students consumed in the incident, the more likely they were to feel responsible for it, and the more responsible they felt about the incident, the greater its aversiveness. Conclusions Individual and incident-related characteristics are both directly and indirectly associated with motivation to change following an alcohol-related incident, and therefore have implications for interventions with college drinkers who have experienced an alcohol-related incident. PMID:16847545
Kristjansson, Sean D; Agrawal, Arpana; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Madden, Pamela A F; Cooper, M Lynne; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sher, Kenneth J; Lynskey, Michael T; Heath, Andrew C
Motivational models of alcohol use propose that the motivation to consume alcohol is the final common pathway to its use. Both alcohol consumption and drinking motives are influenced by latent genetic factors that partially overlap. This study investigated whether drinking motives mediate the associations between alcohol consumption and 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes involved in serotonin (TPH2; rs1386496) and dopamine synthesis (DDC; rs3779084). Based on earlier work showing that enhancement and coping motives were heritable in regular smokers but not in nonregular smokers, we hypothesized these motives would mediate the relationships between alcohol consumption and these SNPs in regular smokers. Drinking motives data were available from 830 young adult female twins (n = 344 regular smokers and n = 486 never/nonregular smokers). We used confirmatory factor analyses to model enhancement, coping, and alcohol consumption factors and to conduct mediation analyses in the regular smoker and never/nonregular smoker groups. Our hypothesis was partially supported. The relationship between alcohol consumption and rs1386496 was not mediated by drinking motives in either group. However, in the regular smokers, the relationship between alcohol consumption and rs3779084 was mediated by enhancement and coping motives. Carriers of the rs3779084 minor allele who were regular smokers reported more motivation to consume alcohol. Given this pattern of results was absent in the never/nonregular smokers, our results are consistent with a gene × smoking status interaction. In regular smokers, variability at the locus marked by rs3779084 in the DDC gene appears to index biologically based individual differences in the motivation to consume alcohol to attain or improve a positive affective state or to relieve a negative one. These results could be because of increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of alcohol among minor allele carriers who smoke, which might
Chambers, David W
Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.
Hwang, Kun; You, Sun Hye; Lee, Hong Sik
In this paper, we report a retrospective study of 236 patients with facial bone fractures from various sports who were treated at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Inha University Hospital, Incheon, South Korea, between February 1996 and April 2007. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and analyzed to determine the clinical characteristics and treatment of the sports-related facial bone fractures. The highest frequency of sports-related facial bone fractures was in the age group 11 to 20 years (40.3%); there was a significant male predominance in all age groups (13.75:1). The most common causes of the injury were soccer (38.1%), baseball (16.1%), basketball (12.7%), martial arts (6.4%), and skiing or snowboarding (11%). Fractures of the nasal bone were the most common in all sports; mandible fractures were common in soccer and martial arts, orbital bone fractures were common in baseball, basketball, and ice sports, and fractures of the zygoma were frequently seen in soccer and martial arts. The main causes of the sports injuries were direct body contact (50.8%), and the most commonly associated soft tissue injuries were found in the head and neck regions (92.3%). Nasal bone fractures were the most common (54.2%), and tripod fractures were the most common type of complex injuries (4.2%). The complication rate was 3.0%. Long-term epidemiological data regarding the natural history of sports-related facial bone fractures are important for the evaluation of existing preventative measures and for the development of new methods of injury prevention and treatment.
Dumic, Igor; Tankosic, Nikola; Stojkovic Lalosevic, Milica; Alempijevic, Tamara
Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is an uncommon condition usually associated with hypercoagulable states or liver cirrhosis. PVT due to sports-related injuries is rarely reported and, to the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been reported thus far. Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ) is a form of martial arts and is considered very safe with minimal risk for injury. It has growing popularity worldwide. Here, we report the first case of PVT secondary to abdominal trauma related to the practice of (BJJ) in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old man with no other traditional risk factors for PVT.
Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Wagner, Alyssa J; Bacon, Cailee E Welch
Previous studies have identified the effect of sport-related concussion on health-related quality of life through the use of patient-reported outcome measures. However, there has been little research exploring the underlying mechanisms that influence these perceptions of health-related quality of life among adolescent athletes who have sustained a sport-related concussion. To explore the psychosocial aspects of concussion among adolescent athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A total of 12 interscholastic athletes (4 girls, 8 boys; mean ± SD age, 15.7 ± 1.7 years; grade level, 10.2 ± 1.4) were interviewed via a semistructured interview protocol between 15 and 30 days postinjury. Data analysis was guided by the consensual qualitative research tradition. Themes and categories emerged through consensus by a 3-person research team, and bias was minimized through the use of multiple-analyst triangulation. Participants identified numerous postconcussion symptoms that resulted in increasing difficulty with emotions (eg, irritable, easily frustrated), roles at school (eg, concentration difficulties, fatigue), and roles in their social environment (eg, letting the team down, not being able to contribute to sport). As a result, participants expressed how they tried to minimize or mask symptoms to decrease the potential of being viewed differently by their peers. Adolescent athletes perceived a significant effect of sport-related concussion on numerous areas of psychosocial and emotional health and well-being. Anticipatory guidance-with education regarding the possible signs and symptoms, risk factors, and recovery expectations following a concussion-is important to include in postinjury management. A better understanding of sport-related concussion and expected recovery could help to improve perceptions of this injury among interscholastic athletes. Additionally, best practices should be identified to assist health care professionals and school personnel in the
Meehan, William P; Taylor, Alex M; Proctor, Mark
Although much of the lay media attention surrounding sport-related concussion (SRC) focuses on professional athletes, SRC is a common injury in pediatric sports. The anatomy, biomechanics, and response to injury of the developing pediatric brain differ from those of the adult. Similarly, the neurocognitive abilities of the child are developing more rapidly than in an adult. The effects of concussive brain injury on the life of a child are different from those of an adult. This article focuses on the aspects of SRC that are specific to the younger athletes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Portal vein thrombosis (PVT is an uncommon condition usually associated with hypercoagulable states or liver cirrhosis. PVT due to sports-related injuries is rarely reported and, to the best of our knowledge, only two cases have been reported thus far. Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ is a form of martial arts and is considered very safe with minimal risk for injury. It has growing popularity worldwide. Here, we report the first case of PVT secondary to abdominal trauma related to the practice of (BJJ in an otherwise healthy 32-year-old man with no other traditional risk factors for PVT.
Bogg, Tim; Lasecki, Leanne; Vo, Phuong T
Research has shown trait self-control, neuroticism, and coping and enhancement drinking motives to be predictors of alcohol consumption among college students. Recent research also provides evidence for the effects of role investment and role-based alcohol consumption-decision making (i.e., partying decisions). The goal of the present study was to clarify the organization and contributions of these multifarious influences on college student drinking. College students (N = 355; 51.8% female) with a heterogeneous prevalence of alcohol dependence completed measures of trait self-control; neuroticism; coping and enhancement drinking motives; subjective college student role investment, satisfaction, and stress; role-based partying scenarios; and a typical weekly alcohol consumption interview. Internal and comparative fit indices for alternative path models were evaluated and bootstrapping procedures were used to examine indirect effects. Modeling results favored a more stratified organization, where (a) the association between trait self-control and consumption was mediated by drinking motives and partying decisions, (b) the association between neuroticism and consumption was mediated by coping motives, and (c) the association between role investment and consumption was mediated by partying decisions. The associations between motives and consumption were not mediated by partying decisions. The results provide support for disinhibitory and distress pathways to college student drinking, where impulsive and anxious students are more likely to drink excessively because of more frequent mood-affecting drinking goals, less academic involvement, and/or more frequent decisions to attend parties where negative academic consequences are likely but where perceived rewarding alcohol-related and social features are present.
Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Hale, Troy D
To review relevant literature regarding the effect of concussion on vestibular function, impairments, assessments and management strategies. REASONING: Dizziness and balance impairments are common following sport-related concussion. Recommendations regarding the management of sport-related concussion suggest including tests of balance within the multifactorial assessment paradigm for concussive injuries. The literature was searched for guidelines and original studies related to vestibular impairments following concussion, oculomotor and balance assessments and treatment or rehabilitation of vestibular impairments. The databases searched included Medline, CINAHL, Sport Discus and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews through October 2013. Dizziness following concussion occurs in ∼67-77% of cases and has been implicated as a risk factor for a prolonged recovery. Balance impairments also occur after concussion and last 3-10 days post-injury. Assessments of balance can be done using both clinical and instrumented measures with success. Vestibular rehabilitation has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with vestibular impairments, with one study demonstrating success in decreasing symptoms and increasing function following concussion. Best practices suggest that the assessment of vestibular function through cranial nerve, oculomotor and balance assessments are an important aspect of concussion management. Future studies should evaluate the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation for improving patient outcomes.
Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nagahiro, Shinji
We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns.
Lischuk, Andrew W; Dorantes, Thomas M; Wong, William; Haims, Andrew H
A normally functioning hip joint is imperative for athletes who use their lower extremities with running, jumping, or kicking activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are far less frequent than injuries to the more distal aspect of the extremity, accounting for less than 10% of lower extremity injuries. Despite the lower incidence, hip and groin injuries can lead to significant clinical and diagnostic challenges related to the complex anatomy and biomechanical considerations of this region. Loads up to 8 times normal body weight have been documented in the joint in common daily activities, such as jogging, with significantly greater force expected during competitive athletics. Additionally, treatment for hip and groin injuries can obviate the participation of medical and surgical specialties, with a multidisciplinary approach frequently required. Delay in diagnosis and triage of these injuries may cause loss of time from competition and, potentially, early onset of degenerative changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip has proven to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of sports-related hip and groin injuries in the setting of negative radiographs. With its exquisite soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capabilities, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is unmatched in the noninvasive diagnosis of intra-articular and extra-articular pathology, as well as intraosseous processes. This review focuses on MRI of common athletic injuries of the hip and groin, including acetabular labral tears, femoral acetabular impingement syndrome, muscle injuries around the hip and groin (including athletic pubalgia), and athletic osseous injuries.
Mannix, Rebekah; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Stein, Cynthia J.; Bachur, Richard G.
Objective: To identify independent predictors of and use recursive partitioning to develop a multivariate regression tree predicting symptom duration greater than 28 days after a sport-related concussion. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of patients in a sports concussion clinic. Participants completed questionnaires that included the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS). Participants were asked to record the date on which they last experienced symptoms. Potential predictor variables included age, sex, score on symptom inventories, history of prior concussions, performance on computerized neurocognitive assessments, loss of consciousness and amnesia at the time of injury, history of prior medical treatment for headaches, history of migraines, and family history of concussion. We used recursive partitioning analysis to develop a multivariate prediction model for identifying athletes at risk for a prolonged recovery from concussion. Results: A total of 531 patients ranged in age from 7 to 26 years (mean 14.6 ± 2.9 years). The mean PCSS score at the initial visit was 26 ± 26; mean time to presentation was 12 ± 5 days. Only total score on symptom inventory was independently associated with symptoms lasting longer than 28 days (adjusted odds ratio 1.044; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034, 1.054 for PCSS). No other potential predictor variables were independently associated with symptom duration or useful in developing the optimal regression decision tree. Most participants (86%; 95% CI 80%, 90%) with an initial PCSS score of sport-related concussion is overall symptom burden. PMID:25381296
Alexander D. Wright
Full Text Available Sport-related concussion is known to affect a variety of brain functions. However, the impact of this brain injury on cerebral autoregulation (CA is poorly understood. Thus, the goal of the current study was to determine the acute and cumulative effects of sport-related concussion on indices of dynamic CA. Toward this end, 179 elite, junior-level (age 19.6 ± 1.5 years contact sport (ice hockey, American football athletes were recruited for preseason testing, 42 with zero prior concussions and 31 with three or more previous concussions. Eighteen athletes sustained a concussion during that competitive season and completed follow-up testing at 72 h, 2 weeks, and 1 month post injury. Beat-by-beat arterial blood pressure (BP and middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv were recorded using finger photoplethysmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Five minutes of repetitive squat–stand maneuvers induced BP oscillations at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz (20- and 10-s cycles, respectively. The BP–MCAv relationship was quantified using transfer function analysis to estimate Coherence (correlation, Gain (amplitude ratio, and Phase (timing offset. At a group level, repeated-measures ANOVA indicated that 0.10 Hz Phase was significantly reduced following an acute concussion, compared to preseason, by 23% (−0.136 ± 0.033 rads at 72 h and by 18% (−0.105 ± 0.029 rads at 2 weeks post injury, indicating impaired autoregulatory functioning; recovery to preseason values occurred by 1 month. Athletes were cleared to return to competition after a median of 14 days (range 7–35, implying that physiologic dysfunction persisted beyond clinical recovery in many cases. When comparing dynamic pressure buffering between athletes with zero prior concussions and those with three or more, no differences were observed. Sustaining an acute sport-related concussion induces transient impairments in the capabilities of the cerebrovascular
Moyers, Theresa B.; Martin, Tim; Houck, Jon M.; Christopher, Paulette J.; Tonigan, J. Scott
Client speech in favor of change within motivational interviewing sessions has been linked to treatment outcomes, but a causal chain has not yet been demonstrated. Using a sequential behavioral coding system for client speech, the authors found that, at both the session and utterance levels, specific therapist behaviors predict client change talk.…
Sudden death of sportspersons is frequently in the news but is relatively uncommon when the total number of sudden deaths is taken into account (1500 vs 40 000 per year in France for example). Sport-related sudden death is often due to an unrecognized or underestimated cardiovascular disorder. The immediate causes of this dramatic event are age-dependent. Before 35, the most frequent causes are hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, while complications of coronary atheroma predominate later. Prevention begins with screening, which remains imperfect. Patients with cardiovascular disorders at risk of sudden death must adapt their sports activities accordingly. Knowledge of life-saving first-aid procedures by those supervising sports activities can improve the prognosis.
Woertler, Klaus; Waldt, Simone
Sports-related shoulder pain and injuries represent a common problem. In this context, glenohumeral instability is currently believed to play a central role either as a recognized or as an unrecognized condition. Shoulder instabilities can roughly be divided into traumatic, atraumatic, and microtraumatic glenohumeral instabilities. In athletes, atraumatic and microtraumatic instabilities can lead to secondary impingement syndromes and chronic damage to intraarticular structures. Magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is superior to conventional MR imaging in the diagnosis of labro-ligamentous injuries, intrinsic impingement, and SLAP (superior labral anteroposterior) lesions, and thus represents the most informative imaging modality in the overall assessment of glenohumeral instability. This article reviews the imaging criteria for the detection and classification of instability-related injuries in athletes with special emphasis on the influence of MR findings on therapeutic decisions. (orig.)
McCrory, Paul; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Dvořák, Jiří
OBJECTIVES: Various definitions for concussion have been proposed, each having its strengths and weaknesses. We reviewed and compared current definitions and identified criteria necessary for an operational definition of sports-related concussion (SRC) in preparation of the 5th Concussion Consensus...... Conference (Berlin, Germany). We also assessed the role of biomechanical studies in informing an operational definition of SRC. DESIGN: This is a systematic literature review. DATA SOURCES: Data sources include MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central...... Register of Clinical Trials and SPORT Discus (accessed 14 September 2016). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Eligibility criteria were studies reporting (clinical) criteria for diagnosing SRC and studies containing SRC impact data. RESULTS: Out of 1601 articles screened, 36 studies were included...
Droste, Nicolas; Tonner, Lorraine; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Pennay, Amy; Lubman, Dan I; Miller, Peter
Coconsumption of alcohol with energy drinks (AED) is becoming increasingly popular among adolescents and young adults and has been associated with a range of harms. Motivations related to determined drunkenness and hedonistic drinking are potentially important in explaining both alcohol and AED consumption, given that a relationship has been identified between AED use and heavy alcohol consumption. This study aimed to explore motives for combined AED consumption, as well as their relationship with alcohol dependence and experiences of harm and aggression. Students (n = 594) enrolled at Deakin University, Victoria, Australia, completed an anonymous online survey in 2012. Approximately two-thirds of the sample (66.5%) were female, and the mean age was 22.3 (SD = 4.5), consistent with 2012 Deakin University enrollment. Principal axis factor analysis of 14 items measuring motivations for AED use identified 4 factors, categorized as "hedonistic," "social," "energy/endurance," and "intoxication-reduction" motives. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses demonstrated that hedonistic motives for AED use significantly predicted increases in alcohol and energy drink coconsumption during AED episodes, risk of alcohol dependence, as well as experiencing harm and aggression. Intoxication-reduction motives significantly predicted harm outcomes. Hedonistic motives specific to sensation and pleasure ideals are implicated in negative consequences associated with coconsumption of alcohol and energy drinks. Further, consumers who reported using AEDs to reduce alcohol intoxication were at increased risk of negative outcomes, a finding indicating that consumer knowledge of the effects of AED use may be limited. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Hobbs, Jonathan G; Young, Jacob S; Bailes, Julian E
Sports-related concussions (SRCs) are traumatic events that affect up to 3.8 million athletes per year. The initial diagnosis and management is often instituted on the field of play by coaches, athletic trainers, and team physicians. SRCs are usually transient episodes of neurological dysfunction following a traumatic impact, with most symptoms resolving in 7-10 days; however, a small percentage of patients will suffer protracted symptoms for years after the event and may develop chronic neurodegenerative disease. Rarely, SRCs are associated with complications, such as skull fractures, epidural or subdural hematomas, and edema requiring neurosurgical evaluation. Current standards of care are based on a paradigm of rest and gradual return to play, with decisions driven by subjective and objective information gleaned from a detailed history and physical examination. Advanced imaging techniques such as functional MRI, and detailed understanding of the complex pathophysiological process underlying SRCs and how they affect the athletes acutely and long-term, may change the way physicians treat athletes who suffer a concussion. It is hoped that these advances will allow a more accurate assessment of when an athlete is truly safe to return to play, decreasing the risk of secondary impact injuries, and provide avenues for therapeutic strategies targeting the complex biochemical cascade that results from a traumatic injury to the brain.
Fagher, K; Lexell, J
The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Patel, Dilip R; Omar, Hatim; Terry, Marisa
The prevalence of anxiety disorders in adolescents range from 6% to 20%, and it is much higher for anxiety symptoms not meeting criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. The prevalence is much higher in females. Athletes participating in sports experience different levels of stress from competitive sports. For most young athletes (generally 13 to 24 years old, i.e., high-school and college age group) sport participation is reported to be no more stressful than many other activities of daily student or work life in general where competition is involved and performance is measured. Some level of sport related performance anxiety is considered to be normal and healthy; however, extreme anxiety in athletes can be detrimental in these performance situations. A number of factors may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of performance anxiety related to sport participation. This article reviews the definitions, theories, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management principles of performance anxiety symptoms in young athletes. Copyright © 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yrondi, Antoine; Brauge, David; LeMen, Johanne; Arbus, Christophe; Pariente, Jérémie
Head injuries are risk factors for chronic depressive disorders, but this association remains poorly explored with regards to concussion. The objective of this review was to evaluate the incidence of depressive symptoms and depression after sports-related concussion. We also endeavored to identify the response elements regarding the pathophysiology of these symptoms. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase was conducted focusing on papers published until 1st December, 2016, according to PRISMA criteria The following MESH terms were used: (concussion or traumatic brain injury) and sport and (depression or depressive disorder). A depressive disorder can appear immediately after a concussion: depressive symptoms seem to be associated with the symptoms of the concussion itself. A depressive disorder can also appear later, and is often linked to the frequency and number of concussions. Furthermore, the existence of a mood disorder prior to a concussion can contribute to the onset of a depressive disorder after a concussion. There is an overall limit concerning the definition of a depressive disorder. In addition, when these studies had controls, they were often compared to high-level athletes; yet, practicing sport regularly is a protective factor against mood pathologies. Depressive symptoms after a concussion seem to be associated with postconcussion symptoms. Repeat concussions can contribute to later-onset major depressive disorders. However, playing sports can protect against major depressive disorders: thus, it is essential to evaluate concussions as accurately as possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Refakis, Christian A; Turner, Christian D; Cahill, Patrick J
Concussions are becoming increasingly important to manage properly as sports participation continues to rise. Repeated injuries occurring before the brain has had a chance to recover from an initial insult are particularly dangerous and must be prevented. Although much national media attention has been devoted to concussions in professional sports, it is important to appreciate that athletes in any age group, children and adolescents in particular, are at risk of sports-related concussion. It is crucial to remove an athlete from play any time concussion is suspected. Once removed from play, recovery then begins with a period of cognitive and physical rest, followed by a gradual return to cognitive and athletic activities as symptoms resolve. Children and adolescents pose a unique challenge to the clinician managing their recovery, as the physical and cognitive rest periods required often involve time away from school and sports, which can be academically detrimental and socially isolating. Recently developed sideline assessment tools have greatly aided the urgent sideline assessment of an athlete suspected of having a concussion. In this article, a brief review of current guidelines is presented in tandem with the authors' preferred treatment of concussion.
Du Preez, Martella; Mcguigan, Kevin G; Conroy, Ronan M
Solar disinfection (SODIS) effectively improves the microbial quality of drinking water for preventing diarrhea; however, the effect of participant motivation has not been studied. This 1-year randomized controlled trial investigated the effect of SODIS of drinking water and motivation on the incidence of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in periurban communities in South Africa.We compared 383 children in 297 households using SODIS with 335 children in 267 households with no intervention. At baseline 62.4% of the study households had stored water which met World Health Organization guidelines for zero thermotolerant coliforms per 100 mL. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence of dysentery was significantly associated with higher motivation, defined as 75% or better completion of diarrhea data. Incidence rates were lower in those drinking solar disinfected water (incidence rate ratio 0.64, 95% CI 0.39 - 1.0, P = 0.071) but not statistically significant. Compared with the control, participants with higher motivation achieved a significant reduction in dysentery (incidence rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.16 - 0.81, P = 0.014). However, there was no significant reduction in risk at lower levels of motivation. Solar disinfection was not significantly associated with nondysentery diarrhea risk overall (P = 0.419). A statistically significant reduction in dysentery was achieved only in households with higher motivation, showing that motivation is a significant determinant for measurable health gains. Failure of three-quarters of participants to achieve a significant reduction in dysentery suggests that research into effective implementation is required.
Full Text Available The on-field diagnosis of sports-related concussion (SRC is complicated by the lack of an accurate and objective marker of brain injury.To compare subject-specific changes in the astroglial protein, S100B, before and after SRC among collegiate and semi-professional contact sport athletes, and compare these changes to differences in S100B before and after non-contact exertion.Longitudinal cohort study.From 2009-2011, we performed a prospective study of athletes from Munich, Germany, and Rochester, New York, USA. Serum S100B was measured in all SRC athletes at pre-season baseline, within 3 hours of injury, and at days 2, 3 and 7 post-SRC. Among a subset of athletes, S100B was measured after non-contact exertion but before injury. All samples were collected identically and analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescent assay to quantify serum S100B levels.Forty-six athletes (30 Munich, 16 Rochester underwent baseline testing. Thirty underwent additional post-exertion S100B testing. Twenty-two athletes (16 Rochester, 6 Munich sustained a SRC, and 17 had S100B testing within 3 hours post-injury. The mean 3-hour post-SRC S100B was significantly higher than pre-season baseline (0.099±0.008 µg/L vs. 0.058±0.006 µg/L, p = 0.0002. Mean post-exertion S100B was not significantly different than the preseason baseline. S100B levels at post-injury days 2, 3 and 7 were significantly lower than the 3-hour level, and not different than baseline. Both the absolute change and proportional increase in S100B 3-hour post-injury were accurate discriminators of SRC from non-contact exertion without SRC (AUC 0.772 and 0.904, respectively. A 3-hour post-concussion S100B >0.122 µg/L and a proportional S100B increase of >45.9% over baseline were both 96.7% specific for SRC.Relative and absolute increases in serum S100B can accurately distinguish SRC from sports-related exertion, and may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SRC.
Housman, Jeff; Dorman, Steve; Pruitt, Buzz; Ranjita, Misra; Perko, Michael
Objectives: To determine factors that influence sport-related dietary supplement consumption among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes and to estimate the plausibility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting the use of sport-related dietary supplements among NCAA Division 1 female student athletes. Method: Self-report data were…
Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Reimer, Karen; Nijjar, Satnam; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Johnston, Janine; Mansouri, Behzad; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Girardin, Richard; Larkins, Shannon; Vis, Sara; Selci, Erin; Davidson, Michael; Gregoire, Scott; Sam, Angela; Black, Brian; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly
To summarize the clinical characteristics and outcomes of pediatric sports-related concussion (SRC) patients who were evaluated and managed at a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and examine the healthcare resources and personnel required to meet the needs of this patient population. We conducted a retrospective review of all pediatric SRC patients referred to the Pan Am Concussion Program from September 1st, 2013 to May 25th, 2015. Initial assessments and diagnoses were carried out by a single neurosurgeon. Return-to-Play decision-making was carried out by the multidisciplinary team. 604 patients, including 423 pediatric SRC patients were evaluated at the Pan Am Concussion Program during the study period. The mean age of study patients was 14.30 years (SD: 2.32, range 7-19 years); 252 (59.57%) were males. Hockey (182; 43.03%) and soccer (60; 14.18%) were the most commonly played sports at the time of injury. Overall, 294 (69.50%) of SRC patients met the clinical criteria for concussion recovery, while 75 (17.73%) were lost to follow-up, and 53 (12.53%) remained in active treatment at the end of the study period. The median duration of symptoms among the 261 acute SRC patients with complete follow-up was 23 days (IQR: 15, 36). Overall, 25.30% of pediatric SRC patients underwent at least one diagnostic imaging test and 32.62% received referral to another member of our multidisciplinary clinical team. Comprehensive care of pediatric SRC patients requires access to appropriate diagnostic resources and the multidisciplinary collaboration of experts with national and provincially-recognized training in TBI.
Caine, Dennis; Caine, Caroline; Maffulli, Nicola
To provide a critical review of the available literature on the descriptive epidemiology of pediatric sport-related injuries. MEDLINE (1966 to 2006) and SPORTDiscus (1975 to 2006) were searched to identify potentially relevant articles. A combination of medical subject headings and text words was used (epidemiology, children, adolescents, athletic injuries, sports, injury, and injuries). Additional references from the bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Published research reports on the incidence and distribution of injury in children's and youth sports. Specific emphasis was placed on reviewing original studies, which report incidence rates (rate of injuries per unit athlete time). Forty-nine studies were selected for this review. Data summarized include incidence of injury relative to who is affected by injury (sport, participation level, gender, and player position), where injury occurs (anatomical and environmental location), when injury occurs (injury onset and chronometry), and injury outcome (injury type, time loss, clinical outcome, and economic cost). There is little epidemiological data on injuries for some pediatric sports. Many of the studies retrieved were characterized by methodological short-comings and study differences that limit interpretation and comparison of findings across studies. Notwithstanding, the studies reviewed are encouraging and injury patterns that should be studied further with more rigorous study designs to confirm original findings and to probe causes of injury and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Incidence and severity of injury are high in some child and youth sports. This review will assist in targeting the relevant groups and in designing future research on the epidemiology of pediatric sports injuries. Well-designed descriptive and analytical studies are needed to identify the public health impact of pediatric sport injury.
Ellis, Michael J; Leiter, Jeff; Hall, Thomas; McDonald, Patrick J; Sawyer, Scott; Silver, Norm; Bunge, Martin; Essig, Marco
The goal in this review was to summarize the results of clinical neuroimaging studies performed in patients with sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinar ypediatric concussion program. The authors conducted a retrospective review of medical records and neuroimaging findings for all patients referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and July 2014. Inclusion criteria were as follows: 1) age ≤ 19 years; and 2) physician-diagnosed SRC. All patients underwent evaluation and follow-up by the same neurosurgeon. The 2 outcomes examined in this review were the frequency of neuroimaging studies performed in this population (including CT and MRI) and the findings of those studies. Clinical indications for neuroimaging and the impact of neuroimaging findings on clinical decision making were summarized where available. This investigation was approved by the local institutional ethics review board. A total of 151 patients (mean age 14 years, 59% female) were included this study. Overall, 36 patients (24%) underwent neuroimaging studies, the results of which were normal in 78% of cases. Sixteen percent of patients underwent CT imaging; results were normal in 79% of cases. Abnormal CT findings included the following: arachnoid cyst (1 patient), skull fracture (2 patients), suspected intracranial hemorrhage (1 patient), and suspected hemorrhage into an arachnoid cyst (1 patient). Eleven percent of patients underwent MRI; results were normal in 75% of cases. Abnormal MRI findings included the following: intraparenchymal hemorrhage and sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (1 patient); nonhemorrhagic contusion (1 patient); demyelinating disease (1 patient); and posterior fossa arachnoid cyst, cerebellar volume loss, and nonspecific white matter changes (1 patient). Results of clinical neuroimaging studies are normal in the majority of pediatric patients with SRC. However, in selected cases neuroimaging can provide
Patel, Darshan P; Redshaw, Jeffrey D; Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, Thomas G; Erickson, Bradley A; Majercik, Sarah D; Gaither, Thomas W; Craig, James R; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B
Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. We identified patients with AAST grades III-V blunt renal injuries from four level 1 trauma centres across the United States between 1/2005 and 1/2014. Patients were divided into "Sport" or "Non-sport" related groups. Outcomes included rates of hypotension (systolic blood pressure 110bpm), concomitant abdominal injury, and procedural/surgical intervention between sports and non-sports related injury. 320 patients met study criteria. 18% (59) were sports-related injuries with the most common mechanisms being skiing, snowboarding and contact sports (25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively). Median age was 24 years for sports and 30 years for non-sports related renal injuries (p=0.049). Males were more commonly involved in sports related injuries (85% vs. 72%, p=0.011). Median injury severity score was lower for sports related injuries (10 vs. 27, pinjury scale scores. Sports related trauma was more likely to be isolated without other significant injury (69% vs. 39% (psports and non-sports renal injuries (p=0.30). Sports injuries had lower transfusion (7% vs. 47%, psports vs. 18% non-sports, p=0.95). High-grade sports-related blunt renal trauma is more likely to occur in isolation without other abdominal or thoracic injuries and clinicians must have a high suspicion of renal injury with significant blows to the flank during sports activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V
The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women's sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants.
Bergen, Dara; Yeh, Ming-Chin
This study examined the effects of an environmental intervention promoting more non-energy-containing beverage consumption compared to sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption through vending machines in an urban college setting. Eight soft drink vending machines were randomly selected and assigned to one of three conditions over a 9-week period: energy-content labels on non-energy-containing beverage selection panels (intervention I), labels plus motivational posters (intervention II), or control. The totals of all beverages sold and machine revenue were recorded at baseline (2 weeks), intervention (5 weeks), and postintervention (2 weeks) periods. Use of energy-content labels and motivational posters, compared with control group, resulted in a significantly lower growth rate of sugar-sweetened beverage sales (Psales.
... harder to get—for example, by raising the price of alcohol and keeping the minimum drinking age ... These are programs that provide students with the knowledge, skills, motivation, and opportunities they need to remain ...
Hannan, Susan M; Orcutt, Holly K; Miron, Lynsey R; Thompson, Kristen L
The current study sought to examine whether symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), adolescent sexual assault (ASA), and drinking motivations (e.g., drinking to regulate emotional experiences) mediate the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and subsequent alcohol-related problems among college women. Participants were 579 female students at a Midwestern university. Participants were recruited as part of a larger longitudinal study that investigated risk and resiliency factors related to sexual revictimization. Using a serial mediation model, the current study found that the proposed constructs mediated the relationship between CSA and subsequent alcohol-related problems via two separate paths. In one path, CSA was associated with PTSD, which in turn predicted drinking to regulate emotional experiences, which then was related to alcohol-related problems in adulthood. In the second path, CSA was related to ASA, which in turn predicted drinking to regulate emotional experiences, which then was related to alcohol-related problems in adulthood. These results suggest that individuals with a history of CSA are more likely to experience both revictimization in adolescence and PTSD symptoms in adulthood, which may lead to alcohol-related problems via drinking to regulate emotional experiences. These findings suggest the importance of incorporating skills training in adaptive emotion regulation strategies into treatment for individuals with a history of CSA and ASA. © The Author(s) 2015.
Padon, Alisa A; Rimal, Rajiv N; Jernigan, David; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William
Social norms affect human behavior, and underage drinking is no exception. Using the theory of normative social behavior, this study tested the proposition that the association between perceptions about the prevalence of drinking (descriptive norms) and underage drinking is strengthened when perceived pressures to conform (injunctive norms) and beliefs about the benefits of drinking (outcome expectations) are high. This proposition was tested on a nationally representative sample of underage drinkers ages 13-20 (N = 1,031) in relation to their alcohol consumption, expanding on research with college-age youth. On average, males and females reported drinking 23 and 18 drinks per month, respectively. The main effect of descriptive norms (β = .10, p < .01) on alcohol consumption was modified by interactions with injunctive norms (β = .11, p < .01), benefit to self (β = .12, p < .001), and benefit to others (β = .10, p < .01). Underage drinkers are most vulnerable to excessive drinking if they believe that most others drink, that they themselves are expected to drink, and that drinking confers several benefits. Norms-based interventions to reduce youth alcohol use need to focus on changing not only descriptive norms but also injunctive norms and outcome expectations.
Ellis, Michael J; Ritchie, Lesley J; Koltek, Mark; Hosain, Shahid; Cordingley, Dean; Chu, Stephanie; Selci, Erin; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly
The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to examine the prevalence of emotional symptoms among children and adolescents with a sports-related concussion (SRC) who were referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program and (2) to examine the prevalence, clinical features, risk factors, and management of postinjury psychiatric outcomes among those in this clinical population. The authors conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with SRC referred to a multidisciplinary pediatric concussion program between September 2013 and October 2014. Clinical assessments carried out by a single neurosurgeon included clinical history, physical examination, and Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scoring. Postinjury psychiatric outcomes were defined as a subjective worsening of symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder or new and isolated suicidal ideation or diagnosis of a novel psychiatric disorder (NPD). An NPD was defined as a newly diagnosed psychiatric disorder that occurred in a patient with or without a lifetime preinjury psychiatric disorder after a concussion. Clinical resources, therapeutic interventions, and clinical and return-to-play outcomes are summarized. One hundred seventy-four patients (mean age 14.2 years, 61.5% male) were included in the study. At least 1 emotional symptom was reported in 49.4% of the patients, and the median emotional PCSS subscore was 4 (interquartile range 1-8) among those who reported at least 1 emotional symptom. Overall, 20 (11.5%) of the patients met the study criteria for a postinjury psychiatric outcome, including 14 patients with an NPD, 2 patients with isolated suicidal ideation, and 4 patients with worsening symptoms of a preinjury psychiatric disorder. Female sex, a higher initial PCSS score, a higher emotional PCSS subscore, presence of a preinjury psychiatric history, and presence of a family history of psychiatric illness were significantly associated with postinjury psychiatric outcomes
Fields, Sarah K; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn
Sports-related violence is a form of interpersonal violence. Violence that occurs in and around the sporting world can have potentially severe physical and psychological repercussions for those involved. Although scholars in a wide range of disciplines have addressed three of the subsets of sports-related violence, they have done so without regard to the interconnected nature of the subsets, choosing instead to look at hazing, brawling, and foul play as independent problems. By separating hazing, brawling, and foul play and failing to recognize that their connection to sport connects them, scholars fail to see how sports-related violence is a broad example of interpersonal violence. This review describes some of the academic literature, primarily from the United States, and identifies similar themes and prevention suggestions that appear across disciplines. It also argues that the three subsets are an interconnected whole of sports-related violence that deserves more detailed study.
Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...
Bravo, Adrian J; Pearson, Matthew R
The present study sought to address an issue in the drinking to cope (DTC) motives literature, namely the inconsistent application of treating DTC motives as a single construct and splitting it into DTC-depression and DTC-anxiety motives. Specifically, we aimed to determine if the effects of anxiety and depression on alcohol-related problems are best explained via their associations with DTC with specific affects or via their associations with a more global measure of DTC by testing four distinct models: the effects of anxiety/depression on alcohol-related problems mediated by DTC-anxiety only (Model 1), these effects mediated by DTC-depression only (Model 2), these effects mediated by a combined, global DTC factor (Model 3), and these effects mediated by both DTC-anxiety and DTC-depression (Model 4). Using path analysis/structural equation modeling across two independent samples, we found that there was a significant total indirect effect of both anxiety and depressive symptoms on alcohol-related problems in every model. However, there was a slightly larger indirect effect in all models using the global DTC motives factor compared to even the model that included the two distinct DTC motives. Our results provide some preliminary evidence that at least at the between-subjects level, a global DTC motives factor may have more predictive validity than separate DTC motives. Additional research is needed to examine how to best operationalize DTC motives at different levels of analysis (e.g., within-subjects vs. between subjects) and in different populations (e.g., college students vs. individuals with alcohol use disorder). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Giebel, Stephen; Kothari, Rashmi; Koestner, Amy; Mohney, Gretchen; Baker, Robert
Numerous guidelines to grade and manage sports-related concussions have been published. However, little is known about how frequently they are implemented in the emergency department. This study evaluates the current practices of emergency physicians (EPs) in managing sports-related concussions. To evaluate the current practice of EP evaluation and management of sports-related concussions. All EPs and emergency medicine residents in Kalamazoo County were surveyed regarding their management of sports-related concussions. The surveys obtained demographic data, participants' use of guidelines, and the importance of clinical and non-clinical factors in deciding when to allow a player to return to play. Of the 73 EP respondents, only 23% used a nationally recognized guideline, with no significant difference between attending and resident EPs. The symptomatic complaints of loss of consciousness, amnesia of the event, and difficulty concentrating were ranked most important by EPs in assessing patients with sports-related concussions. Among non-clinical factors, residents were significantly more likely than attendings to report that medical-legal, parental, and players' concerns were more likely to influence their decision in allowing a patient to return to play. EPs take into consideration important clinical factors in assessing patients with sports-related concussion. However, almost 75% do not use any nationally recognized guideline in their evaluation. Residents are more likely than attendings to be influenced by non-clinical factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A brief motivational interview in a pediatric emergency department, plus 10-day telephone follow-up, increases attempts to quit drinking among youth and young adults who screen positive for problematic drinking.
Bernstein, Judith; Heeren, Timothy; Edward, Erika; Dorfman, David; Bliss, Caleb; Winter, Michael; Bernstein, Edward
Adolescents in their late teens and early 20s have the highest alcohol consumption in the United States; binge drinking peaks at age 21-25 years. Underage drinking is associated with many negative consequences, including academic problems and risk of intentional and unintentional injuries. This study tested the effectiveness of pediatric emergency department (PED) screening and brief intervention to reduce alcohol consumption and associated risks. A three-group randomized assignment trial was structured to test differences between intervention (I) and standard assessed control (AC) groups in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related behaviors from baseline to 12 months and to compare the AC group with a minimally assessed control (MAC) group to adjust for the effect of assessment reactivity on control group behavior. Patients aged 14-21 years were eligible if they screened positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) or for binge drinking or high-risk behaviors. The MAC group received a resource handout, written advice about alcohol-related risks, and a 12-month follow-up appointment. Patients in the AC group were assessed using standardized instruments in addition to the MAC protocol. The I group received a peer-conducted motivational intervention, referral to community resources and treatment if indicated, and a 10-day booster in addition to assessment. Measurements included 30-day self-report of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related behaviors, screens for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, and self-report of attempts to quit, cut back, or change conditions of use, all repeated at follow-up. Motor vehicle records and medical records were also analyzed for changes from baseline to 1-year follow-up. Among 7,807 PED patients screened, 1,202 were eligible; 853 enrolled (I, n = 283; AC, n = 284; MAC, n = 286), with a 12-month follow-up rate of 72%. At 12 months, more than half of enrollees in Reaching Adolescents for Prevention (RAP
Gould, Trenton E.; Piland, Scott G.; Caswell, Shane V.; Ranalli, Dennis; Mills, Stephen; Ferrara, Michael S.; Courson, Ron
Objective: To provide athletic trainers, health care professionals, and all those responsible for the care of athletes with clinical recommendations for preventing and managing sport-related dental and oral injuries. Background: Participation in competitive sports continues to grow at both the interscholastic and intercollegiate levels. Therefore, exposure to, and the incidence of athletic-related injury, including orofacial injury, will also likely increase. At the time of this writing, the leading governing agencies for interscholastic (National Federation of State High School Associations) and intercollegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association) sports require only protective orofacial equipment (eg, mouthguards) for 5 and 4, respectively, of their sanctioned sports. Although orofacial injuries represent a small percentage of all sport-related injuries, the financial burden associated with these injuries (eg, tooth avulsion) can exceed $15 000 over an adult life. Therefore, effective management of sport-related dental injuries is critical to the long-term financial, physical, and emotional health of people who have experienced dental trauma. Recommendations: Based upon the current evidence regarding sport-related orofacial injury, we provide recommendations related to planning considerations, education, and mouthguard efficacy, material, fabrication, and care considerations. Additionally, suggested best practices for managing sport-related dental injury are also given for athletic trainers and other health care professionals. PMID:27875057
Zhou, Guangwei; Brodsky, Jacob R
To conduct objective assessment of children with balance and vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions and identify the underlying deficits by analyzing laboratory test outcomes. Case series with chart review. Pediatric tertiary care facility. Medical records were reviewed of 42 pediatric patients with balance and/or vestibular complaints following sports-related concussions who underwent comprehensive laboratory testing on their balance and vestibular function. Patients' characteristics were summarized and results analyzed. More than 90% of the children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion had at least 1 abnormal finding from the comprehensive balance and vestibular evaluation. The most frequent deficit was found in dynamic visual acuity test, followed by Sensory Organization Test and rotational test. Patient's balance problem associated with concussion seemed to be primarily instigated by vestibular dysfunction. Furthermore, semicircular canal dysfunction was involved more often than dysfunction of otolith organs. Yet, sports-related concussion. Vestibular impairment is common among children with protracted dizziness or imbalance following sports-related concussion. Our study demonstrated that proper and thorough evaluation is imperative to identify these underlying deficits and laboratory tests were helpful in the diagnosis and recommendation of following rehabilitations. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan
Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.
Reynolds, Erin; Collins, Michael W; Mucha, Anne; Troutman-Ensecki, Cara
The clinical management of sports-related concussions is a specialized area of interest with a lack of empirical findings regarding best practice approaches. The University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Sports Concussion Program was the first of its kind; 13 years after its inception, it remains a leader in the clinical management and research of sports-related concussions. This article outlines the essential components of a successful clinical service for the management of sports-related concussions, using the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Sports Concussion Program as a case example. Drawing on both empirical evidence and anecdotal conclusions from this high-volume clinical practice, this article provides a detailed account of the inner workings of a multidisciplinary concussion clinic with a comprehensive approach to the management of sports-related concussions. A detailed description of the evaluation process and an in-depth analysis of targeted clinical pathways and subtypes of sports-related concussions effectively set the stage for a comprehensive understanding of the assessment, treatment, and rehabilitation model used in Pittsburgh today.
Kucera, Kristen L; Fortington, Lauren V; Wolff, Catherine S; Marshall, Stephen W; Finch, Caroline F
Despite detailed recommendations for sports injury data capture provided since the mid-1990s, international data collection efforts for sport-related death remains limited in scope. The purpose of this paper was to review the data sources available for studying sport-related death and describe their key features, coverage, accessibility and strengths and limitations. The outcomes of interest for this review was death occurring as a result of participation in organised sport-related activity. Data sources used to enumerate death in sport were identified, drawing from the authors' knowledge/experience and review of key references from international organisations. The general purpose, case identification, structure, strengths and limitations of each source in relation to collection of data for sport-related death were summarised, drawing on examples from the international published literature to illustrate this application. Seven types of resources were identified for capturing deaths in sport. Data sources varied considerably in their ability to identify: participant status, sport relatedness of the death, types of sport-related deaths they capture, level of detail provided about the circumstances and medical care received. The most detailed sources were those that were dedicated to sports surveillance. Sport relatedness and type of sport may not be reliably captured by systems not dedicated to sports injury surveillance. Only one source permitted international comparisons and was limited to one sport (soccer). Data on sport-related death are currently collected across a wide variety of data sources. This review highlights the need for robust, comprehensive approaches with standardised methodologies enabling linkage between sources and international comparisons. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Guerriero, Réjean M; Proctor, Mark R; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P
Sport-related concussion affects athletes at every level of participation. The short and long-term effects of concussions that occur during childhood and adolescence are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to describe the current burden of disease, current practice patterns and current recommendations for the assessment and management of sport-related concussions sustained by United States high school athletes. Millions of high school students participate in organized sports in the United States. Current estimates suggest that, across all sports, approximately 2.5 concussions occur for every 10 000 athletic exposures, in which an athletic exposure is defined as one athlete participating in one game or practice. At schools that employ at least one athletic trainer, most high school athletes who sustain sport-related concussions will be cared for by athletic trainers and primary care physicians. Approximately 40% will undergo computerized neurocognitive assessment. The number of high school athletes being diagnosed with sport-related concussions is rising. American football has the highest number of concussions in high school with girls' soccer having the second highest total number. Fortunately, coaches are becoming increasingly aware of these injuries and return-to-play guidelines are being implemented.
Kiyatkin, E A
Although pharmacological blockade of both dopamine (DA) and opiate receptors has an inhibiting effect on appetitive motivated behaviors, it is still unclear which physiological mechanisms affected by these treatments underlie the behavioral deficit. To clarify this issue, we examined how pharmacological blockade of either DA (SCH23390+eticlopride at 0.2 mg/kg each) or opioid receptors (naloxone 1 mg/kg) affects motor activity and temperature fluctuations in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), temporal muscle, and facial skin associated with motivated Coca-Cola drinking behavior in rats. In drug-free conditions, presentation of a cup containing 5 ml of Coca-Cola induced locomotor activation and rapid NAcc temperature increases, which both transiently decreased during drinking, and phasically increased again after the cup was emptied. Muscle temperatures followed this pattern, but increases were weaker and more delayed than those in the NAcc. Skin temperature rapidly dropped after cup presentation, remained at low levels during consumption, and slowly restored during post-consumption behavioral activation. By itself, DA receptor blockade induced robust decrease in spontaneous locomotion, moderate increases in brain and muscle temperatures, and a relative increase in skin temperatures, suggesting metabolic activation coupled with adynamia. Following this treatment (approximately 180 min), motor activation to cup presentation and Coca-Cola consumption were absent, but rats showed NAcc and muscle temperature increases following cup presentation comparable to control. Therefore, DA receptor blockade does not affect significantly central and peripheral autonomic responses to appetitive stimuli, but eliminates their behavior-activating effects, thus disrupting appetitive behavior and blocking consumption. Naloxone alone slightly decreased brain and muscle temperatures and increased skin temperatures, pointing at the enhanced heat loss and possible minor inhibition of basal
Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E
OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to
Meehan, William P; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn
Little existing data describe which medical professionals and which medical studies are used to assess sport-related concussions in high school athletes. To describe the medical providers and medical studies used when assessing sport-related concussions. To determine the effects of medical provider type on timing of return to play, frequency of imaging, and frequency of neuropsychological testing. Descriptive epidemiology study. All concussions recorded by the High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) injury surveillance system during the 2009 to 2010 academic year were included. χ(2) analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Fisher exact test was used for nonparametric data. Logistic regression analyses were used when adjusting for potential confounders. Statistical significance was considered for P sport-related concussions, representing 14.6% of all injuries. Most (94.4%) concussions were assessed by athletic trainers (ATs), 58.8% by a primary care physician. Few concussions were managed by specialists. The assessment of 21.2% included computed tomography. Computerized neuropsychological testing was used for 41.2%. For 50.1%, a physician decided when to return the athlete to play; for 46.2%, the decision was made by an AT. After adjusting for potential confounders, no associations between timing of return to play and the type of provider (physician vs AT) deciding to return the athlete to play were found. Concussions account for nearly 15% of all sport-related injuries in high school athletes. The timing of return to play after a sport-related concussion is similar regardless of whether the decision to return the athlete to play is made by a physician or an AT. When a medical doctor is involved, most concussions are assessed by primary care physicians as opposed to subspecialists. Computed tomography is obtained during the assessment of 1 of every 5 concussions occurring in high school athletes.
Ozturk Ozden Tepekoylu
Full Text Available In Recent studies underline the fact that adolescents are, at many times, likely to experience serious communication problems with their families and close environments. So, the aim of this study is to determine positive impact of sport-related games, which are performed as extracurricular activities, on high school students’ communication skills. In the study, pre, & post-tests was utilized with the control group’s experimental patterns. Two participant groups were made up of totally 30 high school students, 15 of whom would be in the experimental group and the rest of whom were in the control group. The former group was given sport- related 20 applications for 10 weeks during which the latter group would not deal with any extracurricular activities. Meanwhile, before and after the applications, data was collected by means of “The Communication Skills Scale” which was developed by Korkut (1996 and then analysed through “two-way ANCOVA” test techniques. Results clarify that the considerable gap in scores of the students’ pre, & post-tests perception concerning their communication skills are clearly attributed to sport-related games and it was also established that scores of the students in the experimental group were meaningfully higher than ones in the control group. However, perception of communication skills in the both groups was not significantly different by sex of the students. Moreover, the common effect of sex and participation on sport- related games was not found statistically meaningful in terms of communication skills. Consequently, it could be said that sport-related games impact positively communication skills.
Meehan, William P.; d’Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Comstock, R. Dawn
Background Little existing data describe which medical professionals and which medical studies are used to assess sport-related concussions in high school athletes. Purpose To describe the medical providers and medical studies used when assessing sport-related concussions. To determine the effects of medical provider type on timing of return to play, frequency of imaging, and frequency of neuropsychological testing. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods All concussions recorded by the High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) injury surveillance system during the 2009 to 2010 academic year were included. χ2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Fisher exact test was used for nonparametric data. Logistic regression analyses were used when adjusting for potential confounders. Statistical significance was considered for P sport-related concussions, representing 14.6% of all injuries. Most (94.4%) concussions were assessed by athletic trainers (ATs), 58.8% by a primary care physician. Few concussions were managed by specialists. The assessment of 21.2% included computed tomography. Computerized neuropsychological testing was used for 41.2%. For 50.1%, a physician decided when to return the athlete to play; for 46.2%, the decision was made by an AT. After adjusting for potential confounders, no associations between timing of return to play and the type of provider (physician vs AT) deciding to return the athlete to play were found. Conclusion Concussions account for nearly 15% of all sport-related injuries in high school athletes. The timing of return to play after a sport-related concussion is similar regardless of whether the decision to return the athlete to play is made by a physician or an AT. When a medical doctor is involved, most concussions are assessed by primary care physicians as opposed to subspecialists. Computed tomography is obtained during the assessment of 1 of every 5 concussions occurring in high school athletes
Utter, Garth H; Young, Jason B; Theard, Leslie A; Cropp, David M; Mohar, Craig J; Eisenberg, Daniel; Schermer, Carol R; Owens, Leon J
In medical settings, motivational interviewing-based "brief intervention" (BI) counseling reduces alcohol-related risk-taking behavior and harm in high-risk populations. Individuals arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) are another at-risk population. We sought to determine whether a BI administered shortly after a first DUI arrest might decrease problematic drinking behavior. We conducted a single-center, parallel-group, double-blinded superiority randomized trial (NCT01270217), enrolling first-time DUI arrestees at a county jail from December 2010 through April 2011. Before their release, we randomized participants by computer-generated sequence to either a single BI or no discussion. We assessed 90-day change in Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores (range 0-40, higher values indicating more problematic drinking) as the primary outcome. We enrolled 200 subjects (100 to each arm), and 181 (90.5%, 86 control and 95 BI) completed the 90-day follow-up. Mean (SD) age was 30 (10) years, and 50% were men. Mean (SD) blood alcohol concentration upon arrest was 0.14% (0.04%). Mean (SD) baseline AUDIT scores were 8.8 (5.8) among control subjects and 7.7 (6.3) among BI subjects. At 90 days, AUDIT scores decreased by a mean (SD) 4.7 (5.1) units among control subjects and 3.4 (5.0) among BI subjects (difference, -1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to +0.1). The likelihood of subsequent binge drinking [relative risk (RR) 1.6; 95% CI, 0.8-3.0; BI vs. control], abstinence (RR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-2.1), alcohol-related injury to self or others (RR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.1-2.4), and seeking treatment (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.8-1.7) did not differ. A single BI counseling session shortly after first-time DUI arrest does not reduce 90-day self-reported drinking behavior or increase seeking treatment for drinking beyond that which occurs without such a discussion. Therapeutic study, level III.
Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were recorded in the NTDB, and these injuries represented 11,614 incidents nationally after sample weighting. Fall or interpersonal contact events were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (47.4%). Mild TBI represented 87.1% of the injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital and ICU were 2.68 ± 0.07 days and 2.73 ± 0.12 days, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%, and the prevalence of medical complications was 2.1% across all patients. Severities of head and extracranial injuries were significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Hypotension on admission to the ED was a significant predictor of failure to discharge to home (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07, p sports was independently associated with prolonged hospital LOS compared with FIC events (mean increase
Patel, Dilip R; Yamasaki, Ai; Brown, Kelly
Over the past several decades there has been increased participation in sports by children and adolescents at earlier ages in the United States, as well as more intense participation and specialization in sports at very early ages. This trend has also partly contributed to the patterns of injuries seen in young athletes, and especially in recent years, injuries previously seen in mature athletes are being seen in young athletes. Overall, the vast majority of sport-related musculoskeletal injuries in children and adolescents are due to repetitive overuse and acute macrotrauma is less frequently seen in young athletes. Epidemiological data on sports injuries are provided by several national surveys. Investigators have used different methods to define sports injuries and the most widely used definition is based on athlete-exposure time. Certain aspects related to adolescent growth and development modulate the pattern of injuries. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries seen in children and adolescents.
Bonnechère, B; Beauthier, J-P; Rooze, M; Jan, S Van Sint
Contact sports and sports with high risk of head traumatism are increasingly becoming more popular. This trend leads to a 60% increase of sport-related concussions in the decade. It is therefore important to summarize the current knowledge in this field (diagnosis, risk factors...) in order to help clinicians to improve this pathology management. Short and long term consequences are too often minimized by clinicians, while related clinical disorders should not be neglected (e.g. headaches, cognitive troubles, vestibular troubles, depression...). Complications risks are directly linked to the number of concussions or if patients return to play before complete recovery. Correct knowledge of symptoms and of the various assessment tests are consequently therefore important to know in order identity and tackle long term complications of sport-related concussions.
Manley, Geoff; Gardner, Andrew J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Bailes, Julian; Cantu, Robert C; Castellani, Rudolph J; Turner, Michael; Jordan, Barry D; Randolph, Christopher; Dvořák, Jiří; Hayden, K. Alix; Tator, Charles H; McCrory, Paul; Iverson, Grant L
Objective: Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. Data sources Ten electronic databases. Study selection Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined as >10 years after the injury. Data extraction Study population, exposure/outcome measures, clinica...
Patel, Dilip R.; Yamasaki, Ai; Brown, Kelly
Over the past several decades there has been increased participation in sports by children and adolescents at earlier ages in the United States, as well as more intense participation and specialization in sports at very early ages. This trend has also partly contributed to the patterns of injuries seen in young athletes, and especially in recent years, injuries previously seen in mature athletes are being seen in young athletes. Overall, the vast majority of sport-related musculoskeletal inju...
Peters, D.M.; Jones, Gareth; Peters, John
This article investigates the 'preferred learning styles' and their relationship with grades for students undertaking sports-related undergraduate programmes at a higher education institution in the UK. Preferred 'learning styles' in students in this discipline have been identified as auditory, kinaesthetic and group, although the vast majority of students are multimodal in their learning preferences. Only individual learning style preference was found to be positively related to higher grade...
Lin, Ann C.; Salzman, Garrett A.; Bachman, Shelby L.; Burke, Rita V.; Zaslow, Tracy; Piasek, Carolina Z.; Edison, Bianca R.; Hamilton, Anita; Upperman, Jeffrey S.
Background: Parents of young athletes play a major role in the identification and management of sports-related concussions. However, they are often unaware of the consequences of concussions and recommended management techniques. Hypothesis: This study quantitatively assessed parental understanding of concussions to identify specific populations in need of additional education. We predicted that parents with increased education and prior sports- and concussion-related experience would have mo...
Full Text Available Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrP(C as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrP(C in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrP(C in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrP(C is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making.
Stoller, Jacqueline; Carson, James D; Garel, Alisha; Libfeld, Paula; Snow, Catherine L; Law, Marcus; Frémont, Pierre
To identify differences and gaps in recommendations to patients for the management of sport-related concussion among FPs, emergency department physicians (EDPs), and pediatricians. A self-administered, multiple-choice survey was e-mailed to FPs, EDPs, and pediatricians. The survey had been assessed for content validity. Two community teaching hospitals in the greater Toronto area in Ontario. Two hundred seventy physicians, including FPs, EDPs, and pediatricians, were invited to participate. Identification of sources of concussion management information, usefulness of concussion diagnosis strategies, and whether physicians use common terminology when explaining cognitive rest strategies to patients after sport-related concussions. The response rate was 43.7%. Surveys were completed by 70 FPs, 23 EDPs, and 11 pediatricians. In total, 49% of FP, 52% of EDP, and 27% of pediatrician respondents reported no knowledge of any consensus statements on concussion in sport, and 54% of FPs, 86% of EDPs, and 78% of pediatricians never used the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2. Only 49% of FPs, 57% of EDPs, and 36% of pediatricians always advised cognitive rest. This study identified large gaps in the knowledge of concussion guidelines and implementation of recommendations for treating patients with sport-related concussions. Although some physicians recommended physical and cognitive rest, a large proportion failed to consistently advise this strategy. Better knowledge transfer efforts should target all 3 groups of physicians. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
Dessy, Alexa M; Yuk, Frank J; Maniya, Akbar Y; Gometz, Alex; Rasouli, Jonathan J; Lovell, Mark R; Choudhri, Tanvir F
Sports-related concussion has emerged as a public health crisis due to increased diagnosis of the condition and increased participation in organized and recreational athletics worldwide. Under-recognition of concussions can lead to premature clearance for athletic participation, leaving athletes vulnerable to repeat injury and subsequent short- and long-term complications. There is overwhelming evidence that assessment and management of sports-related concussions should involve a multifaceted approach. A number of assessment criteria have been developed for this purpose. It is important to understand the available and emerging diagnostic testing modalities for sports-related concussions. The most commonly used tools for evaluating individuals with concussion are the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS), Standard Assessment of Concussion (SAC), Standard Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT3), and the most recognized computerized neurocognitive test, the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT). The strengths and limitations of each of these tools, and the Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), CogSport, and King-Devick tests were evaluated. Based on the data, it appears that the most sensitive and specific of these is the ImPACT test. Additionally, the King-Devick test is an effective adjunct due to its ability to test eye movements and brainstem function.
Thomas, Donald J; Coxe, Kathryn; Li, Hongmei; Pommering, Thomas L; Young, Julie A; Smith, Gary A; Yang, Jingzhen
We quantified the length of recovery time by week in a cohort of pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics, and examined patient and injury characteristics associated with prolonged recovery. A retrospective, cohort design. Seven concussion clinics at a Midwest children's hospital. Patients aged 10 to 17 years with a diagnosed sports-related concussion presenting to the clinic within 30 days of injury. Length of recovery by week. Unadjusted and adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to model the effect of patient and injury characteristics on length of recovery by week. Median length of recovery was 17 days. Only 16.3% (299/1840) of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than four weeks to recover. By 2 months postinjury, 6.7% of patients were still experiencing symptoms. Higher symptom scores at injury and initial visit were significantly associated with prolonged symptoms by week. Patients who presented to the clinic more than 2 weeks postinjury or who had 2 or more previous concussions showed increased risk for prolonged recovery. Females were at greater risk for prolonged recovery than males (odds ratio = 2.08, 95% confidence interval = 1.49-2.89). Age was not significantly associated with recovery length. High symptom scores at injury and initial visit, time to initial clinical presentation, presence of 2 or more previous concussions, and female sex are associated with prolonged concussion recovery. Further research should aim to establish objective measures of recovery, accounting for treatment received during the recovery. The median length of recovery is 17 days among pediatric sports-related concussion patients treated at concussion clinics. Only 16.3% of patients recovered within one week, whereas 26.4% took longer than 4 weeks to recover.
Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian
The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.
Hoskin, Annette K; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hanman, Kate; Lam, Geoffrey; Mackey, David A
To identify the causes of sports-related eye and adnexal injuries in children in Perth, Western Australia, to determine which sporting activities pose the highest risk of eye and adnexal injury to children. We performed a 12-year retrospective review of children admitted to hospital from 2002 to 2013 with sports-related ocular and adnexal eye injuries. The main outcome measures were the cause and type of ocular and adnexal injuries, age and gender risk factors. A total of 93 cases of sports-related ocular and adnexal injury were identified in the 12-year time period. A peak in injuries occurred for 12- to 14-year-olds with a second peak in 6- to 8-year-olds; the median age was 8.82 years (range = 1.59-16.47). Cycling, football (including soccer and Australian Rules Football), tennis, trampolining, fishing and swimming were the sports responsible for the greatest number of injuries, a total of 63%. More than one-third (35%) of injuries resulted from being struck by a blunt object, and more than a quarter (26%) were as a result of contact with a blunt projectile. Serious ocular and adnexal injuries have occurred in children as a result of participating in sports, with cycling and football being the largest contributors in the 12-year period we assessed. As we continue to encourage children to spend more time participating in sports and recreational activities, identifying associated risk factors will help us develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya
Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Gardner, Ryan M; Kuhn, Andrew W; Solomon, Gary S; Bonfield, Christopher M; Zuckerman, Scott L
The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries. The goal of the current series is to describe, in detail, the presentation, management, and outcomes of examples of these rare injuries. During the fall of 2015, three high school football players presented with acute subdural hemorrhages following in-game collisions and were treated at our institution within a span of 2 months. For the 2 athletes who required surgical intervention, a previous SRC was sustained within 4 weeks before the catastrophic event. One year after injury, 2 players have returned to school, though with persistent deficits. One patient remains nonverbal and wheelchair bound. None of the athletes has returned to sports. Acute subdural hemorrhage resultant from an in-game football collision is rare. The temporal proximity of the reported SRSBIs to recent SRCs emphasizes the importance of return-to-play protocols and raises questions regarding the possibility of second impact syndrome. Although epidemiologic conclusions cannot be drawn from this small sample, these cases provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the presentation, management, and long-term outcomes of SRSBI in American high school football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mulligan, Ellen J; George, Amanda M; Brown, Patricia M
Few studies have examined the relationship of social anxiety with drinking game participation. Drinking games represent a popular form of drinking in university settings. Due to their structure, games may appeal to socially anxious drinkers, particularly among those seeking to fit in or cope with the social setting. To examine the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation among a university undergraduate sample and to investigate if drinking motives moderate this association. A total of 227 undergraduate students aged 18-24 years (73% female) who had consumed alcohol in the prior year were included in the current investigation. Hierarchical regression examined the influences of social anxiety and drinking motives on frequency of drinking game participation, as well the interactions of social anxiety with drinking for coping motives and conformity motives. Social anxiety failed to emerge as a significant predictor of frequency of drinking game participation. However, drinking to cope moderated the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Socially anxious students who drank to cope were more likely to participate in drinking games on occasions when they consumed alcohol than those who did not endorse this drinking motive. Results demonstrated the influence of drinking to cope in the relationship of social anxiety with frequency of drinking game participation. Future work should examine the relationship with other indicators of drinking game activity. Intervention efforts addressing social anxiety and drinking should consider motives for drinking, as well as drinking patterns.
Sanchez-Marquez, A.; Gil-Garcia, M.; Valls, C.; Narvaez-Garcia, J.; Andia-Navarro, E.; Pozuelo-Segura, O.; Portabella-Blavia, F.
Sports-related injuries of the lower extremity are frequent. Before magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was available, ultrasound, radionuclide scintigraphy and computed tomography were used to evaluate muscle trauma. Although relatively inexpensive, these imaging modalities are limited by their low specificity. The high degree of soft tissue contrast and multiplanar capability of MR imaging, allow direct visualization as well as characterization of traumatic muscle lesions. This pictorial review highlights the spectrum of traumatic muscle lesions on MRI, with emphasis on its typical appearances. (orig.)
Constantinou, Demitri; Kastanos, Konstantinos
Stress fractures are relatively uncommon sports injuries and when they do occur, are mostly found in the lower limb. Stress fractures of the clavicle are particularly rare, having been described in a number of non-sport related pathologies, such as nervous tics and post radical neck dissection. In sport, there have only been seven cases reported in the literature. We report on a clavicle stress fracture in a 47-year-old male, partaking in recreational weight lifting activities. This is the first reported case of a non-union stress fracture of the clavicle. The patient underwent an open reduction and internal fixation and made a full recovery. PMID:21264151
Miller, Joseph H; Gill, Clarence; Kuhn, Elizabeth N; Rocque, Brandon G; Menendez, Joshua Y; O'Neill, Jilian A; Agee, Bonita S; Brown, Steven T; Crowther, Marshall; Davis, R Drew; Ferguson, Drew; Johnston, James M
OBJECT Pediatric sports-related concussions are a growing public health concern. The factors that determine injury severity and time to recovery following these concussions are poorly understood. Previous studies suggest that initial symptom severity and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are predictors of prolonged recovery (> 28 days) after pediatric sports-related concussions. Further analysis of baseline patient characteristics may allow for a more accurate prediction of which patients are at risk for delayed recovery after a sports-related concussion. METHODS The authors performed a single-center retrospective case-control study involving patients cared for at the multidisciplinary Concussion Clinic at Children's of Alabama between August 2011 and January 2013. Patient demographic data, medical history, sport concussion assessment tool 2 (SCAT2) and symptom severity scores, injury characteristics, and patient balance assessments were analyzed for each outcome group. The control group consisted of patients whose symptoms resolved within 28 days. The case group included patients whose symptoms persisted for more than 28 days. The presence or absence of the SCAT2 assessment had a modifying effect on the risk for delayed recovery; therefore, stratum-specific analyses were conducted for patients with recorded SCAT2 scores and for patients without SCAT2 scores. Unadjusted ORs and adjusted ORs (aORs) for an association of delayed recovery outcome with specific risk factors were calculated with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS A total of 294 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study. The case and control groups did not statistically significantly differ in age (p = 0.7). For the patients who had received SCAT2 assessments, a previous history of concussion (aOR 3.67, 95% CI 1.51-8.95), presenting SCAT2 score Concussions resulting from playing a nonhelmet sport were also associated with a higher risk for prolonged symptoms in
Purcell, Laura; Harvey, Janice; Seabrook, Jamie A
Time to symptom resolution, return to school, and return to play after a sport-related concussion in children and adolescents (8-17 years of age) was examined using a retrospective cohort design. A total of 198 patients aged 8 to 17 years were included, with a mean age of 13.5 years (SD = 2.2). Patients aged 8 to 12 years were symptom-free in a median of 12.0 (range 1-60) days whereas 13- to 17-year olds were symptom-free in a median of 14.0 (range 1-300) days (P = .04). Patients aged 8 to 12 years returned to learn in a median of 4.0 (range 0-30) days compared with 2.5 (range 0-55.0) days in 13- to 17-year-olds (P = .86). Patients aged 8 to 12 years returned to play in a median of 14.0 (range 4-75) days compared with a median of 19.5 (range 5-75) days in 13- to 17-year-olds (P = .06). These results indicate that children and adolescents generally take 2 to 4 weeks to recover from a sport-related concussion. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kirschen, Matthew P; Tsou, Amy; Nelson, Sarah Bird; Russell, James A; Larriviere, Daniel
To examine the ethical and legal issues physicians face when evaluating and managing athletes with sports-related concussions, and to offer guidance to physicians as they navigate these situations. This position paper reviews and compares the components of sports-related concussion laws, including education, removal from play, and clearance for return to play. It highlights the challenges privacy laws present relevant to providing care to concussed athletes and suggests ways to help physicians overcome these obstacles. The report also explores the ethical considerations physicians should bear in mind as they evaluate and manage concussed athletes, addressing them through a framework that includes considerations of professionalism, informed decision-making, patient autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, conflicts of interest, and distributive justice. Physicians caring for concussed athletes have an ethical obligation to ensure that their primary responsibility is to safeguard the current and future physical and mental health of their patients. Physicians have a duty to provide athletes and their parents with information about concussion risk factors, symptoms, and the risks for postconcussion neurologic impairments. Physicians should facilitate informed and shared decision-making among athletes, parents, and medical teams while protecting athletes from potential harm. Additionally, including concussion evaluation and management training in neurology residency programs, as well as developing a national concussion registry, will benefit patients by the development of policies and clinical guidelines that optimize prevention and treatment of concussive head injury. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.
Reches, A; Kutcher, J; Elbin, R J; Or-Ly, H; Sadeh, B; Greer, J; McAllister, D J; Geva, A; Kontos, A P
The clinical diagnosis and management of patients with sport-related concussion is largely dependent on subjectively reported symptoms, clinical examinations, cognitive, balance, vestibular and oculomotor testing. Consequently, there is an unmet need for objective assessment tools that can identify the injury from a physiological perspective and add an important layer of information to the clinician's decision-making process. The goal of the study was to evaluate the clinical utility of the EEG-based tool named Brain Network Activation (BNA) as a longitudinal assessment method of brain function in the management of young athletes with concussion. Athletes with concussion (n = 86) and age-matched controls (n = 81) were evaluated at four time points with symptom questionnaires and BNA. BNA scores were calculated by comparing functional networks to a previously defined normative reference brain network model to the same cognitive task. Subjects above 16 years of age exhibited a significant decrease in BNA scores immediately following injury, as well as notable changes in functional network activity, relative to the controls. Three representative case studies of the tested population are discussed in detail, to demonstrate the clinical utility of BNA. The data support the utility of BNA to augment clinical examinations, symptoms and additional tests by providing an effective method for evaluating objective electrophysiological changes associated with sport-related concussions.
Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Stanwell, Peter
Traditional structural neuroimaging techniques are normal in athletes who sustain sport-related concussions and are only considered to be clinically helpful in ruling out a more serious brain injury. There is a clinical need for more sophisticated, non-invasive imaging techniques capable of detecting changes in neurophysiology after injury. Concussion is associated with neurometabolic changes including neuronal depolarization, release of excitatory neurotransmitters, ionic shifts, changes in glucose metabolism, altered cerebral blood flow, and impaired axonal function. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS, or simply MRS) is capable of measuring brain biochemistry and has the potential to identify and quantify physiologic changes after concussion. The focus of the current review is to provide an overview of research findings using MRS in sport-related concussion. A systematic review of articles published in the English language, up to February 2013, was conducted. Articles were retrieved via the databases: PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, SportDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, and Informit using key terms: magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, neurospectroscopy, spectroscopy, two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, correlation spectroscopy, J-spectroscopy, exchange spectroscopy, nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy, NMR, MRS, COSY, EXSY, NOESY, 2D NMR, craniocerebral trauma, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, brain concussion, concussion, brain damage, sport, athletic, and athlete. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional, and longitudinal studies were all included in the current review. The review identified 11 publications that met criteria for inclusion, comprised of data on 200 athletes and 116 controls. Nine of 11 studies reported a MRS abnormality consistent with an alteration in neurochemistry. The results support the use of MRS as a research tool for identifying
Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Man, Chi-Yin; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Cheung, Shui-Yuk; Chan, Kai-Ming
This study investigated the sport-related ankle injuries attending an accident and emergency (A&E) department during a 1-year period. A total of 1715 sports injuries cases attending an A&E department from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005 were prospectively recorded. Details of each classified case were recorded in a computerised record system by the triage nurse. At the end of the study period, all sport-related ankle injury cases were analysed. A total of 240 sport-related ankle injury cases were reported. Most cases were sustained from basketball (32.9%), soccer (31.7%) and hiking (5.8%) sports. The majority of the cases was ligamentous sprains (81.3%) and fractures (10.4%). The mean age of all patients was 24.6 years (S.D. = 12.3). Four fifths (80.4%) were male patients. All cases were not life threatening. Most cases (99.2%) were referred to orthopedics specialty. Radiography was routinely employed in 99.2% of the cases. Ligamentous sprains were mostly sustained in basketball (37.4%) and soccer (28.7%), and were often treated with bandaging (60.0%) and analgesics (48.7%). Most cases were discharged with or without referral to physiotherapy and specialty clinic (95.4%). Fractures were mostly sustained in soccer (52.0%), basketball (20.0%) and hiking (16.0%), and were very often admitted to hospital wards (84.0%). The estimated A&E attendance rate for all sports injuries, ankle injuries, ligamentous sprains and fractures were 1.68, 0.24, 0.19 and 0.02/1000 person-year. The results of this study together with the previous study on ankle sprain epidemiology suggested the following sports ankle injury pattern in Hong Kong-major and serious ankle ligamentous sprains and fractures were sustained from basketball, soccer and hiking, leading to A&E attendance, while minor sprains were sustained in running and jogging and racquet sports. We suggested that the Sports medicine specialists in Hong Kong should emphasise the ankle injury prevention strategies in these sports.
Miller, Kathleen E.
Objective: The author examined gendered links among sport-related identity, endorsement of conventional masculine norms, risk taking, and energy-drink consumption. Participants: The author surveyed 795 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory-level courses at a public university. Methods: The author conducted linear regression analyses of…
Jennifer K. Wagner
Full Text Available Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11. While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests,
Wagner, Jennifer K.; Royal, Charmaine D.
Sports-related genetic testing is a sector of the diverse direct-to-consumer (DTC) industry that has not yet been examined thoroughly by academic scholars. A systematic search was used to identify companies in this sector and content analysis of online information was performed. More than a dozen companies were identified. Marketing practices observed generally did not target parents for child testing, and marketing images were mild compared to images used in popular media. Information was provided at a high reading level (industry-wide Flesh-Kincaid Grade Levels > 11). While ~75% of companies provide privacy policies and terms of service prior to purchase and ~40% provide scientific citations for their tests, e-commerce generally may adequately protect DTC genetics consumers without new federal legislation or regulation. PMID:25562204
Ellis, Michael J; McDonald, Patrick J; Cordingley, Dean; Mansouri, Behzad; Essig, Marco; Ritchie, Lesley
The decision to advise an athlete to retire from sports following sports-related concussion (SRC) remains a persistent challenge for physicians. In the absence of strong empirical evidence to support recommendations, clinical decision making must be individualized and should involve a multidisciplinary team of experts in concussion and traumatic brain injury. Although previous authors have advocated for a more conservative approach to these issues in child and adolescent athletes, there are few reports outlining considerations for this process among this unique population. Here, the authors use multiple case illustrations to discuss 3 subgroups of clinical considerations for sports retirement among pediatric SRC patients including the following: those with structural brain abnormalities identified on neuroimaging, those presenting with focal neurological deficits and abnormalities on physical examination, and those in whom the cumulative or prolonged effects of concussion are suspected or demonstrated. The authors' evolving multidisciplinary institutional approach to return-to-play and retirement decision making in pediatric SRC is also presented.
Ellis, Michael J; Cordingley, Dean M; Vis, Sara; Reimer, Karen M; Leiter, Jeff; Russell, Kelly
OBJECTIVE There were 2 objectives of this study. The first objective was to identify clinical variables associated with vestibulo-ocular dysfunction (VOD) detected at initial consultation among pediatric patients with acute sports-related concussion (SRC) and postconcussion syndrome (PCS). The second objective was to reexamine the prevalence of VOD in this clinical cohort and evaluate the effect of VOD on length of recovery and the development of PCS. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted for all patients with acute SRC and PCS who were evaluated at a pediatric multidisciplinary concussion program from September 2013 to May 2015. Acute SRS was defined as presenting concussion should include VOD. Additional research is needed to elucidate the natural history of VOD following SRC and establish evidence-based indications for targeted vestibular rehabilitation.
Asatryan, Babken; Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Gräni, Christoph; Trachsel, Lukas D; Schmied, Christian M; Saguner, Ardan M; Eser, Prisca; Herzig, David; Bolliger, Stephan; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias
In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland. We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE), recreational sports (REC), and competitive sports (COMP). Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male); 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI)] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35-0.56)], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89-1.60)] and NONE [2.46 (2.27-2.66)]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD) with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI) was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD. The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD.
Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Echemendia, Ruben J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Solomon, Gary S; Hayden, K Alix; Turner, Michael; Dvořák, Jiří; Straumann, Dominik; Tarnutzer, Alexander A
Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a clinical diagnosis made after a sport-related head trauma. Inconsistency exists regarding appropriate methods for assessing SRC, which focus largely on symptom-scores, neurocognitive functioning and postural stability. Systematic literature review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane-DSR, Cochrane CRCT, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus (accessed July 9, 2016). Original (prospective) studies reporting on postinjury assessment in a clinical setting and evaluation of diagnostic tools within 2 weeks after an SRC. Forty-six studies covering 3284 athletes were included out of 2170 articles. Only the prospective studies were considered for final analysis (n=33; 2416 athletes). Concussion diagnosis was typically made on the sideline by an (certified) athletic trainer (55.0%), mainly on the basis of results from a symptom-based questionnaire. Clinical domains affected included cognitive, vestibular and headache/migraine. Headache, fatigue, difficulty concentrating and dizziness were the symptoms most frequently reported. Neurocognitive testing was used in 30/33 studies (90.9%), whereas balance was assessed in 9/33 studies (27.3%). The overall quality of the studies was considered low. The absence of an objective, gold standard criterion makes the accurate diagnosis of SRC challenging. Current approaches tend to emphasise cognition, symptom assessment and postural stability with less of a focus on other domains of functioning. We propose that the clinical assessment of SRC should be symptom based and interdisciplinary. Whenever possible, the SRC assessment should incorporate neurological, vestibular, ocular motor, visual, neurocognitive, psychological and cervical aspects. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Luke, Anthony; Lazaro, Rondy M; Bergeron, Michael F; Keyser, Laura; Benjamin, Holly; Brenner, Joel; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Grady, Matthew; Philpott, John; Smith, Angela
To examine the association between "overscheduling" and sports-related overuse and acute injuries in young athletes and to identify other potential contributing factors to create a working definition for "overscheduling injury." Survey. Six university-based sports medicine clinics in North America. Athletes aged 6 to 18 years (13.8 ± 2.6) and their parents and pediatric sports medicine-trained physicians. Questionnaires developed from literature review and expert consensus to investigate overscheduling and sports-related injuries were completed over a 3-month period. Physician's clinical diagnosis and injury categorization: acute not fatigue related (AI), overuse not fatigue related (OI), acute fatigue related (AFI), or overuse fatigue related (OFI). Overall, 360 questionnaires were completed (84% response rate). Overuse not fatigue-related injuries were encountered most often (44.7%), compared with AI (41.9%) and OFI (9.7%). Number of practices within 48 hours before injury was higher (1.7 ± 1.5) for athletes with OI versus those with AI (1.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.025). Athlete or parent perception of excessive play/training without adequate rest in the days before the injury was related to overuse (P = 0.016) and fatigue-related injuries (P = 0.010). Fatigue-related injuries were related to sleeping ≤6 hours the night before the injury (P = 0.028). When scheduling youth sporting events, potential activity volume and intensity over any 48-hour period, recovery time between all training and competition bouts, and potential between-day sleep time (≥ 7 hours) should be considered to optimize safety. An overscheduling injury can be defined as an injury related to excessive planned physical activity without adequate time for rest and recovery, including between training sessions/competitions and consecutive days.
Full Text Available In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD is unknown.We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland.We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE, recreational sports (REC, and competitive sports (COMP.Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male; 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35-0.56], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89-1.60] and NONE [2.46 (2.27-2.66]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD.The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD.
Lin, Ann C; Salzman, Garrett A; Bachman, Shelby L; Burke, Rita V; Zaslow, Tracy; Piasek, Carolina Z; Edison, Bianca R; Hamilton, Anita; Upperman, Jeffrey S
Parents of young athletes play a major role in the identification and management of sports-related concussions. However, they are often unaware of the consequences of concussions and recommended management techniques. This study quantitatively assessed parental understanding of concussions to identify specific populations in need of additional education. We predicted that parents with increased education and prior sports- and concussion-related experience would have more knowledge and safer attitudes toward concussions. Cross-sectional survey. Level 5. Participants were parents of children brought to a pediatric hospital and 4 satellite clinics for evaluation of orthopaedic injuries. Participants completed a validated questionnaire that assessed knowledge of concussion symptoms, attitudes regarding diagnosis and return-to-play guidelines, and previous sports- and concussion-related experience. Over 8 months, 214 parents completed surveys. Participants scored an average of 18.4 (possible, 0-25) on the Concussion Knowledge Index and 63.1 (possible, 15-75) on the Concussion Attitude Index. Attitudes were safest among white women, and knowledge increased with income and education levels. Previous sports experience did not affect knowledge or attitudes, but parents who reported experiencing an undiagnosed concussion had significantly better concussion knowledge than those who did not. Parents with low income and education levels may benefit from additional concussion-related education. There exist many opportunities for improvement in parental knowledge and attitudes about pediatric sports-related concussions. Ongoing efforts to understand parental knowledge of concussions will inform the development of a strategic and tailored approach to the prevention and management of pediatric concussions.
Chorney, Stephen R; Suryadevara, Amar C; Nicholas, Brian D
We looked to determine the rates of audiovestibular symptoms following sports-related concussions among collegiate athletes. Further, we assessed the correlation between these symptoms and the time to return to participation in athletic activity. Retrospective analysis of the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA-ISS). The NCAA-ISS was queried from 2009 through 2014 for seven men's sports and eight women's sports across divisions 1, 2, and 3. Injuries resulting in concussions were analyzed for audiovestibular symptoms, duration of symptoms, and return to participation times. From 2009 to 2014, there were 1,647 recorded sports-related concussions, with athletes reporting dizziness (68.2%), imbalance (35.8%), disorientation (31.4%), noise sensitivity (29.9%), and tinnitus (8.5%). Concussion symptoms resolved within 1 day (17.1%), within 2 to 7 days (50.0%), within 8 to 30 days (25.9%), or persisted over 1 month (7.0%). Return to participation occurred within 1 week (38.3%), within 1 month (53.0%), or over 1 month (8.7%). Using Mann-Whitney U testing, overall symptom duration and return to competition time were significantly increased when any of these symptoms were present (P concussion symptom correlated with dizziness (P = 0.043) and noise sensitivity (P = 0.000), whereas return to participation times correlated with imbalance (P = 0.011) and noise sensitivity (P = 0.000). Dizziness and imbalance (odds ratio: 4.15, confidence interval: 3.20-5.38, P concussions. Dizziness and noise sensitivity correlated with the duration of concussive symptoms, whereas imbalance and noise sensitivity was correlated with prolonged return to competition time. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2850-2853, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
O'Brien, Kerry S; Hunter, Jackie; Kypri, Kypros; Ali, Ajmol
In large population-based alcohol studies males are shown consistently to drink more, and more hazardously, than females. However, research from some countries suggests that gender differences in drinking are converging, with females drinking more than in the past. Large population-based research may miss gender-based changes in drinking behaviours that occur in sub-populations most at risk of hazardous drinking. We examine gender differences in a sub-population where hazardous drinking is common and endorsed, namely university sportspeople. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and a drinking motives measure were used to assess hazardous drinking behaviours and drinking motives in 631 university sportspeople (females = 331, 52%). There were no gender differences in AUDIT scores. However, drinking motives differed between genders, with coping motives being a significant predictor of hazardous drinking in females but not males. Hazardous drinking, including binge drinking (46.3%) and frequent binge drinking (35%), in New Zealand university sportspeople is high for both males and females. New Zealand university sportspeople are one population where gender differences in drinking are not apparent and run counter to European population based research and research in US sporting populations. Gender role equality in the university systems, and endorsement of drinking in sporting culture, may account for the lack of gender differences in this New Zealand sporting population. Future research on gender differences in drinking should examine sub-populations where gender role differentiation is low, and socio-cultural/structural factors supporting gender equality are high.
Shellock, F G; Prentice, W E
Competitive and recreational athletes typically perform warm-up and stretching activities to prepare for more strenuous exercise. These preliminary activities are used to enhance physical performance and to prevent sports-related injuries. Warm-up techniques are primarily used to increase body temperature and are classified in 3 major categories: (a) passive warm-up - increases temperature by some external means; (b) general warm-up - increases temperature by nonspecific body movements; and (c) specific warm-up - increases temperature using similar body parts that will be used in the subsequent, more strenuous activity. The best of these appears to be specific warm-up because this method provides a rehearsal of the activity or event. The intensity and duration of warm-up must be individualised according to the athlete's physical capabilities and in consideration of environmental factors which may alter the temperature response. The majority of the benefits of warm-up are related to temperature-dependent physiological processes. An elevation in body temperature produces an increase in the dissociation of oxygen from haemoglobin and myoglobin, a lowering of the activation energy rates of metabolic chemical reactions, an increase in muscle blood flow, a reduction in muscle viscosity, an increase in the sensitivity of nerve receptors, and an increase in the speed of nervous impulses. Warm-up also appears to reduce the incidence and likelihood of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries. Improving flexibility through stretching is another important preparatory activity that has been advocated to improve physical performance. Maintaining good flexibility also aids in the prevention of injuries to the musculoskeletal system. Flexibility is defined as the range of motion possible around a specific joint or a series of articulations and is usually classified as either static or dynamic. Static flexibility refers to the degree to which a joint can be passively moved to the
Ravdin, Lisa D; Barr, William B; Jordan, Barry; Lathan, William E; Relkin, Norman R
To prospectively examine recovery of cognitive function within one month following subconcussive sports related head trauma. A prospective study of New York State licensed professional boxers who underwent testing of cognitive functioning before and after (within days, one week, and one month) a professional bout. Male professional athletes recruited from the New York State Athletic Commission and local boxing gyms. Twenty-six licensed professional boxers were enrolled in the protocol. Data is presented on the 18 participants who completed testing on at least three of the four time points. Serial neuropsychological assessment before and after the athletes engaged in competition. Neuropsychological measures of cognitive functioning, including new learning and memory, information processing speed, and mental flexibility. A series of repeated measures MANOVAS revealed significant within subject differences across testing on complex information processing and verbal fluency. Post hoc analyses indicated significant differences between time 1 (baseline) and time 4 (one month post), with scores one month following the bout indicating significantly improved performance. Memory scores did not change significantly across testing; however, prior boxing exposure measured by total number of professional bouts was associated with poorer memory performance. Cognitive testing one month following participation in a professional boxing bout yielded scores suggestive of recovery to a level above the baseline. We conclude that baseline assessment taken during periods of intense training are likely confounded by other pre-bout conditions (i.e., sparring, rapid weight loss, pre-bout anxiety) and do not represent true baseline abilities. Instability of performance associated with mild head injury may complicate the interpretation of post-injury assessments. Practice effects may also confound the interpretation of serial assessments, leading to underestimation of the effects of sports
Weber, Michelle L.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate school nurses' familiarity and perceptions regarding academic accommodations for student-athletes following sport-related concussion. School nurses (N = 1,246) accessed the survey School Nurses' Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge of Pediatric Athletes with Concussions (BAKPAC-SN). The BAKPAC-SN contained…
Halstead, Mark E; Walter, Kevin D
Sport-related concussion is a "hot topic" in the media and in medicine. It is a common injury that is likely underreported by pediatric and adolescent athletes. Football has the highest incidence of concussion, but girls have higher concussion rates than boys do in similar sports. A clear understanding of the definition, signs, and symptoms of concussion is necessary to recognize it and rule out more severe intracranial injury. Concussion can cause symptoms that interfere with school, social and family relationships, and participation in sports. Recognition and education are paramount, because although proper equipment, sport technique, and adherence to rules of the sport may decrease the incidence or severity of concussions, nothing has been shown to prevent them. Appropriate management is essential for reducing the risk of long-term symptoms and complications. Cognitive and physical rest is the mainstay of management after diagnosis, and neuropsychological testing is a helpful tool in the management of concussion. Return to sport should be accomplished by using a progressive exercise program while evaluating for any return of signs or symptoms. This report serves as a basis for understanding the diagnosis and management of concussion in children and adolescent athletes.
King, Doug; Brughelli, Matt; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor
Sport-related concussions are a subset of mild traumatic brain injuries and are a concern for many sporting activities worldwide. To review and update the literature in regard to the history, pathophysiology, recognition, assessment, management and knowledge of concussion. Searches of electronic literature databases were performed to identify studies published up until April 2013. 292 publications focussing on concussion met the inclusion criteria, and so they were quality rated and reviewed. Concussion is hard to recognize and diagnose. Initial sideline assessment via the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool 3 (SCAT3), Child-SCAT3 or King-Devick test should be undertaken to identify athletes with concussion as part of a continuum of assessment modalities and athlete management. Sports medicine practitioners should be cognisant of the definition, extent and nature of concussion, and should work with coaches, athletes and trainers to identify and manage concussions. The most common reason for variations in management of concussion is lack of awareness of-and confusion about-the many available published guidelines for concussion. Future research should focus on better systems and tools for recognition, assessment and management of concussion. Sport participants' knowledge of concussion should be evaluated more rigorously, with interventions for sports where there is little knowledge of recognition, assessment and appropriate management of concussion.
Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.
Schneider, Kathryn J; Leddy, John J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Seifert, Tad; McCrea, Michael; Silverberg, Noah D; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Iverson, Grant L; Hayden, Alix; Makdissi, Michael
The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence regarding rest and active treatment/rehabilitation following sport-related concussion (SRC). Systematic review. MEDLINE (OVID), CINAHL (EbscoHost), PsycInfo (OVID), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (OVID), SPORTDiscus (EbscoHost), EMBASE (OVID) and Proquest DissertationsandTheses Global (Proquest) were searched systematically. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) original research; (2) reported SRC as the diagnosis; and (3) evaluated the effect of rest or active treatment/rehabilitation. Review articles were excluded. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria (9 regarding the effects of rest and 19 evaluating active treatment). The methodological quality of the literature was limited; only five randomised controlled trials (RCTs) met the eligibility criteria. Those RCTs included rest, cervical and vestibular rehabilitation, subsymptom threshold aerobic exercise and multifaceted collaborative care. A brief period (24-48 hours) of cognitive and physical rest is appropriate for most patients. Following this, patients should be encouraged to gradually increase activity. The exact amount and duration of rest are not yet well defined and require further investigation. The data support interventions including cervical and vestibular rehabilitation and multifaceted collaborative care. Closely monitored subsymptom threshold, submaximal exercise may be of benefit. PROSPERO 2016:CRD42016039570. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Resch, Jacob E; McCrea, Michael A; Cullum, C Munro
Since the late nineties, computerized neurocognitive testing has become a central component of sport-related concussion (SRC) management at all levels of sport. In 2005, a review of the available evidence on the psychometric properties of four computerized neuropsychological test batteries concluded that the tests did not possess the necessary criteria to warrant clinical application. Since the publication of that review, several more computerized neurocognitive tests have entered the market place. The purpose of this review is to summarize the body of published studies on psychometric properties and clinical utility of computerized neurocognitive tests available for use in the assessment of SRC. A review of the literature from 2005 to 2013 was conducted to gather evidence of test-retest reliability and clinical validity of these instruments. Reviewed articles included both prospective and retrospective studies of primarily sport-based adult and pediatric samples. Summaries are provided regarding the available evidence of reliability and validity for the most commonly used computerized neurocognitive tests in sports settings.
Odom, Mitchell J; Lee, Young M; Zuckerman, Scott L; Apple, Rachel P; Germanos, Theodore; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K
This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of a novel computer-based, portable balance assessment tool, the Equilibrate System (ES), used to diagnose sports-related concussion. Twenty-seven students participated in ES testing consisting of three sessions over 4 weeks. The modified Balance Error Scoring System was performed. For each participant, test-retest reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ES test-retest reliability from baseline to week 2 produced an ICC value of 0.495 (95% CI, 0.123-0.745). Week 2 testing produced ICC values of 0.602 (95% CI, 0.279-0.803) and 0.610 (95% CI, 0.299-0.804), respectively. All other single measures test-retest reliability values produced poor ICC values. Same-day ES testing showed fair to good test-retest reliability while interweek measures displayed poor to fair test-retest reliability. Testing conditions should be controlled when using computerized balance assessment methods. ES testing should only be used as a part of a comprehensive assessment.
McCrory, P R; Berkovic, S F
To describe the motor and convulsive manifestations in acute sports-related head injury. A total of 234 cases of concussive injuries during the 1995 through 1997 football seasons were obtained from the Australian Football League Medical Officers Association injury survey. Of these, 102 cases were recorded adequately on television videotape and were analyzed by two independent observers using a standardized recording form detailing injury mechanics and clinical features of the episodes. Motor and convulsive features were correlated with mechanical variables and with duration of loss of consciousness using linear modeling techniques. Tonic posturing occurred in 25 subjects, clonic movements in 6, righting movement in 40, and gait unsteadiness in 42. In one subject the tonic and clonic features were sufficiently prolonged to be deemed a concussive convulsion. The only risk factor for tonic posturing using logistic regression was the presence of loss of consciousness (p = 0.0001). There was a trend toward facial impact being an independent predictor of tonic posturing but this did not reach significance. No other independent variable predicted the development of clonic movements, righting movements, or gait unsteadiness. Subtle motor manifestations such as tonic posturing and clonic movements commonly occur in concussion; the main predictive factor for tonic posturing is the presence of loss of consciousness. The authors speculate that these clinical features are due to brainstem dysfunction secondary to biomechanical forces inducing a transient functional decerebration.
Full Text Available Objectives: Deterioration in postural control mechanisms is termed postural instability and results increased postural sway and many laboratory techniques and instruments are characterized by a wide range of neurological signs and symptoms to the medical management. Thus the current study designed to assess the reliability of commonly used clinical measures of balance and determined normal values. Also, the second purpose was scrutiny of effect age, length weight and body mass index (BMI on perform clinical balance tests. Methods: One hundred and thirty three participants (18-59 years, that have at least three time sports activity in one week, performed three timed tests: Time- up and Go (TUG, Tandem Gait (TG, and Walking on Balance Beam (WOBB on firm surface. Results: Reliability data were produced for each tests of motor performance. We found that the first performance of three trials was slower, and the relationship between some factors and these battery tests were examined. Means(±SD for each measure were averaged across three trials. Time to complete TG was 13.6±1.1s. TUG value was 6.9±1.03 and WOBB was 6.9±1.03s. Discussion: our results revealed that three clinical balance test batteries-TUG, TG and WOBB tests are the stability measures to assess of sports related concussion. Also, the results of current study appeared that the time to perform these tests was slower than the other studies.
Full Text Available Objectives: Deterioration in postural control mechanisms is termed postural instability and results increased postural sway and many laboratory techniques and instruments are characterized by a wide range of neurological signs and symptoms to the medical management. Thus the current study designed to assess the reliability of commonly used clinical measures of balance and determined normal values. Also, the second purpose was to evaluate the scrutiny of age, length weight and body mass index (BMI effects on performing clinical balance tests. Methods: One hundred and thirty three participants (18-59 years, that have at least three time sports activity in one week, performed three timed tests including Time-up and Go (TUG, Tandem Gait (TG, and Walking on Balance Beam (WOBB on firm surface. Results: Reliability data were produced for each tests of motor performance. We found that the first performance of three trials was slower, and the relationship between some factors and these battery tests were examined. Means(±SD for each measure were averaged across three trials. Time to complete TG was 13.6±1.1s. TUG value was 6.9±1.03 and WOBB was 6.9±1.03s. Discussion: our results revealed that three clinical balance test batteries-TUG, TG and WOBB tests are the stability measures to assess the sports related concussion. Also, the results of current study showed that the time to perform these tests was slower than the other studies.
Solomon, Gary S; Kuhn, Andrew W; Zuckerman, Scott L
Since its third iteration in 2008, the international Concussion in Sport Group (CISG) has delineated several 'modifying factors' that have the potential to influence the management of sport-related concussions (SRC). One of these factors is co- and pre-morbidities, which includes migraines, mental health disorders, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), learning disability, and sleep disorders. Mental health disorders, and in particular, depression, have received some attention in the management of SRC and in this review we summarize the empirical evidence for its inclusion as a modifying factor. This review is divided into three main bodies of findings: (1) the incidence and prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms in non-concussed and concussed athletes, with comparison made to the general population; (2) managing the post-concussion athlete and accounting for premorbid depressive symptoms; and (3) depression as a long-term effect of repetitive head trauma. Overall, it has been reported that certain subpopulations of athletes have similar or even higher rates of depressive symptoms when compared to the general population. The challenge of accounting for these baseline-depressive symptoms while managing the post-concussive athlete is stressed. And lastly, the prevalence of depression and its relationship to concussion in later-life is discussed.
Register-Mihalik, Johna; Baugh, Christine; Kroshus, Emily; Y Kerr, Zachary; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C
To offer an overview of sport-related concussion (SRC) prevention and education strategies in the context of the socioecological framework (SEF). Athletic trainers (ATs) will understand the many factors that interact to influence SRC prevention and the implications of these interactions for effective SRC education. Concussion is a complex injury that is challenging to identify and manage, particularly when athletes fail to disclose symptoms to their health care providers. Education is 1 strategy for increasing disclosure. However, limited information addresses how ATs can integrate the many factors that may influence the effectiveness of SRC education into their specific settings. Public health models provide an example through the SEF, which highlights the interplay among various levels of society and sport that can facilitate SRC prevention strategies, including education. For ATs to develop appropriate SRC prevention strategies, a framework for application is needed. A growing body of information concerning SRC prevention indicates that knowledge alone is insufficient to change concussion-related behaviors. The SEF allows this information to be considered at levels such as policy and societal, community, interpersonal (relationships), and intrapersonal (athlete). The use of such a framework will facilitate more comprehensive SRC prevention efforts that can be applied in all athletic training practice settings. Clinical Applications: Athletic trainers can use this information as they plan SRC prevention strategies in their specific settings. This approach will aid in addressing the layers of complexity that exist when developing a concussion-management policy and plan.
Iverson, Grant L; Lovell, Mark R; Collins, Michael W
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of ImPACT (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing), a computerized neuropsychological test battery, for measuring attention and processing speed in athletes with concussions. This was accomplished by comparing the computerized testing to a traditional neuropsychological measure, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Participants were 72 amateur athletes who were seen within 21 days of sustaining a sports-related concussion (Mean = 9.4, SD = 5.4 days). As predicted, the SDMT correlated more highly with the Processing Speed and Reaction Time composites than the Verbal Memory and Visual Memory Composites from ImPACT. The composite scores from ImPACT and the SDMT were subjected to exploratory factor analysis, revealing a two-factor solution interpreted as Speed/Reaction Time and Memory. It appears as if the Processing Speed Composite, Reaction Time Composite, and SDMT are measuring a similar underlying construct in this sample of concussed amateur athletes.
Sandel, Natalie; Reynolds, Erin; Cohen, Paul E; Gillie, Brandon L; Kontos, Anthony P
Conceptual models for assessing and treating sport-related concussion (SRC) have evolved from a homogenous approach to include different clinical profiles that reflect the heterogeneous nature of this injury and its effects. There are six identified clinical profiles, or subtypes from SRC, and one such clinical profile is the anxiety/mood profile. Athletes with this profile experience predominant emotional disturbance and anxiety following SRC. The purpose of this targeted review was to present an overview of the empirical evidence to support factors contributing to the anxiety/mood profile, along with methods of evaluation and treatment of this clinical profile following SRC. We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms and risk factors for this clinical profile, describe comprehensive assessments to evaluate concussed athletes with an anxiety/mood clinical profile, and explore behavioral and other interventions for treating these athletes. Although there is limited, but growing empirical evidence for the anxiety/mood clinical profile following SRC, understanding this clinical profile is germane for clinicians who are treating athletes with emotional sequelae after SRC.
Monroe, Kathy W; Thrash, Chris; Sorrentino, Annalise; King, William D
Participation in sports is a popular activity for children across the country. Prevention of sports-related injuries can be improved if details of injuries are documented and studied. A retrospective medical record review of injuries that occurred as a direct result of sports participation (both organized and non-organized play) from November 2006 to November 2007. Because the vast majority of injuries were a result of participation in football or basketball, these injuries were focused upon. The injuries specifically examined were closed head injury (CHI), lacerations and fractures. There were 350 football and 196 basketball injuries (total 546). Comparing injuries between the two groups fractures were found to be more prevalent in football compared to basketball (z = 2.14; p = 0.03; 95%CI (0.01, 0.16)). Lacerations were found to be less prevalent among helmeted patients than those without helmets. (z = 2.39; p = 0.02; 95%CI (-0.17,-0.03)). CHI was more prevalent among organized play compared to non-organized (z = 3.9; psports participants.
O'Dell, M Cody; Jaramillo, Diego; Bancroft, Laura; Varich, Laura; Logsdon, Gregory; Servaes, Sabah
With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports. However, some injuries that occur almost exclusively in high-level athletes (eg, athletic pubalgia) are reviewed to increase awareness and understanding of these entities among pediatric radiologists who may not be familiar with them and thus may not look for them. Injuries are described according to their location (ie, hip, knee, or foot and ankle) and pathologic process (eg, apophysitis, osteochondritis dissecans). Examples of abnormalities and normal variants of the anatomy that are often misdiagnosed are provided. The injuries reviewed represent a common and growing subset of pathologic processes about which all pediatric and musculoskeletal radiologists should be knowledgeable. Understanding physeal injury is especially important because missed diagnoses can lead to premature physeal closure and osteoarthritis. © RSNA, 2016.
Myer, Gregory D.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Best, Thomas M.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities; and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Recent trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong regular physical activity. PMID:21623307
Trojian, Thomas H; Wang, David H; Leddy, John J
Concussions are common neurologic events that affect many athletes. Very little has been studied on the treatment of concussions with supplements and medications. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reminds us that no supplement has been proven to treat concussions. Many animal studies show that supplements have potential for improving the effects of a brain injury but none have been shown to be of consistent benefit in human studies. Animal studies on severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) may not therefore be applicable transfer to sports-related concussions (SRC).Of the many supplements reviewed in this article, omega-3 fatty acids (Ω-3 FA) have potential for SRC treatment but in the one human trial those taking higher dosages preinjury had more concussions. In animal studies, postinjury administration was as effective as pretreatment. N-acetyl-cysteine has demonstrated a positive short-term effect on blast injuries in soldiers if administered within 24 h, but there are no studies in SRC. Caffeine, conversely, may be detrimental if taken after SRC. Lower serum levels of vitamins D, C, or E preinjury have worse outcomes in animal studies. Preinjury correction of deficiencies may be of benefit. Current human trials for nicotinamide ribose, melatonin, and branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may soon provide more evidence for the use of these supplements to reduce the impact of SRC in athletes.
Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... 2016. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol- ...
Full Text Available Adolescence is considered to be the most important period for the prevention of substance use and misuse (SUM. The aim of this study was to investigate the problem of SUM and to establish potentially important factors associated with SUM in Kosovar adolescents. Multi-stage simple random sampling was used to select participants. At the end of their high school education, 980 adolescents (623 females ages 17 to 19 years old were enrolled in the study. The prevalence of smoking, alcohol consumption (measured by Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test–AUDIT, and illegal drug use (dependent variables, as well as socio-demographic, scholastic, familial, and sports-related factors (independent variables, were assessed. Boys smoke cigarettes more often than girls with daily-smoking prevalence of 16% among boys and 9% among girls (OR = 1.85, 95% = CI 1.25–2.75. The prevalence of harmful drinking (i.e., AUDIT scores of >10 is found to be alarming (41% and 37% for boys and girls, respectively; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.87–1.48, while 17% of boys and 9% of girls used illegal drugs (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.35–2.95. The behavioral grade (observed as: excellent–average-poor is the factor that was most significantly correlated with SUM both in boys and girls, with lower behavioral grades among those adolescents who consume substances. In girls, lower maternal education levels were associated with a decreased likelihood of SUM, whereas sports achievement was negatively associated with risky drinking. In boys, sports achievement decreased the likelihood of daily smoking. Information on the factors associated with SUM should be disseminated among sports and school authorities.
Manley, Geoff; Gardner, Andrew J; Schneider, Kathryn J; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Bailes, Julian; Cantu, Robert C; Castellani, Rudolph J; Turner, Michael; Jordan, Barry D; Randolph, Christopher; Dvořák, Jiří; Hayden, K Alix; Tator, Charles H; McCrory, Paul; Iverson, Grant L
Systematic review of possible long-term effects of sports-related concussion in retired athletes. Ten electronic databases. Original research; incidence, risk factors or causation related to long-term mental health or neurological problems; individuals who have suffered a concussion; retired athletes as the subjects and possible long-term sequelae defined as > 10 years after the injury. Study population, exposure/outcome measures, clinical data, neurological examination findings, cognitive assessment, neuroimaging findings and neuropathology results. Risk of bias and level of evidence were evaluated by two authors. Following review of 3819 studies, 47 met inclusion criteria. Some former athletes have depression and cognitive deficits later in life, and there is an association between these deficits and multiple prior concussions. Former athletes are not at increased risk for death by suicide (two studies). Former high school American football players do not appear to be at increased risk for later life neurodegenerative diseases (two studies). Some retired professional American football players may be at increased risk for diminishment in cognitive functioning or mild cognitive impairment (several studies), and neurodegenerative diseases (one study). Neuroimaging studies show modest evidence of macrostructural, microstructural, functional and neurochemical changes in some athletes. Multiple concussions appear to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment and mental health problems in some individuals. More research is needed to better understand the prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and other neurological conditions and diseases, and the extent to which they are related to concussions and/or repetitive neurotrauma sustained in sports. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Carson, James D; Rendely, Alexandra; Garel, Alisha; Meaney, Christopher; Stoller, Jacqueline; Kaicker, Jatin; Hayden, Leigh; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre
To compare the knowledge and use of recommendations for the management of sport-related concussion (SRC) among sport and exercise medicine physicians (SEMPs) and emergency department physicians (EDPs) to assess the success of SRC knowledge transfer across Canada. A self-administered, multiple-choice survey accessed via e-mail by SEMPs and EDPs. The survey had been assessed for content validity. Canada. The survey was completed between May and July 2012 by SEMPs who had passed the diploma examination of the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine and by EDPs who did not hold this diploma. Knowledge and identification of sources of concussion management information, use of concussion diagnosis strategies, and whether physicians use common and consistent terminology when explaining cognitive rest strategies to patients after an SRC. There was a response rate of 28% (305 of 1085). The SEMP and EDP response rates were 41% (147 of 360) and 22% (158 of 725), respectively. Of the responses, 41% of EDPs and 3% of SEMPs were unaware of any consensus statements on concussion in sport; 74% of SEMPs used the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, version 2 (SCAT2), "usually or always," whereas 88% of EDPs never used the SCAT2. When queried about how cognitive rest could best be achieved after an SRC, no consistent answer was documented. Differences and a lack of consistency in the implementation of recommendations for SRC patients were identified for SEMPs and EDPs. It appears that the SCAT2 is used more in the SEMP setting than in the emergency context. Further knowledge transfer efforts and research should address the barriers to achieving more consistent advice given by physicians who attend SRC patients. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.
McClure, D Jake; Zuckerman, Scott L; Kutscher, Scott J; Gregory, Andrew J; Solomon, Gary S
The management of sports-related concussions (SRCs) utilizes serial neurocognitive assessments and self-reported symptom inventories to assess recovery and safety for return to play (RTP). Because postconcussive RTP goals include symptom resolution and a return to neurocognitive baseline levels, clinical decisions rest in part on understanding modifiers of this baseline. Several studies have reported age and sex to influence baseline neurocognitive performance, but few have assessed the potential effect of sleep. We chose to investigate the effect of reported sleep duration on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) performance and the number of patient-reported symptoms. We hypothesized that athletes receiving less sleep before baseline testing would perform worse on neurocognitive metrics and report more symptoms. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. We retrospectively reviewed 3686 nonconcussed athletes (2371 male, 1315 female; 3305 high school, 381 college) with baseline symptom and ImPACT neurocognitive scores. Patients were stratified into 3 groups based on self-reported sleep duration the night before testing: (1) short, sleep duration on baseline ImPACT performance. A univariate ANCOVA was performed to investigate the influence of sleep on total self-reported symptoms. When controlling for age and sex as covariates, the MANCOVA revealed significant group differences on ImPACT reaction time, verbal memory, and visual memory scores but not visual-motor (processing) speed scores. An ANCOVA also revealed significant group differences in total reported symptoms. For baseline symptoms and ImPACT scores, subsequent pairwise comparisons revealed these associations to be most significant when comparing the short and intermediate sleep groups. Our results indicate that athletes sleeping fewer than 7 hours before baseline testing perform worse on 3 of 4 ImPACT scores and report more symptoms. Because SRC management and RTP
McCrory, Paul; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Dvořák, Jiří; Cassidy, J David; McIntosh, Andrew; Vos, Pieter E; Echemendia, Ruben J; Meeuwisse, Willem; Tarnutzer, Alexander A
Various definitions for concussion have been proposed, each having its strengths and weaknesses. We reviewed and compared current definitions and identified criteria necessary for an operational definition of sports-related concussion (SRC) in preparation of the 5th Concussion Consensus Conference (Berlin, Germany). We also assessed the role of biomechanical studies in informing an operational definition of SRC. This is a systematic literature review. Data sources include MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and SPORT Discus (accessed 14 September 2016). Eligibility criteria were studies reporting (clinical) criteria for diagnosing SRC and studies containing SRC impact data. Out of 1601 articles screened, 36 studies were included (2.2%), 14 reported on criteria for SRC definitions and 22 on biomechanical aspects of concussions. Six different operational definitions focusing on clinical findings and their dynamics were identified. Biomechanical studies were obtained almost exclusively on American football players. Angular and linear head accelerations linked to clinically confirmed concussions demonstrated considerable individual variation. SRC is a traumatic brain injury that is defined as a complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain, induced by biomechanical forces with several common features that help define its nature. Limitations identified include that the current criteria for diagnosing SRC are clinically oriented and that there is no gold/standard to assess their diagnostic properties. A future, more valid definition of SRC would better identify concussed players by demonstrating high predictive positive/negative values. Currently, the use of helmet-based systems to study the biomechanics of SRC is limited to few collision sports. New approaches need to be developed to provide objective markers for SRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise
Collins, Michael W; Iverson, Grant L; Lovell, Mark R; McKeag, Douglas B; Norwig, John; Maroon, Joseph
Investigate the relationship between on-field markers of concussion severity and postinjury neuropsychological and symptom presentation in an athlete-specific population. Case control study. Multicenter analysis of high school and college athletes. A total of 78 athletes sustaining sports-related concussion were selected from a larger sample of 139 concussed athletes. ASSESSMENT OF PREDICTOR VARIABLES: On-field presence of disorientation, posttraumatic amnesia, retrograde amnesia, and loss of consciousness. ImPACT, a computerized neuropsychological test battery, was administered pre-season and, on average, 2 days postinjury. Good postinjury presentation (n = 44) was defined as no measurable change, relative to baseline, in terms of both ImPACT memory and symptom composite scores. Poor presentation (n = 34) was defined as a 10-point increase in symptom reporting and 10-point decrease in memory functioning (exceeding the 80% confidence interval for measurement error on ImPACT). Athletes failing to meet good or poor selection criteria (n = 61) were not included in the analysis. Odds ratios revealed that athletes demonstrating poor presentation at 2 days postinjury were over 10 times more likely (P presentation. Similarly, athletes with poor presentation were over 4 times more likely (P poor presentation groups in terms of on-field loss of consciousness. The presence of amnesia, not loss of consciousness, appears predictive of symptom and neurocognitive deficits following concussion in athletes. Athletes presenting with on-field amnesia should undergo comprehensive and individualized assessment prior to returning to sport participation. Continued refinement of sports concussion grading scales is warranted in lieu of consistent findings that brief loss of consciousness is not predictive of concussion injury severity.
Paddack, Michael; DeWolf, Ryan; Covassin, Tracey; Kontos, Anthony
College sport organizations and associations endorse concussion-management protocols and policies. To date, little information is available on concussion policies and practices at community college institutions. To assess and describe current practices and policies regarding the assessment, management, and return-to-play criteria for sport-related concussion (SRC) among member institutions of the California Community College Athletic Association (CCCAA). Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. A total of 55 head athletic trainers (ATs) at CCCAA institutions. Data about policies, procedures, and practices regarding SRC were collected over a 3-week period in March 2012 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Fisher exact test, and the Spearman test. Almost half (47%) of ATs stated they had a policy for SRC assessment, management, and return to play at their institution. They reported being in compliance with baseline testing guidelines (25%), management guidelines (34.5%), and return-to-play guidelines (30%). Nearly 31% of ATs described having an SRC policy in place for academic accommodations. Conference attendance was positively correlated with institutional use of academic accommodations after SRC (r = 0.44, P = .01). The number of meetings ATs attended and their use of baseline testing were also positively correlated (r = 0.38, P = .01). At the time of this study, nearly half of CCCAA institutions had concussion policies and 31% had academic-accommodation policies. However, only 18% of ATs at CCCAA institutions were in compliance with all of their concussion policies. Our findings demonstrate improvements in the management of SRCs by ATs at California community colleges compared with previous research but a need for better compliance with SRC policies.
Gräni, Christoph; Chappex, Nina; Fracasso, Tony; Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Schmied, Christian; Saguner, Ardan M; Trachsel, Lukas D; Eser, Prisca; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias
Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths (SrSCDs) occur most frequently in highly dynamic and/or static sports. We aimed to assess the incidence and characteristics of SrSCDs in Switzerland and to compare SrSCD occurrence according to sports categories with the sports participation behaviour in the general population. Between 1999 and 2010, forensic reports of SrSCDs in young individuals (10-39 years of age) were retrospectively reviewed and categorised based on peak static (increasing from I to III) and dynamic sports components (increasing from A to C). Data were compared to the sports participation behaviour of the Swiss population. Sixty-nine SrSCDs were identified. Forty-eight (69.6%) occurred during recreational sports (REC) and 21 (30.4%) during competitive sports (COMP). Incidences (per 100,000 athlete person-years) for COMP and REC were 0.90 and 0.52, respectively (p = 0.001). Most SrSCDs occurred in IC (23 cases, 33.3%), followed by IIC (13, 18.9%), IIIA and IIIC (11 each, 15.9%), IIIB (6, 8.7%), IIA (4, 5.8%) and IB sports categories (1, 1.5%). No SrSCDs were found in IA and IIB sports categories. Incidences between sports categories (IIIA 0.25, IB 0.25, IC 0.18, IIC 0.33 and IIIC 0.25) were not significantly different except to IIA (0.94, p sports category. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the most common underlying pathology of SrSCD. In this Swiss cohort, incidence of SrSCD was very low and similar in all sports categories classified by their static and dynamic components. However, the incidence was higher in COMP compared to REC, and CAD proved to be the most common underlying cause of SrSCD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.
Brook, Emily M.; Kroshus, Emily; Hu, Caroline H.; Gedman, Marissa; Collins, Jamie E.; Matzkin, Elizabeth G.
Background: There are limited data on the incidence of concussion and concussion symptom nondisclosure among collegiate women’s ice hockey athletes. Purpose: To determine the incidence of sports-related concussion (SRC) in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women’s ice hockey athletes. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: An anonymous online survey was completed by 459 NCAA women’s ice hockey athletes. Players reported diagnosed concussions as well as incidents where they experienced an impact or blow to the head followed by symptoms associated with a concussion; reports spanned the duration of the 2014-2015 season and throughout players’ organized hockey career. Results: About half (n = 219, 47.7%) of respondents reported at least 1 diagnosed concussion over the duration of their entire organized ice hockey career. A total of 13.3% (n = 61) of respondents reported a diagnosed concussion during the 2014-2015 season. The incidence rate was 1.18 (95% CI, 0.92-1.51) per 1000 athlete-exposures to a game or practice and 0.58 (95% CI, 0.45-0.74) per 1000 hours of ice time. One-third (34.2%, n = 157) of players reported at least 1 impact where they experienced concussion-like symptoms during the 2014-2015 season; 82.8% of these players reported that they continued to play after at least 1 of these impacts, and 66.8% of players reported at least 1 impact where they never disclosed any symptoms. Conclusion: There is a high incidence of SRC in collegiate women’s ice hockey and a concerning level of symptom nondisclosure. Additional research is needed to understand the causes of concussion and reasons for the lack of symptom disclosure, including factors specific to female athletes and contextual issues specific to women’s collegiate ice hockey. PMID:28812036
Makdissi, Michael; Schneider, Kathryn J; Feddermann-Demont, Nina; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Hinds, Sidney; Leddy, John J; McCrea, Michael; Turner, Michael; Johnston, Karen M
To conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding assessment and treatment modalities in patients with persistent symptoms following sport-related concussion (SRC). We searched Medline, Embase, SPORTSDiscus, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane library and ProQuest Dissertation & Theses Global electronic databases. Studies were included if they were original research, reported on SRC as the primary source of injury, included patients with persistent postconcussive symptoms (>10 days) and investigated the role of assessment or treatment modalities. Of 3225 articles identified in the preliminary search, 25 articles met the inclusion criteria. 11 articles were concerned with assessment and 14 articles with treatment of persistent symptoms following SRC. There were three randomised control trials and one quasi-experimental study. The remainder consisting of cross-sectional studies, historical cohorts and case series. 'Persistent symptoms' following SRC can be defined as clinical recovery that falls outside expected time frames (ie, >10-14 days in adults and >4 weeks in children). It does not reflect a single pathophysiological entity, but describes a constellation of non-specific post-traumatic symptoms that may be linked to coexisting and/or confounding pathologies. A detailed multimodal clinical assessment is required to identify specific primary and secondary processes, and treatment should target specific pathologies identified. There is preliminary evidence supporting the use of symptom-limited aerobic exercise, targeted physical therapy and a collaborative approach that includes cognitive behavioural therapy. Management of patients with persistent symptoms is challenging and should occur in a multidisciplinary collaborative setting, with healthcare providers with experience in SRC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly
Wong-On, Manuel; Til-Pérez, Lluís; Balius, Ramón
A combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with real-time high-resolution ultrasound (US) known as fusion imaging may improve visualization of musculoskeletal (MSK) sports medicine injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of MRI-US fusion technology in MSK sports medicine. This study was conducted by the medical services of the FC Barcelona. The participants included volunteers and referred athletes with symptomatic and asymptomatic MSK injuries. All cases underwent MRI which was loaded into the US system for manual registration on the live US image and fusion imaging examination. After every test, an evaluation form was completed in terms of advantages, disadvantages, and anatomic fusion landmarks. From November 2014 to March 2015, we evaluated 20 subjects who underwent fusion imaging, 5 non-injured volunteers and 15 injured athletes, 11 symptomatic and 4 asymptomatic, age range 16-50 years, mean 22. We describe some of the anatomic landmarks used to guide fusion in different regions. This technology allowed us to examine muscle and tendon injuries simultaneously in US and MRI, and the correlation of both techniques, especially low-grade muscular injuries. This has also helped compensate for the limited field of view with US. It improves spatial orientation of cartilage, labrum and meniscal injuries. However, a high-quality MRI image is essential in achieving an adequate fusion image, and 3D sequences need to be added in MRI protocols to improve navigation. The combination of real-time MRI and US image fusion and navigation is relatively easy to perform and is helping to improve understanding of MSK injuries. However, it requires specific skills in MSK imaging and still needs further research in sports-related injuries. Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.
Flaherty, Michael R; Raybould, Toby; Jamal-Allial, Aziza; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Lee, Jarone; Gervasini, Alice; Ginsburg, Richard; Mandell, Mark; Donelan, Karen; Masiakos, Peter T
To determine physician-reported adherence to and support of the 2010 Massachusetts youth concussion law, as well as barriers to care and clinical practice in the context of legislation. Primary care physicians (n = 272) in a large pediatric network were eligible for a cross-sectional survey in 2014. Survey questions addressed key policy and practice provisions: concussion knowledge, state regulations and training, practice patterns, referrals, patient characteristics, and barriers to care. Analyses explored relationships between practice and policy, adjusting for physician demographic and practice characteristics. The survey response rate was 64% among all responders (173 of 272). A total of 146 respondents who had evaluated, treated, or referred patients with a suspected sports-related concussion in the previous year were eligible for analysis. The vast majority (90%) of providers agreed that the current Massachusetts laws regarding sports concussions are necessary and support the major provisions. Three-quarters (74%) had taken a required clinician training course on concussions. Those who took training courses were significantly more likely to develop individualized treatment plans (OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-11.0). Physician training did not improve screening of youth with concussion for depression or substance use. Most physicians (77%) advised patients to refrain from computer, telephone, or television for various time periods. Physicians reported limited communication with schools. Primary care physicians report being comfortable with the diagnosis and management of concussions, and support statewide regulations; however, adherence to mandated training and specific legal requirements varied. Broader and more frequent training may be necessary to align current best evidence with clinical care and state-mandated practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Mayer, Andrew R
Growing evidence suggests that sports-related concussions (SRC) may lead to acute changes in intrinsic functional connectivity, although most studies to date have been cross-sectional in nature with relatively modest sample sizes. We longitudinally assessed changes in local and global resting state functional connectivity using metrics that do not require a priori seed or network selection (regional homogeneity; ReHo and global brain connectivity; GBC, respectively). A large sample of collegiate athletes (N = 43) was assessed approximately one day (1.74 days post-injury, N = 34), one week (8.44 days, N = 34), and one month post-concussion (32.47 days, N = 30). Healthy contact sport-athletes served as controls (N = 51). Concussed athletes showed improvement in mood symptoms at each time point (p's concussion (p's concussion. ReHo in sensorimotor, visual, and temporal cortices increased over time post-concussion, and was greatest at one month post-injury. Conversely, ReHo in the frontal cortex decreased over time following SRC, with the greatest decrease evident at one month post-concussion. Differences in ReHo relative to healthy athletes were primarily observed at one month post-concussion rather than the more acute time points. Contrary to our hypothesis, no significant cross-sectional or longitudinal differences in GBC were observed. These results are suggestive of a delayed onset of local connectivity changes following SRC.
Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Makan, Nadia; Liu, Aiping; Smith-Forrester, Jenna; Franks, Chris; Wang, Z J
Sports-related concussion is a major public health issue; however, little is known about the underlying changes in functional brain networks in adolescents following injury. Our aim was to use the tools from graph theory to evaluate the changes in brain network properties following concussion in adolescent athletes. We recorded resting state electroencephalography (EEG) in 33 healthy adolescent athletes and 9 adolescent athletes with a clinical diagnosis of subacute concussion. Graph theory analysis was applied to these data to evaluate changes in brain networks. Global and local metrics of the structural properties of the graph were calculated for each group and correlated with Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores. Brain networks of both groups showed small-world topology with no statistically significant differences in the global metrics; however, significant differences were found in the local metrics. Specifically, in the concussed group, we noted: 1) increased values of betweenness and degree in frontal electrode sites corresponding to the (R) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the (R) inferior frontal gyrus and 2) decreased values of degree in the region corresponding to the (R) frontopolar prefrontal cortex. In addition, there was significant negative correlation between degree and hub value, with total symptom score at the electrode site corresponding to the (R) prefrontal cortex. This preliminary report in adolescent athletes shows for the first time that resting-state EEG combined with graph theoretical analysis may provide an objective method of evaluating changes in brain networks following concussion. This approach may be useful in identifying individuals at risk for future injury.
Griffin, William C
This commentary discusses the study by Marczinski and colleagues in which they used an alcohol priming procedure to examine the effects of an alcohol/energy drink mixture on the priming effect. The significance of the main findings from this study and new avenues of investigation are discussed. Using an alcohol priming paradigm, Marczinski and colleagues report that an alcohol/energy drink combination (AmED) prolongs the desire-to-drink rating compared with alcohol alone. The results of this laboratory study add to the growing body of literature that the intoxicating effects of AmED are different than the intoxication by alcohol alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.
Rossato, Claire; Brackenridge, Celia
This article reports on the results of an online survey of child protection training for students on sport-related degrees and Initial Teacher Training Physical Education courses, and on the views of recently-graduated teachers of the usefulness of such training in their everyday work. The results indicate that child protection training is provided on most courses but in varying amounts. Respondents to the survey reported positively, in the main, about the effects of new requirements for te...
Mitchell, Rebecca; Brighton, Barbara; Sherker, Shauna
To describe the epidemiology of competition and training-based surf sport-related injury in Australia in the years 2003-2011. A retrospective epidemiological review. Information on surf sport-related injuries was obtained from Surf Life Saving Australia's SurfGuard Incident Reporting Database during 1 January 2003 to 20 August 2011. There were 2645 surf sport-related competition or training-related incidents. Males and females experienced similar proportions of injury by activity type, with older individuals experiencing a higher proportion of injuries during training than younger individuals. Minor first aid was required for 54.5% of the competition and 43.7% of the training-related incidents, with major first aid required in just over 10% of both incident types. Overall, inflatable rescue boats, beach flags, and surf boats were the most common activities performed at the time of the incident, with returning to shore and negotiating the break the most common possible contributing factors to surf boat incidents. Bruises/contusions, strains, inflammation/swelling, and sprains were the most common types of injuries that occurred during both competition and training. RICE--Rest-Ice-Compression-Elevation--was the most common form of initial treatment for the injury during both competition and training. Participation in surf sports is not without risk of injury. Information from this study will inform injury prevention efforts for surf sport and act as a guide for future research in this area, and towards improved injury surveillance for surf sport-related injuries. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Echemendia, Ruben J; Iverson, Grant L; McCrea, Michael; Broshek, Donna K; Gioia, Gerard A; Sautter, Scott W; Macciocchi, Stephen N; Barr, William B
Over the past 20 years, clinical neuropsychologists have been at the forefront of both scientific and clinical initiatives aimed at developing evidence-based approaches to the evaluation and management of sport-related concussion. These efforts have directly impacted current policy on strategies for injury assessment and return-to-play by athletes after concussion. Many states are considering legislation requiring (a) education of athletes, parents, coaches, and school/organization officials on the recognition, evaluation, and management of sport-related concussions; (b) removal from play of any youth athlete that is suspected of having sustained a concussion; and (c) not allowing the student to return to participation until the student is evaluated and cleared for return to participation in writing by an appropriate healthcare professional. It is the official position of the American Academy of Clinical Neuropsychology (AACN), American Board of Neuropsychology (ABN), Division 40 (Neuropsychology) of the American Psychological Association (APA), and the National Academy of Neuropsychology (NAN) that neuropsychologists should be included among the licensed health care professionals authorized to evaluate, clinically manage, and provide return to play clearance for athletes who sustain a sport-related concussion.
Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Noble, James M; Torner, James; Schmidt, Paul; Cooper, Martha L
Universities are increasingly implementing programs to effectively respond to and manage sport-related concussions (SRCs). One such effort is to develop common data elements (CDEs) and standardize data collection methods. The objectives of this study were to describe CDEs currently collected by Big Ten and Ivy League universities for SRC studies, and to compare the data collected with the core CDEs recommended by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional online survey among medical staff at the 14 Big Ten and 8 Ivy League universities (one per university) between September and October 2015. The survey instrument, including 9 questions corresponding to the concussion data collected before, during, and after a concussion, was developed and pilot-tested before field use. We analyzed patterns of the concussion CDEs being collected, including when, what, and how the data were collected and stored, and compared them with the NINDS' recommended core CDEs. A total of 19 out of 22 universities were included, with 13 from Big Ten and 6 from Ivy-League universities. All 19 participating universities currently collected concussion data with athletes before, during, and after a concussion. Great similarities in data collection were observed at baseline and acutely post-concussion across participating universities. All 19 universities collected at least one of the ten recommended acute symptoms checklists, and 18 universities collected one of the four recommended core neuropsychological function cognitive measures. However, CDEs in the sub-acute and chronic timeframes were limited, with only 9 (47%) universities collecting post-concussion short to long term outcome data. While over 60% of universities collected and stored concussion data electronically, only 17% to 42% of data collected were readily available for research. Significant inter-institutional similarities in acute concussion CDEs were found. Further
Sufrinko, Alicia; Pearce, Kelly; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Johnson, Eric; Collins, Michael; Kontos, Anthony P
Researchers have reported that sleep duration is positively related to baseline neurocognitive performance. However, researchers have yet to examine the effect of preinjury sleep difficulties on postconcussion impairments. To compare neurocognitive impairment and symptoms of athletes with preinjury sleep difficulties to those without after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The sample included 348 adolescent and adult athletes (age, mean ± SD, 17.43 ± 2.34 years) with a diagnosed SRC. The sample was divided into 2 groups: (1) 34 (10%) participants with preinjury sleep difficulties (sleeping less as well as having trouble falling asleep; SLEEP SX) and (2) 231 (66%) participants without preinjury sleep difficulties (CONTROL). The remaining 84 (24%) participants with minimal sleep difficulties (1 symptom) were excluded. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) and Postconcussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) at baseline and 3 postinjury intervals (2, 5-7, and 10-14 days after injury). A series of repeated-measures analyses of covariance with Bonferroni correction, controlling for baseline non-sleep-related symptoms, were conducted to compare postinjury neurocognitive performance between groups. Follow-up exploratory t tests examined between-group differences at each time interval. A series of analyses of variance were used to examine total PCSS score, sleep-related, and non-sleep-related symptoms across time intervals between groups. Groups differed significantly in PCSS scores across postinjury intervals for reaction time (P SLEEP SX group performing worse than controls at 5-7 days (mean ± SD, 0.70 ± 0.32 [SLEEP SX], 0.60 ± 0.14 [CONTROL]) and 10-14 days (0.61 ± 0.17 [SLEEP SX]; 0.57 ± 0.10 [CONTROL]) after injury. Groups also differed significantly on verbal memory performance (P = .04), with the SLEEP SX (68.21 ± 18.64) group performing worse than the CONTROL group (76.76 ± 14
de Hoyo Moisés
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m, countermovement jump height (CMJH, 20 m change of direction ability (COD and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004 was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s, CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N in both groups (p < 0.05. However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04. In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie
Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in
Kostyun, Regina O; Milewski, Matthew D; Hafeez, Imran
Sleep disturbances are a hallmark sign after a sport-related concussion (SRC). Poor sleep has been shown to adversely affect baseline neurocognitive test scores, but it is not comprehensively understood how neurocognitive function is affected by disrupted sleep during recovery from a concussion. To identify the correlation between adolescent athletes' neurocognitive function and their self-reported sleep quantity and sleep disturbance symptoms during recovery from SRC. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognition Testing (ImPACT) data were retrospectively collected for 545 adolescent athletes treated for SRC at a sports medicine concussion clinic. Patients were stratified into groups based on 2 criteria: self-reported sleep duration and self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms during postinjury ImPACT testing. Sleep duration was classified as short (9 hours). Sleep disturbance symptoms were self-reported as part of the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) as either sleeping less than normal, sleeping more than normal, or having trouble falling asleep. One-way analyses of variance were conducted to examine the effects that sleep duration as well as self-reported sleep disturbance symptoms had on composite scores. A total of 1067 ImPACT tests were analyzed: test 1, 545; test 2, 380; and test 3, 142. Sleeping fewer than 7 hours the night before testing correlated with higher PCSS scores (P sleeping longer than 9 hours correlated with worse visual memory (P = .01), visual motor speed (P sleep disturbance symptoms, patients demonstrated worse composite scores during ImPACT testing when they self-reported sleeping more than normal (ImPACT test 1: verbal memory, P memory, P memory, P sleep had been disrupted. Adolescent patients who perceive that their sleep is somehow disrupted after SRC may report a greater number of concussion symptoms during their recovery. In addition, the study results suggest that sleeping more
Bandte, Angela; Fritzsche, Friederike-Sophie; Emami, Pedram; Kammler, Getrud; Püschel, Klaus; Krajewski, Kara
Soccer, bicycling, and horseback riding are sports most commonly associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Germany. The latter 2 sports activities are commonly practiced with helmets, and data on helmet use and usefulness vary widely. On Ethics Committee approval, a retrospective analysis was performed for patients age 5-17 between January 2009 and August 2014 based on a diagnosis of TBI, using the electronic patient file for 2 university hospital locations. Descriptive data analysis and multivariate and univariate logistic regression were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs). A total of 380 children were identified, including 162 females (42.6%) and 218 males (57.4%), with a mean age of 11.9 ± 3.8 years. Activities included bicycling (n = 64), horseback riding (n = 19), and soccer (n = 16). Helmet use was documented in 26 patients (14 cyclists, 12 riders), and nonuse was documented in 20 (all cyclists). Compared with not wearing a helmet, wearing a helmet was associated with a trend toward lower odds of loss of consciousness (OR, 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18-2.52). A cohort of 251 patients with non-sports-related TBI (NSTBI) served as a control group for further analyses. Compared with the NSTBI group, the odds of amnesia were 2.9 times greater (95% CI, 1.1-21.6) in the patients with a riding-related TBI and 4.8 times greater (95% CI, 0.3-239) in those with a cycling-related TBI, and the odds of epidural hematoma were 2.2 times greater (95% CI, 0.4-12.3) in those with a cycling-related TBI and 4.9 times greater (95% CI, 0.5-50.4) greater in those with a soccer-related TBI. We gained important epidemiologic data on pediatric TBI in our region. Despite the descriptive nature of the data, a trend toward reduced odds of loss of consciousness was seen in the helmet wearers. Nevertheless, serious injury can occur despite helmet use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan
Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS). An argument-based method for investigation of design problems was used to structure the study protocol. The primary requirement of the protocol is to allow prospective studies over time and include exposure to both training and competition. To reflect the complexity of Paralympic sport with athletes' pre-existing impairments, use of assistive equipment, pain and other and medical issues, it is required that the data collection system is specifically adapted to Paralympic sport. To allow the collection of data, at the same time as there is limited access to coaches and medical personnel, it is advantageous that data can be collected online directly from the athletes. Based on this a self-report athlete monitoring system will be developed, where the athletes can enter data weekly via their mobile phones or lap-tops. Data will be collected from around 100 Swedish Paralympic athletes for approximately 1 year, which will allow us to i) prospectively estimate the annual incidence of sports-related injuries and illnesses and ii) explore risk factors and mechanisms for sustaining sports-related injuries and illnesses based on athlete exposure and training loads. For effective implementation of injury and illness prevention measures, comprehensive epidemiological knowledge is required. This study will be the first prospective longitudinal self-report study of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport over a longer period
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Zhao, Shan; Zhang, Zhen; Long, Qingqing; Ma, Yao; Lian, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yang; Gao, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Wang, Liansheng
To investigate the association between the time of day of sports-related physical activity and the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a coronary artery disease (CAD) population in China. Between February 2014 and March 2015, a total of 696 patients from Nanjing, China, who had CAD were studied and divided into two groups (Non-AMI and AMI groups). The work-related activity and sports-related physical activity information were obtained from a self-reporting predesigned patient questionnaire. Sports-related physical activity was associated with a lower risk of the onset of AMI, after adjusting the established and potential confounders, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.47-0.94) compared with those who did not have any sports-related physical activity. A dose-response relationship was observed for intensity, duration, and frequency of sports-related physical activity. Further stratification analysis revealed that the protective effects of sports-related physical activity were significant in the morning and evening groups, and patients who exercised in the evening were at a lower risk of AMI than those doing sports-related physical activity in the morning. The adjusted ORs for doing sports-related physical activity in the morning and evening groups were 0.60(0.36-0.98) and 0.56(0.37-0.87), respectively, compared with inactivity (all Psports-related physical activity in the evening had an adjusted OR of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.54-1.64, P = 0.824) compared with in the morning group. Sports-related physical activity is associated with a lower risk of onset of AMI than inactivity in Chinese people. For CAD patients, we suggest they participate in sports-related physical activity of high intensity, long duration, and high frequency. Doing sports-related physical activity in the evening and in the morning have similar benefits on the prevention of the onset of AMI.
Cusimano, Michael D; Cho, Newton; Amin, Khizer; Shirazi, Mariam; McFaull, Steven R; Do, Minh T; Wong, Matthew C; Russell, Kelly
There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports. We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football), basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed. There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP). Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%), followed by soccer (19.0%) and football (12.9%). In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post) among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females). Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.
Michael D Cusimano
Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.
MATSUMOTO, Hiroaki; YOSHIDA, Yasuhisa
A healthy 23-year-old man suffered helmet-to-helmet collisions with an opponent during American football game twice within 3 days. He then experienced continuous vomiting and dizziness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute infarction in the right cerebellar hemisphere, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed transient stenosis of the right superior cerebellar artery. Although minor head injury is not usually accompanied by complications, posttraumatic ischemic stroke has been reported on rare occasions. We report a case of cerebellar infarction after repeated sports-related minor head injuries in a young adult and discuss the etiology. PMID:25746313
Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza
BACKGROUND: Preparticipation screening programs have been suggested to reduce the numbers of sports-related sudden cardiac deaths (SrSCD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize all SrSCD aged 12-49 years and to address the difference in incidence rates between...... competitive and noncompetitive athletes. METHODS: All deaths among persons aged 12-49 years from 2007-2009 were included. Death certificates were reviewed. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries and autopsy reports were read. Sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) and Sr...
Sasa, Takahiro; Sairyo, Koichi; Yoshida, Naoyuki; Ishikawa, Makoto; Fukunaga, Mari; Yasui, Natsuo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old) Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group), and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group). One and four weeks after surgery, muscular oxidative capacity was measured using 31P-MR ...
Carson, James D; Lawrence, David W; Kraft, Sari A; Garel, Alisha; Snow, Catherine L; Chatterjee, Ananda; Libfeld, Paula; MacKenzie, Heather M; Thornton, Jane S; Moineddin, Rahim; Frémont, Pierre
To determine what proportion of patients experience an exacerbation of their symptoms as a result of premature return to play (RTP) and return to learn (RTL) following sport-related concussions. Retrospective study of electronic medical records from the office-based practice of one family and sport medicine physician who had systematically provided recommendations for cognitive and physical rest based on existing consensus recommendations. Two blinded authors independently reviewed each chart, which included Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) and SCAT2 symptom self-report forms to determine whether an athlete had returned to play or learn prematurely. If there was a discrepancy between the 2 reviewers then a third author reviewed the charts. A sport medicine and family practice in Ontario. The physician assessed sport-related concussions after self-referral or referral from other primary care physicians, teams, and schools. A total of 170 charts of 159 patients were assessed for sport-related concussion during a 5-year period (April 2006 to March 2011). All participants were students who were participating in sports at the time of injury. There were 41 concussions in elementary students, 95 concussions in high school students, and 34 concussions in college or university students. Premature RTP and RTL were defined as chart records documenting the recurrence or worsening of symptoms that accompanied the patients' RTP or RTL. Measures were compared using the earliest available SCAT forms and self-reporting. In 43.5% of concussion cases, the patient returned to sport too soon and in 44.7% of concussion cases, the patient returned to school too soon. Patients with a history of previous concussion required more days of rest before being permitted to participate in any physical activity than those patients without a previous history of concussion. Elementary school students required fewer days of rest before being permitted to return to any physical activity
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ovariectomy on intramuscular energy metabolism in adult rats. Based on the results, we discussed the skeletal muscle metabolism in female athlete with sports related amenorrhea. Twenty-five adult (20-week-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were used. Fifteen rats underwent ovariectomy (OVX group, and the other ten rats were sham-operated (Sham group. One and four weeks after surgery, muscular oxidative capacity was measured using 31P-MR spectra of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus (GPS muscles group at rest and during electric stimulation. Wet weight and maximum tension of the whole GPS muscles group were also measured. From the MRS measurements, the muscle oxidative capacity in the OVX group was significantly lower than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05 at both one and four weeks after surgery. The muscle's wet weight one week after surgery in the OVX group was the same as the Sham group, while four weeks after surgery it was significantly greater than that in the Sham group (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in maximum tension among the groups. In conclusion, in adult rats the oxidative capacity decreased due to ovariectomy despite the increase in muscle weight. It is suggested that the muscular endurance capacity in female adult athletes with sports related amenorrhea may deteriorate.
Stephens, Jaclyn A; Denckla, Martha B; McCambridge, Teri; Slomine, Beth S; Mahone, E Mark; Suskauer, Stacy J
Sensitive examination tools are needed to optimize evaluation after sport-related concussion (SRC). We preliminarily examined the Physical and Neurological Examination of Subtle Signs (PANESS) for sensitivity to motor changes in a pilot cohort of adolescents aged 13-17 with SRC. 15 Adolescents (5 females) with SRC were evaluated up to 3 times: within 2 weeks of injury, approximately 1 month later (mean 35 days between visits), and for those not recovered at the second visit, again following clinical recovery (mean 70 days between first and last visits for all participants). Comparison data were acquired from 20 age and sex-matched never-concussed healthy control athletes with no history of concussion who were evaluated twice (mean 32 days apart). Main effects of group, time, and interaction effects were evaluated with an analysis of covariance which controlled for socioeconomic status, times tested, and days between testing sessions. Adolescents with concussion had poorer PANESS performance than controls at all time points. Performance improved between visits within the concussion group with no change within the control group. These findings suggest that the PANESS merits additional study in larger cohorts and in combination with other markers of injury to facilitate an enhanced understanding of sports-related concussion and recovery.
Pelletier, Jacques C
Returning an athlete to play following a spinal or concussive injury remains a challenge for the health practitioner making the decision. Among the possible mechanisms responsible for such injuries in amateur football, the concept of "spearing" has attracted a great deal of attention in sport medicine. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the diagnosis and treatment of the potentially catastrophic neck and head injuries caused by spearing in Canadian amateur football and to suggest the role the chiropractic profession can have in their prevention. It proposes to follow the recommendations advocated by the National Capital Amateur Football Association (NCAFA) athletic trainers group, led by a chiropractor. Information regarding the concepts and prevention of "spearing", concussion and spinal injuries at the amateur football level in both the United States and Canada was obtained using the following computerized search methods: PubMed - MeSH (via the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI); The Index to Chiropractic Literature (ICL); Google Scholar Beta. Recent (2005) information on sports related spinal injuries and concussion were obtained by attendance at the 2005 Sports Related Concussion and Spine Injury Conference. Foxborough, Massachusetts. From a total of 698 references, 63 were retained. Literature search yields very little information regarding Canadian statistics for amateur football neck and head injuries. The author encourages such injury data collecting and proposes that original Canadian studies and statistical analyses be carried out, such as those from diverse sports groups in the United States and abroad.1, 2, 3 The NCAFA group of trainers recommends a changing of the rules for "spearing" within the league and advocates gathering of Canadian based sports injury statistics. It also recognizes the need for public presentations (of concussion/spinal injuries).5 This paper describes the different interpretations of spearing
Williams, Richelle M.; Welch, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich
Context: Sport-related concussion can affect athletes' sport participation and academic success. With the recent emphasis on cognitive rest, student-athletes may benefit from academic accommodations (AA) in the classroom; however, athletic trainers' (ATs') perceived familiarity with, and use of, AA is unknown. Objective: To assess secondary school ATs' perceived familiarity with, attitudes and beliefs about, and incorporation of AA for student-athletes after sport-related concussion. A secondary purpose was to determine whether employment status altered familiarity and use of AA. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Online survey. Patients or Other Participants: Of 3286 possible respondents, 851 secondary school ATs accessed the survey (response rate = 25.9%; 308 men [36.2%], 376 women [44.2%], 167 respondents [19.6%] with sex information missing; age = 37.3 ± 10.1 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants were solicited via e-mail to complete the Beliefs, Attitudes and Knowledge Following Pediatric Athlete Concussion among Athletic Trainers employed in the secondary school setting (BAKPAC-AT) survey. The BAKPAC-AT assessed ATs' perceived familiarity, perceptions, and roles regarding 504 plans, Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), and returning student-athletes to the classroom. Independent variables were employment status (full time versus part time), employment model (direct versus outreach), years certified, and years of experience in the secondary school setting. The dependent variables were participants' responses to the AA questions. Spearman rank-correlation coefficients were used to assess relationships and Mann-Whitney U and χ2 tests (P athletes whose sport-related concussions they managed received AA. Respondents employed directly by the school were more familiar with 504 plans (P < .001) and IEPs (P < .001) and had a greater belief that ATs should have a role in AA. Both the number of years certified and the years of experience at the
Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E
As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.
Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis
Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University
Haran, Harini P; Bressan, Silvia; Oakley, Ed; Davis, Gavin A; Anderson, Vicki; Babl, Franz E
On-field management and return-to-play guidelines aim to ensure the identification and appropriate management of the concussed athlete. Compliance with current guidelines in many settings is unknown. We assessed whether key components of current concussion guidelines are being followed in child athletes. Prospective observational study. Data were collected from children (5-18 years) presenting to a paediatric emergency department with sport-related concussion via researcher-administered surveys in the emergency department and during a follow up phone call. On hospital discharge all patients received a return to sports fact sheet based on the International Concussion in Sports Group. Ninety-three had sustained a concussion (mean age 12.7 (±0.27) years, 83% male). Sports played included Australian Football (47%), soccer (12%), rugby (9%) basketball (8%), other (25%). 82% participated in organised sports. Concussive signs or symptoms included loss of consciousness (41%), disorientation (36%), vomiting (23%), amnesia (30%), headache (60%). For concussive injury in organised sports (n=76), overall 42% were not managed according to recommended guidelines: 19% were not immediately removed from play, 29% were allowed to return to play on the same day and 27% were not assessed by qualified personnel. 93% of parents and 96% of patients were unaware of concussion or return-to-play guidelines from their organisations. Overall, 72% were compliant with provided return-to-play guidelines. Many children with sports related-concussion are not formally assessed on-field and continue to play. On-field concussion management and return to play practices are often suboptimal. Awareness and education of coaches, teachers, parents and children need to be improved. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nelson, Lindsay D; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Barr, William B; Hammeke, Thomas A; Randolph, Christopher; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Wang, Yanzhi; McCrea, Michael A
Younger age has been hypothesized to be a risk factor for prolonged recovery after sport-related concussion, yet few studies have directly evaluated age differences in acute recovery. To compare clinical recovery patterns for high school and collegiate athletes. Prospective cohort study. Large, multicenter prospective sample collected from 1999-2003 in a sports medicine setting. Concussed athletes (n = 621; 545 males and 76 females) and uninjured controls (n = 150) participating in high school and collegiate contact and collision sports (79% in football, 15.7% in soccer, and the remainder in lacrosse or ice hockey). Participants underwent evaluation of symptoms (Graded Symptom Checklist), cognition (Standardized Assessment of Concussion, paper-and-pencil neuropsychological tests), and postural stability (Balance Error Scoring System). Athletes were evaluated preinjury and followed serially at several time points after concussive injury: immediately, 3 hours postinjury, and at days 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, and 45 or 90 (with neuropsychological measures administered at baseline and 3 postinjury time points). Comparisons of concussed high school and collegiate athletes with uninjured controls suggested that high school athletes took 1 to 2 days longer to recover on a cognitive (Standardized Assessment of Concussion) measure. Comparisons with the control group on other measures (symptoms, balance) as well as direct comparisons between concussed high school and collegiate samples revealed no differences in the recovery courses between the high school and collegiate groups on any measure. Group-level recovery occurred at or before 7 days postinjury on all assessment metrics. The findings suggest no clinically significant age differences exist in recovery after sport-related concussion, and therefore, separate injury-management protocols are not needed for high school and collegiate athletes.
Background Although injuries related to sports and recreation represent a significant burden to children and youth, few studies have examined the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injury since 2005, and some sports such as ringette have not been evaluated to date. The primary purpose of this study was to provide the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injuries treated in emergency departments for children and youth aged 5 – 19. Methods A retrospective data analysis was performed using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program [CHIRPP] from fiscal years (April – March) 2007/08 to 2009/10. CHIRPP is a computerized information system designed by the Public Health Agency of Canada that collects information about injuries to people evaluated in emergency departments across 11 pediatric hospitals and 5 general hospitals in Canada. Thirteen sports or activities were analyzed (baseball, basketball, cycling, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rugby, skiing, sledding, snowboarding, soccer, and volleyball). Descriptive statistics, including frequency by sport, age and sex, as well as the percent of concussions within each sport were calculated. Results Out of a total of 56, 691 reported sports and recreational injuries, soccer accounted for the largest proportion of injuries with 11,941 reported cases over the 3 year time period. Of these, approximately 30% were fractures. The 10 – 14 year age group reported the greatest proportion of injuries in 10 out of the 13 sports analyzed. In addition, males reported a greater number of overall injuries than females in 11 out of the 13 sports analyzed. The largest percentage of concussions was reported in ringette; these injuries accounted for 17.1% of overall injuries within this sport. Conclusions Injury prevention programs in Canada should focus on improving evidence-based programs to reduce the burden of injuries in all sports. PMID:24364875
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Patrick, Megan E; Lewis, Melissa A; Lee, Christine M; Maggs, Jennifer L
Motives surrounding alcohol use behavior are important for understanding college student drinking. However, no previous research has addressed how motives for and against drinking during specific events associated with high-risk drinking, such as Spring Break, may differ from motives for and against drinking during the regular semester. Further, we examine the extent to which semester and Spring Break motives are associated with alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), and consequences. Participants were college students (N=261; 55% women) who provided data both immediately prior to (Wave 1) and after (Wave 2) Spring Break. Fun/Social motives for drinking were greater for Spring Break, and Driving motives against drinking were lower for Spring Break, compared to semester drinking. Relax and Image motives for drinking and Physical/Behavioral motives for not drinking during Spring Break did not differ from semester motives. Spring Break motives for and against drinking were associated with total drinks, maximum drinks, PBS, and experienced negative consequences during Spring Break. Students' specific motives regarding drinking during Spring Break predict high-risk drinking and may be utilized in creating salient event-specific interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haider, Mohammad Nadir; Leddy, John J; Pavlesen, Sonja; Kluczynski, Melissa; Baker, John G; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey C; Willer, Barry S
The Concussion in Sport Group guidelines recommend a multifaceted approach to help clinicians make return to sport decisions. The purpose of this study was to identify the most common multifaceted measures used to define clinical recovery from sport-related concussion in young athletes (high school and/or college level) and to summarise existing knowledge of criteria used to make return to sport decisions. Systematic review. The PubMed (MEDLINE), SPORTDiscus and Embase electronic databases were searched from 1 January 2000 to 1 March 2017 by three independent reviewers. Inclusion criteria: elementary, high school and college age groups, and a specific definition of clinical recovery that required two or more measures. review articles, articles using the same sample population, case studies, non-English language and those that used one measure only or did not specify the recovery measures used. Study quality was assessed using the Downs and Black Criteria. Of 2023 publications, 43 met inclusion criteria. Included articles reported the following measures of recovery: somatic symptom resolution or return to baseline (100%), cognitive recovery or return to baseline (86%), no exacerbation of symptoms on physical exertion (49%), normalisation of balance (30%), normal special physical examination (12%), successful return to school (5%), no exacerbation of symptoms with cognitive exertion (2%) and normalisation of cerebral blood flow (2%). Follow-up to validate the return to sport decision was reported in eight (19%) articles. Most studies were case-control or cohort (level of evidence 4) and had significant risk of bias. All studies of sport-related concussion use symptom reports to define recovery. A minority of studies used multiple measures of outcome or had clearly defined recovery criteria, the most common being a combination of a self-reported symptom checklist and a computerised neurocognitive test. Future studies ideally should define recovery a priori using
Howell, David Robert; Buckley, Thomas; Lynall, Robert C; Meehan, William
Prior studies suggest that concussion may lead to an increased risk of a subsequent time-loss sport-related injury, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We measured the symptom and dual-task gait outcomes for athletes initially post-concussion and after clinical recovery. Participants then self-reported any additional injuries incurred in the year after their concussion. Forty-two athletes (52% female, mean age=16.8±3.2 years) completed the study. They underwent a dual-task gait evaluation and symptom inventory within 21 days post-concussion, and again after they were deemed clinically recovered. Approximately one year later, participants documented if they had sustained any subsequent sport-related injuries. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate changes in dual-task gait and symptoms across time and between groups. A significant group*time interaction (p=0.02) indicated that the group who went on to sustain a subsequent time-loss injury after returning to sports (n=15) demonstrated significant average walking speed dual-task cost worsening across time (-17.9±9.1% vs. -25.1±12.5%; p=0.007). In contrast, the group who did not sustain an additional injury walked with consistent dual-task cost values across time (-25.2±9.2% vs. -24.6±8.4%; p=0.76). Symptoms improved for all participants (main effect of time p<0.001; PCSS= 25.0±16.9 vs. 2.8±7.5; p<0.001), but did not differ between groups (p=0.77). Significant dual-task gait cost worsening throughout concussion recovery was associated with time-loss injuries during sports in the year after a concussion. These findings indicate that worsening ability to execute a concurrent gait and cognitive task may relate to the risk of incurring an injury during sports after clinical concussion recovery.
To test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in a population of hazardous drinkers utilizing community health care centers in rural southeastern Idaho. This study targeted rural people at risk for alcohol dependence utilizing low-income community health care centers in rural southeastern Idaho. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to screen interested clients' alcohol use. Clients achieving an AUDIT score indicating hazardous alcohol use were recruited into the study and randomized into a control or treatment group. Twenty-six hazardous drinkers attending five low-income community health centers participated in the study. The experimental group participated in one motivational interviewing session with the investigator, a family nurse practitioner (NP). The comparison group received no treatment. Alcohol use was tracked for 6 weeks after successful recruitment into the program. Participants in the study significantly decreased their average number of drinks per day. At time 1 (pretreatment), the control group drank 4.37 drinks per day and the treatment group drank 4.65 drinks per day. At time 2 (posttest), the control group drank 3.77 drinks per day and the treatment group drank 1.95 drinks per day. The effects of the motivational interviewing treatment on hazardous drinking also were measured by serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), a liver function test. There was also a significant decrease in the GGT from pretest to posttest in the treatment group. The results of this investigation found that motivational interviewing shows promise as an effective intervention for hazardous drinkers attending low-income community clinics. Although other possible explanations could be postulated for the positive changes in sample participants, the data indicate that the motivational interviewing approach was responsible for a significant portion of the positive changes within the current sample. The information collected from the study adds
Christiansen, Matthew; Vik, Peter W; Jarchow, Amy
Heavy drinking is common among college students and typically occurs in social contexts. Heavy drinking when alone, however, is less common. The present study hypothesized that students who drink heavily when alone (HD-Alone) would differ from college students who only drink heavily in social contexts (Social HD). Forty-nine HD-Alone students (at least one heavy-drinking episode when alone), 213 Social HDs, and 63 non-heavy drinkers (Non-HDs) were compared on alcohol-related consequences, drinking milestones, alcohol-outcome expectancies, and symptoms of depression. HD-Alone students reported more negative drinking consequences, earlier onset of regular drinking, more alcohol expectancies, less self-efficacy and motivation to reduce drinking, and higher depression scores than Social HDs and Non-HDs. Findings imply individual differences among heavy-drinking college students according to their drinking context.
Malfliet, Anneleen; Leysen, Laurence; Pas, Roselien; Kuppens, Kevin; Nijs, Jo; Van Wilgen, Paul; Huysmans, Eva; Goudman, Lisa; Ickmans, Kelly
In the last decade, evidence regarding chronic pain has developed exponentially. Numerous studies show that many chronic pain populations show specific neuroplastic changes in the peripheral and central nervous system. These changes are reflected in clinical manifestations, like a generalized hypersensitivity of the somatosensory system. Besides a hypersensitivity of bottom-up nociceptive transmission, there is also evidence for top-down facilitation of pain due to malfunctioning of the endogenous descending nociceptive modulatory systems. These and other aspects of modern pain neuroscience are starting to be applied within daily clinical practice. However, currently the application of this knowledge is mostly limited to the general adult population with musculoskeletal problems, while evidence is getting stronger that also in other chronic pain populations these neuroplastic processes may contribute to the occurrence and persistence of the pain problem. Therefore, this masterclass article aims at giving an overview of the current modern pain neuroscience knowledge and its potential application in post-cancer, paediatric and sports-related pain problems. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Davis, G A; Iverson, G L; Guskiewicz, K M; Ptito, A; Johnston, K M
To review the diagnostic tests and investigations used in the management of sports concussion, in the adult and paediatric populations, to (a) monitor the severity of symptoms and deficits, (b) track recovery and (c) advance knowledge relating to the natural history and neurobiology of the injury. Qualitative literature review of the neuroimaging, balance testing, electrophysiology, blood marker and concussion literature. PubMed and Medline databases were reviewed for investigations used in the management of adult and paediatric concussion, including structural imaging (computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging), functional imaging (single photon emission computerised tomography, positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging), spectroscopy (magnetic resonance spectroscopy, near infrared spectroscopy), balance testing (Balance Error Scoring System, Sensory Organization Test, gait testing, virtual reality), electrophysiological tests (electroencephalography, evoked potentials, event related potentials, magnetoencephalography, heart rate variability), genetics (apolipoprotein E4, channelopathies) and blood markers (S100, neuron-specific enolase, cleaved Tau protein, glutamate). For the adult and paediatric populations, each test has been classified as being: (1) clinically useful, (2) a research tool only or (3) not useful in sports-related concussion. The current status of the diagnostic tests and investigations is analysed, and potential directions for future research are provided. Currently, all tests and investigations, with the exception of clinical balance testing, remain experimental. There is accumulating research, however, that shows promise for the future clinical application of functional magnetic resonance imaging in sport concussion assessment and management.
Vassilyadi, Michael; Macartney, Gail; Barrowman, Nick; Anderson, Peter; Dube, Karen
Sports are a major cause of concussions, and little is known about the symptom experience and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in children who remain symptomatic for over 3 months following such head injuries. A cross-sectional study of children aged 10-18 years was performed who were referred to the Neurosurgery Clinic at our centre following a head injury. Symptom experience was measured using the modified Concussion Symptom Scale, and HRQL was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) was administered to assess neurocognitive and neurobehavioural sequelae. Symptoms with the highest mean symptom scores on a Likert scale of 0-6 in 35 children at the time of assessment included headaches (3.1), poor concentration (2.7), memory problems (2.1), fatigue (2.1) and sensitivity to noise (2.0). Compared with normative data, children in this study had ImPACT summary scores between the 28th and 38th percentiles and a comparably low Cognitive Efficiency Index score. Mean scores for females were consistently statistically significantly lower (p Children continue to experience many symptoms at least 3 months following sport-related head injuries that significantly impact their HRQL and neurocognitive abilities. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Andrew J. Healey
Full Text Available Introduction: Blunt abdominal trauma is a rare but well-recognized cause of pancreatic transection. A delayed presentation of pancreatic fracture following sport-related blunt trauma with the coexisting diagnostic pitfalls is presented. Case Report: A 17-year-old rugby player was referred to our specialist unit after having been diagnosed with traumatic pancreatic transection, having presented 24 h after a sporting injury. Despite haemodynamic stability, at laparotomy he was found to have a diffuse mesenteric hematoma involving the large and small bowel mesentery, extending down to the sigmoid colon from the splenic flexure, and a large retroperitoneal hematoma arising from the pancreas. The pancreas was completely severed with the superior border of the distal segment remaining attached to the splenic vein that was intact. A distal pancreatectomy with spleen preservation and evacuation of the retroperitoneal hematoma was performed. Discussion/Conclusion: Blunt pancreatic trauma is a serious condition. Diagnosis and treatment may often be delayed, which in turn may drastically increase morbidity and mortality. Diagnostic difficulties apply to both paraclinical and radiological diagnostic methods. A high index of suspicion should be maintained in such cases, with a multi-modality diagnostic approach and prompt surgical intervention as required.
Lanfranchi, M-C; Maïano, C; Morin, A J S; Therme, P
Very few studies examined the prevalence and sport-related predictors of disturbed eating attitudes and behaviors (DEABs) among adolescents involved in sport practice, and their results are mixed and inconclusive. These inconsistencies are most likely due to their methodological heterogeneity and to the fact that none of these studies took into consideration the potentially relevant characteristics of the sport practice context. This study attempts to answer this limitation among French adolescents not involved or involved in various sports contexts defined based on their organization, leanness-centration, and competitive level. Participants were 335 adolescents involved in sport practice, and 435 adolescents not involved in any form of regular sport practice. The DEABs were measured using the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Global results do not showed any significant association between the status of the participants and DEAB. However, these results drastically changed when we considered the potential moderating role of sex and age on these relations. Indeed, sports involvement in general, and involvement in leanness and competitive sports were found to exert sex- and age-differentiated effects on the risks of presenting clinically significant levels of DEAB. This study suggests the importance of monitoring, preventive, and early intervention mechanisms within the context of practice, particularly for adolescent girls. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Murdaugh, Donna L; Ono, Kim E; Reisner, Andrew; Burns, Thomas G
To determine the relation between sleep quantity and sleep disturbances on symptoms and neurocognitive ability during the acute phase (sports-related concussion (SRC; >21d). Prospective inception cohort study. General community setting of regional middle and high schools. A sample (N=971) including youth athletes with SRC (n=528) and controls (n=443) (age, 10-18y). Not applicable. Athletes completed the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Partial correlation analyses and independent t tests were conducted to assess sleep quantity the night before testing. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to assess sleep disturbances and their interaction with age. Less sleep quantity was correlated with greater report of cognitive (P=.001) and neuropsychological (P=.024) symptoms specific to prolonged recovery from SRC. Sleep disturbances significantly affect each migraine, cognitive, and neuropsychological symptoms (Psleep disturbances and age (P=.04) at >21 days post-SRC. Findings emphasize that the continued presence of low sleep quantity and sleep disturbances in youth athletes with SRC should be a specific indicator to health professionals that these athletes are at an increased risk of protracted recovery. Further research should identify additional factors that may interact with sleep to increase the risk of protracted recovery. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Bergeron, Michael F; Hewett, Timothy E
Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities, and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Current trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 yr and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches, and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how-to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong, regular physical activity.
Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Theilade, Juliane
death (n = 4), and coronary artery disease (n = 2). The incidence of SCD in the general population age 12 to 35 was 3.76 (95% CI: 3.42 to 4.14) per 100,000 person-years. CONCLUSION: In Denmark, SrSCD is a rare occurrence and the incidence rate is lower than that of SCD in the general population......BACKGROUND: Studies on incidences of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SrSCD) are few and data are needed for the discussion of preparticipation screening for cardiac disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to chart the incidence and etiology of SrSCD in the young in Denmark (population 5.4 million...... reports, selected hospital records, and multiple registries was used to identify cases of SCD and SrSCD. SrSCD was defined as SCD occurring during or within 1 hour after exercise in a competitive athlete. The size of the athlete population was estimated from national survey data. RESULTS: Fifteen (range 0...
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Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John; Kvarnström, Johan; Olsson, Maria; Ydén, Tobias; Marshall, Stephen
The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) is a standardised global assessment for the identification of sport-related concussion (SRC). An integral component of the SCAT is the neurological screen, which contains the assessment of motor performance including gait evaluation. However, it is not known how performance of gait is affected by the surface/footwear interactions encountered in various sporting environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of footwear and sporting surface on the time to perform a standardised Tandem Gait (TG) task. One hundred and eight amateur athletes were recruited, and three common sports-surfaces (grass, hardwood court, artificial turf) were compared. All groups were tested barefoot and with sports-surface specific footwear. Mixed model ANOVA, controlling for covariates and including a post hoc Bonferroni procedure, was used to investigate the influence of footwear and sports-surface on TG time. The study demonstrated that times for a defined TG task in healthy athletes depended on footwear, sports-surface, and the specific athletic population. The study demonstrated a significant interaction (F(2,104)=3.35, p=0.039) between groups (grass, hardwood court and artificial turf), and times were faster wearing footwear compared to barefoot (F(2,138)=26.31, p=0.001). In contrast to the footwear conditions, there was no statistical difference between the barefoot conditions on any of the sport-surfaces. These findings suggest that clinicians should standardise footwear and the testing surface at baseline in order to accurately assess motor performance tests when SRC is suspected. Copyright 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McCrea, Michael; Meier, Timothy; Huber, Daniel; Ptito, Alain; Bigler, Erin; Debert, Chantel T; Manley, Geoff; Menon, David; Chen, Jen-Kai; Wall, Rachel; Schneider, Kathryn J; McAllister, Thomas
To conduct a systematic review of published literature on advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing in the assessment of sport-related concussion (SRC). Computerised searches of Medline, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Scopus and Cochrane Library from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016 were done. There were 3222 articles identified. In addition to medical subject heading terms, a study was included if (1) published in English, (2) represented original research, (3) involved human research, (4) pertained to SRC and (5) involved data from neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers or genetic testing collected within 6 months of injury. Ninety-eight studies qualified for review (76 neuroimaging, 16 biomarkers and 6 genetic testing). Separate reviews were conducted for neuroimaging, biomarkers and genetic testing. A standardised data extraction tool was used to document study design, population, tests employed and key findings. Reviewers used a modified quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy studies (QUADAS-2) tool to rate the risk of bias, and a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to rate the overall level of evidence for each search. Results from the three respective reviews are compiled in separate tables and an interpretive summary of the findings is provided. Advanced neuroimaging, fluid biomarkers and genetic testing are important research tools, but require further validation to determine their ultimate clinical utility in the evaluation of SRC. Future research efforts should address current gaps that limit clinical translation. Ultimately, research on neurobiological and genetic aspects of SRC is predicted to have major translational significance to evidence-based approaches to clinical management of SRC, much like applied clinical research has had over the past 20 years. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise
Papa, Linda; Ramia, Michelle M; Edwards, Damyan; Johnson, Brian D; Slobounov, Semyon M
The aim of this study was to systematically review clinical studies examining biofluid biomarkers of brain injury for concussion in athletes. Data sources included PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database from 1966 to October 2013. Studies were included if they recruited athletes participating in organized sports who experienced concussion or head injury during a sports-related activity and had brain injury biomarkers measured. Acceptable research designs included experimental, observational, and case-control studies. Review articles, opinion papers, and editorials were excluded. After title and abstract screening of potential articles, full texts were independently reviewed to identify articles that met inclusion criteria. A composite evidentiary table was then constructed and documented the study title, design, population, methods, sample size, outcome measures, and results. The search identified 52 publications, of which 13 were selected and critically reviewed. All of the included studies were prospective and were published either in or after the year 2000. Sports included boxing (six studies), soccer (five studies), running/jogging (two studies), hockey (one study), basketball (one study), cycling (one study), and swimming (one study). The majority of studies (92%) had fewer than 100 patients. Three studies (23%) evaluated biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), one in both serum and CSF, and 10 (77%) in serum exclusively. There were 11 different biomarkers assessed, including S100β, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, tau, neurofilament light protein, amyloid beta, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, creatine kinase and heart-type fatty acid binding protein, prolactin, cortisol, and albumin. A handful of biomarkers showed a correlation with number of hits to the head (soccer), acceleration/deceleration forces (jumps, collisions, and falls), postconcussive symptoms, trauma to the body versus the head, and dynamics of different sports
Ono, Kim E; Burns, Thomas G; Bearden, Donald J; McManus, Susan M; King, Harold; Reisner, Andrew
To date, few studies have delineated clear sex-based differences in symptom resolution after a sports-related concussion (SRC), and equivocal results have been identified in sex-based differences on baseline assessments. To assess whether female athletes displayed prolonged recovery and more symptoms at baseline and after an SRC compared with male athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The current study assessed 135 male and 41 female athletes (10-18 years old) who participated in high-impact sports in metropolitan Atlanta middle and high schools. All athletes completed a baseline assessment and at least 1 postconcussion assessment from the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing battery. Longitudinal hierarchical linear modeling was employed to examine individual-level variables and their associations with adolescents' rates of recovery in concussive symptoms after controlling for age and number of prior concussions. Aggregate symptoms were rated as higher in female athletes compared with male athletes at baseline (mean ± SD: females, 13.49 ± 11.20; males, 4.88 ± 8.74; F(1,175) = 10.59, P concussion (females: 16.75 ± 18.08; males: 10.58 ± 14.21; F(1,175) = 3.99, P = .05). There were no group differences in the slope of recovery between male and female athletes, indicating generally similar trajectories of change for both groups. Post hoc analyses revealed higher baseline levels of migraine and neuropsychological symptoms in female athletes. Although female athletes in the current study reported increased symptoms, identical recovery patterns were observed in both sexes, suggesting that sex-based differences in concussion recovery are better explained by increased symptom frequency among female athletes when compared with their male counterparts. © 2015 The Author(s).
Carman, Aaron J; Ferguson, Rennie; Cantu, Robert; Comstock, R Dawn; Dacks, Penny A; DeKosky, Steven T; Gandy, Sam; Gilbert, James; Gilliland, Chad; Gioia, Gerard; Giza, Christopher; Greicius, Michael; Hainline, Brian; Hayes, Ronald L; Hendrix, James; Jordan, Barry; Kovach, James; Lane, Rachel F; Mannix, Rebekah; Murray, Thomas; Seifert, Tad; Shineman, Diana W; Warren, Eric; Wilde, Elisabeth; Willard, Huntington; Fillit, Howard M
Sports-related concussions and repetitive subconcussive exposure are increasingly recognized as potential dangers to paediatric populations, but much remains unknown about the short-term and long-term consequences of these events, including potential cognitive impairment and risk of later-life dementia. This Expert Consensus Document is the result of a 1-day meeting convened by Safe Kids Worldwide, the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation, and the Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. The goal is to highlight knowledge gaps and areas of critically needed research in the areas of concussion science, dementia, genetics, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, neuroimaging, sports injury surveillance, and information sharing. For each of these areas, we propose clear and achievable paths to improve the understanding, treatment and prevention of youth sports-related concussions.
Al-Arfaj, Ibrahim; Al-Shammari, Ahmad; Al-Subai, Turki; Al-Absi, Ghanim; AlJaffari, Mohammad; Al-Kadi, Ahmad; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim
The risk of dental trauma may increase during sports participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of sports participants concerning sports-related dental trauma and associated emergency/preventive practices. The study included 124 male subjects over 18 years of age participating in contact and non-contact sports in three clubs in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to assess past experience of dental trauma related to...
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Wang, Chunguang; Li, Hao; Chen, Kang; Wu, Bing; Liu, Haifeng
It has been reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1800012 in COL1A1 might be associated with the susceptibility to sports-related tendon and ligament injuries such as ACL injuries, Achilles tendon injuries, shoulder dislocations and tennis elbow. But the data from different studies have been conflicting. Here we attempted to systematically summarize and clarify the association between the SNP and sports-related tendon and ligament injuries risk. Six eligible studies including 933 cases and 1,381 controls were acquired from PubMed, Web Of Science and Cochrane library databases. Significant association was identified in homozygote model (TT versus GG: OR=0.17, 95%CI 0.08-0.35, PH=0.00) and recessive model (TT versus GT/GG: OR=0.21, 95%CI 0.10-0.44, PH=0.00). Our results indicated that COL1A1 rs1800012 polymorphism may be associated with the reduced risk of sports-related tendon or ligament injuries, especially in ACL injuries, and that rare TT may played as a protective role. PMID:28206959
Collins, C L; Fields, S K; Comstock, R D
To compare sport and gender differences in injury rates and proportions of injuries related to illegal activity and to describe the epidemiology of injuries related to illegal activity. Descriptive epidemiology study. 100 US high schools. Athletes participating in nine sports: boys' football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball plus girls' soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball. Illegal activity-related injuries were analyzed using data from the 2005-06 and 2006-07 National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study. Nationally, an estimated 98 066 injuries were directly related to an action that was ruled illegal activity by a referee/official or disciplinary committee, giving an injury rate of 0.24 injuries per 1000 athletic competition-exposures. Boys' and girls' soccer had the highest rates of injuries related to illegal activity, and girls' volleyball, girls' softball, and boys' baseball had the lowest. Overall, 6.4% of all high school sports-related injuries were related to illegal activity, with the highest proportion in girls' basketball (14.0%), girls' soccer (11.9%), and boys' soccer (11.4%). A greater proportion of injuries related to illegal activity were to the head/face (32.3%) and were concussions (25.4%) than injuries not related to illegal activity (13.8% (injury proportion ratio 2.35; 95% CI 1.82 to 3.04; preferees/officials may reduce sports-related injuries.
This podcast is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death. Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/5/2010.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to test the utility of unique panel of blood biomarkers as a means to reflect one’s recovery process after sport-related neurotrauma. We established a panel of biomarkers that reacted positive with CD81 (extracellular vesicle marker and various neuron- and glia-specific antigens [e.g., neurofilament light polypeptide (NF-L, tau, synaptosome-associated protein 25 (SNAP25, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein]. We first evaluated test–retest reliabilities of brain-derived exosome markers, followed by an application of these markers in eight professional ice hockey players to detect cumulative neuronal burden from a single ice hockey season. During the season, two players were diagnosed with concussions by team physician based on an exhibition of symptoms as well as abnormality in balance and ocular motor testing. One player reached symptom-free status 7 days after the concussion, while the other player required 36 days for symptoms to completely resolve. Blood samples and clinical assessments including balance error scoring system and near point of convergence throughout recovery process were obtained. Biomarkers indicative of axonal damage, neuronal inflammation, and glial activation showed excellent test–retest reliabilities (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.713–0.998, p’s < 0.01. There was a statistically significant increase in the NF-L marker at post-season follow-up compared to pre-season baseline (Z = −2.100, P = 0.036; however the statistical significance did not withstand Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. In concussion cases, neuronal and microglia markers notably increased after concussions, with the unique expression patterns being similar to that of concussion recovery process. These longitudinal data coupled with excellent test–retest reliabilities of novel array of blood biomarkers potentially reflect the damage in neural cell
Moor, Heather M; Eisenhauer, Rita C; Killian, Kathleen D; Proudfoot, Nick; Henriques, Ashley A; Congeni, Joseph A; Reneker, Jennifer C
Adherence to rehabilitation is widely accepted as vital for recovery and return to play following sports injuries. Medical management of concussion is centered around physical and cognitive rest, a theory largely based on expert opinion, not empirical evidence. Current research on this topic focuses on factors that are predictive of adherence to rehabilitation, but fails to examine if patient adherence leads to a better outcome. The purpose of this study was to determine the adherence tendencies of adolescents to treatment recommendations provided by a sports-medicine physician after a concussion and to determine if adherence to each recommendation was a predictor of treatment duration. Observational. Participants were enrolled in the study at their initial visit to the Sports-Medicine Center for medical care after a sports-related concussion. Individual treatment recommendations provided by a sports-medicine physician for concussion were recorded over the course of each participant's care. Once released from medical care, each participant was contacted to complete an online questionnaire to measure self-reported adherence tendencies to each treatment recommendation. Adherence was measured by two constructs: 1) the reported receptivity to the recommendation and 2) the frequency of following the recommendation. Exploratory univariate Poisson regression analyses were used to describe the relationship between adherence behaviors and the number of days of treatment required before the participant was returned to play. Fifty-six questionnaires were completed, by 30 male and 26 female adolescent athletes. The self-reported adherence tendencies were very high. None of the measures of adherence to the treatment recommendations were significant predictors of the number of days of treatment; however, there was a clear tendency in five of the six rest parameters (physical rest, cognitive rest with restrictions from electronics, and cognitive rest with restrictions from school
W. Alan C. Mutch
Full Text Available BackgroundPreliminary studies suggest that sports-related concussion (SRC is associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF regulation. Here, we use advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques to measure CBF and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR in individual SRC patients and healthy control subjects.Methods15 SRC patients (mean age = 16.3, range 14–20 years and 27 healthy control subjects (mean age = 17.6, range 13–21 years underwent anatomical MRI, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL MRI and model-based prospective end-tidal targeting (MPET of CO2 during blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MRI. Group differences in global mean resting CBF were examined. Voxel-by-voxel group and individual differences in regional CVR were examined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Leave-one-out receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the utility of brain MRI CO2 stress testing biomarkers to correctly discriminate between SRC patients and healthy control subjects.ResultsAll studies were tolerated with no complications. Traumatic structural findings were identified in one SRC patient. No significant group differences in global mean resting CBF were observed. There were no significant differences in the CO2 stimulus and O2 targeting during BOLD MRI. Significant group and patient-specific differences in CVR were observed with SRC patients demonstrating a predominant pattern of increased CVR. Leave-one-out ROC analysis for voxels demonstrating a significant increase in CVR was found to reliably discriminate between SRC patients and healthy control subjects (AUC of 0.879, p = 0.0001. The optimal cutoff for increased CVR declarative for SRC was 1,899 voxels resulting in a sensitivity of 0.867 and a specificity of 0.778 for this specific ROC analysis. There was no correlation between abnormal voxel counts and Postconcussion Symptom Scale scores among SRC patients
Swenson, David M; Henke, Natalie M; Collins, Christy L; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
High school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually, many of which are fractures. Fractures can severely affect athletes physically, emotionally, and financially and should be targeted with focused prevention methods. Patterns and primary mechanisms of fractures differ by sport and gender. Descriptive epidemiology study. High school sports-related injury data were collected from academic years 2008-09 to 2010-11 for 18 sports and from 2009-10 to 2010-11 for 2 additional sports. We used linear regression to describe annual fracture rate trends and calculated fractures rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs). From 2008-09 to 2010-11, certified athletic trainers reported a total of 21,251 injuries during 11,544,455 athlete exposures (AEs), of which 2103 (9.9%) were fractures, with an overall rate of 1.82 fractures per 10,000 AEs. Fracture rates were highest in football (4.37 per 10,000 AE), boys' ice hockey (3.08), and boys' lacrosse (2.59). Boys sustained 79.1% of all fractures, and the overall rates of fractures were greater in boys' sports than in girls' sports for competition (RR, 2.82; 95% CI, 2.45-3.24) and practice (RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 2.07-2.86). The most commonly fractured body sites were the hand/finger (32.1%), lower leg (10.1%), and wrist (9.5%). Overall, 17.2% of fractures required surgery, which was higher than for all other injuries combined (IPR, 3.14; 95% CI, 2.81-3.52). The most common mechanism of fracture involved contact with another player (45.5%). Using linear regression, we found the proportion of all injuries that were fractures was inversely correlated with the athlete's age (P = .02) but was not correlated with the athletes' age- and gender-adjusted body mass index. Fractures are a significant problem for high school athletes. Targeted preventive interventions should be implemented to reduce the burdens these injuries cause the athletes.
Pearce, Kelly L; Sufrinko, Alicia; Lau, Brian C; Henry, Luke; Collins, Michael W; Kontos, Anthony P
Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a common binocular vision deficit after a sport-related concussion (SRC). CI may result in visual discomfort and vision-mediated functional difficulties such as slowed reading and compromised attention, leading to impaired academic, work, and sport performance. To test the reliability of repeated near point of convergence (NPC) measurements in a sample of athletes after an SRC; compare the symptoms and cognitive impairment of athletes with normal NPC to those with CI after an SRC; and explore the relationship among age, sex, learning disability, migraine history, and CI. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 78 athletes (mean age, 14.31 ± 2.77 years) who were seen a mean 5.79 ± 5.63 days after an SRC were administered 3 trials of an NPC assessment, along with neurocognitive (Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing [ImPACT]) and symptom assessments. Patients were divided into normal NPC (NPC ≤ 5 cm; n = 45) and CI (NPC >5 cm; n = 33) groups. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) assessed the consistency of NPC across the 3 trials. The ANOVAs were employed to examine differences on neurocognitive composites and symptoms between the normal NPC and CI groups. Stepwise regressions (controlling for age and symptom scores on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale [PCSS]) were conducted to evaluate the predictive utility of the NPC distance for neurocognitive impairment. Groups did not differ on demographic or injury characteristics. NPC differed between trial 1 and trials 2 (P = .02) and 3 (P = .01) for the CI group but not the normal NPC group. Internal consistency was high across NPC measurements (ICC range, 0.95-0.98). Patients with CI performed worse on verbal memory (P = .02), visual motor speed (P = .02), and reaction time (P = .001, η(2) = .13) and had greater total symptom scores (P = .02) after the injury. Results of hierarchical
Abeare, Christopher A; Messa, Isabelle; Zuccato, Brandon G; Merker, Bradley; Erdodi, Laszlo
Estimated base rates of invalid performance on baseline testing (base rates of failure) for the management of sport-related concussion range from 6.1% to 40.0%, depending on the validity indicator used. The instability of this key measure represents a challenge in the clinical interpretation of test results that could undermine the utility of baseline testing. To determine the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline testing and to assess whether the prevalence varies as a function of age and validity indicator. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included data collected between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2016, from a clinical referral center in the Midwestern United States. Participants included 7897 consecutively tested, equivalently proportioned male and female athletes aged 10 to 21 years, who completed baseline neurocognitive testing for the purpose of concussion management. Baseline assessment was conducted with the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), a computerized neurocognitive test designed for assessment of concussion. Base rates of failure on published ImPACT validity indicators were compared within and across age groups. Hypotheses were developed after data collection but prior to analyses. Of the 7897 study participants, 4086 (51.7%) were male, mean (SD) age was 14.71 (1.78) years, 7820 (99.0%) were primarily English speaking, and the mean (SD) educational level was 8.79 (1.68) years. The base rate of failure ranged from 6.4% to 47.6% across individual indicators. Most of the sample (55.7%) failed at least 1 of 4 validity indicators. The base rate of failure varied considerably across age groups (117 of 140 [83.6%] for those aged 10 years to 14 of 48 [29.2%] for those aged 21 years), representing a risk ratio of 2.86 (95% CI, 2.60-3.16; P validity indicator and the age of the examinee. The strong age association, with 3 of 4 participants aged 10 to 12 years failing validity indicators, suggests that
Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.
Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166
The Bachelor thesis disserts upon employee motivation, namely the intluence upon their working effort with the goal to increase their performance and loyalty, and operates with the fact that people, with their knowledge, abilities, skills and certain brainware, are the key factor for successful performance of each organization if they are optimally motivated. The thesis emphasizes the fact that the employee motivation cannot lie only in stimulation with material instruments because the labour...
Full Text Available Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of motivated thinking, its powerful and pervasive influence on explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or epistemic criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving of explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or (following Kunda’s usage, directional motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms, combined with an effort to preserve the appearance of accuracy; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. In short, real life explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. Our proposals are largely programmatic, although we do review a good deal of relevant behavioral and neurological evidence. Specifically, we recognize five generative processes, some of which cover further sub-processes, and six evaluative processes. All of these are potential points of entry for the influence of motivation. We then suggest in some detail how specific sorts of explanatory motivation interact with specific explanatory processes.
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This podcast explores the health risks of binge drinking and discusses effective community strategies to prevent it. Created: 4/13/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 4/13/2010.
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Full Text Available ... community prevention strategies such as increasing alcohol excise taxes. The video also features experts who debunk common myths including the belief that binge drinking is only a problem among youth. Release Date: 4/13/2010 Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health ...
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Sullivan, Lindsay; Thomas, Audrey Alforque; Molcho, Michal
Sports-related concussions are now recognized as a major public health concern. However, despite the association of concussion with short- and long-term health consequences, many young athletes still lack basic knowledge about concussion and seem to believe that concussions may be "toughed out" and do not require medical attention. This study assessed self-reported practice of playing in training or a match while concussed among Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) athletes in Ireland aged 13-25 years old (M=19.19, SD=3.54). This study also assessed knowledge about and attitudes towards sports-related concussion in GAA players in Ireland. Using a self-report questionnaire, data were captured electronically on GAA athletes aged 13-25 years old (n=80) regarding knowledge about the detection, assessment and management of sports-related concussion, as well as participant's attitudes towards concussion and self-reported practice of playing in training or a match while concussed. Data were collected from June to August 2013. This study revealed that approximately one in four athletes reported having played while concussed in practice or during a match. Males were significantly more likely to play while concussed than females (40.9% and 17.2%, respectively). Results from this study indicated participants lack a complete understanding of concussion, as common misconceptions about concussion prevailed. Analyses revealed that participants generally have safe attitudes towards concussion and concussion management. Generating awareness of the potential short- and long-term health consequences of concussion, coupled with the promotion of safer attitudes towards this injury, could minimize the number of players who return-to-play pre-maturely and promote a more safety-conscious sports culture in Ireland.
Dougan, Brooke K; Horswill, Mark S; Geffen, Gina M
The objective of this study is to determine which pre-existing athlete characteristics, if any, are associated with greater deficits in functioning following sports-related concussion, after controlling for factors previously shown to moderate this effect (e.g., time since injury). Ninety-one independent samples of concussion were included in a fixed+systematic effects meta-analysis (n = 3,801 concussed athletes; 5,631 controls). Moderating variables were assessed using analogue-to-ANOVA and meta-regression analyses. Post-injury assessments first conducted 1-10 days following sports-related concussion revealed significant neuropsychological dysfunction, postural instability and post-concussion symptom reporting (d = -0.54, -1.10, and -1.14, respectively). During this interval, females (d = -0.87), adolescent athletes competing in high school competitions (d = -0.60), and those with 10 years of education (d = -1.32) demonstrated larger post-concussion neuropsychological deficits than males (d = -0.42), adults (d = -0.25), athletes competing at other levels of competition (d = -0.43 to -0.41), or those with 16 years of education (d = -0.15), respectively. However, these sub-groups' differential impairment/recovery beyond 10 days could not be reliably quantified from available literature. Pre-existing athlete characteristics, particularly age, sex and education, were demonstrated to be significant modifiers of neuropsychological outcomes within 10 days of a sports-related concussion. Implications for return-to-play decision-making and future research directions are discussed.
the activity. There has been very little research and theorizing which considers the topic of intrinsic motivation , yet there is a substantial amount...reported within the framework of intrinsic motivation , yet the paper reinterprets the work within that framework. It considers several approaches of
Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Purcell, John
To describe the research, policy and prevention implications of pre-drinking or pre-gaming; that is, planned heavy drinking prior to going to a public drinking establishment. The authors describe the phenomenon of pre-drinking, motivations for pre-drinking and its associated risks using available research literature, media and popular internet vehicles. Heavy drinking prior to going out has emerged as a common and celebrated practice among young adults around the world. Apparent motivations are: (i) to avoid paying for high priced drinks at commercial drinking establishments; (ii) to achieve drunkenness and enhance and extend the night out; and (iii) to socialize with friends, reduce social anxiety or enhance male group bonding before going out. Limited existing research on pre-drinking suggests that it is associated with heavy drinking and harmful consequences. We argue that policies focused upon reducing drinking in licensed premises may have the unintended consequence of displacing drinking to pre-drinking environments, possibly resulting in greater harms. Effective policy and prevention for drinking in licensed premises requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account the entire drinking occasion (not just drinking that occurs in the licensed environment), as well as the 'determined drunkenness' goal of some young people.
Cullum, Jerry; O’Grady, Megan; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard
We examined the link between social norms and active social influences occurring during natural social drinking contexts. Across 4 yearly measurement-bursts, college students (N = 523) reported daily for 30-day periods on drinking norms, drinking offers, how many drinks they accepted, and personal drinking levels during social drinking events. In contexts where drinking norms were higher, students were more likely to both receive and comply with drinking offers. These acute social influences were highly stable throughout college, but affected men and women differently across time: Women received more drinking offers than men, especially at the beginning of college and when norms were higher, but men complied with more drinking offers per occasion. These effects were not attributable to between-person differences in social drinking motives or drinking levels, nor to within-person patterns of situation-selection. The present work suggests that context-specific drinking norms catalyze active social influence attempts, and further promote compliance drinking. PMID:22661826
Liana S. E. Hone
Full Text Available Based on sexual selection theory, we hypothesized that sex differences in mating effort and social competitiveness—and subsequent sex differences in sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games—are responsible for the well-documented sex differences in college students' drinking game behaviors. Participants in a cross-sectional study were 351 women and 336 men aged 17 to 26. In a mediation model, we tested sex differences in mating effort, social competitiveness, sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games, drinking game behaviors, and alcohol-related problems. Men participated in drinking games more frequently, consumed more alcohol while participating in drinking games, and experienced more problems associated with drinking. These sex differences appeared to be partially mediated by mating effort, social competitiveness, and sexual and competitive motivations for participating in drinking games. Drinking games are a major venue in which college students engage in heavy episodic drinking, which is a risk factor for college students' behavioral and health problems. Thus, the functional perspective we used to analyze them here may help to inform public health and university interventions and enable better identification of at-risk students.
Liana S. E. Hone
Full Text Available Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013 replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013 also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness—and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular—are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives.
Hone, Liana S E; McCullough, Michael
Drinking games are a risk factor for behavioral and health problems among university students. Previous cross-sectional research by Hone, Carter, and McCullough (2013) replicated well-established sex differences in drinking game behaviors (i.e., that men are more active drinking game participants than are women) and university drinking problems more generally. Hone et al. (2013) also found that these male-specific behavioral patterns are attributable in part to the fact that men's generally unrestricted sexual strategies, plus their social competitiveness, motivate them to participate in drinking games to display their fortitude and compete with same-sex rivals. Here, the authors conducted a study to evaluate with greater causal rigor whether sex differences in sexual restrictedness and social competitiveness-and sex differences in motivations for participating in drinking games in particular-are partially responsible for the sex differences in university students' drinking game behaviors and drinking problems. Sex differences in changes in frequency of drinking game participation were partially mediated by competitive motivations for participating in drinking games and by the effects of social competitiveness on competitive drinking game motivation. These findings lend additional support to the proposition that participation in drinking games is motivated in part by their suitability as a venue for sexual competition in university students' day-to-day lives.
Grant, Stephen Lawrence; Tamason, Charlotte Crim; Hoque, Bilqis Amin
Objectives: To measure the salinity levels of common water sources in coastal Bangladesh andexplore perceptions of water palatability among the local population to investigate the plausibility oflinking cholera outbreaks in Bangladesh with ingestion of saline-rich cholera-infected river water...... beconducive to V. cholerae survival. Furthermore, salinity levels of participant’s drinking water sourceswere all well below the levels required for optimal survival of V. cholerae. Respondents explainedthat they preferred less salty and more aesthetically pleasing drinking water. Conclusion: Theoretically, V....... cholerae can survive in the river systems in Bangladesh; however,water sources which have been contaminated with river water are avoided as potential drinkingwater sources. Furthermore, there are no physical connecting points between the river system anddrinking water sources among the study population...
Full Text Available ... Vital Signs Vital Signs – Presión Arterial Alta Other Languages Arabic احصل على التطعيم لتجنب الحصبة French Faites- ... of binge drinking – including unintended pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, injury, car crashes, violence and HIV/AIDS – and ...
How can products be designed to change our habits for the better? What is some of the leading research that designers can draw on to create new systems that motivate people towards healthier behaviour? Designing Motivation is an edited collection of ‘industrialist cheat sheets’: 22 single......-page summaries of research articles relating to technology design, motivation, and behaviour change. Ranging across the fields of economics, sociology, design research and behavioural science, each summary draws out the design implications of the research. It is intended as a resource for designers who...... are grappling with how to create motivating products, and as a primer for students who want a brief introduction to some of the relevant theories, findings and design interventions in these fields. The editor's introduction raises a number of issues encountered when we try to apply behavioural research...
Donehew, G R
Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.
... or pale skin » Cognitive–behavioral skills-based approaches » Motivation and feedback-related approaches » Behavioral interventions by health professionals Strategies Targeting the Campus and Surrounding Community Alcohol poisoning can lead to permanent brain damage or death, so a ...
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... in weight loss programs for obese and overweight women prior to fertility treatment....... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...
... for: Parents Kids Teens Caffeine Calcium Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? What Should Preschoolers ... Caffeine Confusion What's a Healthy Alternative to Water? Energy Drinks and Food Bars: Power or Hype? A Guide ...
Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D
Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with social anxiety is thought to reinforce alcohol use, yet research on coping-motivated drinking among socially anxious students has yielded inconsistent findings. Further, undergraduate drinking varies by drinking context, yet the role of context in drinking behaviors among socially anxious individuals remains unclear. The current study sought to examine the relationship of social anxiety and drinking quantity in specific drinking contexts among undergraduates (N = 611). We also evaluated whether relevant drinking contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related problems. Clinically elevated social anxiety was related to heavier consumption in negative emotion (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) contexts, but not social/convivial contexts (e.g., parties, bars). Quantity of alcohol consumed in negative emotion and personal/intimate contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and drinking problem severity. Drinking in personal/intimate contexts demonstrated a unique mediational role. Findings suggest that heavy drinking in particular contexts (especially personal/intimate and negative emotion) may play an important role in drinking problems among socially anxious individuals.
Dettling, Samuel D; Morscher, Melanie A; Masin, Jeffrey S; Adamczyk, Mark J
Jefferson (C1) fractures are rare cervical spine injuries that usually do not result in cranial nerve (CN) impairment. However, case reports of Collet-Sicard syndrome (impairment of CNs IX-XII) and impairment of CNs IX, X, and XII have been reported. All reported cases involved adult patients in high-impact collisions, such as motor vehicle accidents or falls. To our knowledge, a Jefferson fracture with selective CN impairment due to a low-energy, sports-related injury in a pediatric patient has not been reported. Chart and radiographic data for a single case were reviewed and reported in a retrospective study approved by the Institutional Review Board of the participating hospital. A 16-year-old male was diagnosed with a Jefferson fracture after a head-to-chest football collision. On computed tomography, the distance between the atlas transverse process and styloid process of the skull was 5 mm right and 10 mm left. Before halo fixation, the patient had vague complaints of dysphagia. These complaints worsened which led to the diagnosis of CN IX and X impairment and placement of a feeding tube. The fracture healed uneventfully, the dysphagia symptoms resolved, and the halo fixation and feeding tube were removed. The patient returned to all activities, but was instructed to avoid participation in contact sports. This was the first report of selective CN impairment in a pediatric patient with a Jefferson fracture resulting from a low-impact sports-related injury. Careful monitoring of the patient complaints led to appropriate treatment. Further studies into the spatial relationship between the transverse process of the atlas in relation to the styloid process of the skull may be warranted. Level V, case report.
Mannings, Carol; Kalynych, Colleen; Joseph, Madeline Matar; Smotherman, Carmen; Kraemer, Dale F
Sports-related concussion among professional, collegiate, and, more recently, high school athletes has received much attention from the media and medical community. To our knowledge, there is a paucity of research regarding parental knowledge of sports-related concussion. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental knowledge of concussion in young children who participated in recreational tackle football. Parents of children aged 5 years to 15 years attending recreational tackle football games were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Heads Up: Concussion in Youth Sports Quiz. The parents were asked about their level of agreement regarding statements that represent definition, symptoms, and treatment of concussion. A total of 310 of 369 parents (84% response rate) voluntarily completed the questionnaire, with 94% believing that their child had never had a concussion. However, only 13% (n = 41) could correctly identify all seven statements. Most did not identify that a concussion is considered a mild traumatic brain injury and can be achieved from something other than a direct blow to the head. Race, sex, and zip code had no significant association with correctly answering statements. Education (r = 0.24, p < 0.0001) and number of years the child played (r = 0.11, p = 0.049) had a small association. Fifty-three percent and 58% of the parents reported that someone had discussed the definition and the symptoms of concussion with them, respectively, with only about half reporting that information came from their health care provider. No parent was able to classify all symptoms listed as correctly related or not related to concussion. However, identification of correct concussion statements correlated with identification of correct symptoms (r = 0.25, p < 0.001). While most parents of young athletes demonstrated some knowledge regarding concussion, important misconceptions remain regarding the
Goodman, Charles H.
Motivation is an area which has received some systematic psychological study only in the past seventy years. It is the purpose of this article to explore and examine some of the knowledge that has been acquired and to see how this knowledge may be applied. (24 references) (Author/NH)
. The study is conducted with an online sample of Icelandic beer consumers. The findings show that light beer is perceived as healthier than regular beer, while the most important motives behind purchase are taste, health and weight management. Light beer is further perceived as less tasteful, but at the same......Although low calorie content is perceived as an important choice driver for light food and drink products, in the case of low-alcohol beverages the low alcohol content is equally important. Thus, low-alcohol beverages can be considered either as healthier alternatives, or as substitutes...... to alcoholic beverages and drinks. This paper investigates consumers’ perceptions, motives and preferences for low-alcohol beverages, using light beer as an exemplary case. The Best-Worst Scaling (BWS) is used to measure preferences, while complementary methods are used to measure perceptions and motives...
alcohol from the earliest days of military service, in part because heavy drinking has been an accepted custom and tradition (Bryant, 1979; Schuckit...dealing with trouble spots 10 Appropriate Motivational Strategies for Each Stage of Change (adapted from CSAT TIP #35) Precontemplation Goals...Appropriate Motivational Strategies for Each Stage of Change (adapted from CSAT TIP #35) Preparation Goals: Help person resolve
Debus, Michael S.
The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games.......The paper examines research on drinking game participation from a game studies ontological perspective, covering definition, classification and problems with the, in the studies implied, underlying ontology of drinking games....
Herschl, Laura C; McChargue, Dennis E; MacKillop, James; Stoltenberg, Scott F; Highland, Krista B
Positive alcohol outcome expectancies and behavioral economic indices of alcohol consumption are related to binge drinking among college students and may reflect explicit and implicit motivations that are differentially associated with this behavior. The present study hypothesized that implicit (alcohol purchase task) and explicit (positive expectancy for alcohol's effects) motivations for drinking would not be correlated. It was also hypothesized that greater implicit and explicit motivations would predict alcohol-related risk. Participants were 297 college student binge drinkers (54% female; 88% European-American; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test: M = 9.53, SD = 5.04). Three indices from the alcohol purchase task (APT) were modeled as a latent implicit alcohol-related motivations variable. Explicit alcohol-related motivations were measured using a global positive expectancy subscale from the Comprehensive Effects of Alcohol Questionnaire. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total, Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index total, and age of drinking onset were modeled as a latent alcohol-related risk variable. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations amongst implicit motivations, explicit motivations, and alcohol-related risk. Implicit and explicit motivations were not correlated. Partially consistent with the second hypothesis, greater implicit motivations were associated with greater alcohol-related risk. Relations between explicit motivations and alcohol-related risk were marginally significant. Implicit and explicit drinking motivations are differentially associated with problem drinking behaviors. Future research should examine the underlying neurobiological mechanisms associated with these factors.
Snyder Valier, Alison R; Swank, Elizabeth M; Lam, Kenneth C; Hansen, Matthew L; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C
Accurate assessment of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is important for quality patient care. Evaluation of HRQoL typically occurs with patient self-report, but some instruments, such as the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), allow for proxy reporting. Limited information exists comparing patient and proxy reports of HRQoL after sport-related injury in adolescent athletes. To compare patient ratings and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL in adolescent athletes who suffer musculoskeletal injuries requiring orthopedic consultation. The authors hypothesized poor agreement between patient and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL. Cross-sectional study. Orthopedic practice. Thirteen adolescent patients with a sport-related musculoskeletal injury requiring orthopedic consultation and 1 of their parents participated. During the initial visit to the physician's office, each patient was asked to complete the PedsQL, and the patient's parent was asked to complete the parent-proxy version of the PedsQL. The PedsQL is a pediatric generic outcome measure that consists of a total score and 4 subscale scores: physical, emotional, social, and school functioning. Means and standard deviations were calculated for all scores, and comparisons between patient-self report and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL were made for the PedsQL total score and subscale scores using Pearson product-moment correlations (r). Pearson product-moment correlations showed little to fair insignificant relationships between patient self-report and parent-proxy report of the PedsQL for the total score (r = -.1) and all subscales (range r = .1 to .4). Our results suggest a lack of agreement between patient and parent-proxy ratings of HRQoL, with patients rating their HRQoL lower than their parent. Patient perception of HRQoL may be more accurate than proxy report, which supports the use of patient-rated HRQoL in patient evaluation. Assessments of HRQoL made by proxies, even those close to the patient, may
O'Connor, Kathryn L; Baker, Melissa M; Dalton, Sara L; Dompier, Thomas P; Broglio, Steven P; Kerr, Zachary Y
Sports participation is one of the leading causes of concussions among nearly 8 million US high school student-athletes. To describe the epidemiology of sport-related concussion (SRC) in 27 high school sports during the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Aggregate injury and exposure data from 27 sports in 147 high schools in the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION). Boy and girl high school athletes during the 2011-2012 through 2013-2014 academic years. Sport-related concussion counts, percentages, rates per 10 000 athlete-exposures (AEs), rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Rate ratios and IPRs with 95% CIs not containing 1.0 were considered significant. Overall, 2004 SRCs were reported among 27 high school sports, for a rate of 3.89 per 10 000 AEs. Football had the highest SRC rate (9.21/10 000 AEs), followed by boys' lacrosse (6.65/10 000 AEs) and girls' soccer (6.11/10 000 AEs). The SRC rate was higher in competition than in practice (RR = 3.30; 95% CI = 3.02, 3.60). Among sex-comparable sports, the SRC rate was higher in girls than in boys (RR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.34, 1.81); however, the proportion of SRCs due to player-to-player contact was higher in boys than in girls (IPR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.27, 1.73). Common symptoms reported among all athletes with SRCs were headache (94.7%), dizziness (74.8%), and difficulty concentrating (61.0%). Only 0.8% of players with SRCs returned to play within 24 hours. The majority of athletes with SRCs (65.8%) returned to play between 7 and 28 days. More players had symptoms resolve after 7 days (48.8%) than less than a week (40.7%). Our findings provide updated high school SRC incidence estimates and further evidence of sex differences in reported SRCs. Few athletes with SRCs returned to play within 24 hours or a week. Most injured players returned after 7 days, despite a smaller
Galic, Tea; Kuncic, Domagoj; Poklepovic Pericic, Tina; Galic, Ivan; Mihanovic, Frane; Bozic, Josko; Herceg, Mark
The increasing popularity of participating in sports activities among children and adolescents has increased the risk of sports-retaled orofacial and dental injuries. Therefore, it is important to establish efficient preventive strategies regarding sports-related dental trauma The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of sports-related dental injuries in young athletes and to compare the frequency of such injuries between high-risk and medium-risk sports, along with assessing athletes' attitudes and habits regarding mouthguard use. A total of 229 young athletes from four different sports (water polo (n=59), karate (n=58), taekwondo (n=57) and handball (n=55), participated in this study. A standardized questionnaire about the frequency of orofacial and dental injuries was used. Questions were also asked about athletes' habits related to mouthguard use. Mean age of the participants was 12.9±3.2 years and the average time of playing experience was 4.8±3.1 years. Orofacial injury had been experienced by 58 athletes (25.3%), while 31 athletes (13.5%) suffered dental injury. Higher rate of dental injuries was observed in water polo (18.6%), karate (17.2%) and handball (21.8%) than in taekwondo (3.5%) (P=0.035). Most participants were aware of mouthguards for dental trauma prevention and considered them efficient for preventing dental injuries during sports activities, but only 94 (41%) used them. There was a statistically significant difference in the use of mouthguards between taekwondo (73.7%) and karate (70.7%) players compared to handball (14.5%) and water polo players (5.1%) (Pmartial art sport. Therefore, the classification of sports according to the risk of dental trauma should be reconsidered. It would be beneficial to make wearing a mouthguard mandatory in all high-risk sports, as well as in those with medium-risk for dental injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights
O'Connor, Kathryn L.; Baker, Melissa M.; Dalton, Sara L.; Dompier, Thomas P.; Broglio, Steven P.; Kerr, Zachary Y.
Context: Sports participation is one of the leading causes of concussions among nearly 8 million US high school student-athletes. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of sport-related concussion (SRC) in 27 high school sports during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Aggregate injury and exposure data from 27 sports in 147 high schools in the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION). Patients or Other Participants: Boy and girl high school athletes during the 2011–2012 through 2013–2014 academic years. Main Outcome Measure(s): Sport-related concussion counts, percentages, rates per 10 000 athlete-exposures (AEs), rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Rate ratios and IPRs with 95% CIs not containing 1.0 were considered significant. Results: Overall, 2004 SRCs were reported among 27 high school sports, for a rate of 3.89 per 10 000 AEs. Football had the highest SRC rate (9.21/10 000 AEs), followed by boys' lacrosse (6.65/10 000 AEs) and girls' soccer (6.11/10 000 AEs). The SRC rate was higher in competition than in practice (RR = 3.30; 95% CI = 3.02, 3.60). Among sex-comparable sports, the SRC rate was higher in girls than in boys (RR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.34, 1.81); however, the proportion of SRCs due to player-to-player contact was higher in boys than in girls (IPR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.27, 1.73). Common symptoms reported among all athletes with SRCs were headache (94.7%), dizziness (74.8%), and difficulty concentrating (61.0%). Only 0.8% of players with SRCs returned to play within 24 hours. The majority of athletes with SRCs (65.8%) returned to play between 7 and 28 days. More players had symptoms resolve after 7 days (48.8%) than less than a week (40.7%). Conclusions: Our findings provide updated high school SRC incidence estimates and further evidence of sex differences in reported SRCs. Few
Amoo-Achampong, Kelms; Rosas, Samuel; Schmoke, Nicholas; Accilien, Yves-Dany; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; McCormick, Frank
To describe recent epidemiological trends in concussion diagnosis within the United States (US) population. We conducted a retrospective review of PearlDiver, a private-payor insurance database. Our search included International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision codes for sports-related concussions spanning 2010 through 2014. Overall study population included patients aged 5 to 39 with subgroup analysis performed on Cohort A (Youth), children and adolescents aged 5 to 19, and Cohort B (Adults), adults aged 20 to 39. Incidence was defined as the number of individuals diagnosed normalized to the number of patients in the database for each demographic. Our search returned 1,599 patients diagnosed during the study period. The average (±SD) annual rate was 4.14 ± 1.42 per 100,000 patients for the overall population. Youth patients were diagnosed at a mean annual rate of 3.78 ± 1.30 versus 0.36 ± 0.16 per 100,000 in Adults. Concussion normalized incidence significantly increased from 2.47 to 3.87 per 100,000 patients (57%) in the Youth cohort (p = 0.048). In Adults, rate grew from 0.34 to 0.44 per 100,000 patients (29%) but was not statistically significant (p = 0.077). Four-year compound annual growth rates for Youth and Adults were 26.3% and 20.4%, respectively. Youth patients comprised 1,422/1,599 (90.18%) of all concussion diagnoses and were predominantly male (75%). Adults also constituted 138/1,599 (8.63%) of the sample and were also largely male (80%). Midwestern states had highest diagnostic rates (Cohort A:19 per 100,000 and Cohort B:1.8 per 100,000). Both cohorts had the most total diagnoses made in the fourth quarter followed by the second quarter. Sports-related concussion diagnostic rates have grown significantly in the youth population. Quarterly, regional and gender distributions appear consistent with participation in concussion-prone sports. Utilization of individualized and multifaceted approaches are recommended to advance
Predel, Hans-Georg; Giannetti, Bruno; Connolly, Mark P; Lewis, Fraser; Bhatt, Aomesh
Ibuprofen is used for the treatment of non-serious pain. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of a new ibuprofen plaster for the treatment of pain associated with acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this randomised, double-blind, multi-centre, placebo controlled, parallel group study, adults (n = 130; 18-58 years of age) diagnosed with acute sports-related blunt soft tissue injury/contusion were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster or placebo plaster. Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was area under the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to three days (VAS AUC 0-3d ). Other endpoints included algometry AUC from 0 to three days (AUC 0-3d ) and 0 to five days (AUC 0-5d ), to evaluate improvement of sensitivity at the injured site, and patient and investigator global assessment of efficacy. Safety was monitored throughout the study. The ibuprofen plaster resulted in superior reduction in AUC 0-3d compared with placebo; the Least Squares (LS) mean difference was 662.82 mm*h in favour of the ibuprofen 200mg plaster (P = 0.0011). The greater improvement in VAS AUC of POM was also observed after 12 h, 24 h, and five days of therapy. Tenderness also significantly improved with the ibuprofen plaster compared with placebo; LS mean difference in algometry/tenderness AUC 0-3d was 1.87 N/cm 2 *d and AUC 0-5d was 1.87 N/cm 2 *d (P values ≤0.0004). At all study timepoints, a greater percentage of patients and investigators rated the effectiveness of the ibuprofen 200 mg plaster as good/excellent than the placebo plaster. Treatment-emergent adverse events for the ibuprofen plaster were few (≤1.5%) and were mild in severity. The results of this study indicate 200 mg plaster is effective and safe for the treatment of pain due to acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion in adults.
Clerkin, Elise M; Sarfan, Laurel D; Parsons, E Marie; Magee, Joshua C
This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants ( N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire , which assesses mindfulness facets of accepting without judgment, acting with awareness, not reacting to one's internal experiences, observing and attending to experiences, and labeling and describing. As predicted, the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and drinking problems was mediated by social anxiety coping motives across each of the models. Further, the relationship between specific mindfulness facets (acting with awareness, accepting without judgment, and describe) and drinking problems was serially mediated by social anxiety symptoms and drinking to cope with social anxiety. This research builds upon existing studies that have largely been conducted with college students to evaluate potential mediators driving drinking problems. Specifically, individuals who are less able to act with awareness, accept without judgment, and describe their internal experiences may experience heightened social anxiety and drinking to cope with that anxiety, which could ultimately result in greater alcohol-related problems.
Information on Drinking Water in New England. Major Topics covered include: Conservation, Private Wells, Preventing Contamination, Drinking Water Sources, Consumer Confidence Reports, and Drinking Water Awards.
Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J
Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.
Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E
Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Dimou, Stefan; Lagopoulos, Jim
Abstract Sports-related concussion is an issue that has piqued the public's attention of late as concerns surrounding potential long-term sequelae as well as new methods of characterizing the effects of this form of injury continue to develop. For the most part, diagnosis of concussion is based on subjective clinical measures and thus is prone to under-reporting. In the current environment, where conventional imaging modalities, such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, are unable to elucidate the degree of white matter damage and neurometabolic change, a discussion of two advanced imaging techniques-diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)-is undertaken with a view to highlighting their potential utility. Our aim is to outline a variety of the approaches to concussion research that have been employed, with special attention given to the clinical considerations and acute complications attributed to concussive injury. DTI and MRS have been at the forefront of research as a result of their noninvasiveness and ease of acquisition, and hence it is thought that the use of these neuroimaging modalities has the potential to aid clinical decision making and management, including guiding return-to-play protocols.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Energy Drinks: Should Your Child Drink Them? ... ingredients they contain and how they measure up: Sports Drinks Sports drinks may be beneficial for kids ...
... Skiing/Snowboarding According to a John Hopkins Medicine-led study , approximately 10 million Americans ski or snowboard ... is not intended to serve as medical advice. Anyone seeking specific neurosurgical advice or assistance should consult ...
Ruslin, M.; Boffano, P.; ten Brincke, Y.J.D.; Forouzanfar, T.; Brand, H.S.
Sports and exercise are important causes of maxillofacial injuries. Different types of sports might differ in frequency and type of fractures. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible relation between the types of sport practiced and the frequency and nature of the facial bone
Wemm, Stephanie; Fanean, Amanda; Baker, Alicia; Blough, Eric R; Mewaldt, Steven; Bardi, Massimo
Problematic drinking is a widespread problem among college students, and can contribute to alcohol dependence during later adulthood, particularly among females. The current study assessed vulnerability for alcohol-related consequences by comparing self-reported drinking with coping styles and physiological and behavioral stress responses during a challenging task. Cardiovascular measurements and saliva samples were taken from 88 female students at the beginning of the experiment and after the task. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity was measured by assessing cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) salivary levels. The behavioral task consisted of a set of three anagrams of increasing difficulty, the last of which had no possible solution, to test the distress tolerance of the participants. Results showed that the majority of participants (70%) reported drinking in the six months prior to data collection, most of whom reported at least one incident of binge drinking. Excessive alcohol use was related to an impaired physiological response to stress during the impossible task. College students who drank to cope with stress had significantly higher basal levels of cortisol and DHEA, an indication of HPA axis over-regulation, while their stress response remained remarkably flat. Self-reported consequences of drinking were related to motives for drinking and lower DHEA levels. Regression analysis indicated that higher cortisol levels mediated the relationship between motives for drinking and problematic drinking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Studies investigating associations between prenatal exposure to low-moderate doses of alcohol and mental health development in childhood are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to compare women who drink and who do not drink alcohol in pregnancy on a number of potential confounding...
... be tested and controlled. AAFP also is against marketing and selling energy products to kids under 18 ... drinks. It has become “cool” and common to mix them with alcohol. Energy drinks can offset the ...
The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.
EPA's Drinking Water Action Plan serves as a national call to action, urging all levels of government, utilities, community organizations, and other stakeholders to work together to increase the safety and reliability of drinking water.
... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): For women, low-risk drinking is defined ...
... Month Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 32794 times font size decrease ... held April 8-11 near the... Read more Alcohol Wine for your health: truth and myth Alcohol ...
Choosing healthy snacks and drinks for your children can be hard. There are many options. ... Encourage children to drink a lot of water. Avoid sodas, sport drinks, and flavored waters. Stay away from drinks made with sugar or ...
Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Dahlström, Örjan; Timpka, Toomas; Lexell, Jan
Sport participation is associated with a risk of sports-related injuries and illnesses, and Paralympic athletes' additional medical issues can be a challenge to health care providers and medical staff. However, few prospective studies have assessed sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport (SRIIPS) over time. Advances in mobile phone technology and networking systems offer novel opportunities to develop innovative eHealth applications for collection of athletes' self-reports. Using eHealth applications for collection of self-reported SRIIPS is an unexplored area, and before initiation of full-scale research of SRIIPS, the feasibility and usability of such an approach needs to be ascertained. The aim of this study was to perform a 4-week pilot study and (1) evaluate the monitoring feasibility and system usability of a novel eHealth application for self-reported SRIIPS and (2) report preliminary data on SRIIPS. An eHealth application for routine collection of data from athletes was developed and adapted to Paralympic athletes. A 4-week pilot study was performed where Paralympic athletes (n=28) were asked to weekly self-report sport exposure, training load, general well-being, pain, sleep, anxiety, and possible SRIIPS. The data collection was followed by a poststudy use assessment survey. Quantitative data related to the system use (eg, completed self-reports, missing responses, and errors) were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The qualitative feasibility and usability data provided by the athletes were condensed and categorized using thematic analysis methods. The weekly response rate was 95%. The athletes were of the opinion that the eHealth application was usable and feasible but stated that it was not fully adapted to Paralympic athletes and their impairments. For example, it was difficult to understand how a new injury or illness should be identified when the impairment was involved. More survey items related to the impairments were
Risgaard, Bjarke; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Jabbari, Reza; Glinge, Charlotte; Ingemann-Hansen, Ole; Thomsen, Jørgen Lange; Ottesen, Gyda Lolk; Haunsø, Stig; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob
Preparticipation screening programs have been suggested to reduce the numbers of sports-related sudden cardiac deaths (SrSCD). The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize all SrSCD aged 12-49 years and to address the difference in incidence rates between competitive and noncompetitive athletes. All deaths among persons aged 12-49 years from 2007-2009 were included. Death certificates were reviewed. History of previous admissions to hospital was assessed, and discharge summaries and autopsy reports were read. Sudden cardiac deaths (SCDs) and SrSCD cases were identified. In the 3-year period, there were 881 SCDs, of which we identified 44 SrSCD. In noncompetitive athletes aged 12-35 years, the incidence rate of SrSCD was 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16-0.94) per 100,000 athlete person-years vs 2.95 (95% CI 1.95-4.30) in noncompetitive athletes aged 36-49 years. In competitive athletes, the incidence rate of SrSCD was 0.47 (95% CI 0.10-1.14) and 6.64 (95% CI 2.86-13.1) per 100,000 athlete person-years in those aged 12-35 years and 36-49 years, respectively. The incidence rate of SCD in the general population was 10.7 (95% CI 10.0-11.5) per 100.000 person-years. The incidence rates of SrSCD in noncompetitive and competitive athletes are not different. The study showed an increase in the incidence rate of SrSCD in persons aged 36-49 years in both noncompetitive and competitive athletes compared to those aged 12-35 years. Importantly, SCD in the general population is much more prevalent than is SrSCD in all age groups. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Whyte, Enda F; Gibbons, Nicola; Kerr, Grainne; Moran, Kieran A
Determination of return to play (RTP) after sport-related concussion (SRC) is critical given the potential consequences of premature RTP. Current RTP guidelines may not identify persistent exercise-induced neurocognitive deficits in asymptomatic athletes after SRC. Therefore, postexercise neurocognitive testing has been recommended to further inform RTP determination. To implement this recommendation, the effect of exercise on neurocognitive function in healthy athletes should be understood. To examine the acute effects of a high-intensity intermittent-exercise protocol (HIIP) on neurocognitive function assessed by the Symbol Digits Modality Test (SDMT) and Stroop Interference Test. Cohort study. University laboratory. 40 healthy male athletes (age 21.25 ± 1.29 y, education 16.95 ± 1.37 y). Each participant completed the SDMT and Stroop Interference Test at baseline and after random allocation to a condition (HIIP vs control). A mixed between-within-subjects ANOVA assessed time- (pre- vs postcondition) -by-condition interaction effects. SDMT and Stroop Interference Test scores. There was a significant time-by-condition interaction effect (P healthy athletes, the HIIP results in a reduction in neurocognitive function as assessed by the Stroop Interference Test, with no effect on function as assessed by the SDMT. Testing should also be considered after high-intensity exercise in determining RTP decisions for athletes after SRC in conjunction with the existing recommended RTP protocol. These results may provide an initial reference point for future research investigating the effects of an HIIP on the neurocognitive function of athletes recovering from SRC.
Brett, Benjamin L; Kuhn, Andrew W; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Zuckerman, Scott L
The empirical identification of risk factors associated with sport-related concussion (SRC) may improve the management of student-athletes. The current study attempted to identify and quantify bio-cognitive risk factors associated with sustaining a SRC. Cross-sectional ambispective study; level of evidence, 3. Neurocognitive testing of 12,320 middle school, high school and collegiate athletes was completed at preseason baseline and post-SRC. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine which pre-injury variables accurately predicted the occurrence of SRC. A quantitative risk score for each variable was developed. Five of 13 variables maintained significance in the multivariable model with the associated weighted point scores: SRC history (21), prior headache treatment (6), contact sport (5), youth level of play (7), and history of ADHD/LD (2). Six stratified groups were formed based on probability of SRC, which produced an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 (95% CI 0.69-0.72, p < .001). Though the model was a significant predictor of SRC (X2 = 1,112.75, p < .001), the effect size was small and accounted for only 16% of the overall variance. An initial aggregate model of weighted bio-cognitive factors associated with increased odds of sustaining a SRC was developed. Previously validated factors were confirmed, yet a large source of variance remained unexplained. These findings emphasize the need to expand the host factors studied when assessing SRC risk, and that the existing, empirically based bio-cognitive factors do not adequately quantify the risk of SRC.
Predel, Hans-Georg; Connolly, Mark P; Bhatt, Aomesh; Giannetti, Bruno
To investigate the efficacy and safety of a recently developed ibuprofen medicated plaster in the treatment of acute sports impact injuries/contusions. In this double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled, parallel group, phase 3 study (EudraCT Number: 2012-003257-2) patients (n = 132; ages 18 to 60 years) diagnosed with acute sports-related traumatic blunt soft tissue injury/contusion to the upper or lower limbs were randomized to receive either ibuprofen 200 mg plaster (n = 64) or placebo plaster (n = 68). Plasters were administered once daily for five consecutive days. The primary assessment was the area under the curve (AUC) of the visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain on movement (POM) over 0 to 72 h (VAS 0-72 ). The ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with a reduction in pain on movement (POM) based on lower VAS AUC 0-72h (2399.4 mm*h) compared with placebo (4078.9 mm*h) (least squares mean difference: - 1679.5 mm*h; P ibuprofen medicated plaster compared with placebo at 12, 48, 24, and 120 h (P ibuprofen medicated plaster was associated with greater reduction in tenderness/pain than placebo at each timepoint (P values ibuprofen plaster, and n = 6 [8.8%] for placebo). All drug-related AEs were administration site reactions and were mild in intensity. The results of this study indicate that ibuprofen medicated plaster results in rapid and clinically relevant reduction of pain in patients suffering from blunt musculoskeletal injuries or recurrent pain. The ibuprofen medicated plaster was well tolerated.
Yusko, David A; Buckman, Jennifer F; White, Helene R; Pandina, Robert J
There is compelling evidence that college student athletes engage in frequent episodes of heavy drinking and are prone to negative consequences resulting from such use. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. Athletes compared to non-athletes reported more exaggerated perceptions of peer heavy drinking and lower sensation seeking and coping and enhancement motives for drinking, suggesting a risk profile distinct from non-athletes. In the overall sample, higher sensation seeking, overestimation of peer heavy drinking, non-use of protective behaviors while drinking, and higher enhancement and coping drinking motives were associated with greater frequency of heavy episodic drinking and more negative drinking consequences. In athletes compared to non-athletes, sensation seeking was more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking and drinking to cope was more strongly associated with negative alcohol-related consequences. Overall, the results suggest that already proven brief intervention strategies, with minor adaptations related to the roles of sensation seeking and drinking to cope, may be helpful for student athletes.
Yusko, David A.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; White, Helene R.; Pandina, Robert J.
There is compelling evidence that college student athletes engage in frequent episodes of heavy drinking and are prone to negative consequences resulting from such use. This study sought to identify risk and protective factors associated with student-athlete drinking and determine if student-athlete risk factors differed from those of non-athletes. Athletes compared to non-athletes reported more exaggerated perceptions of peer heavy drinking and lower sensation seeking and coping and enhancement motives for drinking, suggesting a risk profile distinct from non-athletes. In the overall sample, higher sensation seeking, overestimation of peer heavy drinking, non-use of protective behaviors while drinking, and higher enhancement and coping drinking motives were associated with greater frequency of heavy episodic drinking and more negative drinking consequences. In athletes compared to non-athletes, sensation seeking was more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking and drinking to cope was more strongly associated with negative alcohol-related consequences. Overall, the results suggest that already proven brief intervention strategies, with minor adaptations related to the roles of sensation seeking and drinking to cope, may be helpful for student athletes. PMID:18752900
Blanchard, Brittany E; Stevens, Angela K; Acosta, Ileana S; Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L; Littlefield, Andrew K
Although previous studies have elucidated associations between motivations for drinking and sex as they relate to risky health outcomes among female college students, the utility of cross-domain motives (i.e., alcohol motives predicting sex-related outcomes and vice versa) in the prediction of specific alcohol- and sex-related behaviors has yet to be examined. The current study examined relations between drinking and sex motives with multiple risky alcohol- and sex-related outcomes (i.e., alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, alcohol consumption prior to sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners [vaginal, oral, anal], and emergency contraception use). Multiple structural equation models were used to examine univariate and multivariate associations among drinking and sex motives and specific outcomes in a sample of female undergraduates with lifetime histories of alcohol use and sexual activity (N = 436; 77% White, 21% Hispanic). Findings indicated differential associations between motives and specific outcomes across univariate versus multivariate analyses. Multivariate models indicated greater endorsement of enhancement and less endorsement of intimacy sex motives were significantly associated with heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems, whereas alcohol motives were less reliably linked to sex-related outcomes. When considered simultaneously, sex motives accounted for more variance in some alcohol outcomes relative to certain drinking motives. Cross-domain motives may be useful in predicting risky outcomes among female college students. Research implications include the importance of examining motive-behavior relations in univariate and multivariate contexts. Clinical implications include cross-domain motive assessment and use of emotion regulation strategies to reduce emotionally-motivated maladaptive alcohol- and sex-related behaviors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sandalgaard, Niels; Bukh, Per Nikolaj
In this paper we discuss the role of motivation in relation to budgeting and we analyse how the Beyond Budgeting model functions compared with traditional budgeting. In the paper we focus on budget related motivation (and motivation in general) and conclude that the Beyond Budgeting model...
Blume, Arthur W.; Lostutter, Ty W.; Schmaling, Karen B.; Marlatt, G. Alan
Cognitions about drinking, such as positive expectancies and self-efficacy, have been found to profoundly influence drinking behavior. Although the relationship of self-efficacy and positive expectancies with drinking consumption has been established, the relationship of self-efficacy and alcohol expectancies with the number of reported drinking related consequences has not been examined. One hundred thirteen participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were administered the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, the Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent, and the Losses of Significance Self-report Questionnaire-Revised. As predicted, lower self-efficacy and greater positive alcohol expectancies predicted greater recent drinking consequences beyond those accounted for by alcohol consumption alone. Greater numbers of positive alcohol expectancies also predicted greater numbers of recent important alcohol related losses. Correcting errant assumptions about alcohol expectancies and strategies designed to increase self-efficacy may reduce harmful drinking consequences even if a client is unwilling to reduce consumption. PMID:14621140
Blume, Arthur W; Lostutter, Ty W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan
Cognitions about drinking, such as positive expectancies and self-efficacy, have been found to profoundly influence drinking behavior. Although the relationship of self-efficacy and positive expectancies with drinking consumption has been established, the relationship of self-efficacy and alcohol expectancies with the number of reported drinking related consequences has not been examined. One hundred thirteen participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were administered the Situational Confidence Questionnaire, the Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, the Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent, and the Losses of Significance Self-report Questionnaire-Revised. As predicted, lower self-efficacy and greater positive alcohol expectancies predicted greater recent drinking consequences beyond those accounted for by alcohol consumption alone. Greater numbers of positive alcohol expectancies also predicted greater numbers of recent important alcohol related losses. Correcting errant assumptions about alcohol expectancies and strategies designed to increase self-efficacy may reduce harmful drinking consequences even if a client is unwilling to reduce consumption.
Tirabassi, Jill; Brou, Lina; Khodaee, Morteza; Lefort, Roxanna; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
Although rare, season- or career-ending injuries in young athletes are concerning because they can result in time lost from sport participation and school, social costs, and economic costs of medical care. To describe rates and patterns of medically disqualifying (MDQ) injuries among United States high school athletes overall and by sport, sex, type of athletic activity, and mechanism. Descriptive epidemiological study. Sports-related injury data on high school athletes were collected during the 2005-2006 through 2013-2014 academic years from a large national sample of United States high schools via High School Reporting Information Online (RIO). MDQ injuries were defined as season- or career-ending injuries. From 2005-2006 through 2013-2014, High School RIO captured 59,862 total injuries including 3599 MDQ injuries (6.0% of all injuries). Most MDQ injuries (60.4%) occurred in competition. Football had the highest injury rate (26.5 per 100,000 athlete-exposures), followed by gymnastics (18.6) and wrestling (17.9). MDQ injury rates were higher among girls in the sex-comparable sports of basketball (rate ratio [RR], 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0), cross-country (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.0-7.5), soccer (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-1.9), and track and field (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7-4.0). Player-player contact (48.2%) was the most common MDQ injury mechanism. The most commonly injured body site was the knee (33.7%). The most common MDQ injury diagnosis was sprains/strains (35.9%); the most common specific MDQ injury was knee sprains/strains (25.4%), with the anterior cruciate ligament being the most commonly injured knee structure. Among boys, fracture was the most common diagnosis in 3 sports, and sprain/strain was the most common in 6 sports. Among girls, sprain/strain was the most common diagnosis in 9 sports, and fracture was the most common only in softball. MDQ injuries vary by sport, sex, and type of athletic activity and occur most frequently as a result of player-player contact. These
Zuckerman, Scott L; Kerr, Zachary Y; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron; Wasserman, Erin; Covassin, Tracey; Solomon, Gary S
The epidemiology of sports-related concussion (SRC) among student-athletes has been extensively researched. However, recent data at the collegiate level are limited. To describe the epidemiology of SRC in 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports. Descriptive epidemiology study. SRC data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years were analyzed. Concussion injury rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% CIs. National estimates were also calculated to examine linear trends across time. During the study period, 1670 SRCs were reported, representing a national estimate of 10,560 SRCs reported annually. Among the 25 sports, the overall concussion rate was 4.47 per 10,000 athlete-exposures (AEs) (95% CI, 4.25-4.68). Overall, more SRCs occurred in competitions (53.2%). The competition rate (12.81 per 10,000 AEs) was larger than the practice rate (2.57 per 10,000 AEs) (competition vs practice, RR = 4.99; 95% CI, 4.53-5.49). Of all SRCs, 9.0% were recurrent. Most SRCs occurred from player contact (68.0%). The largest concussion rates were in men's wrestling (10.92 per 10,000 AEs; 95% CI, 8.62-13.23), men's ice hockey (7.91 per 10,000 AEs; 95% CI, 6.87-8.95), women's ice hockey (7.50 per 10,000 AEs; 95% CI, 5.91-9.10), and men's football (6.71 per 10,000 AEs; 95% CI, 6.17-7.24). However, men's football had the largest annual estimate of reported SRCs (n = 3417), followed by women's soccer (n = 1113) and women's basketball (n = 998). Among all SRCs, a linear trend did not exist in national estimates across time (P = .17). However, increases were found within specific sports, such as men's football, women's ice hockey, and men's lacrosse. The estimated number of nationally reported SRCs has increased within specific sports. However, it is unknown whether these increases are attributable to increased reporting or frequency of concussions. Many sports report more SRCs in practice
McGuine, Timothy A; Hetzel, Scott; McCrea, Michael; Brooks, M Alison
The incidence of sport-related concussion (SRC) in high school football is well documented. However, limited prospective data are available regarding how player characteristics and protective equipment affect the incidence of SRC. To determine whether the type of protective equipment (helmet and mouth guard) and player characteristics affect the incidence of SRC in high school football players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Certified athletic trainers (ATs) at each high school recorded the type of helmet worn (brand, model, purchase year, and recondition status) by each player as well as information regarding players' demographics, type of mouth guard used, and history of SRC. The ATs also recorded the incidence and days lost from participation for each SRC. Incidence of SRC was compared for various helmets, type of mouth guard, history of SRC, and player demographics. A total of 2081 players (grades 9-12) enrolled during the 2012 and/or 2013 football seasons (2287 player-seasons) and participated in 134,437 football (practice or competition) exposures. Of these players, 206 (9%) sustained a total of 211 SRCs (1.56/1000 exposures). There was no difference in the incidence of SRC (number of helmets, % SRC [95% CI]) for players wearing Riddell (1171, 9.1% [7.6%-11.0%]), Schutt (680, 8.7% [6.7%-11.1%]), or Xenith (436, 9.2% [6.7%-12.4%]) helmets. Helmet age and recondition status did not affect the incidence of SRC. The rate of SRC (hazard ratio [HR]) was higher in players who wore a custom mouth guard (HR = 1.69 [95% CI, 1.20-2.37], P football players. Players who had sustained an SRC within the previous 12 months were more likely to sustain an SRC than were players without a history of SRC. Sports medicine providers who work with high school football players need to realize that factors other than the type of protective equipment worn affect the risk of SRC in high school players. © 2014 The Author(s).
playing a role (e.g., Hasking and Oei , 2004). Military experiences may further add to this complexity. More work is needed to understand the best way...coping strategies, alcohol expectancies, drinking motives and drinking behaviour. Addictive Behaviors, 36, 479–487. Hasking, P. A., & Oei , T. (2004). The
Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan
Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Bachelor Thesis "'Motivation Programmes of Organizations" focuses on an extremely important area within personnel management. Employee motivation is crucial to the effective operation of businesses. Motivation programmes assist in increasing and maintaining employee motivation and demonstrate an organization's interest in its employees. This piece is on one hand concerned with theoretical foundations of motivation, describing theories and concepts important to the area of human behaviour ...
Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M
Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Lokken, K L; Morse, A; Boggiano, M M
The purpose of this study was to validate a new scale designed to measure individual motives for eating tasty foods and determine if any specific motive(s) are associated with obesity. The "Palatable Eating Motives Scale" (PEMS) is a self-report measure adapted from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R). N=150 racially-diverse college students (mean age: 24.4, BMI: 16-51kg/m(2)) were administered the PEMS along with the Binge-Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to test for convergent and incremental validity and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) for discriminant validity. The PEMS identified four motives for eating tasty food, the same ones found with the DMQ-R for alcohol intake: Social, Conformity, Enhancement, and Coping motives. The scales had good convergent validity with BES and YFAS scores but discriminated from the broader motivational constructs of inhibition and activation measured by the SPSRQ. Of the PEMS motives, Coping (eating tasty food to deal with problems and negative feelings) accounted for unique variance in BMI, and added to variance in BMI contributed by BES scores, showing incremental validity. YFAS scores did not contribute to BMI after controlling for binge-eating. Coping subscale scores were also significantly higher (p40). Motives behind palatable food intake are not homogenous and should be considered in personalized weight-loss strategies in future studies. In normal weight individuals, knowing one's dominant motive for eating tasty foods may help promote healthier food choices in times and places where they are most vulnerable to do otherwise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Østergaard, Jeanette; Andrade, Stefan Bastholm
also pre-drank larger quantities either because they wanted to get out of control or because they wanted to be social. Conclusions: Prevention strategies likely to be effective in reducing the alcohol quantities that young people pre-drink should take into account both socioeconomic status and motives...
Van Schagen, K.M.
The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process
... youth should not drink alcohol. Support effective community strategies to prevent binge drinking, such as those recommended by the Community Guide.* Support local control of the marketing and sale of alcohol. Support the minimum legal drinking age ...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...
Østergaard, Jeanette; Andrade, Stefan Bastholm
models were used on a survey of 628 people (aged 18–35) conducted on-site in 26 bars, clubs and pubs in four cities and towns. Results: Young males drink on average 9.8 and females 7.4 standard units of alcohol before a night out. Saving money is the most prevalent motive for pre-drinking. Although lower...... income levels cannot explain whether a young person will pre-drink on an event-specific night out, young people’s income level and their motives explain the quantities they consume. Lower-earning males who pre-drank to save money consumed larger quantities of alcohol at home and lower-earning females...
... their behaviors may get them into trouble. Health Problems Related to Alcohol The effects of long-term alcohol use on the brain may be life-long. Drinking also creates a higher risk of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. Drinking during puberty can also change hormones in ...
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
High-caffeine soft drinks have existed in the United States since at least the 1980s beginning with Jolt Cola. Energy drinks, which have caffeine as their primary "energy" component, began being marketed as a separate beverage category in the United States in 1997 with the introduction of the Austrian import Red Bull. Energy drink…
Americans have been wrestling with college drinking for so long that they've forgotten there was a time when they didn't. Prior to World War II there were a number of "crises" on American campuses--loutish behavior at football games, the introduction of the research-heavy "German Method," the corruption of coeds--but excessive college drinking was…
Roman, Harry T.
The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher; Hvidtved, Johan; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh
Motivated employees are crucial to organizations, but external interventions such as command systems and financial incentives may decrease motivation. If these external interventions are perceived to be controlling, they are expected to crowd out intrinsic motivation, and this may also apply...... to other types of autonomous motivation such as public service motivation. The perception of external interventions is thus expected to be vital. This article investigates how the perception of a specific command system (obligatory student plans) is associated with intrinsic motivation and public service...... motivation. Using a dataset with 3,230 school teachers in Denmark, a structural equation model shows that the perception of obligatory student plans as controlling is negatively associated with all of the investigated types of employee motivation, supporting that motivation crowding can occur....
Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark...... is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...
Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler
Independent of average alcohol intake, the effect of binge drinking on adverse pregnancy outcomes in humans is only sporadically reported, but most studies in humans have found little or no effect of binge drinking on several adverse pregnancy outcomes. In a representative sample of 371 pregnant...... Danish women, the agreement between two different measures of binge drinking during the first half of pregnancy obtained from interviews and questionnaires was assessed, and the frequency and pattern of binge drinking were described. The percentage of agreement between the methods ranged between 81......% and 86%. The proportion of women who reported binge drinking depended on the definition of pregnancy, but the proportion peaked in week 3 measured from the last menstrual period and thereafter declined to approximately 1 percent in week 7. On the basis of this 1998 study, it is suggested that most human...
Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Sigsgaard, Torben
is highly decentralized and fully relying on simple treated groundwater. At the same time, Denmark has an intensive agriculture, making groundwater resources prone to nitrate pollution. Drinking water quality data covering the entire country for over 35 years are registered in the public database Jupiter......Annual nationwide exposure maps for nitrate in drinking water in Denmark from the 1970s until today will be presented based on the findings in Schullehner & Hansen (2014) and additional work on addressing the issue of private well users and estimating missing data. Drinking water supply in Denmark....... In order to create annual maps of drinking water quality, these data had to be linked to 2,852 water supply areas, which were for the first time digitized, collected in one dataset and connected to the Jupiter database. Analyses of the drinking water quality maps showed that public water supplies...
Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E
Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.
Wahid, Nabsiah Abdul; Cheng, Patrick Tan Foon; Abustan, Ismail; Nee, Goh Yen
Tap water is one of the many sources of water that the public as consumers can choose for drinking. This study hypothesized that perceived quality, convenience, price and environmental attitude would determine consumers's choice of drinking water following the Attribution Theory as the underlying model. A survey was carried out on Malaysia's public at large. From 301 usable data, the PLS analysis revealed that only perceived quality, convenience and price attributed towards the public's choice of drinking water while attitude was not significant. The findings are beneficial for the water sector industry, particularly for drinking water operators, state governments, and alternative drinking water manufacturers like bottled water companies. The ability to identify factors for why consumers in the marketplace choose the source of their drinking water would enable the operators to plan and strategize tactics that can disseminate accurate knowledge about the product that can motivate marketability of drinking water in Malaysia.
Reilly, Erin E.; Dmochowski, Sasha; Schaumberg, Katherine; Earleywine, Mitch; Anderson, Drew
Objective: Exercise correlates with alcohol use, but the nature of this relation and the extent to which it is maladaptive remains unclear. Urgency and motives for engaging in drinking and exercise might indicate when these behaviors are problematic. The current study examined whether urgency moderated the association between exercise motivated by…
Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M
'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.
White, S J; Generali, J A
Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.
Lindner, James R.
Extension employees (n=23) ranked the following as the most important motivational factors: interesting work, good wages, appreciation, job security, and good working conditions. The findings were related to theories of motivation formulated by Herzberg, Adams, and Vroom. (SK)
Cohen, Debra J.
A study of five organizations examined employee motivation regarding the pretraining environment. Findings support the assumption that employees will be more motivated of supervisors are supportive and if they view attendance as voluntary. (JOW)
Daskalovska, Nina; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Ivanovska, Biljana
There are a lot of factors which influence success in learning. However, one of the most important factors is the learner’s motivation to reach the desired goals. Research and experience show that learners with strong motivation can achieve a lot regardless of circumstances. Studies of motivation in second language learning have led to several distinctions, one of which is the distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation. According to this distinction, some learners are motivat...
Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah
The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Pless, Mette; Katznelson, Noemi; Hjort-Madsen, Peder
Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen......Om hvordan de unge i udskolingen skaber lyst og motivation for læring. Med afsnit om hvad motivation er, hvordan den fremmes hos unge og kombineres med et liv udenfor skolen...
The main objective of this diploma thesis is to outline various theories of work motivation, career growth and their practical application in sales team management within a sales organization. In the theoretical part the paper deals with the definition of essential terms including but not limited to motivation, work motivation, career and work career. Moreover, it focuses on selected motivational theories, basic criteria and current principles of managing the work career, career growth and de...
Alkaabi, Sultan Ali R.; Alkaabi, Warda; Vyver, Glen
Motivation has been studied by different scientists in different fields of knowledge such as biology, psychology, and education for a long period, which has cultivated a wealth of knowledge in these disciplines. The richness in motivation theories poses complexity in motivation research. Due to these complexities, many researchers focus on using a…
Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others
Includes "How Do I Turn Your Crank to Get You Going?" (Gartin); "How Do You Say 'I Don't Know' and Not Feel Guilty?" (Dickson); "Basics of Motivation" (Rankin); "Challenge to Lead Motivates Students" (D'Haem, Krueger); "Don't Just Tell Me, Teach Me!" (Custer, Leugers); "The 'I' in Motivation" (Woody); and "Student Self Discipline Scale" (Coffman).…
Olsen, Jan Brødslev
ses som forskelle i deres personlighed og i deres motivation. Kapitlet er opbygget således, at ganske kort præciseres først de to begreber, personlighed og motivation, hvorefter udvalgte teoretiske perspektiver på personlighed og motivation tages op. Til sammen vil disse bidrage til at besvare...
Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…
Kilmer, Jason R; Cronce, Jessica M; Logan, Diane E
Alcohol use among college students is prevalent and sometimes takes the form of drinking games, in which players are required to drink in accordance with a set of pre-defined rules. Drinking games are typically associated with elevated alcohol consumption and risk to the individual. This perspective piece considers the potential role of social anxiety in motivating participation in drinking games, perceived norms surrounding drinking games (including ways they are portrayed and discussed in popular media), and the role of competitiveness. Implications for skills training-based prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.
... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...
Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.
Järvinen, Margaretha; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau
: economic, cultural, inherited and organisational. A range of variables measuring alcohol norms, drinking practices and alcohol-related problems are then inserted into the space. This article identifies status differences in the employees’ drinking patterns indicating that respondents with large amounts...... of economic, cultural and inherited capital are more responsive to alcohol-related health messages than respondents (and especially males) occupying positions low in the social space. This, however, does not mean that respondents from dominant groups have ‘safe’ drinking habits, as these are defined...... by the Danish National Health Board. Rather, this article identifies a relatively large group of high-positioned respondents balancing at the limits of risky drinking – or transgressing them, if measured by international standards....
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — SDWIS/FED is EPA's national regulatory compliance database for the drinking water program. It includes information on the nation's 160,000 public water systems and...
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...
Shealy, Abigail E.; Murphy, James G.; Borsari, Brian; Correia, Christopher J.
The current study investigated motivation and its relationship with alcohol use and life satisfaction. Participants were 49 undergraduates referred to a university-based clinic to participate in a brief alcohol intervention. All participants completed measures assessing readiness to change drinking, frequency of alcohol use and related problems, and life satisfaction. As hypothesized, higher levels of motivation to change drinking were related to higher frequency and quantity of alcohol use, alcohol-related problems, and lower levels of life satisfaction. Results indicate the importance of assessing motivation in students referred to receive alcohol interventions. PMID:17398012
This PSA is based on the October, 2010 CDC Vital Signs report which indicates that drinking too much, including binge drinking, causes more than 79,000 deaths in the U.S. each year and is the third leading preventable cause of death. Created: 10/5/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Date Released: 10/5/2010.
Fortini, C; Daeppen, J-B
At the Lausanne University, 5th year medical students were trained in Motivational interviewing (MI). Eight hours of training improved their competence in the use of this approach. This experience supports the implementation of MI training in medical schools. Motivational interviewing allows the health professional to actively involve the patient in this behavior change process (drinking, smoking, diet, exercise, medication adherence, etc.), by encouraging reflection and reinforcing personal motivation and resources.
Pedersen, Louise; Kines, Pete
Background: Motivation is one of the most important factors for safety behaviour and for implementing change in general. However, theoretical and psychometric studies of safety performance have traditionally treated safety motivation, safety compliance and safety participation unidimensionally....... At the same time many motivation questionnaire items are seldom founded on theory and/or do not account for the theories’ ontological and epistemological differences, e.g. of how knowledge, attitude and action are related. Present questionnaire items tap into occupational safety motivation in asking whether...... or not respondents ‘are’ motivated and whether they feel that safety is important or worthwhile. Another important aspect is ‘what’ motivates workers to comply to and participate in safety. The aim of this article is to introduce a new theory-based occupational safety motivation scale which is validated...
Full Text Available Public Service Motivation concept was developed in North America and focuses on specific motivations of public servants, such as employee satisfaction, organizational commitment, reward preferences, organizational and individual performance. Other types of motivation, as financial consideration, are relevant but have less important influences with regard to this kind of work outcomes. This strengthen the assertion for a diversified motivational strategy, which affect various types of motivation, while not losing sight of the public value that one organization shows and therefore valuing public service motivation as a specific contribution to work outcomes. The concept has been increasingly applied in European public administration. This paper presents Status Quo of international Public Service Motivation research and locates in them empirical evidences from contries that are already working with this concept, like Austria. It also analyses implications for central questions of public management. The main focus of this article is general appropriateness and possible applications for Romanian public management research.
Toode, Kristi; Routasalo, Pirkko; Helminen, Mika; Suominen, Tarja
The knowledge surrounding nurses' work motivation is currently insufficient, and previous studies have rarely taken into account the role of many influential background factors. This study investigates the motivation of Estonian nurses in hospitals, and how individual and organisational background factors influence their motivation to work. The study is quantitative and cross-sectional. An electronically self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. The sample comprised of 201 Registered Nurses working in various hospital settings in Estonia. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, two-sample Wilcoxon rank-sum (Mann-Whitney) test, Kruskal-Wallis equality-of-populations rank test and Spearman's correlation. Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations were noted among hospital nurses. Nurses were moderately externally motivated (M = 3.63, SD = 0.89) and intrinsically strongly motivated (M = 4.98, SD = 1.03). A nurses' age and the duration of service were positively correlated with one particular area of extrinsic work motivation, namely introjected regulation (p motivation (p = 0.016) and intrinsic work motivation (p = 0.004). The findings expand current knowledge of nurses' work motivation by describing the amount and orientation of work motivation among hospital nurses and highlighting background factors which should be taken into account in order to sustain and increase their intrinsic work motivation. The instrument used in the study can be an effective tool for nurse managers to determine a nurse's reasons to work and to choose a proper motivational strategy. Further research and testing of the instrument in different countries and in different contexts of nursing is however required. © 2014 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: How to motivate employees and keep them motivated? Purpose: The purpose of this study is to find out what motivates employees and what motivates employees for work. Method: The results of the questionnaire are graphically presented and described. Random sampling was utilized that included participants from various professional areas and demographic characteristics. The results showed a relationship between individual motivational factors related to education, age and type of employment. All of the questions were closed - type questions except for the last question, which was an open question, in which the respondents answered in their own words. Questions were analyzed using frequency analysis of individual responses. Pearson's Chi - squared test, Spearman's rank correlation and Fisher’s Exact test was made using R Commander. Results: The research findings showed which motivational factors motivate employees the most. These are especially non - material motivational factors, such as good relationships, jobs with challenges, advancement opportunities, clear instructions, good work conditions, company reputation, etc. Organization: The study will help managers understand their role in motivating employees as well as the types of motivational factors. Society: The research shows how individuals are motivated. Originality: Certain motivators in the study are ranked differently than was found in previous literature. Most probably the reason is that the respondents in this study favored intangible motivators (good relations with leadership and their colleagues, good working conditions, etc.. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was that the sample included employees of different ages, gender and years of service in various organizations. To enhance the study and to find similar results as in previous literature, more questions should have been asked as well as increasing the sample size.
Robinson, Nicole; Kavanagh, David; Connor, Jason; May, Jon; Andrade, Jackie
The Elaborated Intrusion Theory of Desire holds that desires for functional and dysfunctional goals share a common form. Both are embodied cognitive events, characterised by affective intensity and frequency. Accordingly, we developed scales to measure motivational cognitions for functional goals (Motivational Thought Frequency, MTF; State Motivation, SM), based on the existing Craving Experience Questionnaire (CEQ). When applied to increasing exercise, MTF and SM showed the same three-factor structure as the CEQ (Intensity, Imagery, Availability). The current study tested the internal structure and concurrent validity of the MTF and SM Scales when applied to control of alcohol consumption (MTF-A; SM-A). Participants (N=417) were adult tertiary students, staff or community members who had recently engaged in high-risk drinking or were currently trying to control alcohol consumption. They completed an online survey comprising the MTF-A, SM-A, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ) and demographics. Confirmatory Factor Analysis gave acceptable fit for the MTF-A, but required the loss of one SM-A item, and was improved by intercorrelations of error terms. Higher scores were associated with more severe problems on the AUDIT and with higher Contemplation and Action scores on the RCQ. The MTF-A and SM-A show potential as measures of motivation to control drinking. Future research will examine their predictive validity and sensitivity to change. The scales' application to both increasing functional and decreasing dysfunctional behaviours is consistent with EI Theory's contention that both goal types operate in similar ways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The subject matter of this research; employee motivation and performance seeks to look at how best employees can be motivated in order to achieve high performance within a company or organization. Managers and entrepreneurs must ensure that companies or organizations have a competent personnel that is capable to handle this task. This takes us to the problem question of this research “why is not a sufficient motivation for high performance?” This therefore establishes the fact that money is f...
called ” intrinsic motivation ”) relates to having positive experiences that give pleasure, support growth, and satisfy needs. The sources for healthy...worth the effort for all parties. Intrinsic motivation and engagement at work are related to another often discussed, and often misunderstood...one’s values. However, similar to awareness of factors related to intrinsic motivation , the identification of individual values can be a major
Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai Juul
We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared...... representations of actions and tasks; cognitively coordinate cooperation; and choose their own behaviors in terms of joint goals. Using goal-framing theory, we explain how motivation for joint production can be managed by cognitive/symbolic management and organizational design....
The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...
McLean, S; Wood, L J; Montgomery, I M; Davidson, J; Jones, M E
This study reports on an intervention programme to promote responsible drinking in hotels. The licensees of eight hotels agreed to participate in a trial of measures designed to assist patrons to avoid drink-driving, and seven other hotels were used as controls. The interventions acceptable to licensees comprised commercial-quality promotional material with the theme "0.05 Know Your Limits", and a breath analysis machine and poster on its use. Patrons leaving the hotels on Thursday, Friday and Saturday nights were interviewed and breath-tested. Although the intervention material had been seen by one-third of patrons in the intervention hotels, there was no significant difference between them and control hotel patrons in either median BAC or the proportion who were going to drive with BAC over the legal limit. There was poor compliance by hotels with the intervention procedures, indicating that a major impediment to the implementation and evaluation of programmes to promote responsible drinking is a lack of motivation by many licensees, despite support by some licensees and the Australian Hotels Association.
Manrique, Clara Inés
Full Text Available Energy caffeinated beverages are composed mainly of caffeine, carbohydrates and dietary supplements. Although manufacturers claim that these drinks are safe and many consumers perceive that also, there is concern about the possibility that adverse events may occur with their consumption. This led us to review the literature with emphasis on the cardiovascular and neurological risks. It was found that the major health complaints (headache, sleep disorders, irritation and fatigue were more frequent in consumers than in non-consumers. Emergency room visits motivated by the use of energy drinks were more frequent when there was co-ingestion of ethanol and other drugs. The main cause of cardiovascular emergency consultation was arrhythmia and the neurological one, seizure. The evidence found was of poor quality, which prevented establishing a causal link between the consumption of these drinks and such risks. On the other hand, interpretation of the toxicity of these preparations is complicated because several variables should considered such as dose, individual sensibility, consumption habits, smoking, and co-ingestion of other substances, etc., in order to assess their real risk. Despite this, concomitant consumption of these beverages and ethanol seems to be a risk factor for toxicity.
Lindgren, K.P.; Neighbors, C.; Teachman, B.A.; Baldwin, S.A.; Norris, J.; Kaysen, D.; Gasser, M.L.; Wiers, R.W.
OBJECTIVE: There is considerable excitement about implicit alcohol associations (IAAs) as predictors of college-student hazardous drinking; however, few studies have investigated IAAs prospectively, included multiple assessments, or controlled for previous drinking. Doing so is essential for showing
Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher
Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...
Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Ching-Yi; Lan, Yu-Ching
Background : This study aimed to investigate the consumption of energy drinks and associated factors among undergraduate students in Taiwan. Methods : Data came from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015. Eligible participants completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing use and perceptions of energy drinks, tobacco, alcohol, and betel nut. Results : Among 606 surveyed undergraduate students, 24.8% reported consuming energy drinks in the past 30 days. The major reasons for use included keeping alert at work (48.7%), being curious about the products (32.0%), enjoying the flavor (31.3%), or preparing for school exams (26.7%). Among energy drink users, half have never read the nutrition label, and 15.3% reported that they had ever mixed energy drinks with alcohol. Most participants showed negative attitudes toward using tobacco, alcohol, or betel nut, while 54.1% reported positive attitudes toward consuming energy drinks. Being male, living away from parents' home, tobacco use, alcohol use, and positive perceptions of energy drink's effects significantly predicted energy drink consumption. Conclusions : In addition to exploring motivations of energy drink consumption in undergraduate students in Taiwan, the study findings indicated that energy drink consumption might relate to the use of tobacco and alcohol, which should be taken into account in substance use prevention programs.
Militana, Adam R; Donahue, Manus J; Sills, Allen K; Solomon, Gary S; Gregory, Andrew J; Strother, Megan K; Morgan, Victoria L
The goal of this pilot study is to use complementary MRI strategies to quantify and relate cerebrovascular reactivity, resting cerebral blood flow and functional connectivity alterations in the first week following sports concussion in college varsity athletes. Seven college athletes (3F/4M, age = 19.7 ± 1.2 years) were imaged 3-6 days following a diagnosed sports related concussion and compared to eleven healthy controls with no history of concussion (5M/6F, 18-23 years, 7 athletes). Cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity were measured using functional MRI during a hypercapnia challenge and via resting-state regional partial correlations, respectively. Resting cerebral blood flow was quantified using arterial spin labeling MRI methods. Group comparisons were made within and between 18 regions of interest. Cerebrovascular reactivity was increased after concussion when averaged across all regions of interest (p = 0.04), and within some default-mode network regions, the anterior cingulate and the right thalamus (p concussed athletes within the default-mode network including the left and right hippocampus, precuneus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (p concussed athletes. Significant resting cerebral blood flow changes were not detected between the two groups. This study provides evidence for increased cerebrovascular reactivity and functional connectivity in the medial regions of the default-mode network within days of a single sports related concussion in college athletes. Our findings emphasize the utility of complementary cerebrovascular measures in the interpretation of alterations in functional connectivity following concussion.