Full Text Available The slope simulation method of the spiral mechanism, the rubbing transmission, the resistance simulation method of magnetic particle brake loading on the rear wheel is proposed by anglicizing the road sports conditions and resistance of the actual cycling. the structure design, loading design and control design of the road sports condition simulator is designed. the structure of putting the motor forward and forcing the big sprocket rotation through the chain transmission, and the method of the frequency converter regulates the rotational speed of the motor within the range of certain frequency, PLC programming the rotation rules is adopted. The complete device is applied to athletes sports training of the national bicycle team at ordinary times after debugging successfully.
Practitioners of martial arts have long seen a need for a precise method of measuring the power of a karate kick or a boxer's punch in training and competition. Impax sensor is a piezoelectric film less than one thousandth of an inch thick, yet extremely durable. They give out a voltage impulse when struck, the greater the force of impact, the higher the voltage. The impulse is transmitted to a compact electronics package where voltage is translated into a force-pounds reading shown on a digital display. Impax, manufactured by Impulse Technology, Inc. is used by martial arts instructors, practitioners, U.S. Olympic Committee Training Center, football blocking sleds, and boxers as well as police defensive tactics, providing a means of evaluating the performance of recruits.
Li, Ryan T; Kling, Scott R; Salata, Michael J; Cupp, Sean A; Sheehan, Joseph; Voos, James E
Wearable performance devices and sensors are becoming more readily available to the general population and athletic teams. Advances in technology have allowed individual endurance athletes, sports teams, and physicians to monitor functional movements, workloads, and biometric markers to maximize performance and minimize injury. Movement sensors include pedometers, accelerometers/gyroscopes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Physiologic sensors include heart rate monitors, sleep monitors, temperature sensors, and integrated sensors. The purpose of this review is to familiarize health care professionals and team physicians with the various available types of wearable sensors, discuss their current utilization, and present future applications in sports medicine. Data were obtained from peer-reviewed literature through a search of the PubMed database. Included studies searched development, outcomes, and validation of wearable performance devices such as GPS, accelerometers, and physiologic monitors in sports. Clinical review. Level 4. Wearable sensors provide a method of monitoring real-time physiologic and movement parameters during training and competitive sports. These parameters can be used to detect position-specific patterns in movement, design more efficient sports-specific training programs for performance optimization, and screen for potential causes of injury. More recent advances in movement sensors have improved accuracy in detecting high-acceleration movements during competitive sports. Wearable devices are valuable instruments for the improvement of sports performance. Evidence for use of these devices in professional sports is still limited. Future developments are needed to establish training protocols using data from wearable devices. © 2015 The Author(s).
Practical Pointers, 1978
The article examines weight lifting training procedures for persons involved in wheelchair sports. Popular myths about weight training are countered, and guidelines for a safe and sound weight or resistance training program are given. Diagrams and descriptions follow for specific weightlifting activities: regular or standing press, military press,…
Lambert, Michael Ian; Borresen, Jill
The principle of training can be reduced to a simple "dose-response" relationship. The "response" in this relationship can be measured as a change in performance or the adaptation of a physiological system. The "dose" of training, or physiological stress associated with the training load, is more difficult to measure as there is no absolute "gold standard" which can be used in the field, making it difficult to validate procedures. Attempts have been made to use heart rate as a marker of intensity during training, but the theoretical attractiveness of this method is not supported by the accuracy and the practicality of using this method during training or competition. The session RPE, based on the product of training duration and perceived intensity is more practical and can be used in a variety of sports. However, the score depends on a subjective assessment, and the intersubject comparisons may be inaccurate. The demands of different sports vary and therefore the methods of assessing training need to vary accordingly. The time has come to reach consensus on assessing training accurately in different sports. There is a precedent for this consensus approach with scientists having already done so for the assessment of physical activity, and for defining injuries in rugby, football and cricket. Standardizing these methods has resulted in the quality of research in these areas increasing exponentially.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...
Li, Ryan T.; Kling, Scott R.; Salata, Michael J.; Cupp, Sean A.; Sheehan, Joseph; Voos, James E.
Context: Wearable performance devices and sensors are becoming more readily available to the general population and athletic teams. Advances in technology have allowed individual endurance athletes, sports teams, and physicians to monitor functional movements, workloads, and biometric markers to maximize performance and minimize injury. Movement sensors include pedometers, accelerometers/gyroscopes, and global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Physiologic sensors include heart rate monitor...
Hammermeister, Jon; VonGuenthner, Shannon
An optimal psychologic state for peak athletic performance is strongly documented in the sport psychology literature. A wealth of peer-reviewed studies also strongly supports the role that mental skills training (MST) plays in the development of this state. However, some disagreement exists in the sport psychology community over how best to deliver the MST tools and skills necessary for optimal sport performance. Mental training consultants and intervention researchers have recently suggested that periodization of mental training may be the next major leap forward in applied sport psychology program delivery. This new method of "training the mind" is presented and discussed.
Mujika, Iñigo; Stellingwerff, Trent; Tipton, Kevin
The adaptive response to training is determined by the combination of the intensity, volume, and frequency of the training. Various periodized approaches to training are used by aquatic sports athletes to achieve performance peaks. Nutritional support to optimize training adaptations should take periodization into consideration; that is, nutrition should also be periodized to optimally support training and facilitate adaptations. Moreover, other aspects of training (e.g., overload training, tapering and detraining) should be considered when making nutrition recommendations for aquatic athletes. There is evidence, albeit not in aquatic sports, that restricting carbohydrate availability may enhance some training adaptations. More research needs to be performed, particularly in aquatic sports, to determine the optimal strategy for periodizing carbohydrate intake to optimize adaptations. Protein nutrition is an important consideration for optimal training adaptations. Factors other than the total amount of daily protein intake should be considered. For instance, the type of protein, timing and pattern of protein intake and the amount of protein ingested at any one time influence the metabolic response to protein ingestion. Body mass and composition are important for aquatic sport athletes in relation to power-to-mass and for aesthetic reasons. Protein may be particularly important for athletes desiring to maintain muscle while losing body mass. Nutritional supplements, such as b-alanine and sodium bicarbonate, may have particular usefulness for aquatic athletes' training adaptation.
Theoretical training is an important factor in terms of sports development of scientific research, specific to combat sports for achieving specific performance objectives set. Theoretical knowledge is theoretical science which the trainer teaches the lesson of training for understanding and integrating sporting content in sporting life. Thought the theoretical preparation, the athlete acknowledges the educational value of sports training. Theoretical preparation includes a rich content issues...
Pilot training effectiveness and flying safety of a seasonal tour flight company are described. The change from single pilot to two pilot operated twin otters is examined. The use of the ATC 810 training device, its possibilities and training capacity is outlined. Problem areas which may arise, emergency system and pilot/passenger interaction are analyzed.
Vladimir Medina Vaillant
Full Text Available The sport training is a process that, by means of the physical exercise, tends to reach a more or less high level according to the proposed objectives, causing a modification of the physical, motor, cognitive and affective state on the athletes with the aim to obtain competitive results. It can also be defined as the main form of putting into practice the sportsman's preparation, being the most important features the fact that it represents an organized didactic process which is characterized by the rigorous use of all teaching, education and selfeducacion process factors, as well as a methodological system of the physical exercises that constitutes the base of the sport training with the purpose of achieving the biggest effect in the development, whenever it is possible to direct the process of sport improvement fully. The personality is a concrete person in all his/her social and psychological particularities diversity; it is the subject of the social activity and of the social relationships. One of the most characteristic aspects in the human personality is his/her individuality, understanding it as a group, only in his/her gender, with psychological particularities that makes each individual different from the other ones, in relation with the character, the temperament, the peculiarities to reflect the psychic processes, the group of feelings and reasons for the activity. The understanding and the consideration of the individual particularities have a great importance in the sportsman's practical life during the training. Starting from the inadequacies detected in the trainings and competitions connected with the athletes’ preparation, assimilation and application of the received knowledge, we propose the present material about personalized training, like tool for trainers´ development in order to achieve the sportsman's more complete preparation, taking into account the contemporary training direction. There were used investigative
Mental training is the major training method of the competitive sports and the main factor of athletes skill and tactics level.By combining the psychological factor with the current competitive sports characteristics, this paper presents the function of mental training forward athletes, and how to improve the comprehensive psychological quality by using mental training.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of three different approaches to improving sports performance through improvements in “sports vision:” (1) a visual skills training programme, (2) traditional vision coaching sessions, and (3) a multi-disciplinary approach identified as sports vision dynamics.
Jones, Jeffery A., Ed.
This official training manual of the United States Cerebral Palsy Athletic Association includes the latest coaching and training techniques specific to all sports in the national program. The book features guidelines for coaching over a dozen sports, including soccer, swimming, cycling, and track and field. It contains everything coaches,…
Vales-Alonso, Javier; López-Matencio, Pablo; Gonzalez-Castaño, Francisco J; Navarro-Hellín, Honorio; Baños-Guirao, Pedro J; Pérez-Martínez, Francisco J; Martínez-Álvarez, Rafael P; González-Jiménez, Daniel; Gil-Castiñeira, Felipe; Duro-Fernández, Richard
Several research programs are tackling the use of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) at specific fields, such as e-Health, e-Inclusion or e-Sport. This is the case of the project "Ambient Intelligence Systems Support for Athletes with Specific Profiles", which intends to assist athletes in their training. In this paper, the main developments and outcomes from this project are described. The architecture of the system comprises a WSN deployed in the training area which provides communication with athletes' mobile equipments, performs location tasks, and harvests environmental data (wind speed, temperature, etc.). Athletes are equipped with a monitoring unit which obtains data from their training (pulse, speed, etc.). Besides, a decision engine combines these real-time data together with static information about the training field, and from the athlete, to direct athletes' training to fulfill some specific goal. A prototype is presented in this work for a cross country running scenario, where the objective is to maintain the heart rate (HR) of the runner in a target range. For each track, the environmental conditions (temperature of the next track), the current athlete condition (HR), and the intrinsic difficulty of the track (slopes) influence the performance of the athlete. The decision engine, implemented by means of (m, s)-splines interpolation, estimates the future HR and selects the best track in each fork of the circuit. This method achieves a success ratio in the order of 80%. Indeed, results demonstrate that if environmental information is not take into account to derive training orders, the success ratio is reduced notably.
Full Text Available Purpose: to justify theoretically the need for musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical supervision. Results: the main directions of musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports were reviewed. It was discovered that in these types of sports coaches must have specific musical and rhythmic motor skills involving the use of musical accompaniment as a methodological technique for training sessions. The means of music and rhythmic education, which facilitate effective musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports, were determined. Conclusions: the necessity of improving the teaching methods of the subject "music and rhythmic education" as part of the musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports, was theoretically justified.
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.
Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup; Grønbæk, Kaj; Ludvigsen, Martin
The paper introduces a novel pervasive computing based training concept aimed at elite sports. The concept goes beyond interactive sports equipments that are either individual or multiuser with a common display requiring participant's focus. These types of equipments are unable to support...... the kinesthetic empathic elements inherently present within open sports. To put focus on collective training, we draw inspiration from Kinesthetic Empathy Interaction in designing the collective training equipment, TacTowers. The TacTowers prototype is aimed at supporting athletes, particularly team handball...... element in the interaction, specific to the sport. We present and discuss results of tests with two elite handball teams. We see prospects for applying the concept for entertaining movement-stimulating games at schools or leisure sports environments....
Tanji, Jeffrey L.
Describes the development of a hands-on sports medicine training program for residents at the University of California, Davis, Medical Center. Education strategies include clinical teaching, on-the-field education, experiential learning, and didactic instruction. Programs focusing exclusively on sports medicine are needed because the number of…
Erik Chih-Hung Chang
Conclusion: These findings indicate that the mode of sport training, which results in either high cardiovascular or high motor fitness, bears no relationship to measures of general cognition in elite athletes. The present findings suggest that coaches and athletic trainers should be encouraged to monitor athletes' stress levels during training in order to maximize the beneficial effects of such training on general cognitive performance.
Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Grønbæk, Kaj
and reflected upon. Based on the experiences gained from the design and development process, as well as examples from the existing field and skill acquisition theory, we present three areas of interest to consider for interactive sport-training game designers: Context Characteristics, Movement Patterns...... and Perceptual Reaction. From a discussion of these areas, we derive eight design sensitivities that emphasize issues, challenges and opportunities, important for the design, development and analysis of interactive sport-training games in general....
Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J
Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.
Brenner, Joel S
Sports specialization is becoming the norm in youth sports for a variety of reasons. When sports specialization occurs too early, detrimental effects may occur, both physically and psychologically. If the timing is correct and sports specialization is performed under the correct conditions, the athlete may be successful in reaching specific goals. Young athletes who train intensively, whether specialized or not, can also be at risk of adverse effects on the mind and body. The purpose of this clinical report is to assist pediatricians in counseling their young athlete patients and their parents regarding sports specialization and intensive training. This report supports the American Academy of Pediatrics clinical report "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hadlow, Stephen Mark; Panchuk, Derek; Mann, David Lindsay; Portus, Marc Ronald; Abernethy, Bruce
To overview a framework that provides a theoretically-grounded approach to predicting the types of modified perceptual training tasks that will stimulate transfer of improved perceptual skills to sport performance environments. Modified perceptual training (MPT) collectively describes on- or off-field sports training tasks that are specifically designed to develop visual and perceptual-cognitive skill. Traditional training approaches in sport include sports vision training and perceptual-cognitive training, while recently, new technologies have enabled a broad range of additional MPT tools to become available to coaches and athletes. Short literature review and opinion article. Literature in the fields of sports vision training and perceptual-cognitive training are summarised and contrasted. A selection of emerging MPT technologies are then overviewed. This leads to the identification of three interacting factors of MPT task design that may influence the task's capacity to transfer improved training performance to actual competition: (i) the targeted perceptual function, (ii) stimulus correspondence, and (iii) response correspondence, which are assimilated with key tenets of representative learning design. These three theoretically-grounded differences are adopted to support and justify the structure of the Modified Perceptual Training Framework which sets out predictions for future research to test in order to clarify the transfer effect of MPT tools. The application of the Modified Perceptual Training Framework may assist in future testing, design and selection of beneficial training tools in sport and as such, is predicted to have significant impact in empirical and practical settings. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nitta, Naoko; Babaguchi, Noboru
Video summarization is defined as creating a video summary which includes only important scenes in the original video streams. In order to realize automatic video summarization, the significance of each scene needs to be determined. When targeted especially on broadcast sports videos, a play scene, which corresponds to a play, can be considered as a scene unit. The significance of every play scene can generally be determined based on the importance of the play in the game. Furthermore, the following two issues should be considered: 1) what is important depends on each user's preferences, and 2) the summaries should be tailored for media devices that each user has. Considering the above issues, this paper proposes a unified framework for user and device adaptation in summarizing broadcast sports videos. The proposed framework summarizes sports videos by selecting play scenes based on not only the importance of each play itself but also the users' preferences by using the metadata, which describes the semantic content of videos with keywords, and user profiles, which describe users' preference degrees for the keywords. The selected scenes are then presented in a proper way using various types of media such as video, image, or text according to device profiles which describe the device type. We experimentally verified the effectiveness of user adaptation by examining how the generated summaries are changed by different preference degrees and by comparing our results with/without using user profiles. The validity of device adaptation is also evaluated by conducting questionnaires using PCs and mobile phones as the media devices.
Capranica, Laura; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L
A prevailing theory (and practical application) is that elite performance requires early childhood skill development and training across various domains, including sport. Debate continues whether children specializing early (ie, training/competition in a single sport) have true advantage compared with those who sample various sports early and specialize in a single sport later (adolescence). Retrospective data and case studies suggest either model yields elite status depending upon the sport category (ie, situational: ball games, martial arts, fencing; quantitative: track and field, swimming, skiing; or qualitative: gymnastics, diving, figure skating). However, potential risks of early specialization include greater attrition and adverse physical/emotional health outcomes. With the advent of the IOC Youth Olympic Games, increased emphasis on global youth competition has unknown implications but also represents a potential platform for investigation. Modification of youth competition formats should be based upon multidisciplinary research on psychophysiological responses, and technical-tactical behaviors during competition. The assumption that a simple scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of technical/tactical skills of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Relatively little evidence exists regarding the long-term effects of rigorous training and competitive schedules on children in specific sports. It is clear that more prospective studies are needed to understand the training dose that optimally develops adaptations in youth without inducing dropout, overtraining syndrome, and/or injury. Such an approach should be sport specific as well as gender based. Until such evidence exists, coaches and sport administrators will continue to rely upon their sport-specific dogma to influence programmatic development of our most vulnerable population.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Together with the increase of importance of sport as a social phenomenon importance of optimizing the system of sports training of talented athletes is growing. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to obtain information on the activities of coaches, training process, and conditions under which they are realized in volleyball youth sports centers in the Czech Republic (SpS. METHODS: We have created a survey focused on six topical areas of sports training in volleyball. This paper deals with the analysis of areas "Coaches and their activities" and "training process". The questionnaire was sent to 18 coaches of male teams incorporated to SpS, 18 coaches responded (response rate 100%. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant relationship (rpb = 0.41; p < 0.05 between long-term performance and competences of coaches. The research shows that activity in particular SpS in most areas is consistent with current knowledge and trends in youth training. Reserves exist primarily in the number of coaches working with individual teams (in 13 cases only 1 coach and in regeneration. In some SpS a unified training strategy is missing and training process is not properly structured. CONCLUSIONS: The study allowed partial evaluation of conditions, quality and content of the training process in the SPS. The acquired knowledge can contribute to the improvement of SpS functioning.
齋藤, 実; 小澤, 聡
Sports training camp is carried out for player reinforcement frequently in a high school.Recently, Importance of sports medicine and training science were pointed out, and itincreased that the trainer which supported sports medicine and training science took atraining camp along. On the other hand, introduction of sports medicine and training science is late in Kendo because its training is executed mainly on a Japanese traditional lesson method. In the physical education union of a high scho...
Clark, Joseph F; Colosimo, Angelo; Ellis, James K; Mangine, Robert; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Hasselfeld, Kimberly; Graman, Patricia; Elgendy, Hagar; Myer, Gregory; Divine, Jon
There is emerging evidence supporting the use vision training, including light board training tools, as a concussion baseline and neuro-diagnostic tool and potentially as a supportive component to concussion prevention strategies. This paper is focused on providing detailed methods for select vision training tools and reporting normative data for comparison when vision training is a part of a sports management program. The overall program includes standard vision training methods including tachistoscope, Brock's string, and strobe glasses, as well as specialized light board training algorithms. Stereopsis is measured as a means to monitor vision training affects. In addition, quantitative results for vision training methods as well as baseline and post-testing *A and Reaction Test measures with progressive scores are reported. Collegiate athletes consistently improve after six weeks of training in their stereopsis, *A and Reaction Test scores. When vision training is initiated as a team wide exercise, the incidence of concussion decreases in players who participate in training compared to players who do not receive the vision training. Vision training produces functional and performance changes that, when monitored, can be used to assess the success of the vision training and can be initiated as part of a sports medical intervention for concussion prevention.
Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J
The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.
Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob
There is limited information regarding the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement during team sports. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and intra-model reliability of different GPS devices for quantifying high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance. Two moderately trained males each completed eight bouts of a standard circuit that consisted of six laps around a 128.5-m course involving intermittent exercise. Distance and speed were collected concurrently at 1-Hz using six GPS devices (2 SPI-10, 2 SPI Elite and 2 WiSPI, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). Performance measures were: (1) total distance covered for each bout and each lap; (2) high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km h(-1), HIR); very high-intensity running distance (>20 km h(-1), VHIR) during each bout. Peak speed was also measured during a 20-m sprint at the start of each lap of the circuit (N=192). Actual distance was measured using a measuring tape. Mean (+/-SD) circuit total distance was significantly different between each of the GPS devices (PGPS devices. These results show that the GPS devices have an acceptable level of accuracy and reliability for total distance and peak speeds during high-intensity, intermittent exercise, but may not be provide reliable measures for higher intensity activities. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malone, James J; Lovell, Ric; Varley, Matthew C; Coutts, Aaron J
Athlete-tracking devices that include global positioning system (GPS) and microelectrical mechanical system (MEMS) components are now commonplace in sport research and practice. These devices provide large amounts of data that are used to inform decision making on athlete training and performance. However, the data obtained from these devices are often provided without clear explanation of how these metrics are obtained. At present, there is no clear consensus regarding how these data should be handled and reported in a sport context. Therefore, the aim of this review was to examine the factors that affect the data produced by these athlete-tracking devices and to provide guidelines for collecting, processing, and reporting of data. Many factors including device sampling rate, positioning and fitting of devices, satellite signal, and data-filtering methods can affect the measures obtained from GPS and MEMS devices. Therefore researchers are encouraged to report device brand/model, sampling frequency, number of satellites, horizontal dilution of precision, and software/firmware versions in any published research. In addition, details of inclusion/exclusion criteria for data obtained from these devices are also recommended. Considerations for the application of speed zones to evaluate the magnitude and distribution of different locomotor activities recorded by GPS are also presented, alongside recommendations for both industry practice and future research directions. Through a standard approach to data collection and procedure reporting, researchers and practitioners will be able to make more confident comparisons from their data, which will improve the understanding and impact these devices can have on athlete performance.
Full Text Available Over the past years, the role of physical education and sports in youth health improvement has deteriorated, the public status of physical training for purposes of health improvement and promotion has fallen. The article outlines the results of a study of attitudes to physical education and sports among 310 senior grades in secondary schools of the town of Zhukovsky in Moscow region under the program of research into health-saving behaviours in adolescents. Along with a low sports activity most adolescents of both sexes do not do morning exercises at all. At the same time, their overall motor performance is also at a very low level. The sedentary life style becomes a dominant feature in the development of younger generation.Key words: adolescents, attitude to sports, motor performance.
Keogh, Justin W L; Winwood, Paul W
Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes. These sports may be considered dangerous because of the heavy loads commonly used in training and competition. Our objective was to systematically review the injury epidemiology of these weight-training sports, and, where possible, gain some insight into whether this may be affected by age, sex, competitive standard, and bodyweight class. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Embase for injury epidemiology studies involving competitive athletes in these weight-training sports. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed journal articles only, with no limit placed on date or language of publication. We assessed the risk of bias in all studies using an adaption of the musculoskeletal injury review method. Only five of the 20 eligible studies had a risk of bias score ≥75 %, meaning the risk of bias in these five studies was considered low. While 14 of the studies had sample sizes >100 participants, only four studies utilized a prospective design. Bodybuilding had the lowest injury rates (0.12-0.7 injuries per lifter per year; 0.24-1 injury per 1000 h), with strongman (4.5-6.1 injuries per 1000 h) and Highland Games (7.5 injuries per 1000 h) reporting the highest rates. The shoulder, lower back, knee, elbow, and wrist/hand were generally the most commonly injured anatomical locations; strains, tendinitis, and sprains were the most common injury type. Very few significant differences in any of the injury outcomes were observed as a function of age, sex, competitive standard, or bodyweight class. While the majority of the research we reviewed utilized retrospective designs, the weight-training sports appear to have relatively low rates of injury compared with common team
Young, Warren B
The purposes of this review are to identify the factors that contribute to the transference of strength and power training to sports performance and to provide resistance-training guidelines. Using sprinting performance as an example, exercises involving bilateral contractions of the leg muscles resulting in vertical movement, such as squats and jump squats, have minimal transfer to performance. However, plyometric training, including unilateral exercises and horizontal movement of the whole body, elicits significant increases in sprint acceleration performance, thus highlighting the importance of movement pattern and contraction velocity specificity. Relatively large gains in power output in nonspecific movements (intramuscular coordination) can be accompanied by small changes in sprint performance. Research on neural adaptations to resistance training indicates that intermuscular coordination is an important component in achieving transfer to sports skills. Although the specificity of resistance training is important, general strength training is potentially useful for the purposes of increasing body mass, decreasing the risk of soft-tissue injuries, and developing core stability. Hypertrophy and general power exercises can enhance sports performance, but optimal transfer from training also requires a specific exercise program.
Full Text Available In a group of 11 sport horses, the effect of the traianig process, inclunding training and resting periods, on the metabolic profile. Training proces was divided into four part: I. End of the sport season, II. End of the resting period, III. End of the quantitative training charged and IV. End of the qualitative training charged. The level glucose in the blood serum of the observed horses was stated within the reference limits, with the tendency towards the inncreased values in the 2-st and 4-st period (4,34 – 5,03 mmol.l-1. The average values global lipid and cholesterol was stated whitin the reference limits.
Influence of two sports vision training techniques on visual skills performance of university students. P.J. du Toit, A.J. Van Rensburg, D.C. Janse Van Rensburg, C.C. Grant, A.F. Mahomed, E Nortje, P.E. Krüger, P Wood, A Stander, J Ferreira, L Fletcher, M Kleynhans, N Coetzee ...
Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Demerdzieva, Aneta
The use of peripheral biofeedback and neurofeedback is growing rapidly in sport psychology. The aim is to lower competition stress, anxiety, and muscle tension.We present a case report concerned to biofeedback training in an athlete in preparation to Olympic Game competition. It is the first case in our region to prepare athlete with biofeedback modalities. Obtained results are very encouraging.
risto Novatchkov; Arnold Baca
The overall goal of the present study was to illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in sports on the example of weight training. The research focused in particular on the implementation of pattern recognition methods for the evaluation of performed exercises on training machines. The data acquisition was carried out using way and cable force sensors attached to various weight machines, thereby enabling the measurement of essential displacement and force determinan...
von Duvillard, Serge P; Arciero, Paul J; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Alford, Ken
A plethora of investigations examining fluid intake before, during, and after training and competition have suggested that a lack of adequate fluid intake will impair or decrease physical performance. Depending upon the type of training or competition, individuals training for prolonged endurance events should drink fluids containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during and after training or competition. Inadequate hydration will cause significant decrements in performance, increase thermal stress, reduce plasma volume, accelerate fatigue, and possibly cause injuries associated with fluid and sweat loss. However, overdrinking may cause Na+ depletion and in some cases lead to hyponatremia. Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.
Chen, Yi-Liang; Liu, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Harris, Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua
Exercise is recommended as a lifestyle intervention in preventing hypertension based on epidemiological findings. However, previous intervention studies have presented mixed results. This discrepancy could be associated with shortcomings related to sample sizes or the inclusion of normotensive participants. The aim of this prospective cohort study (N = 463) was to compare the chronic effect of increasing sports training time on resting blood pressure for normotensives and hypertensives. We assessed systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for 69 untreated hypertensive patients (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg) and 394 normotensive controls (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years) before training and at follow-up visits at 12 months. All participants enrolled in various sports training lessons for 8 hours a week. The baseline BMI and HOMA-IR in the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those in the control group. For the normotensive control group, no significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed after training. However, for the hypertensives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after training by approximately 15 mmHg and approximately 4 mmHg, respectively, and HOMA-IR was reduced by approximately 25%. In conclusion, the effect of sports training to lower blood pressure was confined to the group of hypertensives, which may account for the overall minimal reduction in blood pressure observed in previous intervention studies.
When athletes consult sports outpatient or orthopedic clinics it is possible to undergo drug treatment with the medical staff having prior knowledge of that patient being an athlete. However, if athletes seek any other diagnosis and treatment as an ordinary patient, the possibility of medical staff realizing the potential for imposing a doping issue on the athlete is extremely low. As a result, if the athlete fails to provide medical staff with information regarding anti-doping regulations when receiving clinical treatment, drug treatment administered as part of medical practices could be viewed as doping, resulting in the athlete being disciplined. In order to avoid this, pharmacist should participate in training in order to be able to provide information for anti-doping purposes. It is my personal opinion that knowledge regarding anti-doping is something that should be shared by all pharmacists, as pharmacists are educated in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacokinetics during the pharmacy education process, and sports pharmacology is a part of this. However, in order for pharmacists to understand sports pharmacology, it is necessary to provide education not only on the benefits and adverse effects of pharmaceutical products, but also on the concept of banned substances. It can be considered one of the pharmacist's duties to protect athletes who purchase drugs at a pharmacy or consult medical institutions as patients. With this, I would like to propose considering the potential for introducing sports pharmacology to pharmaceutical education, and specialist pharmacist training in the sports spectrum.
Altszuler, Amy R; Morrow, Anne S; Merrill, Brittany M; Bressler, Shannon; Macphee, Fiona L; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Greiner, Andrew R; Coxe, Stefany; Raiker, Joseph S; Coles, Erika; Pelham, William E
The current study examined the relative efficacy of behavioral sports training, medication, and their combination in improving sports competence among youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 73 youth (74% male; 81% Hispanic) between the ages of 5 and 12 diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) ADHD enrolled in a Summer Treatment Program (STP). The study consisted of a 2 (medication: methylphenidate, placebo) × 2 (sports training: instruction and practice, recreational play) between-groups design and was conducted over a 3-week period during the STP. Sports training was conducted with a novel sport, badminton, to limit previous sport knowledge and to differentiate it from concurrent sports training that occurred within the STP. Objective and subjective measures of sports skills, knowledge, and behavior were collected. Results indicated that, relative to recreational play, brief sports training improved observed and counselor-rated measures of sports competence including sports skills, knowledge, game awareness, effort, frustration, and enjoyment. During sports training, medication incrementally improved children's observed rule following behavior and counselor-rated sportsmanship relative to placebo. In the absence of sports training, medication improved behavior, effort, and sport knowledge. Training in sports skills and rules produced the largest magnitude effects on sports-related outcomes. Therefore, skills training, rather than medication alone, should be used in conjunction with behavioral intervention to teach sports to youth with ADHD. It is recommended that medication be used only as an adjunct to highly structured sports skills training for youth who display high rates of negative behavior during sports activities.
Rasmussen, Ludvig Johan Torp; Østergaard, Lars Domino; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre
The multidimensional concept of creativity has a much wider scope of application than disclosed by prevailing research on sporting creativity. In this area, creativity is mostly perceived, praised, and approached for its performative, in-game benefits. Pointing to the belief that creativity...... and nuance practical and scholastic dialogues, the purpose of this paper is to conceptualize creativity as a developmental resource in sport training activities. This is accomplished by building on and articulating Shilling's (2005) body-sociology, Glăveanu's (2012). socio-cultural notions about creativity...
Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegård; Grønbæk, Kaj
and reflected upon. Based on the experiences gained from the design and development process, as well as examples from the existing field and skill acquisition theory, we present three areas of interest to consider for interactive sport-training game designers: Context Characteristics, Movement Patterns......This paper presents the design and development process of an interactive football-training game that aims to improve players' ball-handling skills, and their ability to simultaneously survey the playing field. A small-scale experiment was conducted to test the game, and the results are presented...... and Perceptual Reaction. From a discussion of these areas, we derive eight design sensitivities that emphasize issues, challenges and opportunities, important for the design, development and analysis of interactive sport-training games in general....
Full Text Available Urpose: to test experimentally influence of aerobic trainings (cross country training and basic aerobic on students’ special endurance in sport oriented groups (sport circles, ping pong. Material: 106 first year students (n=53 - control group and n=53 - experimental participated in experiment. For determination of temporal series’ trends R-S analysis was used. Prognostication of mistakes’ quantity per one set was fulfilled with the help of exponential smoothing method. Results: it was shown that exponential smoothing method permits to prognosticate by one set ahead with rather high accuracy. As initial predictor we found mean quantity of mistakes in all sets. It permits to average all internal and external factors, which influence on the next predicting indicators. Such approach increases confidence of mistakes’ calculation in prognostication. Criteria of prognostication methodic for possible indicators’ values were also determined. Conclusions: the recommended time distribution in program is as follows: ping pong - 75%; cross country training and basic aerobic - 25%.
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mechatronic device to support a gait reeducation process. The conceptual works were done by the interdisciplinary design team. This collaboration allowed to perform a device that would connect the current findings in the fields of biomechanics and mechatronics. In the first part of the article shown a construction of the device which is based on the structure of an overhead travelling crane. The rest of the article contains the issues related to machine control system. In the prototype, the control of drive system is conducted by means of two RT-DAC4/PCI real time cards connected with a signal conditioning interface. Authors present the developed control algorithms and optimization process of the controller settings values. The summary contains a comparison of some numerical simulation results and experimental data from the sensors mounted on the device. The measurement data were obtained during the gait of a healthy person.
Full Text Available Deciphering the human genome, and further development of omics technologies, have opened new opportunities in studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the sport success. According to modern concepts of functional genomics, it is believed that individual differences in the degree of development of physical and mental qualities, as well as in the susceptibility to different diseases of athletes are largely due to DNA polymorphisms. Genetic markers associated with the development and manifestation of physical qualities (speed, strength, endurance, agility, flexibility can be used in the sports selection system, to clarify sports specialization and to optimize the training process. Other molecular markers (methyl groups, transcripts, telomerase activity, telomeres, circulating DNA, metabolites, proteins, etc. in addition to predicting athletic performance, allow assessing the current functional state of the athlete, including the phenomenon of overtraining. The purpose of this review is to provide data on the use of genomic, epigenetic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic methods in sports talent identification, assessing the current functional status of athletes and in the prescription of personal training and nutrition programs. Future research, including multicentre genome-wide association studies and whole-genome sequencing in large cohorts of athletes with further validation and replication, will substantially contribute to the discovery of large numbers of the causal genetic variants (mutations and DNA polymorphisms that would partly explain the heritability of athlete status and related phenotypes.
Henehan, Michael J; Cappellari, Ann M; Stromwall, Amy E; Donaldson, Nathan G
There is growing interest among emergency physicians to seek additional training in Sports Medicine (SM) and to add it to their clinical practice. This presents unique training and practice management issues. The majority of Primary Care SM fellowship programs list that they will accept emergency physicians, and approximately one-third have already had an emergency physician as an SM fellow. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the key elements for emergency physicians to consider as they pursue SM career goals. Training needs such as continuity of care as it pertains to the athlete, SM skills development, and practice management are reviewed. Practice challenges such as malpractice insurance and billing issues are discussed. Examples of several practice models are presented. Evolving trends in SM practice and training opportunities for emergency physicians are discussed as well. Sports Medicine is a viable career option for emergency physicians and may complement their skills set in the management of acute injuries. Practice and training opportunities will continue to evolve as this pathway into the practice of SM gains further recognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wikman, Johan Michael
Sport psychological training seems to be a viable way of facilitating development and performance for adult athletes, and even though sport psychological training for young athletes is less investigated, research indicates that talented athletes can benefit from sport psychological training as well....... The aim of this thesis is to review and add to the current knowledge on sport psychologicaltraining for young elite athletes, and to investigate sport psychological interventions for young elite athletes. This will aid the development of sport psychological training programs for young elite athletes.......This thesis investigates sport psychological training for young elite athletes through two approaches. First, three reviews are performed: a review of psychological skills and characteristics needed for successful talent development, a review of current talent development theories and models, and a review...
McGuigan, Michael R; Doyle, Timothy L A; Newton, Michael; Edwards, Dylan J; Nimphius, Sophia; Newton, Robert U
The eccentric utilization ratio (EUR), which is the ratio of countermovement jump (CMJ) to static jump (SJ) performance, has been suggested as a useful indicator of power performance in athletes. The purpose of the study was to compare the EUR of athletes from a variety of different sports and during different phases of training. A total of 142 athletes from rugby union, Australian Rules Football, soccer, softball, and field hockey were tested. Subjects performed both CMJ and SJ on a force plate integrated with a position transducer. The EUR was measured as the ratio of CMJ to SJ for jump height and peak power. The rugby union, Australian Rules Football, and hockey athletes were tested during off-season and preseason to provide EUR data during different phases of training. For men, EUR for soccer, Australian Rules Football, and rugby was greater than softball (effect size range, 0.83-0.92). For women, EUR for soccer was greater than field hockey and softball (0.86- 1.0). There was a significant difference between the jump height and peak power method for the Australian Rules Football, rugby, and field hockey tests conducted preseason (p sports such as soccer, rugby union, and Australian Rules Football appear to have higher EUR values, which reflects the greater reliance on stretch shortening activities in these sports. It does appear that EUR can be used to track changes in training with the values significantly increasing from off-season to preseason. The EUR provides the practitioner with information about the performance of athletes and appears to be sensitive to changes in the type of training being undertaken.
Novatchkov, Hristo; Baca, Arnold
The overall goal of the present study was to illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques in sports on the example of weight training. The research focused in particular on the implementation of pattern recognition methods for the evaluation of performed exercises on training machines. The data acquisition was carried out using way and cable force sensors attached to various weight machines, thereby enabling the measurement of essential displacement and force determinants during training. On the basis of the gathered data, it was consequently possible to deduce other significant characteristics like time periods or movement velocities. These parameters were applied for the development of intelligent methods adapted from conventional machine learning concepts, allowing an automatic assessment of the exercise technique and providing individuals with appropriate feedback. In practice, the implementation of such techniques could be crucial for the investigation of the quality of the execution, the assistance of athletes but also coaches, the training optimization and for prevention purposes. For the current study, the data was based on measurements from 15 rather inexperienced participants, performing 3-5 sets of 10-12 repetitions on a leg press machine. The initially preprocessed data was used for the extraction of significant features, on which supervised modeling methods were applied. Professional trainers were involved in the assessment and classification processes by analyzing the video recorded executions. The so far obtained modeling results showed good performance and prediction outcomes, indicating the feasibility and potency of AI techniques in assessing performances on weight training equipment automatically and providing sportsmen with prompt advice. Key pointsArtificial intelligence is a promising field for sport-related analysis.Implementations integrating pattern recognition techniques enable the automatic evaluation of data
Traditionally, balance training has been used as part of the rehabilitation programme for ankle injuries. More recently, balance training has been adopted to try and prevent injuries to the ankle and knee joints during sport. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current knowledge in the area of balance ability, training and injury risk, highlight the findings and identify any future research needs. A number of studies have found that poor balance ability is significantly related to an increased risk of ankle injuries in different activities. This relationship appears to be more common in males than females. Multifaceted intervention studies that have included balance training along with jumping, landing and agility exercises have resulted in a significant decrease in ankle or knee injuries in team handball, volleyball and recreational athletes. It is unknown which component of the multifaceted intervention was most effective and whether the effects are additive. As a single intervention, balance training has been shown to significantly reduce the recurrence of ankle ligament injuries in soccer, volleyball and recreational athletes; however, it has not been clearly shown to reduce ankle injuries in athletes without a prior ankle injury. Balance training on its own has also been shown to significantly reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in male soccer players. Surprisingly, it was also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of major knee injuries in female soccer players and overuse knee injuries in male and female volleyball players. The studies with the contrasting findings differed in aspects of their balance training programmes. It would appear that balance training, as a single intervention, is not as effective as when it is part of a multifaceted intervention. Research is required to determine the relative contribution of balance training to a multifaceted intervention so as to generate an effective and efficient preventative
Petrie, Trent A.; Watkins, C. Edward, Jr.
Surveyed 53 counseling psychology programs about sport psychology training. Found that most respondents had students who were interested in sport psychology; counseling faculty were perceived to be receptive to their colleagues and graduate students having interests and pursuing research in sport psychology; and most program directors thought best…
Full Text Available The paper substantiates the design of the training process of athletes in team sports during an annual training cycle on the basis of model training tasks. The model training tasks are developed along with micro-and mesocycles, periods, and annual cycle for preparation of elite female volleyball players. The ratio of the training means and various types of training loads in the periods of macrocycle were determined. Introduction of model training tasks into the training process in team sports allows to efficiently plan and optimize the preparation of athletes, as well as to implement the principle of individualization in the development of a coherent team.
Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Innocenti, Giovanni; Gulisano, Massimo; Ceroti, Marco; Pacini, Stefania
The increasing understanding of the genetic influences in sport has prompted an association study between the athletic performances and the polymorphisms of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), the α-actinin-3 (ACTN3), and the vitamin D receptor genes. The details of these gene polymorphisms can provide useful information to improve and plan new modern training programs for elite athletes. Eighty Italian male high level gymnasts were trained and tested for gymnastic-specific exercises and tested in all the men's artistic gymnastic apparatus (floor, pommel horse, rings, vault, parallel bars, and horizontal bar), and then genotyped. The training parameters of volume, intensity, and density of each gymnast were periodically measured during the season in each apparatus from the tests performed, and the seasonal average values were calculated. Gene polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and studied in association with the performance results. The performances of ACE II gymnasts were significantly lower than that of the ACE ID/DD gymnasts in the apparatus expressing power features, confirming the predisposition of these athletes toward power-oriented sport. Gymnasts with ACTN3 RR/RX genotypes did not show a predisposition to the power-oriented apparatus, having worse performances compared with that of the ACTN3 XX gymnasts. Similarly, gymnasts with ACE II + ACTN3 RR/RX combined genotypes showed lower performances in comparison with that of the other gymnasts. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms showed no significant association with the athletic performances. Because ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms heavily affect the physical performance of elite male gymnasts, the Italian Gymnastic Federation trainers have started to customize the current high-level training programs.
Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P
Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective
Chapman, Robert F; Stickford, Jonathon L; Levine, Benjamin D
Winter sports events routinely take place at low to moderate altitudes, and nearly all Winter Olympic Games have had at least one venue at an altitude >1000 m. The acute and chronic effects of altitude can have a substantial effect on performance outcomes. Acutely, the decline in oxygen delivery to working muscle decreases maximal oxygen uptake, negatively affecting performance in endurance events, such as cross-country skiing and biathlon. The reduction in air resistance at altitude can dramatically affect sports involving high velocities and technical skill components, such as ski jumping, speed skating, figure skating and ice hockey. Dissociation between velocity and sensations usually associated with work intensity (ventilation, metabolic signals in skeletal muscle and heart rate) may impair pacing strategy and make it difficult to determine optimal race pace. For competitions taking place at altitude, a number of strategies may be useful, depending on the altitude of residence of the athlete and ultimate competition altitude, as follows. First, allow extra time and practice (how much is yet undetermined) for athletes to adjust to the changes in projectile motion; hockey, shooting, figure skating and ski jumping may be particularly affected. These considerations apply equally in the reverse direction; that is, for athletes practising at altitude but competing at sea level. Second, allow time for acclimatization for endurance sports: 3-5 days if possible, especially for low altitude (500-2000 m); 1-2 weeks for moderate altitude (2000-3000 m); and at least 2 weeks if possible for high altitude (>3000 m). Third, increase exercise-recovery ratios as much as possible, with 1:3 ratio probably optimal, and consider more frequent substitutions for sports where this is allowed, such as ice hockey. Fourth, consider the use of supplemental O(2) on the sideline (ice hockey) or in between heats (skating and Alpine skiing) to facilitate recovery. For competitions at sea
Trends and tendencies in the facilitation and training of sport and development programmes for the youth: Lessons of experience from African cases. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Keywords: Sport and Development, training curricula, Ghana, South Africa, youth programmes, toolkits.
Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.
Training and competition are two important contexts within the sport domain. In this study, we examined: (a) consistency and differences in goal orientations across the training and competition contexts and whether these are moderated by sport type; and (b) whether goal orientations predict effort,
Zuniga, Krystle E; Downey, Darcy L; McCluskey, Ryan; Rivers, Carley
The majority of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) programs do not have a sports nutritionist, leaving athletes to gather information from resources that vary in reputability. The objective of this study was to identify a need for the development of accessible and reputable resources of nutrition information by assessing the current use of nutrition information resources, dietary habits, and sports nutrition knowledge among Division I collegiate athletes. Seventy-two athletes across eight sports completed questionnaires concerning nutrition resources used, dietary habits, and sports nutrition knowledge. In addition, interest levels in a mobile device application for delivery of nutrition information and tools were assessed. Primary sources for nutrition information included parents and family, athletic trainers (AT), and the internet/media, and athletes felt most comfortable discussing nutrition with parents and family, ATs, and strength and conditioning specialists. Performance on a sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire indicated a general lack of nutrition knowledge, and the high frequency of "unsure" responses suggested a lack of confidence in nutrition knowledge. Athletes conveyed a high likelihood that they would use a mobile device application as a nutrition resource, but were more interested in access to nutrition topics than tools such as a food log. We found that college athletes possess minimal sports nutrition knowledge, obtain nutrition information from nonprofessional resources, and were interested in utilizing a mobile device application as a resource. Further research is needed to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of alternative resources, such as a mobile device application, to deliver nutrition information and improve nutrition knowledge.
Glapa, Agata; Banio, Adrianna; Firek, Wiesław; Ingarden, Anna; Malchrowicz-Mośko, Ewa; Markiewicz, Paweł; Płoszaj, Katarzyna; Ingarden, Mateusz; Maćkowiak, Zuzanna
Background The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in body image across different types of sports in highly trained female athletes. Methods 242 female individuals, aged 13–30 years (M = 20.0, SD = 4.5), representing aesthetic sports (n = 56) and nonaesthetic sports (n = 186), were recruited from different sports clubs in Poland. Body image, BMI, age, the level of competition attained, and the training background of participants were recorded. Results One-way ANOVA showed differences in the body image of athletes engaged in different types of sport (F(11,230) = 4.10, p sport explained 7.1% (β = –0.263, p sporting activities at an early stage.
Full Text Available The overall goal of the present study was to illustrate the potential of artificial intelligence (AI techniques in sports on the example of weight training. The research focused in particular on the implementation of pattern recognition methods for the evaluation of performed exercises on training machines. The data acquisition was carried out using way and cable force sensors attached to various weight machines, thereby enabling the measurement of essential displacement and force determinants during training. On the basis of the gathered data, it was consequently possible to deduce other significant characteristics like time periods or movement velocities. These parameters were applied for the development of intelligent methods adapted from conventional machine learning concepts, allowing an automatic assessment of the exercise technique and providing individuals with appropriate feedback. In practice, the implementation of such techniques could be crucial for the investigation of the quality of the execution, the assistance of athletes but also coaches, the training optimization and for prevention purposes. For the current study, the data was based on measurements from 15 rather inexperienced participants, performing 3-5 sets of 10-12 repetitions on a leg press machine. The initially preprocessed data was used for the extraction of significant features, on which supervised modeling methods were applied. Professional trainers were involved in the assessment and classification processes by analyzing the video recorded executions. The so far obtained modeling results showed good performance and prediction outcomes, indicating the feasibility and potency of AI techniques in assessing performances on weight training equipment automatically and providing sportsmen with prompt advice.
Geraldini, Simone; Cruz, Igor de Freitas; Romero, Alexandre; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Campos, Michelle Parreira de
Adequate hydration status in the sport is essential for good health, yet the relationship between hydration, proteinuria and sports is little studied. To analyze the influence of an isotonic sports drink as rehydration strategy on the hydration status and proteinuria after karate training. Ten athletes participated in this study. In the first session of standard training, called observation training session (STO), the athletes hydrated themselves according to their habits, and in the second session of standard training, called nutritional intervention training session (STIN), an ideal practice of hydration protocol was followed, using an isotonic sports drink as a rehydration liquid during the training. The hydration status was verified by monitoring the body weight before and after training, the urine specific gravity pre-and post-training and the urine volume post-training. To observe the influence of practice of hydration on the renal function post exercise proteinuria was measured. We observed a statistically significant difference in urine density between the samples pre- and post-exercise only on STIN (p = 0.047). When we compare the sessions, there was a lower variation in body weight (p = 0.011) and higher urinary volume (p training. In STO, there was a higher percentage of athletes who showed proteinuria (70%) compared to the STIN (50%) in the urine sample after training. The use of isotonic sports drink as practice of hydration by karate athletes promoted rehydration during one session of training and reduce post-training proteinuria.
Jensen, Mads Møller
Advancements in wearable and ubiquitous computing technologies have radically increased the possibilities for designing full-body human-computer interactions. Among this multitude of new bodily interaction possibilities are sports training technologies and bodily games. In terms of sports training...... activity as a control mechanism or the core game mechanic. While sports training technologies and bodily games build upon similar technologies and emanate from sports, they do not share focus. One focuses on measuring, monitoring and skill acquisition, while the other focuses on motivation, engagement...... and enjoyment. Thus, despite being two coexisting research areas, they do not extend or contribute to one another per se. However, bridging this gap by combining skill acquisition knowledge from sports training technologies with motivational game mechanics from bodily games holds great potential for designing...
Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; McCollum, Starla
Weight training classes are offered in many secondary level physical education classes. The type of instruction used during weight training is crucial, ensuring students understand the content knowledge and the enjoyment weight training has to offer as a lifetime activity. By using the sport education model (SEM) in weight training classes,…
Gray, Adrian J; Shorter, Kathleen; Cummins, Cloe; Murphy, Aron; Waldron, Mark
Quantifying the training and competition loads of players in contact team sports can be performed in a variety of ways, including kinematic, perceptual, heart rate or biochemical monitoring methods. Whilst these approaches provide data relevant for team sports practitioners and athletes, their application to a contact team sport setting can sometimes be challenging or illogical. Furthermore, these methods can generate large fragmented datasets, do not provide a single global measure of training load and cannot adequately quantify all key elements of performance in contact team sports. A previous attempt to address these limitations via the estimation of metabolic energy demand (global energy measurement) has been criticised for its inability to fully quantify the energetic costs of team sports, particularly during collisions. This is despite the seemingly unintentional misapplication of the model's principles to settings outside of its intended use. There are other hindrances to the application of such models, which are discussed herein, such as the data-handling procedures of Global Position System manufacturers and the unrealistic expectations of end users. Nevertheless, we propose an alternative energetic approach, based on Global Positioning System-derived data, to improve the assessment of mechanical load in contact team sports. We present a framework for the estimation of mechanical work performed during locomotor and contact events with the capacity to globally quantify the work done during training and matches.
Bonner, Stephen Ray [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandoval, Dana M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Tamper Indicating Device (TID): Initial Training, course #50112, covers Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Material Control & Accountability (MC&A) TID Program procedures for the application and removal of TIDs. LANL’s policy is to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for the use of TIDs consistent with the graded safeguards described in DOE Manual DOE O 474.2, Nuclear Material Control and Accountability. When you have completed this course, you will: recognize standard practices and procedures of the LANL TID Program; have hands-on experience in the application and removal of LANL TIDs, and; verify the application and removal of LANL TIDs.
Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Rysman, Julien; Wehrlin, Jon P; Girard, Olivier
This study aims to investigate physical performance and hematological changes in 32 elite male team-sport players after 14 d of "live high-train low" (LHTL) training in normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h·d at 2800-3000 m) combined with repeated-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5-s sprints with 25 s of passive recovery) either in normobaric hypoxia at 3000 m (LHTL + RSH, namely, LHTLH; n = 11) or in normoxia (LHTL + RSN, namely, LHTL; n = 12) compared with controlled "live low-train low" (LLTL; n = 9) training. Before (Pre), immediately after (Post-1), and 3 wk after (Post-2) the intervention, hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in duplicate [optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method], and vertical jump, repeated-sprint (8 × 20 m-20 s recovery), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (YYIR2) performances were tested. Both hypoxic groups similarly increased their Hbmass at Post-1 and Post-2 in reference to Pre (LHTLH: +4.0%, P team-sport players, with benefits lasting for at least 3 wk postintervention.
María de la Caridad Veloso Pérez
Full Text Available The proposal to the problematic solution dealt with in the present investigation is constituted by competitive sport activities, which respond to its totality to the integral diagnosis and therefore, to the individual and group characteristics of the selected students as it is shown, being of this form in the heat of correspondence with their real necessities. This activities were developed during the partaking sport time and three stages framed during the course to the competitions. Its organization was based on the same principles on which the Program of the Special Olympic Games is fomented, extracting from the quarries of the base sport the sport talent, it is for that reason so important the work of preparation and participation in the bases, as from the whole scale practice it is that the quality is obtained or the sport talent within the ample range of sport disciplines. The work's objective is to apply competitive sport activities to improve the participation of late mental development children in the systematic training. These activities, proposed as solution, were very effective, since it was obtained a favorable atmosphere in all the school in students, teachers, specialists, family, community, making possible these children to improved their participation in the systematic training, their technical level improved a lot and, mainly, they demonstrated that the sport is one of the fundamental routes to the formation of values in this population group. The results thrown by the investigation are considered valuable since it is the base for the profit of good results in the competence.
Guerra-Martín, María Dolores; Martínez-Montilla, José Manuel; Amador-Marín, Bárbara
In Spain there are around 25,000 cardiac arrests, many of them in the presence of non-medical personnel. In less than 25% of the cardio-respiratory arrests witnessed, witnesses began cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Soccer is a contact sport with multiple physical characteristics and requirements which pushes your body to the limit, thus leading to a higher chance of developing multiple lesions, including cardio-respiratory arrest. Therefore, our goal was to know the actual situation on training in basic life support in soccer. A literature review was performed on different databases both national (IME, CUIDEN, ENCUENTR@, ENFERMERÍA AL DÍA, ISOC) and international (PUBMED, SCOPUS, CINAHL), with different MESH descriptors related to the topic. A total of 395 references were identified. 17 studies were selected; 8 of them had like main theme cardiopulmonary resuscitation and the remaining 9 spoke on the use of semi-automatic defibrillators. There is a lack of research on this topic in soccer. This strikes our attention because in this area there could be situations requiring immediate rescue action. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of early cardio-respiratory resuscitation because training in basic life support and semi-automatic defibrillators in soccer are fundamental. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Larsen, Carsten Hvid
This article presents a case example and six-step mental-skills training program for high-performance athletes in disability sports. Starting out with a basic description about applied sport psychology in disability sports, the author proceeds to describe the mental skills training program...... with the woman's national goalball team in Denmark (high-performance athletes with visual impairment). The author provides a detailed description of six steps from initiation of the program, group sessions, and action plans, to on-court training and evaluation of the program across six months, and finishes...
Pusenjak, Nika; Grad, Anton; Tusak, Matej; Leskovsek, Matevz; Schwarzlin, Romina
In recent years, biofeedback has become increasingly popular for its proven success in peak performance training - the psychophysiological preparation of athletes for high-stakes sport competitions, such as the Olympic games. The aim of this research was to test whether an 8-week period of exposure to biofeedback training could improve the psychophysiological control over competitive anxiety and enhance athletic performance in participating subjects. Participants of this study were highly competent athletes, each training in different sport disciplines. The experimental group consisted of 18 athletes (4 women, 14 men), whereas the Control group had 21 athletes (4 women, 17 men). All athletes were between 16 and 34 years old. The biofeedback device, Nexus 10, was used to detect and measure the psychophysiological responses of athletes. Athletes from both groups (control and experimental) were subjected to stress tests at the beginning of the study and once again at its conclusion. In between, the experimental group received training in biofeedback techniques. We then calculated the overall percentage of athletes in the experimental group compared with those in the control group who were able to control respiration, skin conductance, heart rate, blood flow amplitude, heart rate variability, and heart respiration coherence. One year following completion of the initial study, we questioned athletes from the experimental group, to determine whether they continued to use these skills and if they could detect any subsequent enhancement in their athletic performance. We demonstrated that a greater number of participants in the experimental group were able to successfully control their psychophysiological parameters, in comparison to their peers in the control group. Significant results (p biofeedback - psycho-regulation skills. Furthermore, these participants uniformly reported believing that these skills had enhanced their athletic performance and general well-being.
Schoessow, G. J.
A simulated nuclear energy power plant system with visible internal working components comprising a reactor adapted to contain a liquid with heating elements submerged in the liquid and capable of heating the liquid to an elevated temperature, a steam generator containing water and a heat exchanger means to receive the liquid at an elevated temperature, transform the water to steam, and return the spent liquid to the reactor; a steam turbine receiving high energy steam to drive the turbine and discharging low energy steam to a condenser where the low energy steam is condensed to water which is returned to the steam generator; an electric generator driven by the turbine; indicating means to identify the physical status of the reactor and its contents; and manual and automatic controls to selectively establish normal or abnormal operating conditions in the reactor, steam generator, pressurizer, turbine, electric generator, condenser, and pumps; and to be selectively adjusted to bring the reactor to acceptable operating condition after being placed in an abnormal operation. This device is particularly useful as an education device in demonstrating nuclear reactor operations and in training operating personnel for nuclear reactor systems and also as a device for conducting research on various safety systems to improve the safety of nuclear power plants
Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P
With the evolving boundaries of sports science and greater understanding of the driving factors in the human performance physiology, one of the limiting factors has now become the technology. The growing scientific interest on the practical application of hypoxic training for intermittent activities such as team and racket sports legitimises the development of innovative technologies serving athletes in a sport-specific setting. Description of a new mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment. The system comprises two inflatable units-that is, a tunnel and a rectangular design, each with a 215 m(3) volume and a hypoxic trailer generating over 3000 Lpm of hypoxic air with FiO₂ between 0.21 and 0.10 (a simulated altitude up to 5100 m). The inflatable units offer a 45 m running lane (width=1.8 m and height=2.5 m) as well as a 8 m × 10 m dome tent. FiO₂ is stable within a range of 0.1% in normal conditions inside the tunnel. The air supplied is very dry-typically 10-15% relative humidity. This mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment is a promising technological advance within sport sciences. It offers an opportunity for team-sport players to train under hypoxic conditions, both for repeating sprints (tunnel configuration) or small-side games (rectangular configuration).
Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Kompier, M.A.J.
This study examined: (a) whether athletes’ (N = 348) perceived autonomy support (i.e., showing interest in athletes’ input and praising autonomous behavior) differs across contexts (training vs. competition) and sport types (individual vs. team sports), and (b) whether the relationships between
The aim of this study was to determine the current state of teacher coaches' sport specific training, playing- and coaching experience regarding sport coaching. Fifty five (55) schools from the Kenneth Kaunda district in the Northwest province of South Africa were selected. Vosloo and Trudel and Camiré's questionnaires ...
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical an...
Tutka, Patrick; Seifried, Chad
The goal of this research endeavor is to take the previous calls of sport scholars to expand into alternative research approaches (e.g., history, case study, law reviews, philosophy, etc.) and to show how storytelling can be an effective tool through the use of a heuristic device. The present analysis attempts to focus on the usage of the…
Woods, C B; Moynihan, A
This study examined General Practitioner's (GP) knowledge, practice and training requirements in relation to doping in sport in Ireland. All 2083 GPs on the Irish College of General Practitioners (ICGP) register received a postal questionnaire, yielding a 37% response rate (N=771, 63% male, average age 46.2 +/- 9SD, range 28-74 years). Results revealed that 14% (112) deemed their knowledge of doping agents to be good or very good, 12% (94) had completed specific training modules in doping or sport, and 24% (183) were connected with a specific sport as a team doctor/advisor. Over one in four (28%: 217) had been consulted for advice on doping in Sport, 33% (256) possessed the current list of prohibited substances, and 25% (190) knew of the Irish Sports Council's drug-testing procedures. The current initiatives to discourage doping in sport were felt to be ineffective, and although 92% (716) indicated that GPs had a role to play in the prevention of doping in sport, only 9% (66) felt adequately trained for such a role. There was overwhelming support for further training among GPs, although the most appropriate method of providing training is complex and requires strategic planning.
Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Pagnotta, Kelly D.; Salvatore, Anthony C.; Casa, Douglas J.
Context: Educational training programs both impart knowledge and allow students to practice skills to gain clinical competence. Objective: Understand the educational training provided to athletic training students regarding sudden death in sport beyond exertional heat stroke. Design: An exploratory, qualitative study using telephone interviews and…
Conclusion: The students’ points of view showed that peer groups and sports have a very high effect on education and training process thus leading to the improvement of social relationship and increasinglearning in different groups. Therefore, strengthening the peer groups and sport teams in educational environments has a very important influence on socialization of teenagers and youth thereby facilitating the acquisition of life skills and learning process and thus the education and training development in society
Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence
This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…
Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance...... with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase...... expression of muscle Na(+) , K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect...
Alvis-Gómez, Martina K; Neira-Tolosa, Nury A
Identifying and quantitatively analysing social determinants affecting disabled teenagers' inclusion/exclusion in high-performance sports. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 19 12- to 19-year-old athletes suffering physical and sensory disability and 17 staff from the District Institute of Recreation and Sport. Likert-type rating scales were used, based on four analysis categories, i.e. social structure, socio-economic, educational and living condition determinants. Social inequity pervades the national paralympic sports' system. This is because 74 % of individuals only become recognised as sportspeople when they have obtained meritorious results in set competition without appropriate conditions having been previously provided by such paralympic sports institution to enable them to overcome structural and intermediate barriers. The social structure imposed on district-based paralympic sport stigmatises individuals regarding their individual abilities, affects their empowerment and freedom due to the discrimination experienced by disabled teenagers regarding their competitive achievements.
Hall, Stacey A
The US Department of Homeland Security identified college sport venues as terrorist targets due to the potential for mass casualties and catastrophic social and economic impact. Therefore, it is critical for college sport safety and security personnel to implement effective risk management practices. However, deficiencies have been identified in the level of preparedness of college sport event security personnel related to risk management training and effective emergency response capabilities. To address the industry need, the National Center for Spectator Sports Safety and Security designed, developed, and evaluated a national sport event risk management training program for National Collegiate Athletic Association command groups. The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of the design, development, and evaluation process.
Marcos Mecías Calvo
Full Text Available The bodyboard is a surfing discipline whose growth has been considerably since the 60s, so it is considered one of the fastest growing aquatic sport in the world. Despite this, scientific research of this discipline has been reflected poorly compared to other sports. As in any other sport, the bodyboarder requires of specific physical and physiological conditions to help it to practice the sport effectively as it does not follow a specific training or develop conditioning programs. Therefore, this article comes up with the idea of providing a basis for determining the most appropriate training based on study objectives and bodyboard actions to improve physical, technical and psychological condition of the bodyboarders based on the particularities of their own sport and the athlete, taking into account scientific studies in the field at hand: the Bodyboard.
The professionalisation of sport has reached the domain of schools as a grass root incubator for sporting talent and for providing positive experiences that might lead to lifelong engagement in physical activity. It has inevitably also led to the development of specialized human resources such as high quality coaches and ...
Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P
During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daniels, K; Thornton, E
Previous research has indicated that training in the martial arts leads to a reduction in levels of hostility. However, such research has only compared hostility within martial arts groups. The present research compares two martial arts groups and two other sporting groups on levels of assaultive, verbal and indirect hostility. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between length of training in the respondent's stated sport and whether that sport was a martial art in predicting assaultive and verbal hostility. The form of the interaction suggests that participation in the martial arts is associated, over time, with decreased feelings of assaultive and verbal hostility. PMID:1422642
Daniels, K; Thornton, E
Previous research has indicated that training in the martial arts leads to a reduction in levels of hostility. However, such research has only compared hostility within martial arts groups. The present research compares two martial arts groups and two other sporting groups on levels of assaultive, verbal and indirect hostility. Moderated multiple regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between length of training in the respondent's stated sport and whether that sport was a martial art in predicting assaultive and verbal hostility. The form of the interaction suggests that participation in the martial arts is associated, over time, with decreased feelings of assaultive and verbal hostility.
Rossato, Claire; Brackenridge, Celia
This article reports on the results of an online survey of child protection training for students on sport-related degrees and Initial Teacher Training Physical Education courses, and on the views of recently-graduated teachers of the usefulness of such training in their everyday work. The results indicate that child protection training is provided on most courses but in varying amounts. Respondents to the survey reported positively, in the main, about the effects of new requirements for te...
Full Text Available It was analysed scientific-methodical and specialized literature on adaptive sports: table tennis, basketball, judo, skiing. It is conducted interviews with leading coaches working in the Deaflympic sport. Monitor the training process of elite athletes with hearing impairments, specializing in ski racing. Found that for technical training of athletes use the principle of learning the exercises and improvement from simple to complex with the rote. It was shown the necessity of attracting able-bodied athletes in the training process deflimpiytsev to optimize their technical training. The data obtained allow us to determine the direction of improving the technical skills of this category of athletes.
Tucker, Ross; Collins, Malcolm
Elite sporting performance results from the combination of innumerable factors, which interact with one another in a poorly understood but complex manner to mould a talented athlete into a champion. Within the field of sports science, elite performance is understood to be the result of both training and genetic factors. However, the extent to which champions are born or made is a question that remains one of considerable interest, since it has implications for talent identification and management, as well as for how sporting federations allocate scarce resources towards the optimisation of high-performance programmes. The present review describes the contributions made by deliberate practice and genetic factors to the attainment of a high level of sporting performance. The authors conclude that although deliberate training and other environmental factors are critical for elite performance, they cannot by themselves produce an elite athlete. Rather, individual performance thresholds are determined by our genetic make-up, and training can be defined as the process by which genetic potential is realised. Although the specific details are currently unknown, the current scientific literature clearly indicates that both nurture and nature are involved in determining elite athletic performance. In conclusion, elite sporting performance is the result of the interaction between genetic and training factors, with the result that both talent identification and management systems to facilitate optimal training are crucial to sporting success.
Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P
way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...... functional training advises can be made. Thus, more than a review in the traditional context this review should be viewed upon as an attempt to bring sports-physiologists and coaches or others working directly with the athletes together for a mutual discussion on how recently acquired physiological knowledge...
Qi, Li; Ying, Liu
For researching the function of relieving fatigue of green beans sports drinks, this paper selected 60 mice as subjects. They were randomly divided into four groups (low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and physiological saline group). Each time they were respectively feed 10g 20g/L, 40g/L, 80 g/L green beans sports drinks and 15ml/(kg.d) physiological saline. The experiment lasted for a month. We recorded weight of mice, swimming time and blood urea nitrogen indicators. The results show that green beans sports drinks can significantly prolong swimming time of mice (p beans sports drinks have a certain function of relieving physical fatigue.
Timothy D. Ryan
Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to explore the influences of training on specific quality of work outcomes of job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, and intentions to leave within high school sports officials. Evidence suggests that there is a shortage of high school officials in all categories of high school sport. Via a web-based survey, we explored the effects of training on the individual outcomes under study. Results indicated that the level of training had a significant effect on job satisfaction, pay satisfaction, and turnover intentions. Analyses indicated that officials with less training had higher turnover intentions and lower job satisfaction than officials who had more training. Conversely, officials who engaged numerous training hours had lower pay satisfaction. This exploratory study supports the importance of training high school officials but, more importantly, provides an initial assessment on the reverse effects of training on pay satisfaction.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Adequate hydration status in the sport is essential for good health, yet the relationship between hydration, proteinuria and sports is little studied. Objective: To analyze the influence of an isotonic sports drink as rehydration strategy on the hydration status and proteinuria after karate training. Methods: Ten athletes participated in this study. In the first session of standard training, called observation training session (STO, the athletes hydrated themselves according to their habits, and in the second session of standard training, called nutritional intervention training session (STIN, an ideal practice of hydration protocol was followed, using an isotonic sports drink as a rehydration liquid during the training. The hydration status was verified by monitoring the body weight before and after training, the urine specific gravity pre-and post-training and the urine volume post-training. To observe the influence of practice of hydration on the renal function post exercise proteinuria was measured. Results: We observed a statistically significant difference in urine density between the samples pre- and post-exercise only on STIN (p = 0.047. When we compare the sessions, there was a lower variation in body weight (p = 0.011 and higher urinary volume (p < 0.001, on nutritional intervention training. In STO, there was a higher percentage of athletes who showed proteinuria (70% compared to the STIN (50% in the urine sample after training. Conclusion: The use of isotonic sports drink as practice of hydration by karate athletes promoted rehydration during one session of training and reduce post-training proteinuria.
Rhea, Matthew R; Peterson, Mark D; Oliverson, Jeff R; Ayllón, Fernando Naclerio; Potenziano, Ben J
Training to develop superior muscular power has become a key component to most progressive sport conditioning programs. Conventional resistance training, plyometrics, and speed/agility modalities have all been employed in an effort to realize superlative combinations of training stimuli. New training devices such as the VertiMax resisted jump trainer are marketed as a means of improving lower body reactive power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the VertiMax, in combination with traditional training modalities, for improvements in lower body power among highly trained athletes. Forty men and women Division I collegiate athletes representing the sports of baseball, basketball, soccer, gymnastics, and track completed a 12-week mixed-methods training program. Two groups were constructed with both groups performing the same conventional resistance training and strength training exercises. The training control group performed traditional plyometric exercises while the experimental group performed similar loaded jump training on the VertiMax. Lower body power was measured before and after the training program by the TENDO FiTROdyne Powerlizer and statistically compared for differences between groups. Data analyses identified a significant (p training alone (effect size = 0.09). These data convincingly demonstrate that the VertiMax represents an effective strategy for developing lower body power among trained college athletes, when combined with traditional strength and conditioning approaches.
Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past years, a few review papers about possibilities of using motion analysis systems in sport were published, but there are no articles that discuss this problem in the field of combat sports and martial arts. Aim: This study presents the diversity of contemporary motion analysis systems both, those that are used in scientific research, as well as those that can be applied in daily work of coaches and athletes in combat sports and martial arts. An additional aim is the indication of example applications in scientific research and range of applications in optimizing the training process. It presents a brief description of each type of systems that are currently used in sport, specific examples of systems and the main advantages and disadvantages of using them. The presentation and discussion takes place in the following sections: motion analysis utility for combat sports and martial arts, systems using digital video and systems using markers, sensors or transmitters. Conclusions: Not all types of motion analysis systems used in sport are suitable for combat sports and martial arts. Scientific studies conducted so far showed the usefulness of video-based, optical and electromechanical systems. The use of research results made with complex motion analysis systems, or made with simple systems, local application and immediate visualization is important for the preparation of training and its optimization. It may lead to technical and tactical improvement in athletes as well as the prevention of injuries in combat sports and martial arts.
He Shuijun; Wu Jiangfeng; Qin Jin
The problem is that a Goniometry Detector is unable to be used to train, which lacks of simulation training environment and real training conditions. Its basic working principle is analyzed, and the overall program which is suitable to the training simulator is raised. We also describe the design of light source. We developed a set of experimental device and did some experiments on the basis of it. The experimental results show that technical approach of the program is feasible and the basic performance can meet training needs. The set of experimental device can solve practical training problems and play an important military benefit by improvements. (authors)
Full Text Available Specialized Training of Children and Youngsters in Selected Sports Games The study has two principal goals. The first one is the analysis of personal characteristics of coaches, who function with teams of youth in clubs participating in the top and second to top competitions of adults in handball, tennis and volleyball. Analysis brakes data down following criteria of age, level of education reached and gender. The second goal of our study is the analysis of the sport preparation of children and youth in mentioned sports games on their observation of federations’ recommendations about the content of training in respective age groups, including detection of their opinions on the beginning of specialized training for respective playing functions. Research sample was created all-together by 234 coaches (102 volleyball, 69 tennis, 63 handball, who responded to sent non-standard questionnaire with closed and halfopened queries (total rate of return was 67%. Used questionnaire contained eight identifying and five factual questions. Quantitative characteristics were expressed in absolute and relative frequencies, for synoptic presentation of results we have used graphical illustration of responses. Questions concerned players participating in competitions of age groups from about 8 to 19 years. As far as personal composition concerns, the prevailing part of observed sample is created by coaches of age category 30–40 years, out of which about 1/4 are women. We have found significant differences among respective games in the educational sphere. While in tennis and volleyball the university educated coaches creates simple majority (65% and 76% respectively, their portion in handball is only about 40%. The representation of P.E. teachers among respective sports games is similarly different – 83% and 76% respectively in tennis and volleyball, on the contrary to 29% in handball. Tennis possesses very low portion of coaches working with category of
White, Kathleen; Zeni, Joseph; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Objectives: After anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) athletes commonly report increased fear of re-injury and below normal knee function. Implementing a post-operative training protocol (ACL-SPORTS Training) to improve patient perceived knee function, may improve short term outcomes after surgery. Identifying pre-training measures that predict normal knee function after training may allow us to determine who may respond to the treatment intervention. The purpose of this study wa...
White, Kathleen; Di Stasi, Stephanie L; Smith, Angela H; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is standard practice for athletes that wish to return to high-level activities; however functional outcomes after ACLR are poor. Quadriceps strength weakness, abnormal movement patterns and below normal knee function is reported in the months and years after ACLR. Second ACL injuries are common with even worse outcomes than primary ACLR. Modifiable limb-to-limb asymmetries have been identified in individuals who re-injure after primary ACLR, suggesting a neuromuscular training program is needed to improve post-operative outcomes. Pre-operative perturbation training, a neuromuscular training program, has been successful at improving limb symmetry prior to surgery, though benefits are not lasting after surgery. Implementing perturbation training after surgery may be successful in addressing post-operative deficits that contribute to poor functional outcomes and second ACL injury risk. 80 athletes that have undergone a unilateral ACLR and wish to return to level 1 or 2 activities will be recruited for this study and randomized to one of two treatment groups. A standard care group will receive prevention exercises, quadriceps strengthening and agility exercises, while the perturbation group will receive the same exercise program with the addition of perturbation training. The primary outcomes measures will include gait biomechanics, clinical and functional measures, and knee joint loading. Return to sport rates, return to pre-injury level of activity rates, and second injury rates will be secondary measures. The results of this ACL-Specialized Post-Operative Return To Sports (ACL-SPORTS) Training program will help clinicians to better determine an effective post-operative treatment program that will improve modifiable impairments that influence outcomes after ACLR. Randomized Control Trial NIH 5R01AR048212-07. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01773317.
Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s-4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na(+), K(+) pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schwab, Sebastian; Memmert, Daniel
The aim of this study was to investigate whether a sports vision training program improves the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training. The choice reaction time task at the D2 board (Learning Task I), the functional field of view task (Learning Task II) and the multiple object tracking (MOT) task (Transfer Task) were assessed before and after the intervention and again six weeks after the second test. Analyzes showed significant differences between the two groups for the choice reaction time task at the D2 board and the functional field of view task, with significant improvements for the intervention group and none for the control group. For the transfer task, we could not find statistically significant improvements for either group. The results of this study are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications. Key pointsPerceptual training with youth field hockey playersCan a sports vision training program improve the visual performance of youth male field hockey players, ages 12 to 16 years, after an intervention of six weeks compared to a control group with no specific sports vision training?The intervention was performed in the "VisuLab" as DynamicEye(®) SportsVision Training at the German Sport University Cologne.We ran a series of 3 two-factor univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures on both within subject independent variables (group; measuring point) to examine the effects on central perception, peripheral perception and choice reaction time.The present study shows an improvement of certain visual abilities with the help of the sports vision training program.
Full Text Available In order to visualize the physical education classroom in school, we create a visualized movement management system, which records the student's exercise data efficiently and stores data in the database that enables virtual reality client to call. Each individual's exercise data are gathered as the source material to study the law of group movement, playing a strategic role in managing physical education. Through the combination of wearable devices, virtual reality and network technology, the student movement data (time, space, rate, etc. are collected in real time to drive the role model in virtual scenes, which visualizes the movement data. Moreover, the Markov chain based algorithm is used to predict the movement state. The test results show that this method can quantize the student movement data. Therefore, the application of this system in PE classes can help teacher to observe the students’ real-time movement amount and state, so as to improve the teaching quality.
Yin, Bob; Gandhi, Jaipal; Limpisvasti, Orr; Mohr, Karen; ElAttrache, Neal S
Approximately 90% of current orthopaedic graduates are engaging in fellowship training, with sports medicine being the most commonly chosen specialty. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of fellowship training on clinical decision-making by fellowship-trained sports medicine surgeons. A survey was designed to assess the importance of fellowship on common clinical decisions made in the nonoperative and surgical treatment of knee, shoulder, and elbow disorders. The survey also included questions for the respondents on their comfort level with a variety of routine and complex surgical procedures. The survey was sent to alumni of 113 orthopaedic sports medicine programs across the United States. Completed surveys were returned by 310 surgeons who had been in practice for an average of 9.0 years. They represented alumni of twenty-nine orthopaedic sports medicine fellowship programs across sixteen states. Fellowship was considered very important for surgical decision-making in the knee and shoulder. For nonoperative treatment, fellowship had a greater impact on shoulder disorders than on knee or elbow disorders. Fellowship was significantly more important than residency (p sports surgeons should consider seeking additional training in the treatment of multi-ligamentous knee injuries, posterior cruciate ligament injuries, shoulder instability with bone loss, and elbow disorders. The current findings were limited by the relatively small respondent pool, which represented only 26% of sports medicine fellowship programs in the United States. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.
Arraya, Marco António Mexia; Porfírio, Jose António
Purpose: Training as an important source of dynamic capabilities (DC) is important to the performance of sports' organisations (SO) both to athletes and to non-athletic staff. There are a variety of training delivery methods (TDMs). The purpose of this study is to determine from a set of six TDMs which one is considered to be the most suitable to…
Faiss, Raphaël; Girard, Olivier; Millet, Grégoire P
Over the past two decades, intermittent hypoxic training (IHT), that is, a method where athletes live at or near sea level but train under hypoxic conditions, has gained unprecedented popularity. By adding the stress of hypoxia during 'aerobic' or 'anaerobic' interval training, it is believed that IHT would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea level. A thorough analysis of studies including IHT, however, leads to strikingly poor benefits for sea-level performance improvement, compared to the same training method performed in normoxia. Despite the positive molecular adaptations observed after various IHT modalities, the characteristics of optimal training stimulus in hypoxia are still unclear and their functional translation in terms of whole-body performance enhancement is minimal. To overcome some of the inherent limitations of IHT (lower training stimulus due to hypoxia), recent studies have successfully investigated a new training method based on the repetition of short (training in hypoxia (RSH). The aims of the present review are therefore threefold: first, to summarise the main mechanisms for interval training and repeated sprint training in normoxia. Second, to critically analyse the results of the studies involving high-intensity exercises performed in hypoxia for sea-level performance enhancement by differentiating IHT and RSH. Third, to discuss the potential mechanisms underpinning the effectiveness of those methods, and their inherent limitations, along with the new research avenues surrounding this topic.
Qi, Li; Ying, Liu
For researching the function of relieving fatigue of green beans sports drinks, this paper selected 60 mice as subjects. They were randomly divided into four groups (low dose group, middle dose group, high dose group and physiological saline group). Each time they were respectively feed 10g 20g/L, 40g/L, 80 g/L green beans sports drinks and 15ml/(kg.d) physiological saline. The experiment lasted for a month. We recorded weight of mice, swimming time and blood urea nitrogen indicators. The res...
accompanying bills for the Fiscal Year 2016 National Defense Authorization Act included provisions for GAO to review the Army’s training plans and its use...implemented it. Both the Senate and House reports accompanying bills for the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 included provisions...system training devices are the Engagement Skills Trainer, the Call for Fire Trainer II, the Intelligence and Electronic Warfare Tactical Proficiency
Gibson, Jennifer C; Gaul, Catherine; Janzen, Jorie
The study was undertaken to evaluate the education and training background of Canadian registered dietitians (RDs) practising in sport and exercise nutrition, as well as learning opportunities in the practice area. A secondary analysis of a 2009 Dietitians of Canada (DC) Sport Nutrition Network survey of members (n=70) was conducted to describe members' educational background. Through the use of publicly available information, Canadian dietetic internship, undergraduate, and graduate sport nutrition educational opportunities were identified. Most (72.9%) respondents indicated they had some type of formal education in sport nutrition; learning from undergraduate courses and conference sessions was cited most frequently. The majority (86.7%) of accredited universities offered undergraduate courses in sport/exercise nutrition. No DC-accredited internship program offered sport nutrition as a mandatory rotation, while 15.8% of graduate programs in Canada had faculty with research interests in the area. Among respondents, 91.4% felt sport nutrition education in Canada was inadequate; all expressed interest in participating in more formal learning experiences, and 97.1% were interested in a specialized credential. Canadian dietitians working in sport and exercise nutrition have diverse educational backgrounds and must direct their own learning. Improved career development pathways and more available formal education are desired and needed.
Simim, Mário A M; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Silva, Bruno V C; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Rosa, João Paulo P; Couto, Bruno Pena; da Silva, Andressa
The aim of this review was to identify the main variables for load monitoring in training and competition situations in wheelchair sports. Studies were identified from a systematic search of three databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and SportDiscuss), with search phrases constructed from MeSH terms, alone or in combination, limited to English-language literature, and published up to January 2016. Our main findings were that variables related to external load (distance, speed, and duration) are used to monitor load in competition. In training situations, researchers have used variables related to internal load (heart rate and VO 2 ); in both training and competition situations, researchers used internal load measurements (training impulse and ratings of perceived exertion). We conclude that the main variables for load monitoring in competitive situations were distance, speed, and duration, whereas the variables for training situations were heart rate, VO 2 , training impulse, and ratings of perceived exertion.
Hu, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jicai; Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; He, Rongrong
Based on the structure and motion bionic principle of the normal adult fingers, biological characteristics of human hands were analyzed, and a wearable exoskeleton hand function training device for the rehabilitation of stroke patients or patients with hand trauma was designed. This device includes the exoskeleton mechanical structure and the electromyography (EMG) control system. With adjustable mechanism, the device was capable to fit different finger lengths, and by capturing the EMG of the users' contralateral limb, the motion state of the exoskeleton hand was controlled. Then driven by the device, the user's fingers conducting adduction/abduction rehabilitation training was carried out. Finally, the mechanical properties and training effect of the exoskeleton hand were verified through mechanism simulation and the experiments on the experimental prototype of the wearable exoskeleton hand function training device.
Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the place of Olympic sports in modern world; to analyze dynamic of its political, economic and social significance progress. Material: publications on the topic of this article were used as sources of information. Results: we characterized influence of Olympic sports on transformation of views and practical functioning in sphere of elite sportsmen’s training. Main stages of modern Olympic sports’ formation have been regarded. Strategy of elite sports’ development in historical aspect has been presented. Changes in attitude of political leaders, state figures and general population to Olympic Games have been shown. Directions of development and perfection of elite sportsmen’s training national systems have been outlined. Conclusions: recent years, potential of Olympic sports have being reflected in foreign and home policy of many countries. It resulted in drastic changes in spheres of organization, management, financing, material technical and personnel provisioning of sportsmen’s training.
Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem
Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Omiya, Kazuto; Sekizuka, Hiromitsu; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Ohba, Haruo; Musha, Haruki
Influence of gender and sports training on QT variables such as QT interval and dispersion (QT dispersion: QTD) in young elite athletes were evaluated. Subjects included 104 male and 97 female Japanese elite athletes (mean age 21.6 years). Sports included basketball, fencing, gymnastics, judo, swimming, tennis, track and field and volleyball. Age-matched healthy non-athletes (32 men and 20 women) were enrolled as controls. QT measurements were manually obtained from a 12-lead resting electrocardiogram and QTD was calculated as the difference between the longest and shortest QT intervals. A corrected QT interval (QTc) was obtained using Bazett's formula. Subjects were divided into two groups; an endurance training group and a static training group on the basis of their training types. Maximum and minimum QTc were significantly longer in female athletes than in male athletes (max: 414.2 vs. 404.5 ms, min: 375.1 vs. 359.2 ms, ptraining group compared with non-athletes, and QTcDs in the static training group were prolonged compared with the endurance training group. However, no significant difference was observed in the female group. In conclusion, both gender and different characteristics of sports training may affect QT variables even in young elite athletes. Vigorous static exercise training may independently prolong QT variables.
Kumyaito, Nattapon; Yupapin, Preecha; Tamee, Kreangsak
An effective training plan is an important factor in sports training to enhance athletic performance. A poorly considered training plan may result in injury to the athlete, and overtraining. Good training plans normally require expert input, which may have a cost too great for many athletes, particularly amateur athletes. The objectives of this research were to create a practical cycling training plan that substantially improves athletic performance while satisfying essential physiological constraints. Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization using ɛ-constraint methods were used to formulate such a plan and simulate the likely performance outcomes. The physiological constraints considered in this study were monotony, chronic training load ramp rate and daily training impulse. A comparison of results from our simulations against a training plan from British Cycling, which we used as our standard, showed that our training plan outperformed the benchmark in terms of both athletic performance and satisfying all physiological constraints.
Slimani, Maamer; Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B; Chéour, Foued
Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.
Frost, David M; Cronin, John; Newton, Robert U
Newton's second law of motion describes the acceleration of an object as being directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force, in the same direction as the net force and inversely proportional to its mass (a = F/m). With respect to linear motion, mass is also a numerical representation of an object's inertia, or its resistance to change in its state of motion and directly proportional to the magnitude of an object's momentum at any given velocity. To change an object's momentum, thereby increasing or decreasing its velocity, a proportional impulse must be generated. All motion is governed by these relationships, independent of the exercise being performed or the movement type being used; however, the degree to which this governance affects the associated kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity is dependent on the resistance type. Researchers have suggested that to facilitate the greatest improvements to athletic performance, the resistance-training programme employed by an athlete must be adapted to meet the specific demands of their sport. Therefore, it is conceivable that one mechanical stimulus, or resistance type, may not be appropriate for all applications. Although an excellent means of increasing maximal strength and the rate of force development, free-weight or mass-based training may not be the most conducive means to elicit velocity-specific adaptations. Attempts have been made to combat the inherent flaws of free weights, via accommodating and variable resistance-training devices; however, such approaches are not without problems that are specific to their mechanics. More recently, pneumatic-resistance devices (variable) have been introduced as a mechanical stimulus whereby the body mass of the athlete represents the only inertia that must be overcome to initiate movement, thus potentially affording the opportunity to develop velocity-specific power. However, there is no empirical evidence to support such a contention. Future research should
Dlshad Nihad Abdulvahid
Full Text Available Purpose: to find ways of perfection of primary children’s selection for sport gymnastic training in Kurdistan. Material: questioning of specialized physical culture HEEs’ students in Ukraine and Kurdistan (n=120, n=120. Physical condition and physical qualities of 7 years’ age boys of Ukraine and Kurdistan (n=56, n=52 were assessed. Results: only 10 Kurdistan students had opportunity to start specialized sport trainings by recommendations of professional coach. Ineffective influence of mass media in involvement of youth in sport trainings was noted. Physical condition level of children corresponds to standards. In most of motor tests Ukrainian children showed better results that their peers from Kurdistan. Conclusions: in Ukraine 42% of children join sports practicing owing to parents’ wish. In Kurdistan 25% of children join sports practicing by recommendations of physical culture teachers. The next by importance factor is example of peers (21% and 33%. In nine from twelve motor tests Kurdistan children yield to their Ukrainian peers. In 20 meters’ run and in shuttle run results of Kurdistan children are better. Confident distinctions were found in quantity of chin ups in lying position.
Myer, Gregory D.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Best, Thomas M.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities; and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Recent trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong regular physical activity. PMID:21623307
de Bruijn, Jeroen; van der Worp, Henk; Korte, Mark; de Vries, Astrid J; Nijland, Rick; Brink, Michel S
CONTEXT: Previous research has shown a weak relationship between intended and actual training load in various sports. Due to variety in group and content, this relationship is expected to be even weaker during group rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our study was to examine the relationship
Ion S. BOROZAN
Full Text Available Some of the most common and helpful physical exercises used in sport training are the push-ups. Their biomechanics is analyzed in the paper and the author also gives an ergonomical study of this particular exercise with a complete simulation of the process.
Akyüz, Murat; Odabas, Cansu; Akyüz, Öznur; Dogru, Yeliz; Senel, Ömer; Tas, Murat; Besikçi, Tolga
Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effects of regular sport training implemented at Integrated Disabled Athlete Department on autistic children's adolescence development of individual abilities as motor proficiencies. Method: The subject group of this study is composed of 12 boys with autism who practiced physical education programs…
Visek, Amanda J.; Harris, Brandonn; Blom, Lindsey C.
Working with youth athletes requires knowledge of the inherent variability in child and adolescent development that will impact the implementation of a mental training program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of developmental considerations that should be noted when doing mental training, particularly for athletes participating in sport at mid-childhood, early adolescence, and mid-adolescence. Gender differences at these stages of development are also highlighted. Addition...
Full Text Available The ample opportunities of application of the instrumental estimation methods of javelin throwers' technical and special running training are considered. 10 qualified javelin throwers took part in the experiment. In the research a tensometric spear was used for the identification of speed and force increase character in phase of final effort. It is proved, that gradual speed increase without significant decline and rippling in phase of "traction" and impetuous force increase in "burst" phase of final effort characterize modern technique and proper special-power training. Special running training control is exercised by the results of 20 meters running in motion and 20 meters running with spear draw aside.
Full Text Available Purpose: determine the content and sequence of the use of mobile and educational games in the process of sports training for young football players. Material & Methods: analysis, synthesis and generalization of scientific information on the problem of research, educational and methodological literature and Internet sources, pedagogical observations. Results: it is established that the effectiveness of the use of mobile and educational games should be ensured not only through their appropriate selection in accordance with the pedagogical conditions and due organizational and methodical decision, but also by determining the optimal sequence of their implementation in the training process, adapting their content and structure to the contingent students and a specific pedagogical situation. The generalized sequence of application of these games in the process of sports training of young football players is considered, on a specific example their approximate content is revealed. Conclusion: the content and sequence of the use of mobile and educational games are determined by methodological provisions that provide for the primary solution of the tasks of the individual side of the training of young football players with the subsequent resolution of interrelations in its limits. After that, those tasks of a certain side of sports training that can be solved by means of another are realized. In the future, the relationship and integration of two or more parties of long-term training is carried out in control games and official competitions.
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Riekena, Jeremy W; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Recommendations exist to encourage safe youth participation in sport. These recommendations include not specializing in 1 sport, limiting participation to less than 8 months per year, and limiting participation to fewer hours per week than a child's age. However, limited evidence exists to support or refute these recommendations. High levels of specialization will be associated with a history of injuries and especially overuse injuries, independent of age, sex, or weekly sport training hours. Athletes who exceed current sport volume recommendations will be more likely to have a history of injuries and overuse injuries. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Youth athletes (n = 2011; 989 female and 1022 male; 12-18 years of age) completed a questionnaire regarding their specialization status, yearly and weekly sport participation volume, and injury history. Specialization was classified as low, moderate, or high using a previously utilized 3-point scale. Athletes were classified into groups based on either meeting or exceeding current volume recommendations (months per year and hours per week). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated to investigate associations of specialization and volume of participation with a history of sport-related injuries in the past year ( P ≤ .05). Highly specialized athletes were more likely to report a previous injury of any kind ( P sport more than 8 months of the year were more likely to report an upper extremity overuse injury ( P = .04; OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.06-2.80) or a lower extremity overuse injury ( P = .001; OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.22-2.30). Athletes who participated in their primary sport for more hours per week than their age (ie, a 16-year-old athlete who participated in his or her primary sport for more than 16 h/wk) were more likely to report an injury of any type ( P = .001; OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.12-1.61) in the previous year. High levels of specialization were associated with a history of injuries, independent of age
Andersen, J L; Aagaard, P
of the muscle and finally how will this affect the performance of the athlete. In addition, the review will deal with muscle hypertrophy and how it develops with strength training. Overall, it is not the purpose of this review to give a comprehensive up-date of the area, but to pin-point a few issues from which...... way into almost all sports in which high intense work is conducted. In this review we will focus on a few selected aspects and consequences of strength training; namely what effects do strength training have of muscle fiber type composition, and how may these effects change the contractile properties...
... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and... How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft you must— (a) Receive a logbook...
Hoffmann, James J; Reed, Jacob P; Leiting, Keith; Chiang, Chieh-Ying; Stone, Michael H
Due to the broad spectrum of physical characteristics necessary for success in field sports, numerous training modalities have been used develop physical preparedness. Sports like rugby, basketball, lacrosse, and others require athletes to be not only strong and powerful but also aerobically fit and able to recover from high-intensity intermittent exercise. This provides coaches and sport scientists with a complex range of variables to consider when developing training programs. This can often lead to confusion and the misuse of training modalities, particularly in the development of aerobic and anaerobic conditioning. This review outlines the benefits and general adaptations to 3 commonly used and effective conditioning methods: high-intensity interval training, repeated-sprint training, and small-sided games. The goals and outcomes of these training methods are discussed, and practical implementations strategies for coaches and sport scientists are provided.
Stenling, Andreas; Tafvelin, Susanne
Leadership development programs are common in sports, but seldom evaluated; hence, we have limited knowledge about what the participants actually learn and the impact these programs have on sports clubs' daily operations. The purpose of the current study was to integrate a transfer of training model with self-determination theory to understand predictors of learning and training transfer, following a leadership development program among organizational leaders in Swedish sports clubs. Bayesian multilevel path analysis showed that autonomous motivation and an autonomy-supportive implementation of the program positively predicted near transfer (i.e., immediately after the training program) and that perceiving an autonomy-supportive climate in the sports club positively predicted far transfer (i.e., 1 year after the training program). This study extends previous research by integrating a transfer of training model with self-determination theory and identified important motivational factors that predict near and far training transfer.
McGladrey, Brian W; Hannon, James C; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Shultz, Barry B; Shaw, Janet M
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of knowledge that current and preservice high school (HS) physical educators and sport coaches possess regarding the principles and methods involved in youth resistance training (RT) and to determine if that knowledge was acceptable based on a predetermined criterion (passing score). A panel of 10 experts in RT or sport pedagogy used a Delphi technique to create a 90-question assessment (examination) that was administered to 287 HS physical educators and sport coaches and 140 university physical education teacher education (PETE) students. An analysis of the results revealed that neither group demonstrated the minimal knowledge necessary to design, implement, and supervise RT programs based on a passing score of 75%: HS physical educators/coaches, mean = 59.30, SD = 14.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 57.64-60.96], t(286) = -18.61, p = 0.000; university PETE students, mean = 56.61, SD = 16.59, 95% CI = 53.84-59.38, t(139) = -13.12, p = 0.000. The pass rate for physical educators and sport coaches was 14.3% and for university PETE students it was 20.7%. The results of this study indicate that both current and preservice physical educators and sport coaches need additional education and training specific to the design and implementation of RT programs for HS students. Given that school districts typically require their educators attend in-service training programs, it may be advisable to develop an in-service program that allows both current and preservice HS physical educators and sport coaches to earn an RT certification that specifically addresses the unique physical and psychosocial needs of school-aged youth.
..., and training aids. 141.41 Section 141.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... aids. An applicant for a pilot school certificate or a provisional pilot school certificate must show that its flight simulators, flight training devices, training aids, and equipment meet the following...
... the pilot flight training requirements prescribed in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training program: Approval of airplane simulators and other training devices. 121.407 Section 121.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...
Full Text Available Influence of functional probiotic product of "Laminolact Sporting" on the indexes of special trained of power and cyclic types of sport skilled representatives is studied. It is set, that of the basis of improvement of the special preparedness of sportsmen are the positive changes of immunological indexes, decline of expressed of endogenous intoxication as well as improvement of myocardium retractive ability. Expediency of application of probiotic is reasonable in composition the chart of pharmacological support on the stages of circannual macrocycle of skilled sportsmen preparation.
Zwierko, Teresa; Puchalska-Niedbał, Lidia; Krzepota, Justyna; Markiewicz, Mikołaj; Woźniak, Jarosław; Lubiński, Wojciech
Binocular vision is the most important visual cue for spatial orientation in many sports. In this study, we investigated how binocular vision was influenced by an eye training program that may be used to improve individual's oculomotor function. The experiment involved twenty-four female student athletes from team ball sports (soccer, basketball, handball). After an initial testing session, 12 participants were randomly allocated to the experimental group. Optometric investigation which included synoptophore testing and a test of dissociated horizontal phoria based on the Maddox method was performed three times: before the experiment, after eight weeks of eye training (3 times a week for 20 minutes), and four weeks after the experiment was terminated. Eye exercise methodology was based on orthoptic, sport and psychological aspects of performance. The phoria screening examination showed that exophoria was the most frequent disorder of binocular vision. Low fusional vergence range was also observed. Following the training period, 3 of the 6 oculomotor variables improved. The greatest effect was observed in near dissociated phoria (χ(2) =14.56, p=0.001 for the right eye; χ(2) =14.757, p=0.001 for the left eye) and fusional convergence (χ(2) =8.522, p=0.014). The results of the retention test conducted four weeks after the experiment confirmed the effectiveness of the vision training program. The results of the study suggest that binocular functions are trainable and can be improved by means of appropriate visual training.
Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training. Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (<8 weeks has the potential to enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.
Fagard, R H
There is overwhelming evidence, particularly from echocardiography, that the heart of competitive athletes may differ from that of nonathletes, matched for age, gender, and body size. A larger left ventricular mass has been shown in athletes performing predominantly dynamic aerobic and anaerobic sports, in athletes engaged in static training, and in players of ball sports. Enlargement of the left ventricular internal diameter was most pronounced and reached about 10% in athletes performing predominantly dynamic sports; mainly strength training athletes had a lesser increase of the internal dimension, which was limited to 2.5%. Also the left ventricular wall appeared to be thickened in all types of athletes compared with controls. In sports with high dynamic and low static demands, wall thickness was proportionate or slightly disproportionate to the size of the internal diameter so that relative wall thickness was not different from controls or slightly increased (predominantly eccentric hypertrophy). In strength athletes, the disproportionate increase of wall thickness averaged about 12% (predominantly concentric hypertrophy). In sports with high dynamic and high static demands and requiring prolonged training, such as cycling, the increases of absolute and relative wall thickness reached 29% and 19% and were more pronounced than in runners (mixed hypertrophy). A plausible interpretation of these results is that the development of so-called eccentric or concentric left ventricular hypertrophy according to the type of sports cannot be regarded as an absolute or dichotomous concept because training regimens and sports activities are not exclusively dynamic or static and because the load on the heart is not purely of the volume or the pressure type. Most studies agree that left ventricular systolic and diastolic function is normal in the athlete at rest, whereas diastolic function seems to be enhanced in the exercising endurance athlete. The consistency of the results
Wilmore, Jack H.
Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…
Full Text Available Was analyzed literature devoted to the preparation of students of physical education to administrative activities. In the context of their training we held a comparative analysis of the approaches to organize the pedagogical process. As a reference point for the formation of professional preparedness specialist physical education and sports identified qualifying characteristics posts in this industry. Based on the analysis of literature given the definition of the concept of "readiness for organization of the Youth sports school.
Full Text Available The authors have solved topical scientific problems in the article: 1 the research base in the construction of theoretical and methodological foundations of sports training, based on taekwondo has been analysed; 2 the organization and methodological requirements for the training sessions of taekwondo have been researched; 3 the necessity of interaction processes of natural development and adaptation to physical activity of young taekwondo sportsmen has been grounded; 4 the necessity of scientific evidence of building young fighters training loads in microcycles, based on their individualization has been proved.
Visek, Amanda J; Harris, Brandonn; Blom, Lindsey C
Working with youth athletes requires knowledge of the inherent variability in child and adolescent development that will impact the implementation of a mental training program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of developmental considerations that should be noted when doing mental training, particularly for athletes participating in sport at mid-childhood, early adolescence, and mid-adolescence. Gender differences at these stages of development are also highlighted. Additionally, we forward best practice recommendations and learning-activities that have been tailored for each developmental stage that can be used in the provision of a mental training program in a team setting.
Full Text Available Purpose: identify the factors affecting the effective performance of the Children and Youth Sports School at the initial and preliminary stage of basic training. Material and Methods: analysis of the literary base, pedagogical research methods, statistical methods, questionnaire. Results: the understanding of the factors influencing the motor skills formation of students is displayed. The author grounded three-dimensional understanding of dissimilar conditions and factors determining the functionality of a Children and Youth Sports School taking into account the motivation of students the scope of use of the skills and other factors which don’t deal with teaching science. Conclusions: it was found that miscellaneous factors, many of which are associated with the state of material and technical base and infrastructure of the school, the region and the country as a whole affect screening the contingent of a Children and Youth Sports School
For most elite athletes winning an Olympic gold medal is the ultimate dream. To make this dream come true, in the first place one needs sufficient talent. However next to this talent, several years of training with large amounts of strenuous work is necessary. It is therefore not remarkable that the
Full Text Available The high demand in athletes creates the need to control the process of adaptation to training. The aim of this review is to analyze the biochemical parameters of utility for biological control of the athlete, and provide tools to sports dietitian-nutritionist in the follow-up of the training.Glucose and lipid profile parameters are widely used but insufficient to control training. The lactic acid level in the plasma is the most common tool to assess training load, where values higher than 4 mmol/l, suggest an intensive training. Other enzymes in high concentrations such as creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and two transaminases: glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT or aspartate transaminase (AST or aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT or alanine transaminase or aminotransferase (ALT suggest that the training load was high producing microscopic tearing of the muscle fibers. Determination of other substrates such as ammonia, glutamine, or testosterone/cortisol ratio, used to detect a possible overtraining syndrome. Likewise the latest research suggest that high cortisol levels decrease the immune system.Moreover, an increase of urea, alanine or ketone bodies are related to muscle glycogen stores depleted. Therefore, the information provided by these parameters is useful for the sports dietitian-nutritionist for dietary and nutritional interventions to achieve more effective in function of the training goals.
Banfi, Giuseppe; Melegati, Gianluca
The principal source of increased turnover of erythrocytes in athletes is sport hemolysis, the intravascular hemolysis that characteristically occurs with athletic performance in sport. The use of the parameter mean sphered cell volume (MSCV), automatically measured by means of the Coulter LH750, could be useful for diagnosing the presence of sport hemolysis. We studied the behavior of MSCV and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) in 30 top-level rugby players who underwent a heavy training session followed by 3 different recovery methods, administered to 3 subgroups of 10 athletes. We tested the use of active recovery consisting of cold water (5 degrees C) immersion of legs for 10 minutes either before (n = 10) or after (n = 10) cycling at 180 W for 10 minutes. In the whole group of athletes, measurements performed at rest and after training session and recovery showed no differences in MCV and MSCV values. The difference between MCV and MSCV was significant in the whole group and in the subgroup performing passive recovery, whereas the difference was not significant in the subgroups performing active recovery. This finding indicates that the use of active recovery in the top-level rugby players prevented the modifications of erythrocyte volume and shape. We outline that the values of the difference between MCV and MSCV was significantly modified in the whole group but the variations were not significant in the active recovery subgroups. The use of an index of erythrocyte shape modification (MCV - MSCV) can be very useful for evaluating sport hemolysis.
Shield, Anthony J; Bourne, Matthew N
Hamstring strain injuries are endemic in running-based sports. Given the economic and performance implications of these injuries, a significant body of research has emerged in recent years in an attempt to identify risk factors and develop or optimise injury prevention strategies. Surveys of injury prevention practices among medical and conditioning staff in elite sport suggest that many sporting clubs invest significant efforts in eccentric hamstring conditioning and lumbo-pelvic or trunk stability programmes. The purpose of this narrative review was to critically evaluate the evidence underpinning these practices. Single-exercise eccentric training interventions have proven effective in the prevention of primary and recurrent hamstring strains, when compliance is adequate. However, despite its almost universal acceptance, the authors are aware of only one, very recent, prospective risk factor study examining the effect of lumbo-pelvic motion during sprinting on hamstring injury risk. Furthermore, the interventions exploring the effect of lumbo-pelvic training on hamstring injury rates have not measured stability in any way. An improved understanding of the evidence underpinning commonly employed hamstring injury prevention practices may enable clinicians and coaches to better prioritise effective strategies in the increasingly complex environment of elite sport.
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Guskiewicz, Kevin M.
Sport and recreational activity is a vital part of today's society, and athletic training researchers are playing an important role in gaining a better understanding of how to promote safe and healthy participation for athletes of all ages. This article aims to illustrate the importance of research to prevent and effectively treat sport and…
de Bruijn, Jeroen; van der Worp, Henk; Korte, Mark; de Vries, Astrid; Nijland, Rick; Brink, Michel
Previous research has shown a weak relationship between intended and actual training load in various sports. Due to variety in group and content, this relationship is expected to be even weaker during group rehabilitation. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between intended and actual training load during sport-specific rehabilitation in a group setting. Observational study. Three outdoor rehabilitation sessions. Nine amateur soccer players recovering from lower limb injury participated in the study (age 22 ± 3 y, height 179 ± 9 cm, body mass 75 ± 13 kg). We collected physiotherapists' ratings of intended exertion (RIE) and players' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Furthermore, Zephyr Bioharness 3 equipped with GPS-trackers provided heart rate and distance data. We computed heart rate-based training loads using Edwards' method and a modified TRIMP. Overall, we found weak correlations (N = 42) between RIE and RPE (r = 0.35), Edwards' (r = 0.34), TRIMP MOD (r = 0.07), and distance (r = 0.26). In general, physiotherapists tended to underestimate training loads. To check whether intended training loads are met, it is thus recommended to monitor training loads during rehabilitation.
Halouani, Jamel; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gabbett, Tim; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim
Small-sided games (SSGs) incorporating skills, sport-specific movements, at intensities sufficient to promote aerobic adaptations, are being increasingly implemented in professional team sport environments. Small-sided games are often employed by coaches based on the premise that the greatest training benefits occur when training simulates the specific movement patterns and physiological demands of the sport. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSG can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical and tactical skills in team sports. It is possible that with some modifications (e.g., number of players, pitch size, coach encouragement, and wrestling), such games may be physiologically beneficial for athletes with relatively high initial aerobic fitness levels. For instance, it has been shown that 3-a-side soccer SSG resulted in higher intensity (i.e., greater overall distance, less jogging and walking, higher heart rate, and more tackling, dribbling, goal attempts, and passes) than 5-a-side SSG. Likewise, when player numbers were kept constant, a larger playing area increased the intensity of the SSG with a smaller playing area having the opposite effect. It has also been demonstrated that energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than that obtained in a basketball court. Moreover, it has been demonstrated in rugby that wrestling can increase the physical demands of SSG. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, although most rule changes have trivial or no effect on exercise intensity. Further research is required to examine the optimal periodization strategies of SSG training for the long-term development of physiological capacity, technical skill, and tactical proficiency, while also minimizing the associated risk of injuries.
... operations to be performed; possible hazards to be encountered; and general safety considerations to be taken... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety device training. 250.1631 Section 250.1631 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND...
Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel
This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare oxidative/antioxidative status in obese and sport trained children and to correlate obtained redox markers with anthropometrical measurements, body composition parameters, and adipokines levels. 78 (44 males obese (SG and 80 (40 males normal weight sport trained (CG children matched for age and Tanner stage were recruited for the study. Body composition parameters and basal metabolic rate (BMR were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA. Oxidative/antioxidative status was evaluated in plasma by total oxidative status (PerOX, oxidized-LDL cholesterol (oxLDL, total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOx, and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx. Leptin and adiponectin levels and adiponectin/leptin ratio (A/L were also investigated. OxLDL was higher in SG versus CG (P < 0.05, but ImAnOx and GPx were reduced in SG versus CG (P < 0.01. Redox markers correlated significantly with BMI Z-score, WHR, WHtR, body composition parameters, leptin (in boys only, and A/L ratio (in boys only in SG and in a whole studied population. PerOX significantly correlated with BMR in the CG. Antioxidative/oxidative status in obese children is significantly impaired and related adipose tissue excess and its hormonal activity. Oxidative status assessed by PerOx is also high in sport trained children but antioxidative defense is significantly more efficient with no overproduction of oxidized LDL.
Full Text Available Introduction. Gaining insight into the mechanisms and scope of possible adaptations of visual functions to the conditions determined by the demands imposed by sports training seems to be very interesting not only from a cognitive point of view, but also with respect to the practical applications of the findings of such investigations in the training process. The aim of the study was to assess the function of early visual processing in athletes representing different sports disciplines with varying training experience. Material and methods. The study involved 95 athletes practising football (n = 24, volleyball (n = 22, boxing (n = 26, and rowing (n = 23. The bioelectric function of the visual pathway was assessed based on recordings of visual evoked potentials (VEPs. The regions which were stimulated were the peripheral and central areas of the retina. During the test, we recorded the amplitude (μV and latency (ms of the P100 component of the VEP waveform for both monocular stimulation (for the dominant and non-dominant eye and binocular stimulation. Results. Lower VEP P100 amplitude values were found for the peripheral and central locations for monocular and binocular viewing in more experienced volleyball players and rowers (p 0.05 in intragroup variability in VEP P100 latency in relation to training experience in any of the sports disciplines examined. Conclusions. Training experience has an influence on the early stage of sensory processing with respect to neural activity. Training experience has been found to differentiate athletes in terms of the temporal parameters of the visual evoked potentials recorded in the current study only to a limited extent.
Freitas, Tomás T; Martinez-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Calleja-González, Julio; Alcaraz, Pedro E
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1) at least one CT intervention group; 2) training protocols ≥4-wks; 3) sample of team-sport players; 4) sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES) of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups) met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES) (ES = 0.73) were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41) in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01) and VJ (ES = 0.63) performance than control-groups. large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (training programs >12 total sessions (ES = 0.74). Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81). Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56); protocols with intracomplex rest intervals ≥2 min (ES = 0.55); conditioning activities with intensities ≤85% 1RM (ES = 0.64); basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55). Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42); interventions ≥6 weeks (ES = 0.45). CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning.
Santos, Sara; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno
Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study's purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4) and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7) groups. The experimental group participated in a five-month training program involving either creative thinking, diversification, physical literacy, and nonlinear pedagogy approaches (Skills4Genius). Variables in the study included: a) creative thinking; b) motor performance (vertical jump, speed, and agility); c) in-game individual creative behavior (attempts, fluency, and versatility); and d) in-game collective behavior (positional regularity). The results suggested that the Skills4Genius program fostered creative thinking, agility, and speed performance. Moreover, it stretched the in-game individual creative behavior mainly through the improvement of the attempts and versatility of the player's actions. Lastly, it nurtured a better learning of the tactical principles, whereas the children were more coordinated with their teammates' and opponents' positioning. Additionally, this study presents a positive correlation linking creative thinking and in-game creative performance. These findings highlighted that creativity is facilitated while players become more thinking and game-skilled. Coaches and educators may apply this functional environment to inspire children's disposition to move outside the box and trigger a creative spark in team sports players. Notwithstanding, the sports environment is ideally suited for fostering creative behavior, a higher-order disposition that will go on to differentiate the everyday life of a child.
Full Text Available Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study's purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4 and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7 groups. The experimental group participated in a five-month training program involving either creative thinking, diversification, physical literacy, and nonlinear pedagogy approaches (Skills4Genius. Variables in the study included: a creative thinking; b motor performance (vertical jump, speed, and agility; c in-game individual creative behavior (attempts, fluency, and versatility; and d in-game collective behavior (positional regularity. The results suggested that the Skills4Genius program fostered creative thinking, agility, and speed performance. Moreover, it stretched the in-game individual creative behavior mainly through the improvement of the attempts and versatility of the player's actions. Lastly, it nurtured a better learning of the tactical principles, whereas the children were more coordinated with their teammates' and opponents' positioning. Additionally, this study presents a positive correlation linking creative thinking and in-game creative performance. These findings highlighted that creativity is facilitated while players become more thinking and game-skilled. Coaches and educators may apply this functional environment to inspire children's disposition to move outside the box and trigger a creative spark in team sports players. Notwithstanding, the sports environment is ideally suited for fostering creative behavior, a higher-order disposition that will go on to differentiate the everyday life of a child.
Santos, Sara; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno
Team Sports has been suggested as a suitable environment to investigate creative behavior. This study’s purpose was two-fold: first, it intended to identify the effects of the Skills4Genius sports-bases training program in thinking, motor, and in-game creative behavior in team sports. Second, it aimed to investigate the relationship between creative thinking and in-game creativity. Forty children from primary school were allocated into control (n = 18, age: 9.2±0.4) and experimental (n = 22, age: 9.5±0.7) groups. The experimental group participated in a five-month training program involving either creative thinking, diversification, physical literacy, and nonlinear pedagogy approaches (Skills4Genius). Variables in the study included: a) creative thinking; b) motor performance (vertical jump, speed, and agility); c) in-game individual creative behavior (attempts, fluency, and versatility); and d) in-game collective behavior (positional regularity). The results suggested that the Skills4Genius program fostered creative thinking, agility, and speed performance. Moreover, it stretched the in-game individual creative behavior mainly through the improvement of the attempts and versatility of the player’s actions. Lastly, it nurtured a better learning of the tactical principles, whereas the children were more coordinated with their teammates’ and opponents’ positioning. Additionally, this study presents a positive correlation linking creative thinking and in-game creative performance. These findings highlighted that creativity is facilitated while players become more thinking and game-skilled. Coaches and educators may apply this functional environment to inspire children’s disposition to move outside the box and trigger a creative spark in team sports players. Notwithstanding, the sports environment is ideally suited for fostering creative behavior, a higher-order disposition that will go on to differentiate the everyday life of a child. PMID:28231260
Yildiz, Suleyman M
This paper examines the phenomenon of training teachers of Physical Education and Sports (PES) in Turkey with respect to its dimensions of student quotas, graduates, and employment; and performs analytical evaluations through the numeric data. In the last five years, the number of labor force participants in PES teaching posts was 14,459 on average and the average employment volume was 10.29%, which means that a great number of graduates have accumulated against employment. Thus, this indicates that no realistic planning was done in the past years "so as to create a supply-demand equilibrium between training and employment of PES teachers".
Ferran eArgelaguet Sanz
Full Text Available Athletes' performances are influenced by internal and external factors, including their psychological state and environmental factors, especially during competition. As a consequence, current training programs include stress management. In this paper, we explore whether highly immersive systems can be used for such training programs. First, we propose methodological guidelines to design sport training scenarios both on considering the elements that a training routine must have, and how external factors might influence the participant. The proposed guidelines are based on Flow and social-evaluative threat theories. Second, to illustrate and validate our methodology, we designed an experimental setup reproducing a ten meter Olympic pistol shooting. We analyzed whether changes in the environment are able to induce changes in user performance, physiological responses and the subjective perception of the task. The simulation included stressors in order to raise a social-evaluative threat, such as aggressive public behavior or unforced errors, increasing the pressure while performing the task. The results showed significant differences in their subjective impressions, trends in the behavioral and physiological data were also observed. Taken together, our results suggest that highly immersive systems could be further used for training in sports.
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance, and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation, and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration. Other methods in use in endurance sports include speed measurement and the measurement of power output, made possible by recent technological advances such as power meters in cycling and triathlon. Among subjective methods of quantification, rating of perceived exertion stands out because of its wide use. Concurrent assessments of the various quantification methods allow researchers and practitioners to evaluate stress/recovery balance, adjust individual training programs, and determine the relationships between external load, internal load, and athletes' performance. This brief review summarizes the most relevant external- and internal-workload-quantification methods in endurance sports and provides practical examples of their implementation to adjust the training programs of elite athletes in accordance with their individualized stress/recovery balance.
Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz, David; Sarabia, Jose Manuel; Moya, Manuel
To compare the effects of combining high-intensity training (HIT) and sport-specific drill training (MT) versus sportspecific drill training alone (DT) on fitness performance characteristics in young tennis players. Twenty young tennis players (14.8 ± 0.1 y) were assigned to either DT (n = 10) or MT (n = 10) for 8 wk. Tennis drills consisted of two 16- to 22-min on-court exercise sessions separated by 3 min of passive rest, while MT consisted of 1 sport-specific DT session and 1 HIT session, using 16-22 min of runs at intensities (90-95%) related to the velocity obtained in the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (V IFT ) separated by 3 min of passive rest. Pre- and posttests included peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 peak), V IFT , speed (20 m, with 5- and 10-m splits), 505 Agility Test, and countermovement jump (CMJ). There were significant improvements after the training period in VO 2 peak (DT 2.4%, ES = moderate; MT 4.2%, ES = large) and V IFT (DT 2.2%, ES = small; MT 6.3%, ES = large) for both DT and MT, with no differences between training protocols. Results also showed a large increase in the 505 Agility Test after MT, while no changes were reported in the other tests (sprint and CMJ), either for MT or DT. Even though both training programs resulted in significant improvements in aerobic performance, a mixed program combining tennis drills and runs based on the V IFT led to greater gains and should be considered the preferred training method for improving aerobic power in young athletes.
Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Rudzitis, Andris; Spunde, Andris; Brice, Tamara; Nitiss, Edgars
We recorded eye movements of eight elite junior basketball players. We hypothesized that a more stable gaze is correlated to a better shot rate. Upon preliminary testing we invited male juniors whose eyes could be reliably tracked in a game situation. To these ends, we used a head-mounted video-based eye tracker. The participants had no record of ocular or other health issues. No significant differences were found between shots made with and without the tracker cap, Paired samples t-test yielded p= .130 for the far and p=..900 > .050 for the middle range shots. The players made 40 shots from common far and middle range locations, 5 and 4 meters respectively for aged 14 years As expected, a statistical correlation was found between gaze fixation (in milliseconds) for the far and middle range shot rates, r=.782, p=.03. Notably, juniors who fixated longer before a shot had a more stable fixation or a lower gaze dispersion (in tracker's screen pixels), r=-.786, p=.02. This finding was augmented by the observation that the gaze dispersion while aiming at the basket was less (i.e., gaze more stable) in those who were more likely to score. We derived a regression equation linking fixation duration to shot success. We advocate infra-red eye tracking as a means to monitor player selection and training success.
Christensen, Mark; Christensen, Heidi K
Residency training clearly impacts physicians' approach toward fellowship in Primary Care Sports Medicine. Although the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education sets strict standards for all programs, family medicine and emergency medicine training differ a great deal in general and provide physicians from both backgrounds varied perspectives and skill sets. The family physician acquires a substantial amount of experience in continuity of care and integration of health care into a patient's everyday life. On the other hand, the emergency physician receives exceptional training in the management of acutely ill and injured patients and leadership of a large health care team. Furthermore, while the emergency physician may be skilled in procedures such as fracture reduction and diagnostic ultrasound, the family physician is proficient in developing patient rapport and compliance with a treatment plan. Although physicians from different backgrounds may start with many differences, fellowship training is essential in bridging those gaps.
Smith, Nathan; Quested, Eleanor; Appleton, Paul R; Duda, Joan L
Adopting an integrated achievement goal (Nicholls, J. G. (1989). The competitive ethos and democratic education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.) and self-determination theory (Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi:10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01) perspective as proffered by Duda, J. L. (2013). (The conceptual and empirical foundations of empowering coaching TM : Setting the stage for the PAPA project. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 311-318. doi:10.1080/1612197X.2013.839414), the aim of the current study was to observe empowering and disempowering features of the multidimensional motivational coaching environment in training and competition in youth sport. Seventeen grass-roots soccer coaches were observed and rated in training and competitive settings using the multidimensional motivational climate observation system (MMCOS; Smith, N., Tessier, D., Tzioumakis, Y., Quested, E., Appleton, P., Sarrazin, P., … Duda, J. L. (2015). Development and validation of the multidimensional motivational climate observation system (MMCOS). Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 37, 4-22. doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0059). In line with our hypotheses, coaches created different motivational environments in the two contexts. More specifically, coaches were observed to create a less empowering and more disempowering environment in competition compared to in training. The observed differences were underpinned by distinctive motivational strategies used by coaches in the two contexts. Findings have implications for the assessment of the coach-created motivational environment and the promotion of quality motivation for young athletes taking part in grass-roots-level sport.
Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Nistrup, Anne
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...
Full Text Available Recent technological progress offers the opportunity to significantly transform conventional open surgical procedures in ways that allow minimally invasive surgery (MIS to be accomplished by specific operative instruments’ entry into the body through key-sized holes rather than large incisions. Although MIS offers an opportunity for less trauma and quicker recovery, thereby reducing length of hospital stay and attendant costs, the complex nature of this procedure makes it difficult to master, not least because of the limited work area and constricted degree of freedom. Accordingly, this research seeks to design a Teach and Playback device that can aid surgical training by key-framing and then reproducing surgical motions. The result is an inexpensive and portable Teach and Playback laparoscopic training device that can record a trainer’s surgical motions and then play them back for trainees. Indeed, such a device could provide a training platform for surgical residents generally and would also be susceptible of many other applications for other robot-assisted tasks that might require complex motion training and control.
Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Scott, Brendan R; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K
Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p sports conditioning program.
Loehr, James A; Lee, Stuart M C; English, Kirk L; Sibonga, Jean; Smith, Scott M; Spiering, Barry A; Hagan, R Donald
Resistance exercise has been used as a means to prevent the musculoskeletal losses associated with spaceflight. Therefore, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration designed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to replace the initial device flown on the International Space Station. The ARED uses vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to simulate, in the absence of gravity, the constant mass and inertia, respectively, of free weight (FW) exercise. To compare the musculoskeletal effects of resistance exercise training using the ARED with the effects of training with FW. Previously untrained, ambulatory subjects exercised using one of two modalities: FW (6 men and 3 women) or ARED (8 men and 3 women). Subjects performed squat, heel raise, and dead lift exercises 3 d·wk(-1) for 16 wk. Squat, heel raise, and dead lift strength (one-repetition maximum; using FW and ARED), bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), and vertical jump were assessed before, during, and after training. Muscle mass (via magnetic resonance imaging) and bone morphology (via quantitative computed tomography) were measured before and after training. Bone biomarkers and circulating hormones were measured before training and after 4, 8, and 16 wk. Muscle strength, muscle volume, vertical jump height, and lumbar spine bone mineral density (via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and quantitative computed tomography) significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in both groups. There were no significant differences between groups in any of the dependent variables at any time. After 16 wk of training, ARED exercise resulted in musculoskeletal effects that were not significantly different from the effects of training with FW. Because FW training mitigates bed rest-induced deconditioning, the ARED may be an effective countermeasure for spaceflight-induced deconditioning and should be validated during spaceflight.
Ristolainen, L; Kettunen, J A; Waller, B; Heinonen, A; Kujala, U M
The purpose of this study was to clarify training-related risk factors for overuse injuries. This was twelve-month retrospective study which was done by self-reported postal questionnaire. The study group consisted of 446 men and women top-level Finnish athletes representing three different endurance sports (cross-country skiing, swimming, long-distance running) between the ages of 15-35. Self-reported anthropometric and training-related variables (such as starting age of training, years of active training, hours trained yearly, competition hours and weekly resting days) and occurrence of overuse injuries. Athletes with less than 2 rest days per week during the training season had 5.2-fold risk (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.89-14.06, P=0.001) for an overuse injury, and athletes who trained more than 700 hours during a year had 2.1-fold risk (95% CI 1.21-3.61, P=0.008) for an overuse injury compared to the others. Athletes who reported a tendon injury were on average two years older than athletes without such an injury (Ptraining are training-related risk factors for overuse injuries in top-level endurance athletes. The higher number of tendon overuse injuries in older than younger athletes may indicate that age-related degeneration plays an important role in the etiology of tendon injuries. These findings should be taken into account when planning exercise programs for endurance athletes.
Full Text Available Competitive athletes frequently use altitude training (AT to improve sea-level performance. ATbecame interesting for sport scientists and athletes since Olympic Games in Mexico City in 1968. Exercise ataltitude may increase the training stimulus and enlarge the effects of endurance training. The first notedadaptation induced by staying at altitude is an increase in red blood cell mass that improves aerobic power andsea-level performance. Currently, there are several types of AT modalities: traditional ‘live high-train high’,contemporary ‘live high-train low’, intermittent hypoxic exposure during rest, live low-train high andintermittent hypoxic exposure during continuous session. Despite several substantial differences between thesemethods of hypoxic all of them have the same goal: to stimulate an improvement in athletic performance at sealevel. A proper distinction must be made between altitude acclimatization during preparation for competitions ataltitude and AT and acclimatization for improvement of the sea-level performances. Former scientific researchesidentified two longer phases of enhanced work capacity after AT. First phase of enhanced work capacityoccurring between days 3-7 and 12-13, while the best results are achieved during 18 and 20 days after AT.Second phase of enhanced work capacity is reported between days 36 and 48 after AT. The further developmentof practical knowledge in area of AT should predominantly include recommendations about application ofdifferent AT methods in training periodization in different sports. Improvement of the work capacity andduration of enhanced work capacity at the sea level after AT stimuli are the main questions opened for futurescientific researches.
Ai Choo LEE
Full Text Available Background: To investigate the effectiveness of four weeks sports specific balance training program to improve balance, thus reducing the risk of ankle sprain among Sultan Idris Education University basketball players. Method: There were 20 males basketball players (aged 19-24 years volunteered in this study. After screening process, there were14 male players met the inclusion criteria. They were randomized into two groups i.e experimental group (EG: n=7 and control group (CG: n=7. The EG undergone the four weeks sports specific balance training program three times per week while the CG followed their normal standard basketball training program. Balance Error Scoring System (BESS was used to assess static balance while Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT is utilized to examine the dynamic balance. Pretest and posttest of balance measures were recorded using BESS and SEBT for both EG and CG. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-test (p=0.05. Results: The study findings indicated that there were significant differences between EG and CG for the static balance on firm surface (t=-4.642, p=0.001 and on foam surface (t=-8.590, P=0.000 as well as dynamic balance on left leg stance (t=2.350, P=0.037 and on right leg stance (t=3.145, P=0.008. Conclusion: The study findings indicated that the four weeks sports specific balance training program could improve balance ability in male basketball players, thus may reducing the risk of ankle sprain.
Williams, Alun G; Wackerhage, Henning; Day, Stephen H
This paper addresses practical and ethical considerations regarding genetic tests to predict performance and/or risk of exercise-related injury or illness. Various people might wish to conduct sport-related genetic tests for a variety of reasons. For example, an individual might seek personal genetic information to help guide their own sport participation. A sports coach might wish to test young athletes to aid team selection or individualize training. A physician might want to predict the risk of injury or illness in athletes and advise regarding selection or preventative measures. An insurance company might seek to estimate the risk of career-threatening injury for athletes based partly on genetic information. Whilst this information is, in part, encoded in our DNA sequence, the available tests allow generally only a poor prediction of the aforementioned variables. In other words, the current genetic tests and analysis methods are not powerful enough to inform important decisions in sport to a substantial degree. It is particularly disappointing that more than half of the commercially available genetic tests related to exercise and sport do not appear to identify publicly the genetic variants they assess, making scrutiny by academic scholars and consumers (or their representatives) impossible. There are also challenging ethical issues to consider. For example, the imposition of genetic tests on individuals (especially young people) by third parties is potentially susceptible to abuse. Scientists and practitioners should understand the limitations of the tests currently available, the ethical concerns and the importance of counselling before and after testing so that they are only used in a responsible manner. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Romano Spica, V; Giampaoli, S; Di Onofrio, V; Liguori, G
Post-industrial societies have to face the problem of physical inactivity and inappropriate lifestyles. Programs to promote physical activity are strongly supported by supranational, national and local institutions and organizations. These programs can be developed in sport facilities but also in places that are not institutionally dedicated to sport. The use of urban and working sites has the advantage of better reach the various segments of the population, but at the same time requires coordination between various professionals in structuring an effective intervention. Bibliographical research in the historical archives of the library of the University of Rome Foro Italico, online databases, paleoigiene (wikigiene), documents archives (GSMS-SItI, WHO, ISS, OsEPi, INAIL, ISTAT, national laws). Several guidelines and regulations face the problem of safety in sport environments. The context is in rapid evolution and directions are provided by public health authorities. Graduates in Sport and Physical Activity, represent an additional resource in terms of: prevention and safety in the workplace, health education, application of preventive and adapted physical activities in the territory. These tasks can be integrated in all prevention stages: e.g. childhood and primary prevention programs in school, adapted physical activity for the elderly. The contribution of public health specialists is strategic in the surveillance and coordination of integrated projects. At the same time, graduates in Physical Education appear to be pivots for health promotion and qualified resources for institutions in the territory. Their training should always include contents related to prevention and safety, regulations on sport and working environments, along with bases of preventive medicine related to the context of physical activity.
Full Text Available Purpose : To determine theoretically similar trends and differences in the periods of sports training athletes and Paralympic athletes with similar qualifications, without disabilities. Material : analyzed more than 80 references. Results : at present insufficiently developed periodization sports training many years to prepare athletes with disorders of the musculoskeletal system. Also - at the stage of maximum realization of individual empowerment athletes. This applies to the immediate preparation for the main competition. In the first case, periodization can be carried out on the basis of the classical theory. Also on stage, maximizing the individual capabilities. Need to adapt this theory to career achievements of athletes. Also, you must consider the disease. Conclusions : The main factors set differences training tools Paralympic athletes and physically healthy: increased attention to the psychological preparation for the Paralympics, inclusive education and sports training individualization programs already in the first stage of their training.
Vickery, William M; Dascombe, Ben J; Baker, John D; Higham, Dean G; Spratford, Wayne A; Duffield, Rob
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 5, 10, and 15 Hz global positioning system (GPS) devices. Two male subjects (mean ± SD; age, 25.5 ± 0.7 years; height, 1.75 ± 0.01 m; body mass, 74 ± 5.7 kg) completed 10 repetitions of drills replicating movements typical of tennis, cricket, and field-based (football) sports. All movements were completed wearing two 5 and 10 Hz MinimaxX and 2 GPS-Sports 15 Hz GPS devices in a specially designed harness. Criterion movement data for distance and speed were provided from a 22-camera VICON system sampling at 100 Hz. Accuracy was determined using 1-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc tests. Interunit reliability was determined using intraclass correlation (ICC), and typical error was estimated as coefficient of variation (CV). Overall, for the majority of distance and speed measures, as measured using the 5, 10, and 15 Hz GPS devices, were not significantly different (p > 0.05) to the VICON data. Additionally, no improvements in the accuracy or reliability of GPS devices were observed with an increase in the sampling rate. However, the CV for the 5 and 15 Hz devices for distance and speed measures ranged between 3 and 33%, with increasing variability evident in higher speed zones. The majority of ICC measures possessed a low level of interunit reliability (r = -0.35 to 0.39). Based on these results, practitioners of these devices should be aware that measurements of distance and speed may be consistently underestimated, regardless of the movements performed.
Full Text Available Purpose: improved methods of planning the training process for strength sports athletes with regard to their biorhythms. Material and Methods: the study included 16 athletes qualified yaks were members of the team of the Kharkiv region in weightlifting and powerlifting. Results: revealed that the experimental group athletes who used to planned training load calculations biorhythms improved power rates by 7,2% in compare with the control group who exercised without calculating biorhythms improved results on the power – 4,6%. It was also shown that athletes are more or less manifest Biorhythmic dependence. Conclusions: it was established that the planning of the training process, taking into account jet lag has a positive effect on the result of more than planning the same load without jet lag.
Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R
Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).
Full Text Available The article focuses on the study of the processes of labor discipline in Argentine subsidiaries of large corporations. We argue that these processes are related to corporate pedagogical devices that extend inside the factory and beyond its borders. Specifically we delve into the complex linkages between the consolidation of corporate hegemony and corporate pedagogical devices. Thus, we study these various complex and linked devices that enable the corporate doctrine’s transpositions to everyday work. The paper provides conceptual and empirical advances and presents findings from research conducted in a steel and automotive company, according to a qualitative perspective and multiple case study methodology. We analyze the consolidated corporate systems and we highlight the central role of corporate training and the formation of collaborative and competes / competitive employees in its implementation. Similarly, we emphasize the extension of corporate systems in the extra-productive scenarios through Corporate Social Responsibility practices.
Lee, Alexander D; Szabo, Kaitlyn; McDowell, Kirstie; Granger, Sydney
Introduction: A Canadian sports chiropractic research agenda has yet to be defined. The Delphi method can be utilized to achieve this purpose; however, the sample of experts who participate can influence the results. To better inform sample selection for future research agenda development, we set out to determine if differences in opinions about research priorities exist between chiropractors who have their sports specialty designation and those who do not. Methods: Fifteen sports clinical practice chiropractors who have their sports fellowship designation and fifteen without, were interviewed with a set of standardized questions about sports chiropractic research priorities. A centering resonance analysis and cluster analysis were conducted on the interview responses. Results: The two practitioner groups differed in their opinions about the type of research that they would like to see conducted, the research that would impact their clinical practice the most, and where they believed research was lacking. However, both groups were similar in their opinions about research collaborations. Conclusion: Sports clinical practice chiropractors, with their sports specialty designation and those without, differed in their opinions about sports chiropractic research priorities; however, they had similar opinions about research collaborations. These results suggest that it may be important to sample from both practitioner groups in future studies aimed at developing research agendas for chiropractic research in sport. PMID:28065995
Mitchell, Rebecca; Brighton, Barbara; Sherker, Shauna
To describe the epidemiology of competition and training-based surf sport-related injury in Australia in the years 2003-2011. A retrospective epidemiological review. Information on surf sport-related injuries was obtained from Surf Life Saving Australia's SurfGuard Incident Reporting Database during 1 January 2003 to 20 August 2011. There were 2645 surf sport-related competition or training-related incidents. Males and females experienced similar proportions of injury by activity type, with older individuals experiencing a higher proportion of injuries during training than younger individuals. Minor first aid was required for 54.5% of the competition and 43.7% of the training-related incidents, with major first aid required in just over 10% of both incident types. Overall, inflatable rescue boats, beach flags, and surf boats were the most common activities performed at the time of the incident, with returning to shore and negotiating the break the most common possible contributing factors to surf boat incidents. Bruises/contusions, strains, inflammation/swelling, and sprains were the most common types of injuries that occurred during both competition and training. RICE--Rest-Ice-Compression-Elevation--was the most common form of initial treatment for the injury during both competition and training. Participation in surf sports is not without risk of injury. Information from this study will inform injury prevention efforts for surf sport and act as a guide for future research in this area, and towards improved injury surveillance for surf sport-related injuries. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Whit the goal to describe anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities in groups of non sports and children which have some sports training activities, to calculate quantitative and qualitative difference between these groups of children in anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities, it is conduct survey with the sample of 150 entities, age from 11 to 13, different sports orientation (karate, judo, football and volleyball and non sports children (scholars. In analyze, it was used system of total 27 variables (12 morphological and 15 basic - motorical. Also, descriptive statistical procedures were done and in this paper we present only arithmetical means. For quantitative difference between combination per groups in anthropometric characteristic and motorical abilities it was used ANOVA. According to quantitative and qualitative differences in anthropometric characteristics and motorical abilities from survey, the best anthropometric characteristic were get in groups of volleyball players, and in motorical abilities the best performance shown group of children which train a karate.
Full Text Available Purpose: substantiate the use of integral technologies for the psycho-physical training of athletes in sports aerobics. Material & Methods: 46 qualified aerobics participated in the study, 22 athletes made up a control group, 24 were experimental, and 19 aerobists, 9 athletes made up an experimental group, 10 were a control group. Methods: theoretical analysis of literature data; method for evaluating the results of competitive activities; pedagogical experiment; methods of mathematical statistics with the use of computer programs "EXEL" and "SPSS". Results: psychophysical training should be one of the main parts of the variable component of the general training program for aerobic athletes. It is based on the implementation of special sets of exercises in conjunction with mental imagery of the nature of the movements. The positive effect of the use of integral technologies of psychophysical training on the competitive performance of athletes. Conclusion: construction of the training process with the use of integral technologies of psychophysical training had a positive effect on the effectiveness of the competitive activity of athletes.
Sadek Drevel Khalaf
Full Text Available Purpose: to substantiate ways of increase of Iraq football players’ training process effectiveness, depending on calendar of events. Material: analysis of technical-tactic actions was conducted by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of football players in every match. The analysis was presented by mean indicators of matches of the first (n=15 and second (n=15 rounds of championships of Iraq premier league 2011-2014. Results: we realized conception of periodization of Iraq elite football players’ sport training. Specific conditions of periodization of Iraq sportsmen’s training have been worked out and substantiated. Scientific-methodic basis of perfection of Iraq football players’ training process management has been formed. On the base of heuristic simulation we formulated algorithm of realization of Iraq premier league football players’ year cycle training. It is recommended to use higher and more significant loads with correlation 50% and 30% from total scope of training sessions. Conclusions: On principles of rational combination we built hierarchy of macro-cycles’ structural components, combined in single, formed year cycle during long term competition season.
Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1 how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2 how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car’s roof-rack: a smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements.
Supej, Matej; Cuk, Ivan
Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are, in addition to being most widely used vehicle navigation method, becoming popular in sport-related tests. There is a lack of knowledge regarding tracking speed using GNSS, therefore the aims of this study were to examine under dynamic conditions: (1) how accurate technologically different GNSS measure speed and (2) how large is latency in speed measurements in real time applications. Five GNSSs were tested. They were fixed to a car's roof-rack: a smart phone, a wrist watch, a handheld device, a professional system for testing vehicles and a high-end Real Time Kinematics (RTK) GNSS. The speed data were recorded and analyzed during rapid acceleration and deceleration as well as at steady speed. The study produced four main findings. Higher frequency and high quality GNSS receivers track speed at least at comparable accuracy to a vehicle speedometer. All GNSS systems measured maximum speed and movement at a constant speed well. Acceleration and deceleration have different level of error at different speeds. Low cost GNSS receivers operating at 1 Hz sampling rate had high latency (up to 2.16 s) and are not appropriate for tracking speed in real time, especially during dynamic movements.
Ricci, D.R.; Marotta, T.R.; Riina, H.A.; Wan, M.; Vries, J. de
Training has been important to facilitate the safe use of new devices designed to repair vascular structures. This paper outlines the generic elements of a training program for vascular devices and uses as an example the actual training requirements for a novel device developed for the treatment of
Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S
Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.
Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.
Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213
Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.
Harries, Simon K; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin
Resistance training in untrained adolescents can positively effect health-related fitness as well as improve muscular power and sports performance. The impact of resistance training on adolescent athletes is less clear. The purpose of this review is to determine the effectiveness of resistance training programs on muscular power and sports performance in adolescent athletes. Systematic review and meta-analysis of previously published studies investigating resistance training in adolescent athlete populations. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, and SPORTDiscus databases was conducted on 21st March 2011 to identify studies evaluating resistance training programs on power and sports performance in adolescent athletes. Thirty-four studies were identified. All but two of the studies reported at least one statistically significant improvement in an alactic muscular power outcome. The most common indicators of alactic power were vertical jump (25 studies) and sprint running (13 studies) performance. Fourteen studies provided data to allow for pooling of results in a meta-analysis. A positive effect was detected for resistance training programs on vertical jump performance (mean difference 3.08 [95% CI 1.65, 4.51], Z=4.23 [Ptraining interventions can improve muscular power in adolescent athletes. A positive effect on sports performance attributable to participation in resistance training was reported by almost half the included studies, however limited objective evidence to support these claims was found. Improvements in motor performance skills, such as jumping, are widely stated as indicators of improvements in sporting performance. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Suppiah, Haresh T; Low, Chee Yong; Chia, Michael
Adolescent student-athletes face time constraints due to athletic and scholastic commitments, resulting in habitually shortened nocturnal sleep durations. However, there is a dearth of research on the effects of sleep debt on student-athlete performance. The study aimed to (i) examine the habitual sleep patterns (actigraphy) of high-level student-athletes during a week of training and academic activities, (ii) ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations experienced by high-level student-athletes on psychomotor performance, and (iii) examine the impact of sport training intensities on the sleep patterns of high-level student-athletes that participate in low and high intensity sports. Sleep patterns of 29 high-level student-athletes (14.7 ± 1.3 yrs) were monitored over 7 days. A psychomotor vigilance task was administered on weekdays to ascertain the effects of habitual sleep durations. Weekend total sleep time was longer than weekdays along with a delay in bedtime, and waketimes. Psychomotor vigilance reaction times on Monday were faster than on Thursday and Friday, with reaction times on Tuesday also faster than on Friday. False starts and lapses were greater on Friday compared with Monday. There was a negative impact of sleep debt on student-athletes' psychomotor performance.
Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L
To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
María de la Caridad Veloso Pérez; Deisy González López; Pedro Jova Zamora
The proposal to the problematic solution dealt with in the present investigation is constituted by competitive sport activities, which respond to its totality to the integral diagnosis and therefore, to the individual and group characteristics of the selected students as it is shown, being of this form in the heat of correspondence with their real necessities. This activities were developed during the partaking sport time and three stages framed during the course to the competitions. Its orga...
Groves, Ken L.
Full text: This paper will present an overview of the current training the author is presenting to First Responders (fire-fighters, emergency medical technicians, law enforcement and others) who may encounter either a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD or Dirty Bomb) or an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) as a part of their Emergency Response activities. The emphasis of the training is putting the radiological/nuclear material in perspective as compared with other Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) materials such as chemical and/or biological weapon agents. A goal of the training is to help this First Responder Community understand that under almost all conditions, they can perform their primary mission of 'putting out fires', rescuing and treating injured persons, and chasing 'bad guys' even in the presence of relatively large amount of radiological/nuclear contamination. The rare cases of high activity unshielded sources will be reviewed and explained. Current International guidance on dose 'limits' will be discussed. A discussion of the use of Time, Distance and Shielding as well as appropriate Personal Protective Clothing and how it will provide the needed protection while immediate actions take place early in an RDD/IND event, will take place. The use of appropriate radiation detection instrumentation, documented Standard Operating Procedures along with realistic training, drills and exercises are the key to a successful response to an RDD/IND event for this community of critical emergency responders. (author)
Full Text Available This paper introduces a multiposture locomotor training device (MPLTD with a closed-loop control scheme based on joint angle feedback, which is able to overcome various difficulties resulting from mechanical vibration and the weight of trainer to achieve higher accuracy trajectory. By introducing the force-field control scheme used in the closed-loop control, the device can obtain the active-constrained mode including the passive one. The MPLTD is mainly composed of three systems: posture adjusting and weight support system, lower limb exoskeleton system, and control system, of which the lower limb exoskeleton system mainly includes the indifferent equilibrium mechanism with two degrees of freedom (DOF and the driving torque is calculated by the Lagrangian function. In addition, a series of experiments, the weight support and the trajectory accuracy experiment, demonstrate a good performance of mechanical structure and the closed-loop control.
Brendan H. Lazarus
Full Text Available Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers.Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks. Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences.Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders; 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards. Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear.Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.
Lazarus, Brendan H; Stewart, Andrew M; White, Kevin M; Rowell, Amber E; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G; Aughey, Robert J
Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.
Lazarus, Brendan H.; Stewart, Andrew M.; White, Kevin M.; Rowell, Amber E.; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G.; Aughey, Robert J.
Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription. PMID:29209229
Full Text Available Purpose: to give foundation for effectiveness of training at sport circle as form of trainings’ organization on the base of analysis of shaping influence on morphological functional indicators of girl students of higher educational establishments’ non special faculties. Material: in research 60 girl students of 17-19 yrs age participated. Duration of pedagogic experiment was 8 months. In both groups trainings were conducted twice a week; duration of every training was 60 minutes. Results: we have worked out methodic of shaping training. It was determined that under influence of shaping harmonious physical development takes place, saving character and mobility of cardio vascular system of girl students is realized. Conclusions: author’s methodic of shaping training in sport circles has been developed, which includes aerobic and power exercises, elements of health related gymnastic, stretching and relaxation. This methodic envisages individual control of loading, considering constitution and girls students’ preferences; it includes recommendations concerning eating.
Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo
Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.
Cunniffe, Brian; Griffiths, Hywel; Proctor, Wayne; Jones, Ken P; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce
Use of Web-based data recording systems has received little attention in sport. An "online" training diary could provide a valuable alternative to pen-paper methods in the regular assessment of physical activity and illness occurrence in athletes. The objective of this study was to design and implement a user-friendly and efficient system to monitor incidences of illness in team sport athletes. Prospective monitoring study over a 48-week rugby season. Players were asked to register presence/absence of weekly illness symptoms with medical staff and also use an online training diary. Submitted self-reported diary illness data were compared with illness complaint data recorded by medical staff. Diary response rates were calculated from the number of completed diary entries against the number of available/required entries over the season. Web-based training diary. Thirty professional rugby union players. Comparison of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory illnesses (URIs) reported by players using an online diary and to medical staff. Incidences of URIs. The diary response rate in the reporting of weekly illnesses was 79% over the study period. Discrepancy existed between the number of self-reported URIs by players using the diary (118 URI incidences) compared with those reported to medical staff (23 URI incidences). Totaling all URI episodes (those self-reported + those registered by medical staff) revealed that players reported just 19% of URI episodes to medical staff. Players tend to underreport incidences of banal infections. Closer monitoring of self-reported illnesses using a similar system in the present study may provide a better alternative to previous methods in nonclinical illness assessment.
Felipe Gomes Ferreira Padilha
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to provide baseline data for the serum biochemical parameters of Brazilian sport horses undergoing physical training for eventing to be used as a practical guide. A total of 139 blood samples were collected by vacuum venipuncture of the jugular vein from healthy horses in training. Tubes without anticoagulant were used for biochemical analysis. Means and standard deviations were determined for aspartate aminotransferase (AST (306.27±84.66 U/L, creatine kinase (CK (181.06±80.38 U/L, urea (29.51±5.82 mg/dL, creatinine (1.44±0.20 mg/dL, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT (14.58±6.55 U/L, calcium (13.22±0.59 mg/dL, and albumin (2.86±0.16 g/dL. The specific reference ranges were: AST, 197-454 U/L; CK, 116-290 U/L; urea, 22-42 mg/dL; creatinine, 1.2-1.8 mg/dL; GGT, 9-26 U/L; calcium, 12.2-14.2 mg/dL; and albumin, 2.6-3.1 g/dL. Beneficial effects of the training program on the horses were observed and these effects did not lead to any changes in the biochemical parameters studied. The environment may influence the serum biochemical parameters, particularly AST and CK, of Brazilian sport horses.
Emery, C.A.; Roy, T.O.; Whittaker, J.L.; Nettel-Aguirre, A.; van Mechelen, W.
Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The
Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner
group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training...
Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Bergeron, Michael F; Hewett, Timothy E
Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities, and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Current trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 yr and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches, and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how-to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong, regular physical activity.
Duffield, Rob; Reid, Machar; Baker, John; Spratford, Wayne
The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) measures of distance and speed, compared to a high-resolution motion analysis system, for confined movement patterns used in many court-based sports. A single male participant performed 10 repetitions of four respective drills replicating court-based movement patterns and six repetitions of a random movement drill that replicated tennis match-play movement patterns. Two 1Hz and two 5Hz GPS devices concurrently measured distance covered and speed of all court-based drills. A 22 camera VICON motion analysis system, operating at 100Hz, tracked the position of an 18mm reflective marker affixed to one of the GPS devices to provide the criterion movement data. Results indicated that both 1 and 5Hz GPS devices under reported distance covered as well as both mean and peak speed compared to the VICON system (PGPS devices for distance and speed measures ranged between 4 and 25%. Further, the faster the speed and more repetitive the movement pattern (over a similar location), the greater the measurement error. The inter-unit reliability for distance and speed measures of both 1 and 5Hz systems for movements in confined spaces was generally low to moderate (r=0.10-0.70). In conclusion, for court-based sports or movements in confined spaces, GPS technology under reports distance covered and both mean and peak speed of movement.
Murray, Jared J; Renier, Colleen M; Ahern, Jenny J; Elliott, Barbara A
To document neuromuscular training (NMT) availability and its relationship to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in 4 major high school sports by gender, sport, and rural/urban geography, with the hypothesis that increased exposure to NMT would be associated with fewer ACL injuries. A retrospective cohort study. All Minnesota high schools identified in the Minnesota State High School League (MSHSL) database for fall 2014 boys' football and soccer, and girls' volleyball and soccer. All high school athletic directors were surveyed to report their school's fall 2014 experience; 53.5% returned the survey reporting experience with one or more of the sports. Athletic directors documented each sport's preseason and in-season exposure to NMT (plyometric exercises, proximal/core muscle strengthening, education and feedback regarding proper body mechanics, and aerobics) and licensed athletic trainers. Reported ACL injuries by sport, gender and rural/urban. More than two-thirds of teams incorporated facets of NMT into their sport. Among male athletes, soccer players exposed to licensed athletic trainers experienced significantly fewer ACL injuries (P < 0.005), and NMT was associated with significantly fewer ACL injuries in football (P < 0.05) and soccer (P < 0.05). Female athletes did not demonstrate similar associated improvements, with volleyball injuries associated with increased NMT (P < 0.001), and soccer injuries not associated with NMT. However, girl soccer players in rural settings reported fewer ACL injures compared with urban teams (P < 0.001). Most fall high school sports teams were exposed to NMT, which was associated with fewer ACL injuries for male, but not for female athletes. Improved gender- and sport-specific preventive training programs are indicated.
Full Text Available This work is part of the research on teacher training in Physical Education, developed in Bariloche Regional University Center of the National University of Comahue (CRUB-UNCo. Due to the steady increase in the number of students who drop out of course of study on the first two years, projects thatfollow this line of investigation are seeking to question university teaching practices in this field, unravel their particular ways of production and to analyse their impact on the constitution of the formative stages of the students. In the research we have found evidence of a systematic teaching work to improve the learning and teaching conditions and have identified pedagogical devices, both at institutional and classroom levels, as resources for scaffolding student paths and different modes of reception of the students doing the introductory course. Here, we describe and analyse one of these devices, called "reading log" generated in Subject Pedagogy for the 1st year of the School of Physical Education of abovementioned University. This instrument is part of a series of pedagogical practices deliberately planned in connection with the entrance, continuity and graduation stages of undergraduate students; it aims to promote better contexts for the development of the educational processes. This device, created as a way of scaffolding the reading practices of the students, is thought to contribute to the promotion of democratic formative paths and attempts to provide new explanations, which would anchor the transformation and construction of new knowledge and would achieve better pedagogical interventions.
... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...
Chan Christopher C.K.
Full Text Available An improvised explosive device (IED is a “homemade” bomb intended to cause great harm when it explodes. The public safety task of identifying and neutralizing IEDs falls to military and police services often called explosive disposal units (EDU who act to neutralize the threat associated with the IED either rendering it inoperable or destroying it safely. EDUs train in various aspects of explosive handling and investigation but are limited in the tools available for safely analyzing real world bombs. This paper describes a game based approach to IED training that employs an interactive 3D simulation to spatially identify key IED components of interest. We give an example of how this approach might be used and provide a preliminary evaluation of its potential effectiveness. We employ images formed from a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM system captured using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technology to a virtual IED in a game. Empirical evaluation and EDU testimony suggest accurate representation of the IED and the potential efficacy of the proposed approach for successfully identifying components in the bomb for the purposes of EDU training.
Sanda Toma Urichianu
Full Text Available This research is meant to bring experimental arguments in favor of the curriculum module for the „Ecologic tourism” subject in the physical education and sport faculties and in favor of the creation of a specific information stock regarding the ecotourism for the use of the faculties of this type.The researches pointed out that generally the ecologic type tourism activities are not treated with the necessary attention as there is not any concrete syllabus for the ecologic tourism subject.The performed researches outcomes have been used for the creation of the ecologic tourism experimental syllabus template. The syllabus design started from the definition of the syllabus general goal, „thenatural ecosystems revaluation and protection by means of the ecologic tourism (sport activities”; three main categories of objectives resulted from this goal, in the healthcare, pedagogical-professional training and ecology directions.The syllabus was based on the education specific means, according to the proposed methods whose structure and contents had observed the actual demands of planning and programming in conformity with theacademic curriculum theory and methodology.The outcomes of this research can serve both as a reference point for future researches carrying out and as a practical-methodological template for the teachers and students involved in ecotourism activities
Full Text Available Aggregate data are resulted about going near the construction of the sporting training during a year. Systematization of information is presented the special to scientifically-methodical literatures on the construction of training process of sportsmen in bodybuilding. The open questions of construction of training process of highly skilled bodybuilders are marked in a circannual macrocycle. The methodical receptions of construction of training process of sportsmen are rotined. Preparation of sportsmen of highly skilled sportsmen is characterized the expressly expressed recurrence.
Petersen, Jacob Vorup
levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...
Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ptraining led to higher (Pquestionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose : to develop theoretically and experimentally justify the methodology of development of coordination abilities of athletes aged 7-9 years involved in sports aerobics. Material : the study involved 20 participants (7-9 years. 8 athletes performed the test tasks. The choice of tests carried out on the basis of the analysis of the dominant motor mode competition exercises. Results : It was found that the coordination abilities are necessary in the development of speed, density, and the number of running technical elements. With more than a significant increase in performance test tasks that characterize: musicality, coordination, dynamic balance. The basic tools, methods, techniques, and requirements for the exercises. The level of development of coordination abilities. Conclusions : the author's method of development of coordination abilities include: rational choice of means and methods of training impact on their similarities and differences with the target competitive activity.
In the wake of recent wars, some military personnel face considerable physical and mental health problems. In this article I explore the effects of an adapted sport and inclusive adventurous training course for military personnel who have experienced physical injury and/or psychological trauma. Using a dialogical narrative approach, I analyzed stories shared by six soldiers during the course to explore the effects of involvement. Participation in the course seemed to facilitate a narrative transformation or opening corresponding to a broadening identity and sense of self. Story plots progressed from a failing monological narrative, through a chaos narrative, toward a dialogical quest narrative prioritizing immersion in an intense present, a developing self, and a relational orientation. On the basis of narrative theory, I suggest this transformation holds positive consequences for the health and well-being of military personnel who have experienced injury and/or trauma. © The Author(s) 2014.
А А Азевич
Full Text Available This article discusses techniques for using Web 2.0 technologies in modern education. Based on practical experience suggests approaches to the formation of didactic means of implementing the requirements of the GEF training in the field of physical culture and sports with the use of information and communication technologies, in particular Internet services.
Hettinga, Florentina J.; Monden, Paul G.; van Meeteren, Nico L. U.; Daanen, Hein A. M.
There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were
Hettinga, F.J.; Monden, P.G.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van; Daanen, H.A.M.
There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were
Wahl, Michael J; Behm, David G
The objective of this study was to measure the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus, bicep femoris, rectus femoris, lower abdominal, and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles with a variety of (a) instability devices, (b) stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) exercises, and (c) a fatiguing exercise in 16 highly conditioned individuals. The device protocol had participants assume standing and squatting postures while balancing on a variety of unstable platforms (Dyna Disc, BOSU ball, wobble board, and a Swiss ball) and a stable floor. The exercise protocol had subjects performing, static front lunges, static side lunges, 1-leg hip extensions, 1-leg reaches, and calf raises on a floor or an unstable Dyna Disc. For the fatigue experiment, a wall sit position was undertaken under stable and unstable (BOSU ball) conditions. Results for the device experiment demonstrated increased activity for all muscles when standing on a Swiss ball and all muscles other than the rectus femoris when standing on a wobble board. Only lower abdominals and soleus EMG activity increased while squatting on a Swiss ball and wobble board. Devices such as the Dyna Disc and BOSU ball did not exhibit significant differences in muscle activation under any conditions, except the LSES in the standing Dyna Disc conditions. During the exercise protocol, there were no significant changes in muscle activity between stable and unstable (Dyna Disc) conditions. With the fatigue protocol, soleus EMG activity was 51% greater with a stable base. These results indicate that the use of moderately unstable training devices (i.e., Dyna Disc, BOSU ball) did not provide sufficient challenges to the neuromuscular system in highly resistance-trained individuals. Since highly trained individuals may already possess enhanced stability from the use of dynamic free weights, a greater degree of instability may be necessary.
Vicente Gómez Encinas
Full Text Available ResumenUno de los aspectos más atractivos que tiene el outdoor training es su supuesta capacidad para conseguir que los aprendizajes obtenidos a través de sus actividades sean transferidos a otros ámbitos de la vida personal y profesional de sus participantes. En este sentido, la clave está en la metodología empleada. Este artículo profundiza en las fases que estructuran el proceso formativo del outdoor training describiendo: 1 las bases folosóficas que lo apoyan y que están expresadas en la teoría de la “educación a través de la experiencia” y 2 las diferentes fases que estructuran el proceso de formación de un outdoor, haciendo una descripción en profundidad de cada una de ellas: a Pre-Outdoor (Análisis y valoración de las necesidades, diseño de la actividad y reunión previa a la actividad, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflexión y transferencia, y d Seguimiento posterior.AbstractOne of the most attractive aspects that has the outdoor training is their supposed capacity to get that the learnings obtained through their activities are transferred to other environments of the personal life and their participants' professional. In this sense, the key is in the used methodology. This article deepens in the phases that structure the formative process of the outdoor training describing: 1 the philosophy´s bases that support this process and that are expressed in the theory of experiential education, and 2 the different phases that structure the process of formation of an outdoor, making a description in depth of each one of them: to Pre-Outdoor (Analysis and valuation of the necessities, design of the activity and previous meeting to the activity, b Outdoor, c Post-outdoor (Reflection and transfer, and d Later Pursuit.
Full Text Available The modern sports movement is going through a process of differentiation. New activities have developed and are still developing. New values and new organizational forms and methods of sports training can replace older ones. Sport is a part of modern lifestyle and various subcultures show the diversity of modern sport. In this paper we try to introduce some experiences about the new philosophy of changing values in modern society and try to give a description of process of value differentiation in sport. We used the methods, methodological principles and means of experienced learning through the pedagogical experiment (special training camps that were a part of long time preparation of some groups of young athletes in Wild water slalom. The used programmes (icebreakers, contact games, trust games, initiative and team games, strategic games, social and dramatic games, communication and cooperation games, environmental games, overcoming obstacles, rope courses….. were firstly opportunities for self-development as well as for learning a great deal about teamwork. There are not exact quantitative results but our experiences show a considerable qualitative development in cohesion of the whole team and positive communication among team and coaches. The success of the Czech team at Junior World and European Championships probably reflects the personal development (selfconfidence, self-respect, self-fulfilment, high spirit of competitors.
Slimani, Maamer; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Moalla, Wassim
The aim of this short review was to summarize data pertaining to the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) methods (RPE value and session-RPE) during combat sport-specific activities (i.e., competition and training) based on many factors, including contest type (i.e., official vs. simulated vs. training), combat rounds, age of participants and muscle groups, and their correlation with physiological variables (i.e., blood lactate concentration [La] and heart rate [HR]). The current review shows higher RPE in a match of mixed martial arts (MMAs) than Brazilian jiu-jitsu and kickboxing matches and during the competitive period compared with the precompetitive period. This could be explained by the longer duration of bouts, the higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism in MMA than other combat sports and contest type differences (simulated vs. official matches). Thus, this review found significant correlations between RPE or session-RPE, [La] and HR. Particularly, there was a stronger correlation between RPE and [La] during official striking (r = 0.81) than grappling combat sports matches (r = 0.53). In addition, a variation of correlation (moderate to large) between session-RPE and HR-based methods has been reported (i.e., Edwards' training load [r ranged between 0.58 and 0.95] and Banister training impulse [r ranged between 0.52 and 0.86]). Specifically, stronger correlation was apparent in combat sport competition that required a much higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism (e.g., karate) and in adult athletes than anaerobic-based combat sports (e.g., taekwondo) and young athletes, respectively. Indeed, the current review highlights that the correlations between session-RPE and HR-based methods were higher during official competition than training sessions. Session-RPE was affected by participants' competitive level, the intensity of session (high vs. low), the training modalities (tactical-technical vs. technical-development vs. simulated
María Huertas González Serrano
Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this article is to know if there are differences in the variables that explain the entrepreneurial intention of the Physical Activity and Sport Science students addressing academic training and gender of them. Design/methodology/approach: To know entrepreneurial intentions and the different variables related to entrepreneurship, a questionnaire previously validated was used. The questionnaire was provided to 578 students pre-graduated (1st-4th course and post-graduate of Physical Activity and Sport Science degree of Valencia. Findings: Statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05 in the variables that predict entrepreneurial intention of Physical Activity and Sport Science students by gender and training were found. In both genders, the attitude towards entrepreneurship and the perceived behavior control were the predictors of entrepreneurial intentions and in men also the subjective norms. Research limitations/implications: The students sample belongs only to the Physical Activity and Sport Science degree of Valencia, so the results cannot be extrapolated to the entire population. Practical implications: It should be developing the attitude toward the behavior of entrepreneurship and perceived behavioral control to promote entrepreneurship. In this way, the graduates will be more prepare for insertion into the working world. Social implications: To increase the number of entrepreneurs (male and female in the sports sector throughout the education, reducing the gender gap in entrepreneurship and improve the quality of entrepreneurship, as this is a key issue because of the positive impact that this phenomenon generates on the economy Originality/value: It is interesting to know the predictor variables of entrepreneurial intentions, and to know if there are differences based on education and gender due to the massive entry of women into the sport workplaces and low intention to undertake of the. So it is quite
Belna, Alison M.; And Others
Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individual sports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of a 22- week prescribed sports specific balance training programme on the incidence of lateral ankle sprains in basketball players. A controlled clinical trial was set up. In total 54 subjects of six teams participated and were assigned to either an intervention (IG or a control group (CG. The IG performed a prescribed balance training programme on top of their normal training routine, using balance semi-globes. The programme consisted of 4 basketball skills each session and its difficulty was progressively thought-out. The intervention lasted 22 weeks and was performed 3 times a week for 5 to 10 minutes. Efficacy of the intervention on the incidence of lateral ankle sprains was determined by calculating Relative Risks (RR, including their 95% Confidence Intervals or CI and incidence rates expressed per 1000h. RR (95% CI showed a significantly lower incidence of lateral ankle sprains in the IG compared to the CG for the total sample (RR= 0.30 [95% CI: 0.11-0.84] and in men (RR= 0.29 [95% CI: 0.09-0.93]. The difference in RR was not confirmed when examining the incidence rates and their 95%CI's, which overlapped. The risk for new or recurrent ankle sprains was slightly lower in the IG (new: RR= 0.76 [95% CI: 0.17-3.40]; re-injury: RR= 0.21 [95% CI: 0.03-1.44]. Based on these pilot results, the use of balance training is recommended as a routine during basketball activities for the prevention of ankle sprains
As part of the effort to understand the effects of spaceflight on astronauts, NASA funded research that resulted in a commercial product to treat balance disorders. West Palm Beach, Florida-based Sports Therapy Inc. worked with the inventor to modify the technology, creating the Dynamic Balance System (DBS) for sports applications. DBS is now used by Professional Golfers' Association-owned facilities and golf academies to help players achieve an effective, balanced swing.
Full Text Available This presentation outlines the importance of awareness training of managers at all levels and miners regarding the importance of hearing protection devices and adequate knowledge, motivation and training to prevent hearing loss....
Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Chu, Donald A; Falkel, Jeff; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Hewett, Timothy E
As more children and adolescents participate in sports and conditioning activities (sometimes without consideration for cumulative workload), it is important to establish age-appropriate training guidelines that may reduce the risk of sports-related injury and enhance athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to review the scientific evidence on youth strength and conditioning and to provide age-appropriate recommendations for integrating different strength and conditioning activities into a well-designed program that is safe, effective, and enjoyable. Integrative training is defined as a program or plan that incorporates general and specific strength and conditioning activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness. The cornerstone of integrative training is age-appropriate education and instruction by qualified professionals who understand the physical and psychosocial uniqueness of children and adolescents.
Full Text Available Purpose: to offer the variant of physical load’s distribution in annual cycle of students’, practicing cyclic kinds of sports training. Material: in the research pedagogic HEE students, specializing in skiing and light athletic participated (n=18 - boys, n=8 -girls, age - 18-23 years. The students were divided into two groups: experimental and control. Results: by comparison we determined the following: volume and intensity of physical load in micro-cycle and macro-cycle; indicators of cyclic load’s distribution in year plan of students’ training. In cyclic group of skiers we used the method of standard-interval and alternative exercises. I.e. exercises of one load are fulfilled repeatedly. Other method implies variable, increasing or decreasing physical load. Cyclic load, fulfilled at heart beats rate of 160-190 bpm, accented on intensity, prevails. The main requirement is: fulfillment of movements with maximal quickness. In group of light athletic sportsmen the method of standard - continuous exercises, implying moderate intensity, was used. For example: standard current exercises - passing distance of 3 km, 5 km or 10 km. Cyclic load, fulfilled at heart beats rate of 140-160 bpm, accented on volume. Conclusions: In cyclic load of light athletic group aerobic character of work prevails. In cyclic load of skiers’ group mixed and anaerobic character of work prevails.
Full Text Available To determine whether a clinical examination was adequate to assess the fitness of horses in a fence course riding, and to characterize the relationship between a clinical assessment of the horse's fitness, training schedule stage and its blood biochemistry, 22 horses were monitored before (S1, during training, immediately after warming-up (S2 and after an E level fence obstacle course ride (S3. The blood samples were taken from the jugular vein in the above three mentioned phases, for the determination of total protein (g/dl, nitrogen (mg/dl, glucose (mg/dl, lactic acid (nmol/l, calcium (mg/dl, cholesterol (mg/dl and phosphorus (mg/dl. The intend of the paper is to present the obtained results as a reference study for the appropriate use by clinicians, sport horses owners and trainers in view to have a solid base in evaluation, for the adequate protection of health and welfare of the jumper horses competitors.
de Hoyo Moisés
Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effects of power training using traditional vertical resistance exercises versus direction specific horizontal inertial flywheel training on performance in common sport-related tasks. Twenty-three healthy and physically active males (age: 22.29 ± 2.45 years volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were allocated into either the traditional training (TT group where the half squat exercise on a smith machine was applied or the horizontal flywheel training (HFT group performing the front step exercise with an inertial flywheel. Training volume and intensity were matched between groups by repetitions (5-8 sets with 8 repetitions and relative intensity (the load that maximized power (Pmax over the period of six weeks. Speed (10 m and 20 m, countermovement jump height (CMJH, 20 m change of direction ability (COD and strength during a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC were assessed before and after the training program. The differences between groups and by time were assessed using a two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by paired t-tests. A significant group by time interaction (p=0.004 was found in the TT group demonstrating a significantly higher CMJH. Within-group analysis revealed statistically significant improvements in a 10 m sprint (TT: −0.17 0.27 s vs. HFT: −0.11 0.10 s, CMJH (TT: 4.92 2.58 cm vs. HFT: 1.55 2.44 cm and MVIC (TT: 62.87 79.71 N vs. HFT: 106.56 121.63 N in both groups (p < 0.05. However, significant differences only occurred in the 20 m sprint time in the TT group (−0.04 0.12 s; p = 0.04. In conclusion, the results suggest that TT at the maximal peak power load is more effective than HFT for counter movement jump height while both TT and HFT elicited significant improvements in 10 m sprint performance while only TT significantly improved 20 m sprint performance.
Marwaha, Raman K; Puri, Seema; Tandon, Nikhil; Dhir, Sakshi; Agarwal, Neha; Bhadra, Kuntal; Saini, Namita
Peak bone mass, a major determinant of osteoporosis is influenced by genetic, nutritional, lifestyle and hormonal factors. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of sports training on dietary intake and bone mineral and metabolic parameters in young healthy Indian females. Healthy female college going students (N=186, sportswomen, 90; controls 96) in the age group of 18-21 yr, residing in New Delhi (India) were evaluated for anthropometry, biochemistry (serum total and ionic calcium, phosphorus, total alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D & parathyroid hormone), diet, physical activity and lifestyle. Bone mineral density (BMD) at hip, forearm and lumbar spine were studied using central DXA. Sports related physical activity (3 vs. 0 h/day, P direct sunlight exposure (120 vs. 30 min/day, P < 0.001) were significantly higher in sportswomen than in controls with sedentary lifestyle. Significantly higher intake of all macronutrients (energy, protein, carbohydrates and fat) and dietary calcium was noted in the diets of sportswomen. Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher (53.0 ± 18.9 vs. 12.9 ± 7.7 nmol/l; P < 0.001) while PTH (35.3 ± 17.6 vs. 51.7 ± 44.9 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and ALP levels (194.0 ± 51.0 vs. 222.1 ± 51.4 IU/l; P<0.001) were significantly lower in sportswomen when compared to controls. No significant difference was found in ionized calcium and inorganic phosphorus in the two groups. Significantly higher (P < 0.001) total BMD and BMD at all sites except femur neck were found in sportswomen than controls (P < 0.001). Physical activity, optimal nutrition and adequate sun exposure are vital for attaining peak bone mass.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Viaud Trejos, Rafael Alfonso
An electronic device is built to produce high frequency and high power sound. The device is used in training and control of dogs. Commercial ultrasonic devices used for dog training are analyzed. The best strategies and components of the design are determined from an electronic device to produce sounds in frequency from 15kHz to 50Khz. Effectiveness tests are performed to establish the adequate design of the ultrasonic electronic device. The test results are analyzed to find opportunities of improvement in the design or construction of the device [es
Hettinga, Florentina J; Monden, Paul G; van Meeteren, Nico L U; Daanen, Hein A M
There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HRonset) can be used as a monitoring variable. The digital databases of Scopus and PubMed were searched to retrieve studies investigating HRonset. In total 652 studies were retrieved. These articles were then classified as having emphasis on HRonset in a sports or rehabilitation setting, which resulted in 8 of 112 studies with a sports application and 6 of 68 studies with a rehabilitation application that met inclusion criteria. Two co-existing mechanisms underlie HRonset: feedforward (central command) and feedback (mechanoreflex, metaboreflex, baroreflex) control. A number of studies investigated HRonset during the first few seconds of exercise (HRonsetshort), in which central command and the mechanoreflex determine vagal withdrawal, the major mechanism by which heart rate (HR) increases. In subsequent sports and rehabilitation studies, interest focused on HRonset during dynamic exercise over a longer period of time (HRonsetlong). Central command, mechanoreflexes, baroreflexes, and possibly metaboreflexes contribute to HRonset during the first seconds and minutes of exercise, which in turn leads to further vagal withdrawal and an increase in sympathetic activity. HRonset has been described as the increase in HR compared with resting state (delta HR) or by exponential modeling, with measurement intervals ranging from 0-4 s up to 2 min. Delta HR was used to evaluate HRonsetshort over the first 4 s of exercise, as well as for analyzing HRonsetlong. In exponential modeling, the HR response to dynamic exercise is biphasic, consisting of fast (parasympathetic, 0-10 s) and slow (sympathetic, 1-4 min) components. Although available studies differed largely in measurement protocols, cross-sectional and longitudinal training studies showed that studies analyzing HRonset
Ammenwerth, W; Crolow, C; Wurps, H; Schultz, Th; Krüll, M; Ukas, K; Schönfeld, N; Blum, T G; Bauer, T T
In the process of medical rehabilitation muscular endurance training is the main focus. Unfortunately, outpatient rehabilitation opportunities are limited and specialized pulmonary exercise groups ("lung sport groups") rarely available. Therefore we developed an outpatient endurance sports program for patients with respiratory diseases and evaluated its effectiveness. In this feasibility study 31 patients (50 ± 15 years) with diverse respiratory diseases were included. By professional functional exercise testing (incl. CPET and lactate measurement according to the standards of DGP and DGSP) the patients optimal training zone was determined and an individualized 12 week lasting aerobic endurance training with ≥ 3 sessions of 20 - 60 min/week realized. After completion of the exercise training program a significant improvement in dyspnoea (Borg-Scale: 65.7 ± 12.2 vs. 62.2 ± 12.6, p = 0.013), body constitution (BMI: 25.7 ± 3.3 vs. 24.3 ± 3.2 kg/m(2), p = 0.018; portion of body fat: 24.8 ± 5.8 vs. 23.8 ± 6.4 %, p = 0.043) as well as physical capacity (VO2 at 4 mmol/l Laktat: 24.2 ± 6.9 vs. 26.5 ± 7.6 ml/min/kg, p mental and physical quality of life (quality of life questionnaire SF-36: physical score + 9.7 points, mental score + 4.5 points). The evaluated exercise program can easily be trained by the patient in a self-dependent setting and was seen to be an effective sports medical treatment in patients with diverse pulmonary diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid
Purpose To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Methods Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Results Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Conclusions Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes’ adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan. PMID:22375236
Singh, Rabindarjeet; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Roy, Jolly; Jin, Chai Wen; Ismail, Siti Musyrifah; Lan, Mohamad Faizal; Hiong, Loo Lean; Aziz, Abdul-Rashid
To examine the subjective perception of daily acute fasting on sports performance, training, sleep and dietary patterns of Muslim athletes during the Ramadan month. Seven hundred and thirty-four (411 male and 323 female) Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes (mean age 16.3 ± 2.6 y) participated in the survey which was designed to establish the personal perception of their sport performance, sleep pattern, food and fluid intake during Ramadan fasting. The survey was conducted during and immediately after the month of Ramadan in 2009. Twenty-four percent of the athletes perceived that there was an adverse effect of the Ramadan fast on their sporting performance and 29.3% reported that quality of training during Ramadan was also negatively influenced. Majority (48.2%) of the athletes stated that Ramadan fasting did not affect their normal sleep pattern but 66.6% of them complained of sleepiness during the daytime. Half of the athletes (41.4%) maintained the caloric intake during Ramadan as they normally would with the majority of them (76.2%) reporting that they consumed more fluids during Ramadan. Overall, Malaysian Junior-level Muslim athletes showed diverse views in their perception of changes in their training, sleep and dietary patterns during Ramadan fast. These individual differences probably indicate differences in the athletes' adaptability and coping strategies during fasting and training in Ramadan.
The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players
Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Andrew Landreth, Stacey Beam, Taylor Jones, Layne Norton, Jason Michael Cholewa
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal, carbohydrate (CHO, protein (PRO, fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg. FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec. Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.
The Effects of a Sports Nutrition Education Intervention on Nutritional Status, Sport Nutrition Knowledge, Body Composition, and Performance during Off Season Training in NCAA Division I Baseball Players.
Rossi, Fabrício Eduardo; Landreth, Andrew; Beam, Stacey; Jones, Taylor; Norton, Layne; Cholewa, Jason Michael
This study investigated the effects of a sport nutrition education intervention (SNEI) on dietary intake, knowledge, body composition, and performance in NCAA Division I baseball players. Resistance trained NCAA Division I baseball players (82.4 ± 8.2 kg; 1.83 ± 0.06 m; 13.7 ± 5 % body fat) participated in the study during 12 weeks of off-season training. Fifteen players volunteered for SNEI while 15 players matched for position served as controls (C) for body composition and performance. The nutrition intervention group (NI) received a 90 min SNEI encompassing energy intake (Kcal), carbohydrate (CHO), protein (PRO), fat, food sources, and hydration. Sport nutrition knowledge questionnaires were administered to NI pre and post. Nutritional status was determined by three-day dietary logs administered to NI pre and post. Body composition and performance (5-10-5 shuttle test, vertical jump, broad jump, 1 RM squat) were measured pre and post for C and NI. Knowledge increased in NI. Pro and fat, but not CHO intake increased in NI. FM decreased pre to post in NI (11.5 ± 4.8 vs. 10.5 ± 5.4 kg) but not C (11.3 ± 4.7 vs. 11.9 ± 4.5 kg). FFM increased pre to post with no differences between groups. The 5-10-5 shuttle times decreased significantly more in NI (4.58 ± 0.15 vs. 4.43 ± 0.13 sec) compared to C (4.56 ± 0.18 vs. 4.50 ± 0.16 sec). Jump and squat performance increased pre to post with no differences between groups. Our findings indicate that an off season SNEI is effective at improving sport nutrition knowledge and some, but not all, nutrient intakes and performance measures in Division I baseball players.
Tácito Pessoa de Souza Junior
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p206 The objective of this review article is to discuss the concepts of stress and homeostasis (homeos = equal; stasis = stable and to expose their limitations on the basis of recent evidence demonstrating that the supposed internal stability of living organisms is merely apparent, and is even independent of environmental factors. This internal instability is often observed by researchers investigating circadian rhythms (hormone secretion, temporal series (heart rate and behavior (hunger and satiety, who argue in favor of substituting the theory of homeostasis by the concept of allostasis (allo = different; stasis = stable. Indeed, these researchers suggest that the objective of regulation and control is not stability. There are two consequences for Physical Education and Sport if allostasis is accepted as a physiological paradigm: 1. Selye’s concept of stress requires a new defi nition and interpretation, with a clear impact on the concept of load and overload; 2. Noakes’ central governor hypothesis to explain the fatigue resulting from intense physical exercise loses its relevance, as will be discussed in this paper. Furthermore, it is very diffi cult for the model of stability by staying the same to explain why performance is improved by physical training or why we have a predisposition for this type of recognizedly anti-homeostatic activity. We intend to demonstrate the possibility that the allostatic concept of stability through change can explain these contradictions.
Sasaki, Ryohei; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki; Nishio, Teiji; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Ashino, Yasuo; Onishi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nagata, Yasushi
Questionnaire for the contents of cancer professional training plan by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology Japan were widely assessed and introduced in the 4th Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) Future Planning Seminar held on March 8, 2008 in Tokyo, Japan. From the assessment, small number of instructors for medical physicists was elucidated as the most important problem for the future of fields of radiation oncology in Japan. (author)
Hettinga, F.J.; Monden, P.G.; Van Meeteren, N.L.U.; Daanen, H.A.M.
There is a need for easy-to-use methods to assess training progress in sports and rehabilitation research. The present review investigated whether cardiac acceleration at the onset of physical exercise (HR
Strøm, Mark; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas
BACKGROUND: A lateral ankle sprain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal injury in sports. Exercises that aim to improve balance are a standard part of the ankle rehabilitation process. In an optimal progression model for ankle rehabilitation and prevention of future ankle sprains, it is important...... to characterize different balance exercises based on level of difficulty and sensori-motor training stimulus. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate frontal-plane ankle kinematics and associated peroneal muscle activity during single-legged balance on stable surface (floor) and three commonly used...... balance devices (Airex®, BOSU® Ball and wobble board). DESIGN: Descriptive exploratory laboratory study. METHODS: Nineteen healthy subjects performed single-legged balance with eyes open on an Airex® mat, BOSU® Ball, wobble board, and floor (reference condition). Ankle kinematics were measured using...
Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter
This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.
Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO) Training Activity Brad Martin, Thomas Manacapilli, James C. Crowley, Joseph Adams, Michael G. Shanley, Paul...Developmental Effort TBD TBD TBD Whistler Training Support to Developmental Effort TBD TBD TBD White Oak Training Support to Developmental Effort TBD TBD
Horn, P L; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Barnes, C J
White cell counts at rest might be lower in athletes participating in selected endurance-type sports. Here, we analysed blood tests of elite athletes collected over a 10-year period. Reference ranges were established for 14 female and 14 male sports involving 3,679 samples from 937 females and 4,654 samples from 1,310 males. Total white blood cell counts and counts of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes were quantified. Each sport was scaled (1-5) for its perceived metabolic stress (aerobic-anaerobic) and mechanical stress (concentric-eccentric) by 13 sports physiologists. Substantially lower total white cell and neutrophil counts were observed in aerobic sports of cycling and triathlon (~16% of test results below the normal reference range) compared with team or skill-based sports such as water polo, cricket and volleyball. Mechanical stress of sports had less effect on the distribution of cell counts. The lower white cell counts in athletes in aerobic sports probably represent an adaptive response, not underlying pathology.
Köklü, Y; Arslan, Y; Alemdaroğlu, U; Duffield, R
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement at various speeds and movement patterns as evident in team sport demands. Eleven amateur soccer players performed a 40 m straight sprint test (with 10-20-30 m split times), a zigzag test, 30 m walking, jogging and moderate intensity runs. Results indicated that the SPI ProX GPS measurements showed acceptable accuracy for all movement patterns for distance (coefficient of variation [CV]=0.14% to 3.73%; 95% ratio limits of agreement [95% ratio LOA]=0.97 x / ÷ 1.09 to 1.00 x / ÷ 1.05) and speed (CV=4.22% to 9.52%; 95%LOA=-0.17 ± 1.70 km h-1 to 2.30 ± 1.17 km h-1) compared with the measured distance and speed determined from timing gates, respectively. Furthermore, acceptable reliability of SPI ProX GPS measures for distance (CV=0.34% to 3.81%; 95%LOA=-0.09 ± 0.23 m to -0.34 ± 2.31 m) and speed (CV=3.19% to 6.95%; 95%LOA=-0.05 ± 3.90 km h-1 to 0.42 ± 3.68 km h-1) were also evident. Whilst SPI ProX GPS devices were within acceptable ranges of reliability, they remained significantly different to criterion measures of team sport movement demands.
Weber-Spickschen, Thomas Sanjay; Colcuc, Christian; Hanke, Alexander; Clausen, Jan-Dierk; James, Paul Abraham; Horstmann, Hauke
The initial goals of rehabilitation after knee injuries and operations are to achieve full knee extension and to activate quadriceps muscle. In addition to regular physiotherapy, an android-based knee training device is designed to help patients achieve these goals and improve compliance in the early rehabilitation period. This knee training device combines fun in a computer game with muscular training or rehabilitation. Our aim was to test the feasibility and acceptability of this new device. 50 volunteered subjects enrolled to test out the computer game aided device. The first game was the high-striker game, which recorded maximum knee extension power. The second game involved controlling quadriceps muscular power to simulate flying an aeroplane in order to record accuracy of muscle activation. The subjects evaluated this game by completing a simple questionnaire. No technical problem was encountered during the usage of this device. No subjects complained of any discomfort after using this device. Measurements including maximum knee extension power, knee muscle activation and control were recorded successfully. Subjects rated their experience with the device as either excellent or very good and agreed that the device can motivate and monitor the progress of knee rehabilitation training. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first android-based tool available to fast track knee rehabilitation training. All subjects gave very positive feedback to this computer game aided knee device.
this point that the lack of initial requirements ansay ’RA and the failure to develop training requirements, test plans and a meaninful syllabus all...prior to training in the device. B. Training Objectives NOTE: Training objectives are the objectives to be achieved by the trainee by learning and...of learning . Every effort was made to make IOS operation easy, and the actions needed to attain given objectives obvious and hence easy to learn
Gual, Gabriel; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, Azahara; Romero-Rodríguez, Daniel; Tesch, Per A
Gual, G, Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A, Romero-Rodríguez, D, and Tesch, PA. Effects of in-season inertial resistance training with eccentric overload in a sports population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1834-1842, 2016-Volleyball and basketball players can be considered as a population at risk for patellar tendinopathy. Given the paradox that eccentric training elicits therapeutic benefits yet might provoke such injury, we investigated the influence of a weekly bout of inertial squat resistance exercise offering eccentric overload on lower limb muscle power and patellar tendon complaints. Players of 8 (4 basketball and 4 volleyball) teams (38 women and 43 men) were randomly assigned to either the intervention (IG) or control (CG) group. Although IG and CG maintained scheduled in-season training routines over 24 weeks, IG, in addition, performed 1 weekly session of eccentric overload by 4 sets of 8 repetitions of the squat using flywheel inertial resistance. Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-p), vertical countermovement jump, and squat power, both concentric (Squat-Con) and eccentric (Squat-Ecc), tests were performed before (T1), during (T2), and after (T3) the 24 weeks of intervention. Neither group suffered from patellar tendinopathy during the study period. VISA-p displayed no differences across groups at any measurement period. Countermovement jump scores significantly (p ≤ 0.05) differed between groups in favor of the IG. Both Squat-Con and Squat-Ecc mean scores from the IG were significantly (p training bout to a regular basketball and volleyball exercise routine enhances lower limb muscle power without triggering patellar tendon complaints. Future studies, using the current exercise paradigm, aim to explore its efficacy to prevent or combat patellar tendinopathy in sports calling for frequent explosive jumps.
Full Text Available The motivation is one of the most important competents of the docility, it is the “propelling power” of our activities. People could be stimulated to do sportinfl uence on the personality is known- by a many different things. Sport means both happiness and the key of the independence for the people with physical impairment. With the help of our research’s results we would like to introduce what motivates physically impaired people to do regular sport.
The motivation is one of the most important competents of the docility, it is the “propelling power” of our activities. People could be stimulated to do sportinfl uence on the personality is known- by a many different things. Sport means both happiness and the key of the independence for the people with physical impairment. With the help of our research’s results we would like to introduce what motivates physically impaired people to do regular sport.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TDA Research proposes to develop a computer-controlled lightweight and compact device for aerobic and resistive training (DART) to counteract muscular atrophy and...
Silvia Christina Madrid Finck
Full Text Available This article reports on the partnership between the Group of Studies and Research in School Physical Education and Teacher Training (Gepefe/UEPG/CNPq affiliated with the Graduate Program in Education (UEPG/PR, and the Nucleus of Studies and Teacher Training in Peace and Coexistence Education (NEP/UEPG. This partnership has contributed to the creation of the research line ‘Physical Education, Sport and Education for Peace: conceptual, methodological and teacher training dimensions’ in Gepefe. The goal of this article is to present more specific ideas for a convergence between the educational perspectives in sport and school physical education, mediated by the issue of teacher training. When considering aspects present in the discussion on the education for peace (coexistence, conflict, violence and peace, we find specifics to consider actions in teacher training. This process emerges as Brazil is experiencing a special moment in sports, with international events planned for the coming years, thereby expanding the need for thematic reflections regarding violence and coexistence in sports. This leads to reflections on the fundamental role of sports education in forming values of coexistence and debating teacher training in physical education for that reality.
Full Text Available The necessity of application of technical devices is grounded for development of level of physical preparedness and психофизиологических possibilities of children. Technical devices are developed with the elements of basket-ball, sporting tourism and by the analogues of the system of M.Montessori. In research 52 children of age-dependent group of 1-2 years, 56 children of 3-4 years, 56 children of 4-5 years took part. It is set that application of methods with the use of technical devices with the elements of sport is instrumental there are 1-5 years in the increase of indexes of physical preparedness and psychophysiological possibilities of children.
Full Text Available Influence of the training loading is considered on the program paralympic junior sport school on the indexes of physical qualities of young tennis players 6-8 years. The aim of experiment was an exposure of dynamics of development of motive internalss of young tennis players during three years (6-8 years under the influence of the training loading on the program of children sport school. In experiment took part the group of initial preparation in an amount 25 children (boys. Research was conducted within the framework of the operative (employments, current (mezocycle and stage (annual planning of training process.
A. (Lex E. Q. van Delden
Full Text Available Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics. Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required.
Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu
The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…
Couper, Keith; Velho, Rochelle M; Quinn, Tom; Devrell, Anne; Lall, Ranjit; Orriss, Barry; Yeung, Joyce; Perkins, Gavin D
To evaluate the effect of training strategy on team deployment of a mechanical chest compression device. Randomised controlled manikin trial. Large teaching hospital in the UK. Twenty teams, each comprising three clinicians. Participating individuals were health professionals with intermediate or advanced resuscitation training. Teams were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive either standard mechanical chest compression device training or pit-crew device training. Training interventions lasted up to 1 h. Performance was measured immediately after training in a standardised simulated cardiac arrest scenario in which teams were required to deploy a mechanical chest compression device. Primary outcome was chest compression flow fraction in the minute preceding the first mechanical chest compression. Secondary outcomes included cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality and mechanical device deployment metrics, and non-technical skill performance. Outcomes were assessed using video recordings of the test scenario. In relation to the primary outcome of chest compression flow fraction in the minute preceding the first mechanical chest compression, we found that pit-crew training was not superior to standard training (0.76 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.79) vs 0.77 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.82), mean difference -0.01 (95% CI -0.06 to 0.03), P=0.572). There was also no difference between groups in performance in relation to any secondary outcome. Pit-crew training, compared with standard training, did not improve team deployment of a mechanical chest device in a simulated cardiac arrest scenario. ISRCTN43049287; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Operator program of instruction. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Gray Eagle Unmanned Aerial System Training; 4D Visualization Training; Airspace...for operators of the Shadow and Gray Eagle1 (referred to as GE from this point forward) systems occurs at Fort Huachuca, Arizona in the 2-13th...space and seeing it through their cockpit windows . On the other hand, UAS operators are limited to the stovepipe view from the aircraft payload and
Bruzzi, M S; Linehan, J H
In the midst of a rich environment for medical device development and manufacturing, universities can play a critical role by developing relevant training programs to produce entrepreneurs who can be efficient and successful in creating early stage companies by understanding deeply the issues involved in creating a useful device, how to raise money, designing early clinical studies and locating manufacturing partners.
..., set of aircraft, or aircraft type simulated, as applicable; and (2) Each curriculum or training course in which the flight simulator or flight training device is used, if that curriculum or course is used... section must include— (1) The set of aircraft, or type aircraft; (2) If applicable, the particular...
van Delden, A.E.Q.; Peper, C.E.; Kwakkel, G.; Beek, P.J.
Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of
Erren-Wolters, Cathelijne V.; van Dijk, Henk; de Kort, Alexander C.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Jannink, M.J.A.
Virtual reality technology is an emerging technology that possibly can address the problems encountered in training (elderly) people to handle a mobility device. The objective of this review was to study different virtual reality training applications as well as their clinical implication for
Wang, Pei-Yong; Long, Fei-Xiao; Fu, Lan-Ying; Li, Yue; Ding, Hai-Shu; Qu, An-Lian; Zhou, Xiao-Ping
Using continuous two wavelength near-infrared technology to detect the variation in the consistency of oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle and the sports heart rate wireless real time collection technology, we devised the real time muscle tissue oxygenation and instantaneous heart rate experiment scheme and implemented it for the process of the 100 m run with two parameters given simultaneously. The experiment shows that the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin in the muscle tissue continues decreasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the concentration of the oxygen hemoglobin attains the minimum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (6.65 +/- 1.10) sec; while the heart rate continues increasing after the end of the 100 m run, and the time interval between the moment when the heart rate attains the maximum value and the moment when the athletes finish the 100 m run is (8.00 +/- 1.57) sec. The results show that the two wavelength near-infrared tissue oxygenation detection technology and the sports heart rate real time collection equipment can accurately measure the sports tissue oxygenation and the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport, and reveal the process of muscle oxygen transportation and consumption and its dynamic character with the heart rate in the extreme intensity sport.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Koh, Koon Teck; Camiré, Martin; Lim Regina, Si Hui; Soon, Woo Sin
Background: There is growing evidence indicating that physical education and sport (PES) are environments that, when appropriately structured, can promote positive youth developmental outcomes. In recent years, a number of researchers working in PES have designed programs and interventions aimed at helping teachers and coaches teach life skills…
Beinish Kh. Landa; Rinat A. Yusupov
The scientific and practical significance of the research consists in the use of the technology of modular education for the development of educational programs for the specialty “Sports Management” and the description of its prospects in regard to the university technical profile.
Kamandulis, Sigitas; Bruzas, Vidas; Mockus, Pranas; Stasiulis, Alvydas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas
High-intensity interval training improves endurance and performance, but it is unclear whether sprint-type upper-body interval training is similarly effective. This study explored the effects of 4-week sport-specific sprint interval training on punch characteristics and endurance capacity in boxers. Experienced male amateur boxers (n = 18) participated in this 4-week training study, and were divided into an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG) (n = 9 per group). Both groups completed standard low-intensity training. The EG also completed 3 rounds (14 sets of 3 s all-out punching with 10 s rest) of a simulated fight using a punching bag with 1 min rest between rounds 3 times per week, while the CG performed the same 3 rounds of a simulated fight at low intensity. Three rounds of 14 sets of 3 s all-out punching of a bag ergometer with 10 s rest were performed to measure punching abilities. Peak oxygen consumption and peak power were measured during progressive arm cranking before and after training. In response to training peak oxygen consumption and peak power in arm cranking test increased in EG; also, punching force increased and maintenance of punching frequency and punch force improved during the simulated fight, which resulted in greater cumulative force throughout the 3 rounds. There were no changes in the CG. The study shows that 1 month of all-out punching training (3 sessions per week with ∼2 min of all-out punching per session) improved both upper-body aerobic power and punching abilities in experienced amateur boxers.
Steinberg, Fabian; Pixa, Nils Henrik; Doppelmayr, Michael
Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF) could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained) performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals' skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research.
Vanrenterghem, Jos; Nedergaard, Niels Jensby; Robinson, Mark A; Drust, Barry
There have been considerable advances in monitoring training load in running-based team sports in recent years. Novel technologies nowadays offer ample opportunities to continuously monitor the activities of a player. These activities lead to internal biochemical stresses on the various physiological subsystems; however, they also cause internal mechanical stresses on the various musculoskeletal tissues. Based on the amount and periodization of these stresses, the subsystems and tissues adapt. Therefore, by monitoring external loads, one hopes to estimate internal loads to predict adaptation, through understanding the load-adaptation pathways. We propose a new theoretical framework in which physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways are considered separately, shedding new light on some of the previously published evidence. We hope that it can help the various practitioners in this field (trainers, coaches, medical staff, sport scientists) to align their thoughts when considering the value of monitoring load, and that it can help researchers design experiments that can better rationalize training-load monitoring for improving performance while preventing injury.
Full Text Available Mirror training therapy is a promising tool to initiate neural plasticity and facilitate the recovery process of motor skills after diseases such as stroke or hemiparesis by improving the intermanual transfer of fine motor skills in healthy people as well as in patients. This study evaluated whether these augmented performance improvements by mirror visual feedback (MVF could be used for learning a sport-specific skill and if the effects are modulated by skill level. A sample of 39 young, healthy, and experienced basketball and handball players and 41 novices performed a stationary basketball dribble task at a mirror box in a standing position and received either MVF or direct feedback. After four training days using only the right hand, performance of both hands improved from pre- to posttest measurements. Only the left hand (untrained performance of the experienced participants receiving MVF was more pronounced than for the control group. This indicates that intermanual motor transfer can be improved by MVF in a sport-specific task. However, this effect cannot be generalized to motor learning per se since it is modulated by individuals’ skill level, a factor that might be considered in mirror therapy research.
More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more
Full Text Available Purpose: working out of principles of junior female gymnasts’ macro-methodic training to sport exercises for all round competitions at stage of specialized basic training. Material: in the research 19 girl-gymnasts from reserve of combined team of Romania participated. Measurements and assessment of technical fitness at training sessions and in conditions of competitions were conducted at 120 training sessions (10 sessions a week. Results: we worked out and realized experimentally and in training sessions principles of macro-methodic training to gymnastic exercises. Macro-methodic of training is presented in structure of long-term programs of training for all round competitions. Macro-methodic is presented as combination of elements of motor, technical, didactic and technological structures of sport exercises (in the present article it was described on material of vaults of Yurchenko’s type. Conclusions: macro-methodic permits to state optimal algorithm of mastering of theoretical and practical materials at training sessions. Besides, it permits to demonstrate steady growth of sport results at competitions. With it individual-age features of junior female gymnasts, tendencies and specialists’ requirements are considered.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Rampinini, E; Alberti, G; Fiorenza, M; Riggio, M; Sassi, R; Borges, T O; Coutts, A J
We compared the accuracy of 2 GPS systems with different sampling rates for the determination of distances covered at high-speed and metabolic power derived from a combination of running speed and acceleration. 8 participants performed 56 bouts of shuttle intermittent running wearing 2 portable GPS devices (SPI-Pro, GPS-5 Hz and MinimaxX, GPS-10 Hz). The GPS systems were compared with a radar system as a criterion measure. The variables investigated were: total distance (TD), high-speed distance (HSR>4.17 m·s(-1)), very high-speed distance (VHSR>5.56 m·s(-1)), mean power (Pmean), high metabolic power (HMP>20 W·kg(-1)) and very high metabolic power (VHMP>25 W·kg(-1)). GPS-5 Hz had low error for TD (2.8%) and Pmean (4.5%), while the errors for the other variables ranged from moderate to high (7.5-23.2%). GPS-10 Hz demonstrated a low error for TD (1.9%), HSR (4.7%), Pmean (2.4%) and HMP (4.5%), whereas the errors for VHSR (10.5%) and VHMP (6.2%) were moderate. In general, GPS accuracy increased with a higher sampling rate, but decreased with increasing speed of movement. Both systems could be used for calculating TD and Pmean, but they cannot be used interchangeably. Only GPS-10 Hz demonstrated a sufficient level of accuracy for quantifying distance covered at higher speeds or time spent at very high power. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
... maneuvers set forth in the certificate holder's approved low-altitude windshear flight training program. The approved low-altitude windshear flight training, if applicable, must be included in each of the pilot... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Training courses using airplane simulators...
Gardiner-Shires, Alison Marie; Heinerichs, Scott
Context: A general education course taught by athletic training education faculty has the potential to expose the entire student body to the athletic training profession in a unique way while also meeting requirements of the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education. Objective: To introduce a detailed case study of a general…
Zieliński, Jacek; Kusy, Krzysztof
Cardiorespiratory and biochemical indicators typically used by contemporary elite athletes seem to have limited applicability. According to some recent studies, purine metabolism better reflects exercise response and muscle adaptation in this group. We propose using purine derivatives, especially plasma hypoxanthine concentration, as indicators of training status in consecutive training phases in highly trained athletes.
Full Text Available Introduction: This is an empirical article aiming at defining the changes of motor fitness in children practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Proper selection of candidates to practice certain sports is a very complex process. One needs to select from the very large population of children, girls and boys, characterized by certain features, including somatic and motor features, which developed in a longstanding process of training, will lead them to become champions. The purpose of the research: The purpose of the research was to define the changes of motor fitness in girls’ practicing swimming at early stage of training in year-long training cycle. Material and Methods: The subjects to the research were 85 girls aged 7 (1st year of primary school, including 36 girls in swimming group and 49 girls in control group. 36 of them belonged to swimmers’ group- all girls were members of the Municipal Swimming Club in Szczecin. Control group consisted of 49 girls, who attended the same elementary schools. The examinations were carried out twice in the 2009-2010 academic year. The most reliable and accurate indirect test- EUROFIT Test Battery-was used. Results : The research revealed changes in both groups (Sw, C in terms of all eight tests. Examination II proved statistically significant improvement of results in both groups (Sw, C in comparison to Examination I. The dynamics of changes in general balance, flexibility, static force, functional force, running agility, was bigger in the girls who practiced swimming. As the speed of movement of upper limb, explosive force and thorax force are concerned; the differences of results in both examinations were similar in both groups (swimming group and control group. Progressive changes in motor fitness of the examined groups are a positive phenomenon in the development of child’s young organism. Conclusions: Swimming training significantly affected the dynamics of
McLaren, Shaun J; Macpherson, Tom W; Coutts, Aaron J; Hurst, Christopher; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew
The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships. We searched six electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) for original research articles published up to September 2017. A Boolean search phrase was created to include search terms relevant to team-sport athletes (population; 37 keywords), internal load (dependent variable; 35 keywords), and external load (independent variable; 81 keywords). Articles were considered for meta-analysis when a correlation coefficient describing the association between at least one internal and one external measure of session load or intensity, measured in the time or frequency domain, was obtained from team-sport athletes during normal training or match-play (i.e., unstructured observational study). The final data sample included 122 estimates from 13 independent studies describing 15 unique relationships between three internal and nine external measures of load and intensity. This sample included 295 athletes and 10,418 individual session observations. Internal measures were session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), and heart-rate-derived training impulse (TRIMP). External measures were total distance (TD), the distance covered at high and very high speeds (HSRD ≥ 13.1-15.0 km h -1 and VHSRD ≥ 16.9-19.8 km h -1 , respectively), accelerometer load (AL), and the number of sustained impacts (Impacts > 2-5 G). Distinct training modes were identified as either mixed (reference condition), skills, metabolic, or
Ziaee, Vahid; Shobbar, Montazer; Lotfian, Sara; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi
Karate is a public sport that has athletes in various age ranges and abundant active sport clubs in Iran. The pattern of injury in this sport in Iranian athletes seems different from other countries. This study was performed with the purpose of considering the incidence and type of injury of karate athletes aged below 30 years from Tehran, Iran clubs. In a cross-sectional study, 10 karate clubs were selected in Tehran. Clubs were selected based on a cluster method from 5 different geographical regions of Tehran. All injuries were collected based on athletes' or clubs' weekly report with a designed questionnaire. The injuries were classified according to: low, medium and severe injury. Collected data was analyzed with SPSS software version 17. 620 athletes were studied totally and incidence rate of injury per athletes was 16.1% and 20.2 per 100 athletes. Ninety percent of injuries were during bout practice, 6% during fitness and 4% during kata. The rate of injury was more common in athletes with weight less than 70 kg and lower sport experience (P ≤ 0.05). The commonest locations for injury were head and neck followed by trunk, lower and upper limb, respectively. Just 2 cases needed surgical intervention and no one led to decreased level of consciousness. The most common type of injury was contusion, bruise and superficial scratch (64%). Severe injury was uncommon in this study and similar to other Iranian studies head and neck had the most injuries. Athletes with lower experience and lower weight were associated with higher injuries.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of the factor structure of the readiness of mountaineers and climbers of different specializations. The study involved 26 athletes, among them - 10 masters of sports of international class (speed climbing , 10 masters of sports of international class ( climbing difficulty and 6 world-class climbers. The age of the athletes was 19-22 years. Identified 10 factors in the overall readiness of the surveyed athletes. It is shown that the most prominent climbers factors are adaptive capacity of the cardiovascular system, special endurance. Do climbers ( climbing difficulty - relative strength, stability, reaction speed, arm strength and the press. Do climbers ( climbing speed - spigot size hand, the mobility of the nervous system, the reaction rate. Shows the complexity of the manifestations of power-speed in relation to the performance of morphological and functional characteristics and capabilities of psychophysiological representatives of mountain sports. Found that the development of the power-speed positive effect on the improvement of psycho-physiological regulation of the body. The obtained data on the characteristics of the severity of different factors in representatives of different types of rock climbing and mountaineering can be used to predict future specialization novice climbers.
Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M
Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.
Woodruff, Robert R.; Smith, James F.
The objective of the project was to investigate the utility of using an A/F37A-T4G T-37 flight simulator within the context of Air Force undergraduate pilot training. Twenty-one subjects, selected from three undergraduate pilot training classes, were given contact flight training in a TP4G/EPT simulator before going to T-37 aircraft for further…
Erren-Wolters, Catelijne Victorien; van Dijk, Henk; de Kort, Alexander C; Ijzerman, Maarten J; Jannink, Michiel J
Virtual reality technology is an emerging technology that possibly can address the problems encountered in training (elderly) people to handle a mobility device. The objective of this review was to study different virtual reality training applications as well as their clinical implication for patients with mobility problems. Computerized literature searches were performed using the MEDLINE, Cochrane, CIRRIE and REHABDATA databases. This resulted in eight peer reviewed journal articles. The included studies could be divided into three categories, on the basis of their study objective. Five studies were related to training driving skills, two to physical exercise training and one to leisure activity. This review suggests that virtual reality is a potentially useful means to improve the use of a mobility device, in training one's driving skills, for keeping up the physical condition and also in a way of leisure time activity. Although this field of research appears to be in its early stages, the included studies pointed out a promising transfer of training in a virtual environment to the real-life use of mobility devices.
Savern l Reweti
Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore whether a full cost flight training device (FTD was significantly better for simulator training than a low cost PC-Based Aviation Training Device (PCATD. Background: A quasi-transfer study was undertaken to ascertain whether a Civil Aviation Authority certified Flight Training Device (FTD was more effective at improving pilot proficiency in the performance of a standard VFR traffic pattern (Overhead Rejoin Procedure than a customised low cost PCATD. Methodology: In this quasi-transfer study, a high fidelity FTD rather than an aircraft was used to test both training and transfer tasks. Ninety-three pilots were recruited to participate in the study. Contribution: The use of PCATDs is now well established for pilot training, especially for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR skills training. However, little substantive research has been undertaken to examine their efficacy for VFR training. Findings: There was no evidence of a pre-test/post-test difference in VFR task perfor-mance between participants trained on the PCATD and the FTD, when post tested on the FTD. The use of both PCATD and FTD demonstrated signifi-cant improvements in VFR task performance compared to a control group that received no PCATD or FTD training. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: We discuss the possibility that low cost PCATDs may be a viable alternative for flight schools wishing to use a flight simulator but not able to afford a FTD. Recommendation for Researchers: We discuss the introduction of improved low cost technologies that allow PCATDs to be used more effectively for training in VFR procedures. The development and testing of new technologies requires more research. Impact on Society: Flight training schools operate in a difficult economic environment with continued increases in the cost of aircraft maintenance, compliance costs, and aviation fuel. The increased utilisation of low cost PCATD’s especially for VFR
McLeod, Tamara C Valovich; Bliven, Kellie C Huxel; Lam, Kenneth C; Bay, R Curtis; Valier, Alison R Snyder; Parsons, John T
Increased rates of sport participation and sport-related injury have led to greater emphasis on and attention to medical care of student-athletes in the secondary school setting. Access to athletic training services is seen as a critical factor for delivering adequate injury prevention and medical care to student-athletes. However, few data are available regarding practice characteristics of athletic trainers (ATs) in this setting. To characterize the practices of secondary school athletic trainers (ATs). Descriptive study. Web-based survey. A total of 17 558 ATs with current National Athletic Trainers' Association membership were identified for survey distribution. Of these, 4232 ATs indicated that they practiced in the secondary school setting, and 4045 completed some part of the survey. A Web-based survey was used to obtain demographic information about ATs and their secondary schools and characteristics of athletic training practice. Descriptive data regarding the athletic trainer's personal characteristics, secondary school characteristics, and practice patterns are reported as percentages and frequencies. Most respondents were in the early stages of their careers and relatively new to the secondary school practice setting. Nearly two-thirds (62.4%; n = 2522) of respondents had 10 or fewer years of experience as secondary school ATs, 52% (n = 2132) had been certified for 10 or fewer years, and 53.4% (n = 2164) had 10 or fewer years of experience in any practice setting. The majority of respondents (85%) worked in public schools with enrollment of 1000 to 1999 (35.5%) and with football (95.5%). More than half of respondents were employed directly by their school. Most respondents (50.6%) reported an athletic training budget of less than $4000. The majority of ATs performed evaluations (87.5%) on-site all of the time, with a smaller percentage providing treatments (73.3%) or rehabilitation (47.4%) services all of the time. This is the first study to describe
Zaitseva, Natalia A.; ?ndryushchenko, Lilia ?.
The relevance of the research stems from the importance of modernization of the system of training for sport and tourism, without which the intensive development of this kind of professional activity is not possible. The aim of the study was the generalization of the experience of introduction of the innovative educational technologies in the…
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of a 24-week multifaceted sport training program on some physical and performance characteristics of 5-9 year old children. There are many researches about the necessities for children to start physical activity at an early age. According to the characteristics of different physical activities to…
Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César; Bataller, Ana Vanessa; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Moras, Gerard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto
To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements. Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6-10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD. Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.
Marty, Melissa Catherine
Peer assessment/feedback is clearly occurring in athletic training education programs. However, it remains unclear whether students would improve their ability to assess their peers and provide corrective feedback if they received formal training in how to do so. The purpose of this study was to determine the following: (1) if a peer…
Marin, Douglas Popp; Bolin, Anaysa Paola; Campoio, Thais Regina; Guerra, Beatriz Alves; Otton, Rosemari
The chronic exposure to regular exercise training seems to improve antioxidant defense systems. However, the intense physical training imposed on elite athletes may lead to overtraining associated with oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different training loads and competition on oxidative stress, biochemical parameters and antioxidant enzymatic defense in handball athletes during 6-months of monitoring. Ten male elite handball athletes were recruited to the study. Blood samples were collected four times every six weeks throughout the season. During most intense periods of training and competitions there were significant changes in plasma indices of oxidative stress (increased TBARS and decreased thiols). Conversely, chronic adaptations to exercise training demonstrated a significant protective effect against oxidative stress in erythrocyte (decrease in TBARs and carbonyl group levels). Erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased, suggesting a training-induced antioxidant adaptation. Biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage were significantly increased during high-intensity training period (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase). No significant changes were observed in plasma IL-6, TNF-α and uric acid, whereas a significant reduction was found in the IL-1β concentration and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. Oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarkers can change throughout the season in competitive athletes, reflecting the physical stress and muscle damage that occurs as the result of competitive handball training. In addition, these biochemical measurements can be applied in the physiological follow-up of athletes. © 2013.
Hohmann, Tanja; Obelöer, Hilke; Schlapkohl, Nele; Raab, Markus
We examined the effectiveness of video-based decision training in national youth handball teams. Extending previous research, we tested in Study 1 whether a three-dimensional (3D) video training group would outperform a two-dimensional (2D) group. In Study 2, a 3D training group was compared to a control group and a group trained with a traditional tactic board. In both studies, training duration was 6 weeks. Performance was measured in a pre- to post-retention design. The tests consisted of a decision-making task measuring quality of decisions (first and best option) and decision time (time for first and best option). The results of Study 1 showed learning effects and revealed that the 3D video group made faster first-option choices than the 2D group, but differences in the quality of options were not pronounced. The results of Study 2 revealed learning effects for both training groups compared to the control group, and faster choices in the 3D group compared to both other groups. Together, the results show that 3D video training is the most useful tool for improving choices in handball, but only in reference to decision time and not decision quality. We discuss the usefulness of a 3D video tool for training of decision-making skills outside the laboratory or gym.
The purpose of this research work is to track down the level of relation between strength and endurance in training exercises of handball athletes. The most successful ratio has been established during work with two groups of 10 players each, all of whom are university students. They were trained, respectively, according to the general training…
Ho, N S K; Tong, K Y; Hu, X L; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Rong, W; Susanto, E A
An exoskeleton hand robotic training device is specially designed for persons after stroke to provide training on their impaired hand by using an exoskeleton robotic hand which is actively driven by their own muscle signals. It detects the stroke person's intention using his/her surface electromyography (EMG) signals from the hemiplegic side and assists in hand opening or hand closing functional tasks. The robotic system is made up of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module which can be adjusted to fit for different finger length. Eight chronic stroke subjects had been recruited to evaluate the effects of this device. The preliminary results showed significant improvement in hand functions (ARAT) and upper limb functions (FMA) after 20 sessions of robot-assisted hand functions task training. With the use of this light and portable robotic device, stroke patients can now practice more easily for the opening and closing of their hands at their own will, and handle functional daily living tasks at ease. A video is included together with this paper to give a demonstration of the hand robotic system on chronic stroke subjects and it will be presented in the conference. © 2011 IEEE
Belski, Regina; Staley, Kiera; Keenan, Stephen; Skiadopoulos, Anne; Randle, Erica; Donaldson, Alex; O'Halloran, Paul; Kappelides, Pam; O'Neil, Stacey; Nicholson, Matthew
Sports clubs provide an opportunity to tackle childhood obesity rates through targeted interventions. Our study aimed to investigate if coaches providing healthy snacks to participants before junior netball sessions at five clubs in Melbourne, Australia, increased consumption of healthy foods and influenced coach perceptions of participants' attention/participation levels. Coaches provided healthy snacks to participants before each netball session for one school term. Children's food consumption was observed at one session before, during and after the intervention. Parents attending the observed session completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires. Coaches rated participants' attention/participation at the observed sessions before and during the intervention, and completed a questionnaire post-intervention. Baseline: Ice cream and cake were the most frequently consumed snacks. During intervention: Fruit, cheese and crackers and vegetables were the most frequently consumed snacks. Coaches ratings of participants' attention/participation increased significantly (baseline: 6.4 ± 0.17, intervention: 7.5 ± 0.36; p=0.02) where the same coach undertook ratings at both time points. Coaches providing healthy snacks before sessions at sports clubs increased consumption of nutrient-dense foods at the session, and may have positively affected participants' attention/participation. Implications for public health: This study highlights how a simple intervention could improve the diet of Australian children. © 2017 The Authors.
Hadley, Fred W.
Technology is making a significant impact in all areas of sports and recreation. New equipment and computer training methods in spectator sports have had a major social and economic impact, and individual sports have reaped the benefits of technology. (JOW)
Sandbakk, Øyvind; Rasdal, Vegard; Bråten, Steinar; Moen, Frode; Ettema, Gertjan
To compare sport-specific laboratory capacities and the annual training of world-class Nordic combined (NC) athletes with specialized ski jumpers (SJ) and cross-country (XC) skiers. Five world-class athletes from each sports discipline were compared. Ski jump imitations were performed on a 3-dimensional force plate in NC athletes and SJ, whereas XC skiing characteristics were obtained from submaximal and maximal roller ski skating on a treadmill in NC athletes and XC skiers. In addition, anthropometrics and annual training characteristics were determined. NC athletes demonstrated 9% higher body mass and showed 17% lower vertical speed in the ski jump imitation than SJ (all P ski-jumping-specific sessions and outdoor ski jumps compared with SJ. NC athletes performed 31% less endurance training, mainly caused by lower amounts of low- and moderate-intensity training in the classical technique, whereas high-intensity strength and speed training and endurance training in the skating technique did not differ substantially from XC skiers. To simultaneously optimize endurance, explosive, and technical capacities in 2 different disciplines, world-class NC athletes train approximately two-thirds of the XC skier's endurance training volume and perform one-half of the ski-jump-specific training compared with SJ. Still, the various laboratory capacities differed only 10-17% compared with SJ and XC skiers.
What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ...
Full Text Available In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30,000X compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84,000 GigaOps/s/W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things sensors.
Gokmen, Tayfun; Vlasov, Yurii
In recent years, deep neural networks (DNN) have demonstrated significant business impact in large scale analysis and classification tasks such as speech recognition, visual object detection, pattern extraction, etc. Training of large DNNs, however, is universally considered as time consuming and computationally intensive task that demands datacenter-scale computational resources recruited for many days. Here we propose a concept of resistive processing unit (RPU) devices that can potentially accelerate DNN training by orders of magnitude while using much less power. The proposed RPU device can store and update the weight values locally thus minimizing data movement during training and allowing to fully exploit the locality and the parallelism of the training algorithm. We evaluate the effect of various RPU device features/non-idealities and system parameters on performance in order to derive the device and system level specifications for implementation of an accelerator chip for DNN training in a realistic CMOS-compatible technology. For large DNNs with about 1 billion weights this massively parallel RPU architecture can achieve acceleration factors of 30, 000 × compared to state-of-the-art microprocessors while providing power efficiency of 84, 000 GigaOps∕s∕W. Problems that currently require days of training on a datacenter-size cluster with thousands of machines can be addressed within hours on a single RPU accelerator. A system consisting of a cluster of RPU accelerators will be able to tackle Big Data problems with trillions of parameters that is impossible to address today like, for example, natural speech recognition and translation between all world languages, real-time analytics on large streams of business and scientific data, integration, and analysis of multimodal sensory data flows from a massive number of IoT (Internet of Things) sensors.
Rogers, Rebecca G
Learning surgical skills involves both fine and gross motor skills, and necessitates performance in stressful situations. This environment is similar to the environment in which an athlete performs. Mental imagery has been used successfully in training athletes of all levels of proficiency and enhances both motor skills and motivational skills of performing under stress. The literature of using mental imagery to train surgeons is limited to the teaching of simple surgical skills, but shows promise as another tool to teach technical skills.
McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Justin
Little research has been done on the physiological and performance effects of altitude training on team-sport athletes. Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp. Thirty elite AF players completed 19 days of living and training at either moderate altitude (~2130 m; ALT, n = 21) or sea level (CON, n = 9). TT performance and Hbmass were assessed preintervention (PRE) and postintervention (POST1) in both groups and at 4 wk after returning to sea level (POST2) in ALT only. Improvement in TT performance after altitude was likely 1.5% (± 4.8-90%CL) greater in ALT than in CON, with an individual responsiveness of 0.8%. Improvements in TT were maintained at POST2 in ALT. Hbmass after altitude was very likely increased in ALT compared with CON (2.8% ± 3.5%), with an individual responsiveness of 1.3%. Hbmass returned to baseline at POST2. Intramuscular carnosine did not change in either gastrocnemius or soleus from PRE to POST1. A preseason altitude camp improved TT performance and Hbmass in elite AF players to a magnitude similar to that demonstrated by elite endurance athletes undertaking altitude training. The individual responsiveness of both TT and Hbmass was approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. The maintenance of running performance for 4 wk, despite Hbmass returning to baseline, suggests that altitude training is a valuable preparation for AF players leading into the competitive season.
Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...
Yu, Jyaehyoung; Jeon, Hanjae; Song, Changgeun; Han, Woojae
The goal of the present study was to develop an auditory training program using a mobile device and to test its efficacy by applying it to older adults suffering from moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Among the 20 elderly hearing-impaired listeners who participated, 10 were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) and 10 were assigned to a non-training group (NTG) as a control. As a baseline, all participants were measured by vowel, consonant and sentence tests. In the experiment, the TG had been trained for 4 weeks using a mobile program, which had four levels and consisted of 10 Korean nonsense syllables, with each level completed in 1 week. In contrast, traditional auditory training had been provided for the NTG during the same period. To evaluate whether a training effect was achieved, the two groups also carried out the same tests as the baseline after completing the experiment. The results showed that performance on the consonant and sentence tests in the TG was significantly increased compared with that of the NTG. Also, improved scores of speech perception were retained at 2 weeks after the training was completed. However, vowel scores were not changed after the 4-week training in both the TG and the NTG. This result pattern suggests that a moderate amount of auditory training using the mobile device with cost-effective and minimal supervision is useful when it is used to improve the speech understanding of older adults with hearing loss. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 61-68. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Dwyer, Tim; Wright, Sara; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan M; Theodoropoulos, John; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Wasserstein, David; Ringsted, Charlotte; Hodges, Brian; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell
Competency-based medical education as a resident-training format will move postgraduate training away from time-based training, to a model based on observable outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether junior residents and senior residents could demonstrate clinical skills to a similar level, after a sports medicine rotation. All residents undertaking a three-month sports medicine rotation had to pass an Objective Structured Clinical Examination. The stations tested the fundamentals of history-taking, examination, image interpretation, differential diagnosis, informed consent, and clinical decision-making. Performance at each station was assessed with a binary station-specific checklist and an overall global rating scale, in which 1 indicated novice, 2 indicated advanced beginner, 3 indicated competent, 4 indicated proficient, and 5 indicated expert. A global rating scale was also given for each domain of knowledge. Over eighteen months, thirty-nine residents (twenty-one junior residents and eighteen senior residents) and six fellows (for a total of forty-five participants) completed the examination. With regard to junior residents and senior residents, analysis using a two-tailed t test demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.01) in both total checklist score and overall global rating scale; the mean total checklist score (and standard deviation) was 56.15% ± 10.99% for junior residents and 71.87% ± 8.94% for senior residents, and the mean global rating scale was 2.44 ± 0.55 for junior residents and 3.79 ± 0.49 for senior residents. There was a significant difference between junior residents and senior residents for each knowledge domain, with a significance of p < 0.05 for history-taking and p < 0.01 for the remainder of the domains. Despite intensive teaching within a competency-based medical education model, junior residents were not able to demonstrate knowledge as well as senior residents, suggesting that overall clinical experience
Liefeith, Andreas; Kiely, John; Collins, Dave; Richards, Jim
Perhaps as a consequence of increased specialism in training and support, the focus on engendering and maintaining agility as a generic quality has diminished within many contemporary sports performance programmes. Reflecting this, we outline a rationale suggesting that such a decreased focus represents an oversight which may be detrimental to maximising the potential of performers. We present an evidence-based argument that both generic and specific elements of agility performance should be consistently emphasised within long-term performance-training programmes. We contend that prematurely early specialisation in athlete development models can diminish focus on generic movement skill development with a subsequent detriment in adult performance. Especially when this is coupled with poor primary physical education and limited movement experiences. More speculatively, we propose that generic agility can play a role in operationalising movement development through facilitating skill transfer: thereby enabling the learning of new skills, reduce incidence of injury and facilitating re-learning of old skills during rehabilitation and Return-to-Play processes.
Barriga, Eduardo S.; Russell, Stephen; Abramoff, Michael; Brittain, Robert; Nguyen, Phong; Soliz, Peter
To become highly proficient at a given surgical procedure and to reduce risk to patients, physicians must gain experience through a number means. Today optical training devices based on the actual surgical device coupled with computer models can provide the required realism to provide highly effective training. This paper presents a optical system that will be used for training residents to perform panretinal photocoagulation (PRP), a laser surgical procedure for treating the retina. The system will naturally evolve into a computer-assisted device for performing PRP. With the system described herein, simulations are created in the Umbra modeling and simulation framework. The simulation is composed of four building blocks: Pre-operation planning, multi-modality image registration, tracking the patient's eye movement, and positioning the laser according to the pre-planned aim points. A prototype simulation was developed to demonstrate a realistic depiction of the PRP the procedure. The ultimate goal of this project is to integrate the software into an existing ophthalmic device to increase the accuracy of the laser application procedure by providing computer-assisted surgery.
Full Text Available On the LHS line (Broad-gauge Metallurgical Line, far out West of the railway line with a gauge of 1520 mm, heavy goods trains for a gross weight 5500 tons and a length of 850 m are operated. The article presents the results of a simulation study of the forces that occur in the automatic coupling device of SA-3 type of Russian production train consisting of 60 coal wagons of Russian construction of gross mass 91 tons each. The train moves on the 1520 mm gauge tracks curve S type (the radius of curvature of curves 300 m. Simulation studies were conducted using the Train Module of program to dynamic study multi-elements systems of Universal Mechanism UM 6.0.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the physiological load tolerances of two breeds of dogs used for sports, namely the Siberian husky and the Czechoslovakian wolfdog, on the basis of measurements of surface temperature and blood lactic acid levels.Two breeds - Czechoslovakian wolfdog (10 individuals and Siberian husky (10 individuals, 20 dogs - male, 4-6 years old, were selected for the study. All the qualified animals were previously examined by a veterinarian and considered to be healthy. The dogs tested were used in dogtrekking sport competitions. For both breeds, an attempt was made to test the dogtrekking harness for 5 km of non-stop track running. The animals trotted while being led by a guide. Three attempts were made for each dog at 48 hour intervals. All dogs were tested for two parameters, first before and then after the exercise – measuring surface temperature at selected points of the body as well as lactic acid concentration. A higher and statistically significant level of lactic acid was recorded in the case of Siberian husky. Before the run, the level of lactic acid was comparable in both breeds. The second parameter was the surface temperature measured at the selected measuring points. Significant statistical differences were noted for the wolfdog breed at P≤0.05 before the exercise and 10 minutes after resting, at the neck, rump and abdominal points. In addition, the same level of statistical significance was measured by surface thermography at the abdominal point, both before and immediately after the run. The high statistically significant increase (P≤0.01 in surface temperature was noted for muscles of the so-called rump, both before and after the exertion. There was no statistically significant difference in the back thermography in the wolfdog breed. In the Siberian husky breed, statistically significant differences (P≤0.05 were observed at the neck, rump and chest points, in confrontation with the
Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery has revolutionised medicine but requires surgeons to learn new visual-motor mappings. The optimal method for training surgeons is unknown. For instance, it may be easier to learn planar movements when training is constrained to a plane, since this forces the surgeon to develop an appropriate perceptual-motor map. In contrast, allowing the surgeon to move without constraints could improve performance because this provides greater experience of the control dynamics of the device. In order to test between these alternatives, we created an experimental tool that connected a commercially available robotic arm with specialised software that presents visual stimuli and objectively records kinematics. Participants were given the task of generating a series of aiming movements to move a visual cursor to a series of targets. The actions required movement along a horizontal plane, whereas the visual display was a screen positioned perpendicular to this plane (ie, vertically. One group (n=8 received training where the force field constrained their movement to the correct plane of action, whilst a second group (n=8 trained without constraints. On test trials (after training the unconstrained group showed better performance, as indexed by reduced movement duration and reduced path length. These results show that participants who explored the entire action space had an advantage, which highlights the importance of experiencing the full dynamics of a control device and the action space when learning a new visual-motor mapping.
Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143 PMID:29016675
Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.
Paajanen, Hannu; Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari
Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n=10), ice hockey (n=10), bandy (n=10) and female floor-ball players (n=10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training.
Paajanen, Hannu; Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari
Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)
Paajanen, Hannu [Kuopio University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Kuopio (Finland); Hermunen, Heikki; Karonen, Jari [Central Hospital of Mikkeli, Department of Radiology, Mikkeli (Finland)
Bone marrow edema (BME) at the pubic symphysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is usually associated with groin pain and stress injury of the pubic bone. Little is known of the pubic MR imaging findings of asymptomatic heavy training athletes in contact sports. Pelvic MRI of male asymptomatic soccer (n = 10), ice hockey (n = 10), bandy (n = 10) and female floor-ball players (n = 10) were compared with non-athlete controls (10 males, 10 females) without groin pain to analyse the presence of BME (on a four-point scale). To study the possible changes of BME directly following heavy physical activity, 10 bandy players underwent MRI before and immediately after a 2-h training session. Magnetic resonance imaging showed minimal BME (grade 1) at the pubic symphysis in 19 of the 40 athletes (48%). Two soccer and 2 ice hockey players (20%) had moderate grade 2 pubic edema, but severe grade 3 BME findings were not found. Also 10 out of 20 (50%) of controls had grade 1 BME. The extent of increased signal was equally distributed in the asymptomatic athletes of different contact sports and controls. A heavy 2-h training session did not cause any enhanced signal at the pubic symphysis. This study indicates that the presence of grade 1 pubic BME was a frequent finding in contact sports and comparable to that in non-athletes. Grade 2 BME was found only in asymptomatic athletes undergoing heavy training. (orig.)
Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Blom, Nico A; van Dijk, Arie P J; Helbing, Wim A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized exercise program on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with congenital heart disease and to know what the moderating impact of their baseline health behavior and disease knowledge is. Included were 93 patients, aged 10 to 25, with surgical repair for tetralogy of Fallot or with a Fontan circulation for single-ventricle physiology, of 5 participating centers of pediatric cardiology in The Netherlands. They were randomly allocated, stratified for age, gender, and type of congenital heart disease to a 12-week period with either: (1) three times per week standardized exercise training or (2) care as usual (randomization ratio 2:1). At baseline and after 12 weeks, participants completed Web-based questionnaires and were interviewed by phone. Primary analyses tested changes from baseline to follow-up in sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in the exercise group vs. control group. Secondary analyses concerned the moderating influence of baseline health behavior and disease knowledge on changes from baseline to follow-up, and comparison with normative data. At follow-up, the exercise group reported a decrease in passive leisure-time spending (watching television and computer usage) compared with controls. Exercise training had no effect on sports enjoyment and active leisure-time spending. Disease knowledge had a moderating effect on improvement in sports enjoyment, whereas health behavior did not. Compared with normative data, patients obtained similar leisure time scores and lower frequencies as to drinking alcohol and smoking. Exercise training decreased passive, but not active, leisure-time spending. It did not influence sports enjoyment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ayrán Arencibia Moreno
Full Text Available This research shows the inadequacies in the training of the Badminton trainers of the province of Pinar del Río, starting from the characteristics of their preparation, defining their needs and establishing their possible solution to eliminate the insufficiencies in their knowledge. That is why they use theoretical and empirical methods such as the historical-logical, the analysis-synthesis, the induction-deduction, the observation, interview, as well as the percentage analysis. Based on the results of the diagnosis, the training needs of these trainers were determined, which will allow the subsequent design and execution of an improvement program to respond to these needs, thus contributing to the overcoming of this technical force, in for superior results.
Toyama, S.; Ikeda, F.; Yasaka, T.
This paper proposes a new training support method called self-coaching with humanoid robots. In the proposed method, two small size inexpensive humanoid robots are used because of their availability. One robot called target robot reproduces motion of a target player and another robot called reference robot reproduces motion of an expert player. The target player can recognize a target technique from the reference robot and his/her inadequate skill from the target robot. Modifying the motion of the target robot as self-coaching, the target player could get advanced cognition. Some experimental results show some possibility as the new training method and some issues of the self-coaching interface program as a future work.
Sadek Drevel Khalaf; A.U. Diachenko
Purpose: to substantiate ways of increase of Iraq football players’ training process effectiveness, depending on calendar of events. Material: analysis of technical-tactic actions was conducted by quantitative and qualitative characteristics of football players in every match. The analysis was presented by mean indicators of matches of the first (n=15) and second (n=15) rounds of championships of Iraq premier league 2011-2014. Results: we realized conception of periodization of Iraq elite foo...
Hecksteden, Anne; Leidinger, Petra; Backes, Christina; Rheinheimer, Stefanie; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander; Kellmann, Michael; Sedaghat-Hamedani, Farbod; Meder, Benjamin; Meese, Eckart; Meyer, Tim; Keller, Andreas
The dependency of miRNA abundance from physiological processes such as exercises remains partially understood. We set out to analyze the effect of physical exercises on miRNA profiles in blood and plasma of endurance and strength athletes in a systematic manner and correlated differentially abundant miRNAs in athletes to disease miRNAs biomarkers towards a better understanding of how physical exercise may confound disease diagnosis by miRNAs. We profiled blood and plasma of 29 athletes before and after exercise. With four samples analyzed for each individual we analyzed 116 full miRNomes. The study set-up enabled paired analyses of individuals. Affected miRNAs were investigated for known disease associations using network analysis. MiRNA patterns in blood and plasma of endurance and strength athletes vary significantly with differences in blood outreaching variations in plasma. We found only moderate differences between the miRNA levels before training and the RNA levels after training as compared to the more obvious variations found between strength athletes and endurance athletes. We observed significant variations in the abundance of miR-140-3p that is a known circulating disease markers (raw and adjusted p value of 5 × 10(-12) and 4 × 10(-7)). Similarly, the levels of miR-140-5p and miR-650, both of which have been reported as makers for a wide range of human pathologies significantly depend on the training mode. Among the most affected disease categories we found acute myocardial infarction. MiRNAs, which are up-regulated in endurance athletes inhibit VEGFA as shown by systems biology analysis of experimentally validated target genes. We provide evidence that the mode and the extent of training are important confounding factors for a miRNA based disease diagnosis.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.
The world of sports intrinsically involves fast and accurate motion that is not only challenging for competitors to master, but can be difficult for coaches and trainers to analyze, and for audiences to follow. The nature of most sports means that monitoring by the use of sensors or other devices...
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Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of an adapted basketball training program on the cardiorespiratory fitness and sport skills performance of adolescents with mental retardation (MR. Fifty adolescents with mild MR who participated in this study were divided in two groups. Experimental group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.7 ± 0.9 years performed the adapted training program, four times per week during eight weeks. A control group (n = 25; mean ± SD age: 15.9 ± 0.8 years followed ordinary physical education classes and continued with their normal lifestyle. Exercise testing included the six-minute walk test (6MWT, monitoring of heart rate frequency and sport skills performance test battery.
Full Text Available Purpose: establishing the nature of the relationship between the sporting result of weightlifters 15–17 years and the level of their special physical and morphofunctional preparedness at the stage of preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: 30 athletes of the group of preliminary basic training of the second year of training were involved in the experiment. The study was conducted on the basis of the department of weightlifting and boxing of the Kharkov State Academy of Physical Culture and Children's Sports School "KhTP". Result: correlation between the parameters of the morphofunctional, speed-power and special (competitive readiness of weightlifters of preliminary basic training are identified. The conducted research shows that the result of competitive exercises of athletes specializing in weightlifting, at the stage of preliminary basic training depends on the strength and speed-strength preparedness. Conclusion: it is established that the correlation between the results of competitive exercises and standing high jump, standing long jump, running at 30 m may indicate a correlation between the strength and speed-strength preparedness of athletes specializing in weightlifting at the stage of preliminary basic training.
Nef, Tobias; Quinter, Gabriela; Müller, Roland; Riener, Robert
Several clinical studies on chronic stroke conducted with end-effector-based robots showed improvement of the motor function in the affected arm. Compared to end-effector-based robots, exoskeleton robots provide improved guidance of the human limb and are better suited to train task-oriented movements with a large range of motions. To test whether intensive arm training with the arm exoskeleton ARMin I is feasible with chronic-stroke patients and whether it improves motor function in the paretic arm. Three single cases with chronic hemiparesis resulting from unilateral stroke (at least 14 months after stroke). A-B design with 2 weeks of multiple baseline measurements (A), 8 weeks of training (B) with repetitive measurements and a follow-up measurement 8 weeks after training. The training included shoulder and elbow movements with the robotic rehabilitation device ARMin I. Two subjects had three 1-hour sessions per week and 1 subject received five 1-hour sessions per week. The main outcome measurement was the upper-limb part of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA). The ARMin training was well tolerated by the patients, and the FMA showed moderate, but significant improvements for all 3 subjects (p arm exoskeleton is feasible with chronic-stroke patients. Moderate improvements were found in all 3 subjects, thus further clinical investigations are justified. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Asymmetrical gait and a reduction in weight bearing on the affected side are a common finding in chronic stroke survivors. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of a shoe insole device that we developed, called Walk-Even, in correcting asymmetric gait in chronic stroke survivors. Six individuals with chronic (>6 months stroke underwent 8 weeks of intervention with 2 sessions/week, each consisting of 20 minutes of gait training and 20 minutes of lower-extremity strength training. The 2 control participants underwent conventional gait training, while 4 participants underwent gait training using the Walk-Even. Following intervention, all the participants improved on most of the gait measures: peak pressure of the foot, time of transfer of weight from heel-to-forefoot, center of pressure (COP trajectory, COP velocity, asymmetry ratio of stance, mean-force-heel, mean-force-metatarsals, Timed “Up and Go,” and Activities-specific Balance Scale. The improvement was more pronounced in the 4 participants that underwent training with Walk-Even compared to the control participants. This pilot study suggests that a combination of strength and gait training with real-time feedback may reduce temporal asymmetry and enhance weight-bearing on the affected side in chronic stroke survivors. A large randomized controlled study is needed to confirm its efficacy.
Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.
The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seems clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both man and rat. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogues of such performance have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.
Full Text Available Introduction: Several sports demand an early start into long-term athlete development (LTAD because peak performances are achieved at a relatively young age (e.g., gymnastics. However, the challenging combination of high training volumes and academic demands may impede youth athletes' cognitive and academic performances. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine the effects of a 1-year sport-specific training and/or physical education on physical fitness, body composition, cognitive and academic performances in youth athletes and their non-athletic peers.Methods: Overall, 45 prepubertal fourth graders from a German elite sport school were enrolled in this study. Participating children were either youth athletes from an elite sports class (n = 20, age 9.5 ± 0.5 years or age-matched peers from a regular class (n = 25, age 9.6 ± 0.6 years. Over the 1-year intervention period, the elite sports class conducted physical education and sport-specific training (i.e., gymnastics, swimming, soccer, bicycle motocross [BMX] during school time while the regular class attended physical education only. Of note, BMX is a specialized form of cycling that is performed on motocross tracks and affords high technical skills. Before and after intervention, tests were performed for the assessment of physical fitness (speed [20-m sprint], agility [star agility run], muscle power [standing long jump], flexibility [stand-and-reach], endurance [6-min-run], balance [single-leg stance], body composition (e.g., muscle mass, cognitive (d2-test and academic performance (reading [ELFE 1–6], writing [HSP 4–5], calculating [DEMAT 4]. In addition, grades in German, English, Mathematics, and physical education were documented.Results: At baseline, youth athletes showed better physical fitness performances (p < 0.05; d = 0.70–2.16, less relative body fat mass, more relative skeletal muscle mass (p < 0.01; d = 1.62–1.84, and similar cognitive and academic achievements
Granacher, Urs; Borde, Ron
Introduction: Several sports demand an early start into long-term athlete development (LTAD) because peak performances are achieved at a relatively young age (e.g., gymnastics). However, the challenging combination of high training volumes and academic demands may impede youth athletes' cognitive and academic performances. Thus, the aims of this study were to examine the effects of a 1-year sport-specific training and/or physical education on physical fitness, body composition, cognitive and academic performances in youth athletes and their non-athletic peers. Methods: Overall, 45 prepubertal fourth graders from a German elite sport school were enrolled in this study. Participating children were either youth athletes from an elite sports class ( n = 20, age 9.5 ± 0.5 years) or age-matched peers from a regular class ( n = 25, age 9.6 ± 0.6 years). Over the 1-year intervention period, the elite sports class conducted physical education and sport-specific training (i.e., gymnastics, swimming, soccer, bicycle motocross [BMX]) during school time while the regular class attended physical education only. Of note, BMX is a specialized form of cycling that is performed on motocross tracks and affords high technical skills. Before and after intervention, tests were performed for the assessment of physical fitness (speed [20-m sprint], agility [star agility run], muscle power [standing long jump], flexibility [stand-and-reach], endurance [6-min-run], balance [single-leg stance]), body composition (e.g., muscle mass), cognitive (d2-test) and academic performance (reading [ELFE 1-6], writing [HSP 4-5], calculating [DEMAT 4]). In addition, grades in German, English, Mathematics, and physical education were documented. Results: At baseline, youth athletes showed better physical fitness performances ( p training volume amounted to 620 min/week over the 1-year period while their peers performed 155 min/week. After the intervention, significant differences were found in 6 out of 7
Thompson, Kirsten M J; Rocca, Corinne H; Stern, Lisa; Morfesis, Johanna; Goodman, Suzan; Steinauer, Jody; Harper, Cynthia C
US unintended pregnancy rates remain high, and contraceptive providers are not universally trained to offer intrauterine devices and implants to women who wish to use these methods. We sought to measure the impact of a provider training intervention on integration of intrauterine devices and implants into contraceptive care. We measured the impact of a continuing medical education-accredited provider training intervention on provider attitudes, knowledge, and practices in a cluster randomized trial in 40 US health centers from 2011 through 2013. Twenty clinics were randomly assigned to the intervention arm; 20 offered routine care. Clinic staff participated in baseline and 1-year surveys assessing intrauterine device and implant knowledge, attitudes, and practices. We used a difference-in-differences approach to compare changes that occurred in the intervention sites to changes in the control sites 1 year later. Prespecified outcome measures included: knowledge of patient eligibility for intrauterine devices and implants; attitudes about method safety; and counseling practices. We used multivariable regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering by clinic to examine intervention effects on provider outcomes 1 year later. Overall, we surveyed 576 clinic staff (314 intervention, 262 control) at baseline and/or 1-year follow-up. The change in proportion of providers who believed that the intrauterine device was safe was greater in intervention (60% at baseline to 76% at follow-up) than control sites (66% at both times) (adjusted odds ratio, 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-5.4). Likewise, for the implant, the proportion increased from 57-77% in intervention, compared to 61-65% in control sites (adjusted odds ratio, 2.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.59). The proportion of providers who believed they were experienced to counsel on intrauterine devices also increased in intervention (53-67%) and remained the same in control sites (60
Micheli, Lyle J.
Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)
Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.
From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…
Hammami, Amri; Gabbett, Tim J; Slimani, Maamer; Bouhlel, Ezdine
This paper aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the training effects of small-sided games (SSG) on physical fitness and specific skills related to team sport according to the level of play and the period of the season. The search covered the following electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). The publications' search period ranged from 2000 to 2016. The terms (small- sided game, training, skill-based game, aerobic fitness, sprint, agility, jump and team sports) were used either singularly or combined in a systematic sequence. Appraisal of 16 articles (15 were meta-analysed) was performed after the application of exclusion criteria and quality assurance processes and the standardized mean effects were measured using random effects. The results revealed that SSG training had a large beneficial effect on maximal oxygen uptake VO2max (effect size 1.94; 95 % CL 0.15, 3.74; I2 = 94 %), agility (-1.49; 95% CL -2.27, -0.71; I2 = 80%), and repeated sprint ability (-1.19; 95% CL - 2.17, -0.21; I2= 53%).There was a moderate beneficial effect on 10- and 20-m sprint performance (-0.89; 95 % CL -1.7, -0.07; I2 =88%), jump height (0.68; 95% CL 0.03, 1.33; I2= 79%), and intermittent endurance (0.61; 95% CL 0.17, 1.05; I2= 0%). The results also showed greater positive effects on specific skills (specific endurance and agility tests and techniques) after SSG when compared with generic or agility training. Small-sided games may represent an effective strategy of multicomponent training that can induce greater positive effects on specific skills tasks when compared with interval or agility training and moderate to large improvements in team sport-related physical fitness.
Wlodzimierz S. Erdmann
Full Text Available This paper presents many common areas of interest of different specialists. There are problems described from sport, biomechanics, sport biomechanics, sport engineering, robotics, biomechanics and robotics, sport biomechanics and robotics. There are many approaches to sport from different sciences and engineering. Robotics is a relatively new area and has had moderate attention from sport specialists. The aim of this paper is to present several areas necessary to develop sport robots based on biomechanics and also to present different types of sport robots: serving balls, helping to provide sports training, substituting humans during training, physically participating in competitions, physically participating in competitions against humans, serving as models of real sport performance, helping organizers of sport events and robot toys. Examples of the application of robots in sports communities are also given.
Full Text Available Specialized studies show how a fighter should physically be, not just any fighter, but the one who possesses the qualities and features of the ideal model, i.e. those elements that define the near-perfect fighter. The demands of the modern battlefield impose a high quality human potential that provides a good basis for the selection and training of fighters. Resistance to physical, climate, season and weather condition demands, to the prolonged efforts fighting requires is one of the important conditions of success. The paper presents information with particular impact in optimizing exercise capacity for future officers of the land forces, emphasizing once again the idea that a high level of motric ability is an essential objective.
Kobayashi, Leo; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Collins, Scott A.; Karim, Naz; Merck, Derek L.
Introduction Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator) and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner). Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Methods Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1) implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2) use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. Results The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients’ de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based “blind insertion” invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner’s AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Conclusion Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable access to modular
Full Text Available Introduction Augmented reality (AR, mixed reality (MR, and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner. Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Methods Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1 implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2 use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. Results The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients’ de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based “blind insertion” invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner’s AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Conclusion Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable
Kobayashi, Leo; Zhang, Xiao Chi; Collins, Scott A; Karim, Naz; Merck, Derek L
Augmented reality (AR), mixed reality (MR), and virtual reality devices are enabling technologies that may facilitate effective communication in healthcare between those with information and knowledge (clinician/specialist; expert; educator) and those seeking understanding and insight (patient/family; non-expert; learner). Investigators initiated an exploratory program to enable the study of AR/MR use-cases in acute care clinical and instructional settings. Academic clinician educators, computer scientists, and diagnostic imaging specialists conducted a proof-of-concept project to 1) implement a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and open-access repository at the study institution, and 2) use novel AR/MR techniques on off-the-shelf devices with holoimages generated by the infrastructure to demonstrate their potential role in the instructive communication of complex medical information. The study team successfully developed a medical holoimaging infrastructure methodology to identify, retrieve, and manipulate real patients' de-identified computed tomography and magnetic resonance imagesets for rendering, packaging, transfer, and display of modular holoimages onto AR/MR headset devices and connected displays. Holoimages containing key segmentations of cervical and thoracic anatomic structures and pathology were overlaid and registered onto physical task trainers for simulation-based "blind insertion" invasive procedural training. During the session, learners experienced and used task-relevant anatomic holoimages for central venous catheter and tube thoracostomy insertion training with enhanced visual cues and haptic feedback. Direct instructor access into the learner's AR/MR headset view of the task trainer was achieved for visual-axis interactive instructional guidance. Investigators implemented a core holoimaging pipeline infrastructure and modular open-access repository to generate and enable access to modular holoimages during exploratory pilot stage
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
Youth with physical disabilities participate less in sports compared to their typically developing peers. In 2011, only 26% of Dutch youth with physical disabilities participate at least once a week in sports compared to 71% of the typically developing youth. This has negative consequences regarding
Fortney, S M; Vroman, N B
performance is often impaired by high ambient temperatures, but may be improved by programmes of physical training and heat acclimatisation. Both training and heat acclimatisation significantly modify the control systems which regulate skin blood flow and sweating. Only acclimatisation programmes, however, are effective in preventing heat stress during prolonged exercise in hot environments.
Gokmen, Tayfun; Onen, Murat; Haensch, Wilfried
In a previous work we have detailed the requirements for obtaining maximal deep learning performance benefit by implementing fully connected deep neural networks (DNN) in the form of arrays of resistive devices. Here we extend the concept of Resistive Processing Unit (RPU) devices to convolutional neural networks (CNNs). We show how to map the convolutional layers to fully connected RPU arrays such that the parallelism of the hardware can be fully utilized in all three cycles of the backpropagation algorithm. We find that the noise and bound limitations imposed by the analog nature of the computations performed on the arrays significantly affect the training accuracy of the CNNs. Noise and bound management techniques are presented that mitigate these problems without introducing any additional complexity in the analog circuits and that can be addressed by the digital circuits. In addition, we discuss digitally programmable update management and device variability reduction techniques that can be used selectively for some of the layers in a CNN. We show that a combination of all those techniques enables a successful application of the RPU concept for training CNNs. The techniques discussed here are more general and can be applied beyond CNN architectures and therefore enables applicability of the RPU approach to a large class of neural network architectures.
Full Text Available A long-term sports training induces morphological and functional changes in the cardiovascular system, with the activation of angiogenesis being one of the most significant ones. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the impact of an 8-month sports training on the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and the physical performance in young athletes. Material and methods: A total of 28 sports middle school students (athletics faculty aged 13 years, including 14 boys and 14 girls, were included in the study. All participants underwent clinical assessment at each stage of the study. Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic examinations were performed. Furthermore, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor were measured and a cardiac stress test was performed, the outcome of which was used to calculate the physical working capacity (PWC170. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease (274.3 ± 195.7 vs. 193.8 ± 153.8 ng/ml, p 0.05. Conclusions: Long-term sports training results in a decrease in the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor. At the same time, physical efficiency improvement is observed, which may suggest the involvement of adaptive, exerciseinduced angiogenesis in the skeletal muscles. However, the observed changes show distinct differences depending on the sex.
Lim, Bee-Oh; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Jin Goo; An, Keun Ok; Yoo, Jin; Kwon, Young Hoo
Female athletes have a higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than their male counterparts who play at similar levels in sports involving pivoting and landing. The competitive female basketball players who participated in a sports injury prevention training program would show better muscle strength and flexibility and improved biomechanical properties associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury than during the pretraining period and than posttraining parameters in a control group. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 22 high school female basketball players were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups (the experimental group and the control group, 11 participants each). The experimental group was instructed in the 6 parts of the sports injury prevention training program and performed it during the first 20 minutes of team practice for the next 8 weeks, while the control group performed their regular training program. Both groups were tested with a rebound-jump task before and after the 8-week period. A total of 21 reflective markers were placed in preassigned positions. In this controlled laboratory study, a 2-way analysis of variance (2 x 2) experimental design was used for the statistical analysis (P training effects on all strength parameters (P = .004 to .043) and on knee flexion, which reflects increased flexibility (P = .022). The experimental group showed higher knee flexion angles (P = .024), greater interknee distances (P = .004), lower hamstring-quadriceps ratios (P = .023), and lower maximum knee extension torques (P = .043) after training. In the control group, no statistical differences were observed between pretraining and posttraining findings (P = .084 to .873). At pretraining, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for any parameter (P = .067 to .784). However, a comparison of the 2 groups after training revealed that the experimental group had significantly higher knee flexion angles (P = .023
Physical exercise is known to regulate energy balance. Important to this regulatory system is the existence of several peptides that communicate the status of body energy stores to the brain and are related to the body fatness including leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. These hormones assist in regulating energy balance as well as somatic and pubertal growth in children. It appears that rather few studies have investigated the responses of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin to acute exercise and these studies have demonstrated no changes in these peptides as a result of exercise. Leptin levels are decreased and may remain unchanged advancing from prepuberty to pubertal maturation in young male and female athletes. A limited number of studies indicate that adiponectin levels are not different between prepubertal and pubertal athletes and untrained controls. However, in certain circumstances circulating adiponectin could be increased in young athletes after onset of puberty as a result of heavily increased energy expenditure. Ghrelin levels are elevated in young sportsmen. However, pubertal onset decreases ghrelin levels in boys and girls even in the presence of chronically elevated energy expenditure as seen in young athletes. Ghrelin may also be used as an indicator of energy imbalance across the menstrual cycle in adolescent athletes. There are no studies with high-molecular-weight adiponectin and only very few studies with acylated ghrelin responses to acute exercise and chronic training have been performed in young athletes. Since these forms of adiponectin and ghrelin have been thought to be bioactive forms, further studies with these specific forms of adiponectin and ghrelin are needed. In conclusion, further studies should be conducted to investigate the response of these hormones to acute and chronic negative energy balance to better understand their role in regulating energy balance during growth and maturation in young athletes.
Spencer, Simon; Wolf, Alex; Rushton, Alison
Identification of strategies to prevent spinal injury, optimize rehabilitation, and enhance performance is a priority for practitioners. Different exercises produce different effects on neuromuscular performance. Clarity of the purpose of a prescribed exercise is central to a successful outcome. Spinal exercises need to be classified according to the objective of the exercise and planned physical outcome. To define the modifiable spinal abilities that underpin optimal function during skilled athletic performance, clarify the effect of spinal pain and pathologic conditions, and classify spinal exercises according to the objective of the exercise and intended physical outcomes to inform training and rehabilitation. Qualitative study. We conducted a qualitative consensus method of 4 iterative phases. An exploratory panel carried out an extended review of the English-language literature using CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PubMed to identify key themes and subthemes to inform the definitions of exercise categories, physical abilities, and physical outcomes. An expert project group reviewed panel findings. A draft classification was discussed with physiotherapists (n = 49) and international experts. Lead physiotherapy and strength and conditioning teams (n = 17) reviewed a revised classification. Consensus was defined as unanimous agreement. After the literature review and subsequent analysis, we defined spinal abilities in 4 categories: mobility, motor control, work capacity, and strength. Exercises were subclassified by functionality as nonfunctional or functional and by spinal displacement as either static (neutral spinal posture with no segmental displacement) or dynamic (dynamic segmental movement). The proposed terminology and classification support commonality of language for practitioners. The spinal-exercise classification will support clinical reasoning through a framework of spinal-exercise objectives that clearly define the nature of the exercise prescription
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Full Text Available To realize the separation of vertical and lateral stiffness of the under-chassis device, a new type of vibration absorber is designed by using the negative stiffness of the disc spring in parallel with the rubber component. To solve its transmission characteristics, harmonic transfer method was used. A rigid-flexible coupling multibody dynamic model of a high-speed train with an elastic car body is established, and the vertical and lateral optimal stiffness of the under-chassis device are calculated. The Sperling index and acceleration PSD of the vehicle with the new vibration absorber and the vehicle with traditional rubber absorber are compared and analyzed. The results show that, with the new vibration absorber, vehicle’s running stability and vibration of the car body are more effective than the vehicle with the traditional rubber absorber.
Voogd, J.M.; Roza, M.
The Dutch Ministry of Defense (NL-MoD) has recently acquired an update of its medium range anti tank (MRAT) missile system, called the GILL. The update to the SPIKE Long Range (LR) weapon system is accompanied with the acquisition of new simulation training devices (STDs). These devices are bought
Full Text Available Football is very popular game all over the world and in SCG as well.Every year in Yugoslavia girls and women are from 7 to 40 years take part in the game of football as a sport as well as a sort of recreation. Technically and tactically this game more and more resembles the male football. The process of training is close to the very edge of female abilities, so we have dynamic game full of duel, long shots and spectacular goals.The aim of this research is to confirm differences of developing characteristics and functional abilities female football players and women who don't train any sport actively.The research encircled 20 female football players members of football club Masinac (winner of 2003 competition. The control group consisted of 20 female students who didn't go in for any sport actively.The results show that the average height of female football players is 166.85 ± 5.47 cm and average height of control group is 166.11 ± 5.6 cm. Relative values of maximal oxygen up take is 63.14 ± 8.11 ml/min/kg and 55.43 ± 7.25 for control group. This result show that bought group have aerobic abilities higher than one of average women (30-40 ml/min/kg.
Loyaga-Rendon, Renzo Y; Plaisance, Eric P; Arena, Ross; Shah, Keyur
The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is an accepted treatment alternative for the management of end-stage heart failure. As we move toward implantation of LVADs in less severe cases of HF, scrutiny of functional capacity and quality of life becomes more important. Patients demonstrate improvements in exercise capacity after LVAD implantation, but the effect is less than predicted. Exercise training produces multiple beneficial effects in heart failure patients, which would be expected to improve quality of life. In this review, we describe factors that are thought to participate in the persistent exercise impairment in LVAD-supported patients, summarize current knowledge about the effect of exercise training in LVAD-supported patients, and suggest areas for future research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Unexploded Device in the Civilian Training Trauma Setting: A Case Report and Review of the Literature Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Unexploded Device in the Civilian Trauma Setting: A Case Report and Review of the literature Article Type: Case Report Corresponding Author: Jamie L...Trauma Setting: A Case Report 32 and Review of the literature 33 34 Abstract: 35 Background: The management of patients with impaled unexploded devices
Siqueira, Vicente N; Mancuso, Frederico J N; Campos, Orlando; De Paola, Angelo A; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A
Training requirements for general cardiologists without echocardiographic expertise to perform focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) with portable devices have not yet been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate a training program to instruct cardiology residents to perform FCU with a hand-carried device (HCD) in different clinical settings. Twelve cardiology residents were subjected to a 50-question test, 4 lectures on basic echocardiography and imaging interpretation, the supervised interpretation of 50 echocardiograms and performance of 30 exams using HCD. After this period, they repeated the written test and were administered a practical test comprising 30 exams each (360 patients) in different clinical settings. They reported on 15 parameters and a final diagnosis; their findings were compared to the HCD exam of a specialist in echocardiography. The proportion of correct answers on the theoretical test was higher after training (86%) than before (51%; P = 0.001). The agreement was substantial among the 15 parameters analyzed (kappa ranging from 0.615 to 0.891; P < 0.001). The percentage of correct interpretation was lower for abnormal (75%) than normal (95%) items, for valve abnormalities (85%) compared to other items (92%) and for graded scale (87%) than for dichotomous (95%) items (P < 0.0001, for all). For the final diagnoses, the kappa value was higher than 0.941 (P < 0.001; 95% CI [0.914, 0.955]). The training proposed enabled residents to perform FCU with HCD, and their findings were in good agreement with those of a cardiologist specialized in echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Habibi, Assal; Ilari, Beatriz; Crimi, Kevin; Metke, Michael; Kaplan, Jonas T; Joshi, Anand A; Leahy, Richard M; Shattuck, David W; Choi, So Y; Haldar, Justin P; Ficek, Bronte; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna
Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long-term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6- to 7-year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional, or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.
Full Text Available Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6-7 year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.
Bordalo, M F; De Nazaré Portal, M; Cader, S; Perrotta, N V; Dias Neto, J M; Dantas, E
The present study aimed to assess the effects of two different sports training methods - traditional and maturational - on the flexibility of female rhythmic gymnasts at different levels of biological maturation. The sample consisted of 120 children, randomly divided (by draw) into six groups of 20 children (eight and nine-years old): traditional training group (TG); maturational training group (MG); and the control group (CG). These were subdivided into early, normal and late, based on biological maturation assessment by hand/wrist X-ray examination. Flexibility was evaluated by angle goniometer testing, applying the LABIFIE protocol. A Lafayette Goniometer Set and Hoorn-Brasil exercise mat were used and the following exercises were performed: external shoulder rotation (ESR) and lumbar flexion (LF). Both the TG and MG participated in twice-weekly, 45-minute rhythmic gymnastics classes over 16 weeks. The TG used the traditional sports training method while the MG executed sporting activities according to biological maturation. The CG received no special treatment. The results showed a significant improvement (P<0.001) in the subgroups (late, normal and early) for both variables (∆ESR=7.54º and ∆LF=7.51º) in the eight and nine-year age groups. Moreover, in relation to division by biological maturity, better results were recorded in the early subgroups. Thus, it can be inferred that, due to the changes in important physical parameters as a result of maturation, selecting children for physical education should not be based solely on chronological, but primarily on biological maturation.
Marcellin-Little, Denis J; Levine, David; Taylor, Robert
Owners and trainers exercise sporting dogs to increase their fitness and optimize their conditioning and performance. Training is designed to in-crease strength, endurance, and agility and is sport-specific. Sporting dogs are susceptible to specific musculoskeletal injuries. The rehabilitation of sporting dogs after these injuries follows specific principles during the acute, subacute, and reconditioning periods.
Callari, Tiziana C; Ciairano, Silvia; Re, Alessandra
As the world population is ageing, studies on the socio-economic and health consequences are proliferating. Little has been done on the effectiveness and impact elderly may benefit from the use of technology in their everyday life. The pilot study, implemented within a funded project aimed at identifying sustainable actions to promote Seniors' quality of life, intended to investigate this kind of interaction in terms of accessibility and acceptability that senior citizen experience with technological devices promoting motor and cognitive training. In the hypothesis, interfaces and technological artifacts, that still take in little account the seniors' physical characteristics (e.g. physiological limitations in sight, hearing, movement) and cognitive processes (selective memory often driven by practical needs), can cause elderly to mistrust technology. Study participants were twenty over seventy-year-old people, who were observed and interviewed in context in a two-hour training session regarding the technological devices user experience. The results are presented with scenario-based techniques that help represent typologies of users in different use situations. Findings confirm the hypothesis, highlighting that elderly may accept technological artifacts when they perceive them as bringing benefits in terms of well-being and health.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...
... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...
Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Hendrey, Genevieve; Holland, Anne E; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Clark, Ross A; Williams, Gavin
To determine whether resistance training to improve mobility outcomes after stroke adheres to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines, and whether adherence was associated with better outcomes. Online databases searched from 1975 to October 30, 2016. Randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of lower limb strength training on mobility outcomes in adult participants with stroke. Two independent reviewers completed data extraction. Quality of trials was determined using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Trials were scored based on their protocol's adherence to 8 ACSM recommendations. To determine if a relation existed between total adherence score and effect size, Spearman ρ was calculated, and between individual recommendations and effect size, Mann-Whitney U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. Thirty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria, and 34 were scored on their adherence to the guidelines. Adherence was high for frequency of training (100% of studies), but few trials adhered to the guidelines for intensity (32%), specificity (24%), and training pattern (3%). Based on the small number of studies that could be included in pooled analysis (n=12), there was no relation between overall adherence and effect size (Spearman ρ=-.39, P=.21). Adherence to the ACSM guidelines for resistance training after stroke varied widely. Future trials should ensure strength training protocols adhere more closely to the guidelines, to ensure their effectiveness in stroke can be accurately determined. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scott, Macfarlane T U; Scott, Tannath J; Kelly, Vincent G
The use of global positioning systems (GPS) has increased dramatically over the last decade. Using signals from orbiting satellites, the GPS receiver calculates the exact position of the device and the speed at which the device is moving. Within team sports GPS devices are used to quantify the external load experienced by an athlete, allowing coaches to better manage trainings loads and potentially identify athletes who are overreaching or overtraining. This review aims to collate all studies that have tested either (or both) the validity or reliability of GPS devices in a team sport setting, with a particular focus on (a) measurements of distance, speed, velocities, and accelerations across all sampling rates and (b) accelerometers, player/body load and impacts in accelerometer-integrated GPS devices. A comprehensive search of the online libraries identified 22 articles that fit search criteria. The literature suggests that all GPS units, regardless of sampling rate, are capable of tracking athlete's distance during team sport movements with adequate intraunit reliability. One Hertz and 5Hz GPS units have limitations in their reporting of distance during high-intensity running, velocity measures, and short linear running (particularly those involving changes of direction), although these limitations seem to be overcome during measures recorded during team sport movements. Ten Hertz GPS devices seem the most valid and reliable to date across linear and team sport simulated running, overcoming many limitations of earlier models, whereas the increase to 15Hz GPS devices have had no additional benefit.
The influence of the training loads having different directions concerning the teenagers' state of health the ones being educated in sporting inclined boarding schools (according the author's timely observations
Full Text Available A dynamics and structure of pathology of teenagers is considered. In a medical inspection 660 sportsmen took part in the age of 13-16 years. The retrospective analysis of somatopathies and traumatic damages is conducted for long time. Specificity of action of the trainings loadings of different orientation is exposed on the state of health of young sportsmen. The ost high growth of sporting traumatism s marked for the representatives of types of sport speed-power character. More high level of morbidity of overhead respiratory tracts and ear is marked for teenagers - in the types of sport on endurance.
Kalman Douglas S
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sport drinks are ubiquitous within the recreational and competitive fitness and sporting world. Most are manufactured and artificially flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. Recently, attention has been given to coconut water, a natural alternative to manufactured sport drinks, with initial evidence indicating efficacy with regard to maintaining hydration. We compared coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. Methods Following a 60-minute bout of dehydrating treadmill exercise, 12 exercise-trained men (26.6 ± 5.7 yrs received bottled water (BW, pure coconut water (VitaCoco®: CW, coconut water from concentrate (CWC, or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink (SD [a fluid amount based on body mass loss during the dehydrating exercise] on four occasions (separated by at least 5 days in a random order, single blind (subject and not investigators, cross-over design. Hydration status (body mass, fluid retention, plasma osmolality, urine specific gravity and performance (treadmill time to exhaustion; assessed after rehydration were determined during the recovery period. Subjective measures of thirst, bloatedness, refreshed, stomach upset, and tiredness were also determined using a 5-point visual analog scale. Results Subjects lost approximately 1.7 kg (~2% of body mass during the dehydrating exercise and regained this amount in a relatively similar manner following consumption of all conditions. No differences were noted between coconut water (CW or CWC and SD for any measures of fluid retention (p > 0.05. Regarding exercise performance, no significant difference (p > 0.05 was noted between BW (11.9 ± 5.9 min, CW (12.3 ± 5.8 min, CWC (11.9 ± 6.0 min, and SD (12.8 ± 4.9 min. In general, subjects reported feeling more bloated and experienced greater stomach upset with the CW and CWC conditions. Conclusion All tested beverages are
Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.
João Manuel Pereira Ramalho Serrano
completed a previous validated questionnaire, which provides retrospective information about the sport activities experienced throughout his career. The results showed that the elite players are distinguished from lower level competitive players for their earlier dedication to the sports training and specifically to futsal, which is reinforced by the progressive increase in volume of weekly training as in the durations of seasons. These aspects emerge as discriminating factors in this process, whilst the early practice diversifications contribution to the course of the elite Portuguese futsal players.
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the entrepreneurial behaviour of the staff of Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd province and the influence of entrepreneurial training courses on their behaviour. The population under study were all the staff, a total number of 101 persons, of nine (9 Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd province. The population for pre-testing was equal to the actual population of the study. In terms of methodology it was a descriptive study and in terms of purpose an applicable one. Instrument for data gathering was a survey questionnaire prepared by the researcher and the validity of which was examined by the professors of the university and approved based on their suggestions and views. It consisted of 55 questions in order to measure and evaluate behavioural characteristics of entrepreneurs (Balanced Risk-taking, Locus of Control, Mental Health, Challenge Seeking, Success Seeking or need for achievement, Dreaming or fantasizing, Activism or pro-active, and Ambiguity Tolerance. The stability of the questionnaire was tested and measured byCronbach Alpha Coefficient which was alfa=0.87. The gathered data were analysed using descriptive statistical methods (Mean, Standard Deviation, Charts/Figures and deductive (non-parametric methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman, Mann-Whitney U, Spearman and Pearson.The results showed that there is a significant and positive relationship between activism, dreaming and risk taking characteristics with challenge seeking; and between achievement seeking, mental health and ambiguity tolerance with locus of control characteristic. On the other hand, ranking the characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour of staff demonstrated that the highest ranking belongs to dreaming and mental health and the lowest ranking belongs to activism and locus of control. Overall, there is a significant relationship between entrepreneurial behaviour and entrepreneurial training. Based on these
Johnson, A Wayne; Eastman, Carie S; Feland, Jeffery Brent; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Mortensen, Bartley Brett; Eggett, Dennis
Maximum running speed and acceleration are essential components in many sports. The identification of specific training protocols to maximize sprint speed would be useful knowledge for coaches and players. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a high-speed treadmill (HST) with the use of a body weight support (BWS) system in a 6-week sport acceleration program (SAP) on female soccer athlete's 40-yard sprint time and maximal isometric knee flexor and extensor strength. Two treatment groups and one control group were created. Both treatment groups participated in a 12-session SAP. The first treatment group (n = 12) used a BWS system while running on a HST; the second group (n = 12) used a standard treadmill (ST) with no BWS system. The participants of the control group (n = 8), NT, did not participate in a sports acceleration program and did not alter their exercise routines outside of the study. An analysis of covariance was performed using baseline measures as the covariate. The 40-yard sprint times for both treatment groups were shown to improve significantly compared with the control group (p strength showed a greater increase in the ST group (p = 0.026) than in the other 2 groups, whereas knee extensor strengths did not show significant differences between treatment groups and control group (p > 0.05). Participants in the ST group had a much higher rate (66%) of shin splints and foot pain throughout the study than those in the HST (8%) and NT (0%) groups. These results can help high school coaches and athletes determine the optimal treadmill training regime.
Vladmila Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Zoran Bojanić; Marko Lazović
Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamin...
The aim of this investigation was to assess the influence of an 8-month physical training period on left ventricular voltages identified by resting ECG in relation to changes in left ventricle mass in adolescent athletes. The study encompassed 28 adolescents aged 13 years (14 boys and 14 girls) from a sports secondary school. Clinical assessment was performed on all athletes before and after 8 months of physical training. Sokolov-Lyon voltage index, Cornell voltage index, and maximum spatial QRS vector magnitude demonstrated statistically significant decline during the study period. The specific potential of the myocardium also significantly decreased during 8 months of training. The Sokolov-Lyon voltage criterion for left ventricular hypertrophy was fulfilled in 9 athletes (32.1%) at the beginning of the observation and only in 3 athletes (10.7%) at the end of the study. On the other hand, mean left ventricular mass and mean left ventricular mass index significantly increased after long-term training. No statistically significant correlations were identified between relative changes in left ventricular mass and QRS voltages. An early period of intensive physical training in young athletes is associated with a decrease in QRS amplitude and a relative voltage deficit over the left ventricle.
Koh, Koon Teck; Ong, Shu Wen; Camiré, Martin
Background: Past research has shown that under the right conditions, youth can learn values through physical education and sport (PES). Although some programs have been developed using PES as a means to foster positive development, a limited amount of research has specifically addressed how stakeholders believe this type of material can be…
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...
Full Text Available CFD simulations using ANSYS FLUENT 6.3.26 have been performed on a generic SUV design and the settings are validated using the experimental results investigated by Khalighi. Moreover, an add-on inspired by the concept presented by Englar at GTRI for drag reduction has been designed and added to the generic SUV design. CFD results of add-on model and the basic SUV model have been compared for a number of aerodynamic parameters. Also drag coefficient, drag force, mean surface pressure, mean velocities, and Cp values at different locations in the wake have been compared for both models. The main objective of the study is to present a new add-on device which may be used on SUVs for increasing the fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Mean pressure results show an increase in the total base pressure on the SUV after using the device. An overall reduction of 8% in the aerodynamic drag coefficient on the add-on SUV has been investigated analytically in this study.
Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Donohue, Brad; Silver, N. Clayton; Dickens, Yani; Covassin, Tracey; Lancer, Kevin
The Sport Interference Checklist (SIC) was developed in 141 athletes to assist in the concurrent assessment of cognitive and behavioral problems experienced by athletes in both training (Problems in Sports Training Scale, PSTS) and competition (Problems in Sports Competition Scale, PSCS). An additional scale (Desire for Sport Psychology Scale,…
Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.
M. Schoone; E. Dusseldorp; M. E. van den Akker-van Marle; A. J. Doornebosch; R. Bal; A. Meems; M. P. Oderwald; R. van Balen
The ACRE (ACtive REhabilitation) robotic device is developed to enhance therapeutic treatment of upper limbs after stroke. The aim of this study is to assess effects and costs of ACRE training for frail elderly patients and to establish if ACRE can be a valuable addition to standard therapy in nursing home rehabilitation. The study was designed as randomized controlled trial, one group receiving therapy as usual and the other receiving additional ACRE training. Changes in motor abilities, str...
Kim, JinHong; Park, Jun Hyuck; Yim, Jongeun
Because respiratory muscle function plays a strong role in exercise capacity and cardiopulmonary response to exercise, systematic training and measurement of respiratory muscle function should be considered in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an individualized respiratory muscle training device combined with conventional physical therapy exercise can improve the pulmonary function and exercise capacity of stroke patients. Twenty stroke patients were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=10) or a control group (n=10). Over 4 weeks, each group participated in exercise training interventions 3 times per week. In each session, the control group received basic exercise treatments for 30 min, followed by an automated full-body workout for 20 min. The exercise group performed the same exercise regimen as the control group, as well as an additional respiratory muscle training regimen using a respiratory exercise device for 20 min. Pulmonary function of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), FEV1/FVC, and peak expiratory flow (PEF) and exercise capacity of a 6-min walking test and Shortness of Breath Modified Borg Dyspnea Scale (SBMBDS) scores were assessed before and after the training. A significant intergroup difference was observed in the FVC, FEV1, PEF, 6MWT, and SBMBDS scores (prespiratory muscles using an individualized respiratory device had a positive effect on pulmonary function and exercise capacity and may be used for breathing rehabilitation in stroke patients.
... employee in the caboose and the engineer on the head end of the train establish and maintain two-way voice...-train device is installed on the train or an alternative method of initiating an emergency brake... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operations requiring use of two-way end-of-train...
Altitud y deportes de equipo: métodos tradicionales desafiados por un entrenamiento innovador y específico en hipoxia. [Altitude and team sports: traditional methods challenged by innovative sport-specific training in hypoxia].
level but train under hypoxic conditions, has gained unprecedented popularity. A thorough analysis of studies including IHT, however, leads to strikingly poor benefits for sea-level performance improvement, compared to the same training method performed in normoxia. Despite positive molecular adaptations observed after various IHT modalities, the characteristics of optimal training stimulus in hypoxia are still unclear and their functional translation in term of whole-body performance enhancement is minimal. To overcome some of the inherent limitations of IHT (lower workload due to hypoxia, recent studies have successfully investigated a new training method based on the repetition of short sprints with incomplete recoveries in hypoxia; named RSH. Additionally, the growing scientific interest on the practical application of hypoxic training legitimizes the development of innovative technologies serving athletes in a sport-specific setting. The aims of the present review are therefore threefold. First, to critically analyze the results of the studies involving high-intensity exercises performed in hypoxia for sea-level performance enhancement by differentiating IHT and RSH. Second, to discuss the potential mechanisms underpinning their effectiveness and their inherent limitations. Third, to present the potentials benefits of using new technological innovation (i.e., the mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic system which will undoubtedly contribute to the understanding advancement of hypoxia-induced physiological adaptations by conducting relevant research in the most sport-specific ecological test setting.
Full Text Available Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017 were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers, technique analysis (163, activity classification (19, and physical demands assessment (61. Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59% performing their sport in-field during training (62% and competition (7%. Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%, water sports (16%, team sports (25%, and other outdoor activities (27%. Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.
Camomilla, Valentina; Bergamini, Elena; Fantozzi, Silvia; Vannozzi, Giuseppe
Recent technological developments have led to the production of inexpensive, non-invasive, miniature magneto-inertial sensors, ideal for obtaining sport performance measures during training or competition. This systematic review evaluates current evidence and the future potential of their use in sport performance evaluation. Articles published in English (April 2017) were searched in Web-of-Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Sport-Discus databases. A keyword search of titles, abstracts and keywords which included studies using accelerometers, gyroscopes and/or magnetometers to analyse sport motor-tasks performed by athletes (excluding risk of injury, physical activity, and energy expenditure) resulted in 2040 papers. Papers and reference list screening led to the selection of 286 studies and 23 reviews. Information on sport, motor-tasks, participants, device characteristics, sensor position and fixing, experimental setting and performance indicators was extracted. The selected papers dealt with motor capacity assessment (51 papers), technique analysis (163), activity classification (19), and physical demands assessment (61). Focus was placed mainly on elite and sub-elite athletes (59%) performing their sport in-field during training (62%) and competition (7%). Measuring movement outdoors created opportunities in winter sports (8%), water sports (16%), team sports (25%), and other outdoor activities (27%). Indications on the reliability of sensor-based performance indicators are provided, together with critical considerations and future trends.
Schoone, M.; Dusseldorp, E.; Akker-van Marle, M.E. van den; Doornebosch, A.J.; Bal, R.; Meems, A.; Oderwald, M.P.; Balen, R. van
The ACRE (ACtive REhabilitation) robotic device is developed to enhance therapeutic treatment of upper limbs after stroke. The aim of this study is to assess effects and costs of ACRE training for frail elderly patients and to establish if ACRE can be a valuable addition to standard therapy in
... unit of the device shall activate the emergency air valve at the rear of the train within one second... rear unit, on receipt of a properly coded command, shall open a valve in the brake line and hold it open for a minimum of 15 seconds. This opening of the valve shall cause the brake line to vent to the...
Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Özer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Ağlamış, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu
The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were randomly selected out of all the students between the ages 12 and 15, with a diagnosis of educable mental retardation and no secondary disabilities, who were attending a special education school. Participants without ID (WoID) were randomly selected from a regular secondary school out of the same age groups of male students. All participants were given permission by their parents or guardians to participate in the study. Participants in the TRG included 23 youth WID and 23 youth WoID. Mean ages were = 14.1 (SD = 1.1) and 13.2 (SD = 0.79) respectively. Fifteen WID, and 15 WoID comprised the CG. Mean ages were 14.51 (SD = 0.81) and 13.78 (SD = 0.49) respectively. Prior to and following the program measurements were conducted, and data were collected on students' anthropometric and fitness components of the Brockport physical fitness test as well as a soccer skill performance based on the SO soccer skill test. Participants in the TRG trained 8 weeks, 1.5h per session, three times per week, in an after-school soccer program. CG did not participate in any sports program outside of the school physical education class. Dependent t tests and effect size calculations revealed that SO athletes and non-disabled partners scored significantly higher with regard to physical fitness and football skills in most variables compared with their CG. This Unified Program was successful in increasing fitness and soccer skill performance of youth WID as well as of those WoID. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The ACRE (ACtive REhabilitation robotic device is developed to enhance therapeutic treatment of upper limbs after stroke. The aim of this study is to assess effects and costs of ACRE training for frail elderly patients and to establish if ACRE can be a valuable addition to standard therapy in nursing home rehabilitation. The study was designed as randomized controlled trial, one group receiving therapy as usual and the other receiving additional ACRE training. Changes in motor abilities, stroke impact, quality of life and emotional well-being were assessed. In total, 24 patients were included. In this small number no significant effects of the ACRE training were found. A large number of 136 patients were excluded. Main reasons for exclusion were lack of physiological or cognitive abilities. Further improvement of the ACRE can best be focused on making the system suitable for self-training and development of training software for activities of daily living.
Ivan Vasiljević; Danilo Bojanić; Jovica Petković; Aldijana Muratović
Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004).The aim...
... establishment of sports academies to train talented athletes from the primary schools and the introduction of compulsory physical education and sports in all educational institutions in order to attract more participants from where talents can be discovered and groomed. Keywords: Grass roots; Conveyor Belt; Numero uno; ...
As a sub-speciality, Sports Cardiology focuses on sport and physical training interacting with cardiac issues. Particularly, Sports Cardiology deals with the so-called "Sports Paradox", which implicates the fact the on one side regular physical training leads to a multitude of relevant health benefits. But on the other hand, exercise can also be a trigger for sudden cardiac death, particularly in case of an underlying cardiac disease. However, health benefits by regular training outweigh potential risks by far, but only if an adequate cardiac screening and individual recommendations for sports participation have been provided. This review highlights various aspects of Sports Cardiology like strategies to prevent sudden cardiac death in sports and training recommendations in patients with an underlying cardiovascular disease.
Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang
Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
Lyle, John W. B.
Conceptualizes excellence in sports performance and suggests that there is a failure to distinguish between community recreation and performance sports as well as lack of knowledge about talent identification. Proposes a structure for management and investment in education and training in the field. (SK)
Hamlin, Michael J; Lizamore, Catherine A; Hopkins, Will G
While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model. The modifying effects of study characteristics (type and dose of hypoxic exposure, training duration, post-altitude duration) were estimated with fixed effects, random effects allowed for repeated measurement within studies and residual real differences between studies, and the standard-error weighting factors were derived or imputed via standard deviations of change scores. Effects and their uncertainty were assessed with magnitude-based inference, with a smallest important improvement of 4% estimated via between-athlete standard deviations of performance at baseline. Ten studies qualified for inclusion, but two were excluded owing to small sample size and risk of publication bias. Hypoxic interventions occurred over a period of 7-28 days, and the range of total hypoxic exposure (in effective altitude-hours) was 4.5-33 km h in the intermittent-hypoxia studies and 180-710 km h in the live-high studies. There were 11 control and 15 experimental study-estimates in the final meta-analysis. Training effects were moderate and very likely beneficial in the control groups at 1 week (20 ± 14%, percent estimate, ± 90% confidence limits) and 4-week post-intervention (25 ± 23%). The intermittent and live-high hypoxic groups experienced additional likely beneficial gains at 1 week (13 ± 16%; 13 ± 15%) and 4-week post
Gewurtz, Sarah B; Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Petro, Steve; Mahon, Chris G; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Braekevelt, Eric; Drouillard, Ken
A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (70km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…
Machida, Moe; Otten, Mark; Magyar, T Michelle; Vealey, Robin S; Ward, Rose Marie
Sport-confidence is considered a critical success factor for sport performers at all levels. Researchers have suggested that sport-confidence is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional construct, and the sport-confidence model identified three types of sport-confidence (i.e., physical skills and training, cognitive efficiency, and resilience) that are important for success in sport. However, such multidimensionality of sport-confidence and its measurement have not been fully examined. On a large sample of sport performers with varied skill levels and characteristics, the purpose of the present study was to examine the three-factor model of sport-confidence. We tested the measurement invariance of the Sport-Confidence Inventory across 512 athletes and 1170 non-athlete sport performers. Results from the multiple group model analysis showed that the three-factor model of sport-confidence fit better for the athlete sample than for the non-athlete sample. The results implicate that the three-factor model of sport-confidence model is suitable to athletes, though sport-confidence may appear more unidimensional for non-athletes. The use of the Sport-Confidence Inventory for non-athlete sport performers demands further consideration; however, the findings implicate that it could be a useful tool to assess sport-confidence of sport performers at any levels.
Battaglia, G; Paoli, A; Bellafiore, M; Bianco, A; Palma, A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of 3 years of sport-specific training background (SSTB) on vertical jumping and throwing performance in young female basketball and volleyball players. Thirty-one healthy adolescent girls, of which 11 age-matched control subjects [C], 10 basketballers (BP) and 10 volleyballers (VP) participated to the study. The throwing performance was assessed by seated backward overhead ball throw (SBOMBT) and seated chest pass throw (SCPT) using a 3-kg rubber medicine ball. Instead, the vertical jumping performance was evaluated by squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump with (CMJ-AS) and without arm swing (CMJ) using Optojump system (Microgate srl, Italy). During SJ and CMJ with and without arm swing VP group showed a higher vertical jump performance than BP and C ones. In particular we showed that VP exhibited a higher flight time and jump height than C (Pbasketball athletes' maximal power compared to age-matched control subjects.
Moureau, N; Lamperti, M; Kelly, L J; Dawson, R; Elbarbary, M; van Boxtel, A J H; Pittiruti, M
There is a lack of standard minimal requirements for the training of insertion techniques and maintenance of central venous access devices (CVADs). An international evidence-based consensus task force was established through the World Congress of Vascular Access (WoCoVA) to provide definitions and recommendations for training and insertion of CVADs. Medical literature published from February 1971 to April 2012 regarding 'central vascular access', 'training', 'competency', 'simulation', and 'ultrasound' was reviewed on Pubmed, BioMed Central, ScienceDirect, and Scopus databases. The GRADE and the GRADE-RAND methods were utilized to develop recommendations. Out of 156 papers initially identified, 83 papers described training for central vascular access placement. Sixteen recommendations are proposed by this task force, each with an evidence level, degree of consensus, and recommendation grade. These recommendations suggest central venous access education include didactic or web-based teaching with insertion procedure, infection prevention, complications, care, and maintenance of devices, along with laboratory models and tools for simulation practice incorporating ultrasound. Clinical competence should be determined by observation during clinical practice using a global rating scale rather than by the number of procedures performed. Ensuring safe insertion and management of central venous devices requires standardized education, simulation practice, and supervised insertions.
Full Text Available ... Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos ... large, strong muscles. Muscle growth comes from regular training and hard work. And taking in too much ...
Caine, Mike; Blair, Kim; Vasquez, Mike
An evolution from natural to highly engineered materials has drastically changed the way in which athletes train and compete. Thanks to challenging technological problems and unconventional commercialization pathways, universities can make a direct impact on the development of sporting goods.
Haarman, Juliet Albertina Maria; Reenalda, Jasper; Buurke, Jaap; van der Kooij, Herman; Rietman, Johan Swanik
This review describes the effects of two control strategies – used in robotic gait-training devices for chronic stroke survivors – on gait speed, endurance and balance. Control strategies are classified as ‘patient-in-charge support’, where the device ‘empowers’ the patient, and ‘device-in-charge
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of a new exercise device, multi-mode exercise device or M-MED, for use during long-duration space flights for...
Yu, Yong; Iwashita, Hisashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Hayashi, Ryota
This paper develops a functional recovery training device to perform repetition facilitating exercise for hemiplegic finger rehabilitation. On the facilitation exercise, automatic finger expansion can be realized and facilitated by stretch reflex, where a stimulation forces is applied instantaneously on flexion finger for making strech reflex and resistance forces are applied for maintaining the strech reflex. In this paper, novel parallel mechanisms, force sensing system with high sensitivity and resistance accompanying cooperation control method are proposed for sensing, controlling and realizing the stimulation force, resistance forces, strech reflex and repetition facilitating exercise. The effectivities and performances of the device are shown by some experiments.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin
In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID
Clemente-Suárez, Vicente Javier; Arroyo-Toledo, Juan Jaime
The aim of the present research was to analyze the autonomic response in a group of trained swimmers before and after conducting a 4-week period of high-intensity interval training (HIT). Heart rate variability was analyzed in 14 swimmers (16.2 ± 2.6 years, 169.1 ± 10.2 cm and 61.3 ± 9.9 kg) in basal condition and during a HIT session before and after completing a training period. The HIT session that was evaluated consisted of: 16 × 25 m maximum speed, resting 30 s between sets. Participants combined aerobic training with tethered swimming and HIT sessions three times per week in a period of 4 weeks. Results showed a significantly decrease (p intervals (SDNN), the standard deviation of differences between adjacent NN intervals (SDSD), the number of successive difference of intervals which differ by more than 50 ms (NN50), after the training period. Results showed a higher parasympathetic activation besides improvements in autonomic adaptation after HIT training period.
Taft, Timothy N.
A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…
Raghavan, Preeti; Aluru, Viswanath; Milani, Sina; Thai, Peter; Geller, Daniel; Bilaloglu, Seda; Lu, Ying; Weisz, Donald J
Few options exist for training arm movements in participants with severe post-stroke hemiparesis who have little active range of motion. The purpose of this study was to test the safety and feasibility of training with a non-powered device, the Bimanual Arm Trainer (BAT), to facilitate motor recovery in individuals with severe hemiparesis. The BAT enabled coupled bimanual training of shoulder external rotation, which is reduced in individuals with severe post-stroke hemiplegia. The rationale for bimanual training was to harness contralesional cortical activity to drive voluntary movement in the affected arm in patients who could barely perform unimanual movements. Nine participants with post-stroke hemiparesis, preserved passive range of motion and Modified Ashworth score of Fugl-Meyer score post-training with an effect size of 0.89. Changes in the flexor synergy pattern accounted for 64.7% of the improvement. Improvement in active range of motion in the paretic limb occurred for both trained and untrained movements. Some participants showed improvement in the time taken to perform selected tasks on the Wolf Motor Function Test post-training. The results demonstrate the safety and feasibility of using the Bimanual Arm Trainer to facilitate motor recovery in individuals with severe hemiparesis.
Strøm, Mark; Thorborg, Kristian; Bandholm, Thomas
to characterize different balance exercises based on level of difficulty and sensori-motor training stimulus. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate frontal-plane ankle kinematics and associated peroneal muscle activity during single-legged balance on stable surface (floor) and three commonly used...... compared to Airex® and floor. This study can serve as guidance for clinicians who wish to implement a gradual progression of ankle rehabilitation and prevention exercises by taking the related ankle kinematics and muscle activity into account. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3.......BACKGROUND: A lateral ankle sprain is the most prevalent musculoskeletal injury in sports. Exercises that aim to improve balance are a standard part of the ankle rehabilitation process. In an optimal progression model for ankle rehabilitation and prevention of future ankle sprains, it is important...
Sports education (training in physical education, development of physical skills and acquiring sports habits) is, according to accepted international standards, considered an essential component of education. However, not only the experience we have, but contemporary tendencies in sport (different deviations and failure of established educational-moral principles) as well confront us with the following question: Can sport still meet requirements in the process of education? The answer can be ...
Chalmers, Samuel; Esterman, Adrian; Eston, Roger; Bowering, K Jane; Norton, Kevin
met the inclusion criteria of the review. STHA training can be applied in the team-sport environment during a range of instances within the competitive season. A mixed high-intensity protocol may only require five sessions with a duration of 60 min to potentially improve aerobic-based performance in trained athletes.
effective to train for generic tasks (e.g., tasks applicable to all types of automotive engines) or is it more effective to train for specific tasks...driver simulator for safety training (HumRRO Prof. Paper 9-66). Alexandria, Va.: Human Resources Research Organization, December 1966. Mechner, F. The BSA
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ivancevic, Tijana; Greenberg, Ronald
This book is designed to help athletes and individuals interested in high sports performance in their journey towards the perfection of human sports abilities and achievements. It has two main goals: accelerating the acquisition of motor skills and preparing and vigilantly reducing the recovery time after training and competition. The Diamond Sports Protocol (DSP) presents state-of-the-art techniques for current sport and health technologies, particularly neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Sports Wave), oxygen infusion (Oxy Sports), infrared (Sports Infrared Dome) and lactic acid cleaning (Turbo Sports). The book suggest DSP as an essential part of every future athlete's training, competition and health maintenance. The book is for everyone interested in superior sports performance, fast and effective rehabilitation from training and competition and sports injury prevention.
Duffield, Rob; Steinbacher, Geoff; Fairchild, Timothy J
The current study investigated the effects of a pre-cooling intervention on physiological and performance responses to team-sport training in the heat. Seven male lacrosse players performed a familiarization session and 2 randomized, counterbalanced sessions consisting of a 30-minute intermittent-sprint conditioning session. Prior to the sessions, players performed a 20-minute mixed-method, part-body cooling intervention (consisting of cooling vests, cold towels to the neck, and ice packs to the quadriceps) or no cooling intervention. Performance was determined from collection of 1 Hz global positioning system (GPS) data and analyzed for distance and speed. Prior to, during, and following the sessions, core temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensation scale (TSS) were measured; additionally, a venous blood sample was collected before and after each session for measurement of interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein3 (IGF-BP3). Results indicated that a greater distance was covered during the pre-cooling condition (3.35 +/- 0.20 vs. 3.11 +/- 0.13 km; p = 0.05). Further, most of this improvement was evident from a greater distance covered during moderate intensities of 7 to 14 km/h (2.28 +/- 0.18 vs. 2.00 +/- 0.24 km; p = 0.05). Peak speeds and very-high-intensity efforts (20 km/h +/-) were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). The increase in core temperature was blunted following cooling, with a lower core temperature throughout the cooling session (38.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 39.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C; p 0.05). Accordingly, the use of a mixed-method, part-body cooling intervention prior to an intermittent-sprint training session in the heat can assist in reducing thermoregulatory load and improve aspects of training performance for team sports.
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
Choirunnisak; Ibrahim, M.; Yuliani
The purpose of this research was to develop a guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter that are feasible (valid, practical, and effective) to train students’ science literacy. This research used 4D development model and tested on 15 students of biology education 2016 the State University of Surabaya with using one group pretest-posttest design. Learning devices developed include (a) Semester Lesson Plan (b) Lecture Schedule, (c) Student Activity Sheet, (d) Student Textbook, and (e) testability of science literacy. Research data obtained through validation method, observation, test, and questionnaire. The results were analyzed descriptively quantitative and qualitative. The ability of science literacy was analyzed by n-gain. The results of this research showed that (a) learning devices that developed was categorically very valid, (b) learning activities performed very well, (c) student’s science literacy skills improved that was a category as moderate, and (d) students responses were very positively to the learning that already held. Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, it is concluded that the development of guided inquiry-based learning devices on photosynthesis and respiration matter was feasible to train students literacy science skills.
Frank A. Bourgeois
Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of eccentric phase-emphasis strength training (EPE on unilateral strength and performance in 180- and 45-degree change of direction (COD tasks in rugby union players. A 12-week cross-over design was used to compare the efficacy of resistance training executed with 3 s eccentric duration (EPE, n = 12 against conventional strength training, with no constraints on tempo (CON, n = 6. Players in each condition were categorised as ‘fast’ (FAST or ‘slow’ (SLOW using median trial times from baseline testing. Players recorded greater isometric strength improvements following EPE (ES = −0.54 to 1.80. Whilst these changes were not immediate, players improved in strength following cessation. Improvements in 180-degree COD performance was recorded at all test-points following EPE (ES = −1.32 to −0.15. Improvements in 45-degree COD performance were apparent for FAST following CON (ES = −0.96 to 0.10, but CON was deleterious for SLOW (ES = −0.60 to 1.53. Eccentric phase-emphasis strength training shows potential for sustained strength enhancement. Positive performance changes in COD tasks were category- and condition-specific. The data indicate the greatest improvement occurred at nine weeks following resistance training in these players. Performance benefits may also be specific to COD task, player category, and relative to emphasis on eccentric phase activity.
Scheerder, Jeroen; Thibaut, Erik; Brombacher, Aarnout
Individual and unorganized sports with a health-related focus, such as recreational running, have grown extensively in the last decade. Consistent with this development, there has been an exponential increase in the availability and use of electronic monitoring devices such as smartphone applications (apps) and sports watches. These electronic devices could provide support and monitoring for unorganized runners, who have no access to professional trainers and coaches. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the characteristics of event runners who use running-related apps and sports watches. This knowledge is useful from research, design, and marketing perspectives to adequately address unorganized runners’ needs, and to support them in healthy and sustainable running through personalized technology. Data used in this study are drawn from the standardized online Eindhoven Running Survey 2014 (ERS14). In total, 2,172 participants in the Half Marathon Eindhoven 2014 completed the questionnaire (a response rate of 40.0%). Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze the impact of socio-demographic variables, running-related variables, and psychographic characteristics on the use of running-related apps and sports watches. Next, consumer profiles were identified. The results indicate that the use of monitoring devices is affected by socio-demographics as well as sports-related and psychographic variables, and this relationship depends on the type of monitoring device. Therefore, distinctive consumer profiles have been developed to provide a tool for designers and manufacturers of electronic running-related devices to better target (unorganized) runners’ needs through personalized and differentiated approaches. Apps are more likely to be used by younger, less experienced and involved runners. Hence, apps have the potential to target this group of novice, less trained, and unorganized runners. In contrast, sports watches are more likely to be used by a
Janssen, Mark; Scheerder, Jeroen; Thibaut, Erik; Brombacher, Aarnout; Vos, Steven
Individual and unorganized sports with a health-related focus, such as recreational running, have grown extensively in the last decade. Consistent with this development, there has been an exponential increase in the availability and use of electronic monitoring devices such as smartphone applications (apps) and sports watches. These electronic devices could provide support and monitoring for unorganized runners, who have no access to professional trainers and coaches. The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the characteristics of event runners who use running-related apps and sports watches. This knowledge is useful from research, design, and marketing perspectives to adequately address unorganized runners' needs, and to support them in healthy and sustainable running through personalized technology. Data used in this study are drawn from the standardized online Eindhoven Running Survey 2014 (ERS14). In total, 2,172 participants in the Half Marathon Eindhoven 2014 completed the questionnaire (a response rate of 40.0%). Binary logistic regressions were used to analyze the impact of socio-demographic variables, running-related variables, and psychographic characteristics on the use of running-related apps and sports watches. Next, consumer profiles were identified. The results indicate that the use of monitoring devices is affected by socio-demographics as well as sports-related and psychographic variables, and this relationship depends on the type of monitoring device. Therefore, distinctive consumer profiles have been developed to provide a tool for designers and manufacturers of electronic running-related devices to better target (unorganized) runners' needs through personalized and differentiated approaches. Apps are more likely to be used by younger, less experienced and involved runners. Hence, apps have the potential to target this group of novice, less trained, and unorganized runners. In contrast, sports watches are more likely to be used by a
Burke, Louise M
Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.
Women can benefit from sports activities across the entire continuum from play to professional. Women have been catapulted into serious sports training and have been able to contend for more sports opportunities due to the evolution of clothing reforms, more acceptable sports, the right to vote, and the right to control pregnancy. Women have…
Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.
Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pmuscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2
Full Text Available Abstract Background With the relatively high rate of injuries to the lower extremity due to jump-landing movement patterns and the accompanied high costs, there is need for determining potential preventive programs. A program on the intervention of jump-landing technique is possibly an important preventative measure since it appeared to reduce the incidence of lower extremity injuries. In real life situations, amateur sports lack the infrastructure and funds to have a sports physician or therapist permanently supervising such a program. Therefore the current prevention program is designed so that it could be implemented by coaches alone. Objective The objective of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of a coach supervised intervention program targeting jump-landing technique on the incidence of lower extremity injuries. Methods Of the 110 Flemish teams of the elite division, 24 teams are included and equally randomized to two study groups. An equal selection of female and male teams with allocation to intervention and control group is obtained. The program is a modification of other prevention programs previously proven to be effective. All exercises in the current program are adjusted so that a more progressive development in the exercise is presented. Both the control and intervention group continue with their normal training routine, while the intervention group carries out the program on jump-landing technique. The full intervention program has a duration of three months and is performed 2 times a week during warm-up (5-10 min. Injuries are registered during the entire season. Discussion The results of this study can give valuable information on the effect of a coach supervised intervention program on jump-landing technique and injury occurrence. Results will become available in 2011. Trial registration Trial registration number: NTR2560
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Olivier Girard, Grégoire P. Millet, Jean-Benoit Morin, Franck Brocherie
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if “Live High-Train Low (and High” hypoxic training alters constant-velocity running mechanics. While residing under normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h·d-1; FiO2 14.5-14.2% for 14 days, twenty field hockey players performed, in addition to their usual training in normoxia, six sessions (4 × 5 × 5-s maximal sprints; 25 s passive recovery; 5 min rest under either normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 ~14.5%, n = 9 or normoxia (FiO2 20.9%, n = 11. Before and immediately after the intervention, their running pattern was assessed at 10 and 15 km·h-1 as well as during six 30-s runs at ~20 km·h-1 with 30-s passive recovery on an instrumented motorised treadmill. No clear changes in running kinematics and spring-mass parameters occurred globally either at 10, 15 or ~20 km·h-1, with also no significant time × condition interaction for any parameters (p > 0.14. Independently of the condition, heart rate (all p < 0.05 and ratings of perceived exertion decreased post-intervention (only at 15 km·h-1, p < 0.05. Despite indirect signs for improved psycho-physiological responses, no forthright change in stride mechanical pattern occurred after “Live High-Train Low (and High” hypoxic training.
Kamphoff, Cindra S.; Hamson-Utley, J. Jordan; Antoine, Beth; Knutson, Rebecca; Thomae, Jeffrey; Hoenig, Catherine
Context: Injured athletes rely on athletic trainers to assist them when recovering from injury. Over the last 20 years, the use of psychological skills to speed recovery has become increasingly popular. Objective: Explore athletic training students' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of psychological skills in the rehabilitation of…
This paper begins with a discussion of terminology and of the distinctions between bodybuilding, powerlifting, and weightlifting. Weightlifting is presented as the only weight training-associated sport in the Olympic Games. The overhead movements and bodyweight classes involved in the sport are described, and advantages of free weight training are…
Constructivism and educational practice. Australian Journal of Education , 40(1), 19-45. Hiemstra, R. (1994). Self-directed learning. In T. Husen & T. N...from the Interservice, International Training, Simulation and Education Conference from 1990-2010 and from the World Conference on Mobile and...systems, and a training framework to approximate the conditions of the operational environment for training and education for full-spectrum operations in
Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others
The prevention of injuries and control of hazards in individual and dual sports is outlined. A separate chapter is devoted to each of twelve sports: archery, bowling, equitation, golf, gymnastics, marksmanship, track and field, weight training and weight lifting, fencing, racquet sports, judo, and wrestling. (MM)
Evaluation of the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT or Kegel exercise) and assisted pelvic floor muscle training (APFMT) by a resistance device (Kegelmaster device) on the urinary incontinence in women: a randomized trial.
Kashanian, Maryam; Ali, Shadab Shah; Nazemi, Mitra; Bahasadri, Shohreh
To evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) or Kegel exercise with and without assistance by a resistance device (Kegelmaster device) on the urinary incontinence in women. A randomized clinical trial was performed on 91 women with the complaint of urinary incontinence. In the assisted pelvic floor muscle training (APFMT) group (n=41), after complete training, Kegelmaster device were used twice daily for 15 min each session, for a total duration of 12 weeks. In the pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) group (n=50) after complete training, kegel exercises were done (including perineal muscle contractions for 6-8s with 6s rest in between), twice daily for 15 min each session and for a total duration of 12 weeks. These two groups were then compared according to the scores of special questionnaires for quality of life, strength of pelvic floor muscles, capability to participate in social activities, severity of urinary incontinence, and the number of involuntary urine passage, taken before, and after 1 and 3 months after finishing interventions. 85 women out of 91 women finished the study (46 in the PFMT group and 39 in the APFMT group). Strength of pelvic floor muscles, capability to participate in social activities, score of quality of life according to three world questionnaires of IQOL (incontinence Quality Of Life), IIQ (Incontinence Impact Questionnaire), UDI (Urogenital Distress Inventory), showed no difference between the two groups 1 and 3 months after interventions. Pair t test showed a significant improvement in both groups 1 and 3 months after intervention, according to IQOL score (P=0.000), UDI score (P=0.000), IIQ score (P=0.000), strength of pelvic floor muscles, (P=0.000), capability to participate in social activities (P=0.000), severity of urinary incontinence (P=0.000) and the number of involuntary urine passage (P=0.000). Pelvic floor muscle training with or without Kegelmaster show no apparent difference to each other, however
I. P. Prokopenko
Full Text Available Correctly organized nutritive and pharmacological support is an important component of an athlete's preparation for competitions, an optimal shape maintenance, fast recovery and rehabilitation after traumas and defatigation. Special products of enhanced biological value (BAS for athletes nutrition are used with this purpose. Easy-to-use energy sources are administered into athlete's organism, yielded materials and biologically active substances which regulate and activate exchange reactions which proceed with difficulties during certain physical trainings. The article presents sport supplements classification which can be used before warm-up and trainings, after trainings and in competitions breaks.
Full Text Available Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL. Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™. Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™ indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.
Platz, Thomas; Gillner, Annett; Borgwaldt, Nicole; Kroll, Sylvia; Roschka, Sybille
Objective. Results of a device-training for nonambulatory individuals with thoracic and lumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) using a powered exoskeleton for technically assisted mobility with regard to the achieved level of control of the system after training, user satisfaction, and effects on quality of life (QoL). Methods. Observational single centre study with a 4-week to 5-week intensive inpatient device-training using a powered exoskeleton (ReWalk™). Results. All 7 individuals with SCI who commenced the device-training completed the course of training and achieved basic competences to use the system, that is, the ability to stand up, sit down, keep balance while standing, and walk indoors, at least with a close contact guard. User satisfaction with the system and device-training was documented for several aspects. The quality of life evaluation (SF-12v2™) indicated that the use of the powered exoskeleton can have positive effects on the perception of individuals with SCI regarding what they can achieve physically. Few adverse events were observed: minor skin lesions and irritations were observed; no falls occurred. Conclusions. The device-training for individuals with thoracic and lumbar SCI was effective and safe. All trained individuals achieved technically assisted mobility with the exoskeleton while still needing a close contact guard.
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Brunetti, Irene; Corsini, Lorenzo
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse the effect of an Italian training program on the re-employment probability of young unemployed workers. The program consists exclusively of workplace training and is coordinated by employment centers, even if it is fully implemented by firms. Design/Methodology/Approach: The authors develop a…
Unnithan, V B; Rowland, T; George, K; Lindley, M R; Roche, D M
The effects of a short, high-intensity bout of exercise on cardiac systolic and diastolic function are not well understood in adolescent athletes. Consequently, the aims of the study were to evaluate global left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function, as well as segmental wall motion responses (cardiac strain), prior to as well as 45 and 225 min following a simulated 5 km cross-country race. Twenty trained, adolescent males (age: 15.2 ± 0.7 years) volunteered for exercise testing. LV fractional shortening and the ratio of early (E) and late (A) peak flow velocities reflected global systolic and diastolic function, respectively. Peak longitudinal mitral annular septal tissue velocities were also determined during systole and diastole. Longitudinal strain (ε) and strain rates were determined across the LV. LV fractional shortening was significantly (P global or regional LV systolic and diastolic function in trained adolescents.
Kathrin Rehfeld; Kathrin Rehfeld; Patrick Müller; Patrick Müller; Norman Aye; Norman Aye; Marlen Schmicker; Milos Dordevic; Milos Dordevic; Jörn Kaufmann; Anita Hökelmann; Notger G. Müller; Notger G. Müller; Notger G. Müller
Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC), a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was o...
Kaeding, T S; Karch, A; Schwarz, R; Flor, T; Wittke, T-C; Kück, M; Böselt, G; Tegtbur, U; Stein, L
The goal of this randomized and controlled study was to examine whether whole-body vibration (WBV) training is able to reduce back pain and physical disability in seated working office employees with chronic low-back pain in a real-world setting. A total of 41 subjects (68.3% female/mean age 45.5±9.1 years/mean BMI 26.6±5.2) were randomly allocated to an intervention group (INT [n=21]) or a control group (CON [n=20]). The INT participated in WBV training 2.5 times per week for 3 months. The primary outcome was the change in the Roland and Morris disability questionnaire (RMQ) score over the study period. In addition, secondary outcomes included changes in the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the Work Ability Index Questionnaire, the quality of life questionnaire SF-36, the Freiburger activity questionnaire, and an isokinetic test of the musculature of the trunk. Compliance with the intervention in the INT reached a mean of 81.1%±31.2% with no long-lasting unwanted side effects. We found significant positive effects of 3 months of WBV training in the INT compared to the CON regarding the RMQ (P=.027), the ODI (P=.002), the SF-36 (P=.013), the Freiburger activity questionnaire (P=.022), the post-interventional sick-leave in the INT (P=.008), and trends regarding a positive effect of the intervention on the muscular capacity of the muscles of the trunk in flexion. WBV training seems to be an effective, safe, and suitable intervention for seated working employees with chronic low-back pain. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Purpose: to establish the reasons for the high fatigue pilots during passage race course. Material : the study involved athletes and race car drivers depending on the rank of the competition. The total number surveyed was 140 people. Results : in vitro studies have established a pattern of growth of errors in the evaluation of the available jobs at different levels of fatigue. This asymmetry observed in the haptic display and reflex mean arterial pressure when simultaneous registration on the left and right side body. After the competition and training at a special physical training were examined 36 athletes. Comparison of the results display asymmetry haptic reflex and mean arterial pressure showed reliable changes in the resistance of the organism to a specific exertion racers. Conclusions : the optimal load is characterized by indicators of coordination and reflex reaction haptic mean arterial pressure. These indicators do not go beyond the norms of its symmetrical appearance. This characterizes a uniform and sufficient blood supply body during the execution of competitive and training load.
Wheeler, Robert F.
Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)
Pavo, Noemi; Goliasch, Georg; Nierscher, Franz Josef; Stumpf, Dominik; Haugk, Moritz; Breckwoldt, Jan; Ruetzler, Kurt; Greif, Robert; Fischer, Henrik
Resuscitation guidelines encourage the use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) feedback devices implying better outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest. Whether effective continuous feedback could also be given verbally by a second rescuer ("human feedback") has not been investigated yet. We, therefore, compared the effect of human feedback to a CPR feedback device. In an open, prospective, randomised, controlled trial, we compared CPR performance of three groups of medical students in a two-rescuer scenario. Group "sCPR" was taught standard BLS without continuous feedback, serving as control. Group "mfCPR" was taught BLS with mechanical audio-visual feedback (HeartStart MRx with Q-CPR-Technology™). Group "hfCPR" was taught standard BLS with human feedback. Afterwards, 326 medical students performed two-rescuer BLS on a manikin for 8 min. CPR quality parameters, such as "effective compression ratio" (ECR: compressions with correct hand position, depth and complete decompression multiplied by flow-time fraction), and other compression, ventilation and time-related parameters were assessed for all groups. ECR was comparable between the hfCPR and the mfCPR group (0.33 vs. 0.35, p = 0.435). The hfCPR group needed less time until starting chest compressions (2 vs. 8 s, p feedback or by using a mechanical audio-visual feedback device was similar. Further studies should investigate whether extended human feedback training could further increase CPR quality at comparable costs for training.
Full Text Available Children and adolescents today, all before starting with regular sports activities and involvement in semi-professional and top professional sport, so it increases the num- ber of discovered stress fractures in this age. This type of injury can occur as a consequence of action one strong force, or the many repeated small force strength, to be exact, when the load (stress transcend ability reparations bones. Stress fractures are recorded and described up to the lower limbs. Research has been confirmed that the bones of lower leg are mostly made in injury, and with the el- derly and with the population of children and young adolescents. Occur in many sports, something to them is greater when the frequency of running and often are present in the female population. According to the results of numerous investigations, mistakes in the training are the most common cause of the emergence of stress fracture. In a direct comparison with complemented these injuries is the condition of muscles, so it is important that at the sa- me time carry out exercises strengthen muscles and stretching. Typical clinical signs of stress fractures are localized painful sensitivity to palpa- tion and runoff in a small number of cases. The basic diagnostic procedure is a medical check, it is the small, radiology and scintigraphyc diagnostics (most accurate and mag- netic resonance imaging. Treatment is usually without surgery and conservative, with rest and reducing stress, and its activity athlete breaks mainly between four and eight weeks. Only the very need surgical treatment The most important thing is that attention is focused on the proper prevention and to take all that it ever occurred to stress fractures that athletes ramble of the courts and the competition (better education of sports workers, separation of groups with increa- sed risk of the formation of an injury, adaptation activities age and abilities of athletes, adequate sports equipment, high-quality sports
Zarządzanie talentami na przykładzie Wojskowych Zespołów Sportowych oraz Wojskowych Centrach Szkolenia Sportowego / The talent management based on the example of Military Sports Teams and Military Sports Training Centers
Streszczenie Artykuł dotyczy problematyki pozyskiwania talentów dla Wojskowych Centrów Szkolenia Sportowego wraz z opisaniem wsparcia finansowego udzielanego przez Ministerstwo Sportu i Turystyki i ich działania oraz funkcjonowania w Polsce Wojskowych Zespołów Sportowych i ich osiągnięć. Słowa kluczowe: wojsko, sport, szkolenie, talent Abstract The article concerns the problems of sourcing talent for Military Sports Tr...
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Bartlett, Jonathan D; O'Connor, Fergus; Pitchford, Nathan; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Robertson, Samuel J
The aim of this study was to quantify and predict relationships between rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and GPS training-load (TL) variables in professional Australian football (AF) players using group and individualized modeling approaches. TL data (GPS and RPE) for 41 professional AF players were obtained over a period of 27 wk. A total of 2711 training observations were analyzed with a total of 66 ± 13 sessions/player (range 39-89). Separate generalized estimating equations (GEEs) and artificial-neural-network analyses (ANNs) were conducted to determine the ability to predict RPE from TL variables (ie, session distance, high-speed running [HSR], HSR %, m/min) on a group and individual basis. Prediction error for the individualized ANN (root-mean-square error [RMSE] 1.24 ± 0.41) was lower than the group ANN (RMSE 1.42 ± 0.44), individualized GEE (RMSE 1.58 ± 0.41), and group GEE (RMSE 1.85 ± 0.49). Both the GEE and ANN models determined session distance as the most important predictor of RPE. Furthermore, importance plots generated from the ANN revealed session distance as most predictive of RPE in 36 of the 41 players, whereas HSR was predictive of RPE in just 3 players and m/min was predictive of RPE in just 2 players. This study demonstrates that machine learning approaches may outperform more traditional methodologies with respect to predicting athlete responses to TL. These approaches enable further individualization of load monitoring, leading to more accurate training prescription and evaluation.
Full Text Available Sport with its emphasised efficiency component clearly reflects cognitive contents and the way they are linked to experience and behaviour. Beliefs, subjective judgements, attitudes, etc. define the attitude to sport, training, competition and results. Their contents can be defined by a psychological examination. We assess their meaning, appropriateness or inappropriateness. They can also be changed by using diverse cognitive-behavioural or reeducative procedures. Psychological work is carried out through systematic psychological preparation, crisis interventions and special psychological preparation within the framework of a training process. Cognitive forms of work represent a significant part of ideomotor, verbal, intellectual and situational training.
Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT.22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2 max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL · min · kg(-1 participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery, countermovement jump (CMJ height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ, 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK, c-reactive protein (CRP and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery.Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05 in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60 and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63 after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05 in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers.Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis.
Fatma Ebru KOKU
Full Text Available As participation in both amateur and professional sports increases, so does the importance of sports performance and the factors influencing it. Determinants of success in sports can be classified as training, genetic, epigenetic, dietary, motivational, equipment and other environmental factors. The effect of genetics on sports performance and skill has been examined for many years. Autosomal genes, mitochondrial DNA and various genes located in the Y chromosome have all been associated with sports performance. It is not possible to link physical performance to a single genetic polymorphism. Genes that have been most extensively studied in their relation to performance include ACE, ACTN3, ADRA2A, ADRB2, PPARA, PPARGC1A, AMPD1, HIF1A, NOS3, BDKRB2, VEGFR2 and VEGFA. For the time being, genetic screening tests may be useful in determining the weaknesses and strengths of a sportsperson, but not in predicting athletic success.
Amir Ali Narvani
Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye
Bogdanov, Dimitar; Popov, Ivaylo
The design of the protection and control equipment for electrical power sector application was object of extensive advance in the last several decades. The modern technologies offer a wide range of multifunctional flexible applications, making the protection and control of facilities more sophisticated. In the same time, the advance of technology imposes the necessity of simulators, training models and tutorial laboratory equipment to be used for adequate training of students and field specialists
Rehfeld, Kathrin; Müller, Patrick; Aye, Norman; Schmicker, Marlen; Dordevic, Milos; Kaufmann, Jörn; Hökelmann, Anita; Müller, Notger G
Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC), a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly. It combines aerobic fitness, sensorimotor skills and cognitive demands while at the same time the risk of injuries is low. Hence, the present investigation compared the effects of an 18-month dancing intervention and traditional health fitness training on volumes of hippocampal subfields and balance abilities. Before and after intervention, balance was evaluated using the Sensory Organization Test and HC volumes were derived from magnetic resonance images (3T, MP-RAGE). Fourteen members of the dance (67.21 ± 3.78 years, seven females), and 12 members of the fitness group (68.67 ± 2.57 years, five females) completed the whole study. Both groups revealed hippocampal volume increases mainly in the left HC (CA1, CA2, subiculum). The dancers showed additional increases in the left dentate gyrus and the right subiculum. Moreover, only the dancers achieved a significant increase in the balance composite score. Hence, dancing constitutes a promising candidate in counteracting the age-related decline in physical and mental abilities.
Purpose: determine the social significance and especially the development of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine. Material : a questionnaire survey of 50 experts in the sphere of physical culture and sports. Results : notes that children and youth and sports reserve three tasks: training of sports reserve, rehabilitation of children and youth, education of children and youth. Structure of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine in 1455 has youth sports schools, 184 specialized youth sports school...
Full Text Available Sports education (training in physical education, development of physical skills and acquiring sports habits is, according to accepted international standards, considered an essential component of education. However, not only the experience we have, but contemporary tendencies in sport (different deviations and failure of established educational-moral principles as well confront us with the following question: Can sport still meet requirements in the process of education? The answer can be found among confronting philosophical- pedagogical views within the field of physical education, where special attention should be paid to universal value components of sport which, together with other examined values, make the general concept of humanity
Nguyen, Jie C; Sheehan, Scott E; Davis, Kirkland W; Gill, Kara G
Increased youth participation in sports has resulted in increased injury tolls due to shifts toward participation in competitive sports at earlier ages, increased training intensity and competition schedules, as well as specialization into one sport. The physiology of the growing musculoskeletal system makes the growing athlete particularly vulnerable to specific types of injuries. Radiologists must understand the differences between pediatric and adult athletes to recognize the particular injuries to which these young athletes are prone. Imaging and pertinent clinical details of major representative acute and overuse injuries characteristic to pediatric athletes will be discussed. © RSNA, 2017.
Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. E.; Leach, M.; Bentley, J.; Nash, R.; Hagan, R. D.
The advanced Resistive Exercise Device (aRED) is a resistive exercise system designed to maintain muscle mass and strength in microgravity by simulating free weight (FW) exercise. aRED utilizes vacuum cylinders and inertial flywheels to replicate the constant mass and inertial components, respectively, of FW exercise in normal gravity. PURPOSE: To compare the effectiveness of aRED and FW resistive exercise training in ambulatory subjects. METHODS: Untrained subjects were assigned to two groups, FW (6 males, 3 females) and aRED (8 males, 3 females), and performed squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift (DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR and DL strength (1RM) were measured using FW hardware pre-, mid- and post-training. Subjects participated in a periodized training protocol with the exercise prescription based on a percentage of 1RM. Thigh and lower leg muscle volume were assessed using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and leg (LLM) and total body lean mass (BLM) were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) pre- and post-training. RESULTS: SQ 1RM increased in both FW (48.9+/-6.1%) and aRED (31.2+/-3.8%) groups, and there was a greater training response in FW compared with aRED (p=0.01). HR and DL 1RM increased in FW (HR: 12.3+/-2.4%, DL: 23.3+/-4.4%) and aRED (HR: 18.0+/-1.6%, DL: 23.2+'-2.8%), but there were no differences between groups. Thigh muscle volume was greater following training in both groups (FW: 9.8+/-0.9%, aRED: 7.1+/-1.2%) but lower leg muscle volume increased only in the FW group (3.0+/-1.1%). Lean tissue mass increased in both FW (LLM: 3.9+/-1.1%, BLM: 2.5+/-0.7%) and aRED (LLM: 4.8+/-0.7%, BLM: 2.6 0.7%). There were no between group differences in muscle volume or lean mass in response to training. CONCLUSIONS: In general, the increase in muscle strength, muscle volume, and lean tissue mass when training with aRED was not different than when using the same training protocol with FW. The smaller increase in SQ 1RM in the a
Asif, Irfan M; Stovak, Mark; Ray, Tracy; Weiss-Kelly, Amanda
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine recognises a need to provide direction and continually enhance the quality of sports medicine fellowship training programmes. This document was developed to be an educational resource for sports medicine physicians who teach in a 1-year primary care sports medicine fellowship training programme. It is meant to provide high standards and targets for fellowship training programmes that choose to re-assess their curriculum and seek to make improvements. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC, a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly. It combines aerobic fitness, sensorimotor skills and cognitive demands while at the same time the risk of injuries is low. Hence, the present investigation compared the effects of an 18-month dancing intervention and traditional health fitness training on volumes of hippocampal subfields and balance abilities. Before and after intervention, balance was evaluated using the Sensory Organization Test and HC volumes were derived from magnetic resonance images (3T, MP-RAGE. Fourteen members of the dance (67.21 ± 3.78 years, seven females, and 12 members of the fitness group (68.67 ± 2.57 years, five females completed the whole study. Both groups revealed hippocampal volume increases mainly in the left HC (CA1, CA2, subiculum. The dancers showed additional increases in the left dentate gyrus and the right subiculum. Moreover, only the dancers achieved a significant increase in the balance composite score. Hence, dancing constitutes a promising candidate in counteracting the age-related decline in physical and mental abilities.
Hebenbrock, M; Düe, M; Holzhausen, H; Sass, A; Stadler, P; Ellendorff, F
Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are considered suitable to monitor the position and velocity of horses during cross-country competition or in training. Furthermore, simultaneous recording of life data such as heart rate could be useful to assess the horse's condition during exercise. To test the suitability and reliability of a commercially available GPS system with integrated heart rate recording system and with built in GSM for data transmission, the Fidelak Equipilot Type EP-2003-15/G-2.11 (EP-15/G) was evaluated first for reliability of pulse recording from a pulse generator within the physiological range of horses; furthermore distance, velocity and heart rate recordings were carried out on a standard 1000 m field track with five repetitions. Agreement (% deviation from actually measured distance and from stopwatch-distance based velocity calculations) and variability (Coefficient of Variation for distance, velocity, heart rate) were calculated. From the results it was safe to assume that the heart rate sensor recorded horse heart rates at a high degree of accuracy. Overall distances and velocities are in high agreement with actually measured values. However, overall variability expressed in terms of relative variability (C.V.) is smaller for distance recording (C.V. 0.68%) when compared to velocity (C.V. 1.01%). The system tested is suitable and reliable for simultaneously recording of distance, velocity and heart rates for horses during cross country exercise. GPS-based monitoring of movement along with simultaneous recording of physiological data and the possibility to call upon data will not only be of benefit for training horses or for surveillance during competition, it may also be suitable for distant patient monitoring and in behavioural studies as well as in veterinary medicine in general.
Report of the Clinical and Functional Primary Outcomes in Men of the ACL-SPORTS Trial: Similar Outcomes in Men Receiving Secondary Prevention With and Without Perturbation Training 1 and 2 Years After ACL Reconstruction.
Arundale, Amelia J H; Cummer, Kathleen; Capin, Jacob J; Zarzycki, Ryan; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Athletes often are cleared to return to activities 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, knee function measures continue to improve up to 2 years after surgery. Interventions beyond standard care may facilitate successful return to preinjury activities and improve functional outcomes. Perturbation training has been used in nonoperative ACL injury and preoperative ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, but has not been examined in postoperative ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, specifically return to sport rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there were differences at 1 and 2 years after ACL reconstruction between the male SAP (strengthening, agility, and secondary prevention) and SAP+PERT (SAP protocol with the addition of perturbation training) groups with respect to (1) quadriceps strength and single-legged hop limb symmetry; (2) patient-reported knee outcome scores; (3) the proportion who achieve self-reported normal knee function; and (4) the time from surgery to passing return to sport criteria. Forty men who had completed ACL reconstruction rehabilitation and met enrollment criteria (3-9 months after ACL reconstruction, > 80% quadriceps strength limb symmetry, no pain, full ROM, minimal effusion) were randomized into the SAP or SAP+PERT groups of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Specialised Post-Operative Return to Sports trial (ACL-SPORTS), a single-blind randomized clinical study of secondary prevention and return to sport. Quadriceps strength, single-legged hopping, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 subjective knee form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)-sports and recreation, and KOOS-quality-of-life subscales were collected 1 and 2 years after surgery by investigators blind to group. Athletes were categorized as having normal or abnormal knee function at each time point based on IKDC score, and the time until athletes passed strict return-to-sport
This article examines the history and characteristics of sport nationalism in South Korea as a step toward a comparative study in East Asia, with special emphasis on media, postcolonial history of the policies, and the ritual dimension of sport. The Korean government has sought triumphalism embodied by a focused strategy of close collaboration at the state and local levels, elitist training method, special rewards for ...
Forrester, Larry W.; Roy, Anindo; Krebs, Hermano Igo; Macko, Richard F.
Background Task-oriented therapies such as treadmill exercise can improve gait velocity after stroke, but slow velocities and abnormal gait patterns often persist, suggesting a need for additional strategies to improve walking. Objectives To determine the effects of a 6-week visually guided, impedance controlled, ankle robotics intervention on paretic ankle motor control and gait function in chronic stroke. Methods This was a single-arm pilot study with a convenience sample of 8 stroke survivors with chronic hemiparetic gait, trained and tested in a laboratory. Subjects trained in dorsiflexion–plantarflexion by playing video games with the robot during three 1-hour training sessions weekly, totaling 560 repetitions per session. Assessments included paretic ankle ranges of motion, strength, motor control, and overground gait function. Results Improved paretic ankle motor control was seen as increased target success, along with faster and smoother movements. Walking velocity also increased significantly, whereas durations of paretic single support increased and double support decreased. Conclusions Robotic feedback training improved paretic ankle motor control with improvements in floor walking. Increased walking speeds were comparable with reports from other task-oriented, locomotor training approaches used in stroke, suggesting that a focus on ankle motor control may provide a valuable adjunct to locomotor therapies. PMID:21115945
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
Full Text Available This article examines the history and characteristics of sport nationalism in South Korea as a step toward a comparative study in East Asia, with special emphasis on media, postcolonial history of the policies, and the ritual dimension of sport. The Korean government has sought triumphalism embodied by a focused strategy of close collaboration at the state and local levels, elitist training method, special rewards for athletes’ distinguished results, and so on. Nationwide enthusiasm promoted by media creates nationalistic solidarity. In postcolonial South Korea, sport has been used as a special tool to achieve focused political aims, such as prevailing against the anti-communist and anti-Japanese competitions. But recently, as the Korean society becomes more affluent and matured, people begin to enjoy the appeal of sport per se. The mega sport events, including public viewing, present a typical scene of Korean nationalistic enthusiasm, but it is also a good example of ritual consumption and the development of sport as art. To understand the vitality of sport in East Asia, it is important to notice the coexistence of the non-utilitarian aspect of sports with their political and ritual use.
Inness M, W H; Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
To determine the time course for physical-capacity adaptations to intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) in team-sport athletes and the time course for benefits remaining after IHT. A pre-post parallel-groups design was employed, with 21 Australian footballers assigned to IHT (n = 10) or control (CON; n = 11) matched for training load. IHT performed eleven 40-min bike sessions at 2500-m altitude over 4 wk. Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) was performed before; after 3, 6, and 11 IHT sessions; and 30 and 44 d after IHT. Repeated time trials (2- and 1-km TTs, with 5 min rest) were performed before, after, and 3 wk after IHT. Hemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) was measured in IHT before and after 3, 6, 9, and 11 sessions. Baseline Yo-Yo IR2 was similar between groups. After 6 sessions, the change in Yo-Yo IR2 in IHT was very likely higher than CON (27% greater change, effect size 0.77, 90% confidence limits 0.20;1.33) and likely higher 1 d after IHT (23%, 0.68, 0.05;1.30). The IHT group's change remained likely higher than CON 30 d after IHT (24%, 0.72, 0.12;1.33) but was not meaningfully different 44 d after (12%, 0.36, -0.24;0.97). The change in 2-km TT performance between groups was not different throughout. For 1-km TT, CON improved more after IHT, but IHT maintained performance better after 3 wk. Hb(mass) was higher after IHT (2.7%, 0.40, -0.40;1.19). Short-duration IHT increased Yo-Yo IR2 compared with training-load-matched controls in 2 wk. An additional 2 wk of IHT provided no further benefit. These changes remained until at least 30 d posttraining. IHT also protected improvement in 1-km TT.
Glick, Ira D; Kamm, Ronald; Morse, Eric
Over the past three decades, the world of both amateur and professional sports has expanded greatly and become more complex. In part related to these changes - and relatively unknown to sports medicine practitioners - the field of sport psychiatry has steadily evolved and grown. This paper focuses on what these changes have been. A sport psychiatrist is a physician-psychiatrist who diagnoses and treats problems, symptoms and/or disorders associated with an athlete, with their family/significant others, with their team, or with their sport, including spectators/fans. The primary aims of the specialty are to (i) optimize health, (ii) improve athletic performance, and (iii) manage psychiatric symptoms or disorders. The training includes medical training to provide knowledge and skills unique to physicians; psychiatric training to provide knowledge and skills inherent in that field, and training and/or experience in sport psychiatry to provide knowledge and skills about psychiatric aspects of sports. The sport psychiatrist first makes an individual, family-systems and phenomenological diagnosis of the clinical situation. Based on this evaluation, he sets goals for not only the athlete, but also for significant others involved. He delivers treatment based on the psychiatric disorder or problem using a combination of medication, psychotherapy or self-help group interventions plus strategies targeted to specific sport performance issues. Evolution of the International Society of Sport Psychiatry as well as the field, including incorporation into school and professional team sports, is described along with a 'typical day' for a sport psychiatrist. Case examples, a training curriculum and core literature are included.
Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Burboa, J; Bahamonde, M; Inostroza, M; Lillo, P; Barahona, M; Palet, M; Hinzpeter, J
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is an important cause of days lost in athletes. Most ACL injuries are non-contact and are associated with biomechanical risk factors that increase tension in the ACL: increased knee valgus (KV) and hip flexion (HF) and decreased flexion of knee (KF). Muscle around the knee contributes to knee stability, so fatigue produced by exercise could alter knee balance, increasing LCA tension. The aim of the study is to determine the angular behavior before and after a physical load for CF, RR and RV in children born in 2002-2003. A non-randomized clinical trial was conducted. The sample consisted of 50 students from soccer schools born between 2002 and 2003. The angular behavior of CF, RR and VR was compared, before and after performing standardized training. The angular behavior was measured by performing the DJ test with data obtained by inertial sensors. After exercise, the 3 variables increased, but only HF reached significant difference. Other important finding was the difference found in KV between the dominant leg and the support limb, at both times: rest and post exercise. It was concluded that the angular behavior of CF increases significantly in both limbs post-exercise and that preventive measures should be applied for the management of valgus in the supporting limb.
... encourages the use of electronic media for all communication, including any record, report, request, test, or statement required by this appendix. The electronic media used must have adequate security provisions and be... this example, a Part 142 certificate holder) establishes “satellite” training centers in Chicago and...
Rowatt University of Louisville Field Unit at Fort Knox, Kentucky Barbara A. Black, Chief Training System Re.3earch Division Jack H. Hiller , Director...Sigtenhorst, K. H., & Johnson, J. R. (1982). Final report of concept eva -luation of institutional tank uunnerv and missile tracking system (I-TGMTS
Development, feasibility, and efficacy of a customized exercise device to deliver intradialytic resistance training in patients with end stage renal disease: Non-randomized controlled crossover trial.
Chan, Danwin; Green, Simon; Fiatarone Singh, Maria; Barnard, Robert; Cheema, Birinder S
Introduction This study assessed the feasibility and efficacy of a novel resistance training device used within an intradialytic progressive resistance training (PRT) intervention. Methods Non-randomized, within-subjects crossover design with outcomes assessed at baseline (week 0), postcontrol (week 13) and post-PRT intervention (week 26). Twenty-two hemodialysis patients (59% men, 71 ± 11 years) performed PRT three sessions per week for 12 weeks. The resistance training device was developed to enable the performance of 2 upper body and 3 lower body exercises, unilaterally and bilaterally, both before and during dialysis, with loads of 2.5 to 59 kg. Feasibility outcomes included adverse events, adherence and training load progression. Changes in upper and lower body muscular strength, six-minute walk, aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression were evaluated. Findings The PRT intervention was delivered without serious adverse events, resulted in 71.2% ± 23.3% adherence and significant adaptation of all training loads from pre to mid to post training (83.8%-185.6%, all P Emotional) significantly increased (all P outcomes. Discussion PRT using the novel resistance training device was feasible and improved measures of physical and psychological health. This device can be utilized in most dialysis centers. Future studies are required to evaluate dose-response effects of PRT prescriptions in subpopulations, and the translation of PRT to standard dialysis practice. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.
Bishop, Lauri; Khan, Moiz; Martelli, Dario; Quinn, Lori; Stein, Joel; Agrawal, Sunil
Many robotic devices in rehabilitation incorporate an assist-as-needed haptic guidance paradigm to promote training. This error reduction model, while beneficial for skill acquisition, could be detrimental for long-term retention. Error augmentation (EA) models have been explored as alternatives. A robotic Tethered Pelvic Assist Device has been developed to study force application to the pelvis on gait and was used here to induce weight shift onto the paretic (error reduction) or nonparetic (error augmentation) limb during treadmill training. The purpose of these case reports is to examine effects of training with these two paradigms to reduce load force asymmetry during gait in two individuals after stroke (>6 mos). Participants presented with baseline gait asymmetry, although independent community ambulators. Participants underwent 1-hr trainings for 3 days using either the error reduction or error augmentation model. Outcomes included the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale for treatment tolerance and measures of force and stance symmetry. Both participants tolerated training. Force symmetry (measured on treadmill) improved from pretraining to posttraining (36.58% and 14.64% gains), however, with limited transfer to overground gait measures (stance symmetry gains of 9.74% and 16.21%). Training with the Tethered Pelvic Assist Device device proved feasible to improve force symmetry on the treadmill irrespective of training model. Future work should consider methods to increase transfer to overground gait.