Jenkins, David W
This article reviews the history of sports medicine highlighting the "jogging boom" of the 1970s and the advocacy of Dr George Sheehan, which boosted the position of podiatry in sports medicine. Significant events in mainstream sports medicine that promoted the rise of podiatric medicine are discussed. Reasons as to why podiatric medicine should be a member of the sports medicine team are outlined, and lastly, examples that highlight podiatric medicine as participants alongside other specialties in the evaluation and care of athletes are given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...
Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…
Lawless, Christine E; Olshansky, Brian; Washington, Reginald L; Baggish, Aaron L; Daniels, Curt J; Lawrence, Silvana M; Sullivan, Renee M; Kovacs, Richard J; Bove, Alfred A
In recent years, athletic participation has more than doubled in all major demographic groups, while simultaneously, children and adults with established heart disease desire participation in sports and exercise. Despite conferring favorable long-term effects on well-being and survival, exercise can be associated with risk of adverse events in the short term. Complex individual cardiovascular (CV) demands and adaptations imposed by exercise present distinct challenges to the cardiologist asked to evaluate athletes. Here, we describe the evolution of sports and exercise cardiology as a unique discipline within the continuum of CV specialties, provide the rationale for tailoring of CV care to athletes and exercising individuals, define the role of the CV specialist within the athlete care team, and lay the foundation for the development of Sports and Exercise Cardiology in the United States. In 2011, the American College of Cardiology launched the Section of Sports and Exercise Cardiology. Membership has grown from 150 to over 4,000 members in just 2 short years, indicating marked interest from the CV community to advance the integration of sports and exercise cardiology into mainstream CV care. Although the current athlete CV care model has distinct limitations, here, we have outlined a new paradigm of care for the American athlete and exercising individual. By practicing and promoting this new paradigm, we believe we will enhance the CV care of athletes of all ages, and serve the greater athletic community and our nation as a whole, by allowing safest participation in sports and physical activity for all individuals who seek this lifestyle. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Storm, Rasmus K.
Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....
Benson, A J; Evans, M B; Eys, M A
Socialization tactics are often used to manage initial group member interactions in a way that facilitates transition experiences. Although this process is heavily researched in organizational contexts, we sought to extend this line of inquiry to sport by examining the nature of socialization tactics used to integrate new members into existing teams. Interviews were conducted with 12 coaches and 12 athletes from several Canadian Interuniversity Sport teams to explore the nature of socialization and the circumstances underscoring why certain approaches are taken over others. A key process involved establishing congruency of role expectations between incoming athletes and group leaders, and socialization processes balanced expectations of conformity with encouragement of individual personalities within the group. A conceptual basis to examine socialization into team sport environments is discussed in relation to the extant organizational theories, and the practical implications of delineating sport socialization tactics are forwarded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bloom, Gordon A.; Loughead, Todd M.; Newin, Julie
Participation in youth sport generally begins to decline after the age of 12. Among the reasons for this are personal aspects such as lack of desire, and social aspects including negative experiences with coaches. One way that coaches can improve the sporting environment is through group activities that promote team building. The purpose of this…
Jul 21, 2011 ... Motivation, Personal Satisfaction of Team Members and. Conformity to Team Norms as Predictors of Team. Performance. (Pp. 439-448). Ogunleye, S. B. - Department of Sports Science and Health Education,. Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye. Abstract. The study investigated the Relationship ...
Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard
of a team sports project as well as coaching and mentoring, the project goal was to challenge the boys to be part of a new shared and empowering community, so that they actively experienced the ability to take responsibility for themselves and others in the arenas where they lived. In close co......-operation with the local sports club ’Nørrebro United’, 26 volunteer coaches (coaching the boys in school), school staff, the local community and not least the young people themselves, the intervention gradually took it’s own form. The intention of this strong local co-operation, was to clarify the young participants...... bullet points. We will use voices from the project, like volunteer coaches and the local sports club Nørrebro United. This final discussion will broaden the local agenda of this research project towards a more general discussion with the participants....
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidstr?m, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies.
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies.
Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain
This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; pteam sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; pteam sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; pTeam sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lennartsson, Jan; Lidström, Nicklas; Lindberg, Carl
We set up a game theoretic framework to analyze a wide range of situations from team sports. A fundamental idea is the concept of potential; the probability of the offense scoring the next goal minus the probability that the next goal is made by the defense. We develop categorical as well as continuous models, and obtain optimal strategies for both offense and defense. A main result is that the optimal defensive strategy is to minimize the maximum potential of all offensive strategies. PMID:25970581
Lusher, Dean; Robins, Garry; Kremer, Peter
This article reviews how current social network analysis might be used to investigate individual and group behavior in sporting teams. Social network analysis methods permit researchers to explore social relations between team members and their individual-level qualities simultaneously. As such, social network analysis can be seen as augmenting…
Diggelen, J. van; Muller, T.; Bosch, K. van den
In a good team, members do not only perform their individual task, they also coordinate their actions with other members of the team. Developing such team skills usually involves exercises with all members playing their role. This approach is costly and has organizational and educational drawbacks.
Borozne, Joseph, Ed.; And Others
This monograph examines methods of promoting safe practices in the conduct of selected team sports with the aim of reducing and eliminating the occurrance of injuries. The team sports discussed are baseball and softball, basketball, field hockey, tackle football, touch and flag football, ice hockey, lacrosse, and soccer. (MJB)
Batey, Jo; Owton, Helen
Maintaining involvement in sport and exercise activities is a challenge for mothers with young children. This study therefore qualitatively explores the experiences of 7 mothers who have managed to remain physically active in team sports exploring how the team environment might meet their psychological needs. We analyse the results through Self-Determination Theory (SDT). Semi-structured interviews were thematically analysed to reveal the following themes: perceived benefits of sport, perceiv...
Schaafstal, A.M.; Hoeft, R.M.; Schaik, M. van
The process of training teams increasingly occurs in synthetic environments. However, it is often still modeled after live team training, including the disadvantages of live training, for example, the fact that all teammates must be available. This paper explores overcoming the disadvantages of
International motor sport teams travel extensively. Over the years, the design and build of racing cars has improved so that morbidity and mortality in motor sport has been lessened. Those team members supporting the competitors need to be physically and mentally fit to perform complicated tasks, despite having traveled. This group of travelers has not been studied to any extent previously. An anonymous questionnaire asking some basic travel medicine related questions was distributed to the support team members of a Rally team, and Formula One Grand Prix team. Both teams were based in the UK, and competed in all the rounds of their respective world championships. Ten Rally team members and 18 Formula One team members responded to the questionnaire. The results showed moderate coverage of commonly used vaccinations; appropriate use of antimalarials and insect repellents, but by no means by all team members; little or no problems with traveler's diarrhea; some tendencies to problems related to jet lag, but no real attempt to prevent the problem; and finally some attempt at skin protection against solar damage. Support teams are reasonably well prepared for the combination of, the rigors of frequent travel, and a demanding job. There is a deficit in vaccine coverage, especially of both hepatitis A and B, some education is needed in preventing skin problems later in life due to sun exposure, and further study of jet lag and its implications might be appropriate.
Homan, Astrid C; Van Kleef, Gerben A; Sanchez-Burks, Jeffrey
Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members' emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members' emotional displays as a source of information to predict the team's trajectory. We argue and show that displays of sadness elicit more pessimistic inferences regarding team dynamics (e.g., trust, satisfaction, team effectiveness, conflict) compared to displays of happiness. Moreover, we find that this effect is strengthened when the future interaction between the team members is more ambiguous (i.e., under ethnic dissimilarity; Study 1) and when emotional displays can be clearly linked to the team members' collective experience (Study 2). These studies shed light on when and how people use others' emotional expressions to form impressions of teams.
.... Team membership influences and team interaction processes were examined as antecedents to team member teamwork schema similarity, which was conceptualized as team member teamwork schema agreement and accuracy...
Melnick, Merrill J.
Satisfaction of participants in team sports hinges on psychosocial needs of individual athletes. Team affiliation creates a ready-made social structure in which emotional rewards of close friendships, motivation to achieve particular goals, and social reinforcement through personal recognition are granted. Other factors include: (1) team size; (2)…
畑, 攻; 柴田, 雅貴; 塚本, 正仁; 杉山, 歌奈子
Leadership is one of the most important elements for team sports management, and concerning to members morale, team morale, maturity, and performance. In sports science area, it is expected that sports leadership would be defined and clarified to attain their objective. The purpose of the study was to identify sports leaders' behavior and function concerning with members' satisfaction. This study employed a specially designed questionnaire which were consisted of general demographics, academi...
Our Team Members The Foregut Team includes experts in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases listed below. Our clinical experience and active research offers patients the highest quality care in the setting of groundbreaking clinical trials.
Tian, Longwei; Li, Yuan; Li, Peter Ping
Team heterogeneity research has been traditionally dominated by atomistic or single-culture assumptions. This study extends this stream by investigating the influences of cooperation and culture on the link between leader–member skill distance (one special type of team heterogeneity) and team...
Gréhaigne, Jean-Francis; Godbout, Paul
This article examines the theory of dynamic systems and its use in the domains of the study and coaching of team sports. The two teams involved in a match are looked at as two interacting systems in movement, where opposition is paramount. A key element for the observation of game play is the notion of configuration of play and its ever-changing…
Vazquez, Federico; Ben-Naim, Eli; Redner, Sidney
What is the most interesting team sport? We answer this question via an extensive statistical survey of game scores, consisting of more than 1/4 million games in over a century. We propose the likelihood of upsets as a measure of competitiveness. We demonstrate the utility of this measure via a comparative analysis of several popular team sports including soccer, baseball, hockey, basketball, and football. We also develop a mathematical model, in which the stronger team is favored to win a game. This model allows to us conveniently estimate the likelihood of upsets from the more easily-accessible standings data.
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance. PMID:24282200
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1-2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical and tactical proficiencies, successful team-sport athletes must also have highly-developed, specific, physical capacities. Much effort goes into designing training programmes to improve these physical capacities, with expected benefits for team-sport performance. Recently, some team sports have introduced altitude training in the belief that it can further enhance team-sport physical performance. Until now, however, there is little published evidence showing improved team-sport performance following altitude training, despite the often considerable expense involved. In the absence of such studies, this review will identify important determinants of team-sport physical performance that may be improved by altitude training, with potential benefits for team-sport performance. These determinants can be broadly described as factors that enhance either sprint performance or the ability to recover from maximal or near-maximal efforts. There is some evidence that some of these physical capacities may be enhanced by altitude training, but further research is required to verify that these adaptations occur, that they are greater than what could be achieved by appropriate sea-level training and that they translate to improved team-sport performance.
Bishop, David J; Girard, Olivier
Team sports are increasingly popular, with millions of participants worldwide. Athletes engaged in these sports are required to repeatedly produce skilful actions and maximal or near-maximal efforts (eg, accelerations, changes in pace and direction, sprints, jumps and kicks), interspersed with brief recovery intervals (consisting of rest or low-intensity to moderate-intensity activity), over an extended period of time (1–2 h). While performance in most team sports is dominated by technical an...
Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i) dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii) reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii) interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv), degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviors self-organize into a group synergy. Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts. Complex adaptive systems, synergies, group
Holway, Francis E; Spriet, Lawrence L
Implementation of a nutrition programme for team sports involves application of scientific research together with the social skills necessary to work with a sports medicine and coaching staff. Both field and court team sports are characterized by intermittent activity requiring a heavy reliance on dietary carbohydrate sources to maintain and replenish glycogen. Energy and substrate demands are high during pre-season training and matches, and moderate during training in the competitive season. Dietary planning must include enough carbohydrate on a moderate energy budget, while also meeting protein needs. Strength and power team sports require muscle-building programmes that must be accompanied by adequate nutrition, and simple anthropometric measurements can help the nutrition practitioner monitor and assess body composition periodically. Use of a body mass scale and a urine specific gravity refractometer can help identify athletes prone to dehydration. Sports beverages and caffeine are the most common supplements, while opinion on the practical effectiveness of creatine is divided. Late-maturing adolescent athletes become concerned about gaining size and muscle, and assessment of maturity status can be carried out with anthropometric procedures. An overriding consideration is that an individual approach is needed to meet each athlete's nutritional needs.
Mahramus, Tara; Frewin, Sarah; Penoyer, Daleen Aragon; Sole, Mary Lou
Cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) teams, known as code teams, provide coordinated and evidenced-based interventions by various disciplines during a CPA. Teamwork behaviors are essential during CPA resuscitation and may have an impact on patient outcomes. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of teamwork during CPA events among code team members and to determine if differences in perception existed between disciplines within the code team. A prospective, descriptive, comparative design using the Code Teamwork Perception Tool online survey was used to assess the perception of teamwork during CPA events by medical residents, critical care nurses, and respiratory therapists. Sixty-six code team members completed the Code Teamwork Perception Tool. Mean teamwork scores were 2.63 on a 5-point scale (0-4). No significant differences were found in mean scores among disciplines. Significant differences among scores were found on 7 items related to code leadership, roles and responsibilities between disciplines, and in those who had participated on a code team for less than 2 years and certified in Advanced Cardiac Life Support for less than 4 years. Teamwork perception among members of the code team was average. Teamwork training for resuscitation with all disciplines on the code team may promote more effective teamwork during actual CPA events. Clinical nurse specialists can aid in resuscitation efforts by actively participating on committees, identifying opportunities for improvement, being content experts, leading the development of team training programs, and conducting research in areas lacking evidence.
A well designed diet is the foundation upon which optimal training and performance can be developed. However, as long as competitive sports have existed, athletes have attempted to improve their performance by ingesting a variety of substances. This practice has given rise to a multi-billion-dollar industry that aggressively markets its products as performance enhancing, often without objective, scientific evidence to support such claims. While a number of excellent reviews have evaluated the performance-enhancing effects of most dietary supplements, less attention has been paid to the performance-enhancing claims of dietary supplements in the context of team-sport performance. Dietary supplements that enhance some types of athletic performance may not necessarily enhance team-sport performance (and vice versa). Thus, the first aim of this review is to critically evaluate the ergogenic value of the most common dietary supplements used by team-sport athletes. The term dietary supplements will be used in this review and is defined as any product taken by the mouth, in addition to common foods, that has been proposed to have a performance-enhancing effect; this review will only discuss substances that are not currently banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Evidence is emerging to support the performance-enhancing claims of some, but not all, dietary supplements that have been proposed to improve team-sport-related performance. For example, there is good evidence that caffeine can improve single-sprint performance, while caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have all been demonstrated to improve multiple-sprint performance. The evidence is not so strong for the performance-enhancing benefits of β-alanine or colostrum. Current evidence does not support the ingestion of ribose, branched-chain amino acids or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, especially in well trained athletes. More research on the performance-enhancing effects of the dietary supplements
Full Text Available Individual players act as a coherent unit during team sports performance, forming a team synergy. A synergy is a collective property of a task-specific organization of individuals, such that the degrees of freedom of each individual in the system are coupled, enabling the degrees of freedom of different individuals to co-regulate each other. Here, we present an explanation for the emergence of such collective behaviors, indicating how these can be assessed and understood through the measurement of key system properties that exist, considering the contribution of each individual and beyond These include: to (i dimensional compression, a process resulting in independent degree of freedom being coupled so that the synergy has fewer degrees of freedom than the set of components from which it arises; (ii reciprocal compensation, if one element do not produce its function, other elements should display changes in their contributions so that task goals are still attained; (iii interpersonal linkages, the specific contribution of each element to a group task; and (iv, degeneracy, structurally different components performing a similar, but not necessarily identical, function with respect to context. A primary goal of our analysis is to highlight the principles and tools required to understand coherent and dynamic team behaviors, as well as the performance conditions that make such team synergies possible, through perceptual attunement to shared affordances in individual performers. A key conclusion is that teams can be trained to perceive how to use and share specific affordances, explaining how individual’s behaviours self-organize into a group synergy.Ecological dynamics explanations of team behaviors can transit beyond mere ratification of sport performance, providing a comprehensive conceptual framework to guide the implementation of diagnostic measures by sport scientists, sport psychologists and performance analysts.
Williams, Clyde; Rollo, Ian
The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition. The impact of dietary carbohydrate interventions on team sport performance have been typically assessed using intermittent variable-speed shuttle running over a distance of 20 m. This method has evolved to include specific work to rest ratios and skills specific to team sports such as soccer, rugby and basketball. Increasing liver and muscle carbohydrate stores before sports helps delay the onset of fatigue during prolonged intermittent variable-speed running. Carbohydrate intake during exercise, typically ingested as carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions, is also associated with improved performance. The mechanisms responsible are likely to be the availability of carbohydrate as a substrate for central and peripheral functions. Variable-speed running in hot environments is limited by the degree of hyperthermia before muscle glycogen availability becomes a significant contributor to the onset of fatigue. Finally, ingesting carbohydrate immediately after training and competition will rapidly recover liver and muscle glycogen stores.
Robertson, Sam; Joyce, David
The planned peaking for matches or events of perceived greatest priority or difficulty throughout a competitive season is commonplace in high-level team sports. Despite this prevalence in the field, little research exists on the practice. This study aimed to provide a framework for strategic periodisation which team sport organisations can use to evaluate the efficacy of such plans. Data relating to factors potentially influencing the difficulty of matches were obtained for games played in the 2014 Australian Football League season. These included the match location, opposition rank, between-match break and team "form". Binary logistic regression models were developed to determine the level of association between these factors and match outcome (win/loss). Models were constructed using "fixed" factors available to clubs prior to commencement of the season, and then also "dynamic" factors obtained at monthly intervals throughout the in-season period. The influence of playing away from home on match difficulty became stronger as the season progressed, whilst the opposition rank from the preceding season was the strongest indicator of difficulty across all models. The approaches demonstrated in this paper can be used practically to evaluate both the long- and short-term efficacy of strategic periodisation plans in team sports as well as inform and influence coach programming.
Leggat Sandra G
Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers...
Feinberg, Mark E; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Greenberg, Mark T
The predictors and correlates of positive functioning among community prevention teams have been examined in a number of research studies; however, the role of personality has been neglected. In this study, we examined whether team member and leader personality dimensions assessed at the time of team formation predicted local prevention team functioning 2.5-3.5 years later. Participants were 159 prevention team members in 14 communities participating in the PROSPER study of prevention program dissemination. Three aspects of personality, aggregated at the team level, were examined as predictors: Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. A series of multivariate regression analyses were performed that accounted for the interdependency of five categories of team functioning. Results showed that average team member Openness was negatively, and Conscientiousness was positively linked to team functioning. The findings have implications for decisions about the level and nature of technical assistance support provided to community prevention teams.
McDuff, David R; Garvin, Michelle
Athletes and coaches at all competitive levels will utilize sports performance and psychiatric services at very high rates if the services are offered on-site and free of charge and are broad in scope and culturally sensitive. Services should be available throughout the team year and cover areas such as team building, mental preparation, stress control, substance prevention, sleep and energy regulation, injury recovery, crisis intervention, and mental disorder treatment. The staff offering these services should be diverse by gender, profession, and culture, and the fees should be paid by the organization. When these services are endorsed by the team's leaders and integrated with the athletic training/medical/player development staff, their utilization will grow quickly and lead to positive outcomes individually and collectively.
Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel
In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.
Ramos, João; Lopes, Rui J; Araújo, Duarte
The evolution of performance analysis within sports sciences is tied to technology development and practitioner demands. However, how individual and collective patterns self-organize and interact in invasive team sports remains elusive. Social network analysis has been recently proposed to resolve some aspects of this problem, and has proven successful in capturing collective features resulting from the interactions between team members as well as a powerful communication tool. Despite these advances, some fundamental team sports concepts such as an attacking play have not been properly captured by the more common applications of social network analysis to team sports performance. In this article, we propose a novel approach to team sports performance centered on sport concepts, namely that of an attacking play. Network theory and tools including temporal and bipartite or multilayered networks were used to capture this concept. We put forward eight questions directly related to team performance to discuss how common pitfalls in the use of network tools for capturing sports concepts can be avoided. Some answers are advanced in an attempt to be more precise in the description of team dynamics and to uncover other metrics directly applied to sport concepts, such as the structure and dynamics of attacking plays. Finally, we propose that, at this stage of knowledge, it may be advantageous to build up from fundamental sport concepts toward complex network theory and tools, and not the other way around.
Soltani Hossein; Hojati Zahra; Reza Attarzadeh Hossini Seyed
Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate) and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball). The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Invent...
Vazha M. Devishvili; Marina O. Mdivani; Daria S. Elgina
Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The pape...
Leggat Sandra G
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although effective teamwork has been consistently identified as a requirement for enhanced clinical outcomes in the provision of healthcare, there is limited knowledge of what makes health professionals effective team members, and even less information on how to develop skills for teamwork. This study identified critical teamwork competencies for health service managers. Methods Members of a state branch of the professional association of Australian health service managers participated in a teamwork survey. Results The 37% response rate enabled identification of a management teamwork competency set comprising leadership, knowledge of organizational goals and strategies and organizational commitment, respect for others, commitment to working collaboratively and to achieving a quality outcome. Conclusion Although not part of the research question the data suggested that the competencies for effective teamwork are perceived to be different for management and clinical teams, and there are differences in the perceptions of effective teamwork competencies between male and female health service managers. This study adds to the growing evidence that the focus on individual skill development and individual accountability and achievement that results from existing models of health professional training, and which is continually reinforced by human resource management practices within healthcare systems, is not consistent with the competencies required for effective teamwork.
Fleming, Janetta L.; Monda-Amaya, Lisa E.
Wraparound team members (n=20) identified as teaming experts rated 109 items that support team effectiveness across six categories: team goals, member roles and membership, communication, cohesion, logistics, and outcomes. Items in the team outcomes, goals, and cohesion categories were ranked most critical to team effectiveness. (Contains…
providers ( sports medicine doctors, physical therapists, certified athletic trainers [ATC’s], podiatrists, and chiropractors) into one clinic. Core principals...Patellar Tendonitis), and 733.93 (Lower Leg Stress Fractures) are significantly lower than the corresponding PEB rates for NHCP Orthopedics and Sports ... Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation Team) Center. SMART Centers address the multitude of muscular skeletal injuries encountered at Recruit Training
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is
Gaines, Stacey A.
The idea that participation in sport builds character is a long-standing one. Advocates of sport participation believe that sport provides an appropriate context for the learning of social skills such as cooperation and the development of prosocial behavior (Weiss, Smith, & Stuntz, 2008). Research in sport regarding character development has…
Homan, A.C.; van Kleef, G.A.; Sanchez-Burks, J.
Emotions are inherent to team life, yet it is unclear how observers use team members’ emotional expressions to make sense of team processes. Drawing on Emotions as Social Information theory, we propose that observers use team members’ emotional displays as a source of information to predict the
Speck, Rebecca M; Jones, Gabrielle; Barg, Frances K; McCunn, Maureen
Perceptions of trauma team members and their roles may impact team performance, requiring intervention. Participant observation and semistructured interviews were performed with trauma team members: attendings, nurses, fellows, residents, and medical students. Some team members do not include nurses as members of the team. A greater proportion of male than female team leaders perceived their role as teacher or educator. Nurses, attendings, and fellows, provided parallel descriptions of good leaders, whereas medical students and residents stressed other qualities. Inconsistencies in trauma team role definition and membership should be addressed, toward the goal of improving team communication and patient outcomes.
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.
Full Text Available Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport.
Pepping, Gert-Jan; Timmermans, Erik J.
Little is known about the biopsychological underpinnings of expert performance in team sports. In this paper we show that there is a vast support for oxytocin as a neuropeptide involved in the encouragement of important processes linked to greater team performance in sport. We argue that oxytocin is related to biopsychological processes aimed at convergence of emotions and moods between people, and in doing so it is a critical neuropeptide involved in the shaping of important team processes in sport such as trust, generosity, altruism, cohesion, cooperation, and social motivation, and also envy and gloating. Future research should examine the role of oxytocin in these essential components of sport performance. In particular, the link between oxytocin, emotional contagion and the cultivation of experiences of positive emotions is a worthwhile line of investigation for sport participation and development as well as high performance in sport. PMID:22997498
Walter, Frank; van der Vegt, Gerben S.
This study examines the role of individual team members' positive mood and perceived team feedback for their team-directed learning behaviour. Results obtained in a sample of 186 members from 27 work teams showed that positive mood was positively associated with team-directed learning behaviour if
Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle
In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…
Fransen, K; Steffens, N K; Haslam, S A; Vanbeselaere, N; Vande Broek, G; Boen, F
The present research examines the impact of leaders' confidence in their team on the team confidence and performance of their teammates. In an experiment involving newly assembled soccer teams, we manipulated the team confidence expressed by the team leader (high vs neutral vs low) and assessed team members' responses and performance as they unfolded during a competition (i.e., in a first baseline session and a second test session). Our findings pointed to team confidence contagion such that when the leader had expressed high (rather than neutral or low) team confidence, team members perceived their team to be more efficacious and were more confident in the team's ability to win. Moreover, leaders' team confidence affected individual and team performance such that teams led by a highly confident leader performed better than those led by a less confident leader. Finally, the results supported a hypothesized mediational model in showing that the effect of leaders' confidence on team members' team confidence and performance was mediated by the leader's perceived identity leadership and members' team identification. In conclusion, the findings of this experiment suggest that leaders' team confidence can enhance members' team confidence and performance by fostering members' identification with the team. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stura, Claudia; Johnston, Linda M.
Since sports are increasingly used a way to bring formerly conflicting parties together post-conflict, more work needs to be done to ensure that sports are actually conducted in a way that promotes peace rather than exacerbates the conflict. Since many sports-for-peace programs cross cultural boundaries, this exploratory study was conducted to…
de Dreu, C.K.W.; Weingart, L.R.
This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, resultsrevealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and
Monaghan, Conal; Bizumic, Boris; Reynolds, Katherine; Smithson, Michael; Johns-Boast, Lynette; van Rooy, Dirk
One prominent approach in the exploration of the variations in project team performance has been to study two components of the aggregate personalities of the team members: conscientiousness and agreeableness. A second line of research, known as self-categorisation theory, argues that identifying as team members and the team's performance norms…
Sievers, Cindy S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Worker Safety and Security Teams (WSSTs) are an effective way to promote safe workplaces. While WSSTs have a variety of structures and roles, they have one thing in common - employees and management collaborate to find ways to prevent accidents, injuries, and illnesses on the job. The benefits for all concerned are obvious in that employees have a safe place to work, employers save money on lost work time and workers compensation costs, and everyone returns home safe and healthy each day. A successful WSST will have the support and wholehearted participation of management and employees. LANL has a WSST at the institutional level (IWSST) and at all directorates and many divisions. The WSSTs are part of LANL's Voluntary Protection Program (VPP). The WSSTs meet at least monthly and follow an agenda covering topics such as safety shares, behavior based safety (BBS) observations, upcoming events or activities, issues, etc. A WSST can effectively influence safety programs and provide recommendations to managers, who have the resources and authority to implement changes in the workplace. WSSTs are effective because they combine the knowledge, expertise, perspective, enthusiasm, and effort of a variety of employees with diverse backgrounds. Those with experience in a specific job or work area know what the hazards or potential hazards are, and generally have ideas how to go about controlling them. Those who are less familiar with a job or area play a vital role too, by seeing what others may have overlooked or taken for granted. This booklet will cover the structure and operations of WSSTs, what needs to be done in order to be effective and successful, and how you can help, whether you're a WSST member or not.
Stein, Manuel; Janetzko, Halldór; Seebacher, Daniel
in general. We identify challenges arising when facing these data sets and we propose a multi-facet view and analysis including pattern detection, context-aware analysis, and visual explanation. We also present applicable methods and technologies covering the heterogeneous aspects in team sport data.......Automatic and interactive data analysis is instrumental in making use of increasing amounts of complex data. Owing to novel sensor modalities, analysis of data generated in professional team sport leagues such as soccer, baseball, and basketball has recently become of concern, with potentially high...... or groups of players happened, and what the respective influencing factors are. We consider team sport as group movement including collaboration and competition of individuals following specific rule sets. Analyzing team sports is a challenging problem as it involves joint understanding of heterogeneous...
Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri
Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.
Perception of cohesion and imagery use among 45 elite team sport players in Botswana were assessed with the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985) and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998) to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables, and whether imagery use will ...
Fullagar, Hugh H K; Duffield, Rob; Skorski, Sabrina; Coutts, Aaron J; Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim
While the effects of sleep loss on performance have previously been reviewed, the effects of disturbed sleep on recovery after exercise are less reported. Specifically, the interaction between sleep and physiological and psychological recovery in team-sport athletes is not well understood. Accordingly, the aim of the current review was to examine the current evidence on the potential role sleep may play in postexercise recovery, with a tailored focus on professional team-sport athletes. Recent studies show that team-sport athletes are at high risk of poor sleep during and after competition. Although limited published data are available, these athletes also appear particularly susceptible to reductions in both sleep quality and sleep duration after night competition and periods of heavy training. However, studies examining the relationship between sleep and recovery in such situations are lacking. Indeed, further observational sleep studies in team-sport athletes are required to confirm these concerns. Naps, sleep extension, and sleep-hygiene practices appear advantageous to performance; however, future proof-of-concept studies are now required to determine the efficacy of these interventions on postexercise recovery. Moreover, more research is required to understand how sleep interacts with numerous recovery responses in team-sport environments. This is pertinent given the regularity with which these teams encounter challenging scenarios during the course of a season. Therefore, this review examines the factors that compromise sleep during a season and after competition and discusses strategies that may help improve sleep in team-sport athletes.
Full Text Available Today’s sport in many ways is like business. Numerous concepts as well as characteristics are adequate for both. The role of leaders in sports and business is invaluable when it comes to reaching goals or creating positive work environment. The aim of the paper is to identify the role of trust in relationships within a sport team, particularly between the leader and the rest of the group (trust in leader, and to highlight the impact of trust on the effectiveness of leaders’ work and successes achieved by a team.
Full Text Available Purpose: With respect to the fact that every sport field has its own special nature, the aim of present study was to compare competitive state anxiety among team sport and individual sport athletes in Iran. Material: The statistic sample included 120 male athletes, 60 athletes in individual sports (wrestling, taekwondo and karate and 60 athletes in team sports (futsal, volleyball and basketball. The research instrument employed was the Persian version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. This inventory was distributed among the subjects about 30 minutes before the first competition. Finally by one-way ANOVA data was analyzed. Results: The results indicated that the mean score of somatic anxiety and cognitive anxiety among individual sport athletes was significantly higher than that of team sport athletes (p0.05. Conclusion: It seems the being part of a team alleviates some of the pressure experienced by those who compete alone. It seems the individual sport athletes may be more exposed to evaluation and more engaged in their own skills and abilities than team sport athletes given that responsibility for performance is not distributed across several performers.
Blee, Tinemakomboreroashe A. P.
OBJECTIVES Team formulation is expected to support multidisciplinary team members to work effectively with their clients, meet their clients’ needs and broaden their psychological knowledge. There remains a lack of research evidence regarding the perceptions of team formulation among Community Mental Health Team (CMHT) members. This study addressed the following research questions; (1) what are considered helpful or unhelpful aspects of team formulation? (2) what are the processes or mecha...
Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national – NLP and regional-level – RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed
Full Text Available Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds, sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances. A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads during different performance phases (attack and defense in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3. Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed
Silva, Pedro; Travassos, Bruno; Vilar, Luís; Aguiar, Paulo; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Similar to other complex systems in nature (e.g., a hunting pack, flocks of birds), sports teams have been modeled as social neurobiological systems in which interpersonal coordination tendencies of agents underpin team swarming behaviors. Swarming is seen as the result of agent co-adaptation to ecological constraints of performance environments by collectively perceiving specific possibilities for action (affordances for self and shared affordances). A major principle of invasion team sports assumed to promote effective performance is to outnumber the opposition (creation of numerical overloads) during different performance phases (attack and defense) in spatial regions adjacent to the ball. Such performance principles are assimilated by system agents through manipulation of numerical relations between teams during training in order to create artificially asymmetrical performance contexts to simulate overloaded and underloaded situations. Here we evaluated effects of different numerical relations differentiated by agent skill level, examining emergent inter-individual, intra- and inter-team coordination. Groups of association football players (national--NLP and regional-level--RLP) participated in small-sided and conditioned games in which numerical relations between system agents were manipulated (5v5, 5v4 and 5v3). Typical grouping tendencies in sports teams (major ranges, stretch indices, distances of team centers to goals and distances between the teams' opposing line-forces in specific team sectors) were recorded by plotting positional coordinates of individual agents through continuous GPS tracking. Results showed that creation of numerical asymmetries during training constrained agents' individual dominant regions, the underloaded teams' compactness and each team's relative position on-field, as well as distances between specific team sectors. We also observed how skill level impacted individual and team coordination tendencies. Data revealed emergence of
Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Mendes, Rui Sousa
Explaining how graph theory and social network analysis can be applied to team sports analysis, This book presents useful approaches, models and methods that can be used to characterise the overall properties of team networks and identify the prominence of each team player. Exploring the different possible network metrics that can be utilised in sports analysis, their possible applications and variances from situation to situation, the respective chapters present an array of illustrative case studies. Identifying the general concepts of social network analysis and network centrality metrics, readers are shown how to generate a methodological protocol for data collection. As such, the book provides a valuable resource for students of the sport sciences, sports engineering, applied computation and the social sciences.
Koller, Dionne L
The recognition of sports medicine and promulgation of practice guidelines for team physicians will push general medical malpractice standards to evolve into a more specialized standard of care for those who practice in this area. To the extent that practicing medicine in the sports context involves calculations that do not arise in typical medical practice, the sports medicine community can help elucidate those issues and create appropriate guidelines that can serve to inform athlete-patients and educate courts. Doing so will help best set the terms by which those who practice sports medicine are judged. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hartmann, Elizabeth S.
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 states that individualized education program (IEP) teams are composed of members with distinct identities, roles, expertise, and histories. Although team members must work together to implement educational and related services for learners with special needs, little is known about…
The study investigated the Relationship between Motivation, PersonalSatisfaction of Team Members, Conformity to Teams Norms and TeamPerformance. Two hypotheses were postulated and tested. The surveyresearch design was adopted to conduct the study. The sample included two thousand and eighty-eight athletes ...
Burgess, Darren J; Naughton, Geraldine A
Traditional talent development pathways for adolescents in team sports follow talent identification procedures based on subjective games ratings and isolated athletic assessment. Most talent development models are exclusive rather than inclusive in nature. Subsequently, talent identification may result in discontentment, premature stratification, or dropout from team sports. Understanding the multidimensional differences among the requirements of adolescent and elite adult athletes could provide more realistic goals for potential talented players. Coach education should include adolescent development, and rewards for team success at the adolescent level should reflect the needs of long-term player development. Effective talent development needs to incorporate physical and psychological maturity, the relative age effect, objective measures of game sense, and athletic prowess. The influences of media and culture on the individual, and the competing time demands between various competitions for player training time should be monitored and mediated where appropriate. Despite the complexity, talent development is a worthy investment in professional team sport.
Vazha M. Devishvili
Full Text Available Background. Team sports are not only the most exciting sporting events. but also complex activities that make serious demands on players. The effectiveness of the team depends not only on the high level of gaming interaction. but also on the relationship between the players. The work is based on the material of sports teams and is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of group cohesion. As a basic model. the authors choose a 4-factor model that describes cohesion in sports teams. The paper also considered the phenomenon of the emergence of the aggregate subject in the process of joint activity. when the participants feel themselves as a whole and experience feelings of satisfaction and a surge of energy. Objective. The main objective of the work is to investigate the relationship between the level of team cohesion and subjective feelings of unity of its players. As additional variables in the study there is a sport (football and volleyball and team level (amateur and professional. To test the assumptions. two methods were used (the Sport Team Cohesion Questionnaire and the Subject Unity Index. which allow not only to determine the overall level of cohesion and unity. but also to reveal the structure of both phenomena. The study involved two men’s volleyball and two men’s football teams of different ages: 8-9 years (39 athletes; 12-14 years (24 athletes and 18-25 years (41 athletes. Design. For amateur groups represented by children’s and teenage sports teams. significant correlations between unity and unity were obtained (r = 0.618. p <0.01; r = 0.477. p <0.05. For professional teams. no significant correlations were found. Influence of the sport on cohesion is also different for amateur and professional teams. In the first case. the cohesion is higher for football players (U = 118. p <0.05. and in the second case for volleyball players (U = 124. p <0.05. Results. The findings indicate that the professional level of players affects group
Billaut, François; Gore, Christopher J; Aughey, Robert J
Field-based team sport matches are composed of short, high-intensity efforts, interspersed with intervals of rest or submaximal exercise, repeated over a period of 60-120 minutes. Matches may also be played at moderate altitude where the lower oxygen partial pressure exerts a detrimental effect on performance. To enhance run-based performance, team-sport athletes use varied training strategies focusing on different aspects of team-sport physiology, including aerobic, sprint, repeated-sprint and resistance training. Interestingly, 'altitude' training (i.e. living and/or training in O(2)-reduced environments) has only been empirically employed by athletes and coaches to improve the basic characteristics of speed and endurance necessary to excel in team sports. Hypoxia, as an additional stimulus to training, is typically used by endurance athletes to enhance performance at sea level and to prepare for competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved in the last few decades, which are known to enhance aerobic power and, thus, endurance performance. Altitude training can also promote an increased anaerobic fitness, and may enhance sprint capacity. Therefore, altitude training may confer potentially-beneficial adaptations to team-sport athletes, which have been overlooked in contemporary sport physiology research. Here, we review the current knowledge on the established benefits of altitude training on physiological systems relevant to team-sport performance, and conclude that current evidence supports implementation of altitude training modalities to enhance match physical performances at both sea level and altitude. We hope that this will guide the practice of many athletes and stimulate future research to better refine training programmes.
The present study aimed to examine how players’ positional data can be used to assess the transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports (basketball, football and rugby) in early specialized and diversified sport careers. Thirty-four college students were divided into early specialization and early diversification groups, according to information provided by a questionnaire designed to obtain detailed information about their sports career. In-game derived variables were calculated based on ...
De Dreu, Carsten K W; Weingart, Laurie R
This study provides a meta-analysis of research on the associations between relationship conflict, task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. Consistent with past theorizing, results revealed strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. In contrast to what has been suggested in both academic research and introductory textbooks, however, results also revealed strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive) correlations between task conflict team performance, and team member satisfaction. As predicted, conflict had stronger negative relations with team performance in highly complex (decision making, project, mixed) than in less complex (production) tasks. Finally, task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.
Gajendran, Ravi S; Joshi, Aparna
For globally distributed teams charged with innovation, member contributions to the team are crucial for effective performance. Prior research, however, suggests that members of globally distributed teams often feel isolated and excluded from their team's activities and decisions. How can leaders of such teams foster member inclusion in team decisions? Drawing on leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, we propose that for distributed teams, LMX and communication frequency jointly shape member influence on team decisions. Findings from a test of our hypotheses using data from 40 globally distributed teams suggest that LMX can enhance member influence on team decisions when it is sustained through frequent leader-member communication. This joint effect is strengthened as team dispersion increases. At the team level, member influence on team decisions has a positive effect on team innovation. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S. Alexander; Mallett, Cliff J.; Steffens, Niklas K.; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip
Objectives. Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Design. Three professional football teams (N = 135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Methods. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players’ leadership quality in...
van der Does, Hendrike
Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,
Berlage, Gai Ingham
In a study of the similarities between childrens' competitive team sports and the typical corporate or business environment, two research questions were posed: (1) Does the structural organization of childrens' soccer and ice hockey organizations resemble that of American corporations?; and (2) Are the values of childrens' competitive sports…
One thing is certain: work is an important part of our lives. Work adds value to an individual in the form of self-actualisation, security and relationships. The purpose of this research was to explore employees' experiences of the benefits of organisational team sport activities. The qualitative exploration study was conducted ...
Clauset, A.; Kogan, M.; Redner, S.
We investigate the time evolution of lead changes within individual games of competitive team sports. Exploiting ideas from the theory of random walks, the number of lead changes within a single game follows a Gaussian distribution. We show that the probability that the last lead change and the time of the largest lead size are governed by the same arcsine law, a bimodal distribution that diverges at the start and at the end of the game. We also determine the probability that a given lead is "safe" as a function of its size L and game time t . Our predictions generally agree with comprehensive data on more than 1.25 million scoring events in roughly 40 000 games across four professional or semiprofessional team sports, and are more accurate than popular heuristics currently used in sports analytics.
Olatunde Nathaniel Ayinde; Ayodeji Emmanuel Oke
The study appraises the preferred team role of construction team members in selected higher institution projects in Nigeria, with a view to improving delivery of such projects. The study used purposive sampling technique to select two higher institutions studied and census survey was used in selecting 35 completed construction projects executed by the institutions. A total of 191 questionnaires were distributed to obtain information from construction team members who participated in the selec...
Direkoglu, Cem; O'Connor, Noel E.
We propose a novel physics-based model for analysing team play- ers’ positions and movements on a sports playing field. The goal is to detect for each frame the region with the highest population of a given team’s players and the region towards which the team is moving as they press for territorial advancement, termed the region of intent. Given the positions of team players from a plan view of the playing field at any given time, we solve a particular Poisson equation to generate a smooth di...
Filho, Edson; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Yang, Yanyun
A nomological network on team dynamics in sports consisting of a multiframework perspective is introduced and tested. The aim was to explore the interrelationship among cohesion, team mental models (TMMs), collective efficacy (CE) and perceived performance potential (PPP). Three hundred and forty college-aged soccer players representing 17 different teams (8 female and 9 male) participated in the study. They responded to surveys on team cohesion, TMMs, CE and PPP. Results are congruent with the theoretical conceptualisation of a parsimonious view of team dynamics in sports. Specifically, cohesion was found to be an exogenous variable predicting both TMMs and CE beliefs. TMMs and CE were correlated and predicted PPP, which in turn accounted for 59% of the variance of objective performance scores as measured by teams' season record. From a theoretical standpoint, findings resulted in a parsimonious view of team dynamics, which may represent an initial step towards clarifying the epistemological roots and nomological network of various team-level properties. From an applied standpoint, results suggest that team expertise starts with the establishment of team cohesion. Following the establishment of cohesiveness, teammates are able to advance team-related schemas and a collective sense of confidence. Limitations and key directions for future research are outlined.
Valo, Maarit; Hurme, Pertti
This study focuses on teamwork in Finnish working life. Through a wide cross-section of teams the study examines the causes to which team members attribute the outcomes of their teams. Qualitative data was collected from 314 respondents. They wrote 616 stories to describe memorable experiences of success and failure in teamwork. The stories revealed 1930 explanations. The findings indicate that both favorable and unfavorable team outcomes are perceived as being caused by ...
Fransen, Katrien; Mertens, Niels; Feltz, Deborah; Boen, Filip
During the last decade, team confidence has received more and more attention in the sport psychology literature. Research has demonstrated that athletes who are more confident in their team's abilities exert more effort, set more challenging goals, are more resilient when facing adversities, and ultimately perform better. This article reviews the existing literature in order to provide more clarity in terms of the conceptualization and the operationalization of team confidence. We thereby distinguish between collective efficacy (i.e., process-oriented team confidence) and team outcome confidence (i.e., outcome-oriented team confidence). In addition, both the sources as well as the outcomes of team confidence will be discussed. Furthermore, we will go deeper into the dispersion of team confidence and we will evaluate the current guidelines on how to measure both types of team confidence. Building upon this base, the article then highlights interesting avenues for future research in order to further improve both our theoretical knowledge on team confidence and its application to the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Green Power Partnership webinar on the green power use by sports teams and their venues. Focused on how and why sports teams and venues use green power, review of available product options, and best practices for procuring renewable energy.
Zimmer, Adam; Piecora, Kyle; Schuster, Danielle; Webbe, Frank
With the advent of the National Collegiate Athletic Association's (NCAA's) mandating the presence and practice of concussion-management plans in collegiate athletic programs, institutions will consider potential approaches for concussion management, including both baseline and normative comparison approaches. To examine sport and team differences in baseline performance on a computer-based neurocognitive measure and 2 standard sideline measures of cognition and balance and to determine the potential effect of premorbid factors sex and height on baseline performance. Cross-sectional study. University laboratory. A total of 437 NCAA Division II student-athletes (males = 273, females = 164; age = 19.61 ± 1.64 years, height = 69.89 ± 4.04 inches [177.52 ± 10.26 cm]) were recruited during mandatory preseason testing conducted in a concussion-management program. The computerized Concussion Resolution Index (CRI), the Standardized Assessment of Concussion (Form A; SAC), and the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Players on the men's basketball team tended to perform worse on the baseline measures, whereas soccer players tended to perform better. We found a difference in total BESS scores between these sports (P = .002). We saw a difference between sports on the hard-surface portion of the BESS (F6,347 = 3.33, P = .003, ηp(2) = 0.05). No sport, team, or sex differences were found with SAC scores (P > .05). We noted differences between sports and teams in the CRI indices, with basketball, particularly the men's team, performing worse than soccer (P sport differences, height was a covariate for the team (F1,385 = 5.109, P = .02, ηp(2) = 0.013) and sport (F1,326 = 11.212, P = .001, ηp(2) = 0.033) analyses, but the interaction of sex and sport on CRI indices was not significant in any test (P > .05). Given that differences in neurocognitive functioning and performance among sports and teams exist, the comparison of posttraumatic and baseline assessment may lead to more
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the prevailing content, trends and future developments of professional team sports economics. The purpose of this paper is not to provide a full record of all professional team sports related research with an economic content, but rather to point out the main issues that sports economics tackle since their birth and track the evolution of these issues as a response to the changing environment of team sports. League market structure, team objectives, demand, financing, labour markets and sports broadcasting are the most prominent areas of interest in professional team sports economics. Differences in organizational structure of professional team sports in Europe and U.S.A. shape the research agenda on the two sides of the Atlantic accordingly. Future developments should capture both economic and social aspects of contemporary professional team sports.
Macquet, A-C; Ferrand, C; Stanton, N A
This article aimed to gain an understanding of the process of debriefing during major competitions in elite team sports. Debrief interviews were conducted with 9 head coaches. The interview data were used to identify how head coaches divided up the tasks given to staff and team members prior to, and during the post-match debriefing. Results showed that debriefing consisted of two steps: preparation and presentation. Preparation referred to four successive tasks. Presentation to the team of players consisted of eight tasks relating to transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Coaches were shown to divide the labor within the staff and team. The data tend to support the view that in elite team sports, coaches are both transformational and transactional leaders, adapting their style of leadership to the situation, athletes and time available. This study provides insights into the task-work and team-work underlying team functioning and division of labor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
The research for basketball has been focused upon the color effect on the team shirts by means of sports and colors. University basketball club members and university students (who did not belong to the university basketball club members) participated in this study. Colors of team shirts were analyzed by A.H. Munsell's method (Hue, Value, Chroma). To each of four games were given four different color conditions: The first is on condition that players of both teams wore different five-colored team shirts (white, red, blue, green, orange).The second is on condition that all players of both teams wore white team shirts. The third is on condition that all players of the one team wore red team shirts and the others wore orange. The fourth is on condition that all players of the one team wore blue team shirts and the others wore green. The questionnaire, the number of shots, and passes were analyzed of statistics (x2 :1 X m contingency table) on the above mentioned conditions. The results were as follows: (1) The number of successful shots that university basketball club members made were higher than university students. (2) The number of unsuccessful passes that university students made were higher than university basketball club members. (3) Analyzed by statistics (x2:1 X contingency table), the apparent distinction of the color effect was not found. These results could be due to players requirements of momentary judgement such as their recognition of the other players face or voice. This seems to depend upon different factors of the subject himself on a physical strength level as well as on a technical level.
Fransen, Katrien; Haslam, S Alexander; Mallett, Clifford J; Steffens, Niklas K; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip
Researchers have argued that leadership is one of the most important determinants of team effectiveness. The present study examined the extent to which the perceived quality of athlete leadership was related to the effectiveness of elite sports teams. Three professional football teams (N=135) participated in our study during the preparation phase for the Australian 2016 season. Players and coaching staff were asked to assess players' leadership quality in four leadership roles (as task, motivational, social, and external leader) via an online survey. The leadership quality in each of these roles was then calculated in a social network analysis by averaging the indegree centralities of the three best leaders in that particular role. Participants also rated their team's performance and its functioning on multiple indicators. As hypothesized, the team with the highest-quality athlete leadership on each of the four leadership roles excelled in all indicators of team effectiveness. More specifically, athletes in this team had a stronger shared sense of the team's purpose, they were more highly committed to realizing the team's goals, and they had a greater confidence in their team's abilities than athletes in the other teams. Moreover, this team demonstrated a higher task-involving and a lower ego-involving climate, and excelled on all measures of performance. High-quality athlete leadership is positively related to team effectiveness. Given the importance of high-quality athlete leadership, the study highlights the need for well-designed empirically-based leadership development programs. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E
The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended.
Diggelen, J. van; Heuvelink, A.; Muller, T.;
Developing good team skills usually involves exercises with all team members playing their role. This approach is costly and has organizational and educational drawbacks. For the Netherlands army, we developed a more efficient and flexible approach by setting training in virtual environments, and
Wright, Bruce; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Fidler, Herta; Hofmeister, Marianna
To examine the beliefs and attitudes of FPs and health care professionals (HCPs) regarding FPs' roles and responsibilities on interdisciplinary geriatric health care teams. Qualitative study using focus groups. Calgary Health Region. Seventeen FPs and 22 HCPs working on geriatric health care teams. Four 90-minute focus groups were conducted with FPs, followed by 2 additional 90-minute focus groups with HCPs. The FP focus groups discussed 4 vignettes of typical teamwork scenarios. Discussions were transcribed and the 4 researchers analyzed and coded themes and subthemes and developed the HCP focus group questions. These questions asked about HCPs' expectations of FPs on teams, experiences with FPs on teams, and perspectives on optimal roles on teams. Several meetings were held to determine themes and subthemes. Family physicians identified patient centredness, role delineation for team members, team dynamics, and team structure as critical to team success. Both FPs and HCPs had a continuum of beliefs about the role FPs should play on teams, including whether FPs should be autonomous or collaborative decision makers, the extent to which FPs should work within or outside teams, whether FPs should be leaders or simply members of teams, and the level of responsibility implied or explicit in their roles. Comments from FPs and HCPs identified intraprofessional and interprofessional tensions that could affect team practice and impede the development of high-functioning teams. It will be important, as primary care reform continues, to help FPs and HCPs learn how to work together effectively on teams so that patients receive the best possible care.
Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark
The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2 = 197; N Study 3 = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4 = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.
Raden Muhammad Tanri
Full Text Available Background: To be a good athlete, an athlete needs to possess good predominant components of physical fitness. Futsal Team of Universitas Padjadjaran has never won any competition. This study was conducted to identify the predominant component profiles of physical fitness of Futsal Team members of Universitas Padjadjaran. The predominant component profiles were classified based on the Indonesian National Sport Committee (KONI standard. Methods: This study was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine Student Center of Universitas Padjadjaran in November 2012. Twenty two members of the Futsal Team were enrolled as subjects of the study. The study used the step test to examine aerobic endurance; the leg dynamometer to measure leg muscle strength; the squat jump test to test the leg muscle endurance; the vertical jump test to measure leg muscle power; and the sit and reach test to measure lower extremity flexibility. The data collected were analyzed using percentage. Results: Leg muscle strength was mostly in the fair category (95%. Leg muscle power was mostly in the good category (41%. Leg muscle endurance was mostly in the good category (82%. Leg flexibility was mostly in the excellent category (91% and aerobic endurance was mostly in the good category (41%. Conclusions: Only several members of Universitas Padjadjaran Futsal Team have an excellent physical fitness profile. Most of the members fell into the fair and good category.
Valentina V. Barabanshchikova
Full Text Available The modern world imposes strict conditions on people in various types of activities. A huge amount of processed information, tight timelines and other factors may cause people’s inability to cope with their tasks. Thus, there is a popular habit to put off the work without thinking about the consequences. This trait called procrastination is inherent to a million people all over the world. The problem of procrastination is just beginning to develop in Russia. Nowadays lots of foreign research and foreign questionnaires are being translated and approbated. The aim of this research is to identify the level of athletes’ procrastination, and define the differences of procrastination patterns in individual and team sports athletes. Also we want to study the relationship between procrastination and athletes’ personal characteristics such as extroversion, neuroticism, control over the actions, motivation to success, anxiety, time perspective and decision-making style (coping, and also indicators of state anxiety using a sample of individual athletes (boxing, unarmed self-defence, judo, karate, kickboxing, wrestling, taekwondo and teams (hockey, football, volleyball. Correlation analysis shows structural differences of procrastination manifestations in different types of sport. Regression analysis shows that in athletes of individual sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusted R2 = 0,368 there is only one significant predictor of procrastination - the negative past (p = 0,007, β = 0,495. The negative past (p = 0,003, β = 0,463, the control over the planning of the action (p = 0,05, β = -0.220 and the monitoring of the implementation of the action (p = 0,003, β = -0,465 are the predictors of procrastination in team sports (model: p = 0,002, adjusred R2 = 0,368.
This report deals with the result of the experiment that testees' teams had coped with abnormal events on power plant simulator. 8 teams were AAA1, AAA2, ACD1, ACD2, CCC1, CCC2, DDD1 and DDD2 consist of 3 members. Members of teams were intentionally united by his personality with the results examined by Yatabe-Guilford personality test (A: Average type, C: Calm type, D: Director type). Each team coped with 8 abnormal events (leak from the pipe after the condensate booster pump-A and feedwater control system failure, vacuum pump-A failure, etc.). Teams' behaviors were evaluated and calculated the evaluated values about 3 team's functions: (1) direction and orientation (11 items), (2) recovery (13 items) and (3) maintenance of cooperation (13 items). The order of the evaluated values were almost AAAs≤ACDs≤CCCs< DDDs with each function. And the results on multiple comparison of the evaluated values are as follows: (a) There are remarkable significances between DDDs and other combinations of personalities (32 cases per 36 cases). (b) Some cases are significant among 2 teams of same combination of personalities (4 cases per 12 cases). Also the results on analysis of utterances of team member are as follows: (c) There is good correspondence of the number of utterances to the evaluated values. (d) With AAAs, the number of 'Instruction' is very small. (e) With CCCs, utterances related to maintenance of cooperation are relatively few. On these results, the author is convinced that combination of personalities in not matured team certainly relates team performance and utterances among the members. (author)
Aughey, Robert J; Buchheit, Martin; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Billaut, François; Varley, Matthew C; Bourdon, Pitre C; Gore, Christopher J
The question of whether altitude training can enhance subsequent sea-level performance has been well investigated over many decades. However, research on this topic has focused on athletes from individual or endurance sports, with scant number of studies on team-sport athletes. Questions that need to be answered include whether this type of training may enhance team-sport athlete performance, when success in team-sport is often more based on technical and tactical ability rather than physical capacity per se. This review will contrast and compare athletes from two sports representative of endurance (cycling) and team-sports (soccer). Specifically, we draw on the respective competition schedules, physiological capacities, activity profiles and energetics of each sport to compare the similarities between athletes from these sports and discuss the relative merits of altitude training for these athletes. The application of conventional live-high, train-high; live-high, train-low; and intermittent hypoxic training for team-sport athletes in the context of the above will be presented. When the above points are considered, we will conclude that dependent on resources and training objectives, altitude training can be seen as an attractive proposition to enhance the physical performance of team-sport athletes without the need for an obvious increase in training load.
Janssen, O.; Huang, X
The authors investigate team identification and individual differentiation as complementary drivers of team members' citizenship and creative behavior. As hypothesized, the results of a survey among 157 middle-management team members show team identification to be positively related to citizenship
Silva, Pedro; Garganta, Júlio; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Aguiar, Paulo
Previous research has proposed that team coordination is based on shared knowledge of the performance context, responsible for linking teammates' mental representations for collective, internalized action solutions. However, this representational approach raises many questions including: how do individual schemata of team members become reformulated together? How much time does it take for this collective cognitive process to occur? How do different cues perceived by different individuals sustain a general shared mental representation? This representational approach is challenged by an ecological dynamics perspective of shared knowledge in team coordination. We argue that the traditional shared knowledge assumption is predicated on 'knowledge about' the environment, which can be used to share knowledge and influence intentions of others prior to competition. Rather, during competitive performance, the control of action by perceiving surrounding informational constraints is expressed in 'knowledge of' the environment. This crucial distinction emphasizes perception of shared affordances (for others and of others) as the main communication channel between team members during team coordination tasks. From this perspective, the emergence of coordinated behaviours in sports teams is based on the formation of interpersonal synergies between players resulting from collective actions predicated on shared affordances.
Full Text Available Aim: The study is to compare the level of social skills scores of undergraduate students at Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports according to sport types, gender and class levels. Material and Methods: To test the main hypothesis, a total of 112 student- athletes (47 female and 65 male, performing individual and team sports from the Mersin University School of Physical Education and Sports were involved in this study. Data were collected by ‘Social Skills Inventory” developed by Riggio (1986, 1989 and adapted to Turkish by Yüksel (1998. Results: T -test results showed that the mean scores of 6 sub-dimensions of social skills scale does not change with regard to types of sports. But, there were significant differences of mean scores of social control changes with respect to gender and this score was higher for female athletes compared to male counterparts. Moreover, the results of Kruskal Wallis Analysis indicated that there was a significant difference in all sub dimensions except emotional awareness subscale compared to class level. First year students had the highest scores in terms of emotional expressivity, emotional control, social expressivity, social awareness, and social control. Conclusion: It could be stated that women are more successful in social skills, although the level of social skills of student-athletes does not differ according to sport.
Thomas, William E; Brown, Rupert; Easterbrook, Matthew J; Vignoles, Vivian L; Manzi, Claudia; D'Angelo, Chiara; Holt, Jeremy J
Based on motivated identity construction theory (MICT; Vignoles, 2011), we offer an integrative approach examining the combined roles of six identity motives (self-esteem, distinctiveness, belonging, meaning, continuity, and efficacy) instantiated at three different motivational levels (personal, social, and collective identity) as predictors of group identification. These identity processes were investigated among 369 members of 45 sports teams from England and Italy in a longitudinal study over 6 months with four time points. Multilevel change modeling and cross-lagged analyses showed that satisfaction of four personal identity motives (individuals' personal feelings of self-esteem, distinctiveness, meaning, and efficacy derived from team membership), three social identity motives (individuals' feelings that the team identity carries a sense of belonging, meaning, and continuity), and one collective identity motive (a shared belief in group distinctiveness) significantly predicted group identification. Motivational processes underlying group identification are complex, multilayered, and not reducible to personal needs.
Brotherus-Kettunen, A; Sinkkonen, S; Miettinen, A
Management teams have been introduced as a means of solving conflicts and providing highly required co-ordination between professional groups, sub-units and their individual leaders in large, complex organizations such as hospitals. This study examines the motivational patterns of the three members of management teams of four clinical departments at a large university hospital. A strong professionalism was the dominant motivational orientation of all nurse managers (nursing directors of the clinics) and to a great extent also of the physician managers (head physicians of the clinics). The business managers' dominant motivational pattern was hierarchy in two out of the four teams, and professionalism in two teams. The respective comparison groups had rather similar motivational patterns in common with their leaders: ordinary physicians and nurses had a professional and administrative staff hierarchic orientation. The comparison group of mid-level managers from private firms was also hierarchically oriented, although task orientation was also often high in their motivational pattern. The results are consistent with the educational background and differences in the tasks of the groups studied. The role of different professional cultures in determining and designing efficiently functioning management teams is an important task for further research.
Fonseca, Sofia; Milho, João; Travassos, Bruno; Araújo, Duarte
Team sports represent complex systems: players interact continuously during a game, and exhibit intricate patterns of interaction, which can be identified and investigated at both individual and collective levels. We used Voronoi diagrams to identify and investigate the spatial dynamics of players' behavior in Futsal. Using this tool, we examined 19 plays of a sub-phase of a Futsal game played in a reduced area (20 m(2)) from which we extracted the trajectories of all players. Results obtained from a comparative analysis of player's Voronoi area (dominant region) and nearest teammate distance revealed different patterns of interaction between attackers and defenders, both at the level of individual players and teams. We found that, compared to defenders, larger dominant regions were associated with attackers. Furthermore, these regions were more variable in size among players from the same team but, at the player level, the attackers' dominant regions were more regular than those associated with each of the defenders. These findings support a formal description of the dynamic spatial interaction of the players, at least during the particular sub-phase of Futsal investigated. The adopted approach may be extended to other team behaviors where the actions taken at any instant in time by each of the involved agents are associated with the space they occupy at that particular time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah
Background A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. Methods A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n?=?28 participants) or control (n?=?20 participants) grou...
Polglaze, Ted; Hogan, Cruz; Dawson, Brian; Buttfield, Alec; Osgnach, Cristian; Lester, Leanne; Peeling, Peter
To assess the efficacy of critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed movement for classifying intensity in team sport activity. Elite male hockey players (n = 12) completed a series of time trials (100 yd, 400 yd, 1500 yd) and a 3-min all-out test to derive both critical speed (CS) and critical power (CP). Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each protocol. Participants (n = 10) then played 2 competitive hockey matches. Time spent >85% of HRmax was compared to time spent above CS (from the time trials) and CP (from the 3-min test). Between protocols, there was a moderate and non-significant association for CS (r = 0.359, P = 0.252), and a very large association for CP (r = 0.754, P = 0.005); the association was very large for peak HR (r = 0.866, P 85% HRmax and time spent above both CS (r = 0.719, P < 0.001) and CP (r = 0.867, P < 0.001). This relationship was stronger for CP compared to CS (Z = 3.29, P = 0.0007). Speed is not an appropriate parameter for the classification of team-sport activity comprising continual changes in speed and direction, however, critical metabolic power derived from variable-speed activity appears useful for this purpose.
Jörgensen, Niklas; Meléus, Sammy
Purpose - The aim of the paper is to understand how management is affected by having the customer as a member of the global virtual team within agile work methods. Research Method - This research is based on a qualitative methodological choice, and an embedded single case study conducted through a cross-sectional time horizon. The research is based on primary and secondary data. The primary data has been collected from management, employees, and customer, through semi- and in depth interviews...
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is formation of a comprehensive hypothetical dynamic interactional process model structured by assumed constructs, i.e. processes or mechanisms that obtain real features and influences on athlete's performance and athletic achievement. Thus there are formed and assumed reciprocal relations between high training and competition - based stress as the input variable, cognitive appraisal and interpretation as the mediator, and mood state as the moderator based on the development of the dynamic systems theory. Also, proposed model uses basic assumptions of the Action-Theory approach and it is in accordance with the contemporary socialcognitive view of team functioning in sports. Within the process model, the output variables are measures of efficacy evident through athlete's individual and team performance and athletic achievement. The situation, the team and athlete attributes, the performance and the athletic achievement are joined variables, and the individual and the collective efficacy are the consequence of their reciprocal interaction. Therefore, there are complex and reciprocal interactive processes in real sports and explorative situations amongst the attributes of athlete and team and the behaviour and situation that determine performance and athletic achievement. This is probably the result of an integrated network of reciprocal multi-causal activity of a set of stated assumed constructs from different theories. Thus the hypothetical model is an effort to describe elaborate correlations and/or interdependencies between internal and external determinants which presumably affect athlete's performance and athletic achievement.
Steiner, Silvan; Macquet, Anne-Claire; Seiler, Roland
Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each. The aim of this article is to define a theoretical perspective that integrates the coordination mechanisms of the two approaches. In doing so, we borrow from a theoretical outline of group action. According to this outline, group action based on a priori shared mental models is an example of how interpersonal coordination is established from the top down. Interpersonal coordination in reaction to the perception of affordances represents the bottom-up component of group action. Both components are inextricably involved in the coordination of interactive sports teams. We further elaborate on the theoretical outline to integrate a third, constructivist approach. Integrating this third approach helps to explain interpersonal coordination in game situations for which no shared mental models are established and game situations that remain ambiguous in terms of perceived affordances. The article describes how hierarchical, sequential, and complex dimensions of action organization are important aspects of this constructivist perspective and how mental models may be involved. A basketball example is used to illustrate how top-down, bottom-up and constructivist processes may be simultaneously involved in enabling interpersonal coordination. Finally, we present the implications for research and practice. PMID:28894428
van der Heijden, Beatrice; Verbaan, W.H.
The aim of the study that is described in this article was to determine the relationship between team leaders' motivational behavior and the performance of their team members. Moreover, the differences between the team leaders' self-assessments of their motivational behavior and their team members'
Wilke, Jan; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Krause, Frieder; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried
Fatigue protocols have been used over the years to examine muscular exhaustion. As an alternative to approaches in laboratory settings, functional agility protocols claiming to mimic the multifaceted loads of athletic activity have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effects of a functional agility short-term fatigue protocol (FAST-FP) on neuromuscular function. Twenty-eight healthy sports students (15 males, aged 24.3 ± 2.4 years) completed the FAST-FP, which consists of four components: three counter-movement jumps (90% of individual maximum), a 20-s bout of step-ups, three bodyweight squats and an agility run. Tasks were repeated until the participants no longer achieved the required jump height in two consecutive sets. Outcomes (pre-post) encompassed subjective exhaustion (visual analogue scale [VAS]), maximum isometric voluntary force of the knee extensors (MIVF), reactive strength index (RSI), mean power frequency (MPF, measured using surface electromyography) and maximum knee range of motion (ROM). Post-intervention, VAS (+54 mm) increased significantly, while MIVF (-6.1%), RSI (-10.7%) and MPF (-4.1%) were reduced (p 0.05). The FAST-FP induces small-to-moderate impairments in neuromuscular function and considerable self-perceived fatigue. Current evidence on exhaustion developing in team sports suggests that this magnitude of fatigue is similar. The protocol might thus be valuable in the evaluation of treatments counteracting post-match fatigue in team sports.
Paul, Darren J; Gabbett, Tim J; Nassis, George P
Agility is an important characteristic of team sports athletes. There is a growing interest in the factors that influence agility performance as well as appropriate testing protocols and training strategies to assess and improve this quality. The objective of this systematic review was to (1) evaluate the reliability and validity of agility tests in team sports, (2) detail factors that may influence agility performance, and (3) identify the effects of different interventions on agility performance. The review was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We conducted a search of PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and SPORTDiscus databases. We assessed the methodological quality of intervention studies using a customized checklist of assessment criteria. Intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.80-0.91, 0.10-0.81, and 0.81-0.99 for test time using light, video, and human stimuli. A low-level reliability was reported for youth athletes using the video stimulus (0.10-0.30). Higher-level participants were shown to be, on average, 7.5% faster than their lower level counterparts. Reaction time and accuracy, foot placement, and in-line lunge movement have been shown to be related to agility performance. The contribution of strength remains unclear. Efficacy of interventions on agility performance ranged from 1% (vibration training) to 7.5% (small-sided games training). Agility tests generally offer good reliability, although this may be compromised in younger participants responding to various scenarios. A human and/or video stimulus seems the most appropriate method to discriminate between standard of playing ability. Decision-making and perceptual factors are often propositioned as discriminant factors; however, the underlying mechanisms are relatively unknown. Research has focused predominantly on the physical element of agility. Small-sided games and video training may offer effective
The results indicate that the implementation process starts where top management initiates sporting activities and makes the employees aware of sporting events. The employees need to be informed through induction, presentations, electronic mail, sports competitions among different departments and videos.
Park, J.H.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Wieling, M.
Athleticism is sexually attractive, indicating that it may serve as a sign of heritable fitness. We hypothesized that just as some sports may more honestly signal fitness than other sports, some positions within team sports may more honestly signal fitness than other positions, because success in
Johnson, Karen E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Sieving, Renee E.
Background: Evidence suggests that sports team participation differentially relates to health-risk behaviors. Few studies have explored relationships among high-risk youth. Purpose: To examine associations between weekly sports team participation and health-risk behaviors (substance use, sexual risk-taking, violence involvement) among alternative…
Full Text Available The main goal of study is extension of information about combining psychological, athlete's physical and sports fitness qualification in playing sports in training process while studying in university. This study took place on 24 athletes, boys 18 - 21 years of different skills (the candidate for the master of sports - 9, first-class sportsman - 12, second-class sportsman - 3. It is proved that the effectiveness of sports and gaming activities in team sports will then be productive when there be a switch in the relationship between leading and famous players from the "subject - object" to "subject -subjective ". It was determined that the main precondition for the effectiveness of competitive activity is before head identification and formation of leadership behavior in teams players of team sports, where leadership is behavioral interaction process for individuals or teams to achieve established goals.
Baltos, Georgios; Mitsopoulou, Zoi
... with, and reliability of candidate team members. Motivation, professional capabilities, and leadership skills are the most preferred selection variables when the organizational situation is perceived as a crisis.
Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.
Kennedy, Norelee; Armstrong, Claire; Woodward, Oonagh; Cullen, Walter
Team working is an integral aspect of primary care, but barriers to effective team working can limit the effectiveness of a primary care team (PCT). The establishment of new PCTs in Ireland provides an excellent opportunity to explore team working in action. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of team members working in a PCT. Team members (n = 19) from two PCTs were interviewed from May to June 2010 using a semi-structured interview guide. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Data were analysed using NVivo (version 8). Thematic analysis was used to explore the data. We identified five main themes that described the experiences of the team members. The themes were support for primary care, managing change, communication, evolution of roles and benefits of team working. Team members were generally supportive of primary care and had experienced benefits to their practice and to the care of their patients from participation in the team. Regular team meetings enabled communication and discussion of complex cases. Despite the significant scope for role conflict due to the varied employment arrangements of the team members, neither role nor interpersonal conflict was evident in the teams studied. In addition, despite the unusual team structure in Irish PCTs - where there is no formally appointed team leader or manager - general issues around team working and its benefits and challenges were very similar to those found in other international studies. This suggests, in contrast to some studies, that some aspects of the leadership role may not be as important in successful PCT functioning as previously thought. Nonetheless, team leadership was identified as an important issue in the further development of the teams. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Clark, Leah; Leedy, Stephen; McDonald, Laurie; Muller, Barbara; Lamb, Cheryl; Mendez, Tracy; Kim, Sehwan; Schonwetter, Ronald
As a continuing effort to enhance the quality of palliative care for the dying, this study examined (1) the prevalence of spirituality among hospice interdisciplinary team (IDT) members; (2) whether spirituality is related to job satisfaction; and (3) the structural path relationships among four variables: spiritual belief, integration of spirituality at work, self actualization and job satisfaction. The study surveyed 215 hospice IDT members who completed the Jarel Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Chamiec-Case Spirituality Integration and Job Satisfaction Scales. Multiple regression and structural path modeling methods were applied to explain the path relationships involving all four variables. The IDT members surveyed were: nurses, 46.4%; home health aids, 24.9%; social workers, 17.4%; chaplains, 4.2%; physicians, 2.3%; and other, 4.8%. Ninety-eight percent of the respondents viewed themselves as having spiritual well-being. On a 0-100 scale, IDT staff reported high spiritual belief (mean = 89.4) and they were self-actualizing (mean = 82.6). Most reported high job satisfaction (mean = 79.3) and spiritual integration (mean = 67.9). In multiple regression, spirituality, integration and self-actualization explained 22% of the variation in job satisfaction (R = 0.48; adjusted R(2) = 0.218; df = 3,175; F = 17.2; p = 0.001). Structural path models revealed that job satisfaction is more likely to be realized by a model that transforms one's spirituality into processes of integrating spirituality at work and self actualization (chi(2) = 0.614; df = 1; p = 0.433) than a model that establishes a direct path from spirituality to job satisfaction (chi(2) = 1.65; df = 1; p = 0.199). Hospice IDT member's integration of their spirituality at work and greater self actualization significantly improve job satisfaction.
Brahmi, Frances A; Kaplan, F Thomas D
Adding a librarian to an upper extremity surgical and therapy practice has many advantages (educational, research, remaining on the cutting edge of technology). As an embedded team member, the librarian at the Indiana Hand to Shoulder Center prepares literature reviews, creates Google Scholar Alerts for individual clinicians, and introduces developing technologies such as 3-dimensional printers, Smartphone Apps, and online access to nontraditional resources. With the librarian relieving clinicians of these responsibilities, surgeons can devote more time to clinical and research activities. Private practices unable to support their own librarian could share access to a librarian via Skype, Face Time, and video conferencing. Another small practice alternative is contracting services from a local medical school library that designates a librarian as its liaison. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Delaney, Jace A; Cummins, Cloe J; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M
The ability to accelerate, decelerate and change direction efficiently is imperative to successful team-sports performance. Traditional intensity-based thresholds for acceleration and deceleration may be inappropriate for time-series data, and have been shown to exhibit poor reliability, suggesting other techniques may be preferable. This study assessed movement data from one professional rugby league team throughout two full seasons and one pre-season period. Using both 5 Hz and 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) units, a range of acceleration-based variables were evaluated for their inter-unit reliability, ability to discriminate between positions, and associations with perceived muscle soreness. The reliability of 5 Hz GPS for measuring acceleration and deceleration ranged from good to poor (CV = 3.7-27.1%), with the exception of high-intensity deceleration efforts (CV = 11.1-11.8%), the 10 Hz units exhibited moderate to good inter-unit reliability (CV = 1.2-6.9%). Reliability of average metrics (average acceleration/deceleration, average acceleration and average deceleration) ranged from good to moderate (CV = 1.2-6.5%). Substantial differences were detected between positions using time spent accelerating and decelerating for all magnitudes, but these differences were less clear when considering the count or distance above acceleration/deceleration thresholds. All average metrics detected substantial differences between positions. All measures were similarly related to perceived muscle soreness, with the exception of high-intensity acceleration and deceleration counts. This study has proposed that averaging the acceleration/deceleration demands over an activity may be a more appropriate method compared to threshold-based methods, due to a greater reliability between units, whilst not sacrificing sensitivity to within and between-subject changes.
Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, MA.
This teacher's guide presents instructional materials which examine issues in professional sports for students in high school economics and social studies classes. The issues include how the pro sports market evolved; how leagues gained market power; why athletes earn as much as they do; what are the sources of pro sports revenues; why tickets…
Stein, Manuel; Janetzko, Halldor; Lamprecht, Andreas; Breitkreutz, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Philipp; Goldlucke, Bastian; Schreck, Tobias; Andrienko, Gennady; Grossniklaus, Michael; Keim, Daniel A
Analysts in professional team sport regularly perform analysis to gain strategic and tactical insights into player and team behavior. Goals of team sport analysis regularly include identification of weaknesses of opposing teams, or assessing performance and improvement potential of a coached team. Current analysis workflows are typically based on the analysis of team videos. Also, analysts can rely on techniques from Information Visualization, to depict e.g., player or ball trajectories. However, video analysis is typically a time-consuming process, where the analyst needs to memorize and annotate scenes. In contrast, visualization typically relies on an abstract data model, often using abstract visual mappings, and is not directly linked to the observed movement context anymore. We propose a visual analytics system that tightly integrates team sport video recordings with abstract visualization of underlying trajectory data. We apply appropriate computer vision techniques to extract trajectory data from video input. Furthermore, we apply advanced trajectory and movement analysis techniques to derive relevant team sport analytic measures for region, event and player analysis in the case of soccer analysis. Our system seamlessly integrates video and visualization modalities, enabling analysts to draw on the advantages of both analysis forms. Several expert studies conducted with team sport analysts indicate the effectiveness of our integrated approach.
Marks, Saul; Mountjoy, Margo; Marcus, Madalyn
Sexual harassment and abuse occur in all sports and at all levels with an increased risk at the elite level. The physical and psychological consequences of sexual harassment and abuse are significant for the athlete, their team and for the health and integrity of sport in general. The sports medicine health professional has an integral role to play in the prevention of sexual harassment and abuse in sport. This paper provides sport healthcare professionals with a practical guide on prevention strategies and advice on the recognition and management of suspected abuse.
.... This report describes features of the Sports Medicine Research Team System (SMARTS) and reviews results of a SMARTS supported prospective study of male Marine Corps recruits undergoing basic training...
Ryom, Knud; Stelter, Reinhard
The experience and effect of team sport in a migrant culture Knud Ryom, Reinhard Stelter University of Copenhagen, Denmark Boys with migrant background have major difficulties to adjust and participate in the Danish school system and society (OECD,2010). This study aimed to investigate the possible...... effects of team sport as a social tool, used to develop social capability, identity and active citizenship in an area with major social challenges in Denmark. A team sport (football) was chosen because of positive results in social integration for individuals with a diverse cultural background...... (Hatzigeorgiadis et al,2013). The overall aim was to develop life-skills and social resilience by being part of a team sport. Furthermore, the goal was to enhance social capability and to increase the possibilities for acting actively and responsibly in one’s own life and in the local community...
Grehaigne, Jean-Francis; Caty, Didier; Godbout, Paul
Background: Sport Education and "Tactical decision learning model" (TDLM) are two curriculum models used by physical education teachers in France to help students in the development of a tactical intelligence of game play in the didactics of team sports. Purpose: Identify prototypic configurations of play in the sense that they represent…
Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.; Kompier, M.A.J.
This study examined: (a) whether athletes’ (N = 348) perceived autonomy support (i.e., showing interest in athletes’ input and praising autonomous behavior) differs across contexts (training vs. competition) and sport types (individual vs. team sports), and (b) whether the relationships between
Onal, Halil; Inan, Mehmet; Bozkurt, Sinan
The aim of this research is to examine the mathematical thinking skills of licensed athletes engaged in individual and team sports. The research is designed as a survey model. The sample of the research is composed of 59 female and 170 male licensed athletes (n = 229) and (aged 14 to 52) licensed who do the sports of shooting, billiards, archery,…
Lastella, Michele; Roach, Gregory D; Halson, Shona L; Sargent, Charli
Sleep is an essential component for athlete recovery due to its physiological and psychological restorative effects, yet few studies have explored the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the habitual sleep/wake behaviour of elite athletes, and to compare the differences in sleep between athletes from individual and team sports. A total of 124 (104 male, 20 female) elite athletes (mean ± s: age 22.2 ± 3.0 years) from five individual sports and four team sports participated in this study. Participants' sleep/wake behaviour was assessed using self-report sleep diaries and wrist activity monitors for a minimum of seven nights (range 7-28 nights) during a typical training phase. Mixed-effects analyses of variances were conducted to compare the differences in the sleep/wake behaviour of athletes from two sport types (i.e. individual and team). Overall, this sample of athletes went to bed at 22:59 ± 1.3, woke up at 07:15 ± 1.2 and obtained 6.8 ± 1.1 h of sleep per night. Athletes from individual sports went to bed earlier, woke up earlier and obtained less sleep (individual vs team; 6.5 vs 7.0 h) than athletes from team sports. These data indicate that athletes obtain well below the recommended 8 h of sleep per night, with shorter sleep durations existing among athletes from individual sports.
Full Text Available Given the importance of brand management of sport teams, the objective of this study was to investigate the impact of relationship marketing dimensions, including team attachment, team trust, team involvement, and team selfexpression on team loyalty of fans of sport teams participating in Iran Azadeghan Football League. Sample size of this study included 480 fans of football teams, and structural equation modeling was used for analysis of data using Lisrel software. The results confirmed all hypotheses, except one hypothesis. Therefore, there is significant relationship between team self-expression and team attachment among football sport teams in Azadeghan Football League of Iran. The results show the importance of paying attention to fans of sports teams and use of their high potential and capacity that sports teams brand managers must pay particular attention to this enormous capacity. Regarding sports teams, the impact of relationship marketing, particularly dimensions of self-expression and team involvement was investigated for the first time in Iran.
Pearson, D T; Naughton, G A; Torode, M
Entrepreneurial marketing of sport increases demands on sport development officers to identify talented individuals for specialist development at the youngest possible age. Talent identification results in the streamlining of resources to produce optimal returns from a sports investment. However, the process of talent identification for team sports is complex and success prediction is imperfect. The aim of this review is to describe existing practices in physiological tests used for talent identification in team sports and discuss the impact of maturity-related differences on the long term outcomes particularly for male participants. Maturation is a major confounding variable in talent identification during adolescence. A myriad of hormonal changes during puberty results in physical and physiological characteristics important for sporting performance. Significant changes during puberty make the prediction of adult performance difficult from adolescent data. Furthermore, for talent identification programs to succeed, valid and reliable testing procedures must be accepted and implemented in a range of performance-related categories. Limited success in scientifically based talent identification is evident in a range of team sports. Genetic advances challenge the ethics of talent identification in adolescent sport. However, the environment remains a significant component of success prediction in sport. Considerations for supporting talented young male athletes are discussed.
Johnson, Karen E; Kubik, Martha Y; McMorris, Barbara J
Alternative high school (AHS) students have low levels of physical activity (PA) and high rates of overweight/obesity. Sports team participation, a specific form of PA, is associated with increased PA and decreased overweight/obesity in general adolescent populations. However, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of sports team participation among AHS students. In 2006, students (n = 145; mean age = 17 years; 52% male; 61% minorities; 64% low-income) attending 6 AHS in Minneapolis/St. Paul completed self-administered surveys. Mixed model logistic regression was used to examine cross-sectional associations between sports team participation and school staff support for PA, friend support for PA, and perceived barriers to PA. Among students, 40% participated on ≥ 1 sports teams. Odds of participating on a sports team were positively associated with support for PA from school staff (OR = 1.12, P = .014) and friends (OR = 1.15, P = .005), but inversely associated with perceived barriers to PA (OR = 0.95, P = .014). Results suggest that efforts to increase sports team participation among AHS students should target social-environmental factors. Further study is warranted.
Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Munir, Fehmidah
A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n = 28 participants) or control (n = 20 participants) groups. The team sport sessions were underpinned by psychological behaviour change theory and consisted of weekly 1-h team sport sessions for 12 weeks. Measures of aerobic fitness, physical activity behaviour, group cohesion, interaction and communication, psychological wellbeing, health, anthropometrics and workplace experiences were recorded pre- and post-intervention. Data were analysed using a series of mixed ANOVAs. After 12 weeks significant improvements were observed in VO 2 max (+ 4.5 ± 5.8 ml/min kg, P intervention group. A significant (P intervention group. Participation in team sport may be an effective method to improve the aerobic fitness and physical activity behaviour of employees, and promote interpersonal communication between colleagues. Individual health outcomes and social interactions have the capacity to influence the health of the organisation. The extent of which these findings are replicable across a scope of organisations should be examined objectively over the long term.
Gray, Adrian J; Shorter, Kathleen; Cummins, Cloe; Murphy, Aron; Waldron, Mark
Quantifying the training and competition loads of players in contact team sports can be performed in a variety of ways, including kinematic, perceptual, heart rate or biochemical monitoring methods. Whilst these approaches provide data relevant for team sports practitioners and athletes, their application to a contact team sport setting can sometimes be challenging or illogical. Furthermore, these methods can generate large fragmented datasets, do not provide a single global measure of training load and cannot adequately quantify all key elements of performance in contact team sports. A previous attempt to address these limitations via the estimation of metabolic energy demand (global energy measurement) has been criticised for its inability to fully quantify the energetic costs of team sports, particularly during collisions. This is despite the seemingly unintentional misapplication of the model's principles to settings outside of its intended use. There are other hindrances to the application of such models, which are discussed herein, such as the data-handling procedures of Global Position System manufacturers and the unrealistic expectations of end users. Nevertheless, we propose an alternative energetic approach, based on Global Positioning System-derived data, to improve the assessment of mechanical load in contact team sports. We present a framework for the estimation of mechanical work performed during locomotor and contact events with the capacity to globally quantify the work done during training and matches.
Simon, Alan E; Uddin, Sayeedha F G
Sports team participation has myriad benefits for girls. We used the 1999-2015 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationally representative survey of US high school students, to examine time trends in sports team participation. Data from 2015 alone were examined for current differences in participation by sex, race/ethnicity, grade, and weight status. For both analyses, unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions, with team participation as the dependent variable, were used. In 2015, 53% of US high school girls participated in team sports. Participation was higher among non-Hispanic white (60.7%) compared to Hispanic (40.7%) and Asian (35.6%) girls, and girls with normal-weight status (58.1%) compared to overweight (50.0%) and obese (36.5%) girls ( P team participation is imperative.
Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Kidcaff, Andrew P; Berkelmans, Daniel M; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent J
Comparisons between reactive agility tests incorporating generic and sport-specific stimuli have been performed only in field-based team sports. The aim of this study was to compare generic (light-based) and sport-specific (live opponent) reactive agility tests in court-based team sport athletes. Twelve semi-professional male basketball players (age: 25.9±6.7 yr; stature: 188.9±7.9 cm; body mass: 97.4±16.1 kg; predicted maximal oxygen uptake: 49.5±5.3 mL/kg 7 min) completed multiple trials of a Reactive Agility Test containing light-based (RAT-Light) and opponent-based stimuli (RAT-Opponent). Multiple outcome measures were collected during the RAT-Light (agility time and total time) and RAT-Opponent (decision time and total time). Mean performance times during the RAT-Light (2.233±0.224 s) were significantly (Pagility time and RAT-Opponent decision time (r10=0.20), while a trivial relationship was apparent between total performance times across tests (r10=0.02). Low commonality was observed between comparable measures across tests (R2=0-4%). Reactive agility tests containing light-based and live opponent stimuli appear to measure different qualities in court-based team sport athletes. Court-based team sport coaches and conditioning professionals should not use generic and sport-specific reactive agility tests interchangeably during athlete assessments.
Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Meyer-Chilenski, Sarah; Spoth, Richard L; Redmond, Cleve
This research examines the early development of community teams in a specific university-community partnership project called PROSPER (Spoth et al., Prev Sci 5:31-39, 2004). PROSPER supports local community teams in rural areas and small towns to implement evidence-based programs intended to support positive youth development and reduce early substance use. The study evaluated 14 community teams and included longitudinal data from 108 team members. Specifically, it examined how community demographics and team member characteristics, perceptions, and attitudes at initial team formation were related to local team functioning 6 months later, when teams were planning for prevention program implementation. Findings indicate that community demographics (poverty), perceived community readiness, characteristics of local team members (previous collaborative experience) and attitudes toward prevention played a substantial role in predicting the quality of community team functioning 6 months later. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: The authors identify barriers to successful long-term implementation of prevention programs and add to a small, but important, longitudinal research knowledge base related to community coalitions.
This study investigates whether net inbound migration and per capita income growth of a municipality is affected when a local sports team enters or exits the premium national leagues in ice hockey or soccer in Sweden. Local governments frequently support a local professional team through direct subsidies; beneficial funding of arenas, etc., which often is motivated by alleged, positive externalities through effects on the attractiveness of the municipality as a leisure-travel destination, or ...
Czyż, Stanisław H; Szmajke, Andrzej; Kruger, Ankebé; Kübler, Magdalena
The effect known as Ringelmann effect states that as group size increases, individual behavior may be less productive. If this decrease in productivity in groups is attributed to a decrement in individual motivation, it is called social loafing. We tested hypotheses that the collectivism associated with participation in team sports would reduce the level of social loafing compared to people who were not involved in team sports. In one experiment, participants (n = 72; M age = 21.7 years, SD = 2.0) had to pull a rope individually and collectively. Groups of two, three, four, and six persons were formed from among individuals with no previous sports experience, and of those who had engaged in individual and team sports. For each team, the sum of individual achievements of the individuals constituting a team was computed. This sum served as the anticipated result (expected value). The expected values were later compared to the actual achievements, i.e., the value achieved by the whole team. The results of the study suggested that previous experience in collective (team) sports eliminated the effect of social loafing. © The Author(s) 2016.
Courtright, Stephen H; McCormick, Brian W; Mistry, Sal; Wang, Jiexin
Though prevalent in practice, team charters have only recently received scholarly attention. However, most of this work has been relatively devoid of theory, and consequently, key questions about why and under what conditions team charter quality affects team performance remain unanswered. To address these gaps, we draw on macro organizational control theory to propose that team charter quality serves as a team-level "behavior" control mechanism that builds task cohesion through a structured exercise. We then juxtapose team charter quality with an "input" team control mechanism that influences the emergence of task cohesion more organically: team conscientiousness. Given their redundant effects on task cohesion, we propose that the effects of team charter quality and team conscientiousness on team performance (through task cohesion) are substitutive such that team charter quality primarily impacts team performance for teams that are low (vs. high) on conscientiousness. We test and find support for our hypotheses in a sample of 239 undergraduate self-managing project teams. Our study contributes to the groups and teams literature in the following ways: first, relative to previous studies, we take a more theory-driven approach toward understanding team charters, and in doing so, uncover when and why team charter quality impacts team performance; second, we integrate two normally disparate perspectives on team effectiveness (team development and team selection) to offer a broader perspective on how teams are "built"; and third, we introduce team charter quality as a performance-enhancing mechanism for teams lower on conscientiousness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Täuber, Susanne; Sassenberg, Kai
The present research investigates the applicability of the Normative Conflict Model of Dissent (NCMD; Packer, 2008) in the context of team sports. The core assumption of the NCDM is that strongly identified group members adhere to group norms less (i.e., deviate more) when these norms are
Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.
The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…
McGurrin, Daniel Paul
The purpose of this study was to understand how shared norms are developed in the early phase of multicultural team (MCT) formation. The development of shared norms is recognized as critical to MCTs' contributions to organizations, and they are a result of the cognitive adjustment of the team members in recognition of their differences (Brandl…
Lahtero, Tapio Juhani; Kuusilehto-Awale, Lea
This article introduces a quantitative research into how the leadership team members of 49 basic education schools in the city of Vantaa, Finland, experienced the realisation of strategic leadership in their leadership teams' work. The data were collected by a survey of 24 statements, rated on a five-point Likert scale, and analysed with the…
Brinkley, Andrew; McDermott, Hilary; Munir, Fehmidah
Physical inactivity is proven to be a risk factor for non-communicable diseases and all-cost mortality. Public health policy recommends community settings worldwide such as the workplace to promote physical activity. Despite the growing prevalence of workplace team sports, studies have not synthesised their benefits within the workplace. A systematic review was carried out to identify articles related to workplace team sports, including intervention, observational and qualitative studies. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The findings suggest team sport holds benefits not only for individual health but also for group cohesion and performance and organisational benefits such as the increased work performance. However, it is unclear how sport is most associated with these benefits as most of the studies included poorly described samples and unclear sports activities. Our review highlights the need to explore and empirically understand the benefits of workplace team sport for individual, group and organisational health outcomes. Researches carried out in this field must provide details regarding their respective samples, the sports profile and utilise objective measures (e.g., sickness absence register data, accelerometer data).
Rodriguez, Hector P; Chen, Xiao; Martinez, Ana E; Friedberg, Mark W
Early experiences of patient-centered medical home implementation indicate that redesigning primary care is an intensive organizational change that is most effectively undertaken by high-functioning interdisciplinary teams. Team effectiveness research indicates that consistent availability of team members and other aspects of team structure can impact teamwork and organizational outcomes. We conducted a survey of 766 adult primary care providers and staff in 34 California safety net practices to assess primary care team structure (team size, team member availability, and access to interdisciplinary expertise), teamwork, and readiness for change. We used path models with robust standard errors for clustering of respondents within practices to examine relationships between team member availability and readiness for change. Using path analysis, we examined the extent to which better teamwork mediated relationships between team member availability and readiness for change. We received 628 completed surveys (response rate = 82%). Greater team member availability was associated with greater readiness for change, but the relationship was stronger for staff than for primary care providers. Contrary to our hypothesis, path analyses revealed that the relationship of team member availability and greater readiness for change was only partially mediated (21%) by better teamwork. The direct effect of teamwork on readiness for change is approximately 2.9 times larger than the direct effect of team member availability on greater readiness for change. Ensuring that members perceive that their teammates are routinely available to them may improve readiness for implementing organizational changes like adopting patient-centered medical home models. Given that better teamwork only partially explained the availability-readiness relationship, additional research to identify the mechanisms through which consistent team member availability increases change readiness could lend insight into
TSAP) and formative assessment of invasion sport. The specific objectives were to determine the degree of agreement among expert observers, inter-observer reliability (internal consistency), and intra observer reliability (temporal reliability).
Pittman, J; Turner, B; Gabbott, D A
Effective communication enhances team building and is perceived to improve the quality of team performance. A recent publication from the Resuscitation Council (UK) has highlighted this fact and recommended that cardiac arrest team members make contact daily. We wished to identify how often members of this team communicate prior to a cardiopulmonary arrest. A questionnaire on cardiac arrest team composition, leadership, communication and debriefing was distributed nationally to Resuscitation Training Officers (RTOs) and their responses analysed. One hundred and thirty (55%) RTOs replied. Physicians and anaesthetists were the most prominent members of the team. The Medical Senior House Officer is usually nominated as the team leader. Eighty-seven centres (67%) have no communication between team members prior to attending a cardiopulmonary arrest. In 33%, communication occurs but is either informal or fortuitous. The RTOs felt that communication is important to enhance team dynamics and optimise task allocation. Only 7% achieve a formal debrief following a cardiac arrest. Communication between members of the cardiac arrest team before and after a cardiac arrest is poor. Training and development of these skills may improve performance and should be prioritised. Team leadership does not necessarily reflect experience or training.
EPA personnel chair the NRT and cochair all Regional Response Teams (RRTs). They provide On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), scientific support coordinators for inland spills, and Remedial Project Managers for hazardous waste remedial actions under Superfund.
Emans, B J M; Van der Vegt, G S; Van de Vliert, E; Vartiainen, M; Avallone, F; Anderson, N
Two distinct, basic dimensions of a work team's internal structure are outcome interdependence and task interdependence. Task interdependence is a characteristic of team members' jobs. It is defined as their interconnectedness with jobs of co-members. Outcome interdependence is a characteristic of
Hubinette, Maria; Dobson, Sarah; Voyer, Stephane; Regehr, Glenn
Health advocacy, although recognised as a professional responsibility, is often seen as overwhelming, perhaps because it is framed conceptually as an activity that each physician should undertake alone rather than as a collaborative process. In the context of a study exploring how effective physician health advocates conceptualise their roles and their activities related to health advocacy, we uncovered data that speak directly of the issue of whether the activities of health advocates are enacted as individual or collective pursuits. We interviewed ten physicians, identified by others as effective health advocates, regarding their advocacy activities. We collected and analysed data in an iterative process, informed by constructivist grounded theory, continuously refining the interview framework and examining evolving themes. The final coding scheme was applied to all transcripts. Health advocacy was viewed by these physicians as a collective activity. This collective construction of advocacy presented in three ways: (i) as teamwork by interprofessional teams of individuals with clearly defined roles and functional, task-oriented goals; (ii) as a process involving networks of resources or people that can be accessed for both support and reinforcement, and (iii) as a process involving collaborative think-tanks in which members contribute different perspectives to enact collective problem solving at a conceptual level. Effective health advocates do not conceptualise themselves as stand-alone experts who must do everything themselves. Their collective approach makes it possible for these physicians to incorporate health advocacy into their clinical practice. However, although conceptualising health advocacy as a collective activity may make it less daunting, this way of understanding health advocacy is not compatible with current formal descriptions of the associated competencies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pollard, Richard; Gómez, Miguel A
Home advantage in seven American college team sports (baseball, basketball, football, hockey, lacrosse, soccer and women's basketball) was compared with professional leagues in the United States for the same sports and for the same time period. A total of 81,063 college games and 22,477 professional games were analyzed for the four seasons 2006-07 to 2009-10. There was a significant home advantage, as measured by home winning percentage, in all sports, both college and professional. The overall home advantage in college sports was significantly greater than in professional sports (preferee bias, territoriality and psychological factors. However, the influence of travel fatigue was inconclusive. Only for soccer was the home advantage greater for professionals. This was the only sport where crowd size appeared to be having an effect. In addition the rules of college soccer allow more substitution and hence greater coach intervention than in professional soccer, a factor that could also be reducing home advantage.
Martin, Graham P; Finn, Rachael
Current healthcare policy emphasises the need for more collaborative, team-based approaches to providing care, and for a greater voice for service users in the management and delivery of care. Increasingly, policy encourages 'partnerships' between users and professionals so that users, too, effectively become team members. In examining this phenomenon, this paper draws on insights from the organisational-sociological literature on team work, which highlights the challenges of bringing together diverse professional groups, but which has not, to date, been applied in contexts where users, too, are included in teams. Using data from a qualitative study of five pilot cancer-genetics projects, in which service users were included in teams responsible for managing and developing new services, it highlights the difficulties involved in making teams of such heterogeneous members-and the paradoxes that arise when this task is achieved. It reveals how the tension between integration and specialisation of team members, highlighted in the literature on teams in general, is especially acute for service users, the distinctiveness of whose contribution is more fragile, and open to blurring. © 2011 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2011 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Orchard, John; Hoskins, Wayne
To compare the most commonly used and proposed injury definitions for surveillance systems in team sports and attempt to assess their suitability for consensus definitions in terms of reliability and functionality. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched for papers on team sports that discussed consensus definitions or compared various definitions of injury. A continuum between the most broad "tissue damage" definition and the most narrow "match time loss only" definition was developed. A "match time loss only" injury definition can be reliably and accurately applied but only captures a small percentage of the total pool of all "tissue damage" injuries. There are some inherent biases in using a match time loss only definition (late season matches, matches with unequal breaks between games), but these are clearly visible. All other definitions improve the volume of data captured but suffer serious theoretical and/or practical flaws with respect to accuracy and reliability. No study using a broad definition has demonstrated good reliability to date (eg, using 2 independent recorders at the same team). A "match time loss only" injury definition is the most accurate and reliable of those commonly used in team sports. Other injury definitions are broader and may be more appropriate for individual team and specific injury studies. However, a match time loss definition is the most accurate and reliable tool for comparing injury rates at different teams and between different seasons within teams. Hence, we recommend this as the basis for the injury definition in a consensus statement.
Riendeau, Catherine; Parent-Houle, Valérie; Lebel-Gabriel, Marie Eve; Gauvin, Patrick; Liu, Le Yu; Pearson, Isabelle; Hunt, Matthew R
Qualitative study using interpretive description methodology. The purpose of this study was to better understand how ethical issues are experienced by university sports team athletic therapists and physical therapists. In clinical practice, sports teams are associated with a range of ethical issues. Issues commonly reported in the literature include confidentiality, return-to-play decisions, conflicts of interest, advertising, doping, and use of local anesthetic. To date, there has been limited examination of how athletic therapists and physical therapists involved with sports teams experience these ethical issues, and limited exploration of how these ethical issues, when encountered, are shaped by therapists' professional roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 athletic or physical therapists working with sports teams in 5 Canadian provinces. The data were analyzed inductively, using a recursive approach and constant comparative techniques. Four key themes were developed relating to the participants' experiences of ethical issues: establishing and maintaining professional boundaries, striving for respectful and effective collaboration, seeking answers to ethical concerns, and living with the repercussions of challenging decisions. While many ethical issues reported by participants resemble those faced by sports medicine physicians, they are experienced in distinctive ways, due to differences in professional roles and identities. Issues concerning professional boundaries were also more prominent for the study participants than the literature has reported them to be for sports medicine physicians. Effective communication and enhanced collaboration appear to be key elements in managing these ethical challenges.
Sherwin, Ian; Campbell, Mark J; Macintyre, Tadhg Eoghan
Coaches are central to the development of the expert performer and similarly to continued lifelong participation in sport. Coaches are uniquely positioned to deliver specific technical and tactical instruction and mentoring programmes that support the psychological and social development of athletes in a challenging, goal-oriented and motivational environment. The current study aimed to qualitatively investigate current coach learning sources and coaches' educational backgrounds in team sports in Ireland. Coaches from five team sports in Ireland were asked to complete an online questionnaire. Subsequently male coaches (n = 19) from five team sports who completed the questionnaire and met the inclusion criteria were invited to attend a follow-up semi-structured interview. Inclusion criteria for coaches were that they possess at least 10 years' experience coaching their sport and were coaching more than 4 hours per week. Formal coach education does not meet the needs of high performance coaches who rely more on self-directed learning and coaching experience as their main sources of CPD. Although prior playing experience at a high level is both valuable and desirable, there are concerns about fast-tracking of ex-players into high performance coaching roles. Preferred sources of education and the best learning environment for coaches of team sports in Ireland are more informal than formal. Further research is needed to examine how this learning is applied in a practical manner by examining coaching behaviours and the impact it has on the athlete development process.
Helfrich, Christian D; Simonetti, Joseph A; Clinton, Walter L; Wood, Gordon B; Taylor, Leslie; Schectman, Gordon; Stark, Richard; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Fihn, Stephan D; Nelson, Karin M
Work-related burnout is common in primary care and is associated with worse patient safety, patient satisfaction, and employee mental health. Workload, staffing stability, and team completeness may be drivers of burnout. However, few studies have assessed these associations at the team level, and fewer still include members of the team beyond physicians. To study the associations of burnout among primary care providers (PCPs), nurse care managers, clinical associates (MAs, LPNs), and administrative clerks with the staffing and workload on their teams. We conducted an individual-level cross-sectional analysis of survey and administrative data in 2014. Primary care personnel at VA clinics responding to a national survey. Burnout was measured with a validated single-item survey measure dichotomized to indicate the presence of burnout. The independent variables were survey measures of team staffing (having a fully staffed team, serving on multiple teams, and turnover on the team), and workload both from survey items (working extended hours), and administrative data (patient panel overcapacity and average panel comorbidity). There were 4610 respondents (estimated response rate of 20.9%). The overall prevalence of burnout was 41%. In adjusted analyses, the strongest associations with burnout were having a fully staffed team (odds ratio [OR] = 0.55, 95% CI 0.47-0.65), having turnover on the team (OR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.43-1.94), and having patient panel overcapacity (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.40). The observed burnout prevalence was 30.1% lower (28.5% vs. 58.6%) for respondents working on fully staffed teams with no turnover and caring for a panel within capacity, relative to respondents in the inverse condition. Complete team staffing, turnover among team members, and panel overcapacity had strong, cumulative associations with burnout. Further research is needed to understand whether improvements in these factors would lower burnout.
Full Text Available Dietary supplement (DS intake is high in elite level athletes, however few studies have investigated the impact that the performance level of the athletes has on supplementation intake in individual and team sports. The purpose of the study was to determine and compare the DS intake among individual and team sport athletes of various performance levels. A total of 2845 participants (athletes: 2783, controls: 62 between the ages of 11 and 44 years old participated in the study. A 3-page questionnaire was developed to assess the intake of DS. Athletes were categorized based on participation in individual (n = 775 and team sports (n = 2008. To assess the effect of performance level in supplementation intake, athletes were categorized based on training volume, participation in the national team, and winning at least one medal in provincial, national, international or Olympic games. Overall, 37% of all athletes of various performance levels reported taking at least one DS in the last month. A higher prevalence of DS intake was reported in individual (44% compared to team sport athletes (35% (p < 0.001. Athletes of high performance level reported greater DS intake compared to lower performance athletes. Males reported a significantly greater prevalence of DS intake compared to females. The most popular supplement reported was amino acid preparation with the main reason of supplementation being endurance improvements. In conclusion, performance level and type of sport appear to impact the DS practices of male and female athletes. These findings should be validated in other populations.
Scott, Macfarlane T U; Scott, Tannath J; Kelly, Vincent G
The use of global positioning systems (GPS) has increased dramatically over the last decade. Using signals from orbiting satellites, the GPS receiver calculates the exact position of the device and the speed at which the device is moving. Within team sports GPS devices are used to quantify the external load experienced by an athlete, allowing coaches to better manage trainings loads and potentially identify athletes who are overreaching or overtraining. This review aims to collate all studies that have tested either (or both) the validity or reliability of GPS devices in a team sport setting, with a particular focus on (a) measurements of distance, speed, velocities, and accelerations across all sampling rates and (b) accelerometers, player/body load and impacts in accelerometer-integrated GPS devices. A comprehensive search of the online libraries identified 22 articles that fit search criteria. The literature suggests that all GPS units, regardless of sampling rate, are capable of tracking athlete's distance during team sport movements with adequate intraunit reliability. One Hertz and 5Hz GPS units have limitations in their reporting of distance during high-intensity running, velocity measures, and short linear running (particularly those involving changes of direction), although these limitations seem to be overcome during measures recorded during team sport movements. Ten Hertz GPS devices seem the most valid and reliable to date across linear and team sport simulated running, overcoming many limitations of earlier models, whereas the increase to 15Hz GPS devices have had no additional benefit.
Honda, Yuki; Hochi, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki
The purpose of this study was to show that how the abolishment of company sports team influenced the organizational commitment in employees. In this study, Three-Component Model of Organizational Commitment (Meyer and Allen, 1997) was tested with 16 employees (10 males, 6 females) of T Company in NAGANO prefecture. The average age of the participants was 44, 50 years (SD=±0.85). And from 16 employees, 3 male employees were measured on organizational commitment with interview test. According to the analysis, the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team was not positive significant correlation. Furthermore, results of interview test did not show the relation between organizational commitment in employees and the abolishment of company sports team. However, results of interview test showed the relation with organizational commitment of players in T Company sports team. Consequently, the goal to possess a sports team in T Company was not to boost organizational commitment in employees. In addition, it is necessary to reconsider the correlation among employees engaged in T Company in the future.
Full Text Available As a practical and causal-comparative study, the present study was aimed at comparing the mental rotation performance in team and individual sports among students. The statistical population included all of the female and male athletes (N=1500 from different districts of Shiraz, Iran who participated in the sport clubs. The participants of this study included 240 students between 12-14 years old (120 girls and 120 boys who were selected randomly from four sport fields (Volleyball, Basketball, Karate, and Gymnastics. Finally, 30 athletes were selected from each field. The Mentrat Program, a kind of software for the Mental Rotation Test was used as an evaluation tool. Analyses of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures were conducted to analysis of data. The results indicated that the impact of the rotational angle was significant in both team and individual groups (p0.05. It was also observed that there was a significant difference between the mental rotation scores of the males in the individual groups contrary to the ones in the team groups (p<0.05. As a whole, it seems that as the rotational angle increases, the ability of the mental rotation in the individual fields of sport (males will be higher compared to the team groups. Keywords: Mental Rotation, Rotational Angle, Team and Individual Sports, Students
Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip
Although coaches and players recognise the importance of leaders within the team, research on athlete leadership is sparse. The present study expands knowledge of athlete leadership by extending the current leadership classification and exploring the importance of the team captain as formal leader of the team. An online survey was completed by 4,451 participants (31% females and 69% males) within nine different team sports in Flanders (Belgium). Players (N = 3,193) and coaches (N = 1,258) participated on all different levels in their sports. Results revealed that the proposed additional role of motivational leader was perceived as clearly distinct from the already established roles (task, social and external leader). Furthermore, almost half of the participants (44%) did not perceive their captain as the principal leader on any of the four roles. These findings underline the fact that the leadership qualities attributed to the captain as the team's formal leader are overrated. It can be concluded that leadership is spread throughout the team; informal leaders rather than the captain take the lead, both on and off the field.
Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P
With the evolving boundaries of sports science and greater understanding of the driving factors in the human performance physiology, one of the limiting factors has now become the technology. The growing scientific interest on the practical application of hypoxic training for intermittent activities such as team and racket sports legitimises the development of innovative technologies serving athletes in a sport-specific setting. Description of a new mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment. The system comprises two inflatable units-that is, a tunnel and a rectangular design, each with a 215 m(3) volume and a hypoxic trailer generating over 3000 Lpm of hypoxic air with FiO₂ between 0.21 and 0.10 (a simulated altitude up to 5100 m). The inflatable units offer a 45 m running lane (width=1.8 m and height=2.5 m) as well as a 8 m × 10 m dome tent. FiO₂ is stable within a range of 0.1% in normal conditions inside the tunnel. The air supplied is very dry-typically 10-15% relative humidity. This mobile inflatable simulated hypoxic equipment is a promising technological advance within sport sciences. It offers an opportunity for team-sport players to train under hypoxic conditions, both for repeating sprints (tunnel configuration) or small-side games (rectangular configuration).
Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda; O'Connor, Helen; West, Cameron
Use of Global positioning system (GPS) technology in team sport permits measurement of player position, velocity, and movement patterns. GPS provides scope for better understanding of the specific and positional physiological demands of team sport and can be used to design training programs that adequately prepare athletes for competition with the aim of optimizing on-field performance. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the depth and scope of reported GPS and microtechnology measures used within individual sports in order to present the contemporary and emerging themes of GPS application within team sports. A systematic review of the application of GPS technology in team sports was conducted. We systematically searched electronic databases from earliest record to June 2012. Permutations of key words included GPS; male and female; age 12-50 years; able-bodied; and recreational to elite competitive team sports. The 35 manuscripts meeting the eligibility criteria included 1,276 participants (age 11.2-31.5 years; 95 % males; 53.8 % elite adult athletes). The majority of manuscripts reported on GPS use in various football codes: Australian football league (AFL; n = 8), soccer (n = 7), rugby union (n = 6), and rugby league (n = 6), with limited representation in other team sports: cricket (n = 3), hockey (n = 3), lacrosse (n = 1), and netball (n = 1). Of the included manuscripts, 34 (97 %) detailed work rate patterns such as distance, relative distance, speed, and accelerations, with only five (14.3 %) reporting on impact variables. Activity profiles characterizing positional play and competitive levels were also described. Work rate patterns were typically categorized into six speed zones, ranging from 0 to 36.0 km·h⁻¹, with descriptors ranging from walking to sprinting used to identify the type of activity mainly performed in each zone. With the exception of cricket, no standardized speed zones or definitions were observed within or
Scott, Julia K; Leary, Sam D; Ness, Andy R; Sandy, Jonathan R; Persson, Martin; Kilpatrick, Nicky; Waylen, Andrea E
Cleft care provision in the United Kingdom has been centralized over the past 15 years to improve outcomes for children born with cleft lip and palate. However, to date, there have been no investigations to examine how well these multidisciplinary teams are performing. In this pilot study, a cross-sectional questionnaire surveyed members of all health care specialties working to provide cleft care in 11 services across the United Kingdom. Team members were asked to complete the Team Work Assessment (TWA) to investigate perceptions of team working in cleft services. The TWA comprises 55 items measuring seven constructs: team foundation, function, performance and skills, team climate and atmosphere, team leadership, and team identity; individual constructs were also aggregated to provide an overall TWA score. Items were measured using five-point Likert-type scales and were converted into percentage agreement for analysis. Responses were received from members of every cleft team. Ninety-nine of 138 cleft team questionnaires (71.7%) were returned and analyzed. The median (interquartile range) percentage of maximum possible score across teams was 75.5% (70.8, 88.2) for the sum of all items. Team performance and team identity were viewed most positively, with 82.0% (75.0, 88.2) and 88.4% (82.2, 91.4), respectively. Team foundation and leadership were viewed least positively with 79.0% (72.6, 84.6) and 76.6% (70.6, 85.4), respectively. Cleft team members perceive that their teams work well, but there are variations in response according to construct.
Kaufman, Jeffery David
Conflict is not an uncommon element of team interactions and processes; however, if unchecked it can cause issues in the ability of the team to achieve maximum performance. Research on task conflict and relationship conflict by de Wit, Greer, and Jehn (2012) found that while in many cases task conflict and relationship conflict within teams can…
Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz
Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no evidence that religiousness influences doping behavior among male team-sport athletes. Therefore, sport-specific and gender-specific approach in studying possible relationships that exist
Abe, Takafumi; Kamada, Masamitsu; Kitayuguchi, Jun; Okada, Shinpei; Mutoh, Yoshiteru; Uchio, Yuji
Musculoskeletal pain (MSP) is a commonly reported symptom in youth sports players. Some sports-related risk factors have been reported, but previous studies on extrinsic risk factors did not focus on management of team members (e.g., regular or non-regular players, number of players) for reducing sports-related MSP. This study aimed to examine the association of playing status (regular or non-regular players) and team status (fewer or more teammates) with MSP in youth team sports. A total of 632 team sports players (age: 12-18 years) in public schools in Unnan, Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire to determine MSP (overall, upper limbs, lower back, and lower limbs) and playing status (regular or non-regular players). Team status was calculated as follows: teammate quantity index (TQI) = [number of teammates in their grade]/[required number of players for the sport]. Associations between the prevalence of pain and joint categories of playing and team status were examined by multivariable-adjusted Poisson regression. A total of 272 (44.3%) participants had MSP at least several times a week in at least one part of the body. When divided by playing or team status, 140 (47.0%) regular and 130 (41.7%) non-regular players had MSP, whereas 142 (47.0%) players with fewer teammates (lower TQI) and 127 (41.8%) players with more teammates (higher TQI) had MSP. When analyzed jointly, regular players with fewer teammates had a higher prevalence of lower back pain compared with non-regular players with more teammates (21.3% vs 8.3%; prevalence ratio = 2.08 [95% confidence interval 1.07-4.02]). The prevalence of MSP was highest in regular players with fewer teammates for all other pain outcomes, but this was not significant. Regular players with fewer teammates have a higher risk of lower back pain. Future longitudinal investigations are required.
Rovira-Asenjo, Núria; Gumí, Tània; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Guimerà, Roger
Despite the well-documented benefits of working in teams, teamwork also results in communication, coordination and management costs, and may lead to personal conflict between team members. In a context where teams play an increasingly important role, it is of major importance to understand conflict and to develop diagnostic tools to avert it. Here, we investigate empirically whether it is possible to quantitatively predict future conflict in small teams using parameter-free models of social network structure. We analyze data of conflict appearance and resolution between 86 team members in 16 small teams, all working in a real project for nine consecutive months. We find that group-based models of complex networks successfully anticipate conflict in small teams whereas micro-based models of structural balance, which have been traditionally used to model conflict, do not.
Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O
Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.
van Veelen, Ruth; Otten, Sabine; Hansen, Nina
Majority members often react negatively to efforts to stimulate diversity. An important reason for this is that in diverse groups, majority members’ own group bond is typically based on perceived prototypicality, which serves to disregard those who are different. In the present research we
Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200–2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform con...
Sabiston, Catherine M; Jewett, Rachel; Ashdown-Franks, Garcia; Belanger, Mathieu; Brunet, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal and unique association between number of years of team sport and individual sport participation during adolescence and depressive symptoms during early adulthood. Adolescents (n = 860) reported team sport and individual sport participation in each year of secondary school for five years. Participants reported depressive symptoms using the Major Depression Inventory three years after secondary school. Multivariate linear regression was performed to model the associations of sport participation with depressive symptoms while controlling for sex, age, parent education, and baseline depressive symptoms. In the final model, adolescents who consistently participated in team sport during high school reported lower depression scores in early adulthood (β = -.09, p = .02). Number of years of individual sport participation was not statistically significantly associated with depressive symptoms in early adulthood. Based on these findings, team sport participation may protect against depressive symptoms in early adulthood. If this finding is replicated, strategies should be implemented to encourage and maintain team sport participation during adolescence. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms that link team sport participation to lower depression.
In professional rugby, competitions such as the Super Rugby and Currie Cup benefit from the lucrative money-generating opportunities offered. This study focuses on team performance and spectator attendance of the Super Rugby and Currie Cup competitions. Results indicated some interesting relationships between ...
Osamah M. Alfayez
The results suggest that involvement of pharmacists in direct patient care as members of interprofessional team in our specialty ambulatory care clinic is associated with a positive impact on the glycemic control in patients with diabetes.
Wann, Daniel L; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship between team identification and well-being, earlier studies focused solely on college student populations. The current study extended past work in this area by investigating the team identification/well-being relationship among older sport fans. A sample of older adults (N = 96; M age = 70.82) completed scales assessing demographics, identification with a local college basketball team, and measures of social psychological well-being. As hypothesized, team identification accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in two measures of social psychological health (collective self-esteem and loneliness).
The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between perceived motivational climate and target orientations of team and individual athletes who participate in sports at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of faculties. A total of 200 athletes (students at the Physical Education and Sports Departments of Gazi University, Selçuk…
Spaaij, R.; Anderson, A.
The article examines the socialization of children into identification with a sports team. It presents a sociological approach which extends the insights obtained from research into psychological aspects of sports team identification. A conceptual model is presented which proffers an explanation of
Zhang, Zhen; Peterson, Suzanne J
This article examines the team-level factors promoting advice exchange networks in teams. Drawing upon theory and research on transformational leadership, team diversity, and social networks, we hypothesized that transformational leadership positively influences advice network density in teams and that advice network density serves as a mediating mechanism linking transformational leadership to team performance. We further hypothesized a 3-way interaction in which members' mean core self-evaluation (CSE) and diversity in CSE jointly moderate the transformational leadership-advice network density relationship, such that the relationship is positive and stronger for teams with low diversity in CSE and high mean CSE. In addition, we expected that advice network centralization attenuates the positive influence of network density on team performance. Results based on multisource data from 79 business unit management teams showed support for these hypotheses. The results highlight the pivotal role played by transformational leadership and team members' CSEs in enhancing team social networks and, ultimately, team effectiveness. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available The article presents results of the qualitative research on competence of project team members in the conditions of remote working. These competences were considered in relation to different roles, which the members of such a team accept. The reference point to studied roles was the concept of Hansen and Allen authorships, and with regard to competence, the author's synthesis of deliberations above their models described in the literature.
This study aimed to reveal the organisational commitment levels of faculty members to teaching at higher education institutions in Turkey. To be able to obtain participants' views, the organisational commitment scale developed by Allen and Meyer in 1990 was used and data was analysed by means of the SPSS 17.0 ...
Rodriguez-Valero, Natalia; Borobia, Alberto M; Lago, Mar; Sánchez-Seco, Maria Paz; de Ory, Fernando; Vázquez, Ana; Pérez-Arellano, Jose Luis; Rodríguez, Cristina Carranza; Martínez, Miguel J; Capón, Alicia; Cañas, Elias; Salas-Coronas, Joaquin; Galparsoro, Arkaitz Azcune; Muñoz, Jose
We evaluated the risk for the Spanish Olympic Team acquiring Zika virus in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during 2016. We recruited 117 team members, and all tested negative for Zika virus. Lack of cases in this cohort supports the minimum risk estimates made before the Games.
Stenling, Andreas; Hassmén, Peter; Holmström, Stefan
People's implicit beliefs of ability have been suggested as an antecedent of achievement goal adoption, which has in turn been associated with behavioural, cognitive and affective outcomes. This study examined a conditional process model with team sport athletes' approach-avoidance achievement goals as mediators between their implicit beliefs of sport ability and sport-related cognitive anxiety. We expected gender to moderate the paths from implicit beliefs of ability to approach-avoidance goals and from approach-avoidance goals to cognitive anxiety. Team sport athletes with a mean age of 20 years (163 females and 152 males) responded to questionnaires about their implicit beliefs of sport ability, approach-avoidance goals and sport-related cognitive anxiety. Incremental beliefs, gender and the interaction between them predicted mastery-approach goals. Gender also predicted mastery-avoidance goals, with females reporting higher levels than males. Mastery-avoidance goals, gender and the interaction between them predicted cognitive anxiety, with females reporting higher levels of anxiety than males. Entity beliefs positively predicted performance-avoidance goals and the interaction between performance-approach and gender predicted anxiety. The indirect effects also showed gender differences in relation to performance-approach goals. Taken together, our results suggest that coaches trying to create a facilitating climate for their male and female athletes may be wise to consider their athletes' anxiety and achievement goal patterns as these may affect both the athletes' well-being and performance.
Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Systematic review. PubMed and Web of Science. This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies was used to evaluate quality. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: (1) original research evaluated players' physical recovery postmatch; (2) team/intermittent sports; and (3) at least two postmeasurements were compared with baseline values. Twenty-eight studies were eligible. Mean methodological quality was 11.2±1.11. Most used performance tests and biochemical markers were the countermovement jump test, sprint tests and creatine kinase (CK), cortisol (C) and testosterone (T), respectively. The current evidence demonstrates that underlying mechanisms of muscle recovery are still in progress while performance recovery is already reached. CK recovery time courses are up to ≥72 hours. Soccer and rugby players need more time to recover for sprint performance, CK and C in comparison to other team ball sports. There are more high-quality studies needed regarding recovery in various team sports and recovery strategies on an individual level should be evaluated. Ongoing insufficient recovery can be prevented by the use of the presented recovery time courses as specific practical recovery guidelines.
Otrebski, Wojciech; Rutkowska, Katarzyna
Study aim: To determine the need of female junior volleyball players to collaborate with a psychologist, considering previous sport career of those players. Material and methods: A group of 78 female volleyball players aged 14-17 years from 7 top Polish junior teams participated in the study. They were requested to fill questionnaires on their…
Doeven, Steven H; Brink, Michel S; Kosse, Silke J; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Background: Insufficient postmatch recovery in elite players may cause an increased risk of injuries, illnesses and non-functional over-reaching. Objective: To evaluate postmatch recovery time courses of physical performance and biochemical markers in team ball sport players. Study design:
This article examines the ascendance of team sports as tools of "character building" in British Victorian public schools in the second half of the nineteenth century. The focus of this enquiry is the commonly overlooked pedagogical innovation underlying this process--the utilisation of "organised games" as educational tools.…
The background of the article is the recurrent discussion about allocation of playing time in team sports involving children and young athletes. The objective is to analyse "why" playing time is a topic for discussion among parents, coaches and athletes. The following question is addressed: Under which condition is it "fair" to…
Donoso-Morales, Daniela; Bloom, Gordon A.; Caron, Jeffrey G.
Purpose: Winning several national championships is an extraordinary feat that very few university coaches have accomplished. The objective of this study was to investigate how some of Canada's most accomplished university team-sport coaches created and sustained a culture of excellence in their programs. Method: Six university coaches who had won…
Anne Benjaminse; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; J.M. Dallinga
Abstract BACKGROUND: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these
Ingram, Jeremy; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel; Wallman, Karen; Beilby, John
This study aimed to compare the efficacy of hot/cold contrast water immersion (CWI), cold-water immersion (COLD) and no recovery treatment (control) as post-exercise recovery methods following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise. Repeated sprint ability, strength, muscle soreness and inflammatory markers were measured across the 48-h post-exercise period. Eleven male team-sport athletes completed three 3-day testing trials, each separated by 2 weeks. On day 1, baseline measures of performance (10 m x 20 m sprints and isometric strength of quadriceps, hamstrings and hip flexors) were recorded. Participants then performed 80 min of simulated team sports exercise followed by a 20-m shuttle run test to exhaustion. Upon completion of the exercise, and 24h later, participants performed one of the post-exercise recovery procedures for 15 min. At 48 h post-exercise, the performance tests were repeated. Blood samples and muscle soreness ratings were taken before and immediately after post-exercise, and at 24h and 48 h post-exercise. In comparison to the control and CWI treatments, COLD resulted in significantly lower (pbenefit of CWI over control was a significant reduction in muscle soreness 24h post-exercise. This study demonstrated that COLD following exhaustive simulated team sports exercise offers greater recovery benefits than CWI or control treatments.
Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is
Pedersen, Sara; Seidman, Edward
In this study we investigate the contribution of achievement in team sports to adolescent girls' self-esteem development. Adolescent girls (N = 247) from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds were surveyed as part of a larger study investigating the development of poor urban youth. Participants responded to items tapping global self-esteem,…
van der Does, H. T. D.; Brink, M. S.; Benjaminse, A.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing
Taub, Diane E.; Blinde, Elaine M.
Comparison of high school female athletes (n=100) and nonathletes (N=112) revealed that athletes were more likely than nonathletes to possess certain behavioral and psychological correlates of eating disorders. There were few differences among various sport teams. Gender-role orientation was generally not critically variable. (Author/NB)
Ryom, Knud Eske; Wikman, Johan Michael; Stelter, Reinhard
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study ...... and more supportive social environment, as the result of their participation. Implications of the presented results are discussed, as well as strategies for working with team sport and coaching in a school setting in deprived areas or beyond.......The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and experience of a team sport and coaching intervention upon self-concept in a sample of male school students with primarily migrant background. A convergent parallel mixed method design was used to compare and relate a questionnaire study...... (SDQ-II & YSEQ) and an interview study in a quasi-experimental design. A two-year intervention period was conducted with students in 7th, 8th and 9th grade. The interventions were a two-stringed effort with team sport and group coaching introduced to the participants. Quantitative results showed...
Seznec, J-C; Lépine, J-P; Pélissolo, A
The high-standard sport practice requires an optimum functioning level of the individual in all its physiological systems as a whole. If the physical program training progressed much these last years, the techniques of mental preparations are still very heterogeneous and are not based on any validated procedures, based only on individual practices. Nevertheless, the majority of athletes and trainers stress the major importance of "mental" in the realization of performances. One of the obstacles in the mental training of the athletes is the difficulty in finding tools making it possible to evaluate and measure the psychic state of the individual and its mode of coping and adjustment, apart from any psychopathology. Few studies have been carried out on applicability of the personality questionnaires derived from the current dimensional models in these populations. Our study aimed to describe the personality of the members of the french junior team of road cycling, using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) developed by Cloninger to explore the seven dimensions of his psychobiologic model of personality. In this model, four dimensions are temperament factors, and three are character factors. The three main dimensions of temperament are Novelty Seeking (NS), ie the tendency towards excitement in response to novel or rewarding stimuli, Harm Avoidance (HA) hypothesized to represent the tendency to respond intensely to signals of adverse stimuli, and Reward Dependence reflecting the tendency to respond intensely to signals of reward and to maintain behavior previously associated with reward. These personality traits are hypothetically related to underlying neurotransmitter systems (especially NS to dopaminergic function and HA to serotonergic function). The two main dimensions of character are Self-Directedness (SD) and Cooperativeness (C), measuring maturity traits respectively concerning individual and social adaptation. In this study, we used a computerized
Schneider, Benjamin; Chevallier, Christine; Dominguez, Alejandro; Bruguier, Christine; Elandoy, Cristèle; Mangin, Patrice; Grabherr, Silke
Multidetector computed tomography is becoming more widespread in forensic medicine. In most services, autopsy assistants perform the radiological examination. We introduced professional radiographers into the legal medicine service and hypothesized they would also be able to take over duties currently reserved for other specialists. The aims of this study were to evaluate if radiographers could be trained as "forensic radiographers" by (1) integrating graduated medical radiographers into the legal medicine service, (2) investigating the advantages of this collaboration, and (3) defining the duties of the forensic radiographers.The study was performed prospectively on a group of 8 recruited radiographers who underwent a testing period with special training. They learned the basics of medicolegal case treatment, the autonomous execution of postmortem computed tomography angiography, and postprocessing of data. Seven of 8 radiographers finished the training and were integrated into our service. Although all radiographers were able to fulfill the duties demanded after the training period, some radiographers could not enter or complete the program because they were unable to work with dead bodies.Our study presents the advantages of integrating radiographers into the medicolegal team and proposes how to train the forensic radiographers. In addition, the duties and responsibilities of these new specialists are defined.
Waldron, Mark; Highton, Jamie
With the advancements in player tracking technology, the topic of fatigue and pacing in team sport has become increasingly popular in recent years. Initially based upon a pre-conceived pacing schema, a central metabolic control system is proposed to guide the movement of players during team sport matches, which can be consciously modified based on afferent signals from the various physiological systems and in response to environmental cues. On the basis of this theory, coupled with the collective findings from motion-analysis research, we sought to define the different pacing strategies employed by team sport players. Whole-match players adopt a 'slow-positive' pacing profile (gradual decline in total running intensity), which appears to be global across the different team sports. High-intensity movement also declines in a 'slow-positive' manner across most team sport matches. The duration of the exercise bout appears to be important for the selected exercise intensity, with the first introduction to a match as a substitute or interchange player resulting in a 'one bout, all out' strategy. In a limited interchange environment, a second introduction to the match results in a 'second-bout reserve' strategy; otherwise, the 'one bout, all out' strategy is likely to be adopted. These pacing profiles are proposed to reflect the presence of a central regulator that controls the movement intensity of the player to optimize performance, as well as avoiding the harmful failure of any physiological system. The presence of 'temporary fatigue' reflects this process, whereby exercise intensity is consciously modulated from within the framework of a global pacing schema.
Full Text Available This article contends that a new research avenue is open to comparative economics which is the economic comparison between American (closed and European (open professional team sports leagues. It starts with sketching the major institutional differences between the two leagues systems. Then it surveys the American modelling of competitive balance in these sports leagues that objects pro-competitive balance regulation as being non Walrasian when (American teams are profit maximising. A next step is to cover how the Walrasian model has been adapted to European open leagues and their regulation of win maximising clubs under a hard budget constraint. Such approach has recently been outdated by models where win maximising clubs operate with a flexible supply of talent in a non cooperative game, given the globalization of the labour market for sporting talent (namely after the Bosman case. Finally, the article ploughs into a new research path advocating for a disequilibrium model where clubs would have a "soft" budget constraint rooted in their weak governance, and empirically tests a vicious circle between TV rights revenues and wages in French football that may explain the aforementioned disequilibrium.
Losing a valued member of your staff can be disruptive, painful, and costly to your medical practice. And despite your best intentions and impeccable employee management policies and skills, things will happen beyond your control, and people move on. Being prepared for that possibility will help you minimize and contain the damage and move your practice forward. This article suggests 15 strategies that you can use to mitigate the effects of losing a valued employee. These include strategies to protect your practice's interests and several that will smooth the transition for your remaining staff. This article also describes 10 ways that losing a valued employee can impact a practice. It offers 10 additional strategies to help you cope with the death of an employee, one of the most difficult challenges a practice manager may ever face. This article further suggests several easy-to-implement practice management techniques that will help you soften the blow of employee turnover. It offers a sample farewell letter to announce an employee's departure from your practice and suggests six knowledge transfer questions to ask before the employee leaves. Finally, this article provides a comprehensive list of more than 30 thoughtful, eye-opening, and revealing questions that you can ask in an employee exit interview or exit survey.
Houghton, Laurence A; Dawson, Brian; Maloney, Shane K
Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal match-day attire alone (NORM) on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity. Ten match-fit field hockey players twice performed 4x15min exercise bouts consisting of repeated cycles of intermittent, varied-intensity 20m shuttle running (Loughborough intermittent shuttle test), once in COMP and once in NORM. Testing was conducted in an indoor gymnasium (ambient conditions: approximately 17 degrees C, approximately 60% relative humidity). Participants acted as their own controls. Heart rate (HR), 15m sprint time, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration, sweat rate and body core temperature (T(core)) were similar between trials (p>0.05). Mean skin temperature (T(skin)) was significantly higher in COMP than NORM (pteam sport exercise in temperate ambient conditions had no thermoregulatory benefits nor any detrimental effects on T(core), physiological performance or dehydration. However, the higher T(skin) may affect individual preference for wearing CGs as an undergarment during team sports.
Slimani, Maamer; Chamari, Karim; Miarka, Bianca; Del Vecchio, Fabricio B; Chéour, Foued
Plyometric training (PT) is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training). Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks) improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only) performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.
Abidin, Mohammad Zukuwwan Zainol; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Kasim, Maznah Mat
This paper proposes a suitable research procedure that can be referred to while conducting a Decision Support System (DSS) study, especially when the development activity of system artifacts becomes one of the research objectives. The design of the research procedure was based on the completion of a football DSS development that can help in determining the position of a player and the best team formation to be used during a game. After studying the relevant literature, we found that it is necessary to combine the conventional rainfall System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) approach with Case Study approach to help in structuring the research task and phases, which can contribute to the fulfillment of the research aim and objectives.
Vilar, Luís; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Button, Chris
Performance analysis is a subdiscipline of sports sciences and one-approach, notational analysis, has been used to objectively audit and describe behaviours of performers during different subphases of play, providing additional information for practitioners to improve future sports performance. Recent criticisms of these methods have suggested the need for a sound theoretical rationale to explain performance behaviours, not just describe them. The aim of this article was to show how ecological dynamics provides a valid theoretical explanation of performance in team sports by explaining the formation of successful and unsuccessful patterns of play, based on symmetry-breaking processes emerging from functional interactions between players and the performance environment. We offer the view that ecological dynamics is an upgrade to more operational methods of performance analysis that merely document statistics of competitive performance. In support of our arguments, we refer to exemplar data on competitive performance in team sports that have revealed functional interpersonal interactions between attackers and defenders, based on variations in the spatial positioning of performers relative to each other in critical performance areas, such as the scoring zones. Implications of this perspective are also considered for practice task design and sport development programmes.
Runhaar, Piety; Ten Brinke, Diana; Kuijpers, Marinka; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin
Teams are increasingly regarded as the building blocks of organizations, for teams of employees are better able to deal with complex problems and ever-changing demands than individual employees. The effectiveness of teams depends, to a large extent, on team members learning together and developing a
Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen
Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p sports (β = 0.27; p sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to depressive symptoms among elite athletes. Additionally, attribution after failure seems to play an important role in this regard and could be considered in further research and practitioners in the field of sport psychology. PMID:27378988
Aitken, Peter; Leggat, Peter; Harley, Hazel; Speare, Richard; Leclercq, Muriel
Background It is likely that calls for disaster medical assistance teams (DMATs) continue in response to international disasters. As part of a national survey, the present study was designed to evaluate the Australian DMAT experience and the need for logistic support. Methods Data were collected via an anonymous mailed survey distributed via State and Territory representatives on the Australian Health Protection Committee, who identified team members associated with Australian DMAT deployments from the 2004 Asian Tsunami disaster. Results The response rate for this survey was 50% (59/118). Most of the personnel had deployed to the South East Asian Tsunami affected areas. The DMAT members had significant clinical and international experience. There was unanimous support for dedicated logistic support with 80% (47/59) strongly agreeing. Only one respondent (2%) disagreed with teams being self sufficient for a minimum of 72 hours. Most felt that transport around the site was not a problem (59%; 35/59), however, 34% (20/59) felt that transport to the site itself was problematic. Only 37% (22/59) felt that pre-deployment information was accurate. Communication with local health providers and other agencies was felt to be adequate by 53% (31/59) and 47% (28/59) respectively, while only 28% (17/59) felt that documentation methods were easy to use and reliable. Less than half (47%; 28/59) felt that equipment could be moved easily between areas by team members and 37% (22/59) that packaging enabled materials to be found easily. The maximum safe container weight was felt to be between 20 and 40 kg by 58% (34/59). Conclusions This study emphasises the importance of dedicated logistic support for DMAT and the need for teams to be self sufficient for a minimum period of 72 hours. There is a need for accurate pre deployment information to guide resource prioritisation with clearly labelled pre packaging to assist access on site. Container weights should be restricted to between
Teamwork - a feature of modern leadership, lead to performance if the team members are sharing the same vision, understanding the objectives of the organization, communicating, cooperating and helping each other, living and acting after the same principles, norms and values. Team gains more and more a decisive role for the success of the organization and even if the leader is strong and well-intentioned, its results are the effect of all those people that make up the community. Only by highli...
Lockhart, Barbara Day; Black, Nate; Vincent, William J
The Worth Index was administered to 176 Division I athletes who were competing in team and individual sports at Brigham Young University. The purpose of the study was to measure and compare their perceptions of worth and self-esteem. The Worth Index is a valid tool measuring whether an individual believes worth and self-esteem are earned by way of performance (conditional) or are inherent (unconditional). The Worth Index measures perceptions of basic human worth and worth as related to personal security, performance, and the physical self. The four subscales represent these four categories. There were no significant differences between the perceptions of athletes in team and individual sports on any of the subscales of the Worth Index. However, on each subscale, all participants combined rated themselves significantly higher on unconditional worth than conditional worth.
Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals toward different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.
Full Text Available An evolutionary psycho-biological perspective on competitiveness dynamics is presented, focusing on continuous behavioral co-adaptations to constraints that arise in performance environments. We suggest that an athlete's behavioral dynamics are constrained by circumstances of competing for the availability of resources, which once obtained offer possibilities for performance success. This defines the influence of the athlete-environment relationship on competitiveness. Constraining factors in performance include proximity to target areas in team sports and the number of other competitors in a location. By pushing the athlete beyond existing limits, competitiveness enhances opportunities for co-adaptation, innovation and creativity, which can lead individuals towards different performance solutions to achieve the same performance goal. Underpinned by an ecological dynamics framework we examine whether competitiveness is a crucial feature to succeed in team sports. Our focus is on intra-team competitiveness, concerning the capacity of individuals within a team to become perceptually attuned to affordances in a given performance context which can increase their likelihood of success. This conceptualization implies a re-consideration of the concept of competitiveness, not as an inherited trait or entity to be acquired, but rather theorizing it as a functional performer-environment relationship that needs to be explored, developed, enhanced and maintained in team games training programs.
Full Text Available Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participation in workplace team sport.Twenty-nine semi-structured face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted with office workers (58% female (36 ± 7.71 from manufacturing, public services, and educational services. Data was analysed through template analysis.Five sub-level (i.e., intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and societal influences facilitate participation or create obstacles for participants. Participants were challenged by a lack of competence, self-efficacy, negative sporting ideals and amotivation. Unhealthy competition, an unstable work-life balance and unsupportive colleagues created obstacles to participation. An unsupportive organisation and workplace culture placed demands on workplace champions, funding, facilities and communication. Healthy competitions, high perceptions of competence and self-efficacy, and being motivated autonomously enabled participation. Further, relatedness and social support created a physical activity culture where flexible working was encouraged and team sport was promoted in accessible locations within the organisation. Researchers should consider accounting for complexity of these influences. A participatory approach may tailor interventions to individual organisations and the employees that work within them. Interventions whereby autonomy, competence and relatedness are supported are recommended. This may be achieved by adapting sports and training workplace champions.
Kim, Se Young; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Byungsoo; Lee, Eunpyo
The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between nurses' self-leadership and individual work role performance and correlations between self-leadership in nursing units and team members' work role performance. Participants were 202 conveniently selected general nurses from 5 general hospitals in Korea. The study was carried out on 35 nursing units. Data were collected during February 2015 with self-report questionnaires. For factors affecting individual work role performance, self-expectation, self-goal setting, constructive thought, clinical career in the present nursing unit and marital status accounted for 44.0% of proficiency, while self-expectation, self-goal setting, constructive thought, and marital status accounted for 42.3% of adaptivity. Self-expectation, self-goal setting, constructive thought, self-reward, clinical career in the present nursing unit and position accounted for 26.4% of proactivity. In terms of team members' work role performance, self-reward and self-expectation in nursing units explained 29.0% of team members' proficiency. Self-reward and self-expectation in nursing units explained 31.6% of team members' adaptivity, and self-reward in nursing units explained 16.8% of team members' proactivity. The results confirm that nurses' self-leadership affects not only individual self-leadership but also team members' work role performance. Accordingly, to improve nurses' work role performance in nursing units of nursing organizations, improvement in nursing environment based on self-leadership education is necessary and nurses' tasks rearranged so they can appreciate work-autonomy and challenges of work.
Hayes, Rebecca M; Wickline, Afton; Hensley, Christina; Cowen, Kelsey; Jessie, Ashley; Akers, Melanie; Dolan, Jenna; Pritt, Audra; Goodrich, Shea; O'Neill, Kelly; Flesher, Susan L
Previous studies have shown that inpatients and families in academic settings have a limited ability to recall either their medical team members or the roles of those members. This is an important issue for patient and family satisfaction as well as patient safety. The objective of this study was to increase families' recognition of medical team members' roles. We established a multidisciplinary quality improvement leadership team, measured family recognition of medical team members and their roles, and conducted 2 PDSA (Plan-Do-Study-Act) cycles. The first intervention was standardization of the content and delivery of our verbal team introductions to ensure inclusion of essential elements and family engagement. The second intervention was addition of an informational white board in each patient room. The prospective study included 105 families in the preintervention phase, 103 post-PDSA cycle 1, and 92 post-PDSA cycle 2. After conduction of 2 PDSA cycles, the recognition of the attending role increased from 49% to 87% (P = .000), the resident role from 39% to 73% (P = .000), and the medical student from 75% to 89% (P = .038). The multidisciplinary quality improvement model was effective in improving family recognition of the roles of attending physicians, resident physicians, and medical students. Consistent attention to engaging the families and explaining our roles as well as providing informational white boards are effective interventions to facilitate this process. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.
This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…
Nur ÇAĞLAYAN; Yılmaz UÇAN
The purpose of the study was to determine whether there is any difference between self esteem scores of individuals who engaged in individual & team sports and non-athletes. Furthermore, self-esteem scores associated with age group, gender and years of playing experience variables were examined to determine the differences. Focus group consists of 304 athletes & nonathletes of 13–20 years old individuals living in Ankara, Istanbul and Sakarya. Rosenberg's self-esteem scale was used to measure...
Andrew Brinkley; Josie Freeman; Hilary McDermott; Fehmidah Munir
Working age adults are failing to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactive behaviours are increasing costs for diminished individual and organisational health. The workplace is a priority setting to promote physical activity, however there is a lack of evidence about why some employees choose to participate in novel workplace activities, such as team sport, whilst others do not. The aim of this study was to explore the complexity of facilitators and obstacles associated with participa...
Santos, Sara D. L.; Memmert, Daniel; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno
Developing creativity in team sports players is becoming an increasing focus in sports sciences. The Creativity Developmental Framework is presented to provide an updated science based background. This Framework describes five incremental creative stages (beginner, explorer, illuminati, creator, and rise) and combines them into multidisciplinary approaches embodied in creative assumptions. In the first training stages, the emphasis is placed on the enrollment in diversification, deliberate play and physical literacy approaches grounded in nonlinear pedagogies. These approaches allow more freedom to discover different movement patterns increasing the likelihood of emerging novel, adaptive and functional solutions. In the later stages, the progressive specialization in sports and the differential learning commitment are extremely important to push the limits of the creative progress at higher levels of performance by increasing the range of skills configurations. Notwithstanding, during all developmental stages the teaching games for understanding, a game-centered approach, linked with the constraints-led approach play an important role to boost the tactical creative behavior. Both perspectives might encourage players to explore all actions possibilities (improving divergent thinking) and prevents the standardization in their actions. Overall, considering the aforementioned practice conditions the Creativity Developmental Framework scrutinizes the main directions that lead to a long-term improvement of the creative behavior in team sports. Nevertheless, this framework should be seen as a work in progress to be later used as the paramount reference in creativity training. PMID:27617000
Hodgson, Lisa; Gissane, Conor; Gabbett, Tim J; King, Doug A
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the most effective method of collecting injury data by using a definition that encompasses all injuries into the data collection system. The definition provides an accurate picture of injury incidence and also allows filtering of records so that data can be reported in a variety of comparable ways. A qualitative review of literature in team sports, plus expert opinion, served as the basis for data collection strategies. Articles were retrieved from SportsDiscus and PubMed using the terms "sports injury definition" and "injury definition." These terms were searched for the period 1966 to November 2006. One of the major results (from this paper) that supports the use of an all-encompassing injury definition is that 70% to 92% of all injuries sustained fall into the transient category--that is, by only recording injuries that result in missed matches, the majority of injuries are missed and therefore injury rates are underreported. An injury definition should be the most encompassing definition that enables a true, global picture of injury incidence to be seen in participation in any team sport.
Stolldorf, Deonni P
: The perceived benefits of rapid response teams (RRTs) influence whether RRTs are used and sustained. Perceived benefits are particularly important to sustaining RRTs when limited RRT data are shared with organizational members. Nurse leaders' perceptions of the benefits of RRTs likely influence their support, which is crucial for sustained RRT use. The perceptions of RRT members and end users similarly will affect use. But little is known regarding the perceptions of nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users in this regard.This study sought to explore and compare the perceptions of nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users regarding the benefits of RRTs.A qualitative, multiple-case study design was used. Semistructured interviews were conducted with nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users at four community hospitals, as part of a larger mixed-methods study examining RRT sustainability. Purposive and snowball sampling were used. Recruitment strategies included e-mail and listserv announcements, on-site presentations, direct personal contact, and a study flyer.All participants reported perceiving various ways that RRTs benefit the organization, staff members, and patients. Variations in the benefits perceived were observed between the three participant groups. Nurse leaders' perceptions tended to focus on macro-level benefits. RRT members emphasized the teaching and learning opportunities that RRTs offer. RRT users focused on the psychological support that RRTs can provide.Both similarities and differences were found between nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users regarding their perceptions of RRT benefits. Differences may be indicative of organizations' information-sharing processes; of variation in the priorities of nurse leaders, RRT members, and RRT users; and of the challenges nurses face daily in their work environments. Future research should investigate whether the perceived benefits of RRTs are borne out in actuality, as well as the relationships
Passos, P; Milho, J; Button, C
Collective behaviors in team sports result in players forming interpersonal synergies that contribute to performance goals. Because of the huge amount of variables that continuously constrain players' behavior during a game, the way that these synergies are formed remain unclear. Our aim was to quantify interpersonal synergies in the team sport of Rugby Union. For that purpose we used the Uncontrolled Manifold Hypothesis (UCM) to identify interpersonal synergies that are formed between ball carrier and support player in two-versus-one situations in Rugby Union. The inter-player angle close to the moment of the pass was used as a performance variable and players running lines velocities as task-relevant elements. Interpersonal synergies (UCM values above 1) were found in 19 out of 55 trials under analysis, which means that on 34% of the trials, the players' running line velocities contribute to stabilizing the inter-player angle close the moment of the pass. The strength of the synergy fluctuates over time indicating the existence of a location effect during attack phases in Rugby Union. UCM analysis shows considerable promise as a performance analysis tool in team sports to discriminate between skilled sub-groups of players.
Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
In nature, the interactions between agents in a complex system (fish schools; colonies of ants) are governed by information that is locally created. Each agent self-organizes (adjusts) its behaviour, not through a central command centre, but based on variables that emerge from the interactions with other system agents in the neighbourhood. Self-organization has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the tendencies for individual performers to interact with each other in field-invasion sports teams, displaying functional co-adaptive behaviours, without the need for central control. The relevance of self-organization as a mechanism that explains pattern-forming dynamics within attacker-defender interactions in field-invasion sports has been sustained in the literature. Nonetheless, other levels of interpersonal coordination, such as intra-team interactions, still raise important questions, particularly with reference to the role of leadership or match strategies that have been prescribed in advance by a coach. The existence of key properties of complex systems, such as system degeneracy, nonlinearity or contextual dependency, suggests that self-organization is a functional mechanism to explain the emergence of interpersonal coordination tendencies within intra-team interactions. In this opinion article we propose how leadership may act as a key constraint on the emergent, self-organizational tendencies of performers in field-invasion sports.
Kawamori, Naoki; Nosaka, Kazunori; Newton, Robert U
Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a standing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration performance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background performed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) analysis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = -0.52) and propulsive impulse (r = -0.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant correlations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results suggest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longitudinal training studies.
Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall
Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714
Delvaux, Ellen; Mesquita, Batja; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; Van Raes, Jan
Many studies on group emotions either define emotions at the aggregate level, as when they average the emotions of all group members, or at the level of the individual, as when they ask an individual how he/she feels as a group member. In the current study, we examined the relationship between group emotions at the individual and aggregate levels. In a professional mental health organization, 88 employees distributed over 15 different teams filled out a questionnaire regarding the emotions th...
Alice J. Sweeting
Full Text Available The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS, local positioning systems (LPS, and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1 identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2 examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3 evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4 discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s−1. Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s−2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and
Sweeting, Alice J; Cormack, Stuart J; Morgan, Stuart; Aughey, Robert J
The external load of a team-sport athlete can be measured by tracking technologies, including global positioning systems (GPS), local positioning systems (LPS), and vision-based systems. These technologies allow for the calculation of displacement, velocity and acceleration during a match or training session. The accurate quantification of these variables is critical so that meaningful changes in team-sport athlete external load can be detected. High-velocity running, including sprinting, may be important for specific team-sport match activities, including evading an opponent or creating a shot on goal. Maximal accelerations are energetically demanding and frequently occur from a low velocity during team-sport matches. Despite extensive research, conjecture exists regarding the thresholds by which to classify the high velocity and acceleration activity of a team-sport athlete. There is currently no consensus on the definition of a sprint or acceleration effort, even within a single sport. The aim of this narrative review was to examine the varying velocity and acceleration thresholds reported in athlete activity profiling. The purposes of this review were therefore to (1) identify the various thresholds used to classify high-velocity or -intensity running plus accelerations; (2) examine the impact of individualized thresholds on reported team-sport activity profile; (3) evaluate the use of thresholds for court-based team-sports and; (4) discuss potential areas for future research. The presentation of velocity thresholds as a single value, with equivocal qualitative descriptors, is confusing when data lies between two thresholds. In Australian football, sprint efforts have been defined as activity >4.00 or >4.17 m·s -1 . Acceleration thresholds differ across the literature, with >1.11, 2.78, 3.00, and 4.00 m·s -2 utilized across a number of sports. It is difficult to compare literature on field-based sports due to inconsistencies in velocity and acceleration
Soomro, Najeebullah; Sanders, Ross; Hackett, Daniel; Hubka, Tate; Ebrahimi, Saahil; Freeston, Jonathan; Cobley, Stephen
Intensive sport participation in childhood and adolescence is an established cause of acute and overuse injury. Interventions and programs designed to prevent such injuries are important in reducing individual and societal costs associated with treatment and recovery. Likewise, they help to maintain the accrual of positive outcomes from participation, such as cardiovascular health and skill development. To date, several studies have individually tested the effectiveness of injury prevention programs (IPPs). To determine the overall efficacy of structured multifaceted IPPs containing a combination of warm-up, neuromuscular strength, or proprioception training, targeting injury reduction rates according to risk exposure time in adolescent team sport contexts. Systematic review and meta-analysis. With established inclusion criteria, studies were searched in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AusSportMed. The keyword search terms (including derivations) included the following: adolescents, sports, athletic injuries, prevention/warm-up programs. Eligible studies were then pooled for meta-analysis with an invariance random-effects model, with injury rate ratio (IRR) as the primary outcome. Heterogeneity among studies and publication bias were tested, and subgroup analysis examined heterogeneity sources. Across 10 studies, including 9 randomized controlled trials, a pooled overall point estimate yielded an IRR of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.48-0.75; a 40% reduction) while accounting for hours of risk exposure. Publication bias assessment suggested an 8% reduction in the estimate (IRR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54-0.84), and the prediction interval intimated that any study estimate could still fall between 0.33 and 1.48. Subgroup analyses identified no significant moderators, although possible influences may have been masked because of data constraints. Compared with normative practices or control
Dellaserra, Carla L; Gao, Yong; Ransdell, Lynda
Integrated technology (IT), which includes accelerometers, global positioning systems (GPSs), and heart rate monitors, has been used frequently in public health. More recently, IT data have been used in sports settings to assess training and performance demands. However, the impact of IT in sports settings is yet to be evaluated, particularly in field-based team sports. This narrative-qualitative review provides an overview of the emerging impact of IT in sports settings. Twenty electronic databases (e.g., Medline, SPORTdiscus, and ScienceDirect), print publications (e.g., Signal Processing Magazine and Catapult Innovations news releases), and internet resources were searched using different combinations of keywords as follows: accelerometers, heart rate monitors, GPS, sport training, and field-based sports for relevant articles published from 1990 to the present. A total of 114 publications were identified, and 39 that examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT were analyzed. The articles chosen for analysis examined a field-based team sport using a form of IT. The uses of IT can be divided into 4 categories: (a) quantifying movement patterns (n = 22), (b) assessing the differences between demands of training and competition (n = 12), (c) measuring physiological and metabolic responses (n = 16), and (d) determining a valid definition for velocity and a sprint effort (n = 8). Most studies used elite adult male athletes as participants and analyzed the sports of Australian Rules football, field hockey, cricket, and soccer, with sample sizes between 5 and 20 participants. The limitations of IT in a sports setting include scalability issues, cost, and the inability to receive signals within indoor environments. Integrated technology can contribute to significant improvements in the preparation, training, and recovery aspects of field-based team sports. Future research should focus on using IT with female athlete populations and developing resources to use IT
Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark
Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…
Casey, Ashley; Quennerstedt, Mikael
The purpose of this article was to investigate how boys communicate previous experiences of cultural norms in physical education (PE) practice. This was done by analyzing what boys (from a school in the United Kingdom) remember about PE 2 years after they last participated. Making use of autobiographical memory theory and John Dewey's notions of reactualization of experience and collateral learning, we discuss the results of the study in terms of re-membering. The participants in this study were 20 boys from a secondary school in the United Kingdom. At the time of the study, 11 of the boys were aged 16 to 17 years old and 9 were aged 17 to 18 years old. These boys were interviewed using a semistructured approach to explore their autobiographical memories of PE. The overarching "logic" of memories of PE was sport. Almost all of the boys' articulated memories were of doing sports, albeit in various capacities. Beyond the main theme, the article positions the boys' recollections against established cultural norms of PE as a social practice and explores three subthemes: (a) just doing the game in a traditional curriculum though a multiactivity sport discourse; (b) learning the games in a technical sport discourse; and (c) learning beyond the game around an educational sport discourse. These boys reactualized memories of learning within an educational discourse, which suggests that what they learned goes beyond the simple consequence of participating.
Malone, Michael; McPherson, Jenny
Sixty early intervention team members (30 community-based and 30 hospital-based) were surveyed regarding their attitudes and perceptions of teamwork. Respondents were recruited using a purposive non-probability sampling technique and completed a packet of questionnaires consisting of a detailed demographic survey, Attitudes About Teamwork Survey,…
Tseng, Hung Wei; Yeh, Hsin-Te
Teamwork factors can facilitate team members, committing themselves to the purposes of maximizing their own and others' contributions and successes. It is important for online instructors to comprehend students' expectations on learning collaboratively. The aims of this study were to investigate online collaborative learning experiences and to…
Donovan, Sarah A.; Nickerson, Amanda B.
This study examines how adding strength-based data to traditional data for a student with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) impacts multidisciplinary team (MDT) members' perceptions. The participants received either a mock Traditional Report, which included only traditional data, or a mock Combined Report, which included traditional and…
Leinonen, Piritta; Bluemink, Johanna
Purpose: Evaluation of the knowledge that is shared among team members has been found to be a prerequisite for successful collaborative teamwork. In previous research on collaborative learning and work, shared knowledge has mainly been evaluated by researchers, and an individual's own perspective has been omitted. In this study the aim was to…
Szecsenyi, J.; Goetz, K.; Campbell, S.M.; Broge, B.; Reuschenbach, B.; Wensing, M.J.P.
BACKGROUND Previous research has shown a correlation between physician job satisfaction and patient satisfaction with quality of care, but the connection between job satisfaction of other primary care team members and patient satisfaction is yet unclear. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether there is an
Su, Allan Yen-Lun
This study explores the impact of individual ability and favorable team member scores on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods, and examines the moderating effects of student perception of course importance on student preference of team-based learning and grading methods. The author also investigates the relationship…
Full Text Available Plyometric training (PT is a very popular form of physical conditioning of healthy individuals that has been extensively studied over the last decades. In this article, we critically review the available literature related to PT and its effects on physical fitness in team sport athletes. We also considered studies that combined PT with other popular training modalities (e.g. strength/sprint training. Generally, short-term PT (i.e. 2-3 sessions a week for 4-16 weeks improves jump height, sprint and agility performances in team sport players. Literature shows that short PT (<8 weeks has the potential to enhance a wide range of athletic performance (i.e. jumping, sprinting and agility in children and young adult amateur players. Nevertheless, 6 to 7 weeks training appears to be too short to improve physical performance in elite male players. Available evidence suggests that short-term PT on non-rigid surfaces (i.e. aquatic, grass or sand-based PT could elicit similar increases in jumping, sprinting and agility performances as traditional PT. Furthermore, the combination of various plyometric exercises and the bilateral and unilateral jumps could improve these performances more than the use of single plyometric drills or traditional PT. Thus, the present review shows a greater effect of PT alone on jump and sprint (30 m sprint performance only performances than the combination of PT with sprint/strength training. Although many issues related to PT remain to be resolved, the results presented in this review allow recommending the use of well-designed and sport-specific PT as a safe and effective training modality for improving jumping and sprint performance as well as agility in team sport athletes.
Maguire, W; Blaylock, P
Personal development plans (PDPs) have been a requirement for NHS hospital staff, Foundation Training and Dental Core Training for some years; however, the General Dental Council (GDC) are changing continuing professional development (CPD) requirements in 2018 (enhanced CPD) making a PDP a requirement for all members of the dental team. A PDP consists of objectives for targeting CPD most relevant to your practice or intended practice to undertake over a defined period to maximise the improvement of your professional development. The aim of this article is to explain how to prepare a PDP ahead of the requirement to utilise its benefits in training and performance for the dental team. This article references a template for all members of the dental team to record their PDP.
Wilbur, Kerry; Kur, Jason
Pharmacist participation in chronic disease management benefits patients in many ambulatory settings. We explored the attitudes and perceptions among multidisciplinary members of a rheumatology team towards the skills and responsibilities of a pharmacist joining their practice. The physicians, nurse, physiotherapist and staff of a rheumatology clinic were invited to participate in focus group and semistructured interviews. Practice members also completed an inventory of perceived health professional roles in the medication use process. Discussions with 2 physicians, a nurse, physiotherapist and 1 office administrator were conducted. Concepts related to 3 key themes included positively viewed pharmacist roles broadly related to activities that encompass provision of medication-related services for the patients, the providers and the practice. Examples of such care included educational tasks related to therapies (rheumatological and otherwise) and maintenance of accurate drug histories. These findings were reflected in high scores for perceived pharmacist roles in education and medication review responsibilities using the Medication Use Processes Matrix instrument. Most members were not comfortable with pharmacists conducting physical assessments and emphasized the need for a team member who could adapt to variations in workflow preferences across rheumatologists in the practice. Perceived pharmacist roles expressed by existing rheumatology team members were largely consistent with the scope of pharmacist knowledge, skills and responsibilities in primary care. Overall, existing multidisciplinary staff exhibited favourable attitudes towards a pharmacist joining their practice setting. Data from this job analysis exercise were used to inform the development of a job description for a rheumatology clinical pharmacist.
Mohr, David C; Young, Gary J; Meterko, Mark; Stolzmann, Kelly L; White, Bert
In recent years, hospitals and payers have increased their efforts to improve the quality of patient care by encouraging provider adherence to evidence-based practices. Although the individual provider is certainly essential in the delivery of appropriate care, a team perspective is important when examining variation in quality. In the present study, the authors modeled the relationship between a measure of aggregate job satisfaction for members of primary care teams and objective measures of quality based on process indicators and intermediate outcomes. Multilevel analyses indicated that aggregate job satisfaction ratings were associated with higher values on both types of quality measures. Team-level job satisfaction ratings are a potentially important marker for the effectiveness of primary care teams in managing patient care.
Vungkhanching, Martha; Tonsing, Kareen N
This study investigated social workers' role clarity as members of an interdisciplinary team in traumatic and acquired brain injury treatment settings. A total of 37 social workers from 7 Western countries completed an anonymous online survey questionnaire. The majority of participants have more than 10 years of experience working in brain injury treatment settings (59.5%), and about 54% have been in their current employment for more than 10 years. Findings revealed that there were significant positive correlations between perceived respect, team collaboration, and perceived value of self for team with role clarity. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived value of self for team was a significant predictor of role clarity (p < .05).
O'Brien, James; Finch, Caroline F
Recently, the use of specific exercise programmes to prevent musculoskeletal injuries in team ball sports has gained considerable attention, and the results of large-scale, randomised controlled trials have supported their efficacy. To enhance the translation of these interventions into widespread use, research trials must be reported in a way that allows the players, staff and policymakers associated with sports teams to implement these interventions effectively. In particular, information is needed on core implementation components, which represent the essential and indispensable aspects of successful implementation. To assess the extent to which team ball sport injury prevention trial reports have reported the core implementation components of the intervention, the intervention target and the use of any delivery agents (ie, staff or other personnel delivering the intervention). To summarise which specific types of intervention, intervention target and delivery agents are reported. To develop consensus between reviewers on the reporting of these components. Six electronic databases were systematically searched for English-language, peer-reviewed papers on injury prevention exercise programme (IPEP) trials in team ball sports. The reporting of all eligible trials was assessed by two independent reviewers. The reporting of the three core implementation components were coded as 'yes', 'no' or 'unclear'. For cases coded as 'yes', the specific types of interventions, intervention targets and delivery agents were extracted and summarised. The search strategy identified 52 eligible trials. The intervention and the intervention target were reported in all 52 trials. The reporting of 25 trials (48%) specified the use of delivery agents, the reporting of three trials (6%) specified not using delivery agents, and in the reporting of the remaining 24 trials (46%) the use of delivery agents was unclear. The reported intervention type was an IPEP alone in 43 trials (83
Smucker, Douglas R; Regan, Saundra; Elder, Nancy C; Gerrety, Erica
Hospice provides a full range of services for patients near the end of life, often in the patient's own home. There are no published studies that describe patient safety incidents in home hospice care. The study objective was to explore the types and characteristics of patient safety incidents in home hospice care from the experiences of hospice interdisciplinary team members. The study design is qualitative and descriptive. From a convenience sample of 17 hospices in 13 states we identified 62 participants including hospice nurses, physicians, social workers, chaplains, and home health aides. We interviewed a separate sample of 19 experienced hospice leaders to assess the credibility of primary results. Semistructured telephone interviews were recorded and transcribed. Four researchers used an editing technique to identify common themes from the interviews. Major themes suggested a definition of patient safety in home hospice that includes concern for unnecessary harm to family caregivers or unnecessary disruption of the natural dying process. The most commonly described categories of patient harm were injuries from falls and inadequate control of symptoms. The most commonly cited contributing factors were related to patients, family caregivers, or the home setting. Few participants recalled incidents or harm related to medical errors by hospice team members. This is the first study to describe patient safety incidents from the experiences of hospice interdisciplinary team members. Compared with patient safety studies from other health care settings, participants recalled few incidents related to errors in evaluation, treatment, or communication by the hospice team.
Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Carter, James M; Baker, Lindsay B
Sweat losses in team sports can be significant due to repeated bursts of high-intensity activity, as well as the large body size of athletes, equipment and uniform requirements, and environmental heat stress often present during training and competition. In this paper we aimed to: (1) describe sweat losses and fluid balance changes reported in team sport athletes, (2) review the literature assessing the impact of hypohydration on cognitive, technical, and physical performance in sports-specific studies, (3) briefly review the potential mechanisms by which hypohydration may impact team sport performance, and (4) discuss considerations for future directions. Significant hypohydration (mean body mass loss (BML) >2%) has been reported most consistently in soccer. Although American Football, rugby, basketball, tennis, and ice hockey have reported high sweating rates, fluid balance disturbances have generally been mild (mean BML sport performance has been studied mostly in soccer, basketball, cricket, and baseball, with mixed results. Hypohydration typically impaired performance at higher levels of BML (3-4%) and when the method of dehydration involved heat stress. Increased subjective ratings of fatigue and perceived exertion consistently accompanied hypohydration and could explain, in part, the performance impairments reported in some studies. More research is needed to develop valid, reliable, and sensitive sport-specific protocols and should be used in future studies to determine the effects of hypohydration and modifying factors (e.g., age, sex, athlete caliber) on team sport performance.
Passos, Pedro; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia; Borges, João; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith
The authors examined whether, similar to collective agent behaviors in complex, biological systems (e.g., schools of fish and colonies of ants), performers in team sports displayed functional coordination tendencies, based on local interaction rules during performance. To investigate this issue, they used videogrammetry and digitizing procedures to observe interpersonal interactions in common 4 versus 2 + 2 subphases of the team sport of rugby union, involving 16 participants aged between 16 and 17 years of age. They observed pattern-forming dynamics in attacking subunits (n = 4 players) attempting to penetrate 2 defensive lines (n = 2 players in each). Data showed that within each attacking subunit, the 4 players displayed emergent functional grouping tendencies that differed between the 2 defensive lines. Results confirmed that grouping tendencies in attacking subunits of team games are sensitive to different task constraints, such as relative positioning to nearest defenders. It was concluded that running correlations were particularly useful for measuring the level of interpersonal coordination in functional grouping tendencies within attacking subunits.
Donoso-Morales, Daniela; Bloom, Gordon A; Caron, Jeffrey G
Winning several national championships is an extraordinary feat that very few university coaches have accomplished. The objective of this study was to investigate how some of Canada's most accomplished university team-sport coaches created and sustained a culture of excellence in their programs. Six university coaches who had won more than 30 national titles participated in this study. Each coach participated in a semistructured interview, and the qualitative data were inductively analyzed using a thematic analysis. The coaches noted that hard work and daily attention to detail, effective emotional management of themselves and their athletes, and continuous self-assessment (self-reflection and seeking mentors) were crucial elements that led to sustained excellence in their programs. This study offers one of the first empirical accounts of how highly successful university coaches developed and maintained a culture of excellence and success in their high-performance sport setting.
Etheridge, Francis; Tannenbaum, Cara; Couturier, Yves
To seek input from long-term care (LTC) administrators and staff on solutions for overcoming established barriers to continence care and the roles each team member must play in implementing them. Cross-sectional, qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured individual interviews. Four LTC institutions in Montreal, Quebec. Sixteen health administrators, including the general director, the medical director, the director of nursing and the head nurse of the 4 institutions were interviewed. As well, 16 front-line health care workers including 8 nurses and 8 nursing assistants participated in the interviewing process. During the interviews, participants were asked to comment on a list of established barriers to continence care and to recommend solutions, involving themselves or other members of the LTC team, for overcoming these barriers. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data obtained during the interviews were analyzed and specific solutions to each barrier were identified, as well as the roles each team member should play in implementing them. Analysis of our data revealed 10 solutions, involving administrators as well as staff members: (1) setting continence care as an institutional priority; (2) establishing a continence committee; (3) involving the staff from the onset; (4) tailoring the continence program to each institution and resident; (5) providing training on incontinence; (6) elevating the standard of care for incontinence; (7) creating an incontinence-efficient working environment; (8) improving communication around continence care; (9) supervision, feedback and accountability; (10) championing the effectiveness of continence care. Typically, top-down solutions were proposed, but the value of bottom-up processes was included as part of the systemwide approach. Implementing and maintaining a continence program in LTC requires a systemwide approach involving LTC administrators and staff. The results of our research provide guidance
Nguyen-Truong, Connie Kim; Tang, Joannie; Hsiao, Chiao-Yun
Vietnamese women are diagnosed with cervical cancer at twice the rate of non-Hispanic White women and the highest compared to Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Japanese women. ἀ e Vietnamese Women's Health Project, a community-based participatory research partnership, was developed to address this concern. In earlier studies, community members received research training. To describe how we developed an innovative curricular research training framework. Community members developed their own learning goals and activities, taught alongside a nurse scientist, and participated in a community interactive research workshop series. Popular education principles were used to guide team teaching. Topics, learning goals, lesson plans, and an evaluation w ere de veloped t ogether. ἀ ree, 4 -5.5 h our workshops were hosted. Topics included qualitative research, art of hearing data, reflexivity, analysis, validity, and dissemination. Community members and a nurse scientist co-constructed knowledge through participatory methods. ἀe workshops ran concurrent to the study timeline to inform community members' research activities and vice versa. A range from 8 to 20 participants attended the workshops, of which six community members were team teachers and three facilitated at each workshop. In an evaluation, team teachers reported workshop strengths: an empathetic and trusting learn ing environment, a sense of ownership in learning, a greater under standing of roles in research partnerships, and a feel ing of safety to conduct research with academic investigators. Academic investigators need to be aware that co-constructing knowledge is foundational to long-term sustainability of community-based participatory research partnership (CBPR) partnerships, but requires building team capacity to conduct research collaboratively.
Halouani, Jamel; Chtourou, Hamdi; Gabbett, Tim; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim
Small-sided games (SSGs) incorporating skills, sport-specific movements, at intensities sufficient to promote aerobic adaptations, are being increasingly implemented in professional team sport environments. Small-sided games are often employed by coaches based on the premise that the greatest training benefits occur when training simulates the specific movement patterns and physiological demands of the sport. At present, there is relatively little information regarding how SSG can best be used to improve physical capacities and technical and tactical skills in team sports. It is possible that with some modifications (e.g., number of players, pitch size, coach encouragement, and wrestling), such games may be physiologically beneficial for athletes with relatively high initial aerobic fitness levels. For instance, it has been shown that 3-a-side soccer SSG resulted in higher intensity (i.e., greater overall distance, less jogging and walking, higher heart rate, and more tackling, dribbling, goal attempts, and passes) than 5-a-side SSG. Likewise, when player numbers were kept constant, a larger playing area increased the intensity of the SSG with a smaller playing area having the opposite effect. It has also been demonstrated that energy expenditure was similar between badminton and volleyball courts, but lower than that obtained in a basketball court. Moreover, it has been demonstrated in rugby that wrestling can increase the physical demands of SSG. Consistent coach encouragement can also increase training intensity, although most rule changes have trivial or no effect on exercise intensity. Further research is required to examine the optimal periodization strategies of SSG training for the long-term development of physiological capacity, technical skill, and tactical proficiency, while also minimizing the associated risk of injuries.
Full Text Available The paper substantiates the design of the training process of athletes in team sports during an annual training cycle on the basis of model training tasks. The model training tasks are developed along with micro-and mesocycles, periods, and annual cycle for preparation of elite female volleyball players. The ratio of the training means and various types of training loads in the periods of macrocycle were determined. Introduction of model training tasks into the training process in team sports allows to efficiently plan and optimize the preparation of athletes, as well as to implement the principle of individualization in the development of a coherent team.
Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup Petersen, Jacob; Nistrup, Anne
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...
Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke J; Aughey, Robert J
To examine the difference in distance measured by two global positioning system (GPS) units of the same model worn by the same player while performing movements common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian football players completed two trials of the straight line movement (10, 20, 40 m) at four speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), two trials of the changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and five trials of a team sport running simulation circuit. To assess inter-unit variability for total and high intensity running (HIR) distance measured in matches, data from eight field players were collected in three Australian Hockey League (AHL) matches during the 2009 season. Each subject wore two GPS devices (MinimaxX v2.5, Catapult, Australia) that collected position data at 5 Hz for each movement and match trial. The percentage difference ±90% confidence interval (CI) was used to determine differences between units. Differences (±90% CI) between the units ranged from 9.9 ± 4.7% to 11.9 ± 19.5% for straight line running movements and from 9.5 ± 7.2% to 10.7 ± 7.9% in the COD courses. Similar results were exhibited in the team sport circuit (11.1 ± 4.2%). Total distance (10.3 ± 6.2%) and HIR distance (10.3 ± 15.6) measured during the match play displayed similar variability. It is recommended that players wear the same GPS unit for each exercise session to reduce measurement error. The level of between-unit measurement error should be considered when comparing results from players wearing different GPS units.
Freitas, Tomás T; Martinez-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Calleja-González, Julio; Alcaraz, Pedro E
The purpose of this meta-analysis was to study the short-term adaptations on sprint and vertical jump (VJ) performance following Complex Training (CT) in team-sports. CT is a resistance training method aimed at developing both strength and power, which has a direct effect on sprint and VJ. It consists on alternating heavy resistance training exercises with plyometric/power ones, set for set, on the same workout. A search of electronic databases up to July 2016 (PubMed-MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Knowledge) was conducted. Inclusion criteria: 1) at least one CT intervention group; 2) training protocols ≥4-wks; 3) sample of team-sport players; 4) sprint or VJ as an outcome variable. Effect sizes (ES) of each intervention were calculated and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 9 studies (13 CT groups) met the inclusion criteria. Medium effect sizes (ES) (ES = 0.73) were obtained for pre-post improvements in sprint, and small (ES = 0.41) in VJ, following CT. Experimental-groups presented better post-intervention sprint (ES = 1.01) and VJ (ES = 0.63) performance than control-groups. large ESs were exhibited in younger athletes (training programs >12 total sessions (ES = 0.74). Large ESs in programs with >12 total sessions (ES = 0.81). Medium ESs obtained for under-Division I individuals (ES = 0.56); protocols with intracomplex rest intervals ≥2 min (ES = 0.55); conditioning activities with intensities ≤85% 1RM (ES = 0.64); basketball/volleyball players (ES = 0.55). Small ESs were found for younger athletes (ES = 0.42); interventions ≥6 weeks (ES = 0.45). CT interventions have positive medium effects on sprint performance and small effects on VJ in team-sport athletes. This training method is a suitable option to include in the season planning.
Winnick, Jason J; Davis, J Mark; Welsh, Ralph S; Carmichael, Martin D; Murphy, E Angela; Blackmon, Jill A
This study was designed to examine the effect of carbohydrate (CHO) feedings on physical and central nervous system (CNS) function during intermittent high-intensity exercise with physical demands similar to those of team sports such as basketball. Twenty active men (N = 10) and women (N = 10), with experience competing in team sports, performed three practice sessions before two experimental trials during which they were fed either a 6% CHO solution or a flavored placebo (PBO). Experimental trials consisted of four 15-min quarters of shuttle running with variable intensities ranging from walking (30% VO(2max)), to running (120% VO(2max)), to maximal sprinting, and 40 jumps at a target hanging at 80% of their maximum vertical jump height. Subjects received 5 mL.kg(-1) of fluid before exercise and 3 mL.kg(-1) after exercise, in addition to 3 mL.kg(-1) over a 5-min span after the first and third quarters, and 8 mL.kg(-1) during a 20-min halftime. During each break, the subjects performed a battery of tests measuring peripheral and CNS function, including 20-m sprints, a 60-s maximal jumping test, internal and external mood evaluation, cognitive function, force sensation, tests of motor skills, and target-jumping accuracy. Compared with PBO, CHO feedings during exercise resulted in faster 20-m sprint times and higher average jump height in the fourth quarter (P intermittent high-intensity exercise similar to that of team sports benefited both peripheral and CNS function late in exercise compared with a flavored placebo.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m -2 ; estimated VO 2 max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1. Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8, basketball (n = 5, and handball (n = 3. They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT, the 30-s Wingate test (WingT, the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT, and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction with 30 s passive recovery in between. Pearson’s product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT and fatigue index (FI (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively. No significant relationship between VO 2 max and RSA peak sprint time (PT and total sprint time (TT was found. Nevertheless, VO 2 max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05. In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA.
Gharbi, Z; Dardouri, W; Haj-Sassi, R; Chamari, K; Souissi, N
The aim of this study was to examine in team sports athletes the relationship between repeated sprint ability (RSA) indices and both aerobic and anaerobic fitness components. Sixteen team-sport players were included (age, 23.4 ± 2.3 years; weight, 71.2 ± 8.3 kg; height, 178 ± 7 cm; body mass index, 22.4 ± 2 kg · m(-2); estimated VO2max, 54.16 ± 3.5 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)). Subjects were licensed in various team sports: soccer (n = 8), basketball (n = 5), and handball (n = 3). They performed 4 tests: the 20 m multi-stage shuttle run test (MSRT), the 30-s Wingate test (WingT), the Maximal Anaerobic Shuttle Running Test (MASRT), and the RSA test (10 repetitions of 30 m shuttle sprints (15 + 15 m with 180° change of direction) with 30 s passive recovery in between). Pearson's product moment of correlation among the different physical tests was performed. No significant correlations were found between any RSA test indices and WingT. However, negative correlations were found between MASRT and RSA total sprint time (TT) and fatigue index (FI) (r = -0.53, p < 0.05 and r = -0.65, p < 0.01, respectively). No significant relationship between VO2max and RSA peak sprint time (PT) and total sprint time (TT) was found. Nevertheless, VO2max was significantly correlated with the RSA FI (r = -0.57, p < 0.05). In conclusion, aerobic fitness is an important factor influencing the ability to resist fatigue during RSA exercise. Our results highlighted the usefulness of MASRT, in contrast to WingT, as a specific anaerobic testing procedure to identify the anaerobic energy system contribution during RSA.
Martin, Alanna C; Heazlewood, Ian T; Kitic, Cecilia M; Lys, Isabelle; Johnson, Liam
The research aim of this study was to determine possible hormone predictors of physical performance in adolescent team sport athletes. Saliva samples were collected immediately prior to performance testing sessions from 114 state squad athletes (77 male, 37 female) participating in either Australian football, basketball, hockey, or netball. Participants completed tests of aerobic and anaerobic capacity, agility, power and speed. Samples were collected over 22 months at quarterly, six-monthly and/or yearly intervals depending on the testing schedule of the athlete. Saliva was analysed for testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E) and progesterone (P) levels. A strong negative correlation existed between multistage fitness test performance and T:E ratio (r=-0.76, p=0.01) in females not taking oral contraceptives and a strong positive correlation existed between repeat agility total time and estradiol levels (r=-0.71, p=0.001) in females taking oral contraceptives. In males, strong negative correlations were evident for individual changes in planned agility time and estradiol levels (r=0.87, p=0.02), and CMJ height and T:C (r=-0.88, p=0.01). In females taking oral contraceptives a strong positive correlation was noted between individual change in yo-yo intermittent recovery test performance and T:E (r=0.74, p=0.01) and a strong negative correlation was noted between 20m speed and T:P (r=0.73, p=0.01). In females not taking oral contraceptives a strong negative correlation was found between individual change in CMJ height and T:P (r=-0.72, p=0.02). The findings show that in adolescent team sport athletes the P:E, T:E and the T:P ratios are important predictors of performance in tests of physical capacity. The findings also indicate estradiol and progesterone have a predictive function in the physical performance of adolescent male team sport athletes.
Informal roles are roles that are not formally prescribed by a group or organization and are being established through group interaction that takes place among group members. Previous literature has identified twelve roles within traditional sport, however to date limited research has been done within the field of role development within competitive computer gaming (eSports). The purpose of the present study was to explore the informal roles within the eSport setting and i...
Visek, Amanda J; Harris, Brandonn; Blom, Lindsey C
Working with youth athletes requires knowledge of the inherent variability in child and adolescent development that will impact the implementation of a mental training program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of developmental considerations that should be noted when doing mental training, particularly for athletes participating in sport at mid-childhood, early adolescence, and mid-adolescence. Gender differences at these stages of development are also highlighted. Additionally, we forward best practice recommendations and learning-activities that have been tailored for each developmental stage that can be used in the provision of a mental training program in a team setting.
Shokory, Suzyanty Mohd; Suradi, Nur Riza Mohd
The current study examines the impact of transformational and transactional leadership of project manager on the extra-role performance of project team members. In addition, this study also identifies factor dominant to extra-role performance of project team members when the transformational and transactional leadership of project managers are analyzed simultaneously. The study involved 175 of project team members from 35 project teams (each project team consists of different contracting companies registered in the Selangor (N = 175 from 35 contractors company). A multilevel analysis with hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) approach was used in this study. The analysis showed that transformational and transactional leadership of the project manager is a positive significant with extra-role performance project team members when analyzed separately. However when the two constructs (transformational leadership and transactional leadership of project manager) were analyzed simultaneously, transformational leadership was found to have more impact on extra-role performance project team members compared to transactional leadership. These findings explained that although transformational and transactional leadership of project managers can improve extra-role performance project team members, but this study has proved that transformational leadership of project managers affect extra-role performance project team members more as compared to transactional leadership.
Woodfin, Kaitlen O; Johnson, Corey; Parker, Renee; Mikach, Caroline; Johnson, Molly; McMullan, Susan P
Interdisciplinary collaboration is key to safe surgical positioning. Although the surgical procedure dictates the patient's position, surgeons, anesthesia care providers, intraoperative nurses, and ancillary staff members must work together to achieve the goal of safe positioning. Correct patient positioning includes the provision of adequate access to the surgical site for the surgeon and surgical assistants. Surgical positions may put the patient at risk of injury. Understanding human anatomy, including the nerves commonly affected by each surgical position, can help the surgical team prevent accidental and irreversible patient injury. A lack of knowledge of proper positioning practices can result in serious patient injury, such as permanent paralysis, blindness, tissue necrosis, burns, bone fracture, and even death. This article reviews surgical positioning and introduces a learning module that involves the use of mnemonics as memory aids for perioperative team members who are learning proper positioning techniques. © AORN, Inc, 2018.
Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Miller, Katherine E M; O'Brien, Emily C; Wolff, Jennifer L; Lindquist, Jennifer; Kabat, Margaret; Campbell-Kotler, Margaret; Henius, Jennifer; Voils, Corrine I
Despite the important role that family caregivers play managing the care of persons with complex health needs, little is known about how caregivers perceive themselves to be recognized and valued by health care professionals. Our objective was to develop and validate a novel measure, the CAregiver Perceptions About Commun Ication with Clinical Team members (CAPACITY) instrument. Questions focus on perceived quality of communication with the health care team and the extent to which caregivers believe that the health care team considers their capacity and preferences in decision making. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor solution addressing communication and capacity. Internal consistency reliability was .90 for the communication domain and .93 for the capacity domain. Correlations between these two subscales and individual difference measures provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The CAPACITY instrument may be a useful performance measure that quantifies the extent to which caregivers' experience person- and family-centered health care.
Tuck, Geoffrey N.; Whitten, Athol R.
Annual draft systems are the principal method used by teams in major sporting leagues to recruit amateur players. These draft systems frequently take one of three forms: a lottery style draft, a weighted draft, or a reverse-order draft. Reverse-order drafts can create incentives for teams to deliberately under-perform, or tank, due to the perceived gain from obtaining quality players at higher draft picks. This paper uses a dynamic simulation model that captures the key components of a win-maximising sporting league, including the amateur player draft, draft choice error, player productivity, and between-team competition, to explore how competitive balance and incentives to under-perform vary according to league characteristics. We find reverse-order drafts can lead to some teams cycling between success and failure and to other teams being stuck in mid-ranking positions for extended periods of time. We also find that an incentive for teams to tank exists, but that this incentive decreases (i) as uncertainty in the ability to determine quality players in the draft increases, (ii) as the number of teams in the league reduces, (iii) as team size decreases, and (iv) as the number of teams adopting a tanking strategy increases. Simulation models can be used to explore complex stochastic dynamic systems such as sports leagues, where managers face difficult decisions regarding the structure of their league and the desire to maintain competitive balance. PMID:24312243
... § 636.117 What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team members... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What conflict of interest standards apply to individuals who serve as selection team members for the owner? 636.117 Section 636.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY...
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien
Sport injury rehabilitation has moved from predominately physical treatment to a more holistic care. However, limited research has explored the views and experiences of those involved in such an approach. The purpose of this study was to preliminarily investigate sport psychology consultants' (SPCs') views and experiences of an interprofessional team approach to sport injury rehabilitation. A cross-sectional online survey previously used with athletic trainers was distributed via a US-based sport/exercise psychology list-serve (N = 1245). A total of 62 (27 men, 35 women, M age 38.2 years, age range: 22-73 years) participants with 10.6 (SD = 9.8) years of experience as an SPC were included in the final analyses. On average, SPCs felt that it was very important (M = 6.6; SD = 0.6) for athletes to have access to an interprofessional care team. Of the sample, 64.5% (n = 40) typically worked as part of an interprofessional care team 44.7% of the time. The SPCs (n = 28; 45.2%) also indicated that the primary treatment providers (e.g., athletic trainer, physical therapist) were typically serving as the primary point person for such teams. Since gaining entry to sport medicine can be an area SPCs struggle with, building effective working relationships with treatment providers can help promote and increase SPCs involvement in providing holistic, interprofessional care to athletes with injuries. To ensure athletes' successful biopsychosocial return to sport, different individuals and professionals should work together for the benefit of the athlete by adopting holistic care during sports injury rehabilitation.
Killowe, C; Mkandawire, N C
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an interview format. Among the players 37% had completed tertiary education and 60% had finished secondary school education. Most players had poor knowledge on prevention of injuries; had poor advice on diet; used illicit drugs or knew of fellow players using illicit drugs and believed in the role of magic in sports. All 13 team 'doctors' worked full-time in paramedical fields: 3 were orthopaedic clinical officers, 2 were physiotherapists and the rest were in various fields, such as dental technician, pharmacy assistant, medical assistant and dermatology technician, where trauma is not part of their basic training. Most team "doctors" were aware of the impact of HIV/AIDS on sports but few had good knowledge of the role of nutrition in sports and the effect of performance enhancing drugs in sports. Most believed in the role of magic in sports. Recommendations are made on the basis of these findings.
Full Text Available Background: One dilemma in the end-of-life care is making decisions for conducting cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. This dilemma is perceived in different ways due to the influence of culture and religion. This study aimed to understand the experiences of CPR team members about the do-not-resuscitate order. Methods: CPR team members were interviewed, and data were analyzed using a conventional content analysis method. Results: Three categories and six subcategories emerged: “The dilemma between revival and suffering” with the subcategories of “revival likelihood” and “death as a cause for comfort;” “conflicting situation” with the subcategories of “latent decision” and “ambivalent order;” and “low-quality CPR” with the subcategories of “team member demotivation” and “disrupting CPR performance.” Conclusion: There is a need for the development of a contextual guideline, which is required for respecting the rights of patients and their families and providing legal support to health-care professionals during CPR.
Kitson, Alison; Silverston, Heidi; Wiechula, Rick; Zeitz, Kathryn; Marcoionni, Danni; Page, Tammy
To describe the experiences of 14 clinical nursing leaders introducing a knowledge translation (KT) project into one metropolitan acute care hospital in South Australia. The study also explored team members' and service managers' experiences. KT strategies assume that local (nursing) clinical leaders have the capacity and capability to champion innovation combining positional leadership roles (ward leader) with a project lead role. There is limited evidence to support these assumptions. Semi-structured interviews of clinical nursing leaders and managers were undertaken at month 4 and 12 of the project. Data were also collected from the interdisciplinary team members (n = 28). Clinical nursing leaders identified risks and anxieties associated with taking on an additional leadership role, whereas managers acknowledged the multiple pressures on the system and the need for local level innovation. Team members generally reported positive experiences. With support, clinical nursing leaders can effectively embrace KT project leadership roles that complement their positional leadership roles. Clinical nursing leaders' experiences differed from nursing and medical managers' experiences. Managers need to be more attuned to the personal risks local leaders experience, providing support for leaders to experiment and innovate. Managers need to integrate local priorities with broader system wide agendas. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Gracia, Esther; Moliner, Carolina; Molina, Agustín; Kuster, Inés; Vila, Natalia; Ramos, José
The main goal of this study was to examine the interaction between team members' performance and interactional justice climate in predicting mutual trust between managers and team members. A total of 93 small centers devoted to the attention of people with intellectual disability participated in the study. In each center, the manager (N = 93) and a group of team members (N = 746) were surveyed. On average, team members were 36.2 years old (SD = 9.3), whereas managers were 41.2 years old (SD = 8.8). The interaction between interactional justice climate and performance was statistically significant. Team members' performance strengthened the link from interactional justice climate to mutual trust. © The Author(s) 2016.
Waquet, Arnaud; Vincent, Joris
The First World War is traditionally considered in history as a temporary halt for cultural and sporting activities. If the Olympic Games and the Tour de France were actually cancelled, football and rugby were in fact stimulated by the circumstances of war. Indeed, the gathering of allied nations behind the Western Front emerged as the main factor in the development of these two sports. Reading the sporting press and military archives shows that international sporting exchanges were stimulated during the Great War. To be specific, France benefited from the golden opportunity provided by the presence of the masters of the game to strengthen its practices and affirm its status as a sporting nation. Inter-allied sporting exchanges were primarily characterised by informal encounters between military selections. Then, following the recognition of these sports by the military authorities, the number of exchanges increased. At the end of 1917, the official status acquired by sport within the military forces created the conditions for the structuring of the French sporting elite. From that point, we can witness the birth of the first French military rugby and football teams, as they demonstrate, through their good performances during the demobilisation period, the progressive build-up of the international dimension of French sport during the war years.
Crowther, Fiona; Sealey, Rebecca; Crowe, Melissa; Edwards, Andrew; Halson, Shona
A variety of recovery strategies are used by athletes, although there is currently no research that investigates perceptions and usage of recovery by different competition levels of team sport athletes. The recovery techniques used by team sport athletes of different competition levels was investigated by survey. Specifically this study investigated if, when, why and how the following recovery strategies were used: active land-based recovery (ALB), active water-based recovery (AWB), stretching (STR), cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT). Three hundred and thirty-one athletes were surveyed. Fifty-seven percent were found to utilise one or more recovery strategies. Stretching was rated the most effective recovery strategy (4.4/5) with ALB considered the least effective by its users (3.6/5). The water immersion strategies were considered effective/ineffective mainly due to psychological reasons; in contrast STR and ALB were considered to be effective/ineffective mainly due to physical reasons. This study demonstrates that athletes may not be aware of the specific effects that a recovery strategy has upon their physical recovery and thus athlete and coach recovery education is encouraged. This study also provides new information on the prevalence of different recovery strategies and contextual information that may be useful to inform best practice among coaches and athletes.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%, low back (13.3%, elbow, and ankle (8.4% injuries were most common. Joint (41.6% and muscle (30.7% were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%, chuna manual therapy (16.0%, physical therapy (15.2%, taping (9.0%, and cupping (7.8% to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%. This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine.
Fowler, Peter M; Knez, Wade; Crowcroft, Stephen; Mendham, Amy E; Miller, Joanna; Sargent, Charlie; Halson, Shona; Duffield, Rob
This study aimed to determine the recovery timeline of sleep, subjective jet lag and fatigue, and team sport physical performance after east and west long-haul travel. Ten physically trained men underwent testing at 0900 h and 1700 h local time on four consecutive days 2 wk before outbound travel (BASE), and the first 4 d after 21 h of outbound (WEST) and return (EAST) air travel across eight time zones between Australia and Qatar. Data collection included performance (countermovement jump, 20-m sprint, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 [YYIR1] test) and perceptual (jet lag, motivation, perceived exertion, and physical feeling) measures. In addition, sleep was measured via wrist activity monitors and self-report diaries throughout the aforementioned data collection periods. Compared with the corresponding day at BASE, the reduction in YYIR1 distance after EAST was significantly different from the increase in WEST on day 1 after travel (P travel can impede team sport physical performance. Specifically, east travel has a greater detrimental effect on sleep, subjective jet lag, fatigue, and motivation. Consequently, maximal and intermittent sprint performance is also reduced after east travel, particularly within 72 h after arrival.
Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P; Hauser, Anna; Steiner, Thomas; Rysman, Julien; Wehrlin, Jon P; Girard, Olivier
This study aims to investigate physical performance and hematological changes in 32 elite male team-sport players after 14 d of "live high-train low" (LHTL) training in normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h·d at 2800-3000 m) combined with repeated-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5-s sprints with 25 s of passive recovery) either in normobaric hypoxia at 3000 m (LHTL + RSH, namely, LHTLH; n = 11) or in normoxia (LHTL + RSN, namely, LHTL; n = 12) compared with controlled "live low-train low" (LLTL; n = 9) training. Before (Pre), immediately after (Post-1), and 3 wk after (Post-2) the intervention, hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was measured in duplicate [optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method], and vertical jump, repeated-sprint (8 × 20 m-20 s recovery), and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 (YYIR2) performances were tested. Both hypoxic groups similarly increased their Hbmass at Post-1 and Post-2 in reference to Pre (LHTLH: +4.0%, P team-sport players, with benefits lasting for at least 3 wk postintervention.
Martín-González, Juan Manuel; de Saá Guerra, Yves; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Arriaza, Enrique; Valverde-Estévez, Teresa
Team sports are frequently studied by researchers. There is presumption that scoring in basketball is a random process and that can be described using the Poisson Model. Basketball is a collaboration-opposition sport, where the non-linear local interactions among players are reflected in the evolution of the score that ultimately determines the winner. In the NBA, the outcomes of close games are often decided in the last minute, where fouls play a main role. We examined 6130 NBA games in order to analyze the time intervals between baskets and scoring dynamics. Most numbers of baskets (n) over a time interval (ΔT) follow a Poisson distribution, but some (e.g., ΔT = 10 s, n > 3) behave as a Power Law. The Poisson distribution includes most baskets in any game, in most game situations, but in close games in the last minute, the numbers of events are distributed following a Power Law. The number of events can be adjusted by a mixture of two distributions. In close games, both teams try to maintain their advantage solely in order to reach the last minute: a completely different game. For this reason, we propose to use the Poisson model as a reference. The complex dynamics will emerge from the limits of this model.
Jennings, Denise; Cormack, Stuart; Coutts, Aaron J; Boyd, Luke; Aughey, Robert J
To assess the validity and reliability of distance data measured by global positioning system (GPS) units sampling at 1 and 5 Hz during movement patterns common to team sports. Twenty elite Australian Football players each wearing two GPS devices (MinimaxX, Catapult, Australia) completed straight line movements (10, 20, 40 m) at various speeds (walk, jog, stride, sprint), changes of direction (COD) courses of two different frequencies (gradual and tight), and a team sport running simulation circuit. Position and speed data were collected by the GPS devices at 1 and 5 Hz. Distance validity was assessed using the standard error of the estimate (±90% confidence intervals [CI]). Reliability was estimated using typical error (TE) ± 90% CI (expressed as coefficient of variation [CV]). Measurement accuracy decreased as speed of locomotion increased in both straight line and the COD courses. Difference between criterion and GPS measured distance ranged from 9.0% to 32.4%. A higher sampling rate improved validity regardless of distance and locomotion in the straight line, COD and simulated running circuit trials. The reliability improved as distance traveled increased but decreased as speed increased. Total distance over the simulated running circuit exhibited the lowest variation (CV 3.6%) while sprinting over 10 m demonstrated the highest (CV 77.2% at 1 Hz). Current GPS systems maybe limited for assessment of short, high speed straight line running and efforts involving change of direction. An increased sample rate improves validity and reliability of GPS devices.
Ali, Ajmol; O'Donnell, Jemma; Foskett, Andrew; Rutherfurd-Markwick, Kay
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of caffeine supplementation on knee flexor and knee extensor strength before, during and after intermittent running exercise in female team-sport players taking oral contraceptive steroids (OCS). Ten healthy females (24 ± 4 years; 59.7 ± 3.5 kg; undertaking 2-6 training sessions per week) taking low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives of the same hormonal composition took part in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover-design trial. Sixty minutes following the ingestion of a capsule containing 6 mg∙kg -1 body mass anhydrous caffeine or artificial sweetener (placebo), participants completed a 90-min intermittent treadmill-running protocol. Isometric strength performance and eccentric and concentric strength and power of the knee flexors and knee extensors (using isokinetic dynamometer), as well as countermovement jump (CMJ), was measured before, during and after the exercise protocol, as well as ~12 h post-exercise. Blood samples were taken before, during and post-exercise to measure glucose, insulin and free fatty acids (FFA). Caffeine supplementation significantly increased eccentric strength of the knee flexors ( P performance. FFA was elevated with caffeine supplementation over time ( P caffeine intake. Caffeine supplementation increased eccentric strength and power in female team-sport players taking OCS both during an intermittent running protocol and the following morning.
Smith, N C; Bellamy, M; Collins, D J; Newell, D
In this study, we tested some key postulates of Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory in a team sport. The participants were 12 elite male volleyball players who were followed throughout the course of a competitive season. Self-report measures of pre-match and in-game cognitive anxiety and mental effort were collected in groups of players high and low in dispositional anxiety. Player performance was determined from the statistical analysis of match-play. Sets were classified according to the point spread separating the two teams into one of three levels of criticality. Game momentum was also analysed to determine its influence on in-game state anxiety. Significant differences in in-game cognitive anxiety were apparent between high and low trait anxiety groups. An interaction between anxiety grouping and momentum condition was also evident in cognitive anxiety. Differences in set criticality were reflected in significant elevations in mental effort, an effect more pronounced in dispositionally high anxious performers. Consistent with the predictions of processing efficiency theory, mental effort ratings were higher in high trait-anxious players in settings where their performance was equivalent to that of low trait-anxious performers. The usefulness of processing efficiency theory as an explanatory framework in sport anxiety research is discussed in the light of these findings.
Simões, João Gonçalo Madeira Fraga Fernandes
The purpose of this thesis is the study of the impact of two different leadership styles, ethical and despotic, on three different variables of members of a team: positive emotions, negative emotions and perception of team work engagement. Data was collected from both real world companies and through a laboratory study. The results show that ethical leadership seems to positively impact team work engagement perceptions and positive emotions and to negatively impact negative emotions. Despotic...
Full Text Available Aisha K Lofters,1,2 Morgan B Slater,1 Emily Nicholas Angl,1 Fok-Han Leung1 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Centre for Research on Inner City Health, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: To implement and evaluate a private Facebook group for members of a large Ontario multisite Family Health Team (FHT to facilitate improved communication and collaboration. Design: Program implementation and subsequent survey of team members. Setting: A large multisite FHT in Toronto, Ontario. Participants: Health professionals of the FHT. Main outcome measures: Usage patterns and self-reported perceptions of the Facebook group by team members. Results: At the time of the evaluation survey, the Facebook group had 43 members (37.4% of all FHT members. Activity in the group was never high, and posts by team members who were not among the researchers were infrequent throughout the study period. The content of posts fell into two broad categories: 1 information that might be useful to various team members and 2 questions posed by team members that others might be able to answer. Of the 26 team members (22.6% who completed the evaluation survey, many reported that they never logged into the Facebook page (16 respondents, and never used it to communicate with team members outside of their own site of practice (19 respondents. Only six respondents reported no concerns with using Facebook as a professional communication tool; the most frequent concerns were regarding personal and patient privacy. Conclusion: The use of social media by health care practitioners is becoming ubiquitous. However, the issues of privacy concerns and determining how to use social media without adding to provider workload must be addressed to make it a useful tool in health care. Keywords: social media, team-based care, communication, interprofessionalism, social network
Rina A. Smith
Full Text Available Orientation: This study explores shifts in the work identity of individual members of a research team. Research purpose: The aim of the study is to explore shifts in work identity experienced by individual research team members during a project wherein they were studying work identity themselves. Motivation for the study: This study seized the opportunity to do research on the shifts in work identify experienced by researchers whilst they were studying work identify as part of the South African–Netherlands Project for Alternatives in Development. This allowed the researcher the rather novel opportunity of conducting research on researchers and resulted in the project as a whole occurring at a dual level of analysis. Research approach, design and method: Using thematic analysis methodology in the context of qualitative field research, 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted with five participants, all of them part of the research team who were themselves involved in conducting research on work identity. The sixth member of the research team, who is also one of the authors of this article, presented data related to shifts in her own work identity in her dissertation as an autoethnographic account. For purposes of this article, she is referred to as Participant 6. Given the multiple research team members, each one of whom constituted an individual case, the researcher made use of a multiple case study approach whilst focusing on the intrinsic case. The holistic nature of description found in the case study involved every aspect of the lives of the research team members. Analysis was done by means of content analysis. Main findings: In exploring the shifts in work identity experienced by individual research team members, it was discovered that finding meaning and purpose in the professional activities participants engaged in was of critical importance. Contextual realities and the way in which individuals approached the possibility of shifts
Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports. PMID:24282213
Girard, Olivier; Amann, Markus; Aughey, Robert; Billaut, François; Bishop, David J; Bourdon, Pitre; Buchheit, Martin; Chapman, Robert; D'Hooghe, Michel; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Gore, Christopher J; Millet, Grégoire P; Roach, Gregory D; Sargent, Charli; Saunders, Philo U; Schmidt, Walter; Schumacher, Yorck O
Despite the limited research on the effects of altitude (or hypoxic) training interventions on team-sport performance, players from all around the world engaged in these sports are now using altitude training more than ever before. In March 2013, an Altitude Training and Team Sports conference was held in Doha, Qatar, to establish a forum of research and practical insights into this rapidly growing field. A round-table meeting in which the panellists engaged in focused discussions concluded this conference. This has resulted in the present position statement, designed to highlight some key issues raised during the debates and to integrate the ideas into a shared conceptual framework. The present signposting document has been developed for use by support teams (coaches, performance scientists, physicians, strength and conditioning staff) and other professionals who have an interest in the practical application of altitude training for team sports. After more than four decades of research, there is still no consensus on the optimal strategies to elicit the best results from altitude training in a team-sport population. However, there are some recommended strategies discussed in this position statement to adopt for improving the acclimatisation process when training/competing at altitude and for potentially enhancing sea-level performance. It is our hope that this information will be intriguing, balanced and, more importantly, stimulating to the point that it promotes constructive discussion and serves as a guide for future research aimed at advancing the bourgeoning body of knowledge in the area of altitude training for team sports.
Mathys, Monica; Neyland-Turner, Elizabeth; Hamouie, Keenan; Kim, Emily
The effect of pharmacy students as primary pharmacy members on inpatient interdisciplinary mental health teams was investigated. This retrospective study used Veterans Affairs data from veterans who were admitted to an inpatient mental health unit from January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2012. Eligible veterans had to have been hospitalized for at least five days and treated with at least five scheduled medications during the hospitalization. Information collected by the investigators included patient age, psychiatric diagnoses, accuracy of medication reconciliation on admission and at discharge, and readmission rates within six months and one year. Additional information collected included monitoring parameters for lithium, divalproex, first-generation antipsychotics, and second-generation antipsychotics. The primary outcome was the percentage of accurate medication reconciliations for treatment teams with a fourth-year pharmacy student and without a pharmacy student. Clinical monitoring and readmission rates were also compared. A total of 526 patients were eligible for study inclusion. Medication reconciliation was performed on admission for all patients followed by a team involving a pharmacy student (experimental group), but only 51% of patients in the control group had documented medication reconciliations in the medical chart. Of the medication reconciliations completed, 82% were performed correctly in the experimental group, compared with 61% when a pharmacy student was not involved (p = 0.006). There were no significant differences between groups in psychotropic monitoring and readmission rates. The presence of fourth-year pharmacy students on inpatient mental health interdisciplinary teams was associated with more frequent interventions, patient counseling, and medication reconciliation, compared with rates for teams without a pharmacy student. Medication reconciliation was performed more consistently and accurately when the teams had a pharmacy student
Singh, Tarveen K R; Guelfi, Kym J; Landers, Grant; Dawson, Brian; Bishop, David
The aim was to compare the effect of a simulated team sport activity circuit (reflective of the activity demands of Australian football) either with or without body 'contact' on muscle soreness, damage, and performance when the circuit was repeated 48 h later. Eleven male, team-sport athletes completed a 'non-contact' (NCON) and a 'contact' (CON) version of the team sport activity circuit in a crossover design with at least 1 week between trials. The effect of CON and NCON on repeated 15m sprint and vertical jump performance was assessed by completing the same version of the circuit 48 h after the initial trial. The effect on perceived soreness and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation was also determined. Subsequent performance was affected to a greater extent by CON, with both best and mean sprint times significantly slower 48h following CON (psoreness and pressure sensitivity were elevated following both NCON and CON (psoreness was greater with CON (p=0.012). Both CON and NCON resulted in elevated serum creatine kinase, myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase, while c-reactive protein increased following CON but not NCON. In conclusion, Greater perceived soreness and decrements in performance of the simulated team sport activity circuit when repeated 48 h later were observed following CON. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available During the last few decades, the role of the service sector in the overall economic activities has become more significant in many countries, particularly the most developed ones. This has provoked increased scholars' interest so they have begun researching many service markets more extensively. Their interest has been further stimulated by growing competition, development of new technologies and changes in consumer behaviour. These market changes have forced sport clubs' management to focus on providing higher service quality and strengthening team identification among consumers. The research presented in this paper was conducted on the fans of the Croatian football club Hajduk Split and it examines the relationship between service quality and team identification on the one hand and service quality and repurchase intention on the other as well as the intermediary role of word-of-mouth communication in the relationship between service quality and repurchase intentions. The results show that there is an indirect positive influence of service quality on repurchase intention through word-of-mouth communication, as well as a direct positive link between team identification and repurchase intention.
Goetz, Katja; Campbell, Stephen; Broge, Bjoern; Reuschenbach, Bernd; Wensing, Michel
Background Previous research has shown a correlation between physician job satisfaction and patient satisfaction with quality of care, but the connection between job satisfaction of other primary care team members and patient satisfaction is yet unclear. Objective To evaluate whether there is an association between patient satisfaction and job satisfaction of the members of patient care teams. Design The study was based on data from the European Practice Assessment and used an observational design. Setting 676 primary care practices in Germany. Participants 47 168 patients, 676 general practitioners (practice principals), 305 physician colleagues (trainees and permanently employed physicians) and 3011 non-physician practice members (nurses, secretaries). Main outcome measures Patient evaluation was measured using the 23-item EUROPEP questionnaire. Job satisfaction was measured using the 10-item Warr–Cook–Wall job satisfaction scale and further items relating to practice structure. Bivariate correlations were applied in which factors of patient satisfaction and practice structure were compared with physicians and non-physicians satisfaction. Results Patient satisfaction correlates positively with the general job satisfaction of the non-physician (r=0.25, ppatient satisfaction was higher than the correlation between satisfaction of physicians and patients. Patients seem to be sensitive to aspects of practice structure. PMID:21262790
A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by NASA Astronaut Scott E. Parazynski (left) upon her arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station as her teammates look on. The team is at KSC to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93 scheduled for liftoff at 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five- day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X- ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.
Jaime Morrison, Chris McLellan, Clare Minahan
Full Text Available The present study compared the performance (peak speed, distance, and acceleration of ten amateur team-sport athletes during a clustered (i.e., multiple sets repeated-sprint protocol, (4 sets of 4, 4-s running sprints; i.e., RSR444 in normobaric normoxia (FiO2 = 0.209; i.e., RSN with normobaric hypoxia (FiO2 = 0.140; i.e., RSH. Subjects completed two separate trials (i. RSN, ii. RSH; randomised order between 48 h and 72 h apart on a non-motorized treadmill. In addition to performance, we examined blood lactate concentration [La-] and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 before, during, and after the RSR444. While there were no differences in peak speed or distance during set 1 or set 2, peak speed (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively and distance (p = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively were greater during set 3 and set 4 of RSN compared with RSH. There was no difference in the average acceleration achieved in set 1 (p = 0.45, set 2 (p = 0.26, or set 3 (p = 0.23 between RSN and RSH; however, the average acceleration was greater in RSN than RSH in set 4 (p < 0.01. Measurements of [La-] were higher during RSH than RSN immediately after Sprint 16 (10.2 ± 2.5 vs 8.6 ± 2.6 mM; p = 0.02. Estimations of SpO2 were lower during RSH than RSN, respectively, immediately prior to the commencement of the test (89.0 ± 2.0 vs 97.2 ± 1.5 %, post Sprint 8 (78.0 ± 6.3 vs 93.8 ± 3.6 % and post Sprint 16 (75.3 ± 6.3 vs 94.5 ± 2.5 %; all p < 0.01. In summary, the RSR444 is a practical protocol for the implementation of a hypoxic repeated-sprint training intervention into the training schedules of team-sport athletes. However, given the inability of amateur team-sport athletes to maintain performance in hypoxic (FiO2 = 0.140 conditions, the potential for specific training outcomes (i.e. speed to be achieved will be compromised, thus suggesting that the RSR444 should be used with caution.
Full Text Available Seen as a psycho-social products, motivation, attitudes and the view of life depends on the education, socio-cultural environment etc. The individual’s personality marks his activities, motivations and interests, as it ensures the direction and dynamics of the participation to it. Within the group, the individual seeks to satisfy personal needs, in agreement with the achievement of the organizational goals. The level of motivation of the individual is determined by the action of several factors, and the contribution of each member of the group's performance is different. We aim to assess the level of motivation of the members of sports groups. The research sample was composed of athletes (N=158, 55 females, 103 males from the sports groups within the city of Iasi, part of the first and second sports divisions (basketball, football, handball, rugby, and volleyball. The respondents answered to a adapted to the Romanian population 32-item questionnaire; the items were grouped into four factors: leadership (power needs, expertise / performance (achievement needs, bonding (affiliation needs, subsistence (existence needs. The homogeneity instrument was assessed for the entire scale, as well as independently for each factor. The lack of variance homogeneity made it impossible to get outcomes for the interaction of the independent variables such as the type of club and the status. No gender-based differences were found regarding the power needs. If the type of club does not influence the expert/performance factor, have identified a partial influences of this variable over the bonding factor. Professional athletes are more motivated to achieve the performance than semi professional athletes.
Powell, Rhea E; Doty, Amanda; Casten, Robin J; Rovner, Barry W; Rising, Kristin L
Healthcare systems increasingly engage interprofessional healthcare team members such as case managers, social workers, and community health workers to work directly with patients and improve population health. This study elicited perspectives of interprofessional healthcare team members regarding patient barriers to health and suggestions to address these barriers. This is a qualitative study employing focus groups and semi-structured interviews with 39 interprofessional healthcare team members in Philadelphia to elicit perceptions of patients' needs and experiences with the health system, and suggestions for positioning health care systems to better serve patients. Themes were identified using a content analysis approach. Three focus groups and 21 interviews were conducted with 26 hospital-based and 13 ambulatory-based participants. Three domains emerged to characterize barriers to care: social determinants, health system factors, and patient trust in the health system. Social determinants included insurance and financial shortcomings, mental health and substance abuse issues, housing and transportation-related limitations, and unpredictability associated with living in poverty. Suggestions for addressing these barriers included increased financial assistance from the health system, and building a workforce to address these determinants directly. Health care system factors included poor care coordination, inadequate communication of hospital discharge instructions, and difficulty navigating complex systems. Suggestions for addressing these barriers included enhanced communication between care sites, patient-centered scheduling, and improved patient education especially in discharge planning. Finally, factors related to patient trust of the health system emerged. Participants reported that patients are often intimidated by the health system, mistrusting of physicians, and fearful of receiving a serious diagnosis or prognosis. A suggestion for mitigating these
Killowe, C; Mkandawire, NC
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an interview format. Among the players 37% had completed tertiary education and 60% had finished secondary school education. Most players had poor knowledge on prevention of injur...
Malacko, Julijan; Doder, Dragan; Djurdjević, Slavisa; Savić, Biljana; Doder, Radoslava
In modern training technology, assessment of aerobic bioenergetic potential in athletes is commonly performed by standard laboratory procedures to determine basic or specific functional abilities for specific sport activity or discipline. The aim of study was to assess the aerobic bioenergetic potential of athletes participating in basketball, football and handball. The study included 87 athletes (29 basketball players, 29 football players, and 29 handball players) aged 21-24. Evaluation of the aerobic bioenergetic potential of athletes participating in basketball, football and handball was performed followed by both univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate (MANOVA) statistical methods to determine differences among the athletes in relative (VO2 mL/kg/min) and absolute oxygen consumption (VO2 L/min). Statistically significant differences between absolute and relative oxygen consumption were found in basketball players (Mb), football players (Mf), and handball players (Mh) (MANOVA, p = 0.00). ANOVA also revealed significant differences in relative oxygen consumption (VO2 mL/kg/min) (p = 0.00). The football players (55.32 mL/kg/min) had the highest relative oxygen consumption, followed by the handball players (51.84 mL/kg/min) and basketball players (47.00 mL/kg/min). The highest absolute oxygen consumption was recorded in the basketball players (4.47 L/min), followed by the handball players (4.40 L/min) and footballers (4.16 L/min). Statistically significant differences in the aerobic bioenergetic potential, expressed by the relative oxygen consumption were found among atletes participating in different team sports. It can be assumed that the player from the sports in which it is necessary to cross greater distance in total during the match have a greater need for aerobic capacity.
Lyudmila N. Voloshina
Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the children's readiness (in the age of 5-7 years old to interact with peers and adults in the elementary sports and gaming activities. The study was carried out within the framework of the pilot program of the Russian Academy of Education, based on the pre-school educational institutions in the city of Belgorod. To study the relationship in the children's team we used observation, sociometric technique, and diagnostic game situation. The analysis of results obtained showed the presence of problems of readiness to interact with peers and the formation of a communicative component of social experience in children in the age of 5-7 years old. Namely: insufficient level of children's independence, limited ideas about the possibility of using the sports and gaming activities in their own experience, low level of social and normative behavior. The results of the study confirmed the data previously presented in the publications on the growth in the number of preschool children not capable to interpersonal interaction.
Coutts, Aaron J; Duffield, Rob
There is limited information regarding the validity and reliability of global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement during team sports. The aim of this study was to assess the validity and intra-model reliability of different GPS devices for quantifying high-intensity, intermittent exercise performance. Two moderately trained males each completed eight bouts of a standard circuit that consisted of six laps around a 128.5-m course involving intermittent exercise. Distance and speed were collected concurrently at 1-Hz using six GPS devices (2 SPI-10, 2 SPI Elite and 2 WiSPI, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). Performance measures were: (1) total distance covered for each bout and each lap; (2) high-intensity running distance (>14.4 km h(-1), HIR); very high-intensity running distance (>20 km h(-1), VHIR) during each bout. Peak speed was also measured during a 20-m sprint at the start of each lap of the circuit (N=192). Actual distance was measured using a measuring tape. Mean (+/-SD) circuit total distance was significantly different between each of the GPS devices (PGPS devices. These results show that the GPS devices have an acceptable level of accuracy and reliability for total distance and peak speeds during high-intensity, intermittent exercise, but may not be provide reliable measures for higher intensity activities. Copyright (c) 2008 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Higgins, Trevor R; Greene, David A; Baker, Michael K
Higgins, TR, Greene, DA, Baker, MK. Effects of cold water immersion and contrast water therapy for recovery from team sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1443-1460, 2017-To enhance recovery from sport, cold water immersion (CWI) and contrast water therapy (CWT) have become common practice within high level team sport. Initially, athletes relied solely on anecdotal support. As there has been an increase in the volume of research into recovery including a number of general reviews, an opportunity existed to narrow the focus specifically examining the use of hydrotherapy for recovery in team sport. A Boolean logic [AND] keyword search of databases was conducted: SPORTDiscus; AMED; CINAHL; MEDLINE. Data were extracted and the standardized mean differences were calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI). The analysis of pooled data was conducted using a random-effect model, with heterogeneity assessed using I. Twenty-three peer reviewed articles (n = 606) met the criteria. Meta-analyses results indicated CWI was beneficial for recovery at 24 hours (countermovement jump: p = 0.05, CI: -0.004 to 0.578; All-out sprint: p = 0.02, -0.056 to 0.801) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for recovery at 72 hours (fatigue: p = 0.03, CI: 0.061-1.418) and CWT was beneficial for recovery at 48 hours (fatigue: p = 0.04, CI: 0.013-0.942) following team sport. The CWI was beneficial for neuromuscular recovery 24 hours following team sport, whereas CWT was not beneficial for recovery following team sport. In addition, when evaluating accumulated sprinting, CWI was not beneficial for recovery following team sports. In evaluating subjective measures, both CWI (72 hours) and CWT (24 hours) were beneficial for recovery of perceptions of fatigue, following team sport. However neither CWI nor CWT was beneficial for recovery, of perceptions of muscle soreness, following team sport.
Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner
group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training...
Darnis, Florence; Lafont, Lucile
Background: Within a socio-constructivist perspective, this study is situated at the crossroads of three theoretical approaches. First, it is based upon team sport and the tactical act model in games teaching. Second, it took place in dyadic or small group learning conditions with verbal interaction. Furthermore, these interventions were based on…
Smither, Katelyn; Xihe Zhu,
This study examined high school students' experiences in a Sport Education unit being implemented with smaller teams and fewer roles. The participants included one physical education teacher and her 70 ninth-grade students. Each week, we conducted two to three observations and four to six informal interviews with the participants for over eight…
Fox, Claudia K.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie
Background: Previous studies have found that higher physical activity levels are associated with greater academic achievement among students. However, it remains unclear whether associations are due to the physical activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose…
Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; Peeling, Peter
Over recent decades, the use of player tracking technology to monitor physical work output has become established practice in many team sports. Early tracking systems were manual in nature, relying on subjective assessments and arbitrary classifications of movement intensity. Poor spatial and temporal resolution meant that only gross displacement measures could be used to infer energy demands. However, the advent and evolution of automated systems, with higher sampling rates and improved accuracy, have enabled data collection to occur on a mass scale, and served as a catalyst for extensive research into the demands of team sport activity, including comparisons between different groups of athletes, and the effects of various interventions on performance. The inherent assumption with this research is that, based on steady-state models where energy cost is independent of speed, total distance and average speed are indicative of the amount and rate of work done, respectively. This assumption could be justified if the activity was performed at a constant speed in a straight line. However, team sport movement involves continual changes in both speed and direction, both of which increase energy cost. Accordingly, new models have emerged that incorporate both speed and acceleration to determine metabolic power. This provides a more complete measure of energy expenditure in intermittent activity, and is potentially more suitable than displacement variables for research into the demands of team sports.
ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is
Lalor, Joan G; Begley, Cecily M; Devane, Declan
This paper reports a study of the impact of emotional narratives on the well-being of members of a qualitative research team during the conduct of sensitive research. Qualitative data are frequently collected from participants using repeated in-depth interviews when exploring sensitive issues such as loss and grief. The research process can evoke highly emotional responses in the participant and others involved in the study. While consideration has been given to the impact of the research process on participants when a highly affective component is involved, relatively little attention has been given to research team members' experiences. Through analysis of fieldwork records from a grounded theory study of the experiences of women who were carrying a baby with a foetal abnormality, we discuss the affective issues arising in conducting sensitive research. Data sources included two reflexive journals, written comments from two transcribers and the transcript of an interview with the research supervisor. The core category of 'Connecting with the data' emerged, to which each substantive category relates. Three substantive categories -'bearing to watch,''bearing to listen' and 'bearing to support'- emerged as independent but inter-related aspects of the research process as experienced by the researcher, transcribers and supervisor. Methods of protecting the research team and the integrity of the study when the substantive issue is highly emotive are discussed. The emotional impact of research on participants is normally considered prior to the conduct of any sensitive research, and efforts are made to protect them. The potential for researchers, transcribers and supervisors to be harmed should also be carefully considered when planning a project with significant affective elements.
Lockie, Robert G; Murphy, Aron J; Scott, Brendan R; Janse de Jonge, Xanne A K
Session ratings of perceived exertion (session RPE) are commonly used to assess global training intensity for team sports. However, there is little research quantifying the intensity of field-based training protocols for speed development. The study's aim was to determine the session RPE of popular training protocols (free sprint [FST], resisted sprint [RST], and plyometrics [PT]) designed to improve sprint acceleration over 10 m in team sport athletes. Twenty-seven men (age = 23.3 ± 4.7 years; mass = 84.5 ± 8.9 kg; height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m) were divided into 3 groups according to 10-m velocity. Training consisted of an incremental program featuring two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 weeks. Subjects recorded session RPE 30 minutes post training using the Borg category-ratio 10 scale. Repeated measures analysis of variance found significant (p sports conditioning program.
Billaut, François; Aughey, Robert J
The internationalism of field-based team sports (TS) such as football and rugby requires teams to compete in tournaments held at low to moderate altitude (∼1200-2500 m). In TS, acceleration, speed and aerobic endurance are physical characteristics associated with ball possession and, ultimately, scoring. While these qualities are affected by the development of neuromuscular fatigue at sea level, arterial hypoxaemia induced by exposure to altitude may further hinder the capacity to perform consecutive accelerations (CAC) or sprint endurance and thereby change the outcome of a match. The higher the altitude, the more severe the hypoxaemia, and thus, the larger the expected decline in aerobic endurance, CAC and match running performance. Therefore, it is critical for athletes and coaches to understand how arterial hypoxaemia affects aerobic endurance and CAC and the magnitude of decline they may face at altitude for optimal preparation and increased chances of success. This mini review summarises the effects of acute altitude/hypoxia exposure on aerobic endurance, CAC and activity profiles of TS athletes performing in the laboratory and during matches at natural altitude, and analyses the latest findings about the consequences of arterial hypoxaemia on the relationship between peripheral perturbations, neural adjustments and performance during repeated sprints or CAC. Finally, we briefly discuss how altitude training can potentially help athletes prepare for competition at altitude.
Hudson, J; Davison, G; Robinson, P
Examinations of stress in coaches have mainly been qualitative and focused on chronic stressors. This exploratory study examined stress responses in coaches during competition, including psychological and physiological indices. Using reversal theory, we examined metamotivational state profiles during competition. Ten male team sport coaches (mean age 39.8 ± 13.12 years) reported levels of subjective stress, pleasant and unpleasant emotions, metamotivational state, and provided saliva samples, on a competition day: 15 min prior to the pre-match team talk; start of the match; end of the first half; start of the second half, and end of the match, then at equivalent times on a noncompetition day. Saliva samples were assayed for alpha-amylase activity. On competition day, alpha-amylase activity was significantly higher, as were subjective stress, arousal, and unpleasant emotions. Prior to and during active play, participants were mainly in the conformist, alloic (other-oriented), and mastery states, and at the end of the match, in the telic and sympathy states. Only 22 metamotivational state reversals were observed, mostly at the start and end of the match. The elevated levels of subjective stress, alpha-amylase activity, and unpleasant emotions suggest that educational programs may be useful for some coaches to manage psychological states during competition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Finberg, Matthew; Braham, Rebecca; Goodman, Carmel; Gregory, Peter; Peeling, Peter
To assess the efficacy of a 1-off electrostimulation treatment as a recovery modality from acute team-sport exercise, directly comparing the benefits to contrast water therapy. Ten moderately trained male athletes completed a simulated team-game circuit (STGC). At the conclusion of exercise, participants then completed a 30-min recovery modality of either electrostimulation therapy (EST), contrast water therapy (CWT), or a passive resting control condition (CON). Twenty-four hours later, participants were required to complete a modified STGC as a measure of next-day performance. Venous blood samples were collected preexercise and 3 and 24 h postexercise. Blood samples were analyzed for circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The EST trial resulted in significantly faster sprint times during the 24-h postrecovery than with CON (P .05). There were no differences in IL-6 or CRP across all trials. Finally, the perception of recovery was significantly greater in the EST trial than in the CWT and CON (P < .05). These results suggest that a 1-off treatment with EST may be beneficial to perceptual recovery, which may enhance next-day performance.
van der Does, H T D; Brink, M S; Benjaminse, A; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing stability after a single-leg jump landing and landing technique during a repeated counter movement jump by detailed 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. During the season 11 acute ankle injuries were reported along with 6 acute and 7 overuse knee injuries by the teams' physical therapist. Logistic regression analysis showed less landing stability in the forward and diagonal jump direction (OR 1.01-1.10, p≤0.05) in players who sustained an acute ankle injury. Furthermore landing technique with a greater ankle dorsiflexion moment increased the risk for acute ankle injury (OR 2.16, p≤0.05). A smaller knee flexion moment and greater vertical ground reaction force increased the risk of an overuse knee injury (OR 0.29 and 1.13 respectively, p≤0.05). Less one-legged landing stability and suboptimal landing technique were shown in players sustaining an acute ankle and overuse knee injury compared to healthy players. Determining both landing stability and technique may further guide injury prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cusimano, Michael D; Cho, Newton; Amin, Khizer; Shirazi, Mariam; McFaull, Steven R; Do, Minh T; Wong, Matthew C; Russell, Kelly
There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports. We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football), basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed. There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP). Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%), followed by soccer (19.0%) and football (12.9%). In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post) among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females). Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.
Michael D Cusimano
Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.
Arnett, Kelly; Sudore, Rebecca L; Nowels, David; Feng, Cindy X; Levy, Cari R; Lum, Hillary D
Interprofessional health care team members consider advance care planning (ACP) to be important, yet gaps remain in systematic clinical routines to support ACP. A clearer understanding of the interprofessional team members' perspectives on ACP clinical routines in diverse settings is needed. One hundred eighteen health care team members from community-based clinics, long-term care facilities, academic clinics, federally qualified health centers, and hospitals participated in a 35-question, cross-sectional online survey to assess clinical routines, workflow processes, and policies relating to ACP. Respondents were 53% physicians, 18% advanced practice nurses, 11% nurses, and 18% other interprofessional team members including administrators, chaplains, social workers, and others. Regarding clinical routines, respondents reported that several interprofessional team members play a role in facilitating ACP (ie, physician, social worker, nurse, others). Most (62%) settings did not have, or did not know of, policies related to ACP documentation. Only 14% of settings had a patient education program. Two-thirds of the respondents said that addressing ACP is a high priority and 85% felt that nonphysicians could have ACP conversations with appropriate training. The clinical resources needed to improve clinical routines included training for providers and staff, dedicated staff to facilitate ACP, and availability of patient/family educational materials. Although interprofessional health care team members consider ACP a priority and several team members may be involved, clinical settings lack systematic clinical routines to support ACP. Patient educational materials, interprofessional team training, and policies to support ACP clinical workflows that do not rely solely on physicians could improve ACP across diverse clinical settings.
Scrum is an agile software development methodology that suggests highly structured and iterative processes of software development by small autonomous teams (Schwaber & Sutherland, 2011). It is hypothesized that Scrum can be implemented in a way that supports and potentially improves Development Team members’ self-control. High self-control yields positive effects in countless life domains (Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004). One correlative study with 23 Development Teams and...
Morgan, Paul; Fletcher, David; Sarkar, Mustafa
Objective: Although team resilience research has identified the characteristics of elite sport teams that positively adapt to adversity, further research is required to understand how resilient teams function. The objective of this study, therefore, was to explore the psychosocial processes underpinning team resilience in elite sport.\\ud Design and Method: Narrative inquiry was employed to better understand team resilience. The sample consisted of eight members of the 2003 England rugby union...
Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Maupin, Genny M
This study investigated whether Critical Care Air Transport Team (CCATT) members are at increased risk for incident post-deployment mental health conditions. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 604 U.S. Air Force medical personnel without preexisting mental health conditions who had at least one deployment as a CCATT member during 2003-2012 as compared to a control group of 604 medical personnel, frequency matched based on job role, with at least one deployment during the same period, but without CCATT experience. Electronic health record data were used to ascertain the diagnosis of a mental health condition. The incidence of post-deployment mental health conditions was 2.1 per 1000 mo for the CCATT group versus 2.2 per 1000 mo for the control group. The six most frequent diagnoses were the same in both groups: adjustment reaction not including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, major depressive disorder, specific disorders of sleep of nonorganic origin, PTSD, and depressive disorder not elsewhere classified. Women were at marginally increased risk and nurses and technicians were at twice the risk of physicians. The distribution of the time interval from end of the most recent deployment to diagnosis of incident mental health condition was positively skewed with a median greater than 6 mo. CCATT members were at no increased risk for incident post-deployment mental health conditions as compared to non-CCATT medical service members. Nearly two-thirds of incident post-deployment mental health conditions were diagnosed outside the standard 6-mo medical surveillance period, a finding warranting further study.
Cunniffe, Brian; Griffiths, Hywel; Proctor, Wayne; Jones, Ken P; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce
Use of Web-based data recording systems has received little attention in sport. An "online" training diary could provide a valuable alternative to pen-paper methods in the regular assessment of physical activity and illness occurrence in athletes. The objective of this study was to design and implement a user-friendly and efficient system to monitor incidences of illness in team sport athletes. Prospective monitoring study over a 48-week rugby season. Players were asked to register presence/absence of weekly illness symptoms with medical staff and also use an online training diary. Submitted self-reported diary illness data were compared with illness complaint data recorded by medical staff. Diary response rates were calculated from the number of completed diary entries against the number of available/required entries over the season. Web-based training diary. Thirty professional rugby union players. Comparison of gastrointestinal and upper respiratory illnesses (URIs) reported by players using an online diary and to medical staff. Incidences of URIs. The diary response rate in the reporting of weekly illnesses was 79% over the study period. Discrepancy existed between the number of self-reported URIs by players using the diary (118 URI incidences) compared with those reported to medical staff (23 URI incidences). Totaling all URI episodes (those self-reported + those registered by medical staff) revealed that players reported just 19% of URI episodes to medical staff. Players tend to underreport incidences of banal infections. Closer monitoring of self-reported illnesses using a similar system in the present study may provide a better alternative to previous methods in nonclinical illness assessment.
Fuller, Kate L; Juliff, Laura; Gore, Christopher J; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Halson, Shona L
Actical ® actigraphy is commonly used to monitor athlete sleep. The proprietary software, called Actiware ® , processes data with three different sleep-wake thresholds (Low, Medium or High), but there is no standardisation regarding their use. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and bias of the sleep-wake thresholds for processing Actical ® sleep data in team sport athletes. Validation study comparing actigraph against accepted gold standard polysomnography (PSG). Sixty seven nights of sleep were recorded simultaneously with polysomnography and Actical ® devices. Individual night data was compared across five sleep measures for each sleep-wake threshold using Actiware ® software. Accuracy of each sleep-wake threshold compared with PSG was evaluated from mean bias with 95% confidence limits, Pearson moment-product correlation and associated standard error of estimate. The Medium threshold generated the smallest mean bias compared with polysomnography for total sleep time (8.5min), sleep efficiency (1.8%) and wake after sleep onset (-4.1min); whereas the Low threshold had the smallest bias (7.5min) for wake bouts. Bias in sleep onset latency was the same across thresholds (-9.5min). The standard error of the estimate was similar across all thresholds; total sleep time ∼25min, sleep efficiency ∼4.5%, wake after sleep onset ∼21min, and wake bouts ∼8 counts. Sleep parameters measured by the Actical ® device are greatly influenced by the sleep-wake threshold applied. In the present study the Medium threshold produced the smallest bias for most parameters compared with PSG. Given the magnitude of measurement variability, confidence limits should be employed when interpreting changes in sleep parameters. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.
Morano, Milena; Colella, Dario; Capranica, Laura
The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among body image, perception of physical abilities, and motor performance in boys involved in organized individual (i.e. tennis, fencing, judo) and team (i.e. soccer, handball, volleyball) sports. Altogether, 162 children (12.6 ± 1.0 years) were categorized as normal-weight (n = 85) or overweight (n = 77). Body image was measured using Collins' Child Figure Drawings, while individuals' perceptions of strength, speed, and agility were assessed using the Perceived Physical Ability Scale. Fitness tests of the standing long jump, 20 m sprint, and 10 × 5 m shuttle-run were also administered. Overweight boys showed greater body dissatisfaction and lower actual physical abilities than normal-weight peers. Participants involved in team sports reported lower body dissatisfaction and better performances in the shuttle-run compared with those involved in individual sports. For boys participating in team sports, body dissatisfaction was a significant mediator of the effect of body mass index on perceived physical ability. Results may influence intervention efforts, suggesting that targeting personal, psychological, and physical factors may prove efficient across physical activity locations and weight groups.
Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding measurement of the flexibility of the hamstring as a predictive screening tool, as well as using the H
Song, Ji Hoon
The purpose of this research was to examine the mediating roles of job autonomy and the quality of the leader-member relationship to explain the impact of organizational support on team performance. A total of 228 cases collected from Korean business organizations were used for data analysis. Hierarchical multiple regression, Type 1 SS-based…
Farrell, Charles S.
The members of the College Football Association are determined that college football not be "held hostage" to correct the economic imbalance of college sports. Self-determination for Division I-A football, academic standards, and TV coverage are discussed. (MLW)
Wehbe, George; Gabett, Tim J; Dwyer, Dan; McLellan, Christopher; Coad, Sam
To compare a novel sprint test on a cycle ergometer with a countermovement-jump (CMJ) test for monitoring neuromuscular fatigue after Australian rules football match play. Twelve elite under-18 Australian rules football players (mean ± SD age 17.5 ± 0.6 y, stature 184.7 ± 8.8 cm, body mass 75.3 ± 7.8 kg) from an Australian Football League club's Academy program performed a short sprint test on a cycle ergometer along with a single CMJ test 1 h prematch and 1, 24, and 48 h postmatch. The cycle-ergometer sprint test involved a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-s sprint, a 1-min active recovery, and a 2nd maximal 6-s sprint, with the highest power output of the 2 sprints recorded as peak power (PP). There were small to moderate differences between postmatch changes in cycle-ergometer PP and CMJ PP at 1 (ES = 0.49), 24 (ES = -0.85), and 48 h postmatch (ES = 0.44). There was a substantial reduction in cycle-ergometer PP at 24 h postmatch (ES = -0.40) compared with 1 h prematch. The cycle-ergometer sprint test described in this study offers a novel method of neuromuscular-fatigue monitoring in team-sport athletes and specifically quantifies the concentric component of the fatigue-induced decrement of force production in muscle, which may be overlooked by a CMJ test.
Full Text Available Purpose: to study individual characteristics of personalities of team kinds of sports sportsmen, specializing in football. Material: in the research football players (n=28, age 18 - 20 years participated. Psycho-diagnostic testing by methodic 16PF of Kattel was used. Results: we found high correlation between factors, which were conditioned by caution in choosing partners for communication and active contacts. Such sportsmen express their emotions expressively. It facilitates improvement of relations in conditions of co-operation in little group. It was also found that one of personality’s leading characteristics in sportsmen is their activity in social contacts. The higher is courage the more active is communication. It promotes discussion of common interests and targets for the given group of people. Conclusions: Sportsmen, who have many emotional interests and are ready to risk (or having bent to adventures have to face non understanding of other players. In such case conflict can be inevitable. Especially it manifests, if opposite side has the same indicators in this factor. Just courage, risk and adventurism push them to conflict solution of problem situations.
Jackson, Benjamin M; Polglaze, Ted; Dawson, Brian; King, Trish; Peeling, Peter
To compare data from conventional GPS and new GNSS-enabled tracking devices, and to examine the inter-unit reliability of GNSS devices. Inter-device differences between 10 Hz GPS and GNSS devices were examined during laps (n=40) of a simulated game circuit (SGC) and during elite hockey matches (n=21); GNSS inter-unit reliability was also examined during the SGC laps. Differences in distance values and measures in three velocity categories (low 5 m.s -1 ) and acceleration/deceleration counts (>1.46 m.s -2 and GNSS reliability was examined using the coefficient of variation (CV) and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-device differences (P GNSS) differences (P GNSS devices had a lower HDoP score than GPS devices in all conditions. These findings suggest that GNSS devices may be more sensitive than GPS in quantifying the physical demands of team sport movements, but further study into the accuracy of GNSS devices is required.
Sinha, Ruchi; Janardhanan, Niranjan S; Greer, Lindred L; Conlon, Donald E; Edwards, Jeffery R
Task conflict has been the subject of a long-standing debate in the literature-when does task conflict help or hurt team performance? We propose that this debate can be resolved by taking a more precise view of how task conflicts are perceived in teams. Specifically, we propose that in teams, when a few team members perceive a high level of task disagreement while a majority of others perceive low levels of task disagreement-that is, there is positively skewed task conflict, task conflict is most likely to live up to its purported benefits for team performance. In our first study of student teams engaged in a business decision game, we find support for the positive relationship between skewed task conflict and team performance. In our second field study of teams in a financial corporation, we find that the relationship between positively skewed task conflict and supervisor ratings of team performance is mediated by reflective communication within the team. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Larissa Rafaela Galatti
Full Text Available O estudo trata das possibilidades pedagógicas do livro didático (LD como recurso nas aulas de Educação Física, tendo por conteúdo o esporte e, em específico, os jogos esportivos coletivos (JECs. Foi desenvolvida uma revisão bibliográfica dos termos citados e, a partir desta, o estudo avança para a proposição de um livro didático em educação física na temática dos JECs, considerando dois referenciais: um técnico-tático e outro sócio-educativo. Para tal, recorremos a métodos provenientes da área da lingüística, com o desenvolvimento de uma Seqüência Didática que permitiu a seleção e distribuição dos conteúdos a serem apresentados no LD de forma ordenada e criteriosa. O foco nos JECs se justifica pela sua inserção sócio-cultural e pela necessidade de transformar estudos mais recentes em novos procedimentos pedagógicos para a prática dessas modalidades. O livro didático, bem como a preparação adequada dos profissionais que o utilizarão, é apontado como facilitador no processo de ensino, vivência e aprendizagem dos jogos esportivos coletivos.The study deals with the pedagogical possibilities of text books as a resource for Physical Education (PE classes based on sports, specifically team sports. It started from a bibliographical review on the cited terms and after that we advanced our studies in order to propose a didactic text book on Team Sports for PE classes considering two benchmarks: one technical-tactic and the other social-educational. In order to do so, we used methods from linguistics, and the development of a Didactic Sequence allowed the selection and distribution of the contents to be presented in the book in an orderly and judicious way. The focus in Team Sports is justified by its social-cultural insertion and by the need to transform recent studies into new pedagogical procedures for practicing them. The didactic text book, as well as the adequate preparation of the professionals who will use
Silva, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith; Araújo, Duarte; Garganta, Júlio
Small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) in sport have been modelled as complex adaptive systems. Research has shown that the relative space per player (RSP) formulated in SSCGs can impact on emergent tactical behaviours. In this study we adopted a systems orientation to analyse how different RSP values, obtained through manipulations of player numbers, influenced four measures of interpersonal coordination observed during performance in SSCGs. For this purpose we calculated positional data (GPS 15 Hz) from ten U-15 football players performing in three SSCGs varying in player numbers (3v3, 4v4 and 5v5). Key measures of SSCG system behaviours included values of (1) players' dispersion, (2) teams' separateness, (3) coupling strength and time delays between participants' emerging movements, respectively. Results showed that values of participants' dispersion increased, but the teams' separateness remained identical across treatments. Coupling strength and time delay also showed consistent values across SSCGs. These results exemplified how complex adaptive systems, like football teams, can harness inherent degeneracy to maintain similar team spatial-temporal relations with opponents through changes in inter-individual coordination modes (i.e., players' dispersion). The results imply that different team behaviours might emerge at different ratios of field dimension/player numbers. Therefore, sport pedagogists should carefully evaluate the effects of changing RSP in SSCGs as a way of promoting increased or decreased pressure on players.
Harrison, Craig B; Gill, Nicholas D; Kinugasa, Taisuke; Kilding, Andrew E
The aim of this study was to quantify the physiological responses, time-motion characteristics, and technical executions associated with a novel non-sport-specific small-sided game (SSG) in young team sport players. On 6 separate occasions, 12 young male team sport athletes (mean ± SD: age, 13.0 ± 0.3 years; height, 157.4 ± 4.9 cm; body mass, 47.0 ± 5.0 kg; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, 55.1 ± 4.6 ml·kg·min) completed various "bucketball" SSG formats (i.e., 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6) twice each. Heart rate (HR) was measured during each SSG at 5-second intervals. Time-motion characteristics were measured using global positioning systems. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Technical skill executions were measured using a high-speed digital video camera. Analysis revealed a tendency for the 3 vs. 3 games to elicit higher HRs (88.3 ± 4.3) than either 4 vs. 4 (85.9 ± 4.9) or 6 vs. 6 formats (85.9 ± 3.2). Total distance traveled at 13-17.9 km·h was more during 6 vs. 6 than 3 vs. 3 games (very likely substantial true difference, 97%), and total possessions and number of catches, passes, and shots were all higher in 3 vs. 3 compared with 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 games. There was no difference in RPE between the game formats. The results of this study indicate that 3 vs. 3 non-sport-specific SSGs provide higher stimulus for aerobic fitness adaptation and technical improvement than 4 vs. 4 and 6 vs. 6 formats, and their use for training young team sport athletes is recommended.
Petersen, Jacob Vorup
levels. No differences between changes in TG and RG were found over the intervention period, neither in physical function tests nor psychological questionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social...... interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants...
J. Müller (Julia); T. Upmann (Thorsten); J. Prinz (Joachim)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Teams, in both firms and in sports, jointly produce a product. While a fixed task is assigned to each member of a team, the individual team productivity of a worker or player is difficult to conceptualize. This is particularly true, if this concept is aimed to be
Rankin, Paula; Lawlor, Michael J; Hills, Frank A; Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma J; Cockburn, Emma
The consumption of milk following eccentric exercise attenuates the effects of muscle damage in team-sport athletes. However, participation in team sport involves both concentric-eccentric loading and metabolic stress. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postexercise milk consumption on recovery from a cycling protocol designed to simulate the metabolic demands of team sport. Ten female team-sport athletes participated in a randomised crossover investigation. Upon completion of the protocol participants consumed 500 mL of milk (MILK) or 500 mL of an energy-matched carbohydrate (CHO) drink. Muscle function (peak torque, rate of force development, countermovement jump, 20-m sprint), muscle soreness and tiredness, serum creatine kinase, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and measures of oxidative stress (protein carbonyls and reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio) were determined at pre-exercise and 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postexercise. MILK had a possible beneficial effect in attenuating losses in peak torque (180°/s) from baseline to 24 h (3.2% ± 7.8% vs. -6.2% ± 7.5%, MILK vs. CHO) and a possible beneficial effect in minimising soreness (baseline-48 h; baseline-72 h) and tiredness (baseline-24 h; baseline-72 h). There was no change in oxidative stress following the exercise protocol, though a likely benefit of milk was observed for GSH/GSSG ratio at baseline-24 h (0.369 ×/÷ 1.89, 1.103 ×/÷ 3.96, MILK vs. CHO). MILK had an unclear effect on all other variables. Consumption of 500 mL of milk after repeat sprint cycling had little to no benefit in minimising losses in peak torque or minimising increases in soreness and tiredness and had no effect on serum markers of muscle damage and inflammation.
Vermeulen, Joan; Verwey, Renée; Hochstenbach, Laura M J; van der Weegen, Sanne; Man, Yan Ping; de Witte, Luc P
User-centered design (UCD) methodologies can help take the needs and requirements of potential end-users into account during the development of innovative telecare products and services. Understanding how members of multidisciplinary development teams experience the UCD process might help to gain insight into factors that members with different backgrounds consider critical during the development of telecare products and services. The primary objective of this study was to explore how members of multidisciplinary development teams experienced the UCD process of telecare products and services. The secondary objective was to identify differences and similarities in the barriers and facilitators they experienced. Twenty-five members of multidisciplinary development teams of four Research and Development (R&D) projects participated in this study. The R&D projects aimed to develop telecare products and services that can support self-management in elderly people or patients with chronic conditions. Seven participants were representatives of end-users (elderly persons or patients with chronic conditions), three were professional end-users (geriatrician and nurses), five were engineers, four were managers (of R&D companies or engineering teams), and six were researchers. All participants were interviewed by a researcher who was not part of their own development team. The following topics were discussed during the interviews: (1) aim of the project, (2) role of the participant, (3) experiences during the development process, (4) points of improvement, and (5) what the project meant to the participant. Experiences of participants related to the following themes: (1) creating a development team, (2) expectations regarding responsibilities and roles, (3) translating user requirements into technical requirements, (4) technical challenges, (5) evaluation of developed products and services, and (6) valorization. Multidisciplinary team members from different backgrounds often
Burgess, Darren J
Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.
Burnett, Steven F
.... This research study broadens the study of effective military teams through an assessment of the factors that influence a joint team's effectiveness by capitalizing on the business and psychological...
Brendan H. Lazarus
Full Text Available Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers.Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks. Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences.Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders; 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards. Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear.Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.
Lazarus, Brendan H; Stewart, Andrew M; White, Kevin M; Rowell, Amber E; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G; Aughey, Robert J
Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.
Lazarus, Brendan H.; Stewart, Andrew M.; White, Kevin M.; Rowell, Amber E.; Esmaeili, Alireza; Hopkins, William G.; Aughey, Robert J.
Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers. Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS) data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks). Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences. Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders); 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders); and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards). Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear. Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription. PMID:29209229
Pedersen, M T; Vorup, J; Nistrup, A; Wikman, J M; Alstrøm, J M; Melcher, P S; Pfister, G U; Bangsbo, J
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of team sports and resistance training on physical function, psychological health, quality of life, and motivation in older untrained adults. Twenty-five untrained men and forty-seven untrained women aged 80 (range: 67-93) years were recruited. Fifty-one were assigned to a training group (TRG) of which twenty-five performed team training (TG) and twenty-six resistance training (RG). The remaining twenty-one were allocated to a control group (CG). TRG trained for 1 hour twice a week for 12 weeks. Compared with CG, TRG improved the number of arm curls within 30 seconds (Ptraining led to higher (Pquestionnaires. Both TG and RG were highly motivated for training, but TG expressed a higher degree of enjoyment and intrinsic motivation mainly due to social interaction during the activity, whereas RG was more motivated by extrinsic factors like health and fitness benefits. In conclusion, both team training and resistance training improved physical function, psychological well-being, and quality of life. However, team sport training motivated the participants more by intrinsic factors than resistance training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pabian, Patrick S; Oliveira, Leonardo; Tucker, Jennifer; Beato, Morris; Gual, Carlos
Due to the high incidence of sports concussion, various health and medical providers are likely to encounter athletes who have sustained such an injury. Management of concussion necessitates coordinated care by the members of the sports medicine team due to its pathophysiology and complexity of management during recovery. All members of the sports medicine team must possess contemporary knowledge of concussion management as well as strong interprofessional communication skills to ensure effective care and safe return to sports participation. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript is to review the current best practices in interdisciplinary management of sports concussion with a special emphasis on the required interprofessional communication among the sports medicine team. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thayane Dias dos Santos
Full Text Available Objective. To identify the actions of family members who accompany adult hospitalized patients and to describe the nursing team's role regarding that person. Methodology. In this qualitative, descriptive and exploratory research, a questionnaire was applied to 30 nursing team members at a teaching hospital located in the State of Rio de Janeiro, using open questions. To interpret the answers, thematic analysis was applied to categorize the identified qualitative variables. Results. Eighty-nine percent of the participants were female. When analyzing the information contained in the answers to the questionnaire, two types of actions were found: the actions the companion can perform for his/her relative and the actions the nursing team needs to perform. In each action, the following categories were verified: affective dimension, practical dimension, moral dimension and inclusion of the family in care. According to the nursing team, the companion plays a very important role in emotional support and help with the patient's basic hygiene, although this care should be offered under nursing orientation. Conclusion. Family companions and nursing team members work together to improve the quality of patient care, with positive reflections for their integration in hospital care, which will enhance its continuity in the home-care context.
Borg, David N; Osborne, John O; Stewart, Ian B; Costello, Joseph T; Sims, Jesse N L; Minett, Geoffrey M
This study aimed to determine the reliability of 10 and 20km cycling time trial (TT) performance on the Velotron Pro in recreational cyclists, runners and intermittent-sprint based team sport athletes, with and without a familiarisation. Thirty-one male, recreationally active athletes completed four 10 or 20km cycling TTs on different days. During cycling, power output, speed and cadence were recorded at 23Hz, and heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every km. Multiple statistical methods were used to ensure a comprehensive assessment of reliability. Intraclass correlations, standard error of the measurement, minimum difference required for a worthwhile change and coefficient of variation were determined for completion time and mean trial variables (power output, speed, cadence, heart rate, RPE, session RPE). A meaningful change in performance for cyclists, runners, team sport athletes would be represented by 7.5, 3.6 and 12.9% improvement for 10km and a 4.9, 4.0 and 5.6% for 20km completion time. After a familiarisation, a 4.0, 3.7 and 6.4% improvement for 10km and a 4.1, 3.0 and 4.4% would be required for 20km. Data from this study suggest not all athletic subgroups require a familiarisation to produce substantially reliable 10 and 20km cycling performance. However, a familiarisation considerably improves the reliability of pacing strategy adopted by recreational runners and team sport athletes across these distances. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In total, the medical team comprised 11 members including 4 sports physicians, 6 physiotherapists and a sport psychologist. In contrast to Sydney 2000, none of the large teams in the South. African squad were competing in remote cities and therefore all medical services were centralised. This report describes the nature ...
Rusman, Ellen; Van Bruggen, Jan; Valcke, Martin
Rusman, E., Van Bruggen, J., & Valcke, M. (2009). Empirical Testing of a Conceptual Model and Measurement Instrument for the Assessment of Trustworthiness of Project Team Members. Paper presented at the Trust Workshop at the Eighth International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems
Sadowski, Garrett; O'Neill, Rob; Bermingham, Doug
Multidisciplinary team members were surveyed to identify the frequency with which they use recommended assessment practices, how they interpret assessment information, and their confidence working with English Language Learners (ELLs) for the purpose of determining possible eligibility to receive special education services. Results of this study…
Hogan, Timothy; Martinez, Rachael; Evans, Charlesnika; Saban, Karen; Proescher, Eric; Steiner, Monica; Smith, Bridget
The polytraumatic nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI) makes diagnosis and treatment difficult. To (1) characterise information needs among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) polytrauma care team members engaged in the diagnosis and treatment of TBI; (2) identify sources used for TBI related information; and (3) identify barriers to accessing TBI related information. Cross-sectional online survey of 236 VHA polytrauma care team members. Most respondents (95.8%) keep at least somewhat current regarding TBI, but 31.5% need more knowledge on diagnosing TBI and 51.3% need more knowledge on treating TBI. Respondents use VHA affiliated sources for information, including local colleagues (81.7%), VHA offsite conferences/meetings (78.3%) and onsite VHA educational offerings (73.6%); however, limited time due to administrative responsibilities (50.9%), limited financial resources (50.4%) and patient care (50.4%) were prominent barriers. Medical librarians are in a unique position to develop information services, resources and other electronic tools that reflect the clinical context in which polytrauma care team members practice, and the different tasks they perform. Polytrauma care team members could benefit from additional information regarding the diagnosis and treatment of TBI. Addressing their information needs and supporting their information seeking requires a mulit-pronged approach to time and financial constraints. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Taylor, Cath; Sippitt, Joanna M; Collins, Gary; McManus, Chris; Richardson, Alison; Dawson, Jeremy; Richards, Michael; Ramirez, Amanda J
The PELICAN Multidisciplinary Team Total Mesorectal Excision (MDT-TME) Development Programme aimed to improve clinical outcomes for rectal cancer by educating colorectal cancer teams in precision surgery and related aspects of multidisciplinary care. The Programme reached almost all colorectal cancer teams across England. We took the opportunity to assess the impact of participating in this novel team-based Development Programme on the working lives of colorectal cancer team members. The impact of participating in the programme on team members' self-reported job stress, job satisfaction and team performance was assessed in a pre-post course study. 333/568 (59%) team members, from the 75 multidisciplinary teams who attended the final year of the Programme, completed questionnaires pre-course, and 6-8 weeks post-course. Across all team members, the main sources of job satisfaction related to working in multidisciplinary teams; whilst feeling overloaded was the main source of job stress. Surgeons and clinical nurse specialists reported higher levels of job satisfaction than team members who do not provide direct patient care, whilst MDT coordinators reported the lowest levels of job satisfaction and job stress. Both job stress and satisfaction decreased after participating in the Programme for all team members. There was a small improvement in team performance. Participation in the Development Programme had a mixed impact on the working lives of team members in the immediate aftermath of attending. The decrease in team members' job stress may reflect the improved knowledge and skills conferred by the Programme. The decrease in job satisfaction may be the consequence of being unable to apply these skills immediately in clinical practice because of a lack of required infrastructure and/or equipment. In addition, whilst the Programme raised awareness of the challenges of teamworking, a greater focus on tackling these issues may have improved working lives further.
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document presents materials covering the television campaign against drunk driving called "TEAM" (Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management). It is noted that TEAM's purpose is to promote effective alcohol management in public facilities and other establishments that serve alcoholic beverages. TEAM sponsors are listed, including…
Pol, P.K.C. van de; Kavussanu, M.
Training and competition are two important contexts within the sport domain. In this study, we examined: (a) consistency and differences in goal orientations across the training and competition contexts and whether these are moderated by sport type; and (b) whether goal orientations predict effort,
Roell, Mareike; Roecker, Kai; Gehring, Dominic; Mahler, Hubert; Gollhofer, Albert
The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU) broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA) system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK) during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory ( n = 56). A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF) and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF), Kalman-Filter (KF)] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences ( p < 0.05) were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6%) and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8%) both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6%) regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 - 17.8%). Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that IMU
Full Text Available The increasing interest in assessing physical demands in team sports has led to the development of multiple sports related monitoring systems. Due to technical limitations, these systems primarily could be applied to outdoor sports, whereas an equivalent indoor locomotion analysis is not established yet. Technological development of inertial measurement units (IMU broadens the possibilities for player monitoring and enables the quantification of locomotor movements in indoor environments. The aim of the current study was to validate an IMU measuring by determining average and peak human acceleration under indoor conditions in team sport specific movements. Data of a single wearable tracking device including an IMU (Optimeye S5, Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia were compared to the results of a 3D motion analysis (MA system (Vicon Motion Systems, Oxford, UK during selected standardized movement simulations in an indoor laboratory (n = 56. A low-pass filtering method for gravity correction (LF and two sensor fusion algorithms for orientation estimation [Complementary Filter (CF, Kalman-Filter (KF] were implemented and compared with MA system data. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between LF and MA data but not between sensor fusion algorithms and MA. Higher precision and lower relative errors were found for CF (RMSE = 0.05; CV = 2.6% and KF (RMSE = 0.15; CV = 3.8% both compared to the LF method (RMSE = 1.14; CV = 47.6% regarding the magnitude of the resulting vector and strongly emphasize the implementation of orientation estimation to accurately describe human acceleration. Comparing both sensor fusion algorithms, CF revealed slightly lower errors than KF and additionally provided valuable information about positive and negative acceleration values in all three movement planes with moderate to good validity (CV = 3.9 – 17.8%. Compared to x- and y-axis superior results were found for the z-axis. These findings demonstrate that
Aziz, Fazilah Abdul; Ghazalli, Zakri; Zuki Mohamed, Nik Mohd; Isfar, Amri
Musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) is very common condition in automotive industry. MSD is affecting the worker’s health, well-being and lower down the productivity. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of MSD and ergonomics risk factors among the production team members at a selected automotive component manufacturer in Malaysia. MSD data were collected by conducting structure interview with all participants by referring to the Cornell Musculoskeletal Disorder Questionnaire (CMDQ). Those production team members who achieved a total discomfort score for all body regions more than 100 was selected for job task assessment. The physical exposure risk factors of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) has evaluated by using Quick Exposure Check (QEC) techniques. The results of the study identified the severe MSD associated with production assembly team members. It is expected that the prevalence of MSD for those production assembly team members was lower back (75.4%), upper back (63.2%), right shoulder (61.4%), and right wrist (60%). The QEC analysis discovered that about 70% of job tasks had very high risks for neck posture and 60% had high risks for the back (in moving condition) and shoulder/arm postures. There were 80% of respondents have produced a high score for exposure risk to vibration. As a conclusion, the main implication of the current study is that special attention should be paid to the physical and psychosocial aspects in production team members with musculoskeletal discomfort to improve their safety, health, and well-being, maintain work ability and productivity.
Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George
The present aim was to investigate the effect of age and education on the moral reasoning of the same 535 individuals in sports for whom nature of sport experience was reported. All 535 participants (M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 8.3) were involved in sports at the time of the study as athletes (n = 342), referees (n = 145), or coaches (n = 48), and had a wide range of education. Analysis of variance of scores on the Defining Issues Test of Rest showed moral judgment in sports differs significantly amongst different age groups (F5.510 = 5.37, p education (F4.511 = 6.24, p education, higher moral judgment can be expected. It is apparent that moral development in sport is related to age and education, as also holds for a wider social setting.
Lee, Kangeui; Lee, So Hee; Park, Taejin; Lee, Ji Yeon
We conducted in-depth interviews with 11 Korean Disaster Relief Team (KDRT) members about stress related to disaster relief work and analyzed the interview data using the Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR) method in order to evaluate difficulties in disaster relief work and to develop solutions to these problems in cooperation with related organizations. Results showed that members typically experienced stress related to untrained team members, ineffective cooperation, and the shock and aftermath of aftershock experiences. Stress tended to stem from several factors: difficulties related to cooperation with new team members, the frightening disaster experience, and the aftermath of the disaster. Other stressors included conflict with the control tower, diverse problems at the disaster relief work site, and environmental factors. The most common reason that members participated in KDRT work despite all the stressors and difficulties was pride about the kind of work it involved. Many subjects in this study suffered from various stresses after the relief work, but they had no other choice than to attempt to forget about their experiences over time. It is recommended that the mental health of disaster relief workers will improve through the further development of effective treatment and surveillance programs in the future.
Taylor, Tom; West, Daniel J; Howatson, Glyn; Jones, Chris; Bracken, Richard M; Love, Thomas D; Cook, Christian J; Swift, Eamon; Baker, Julien S; Kilduff, Liam P
During congested fixture periods in team sports, limited recovery time and increased travel hinder the implementation of many recovery strategies; thus alternative methods are required. We examined the impact of a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device on 24-h recovery from an intensive training session in professional players. Twenty-eight professional rugby and football academy players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study, on 2 occasions, separated by 7 days. After baseline perceived soreness, blood (lactate and creatine kinase) and saliva (testosterone and cortisol) samples were collected, players completed a standardised warm-up and baseline countermovement jumps (jump height). Players then completed 60 m × 50 m maximal sprints, with 5 min recovery between efforts. After completing the sprint session, players wore a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device or remained in normal attire (CON) for 8 h. All measures were repeated immediately, 2 and 24-h post-sprint. Player jump height was reduced from baseline at all time points under both conditions; however, at 24-h neuromuscular electrical stimulation was significantly more recovered (mean±SD; neuromuscular electrical stimulation -3.2±3.2 vs. CON -7.2±3.7%; P0.05). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves recovery from intensive training in professional team sports players. This strategy offers an easily applied recovery strategy which may have particular application during sleep and travel. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aughey, Robert J; Goodman, Craig A; McKenna, Michael J
To measure the activity profile, hydration status and core temperature of elite team sport athletes during matches in hot and cool conditions. Thirty-five professional Australian footballers (age 25.9 ± 3.5 yrs; height 188.4 ± 7.8 cm; body mass 90.6 ± 8.8 kg), gave informed consent to participate in this study. Core temperature (T(c)), hydration and running performance were compared in eight hot and eight cool matches classified via a rating of the risk of heat illness from the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT). Core temperature was measured via an ingestible sensor before matches and after each quarter and player movement was recorded by 5 Hz GPS and expressed per period of the match (rotation), for distance; high-intensity running (HIR, 4.17-10.00 m s(-1)), sprinting (>4.17 m s(-1)) and maximal accelerations (2.78-10.00 m s(-2)). All data was compared for hot and cool matches and the magnitude of effects was analysed with the effect size (ES) statistic. Core temperature was elevated from rest at all time-points during matches (37.3-39.4 °C), with small additional elevations after the first and third quarters in hot matches (ES: 0.39 ± 0.40 and 0.37 ± 0.42 respectively). In hot matches 12 players had T(c)>40 °C but only one in cool matches. Total distance was reduced in the latter parts of each half (-6.5%, -0.49 ± 0.58; and -6.7%, -0.57 ± 0.59), yet the high intensity tasks of sprinting and accelerating were preserved. Players tolerated core temperatures up to 40.5 °C during hot matches but reduced the volume of running undertaken, thus preserving the ability to undertake high intensity activities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hubers, Mireille Desirée
Data-based decision making in education has been emphasized globally in recent years. To support schools in their use of data, the data team procedure was implemented in Dutch secondary schools. A data team consists of six to eight educators at the same school. Collaboratively, they learn how to use
Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally allocation algorithm athletes in groups to form a tactical tasks in team sports game using methods of multivariate analysis. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Analyzed the results of testing and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : An algorithm for distribution by groups of athletes for the formation of tactical tasks. The algorithm consists of the following steps: 1 - testing of athletes; 2 - A hierarchical cluster analysis performance testing; 3 - Distribution of sportsmen groups, analysis of the characteristics of athletes, the formation of tactical tasks. Found higher rates of reaction rate at the offensive players. We pivot revealed a higher level of absolute strength. The defenders found a higher frequency of movement and jumping. Conclusions : The algorithm is the basis for determining the best options mutual combination players in the development and implementation of tactical combinations, the selection of partners when working in pairs and triples in training.
Full Text Available Background: The workplace is a priority setting to promote health. Team sports can be an effective way to promote both physical and social health. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a workplace team sports intervention programme‘Changing the Game’ (CTG. This study was conducted in a FTSE 100 services organisation. This process evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collected from the participants in the intervention group prior to, during and at the end of the intervention using interviews (n = 12, a focus group (n = 5, and questionnaires (n = 17. Organisational documentation was collected, and a research diary was recorded by the lead author. The evidence collected was triangulated to examine the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the programme. Data was assessed through template analysis, and questionnaire data were analysed using multiple regression and a series of univariate ANOVAs. Results: CTG improved VO2 Max, interpersonal communication, and physical activity behaviour (efficacy over 12-weeks. This may be attributed to the supportive approach adopted within the design and delivery of the programme (implementation. Individual and organisational factors challenged the adoption and maintenance of the intervention. The recruitment and communication strategy limited the number of employees the programme could reach. Conclusion: The process evaluation suggests addressing the culture within workplaces may better support the reach, adoption and maintenance of workplace team sport programmes. Future research should consider investigating and applying these findings across a range of industries and sectors.
Nedergaard, Niels J; Robinson, Mark A; Eusterwiemann, Elena; Drust, Barry; Lisboa, Paulo J; Vanrenterghem, Jos
To investigate the relationship between whole-body accelerations and body-worn accelerometry during team-sport movements. Twenty male team-sport players performed forward running and anticipated 45° and 90° side-cuts at approach speeds of 2, 3, 4, and 5 m/s. Whole-body center-of-mass (CoM) accelerations were determined from ground-reaction forces collected from 1 foot-ground contact, and segmental accelerations were measured from a commercial GPS accelerometer unit on the upper trunk. Three higher-specification accelerometers were also positioned on the GPS unit, the dorsal aspect of the pelvis, and the shaft of the tibia. Associations between mechanical load variables (peak acceleration, loading rate, and impulse) calculated from both CoM accelerations and segmental accelerations were explored using regression analysis. In addition, 1-dimensional statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to explore the relationships between peak segmental accelerations and CoM-acceleration profiles during the whole foot-ground contact. A weak relationship was observed for the investigated mechanical load variables regardless of accelerometer location and task (R 2 values across accelerometer locations and tasks: peak acceleration .08-.55, loading rate .27-.59, and impulse .02-.59). Segmental accelerations generally overestimated whole-body mechanical load. SPM analysis showed that peak segmental accelerations were mostly related to CoM accelerations during the first 40-50% of contact phase. While body-worn accelerometry correlates to whole-body loading in team-sport movements and can reveal useful estimates concerning loading, these correlations are not strong. Body-worn accelerometry should therefore be used with caution to monitor whole-body mechanical loading in the field.
Evans, Mark; Tierney, Peter; Gray, Nicola; Hawe, Greg; Macken, Maria; Egan, Brendan
The effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on short-duration high intensity performance are equivocal, while studies of novel modes of delivery and the efficacy of low doses of caffeine are warranted. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effect of acute ingestion of caffeinated chewing gum on repeated sprint performance (RSP) in team sport athletes, and whether habitual caffeine consumption alters the ergogenic effect, if any, on RSP. Eighteen male team sports athletes undertook four RSP trials using a 40 m maximum shuttle run test (MST), which incorporates 10x40 m sprints with 30 s between the start of each sprint. Each participant completed two familiarization sessions, followed by caffeine (CAF; caffeinated chewing gum; 200 mg caffeine) and placebo (PLA; non-caffeinated chewing gum) trials in a randomized, double-blind manner. RSP, assessed by sprint performance decrement (S dec ;%), did not differ (p=0.209, ES=0.16; n=18) between CAF (5.00±2.84%) and PLA (5.43±2.68%). Secondary analysis revealed that low habitual caffeine consumers (caffeine consumers (>130 mg/day, n=6) (3.98±2.57% vs. 3.80±1.79%, respectively; p=0.684, ES=0.08). The data suggest that a low dose of caffeine in the form of caffeinated chewing gum attenuates the sprint performance decrement during RSP by team sport athletes with low, but not moderate-to-high, habitual consumption of caffeine.
Stavros Tachis; George Tzetzis
Research on consumer behavior in leisure settings has proposed the relationship among involvement, psychological commitment and loyalty. Nonetheless, very little attention has been given to the conceptualization of the relationship among these constructs in a sport spectator context. The present study examined the relationship among involvement, psychological commitment, and two dimensions of loyalty, namely the attitudinal and behavioral loyalty of sport fans. The participants of this study ...
Figueroa, Mayte I; Sepanski, Robert; Goldberg, Steven P; Shah, Samir
Findings show that simulation-based team training (SBTT) is effective at increasing teamwork skills. Postpediatric cardiac surgery cardiac arrest (PPCS-CA) is a high-risk clinical situation with high morbidity and mortality. Whereas adult guidelines managing cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery are available, little exists for pediatric cardiac surgery. The authors developed a post-PPCS-CA algorithm and used SBTT to improve identification and management of PPCS-CA in the pediatric cardiovascular intensive care unit. Their goal was to determine whether participation aids in improving teamwork, confidence, and communication during these events. The authors developed a simulation-based training course using common postcardiac surgical emergency scenarios with specific learning objectives. Simulated scenarios are followed by structured debriefings. Participants were evaluated based on critical performance criteria, key elements in the PPCS-CA algorithm, and Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (Team STEPPS) principles. Surveys performed before, immediately after, and 3 months after participation evaluated perception of skill, knowledge, and confidence. The study had 37 participants (23 nurses, 5 cardiology/critical care trainees, 5 respiratory therapists, and 4 noncategorized subjects). Confidence and skill in the roles of team leader, advanced airway management, and cardioversion/defibrillation were increased significantly (p Team STEPPS concepts immediately after training and 3 months later. This study showed SBTT to be effective in improving communication and increasing confidence among members of a multidisciplinary team during crisis scenarios. Thus, SBTT provides an excellent tool for teaching and implementing new processes.
van Veelen, Ruth; Otten, Sabine; Hansen, Nina
Majority members often react negatively to efforts to stimulate diversity. An important reason for this is that in diverse groups, majority members' own group bond is typically based on perceived prototypicality, which serves to disregard those who are different. In the present research we investigate how majority members' pro-diversity beliefs may be enhanced, by experimentally manipulating how the self is cognitively defined in relation to a diverse group. Specifically, we hypothesize that majority members' focus on the personal self (i.e., self-anchoring) rather than the social self (i.e., self-stereotyping) when creating a group bond may facilitate their pro-diversity beliefs and positive attitudes toward minority members. In two experiments we manipulated self-anchoring and self-stereotyping via mindset priming among ethnic majority members in diverse teams. As expected, results showed that relative to self-stereotyping, majority members' self-anchoring enhanced pro-diversity beliefs and positive attitudes toward minority members.
A.B. Kolosov; S.M. Voutenko
The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men). The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.
Full Text Available The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men. The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.
Loggers, S A I; Koedam, T W A; Giannakopoulos, G F; Vandewalle, E; Erwteman, M; Zuidema, W P
Trauma is a great contributor to mortality worldwide. One of the challenges in trauma care is early identification and management of bleeding. The circulatory status of blunt trauma patients in the emergency room is evaluated using hemodynamic (HD) parameters. However, there is no consensus on which parameters to use. In this study, we evaluate the used terms and definitions in the literature for HD stability and compare those to the opinion of Dutch trauma team members. A systematic review was performed to collect the definitions used for HD stability. Studies describing the assessment and/or treatment of blunt trauma patients in the emergency room were included. In addition, an online survey was conducted amongst Dutch trauma team members. Out of a total of 222, 67 articles were found to be eligible for inclusion. HD stability was defined in 70% of these articles. The most used parameters were systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Besides the variety of parameters, a broad range of corresponding cut-off points is noted. Despite some common ground, high inter- and intra-variability is seen for the physicians that are part of the Dutch trauma teams. All authors acknowledge HD stability as the most important factor in the assessment and management of blunt trauma patients. There is, however, no consensus in the literature as well as none-to-fair consensus amongst Dutch trauma team members in the definition of HD stability. A trauma team ready to co-operate with consensus-based opinions together with a valid scoring system is in our opinion the best method to assess and treat seriously injured trauma patients.
Packer, Jeffrey E; Wooding, Denise J; Kato, Hiroyuki; Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Pencharz, Paul B; Moore, Daniel R
Protein requirements are generally increased in strength and endurance trained athletes relative to their sedentary peers. However, less is known about the daily requirement for this important macronutrient in individuals performing variable intensity, stop-and-go type exercise that is typical for team sport athletes. The objective of the present study was to determine protein requirements in active, trained adult males performing a simulated soccer match using the minimally invasive indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) method. After 2 days of controlled diet (1.2 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 protein), seven trained males (23 ± 1 years; 177.5 ± 6.7 cm; 82.3 ± 6.1 kg; 13.5% ± 4.7% body fat; 52.3 ± 5.9 ml O 2 ⋅kg -1 ⋅min -1 ; mean ± SD) performed an acute bout of variable intensity exercise in the form of a modified Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (4 × 15 min of exercise over 75 min). Immediately after exercise, hourly meals were consumed providing a variable amount of protein (0.2-2.6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ) and sufficient energy and carbohydrate (6 g⋅kg -1 ⋅day -1 ). Protein was provided as a crystalline amino acids modeled after egg protein with the exception of phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were provided in excess to ensure the metabolic partitioning of the indicator amino acid (i.e., [1- 13 C]phenylalanine included within the phenylalanine intake) was directed toward oxidation when protein intake was limiting. Whole body phenylalanine flux and 13 CO 2 excretion (F 13 CO 2 ) were determined at metabolic and isotopic steady state from urine and breath samples, respectively. Biphasic linear regression analysis was performed on F 13 CO 2 to determine the estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein with a safe intake defined as the upper 95% confidence interval. Phenylalanine flux was not impacted by protein intake ( P = 0.45). Bi-phase linear regression ( R 2 = 0.64) of F 13 CO 2 resulted
Pohan, Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani; Ancok, Djamaludin
This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...
Vivi Gusrini Rahmadani Pohan; Djamaludin Ancok
This research attempted to observe team learning from the level of team diversity and team efficacy of work teams. This research used an individual level of analysis rather than the group level. The team members measured the level of team diversity, team efficacy and team learning of the teams through three scales, namely team learning scale, team diversity scale, and team efficacy scale. Respondents in this research were the active team members in a company, PT. Alkindo Mitraraya. The total ...
Wann, Daniel L.; Rogers, Kelly; Dooley, Keith; Foley, Mary
According to the Team Identification-Social Psychological Health Model (Wann, 2006b), team identification and social psychological health should be positively correlated because identification leads to important social connections which, in turn, facilitate well-being. Although past research substantiates the hypothesized positive relationship…
Live S. Luteberget
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the validity of position, distance traveled and instantaneous speed of team sport players as measured by a commercially available local positioning system (LPS during indoor use. In addition, the study investigated how the placement of the field of play relative to the anchor nodes and walls of the building affected the validity of the system.Method: The LPS (Catapult ClearSky T6, Catapult Sports, Australia and the reference system [Qualisys Oqus, Qualisys AB, Sweden, (infra-red camera system] were installed around the field of play to capture the athletes' motion. Athletes completed five tasks, all designed to imitate team-sports movements. The same protocol was completed in two sessions, one with an assumed optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (optimal condition, and once with a sub-optimal geometrical setup of the LPS (sub-optimal condition. Raw two-dimensional position data were extracted from both the LPS and the reference system for accuracy assessment. Position, distance and speed were compared.Results: The mean difference between the LPS and reference system for all position estimations was 0.21 ± 0.13 m (n = 30,166 in the optimal setup, and 1.79 ± 7.61 m (n = 22,799 in the sub-optimal setup. The average difference in distance was below 2% for all tasks in the optimal condition, while it was below 30% in the sub-optimal condition. Instantaneous speed showed the largest differences between the LPS and reference system of all variables, both in the optimal (≥35% and sub-optimal condition (≥74%. The differences between the LPS and reference system in instantaneous speed were speed dependent, showing increased differences with increasing speed.Discussion: Measures of position, distance, and average speed from the LPS show low errors, and can be used confidently in time-motion analyses for indoor team sports. The calculation of instantaneous speed from LPS raw data is not valid. To
van der Does, Henrike Teunisje Dorothe; Brink, Michel Sanne; Otter, Ruby Tina Ardi; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen Alfons Plechelmus Marie
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if changes in perceived stress and recovery over the course of a season are risk factors for acute and overuse injuries. Design: A prospective nonexperimental cohort design. Setting: Data were gathered at the SportsFieldLab Groningen and at the
Walters, Simon R.; Payne, Deborah; Schluter, Philip J.; Thomson, Rex W.
The childhood years are highlighted as a crucial time when ongoing participation in physical activity can be nurtured and maintained. The nurturing of a child's proclivity to participate in organised sport normally falls into the domain of adults. While both parents and coaches have been identified as key influences on children's enjoyment of…
Young Dae Ko
Full Text Available Since the Korea Baseball League (KBL had nine teams, an odd number, in the 2013 season, one team was unable to compete at certain times in the rotation while the other eight teams played games. Therefore, it was necessary to consider several elements to generate an annual match schedule in terms of team equity. However, the annual match schedule created by the conventional method could not fully reflect the elements regarding team equity, and there were a great many complaints from teams and fans. As a result, applying an optimization technique was decided upon to derive an efficient annual match schedule for the 2014 season. All the required conditions for scheduling are formulated as one or more equations and several parameter values concerning team equity are calculated with the related equations. Due to the complicated scheduling conditions, a sequential solution approach is applied by dividing the overall planning horizon in three parts. The derived annual match schedule was used for the 2014 season after some modifications, and the staff of the KBL was satisfied with the performance of the proposed scheduling methodology. Currently, this sustainable scheduling methodology is still in use to generate an efficient annual match schedule for the KBL.
Little research has connected the psychological contract and sport. Therefore, the content of the psychological contract of rugby team members was analysed and the correlation between the psychological contract and the perceived performance of rugby team members was determined. A longitudinal research design was ...
Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G
To assess the influence of playing standard and physical fitness on pacing strategies during a junior team-sport tournament. A between-groups, repeated-measures design was used. Twenty-eight junior team-sport players (age 16.6 ± 0.5 y, body mass 79.9 ± 12.0 kg) from a high-standard and low-standard team participated in a junior rugby league tournament, competing in 5 games over 4 d (4 × 40-min and 1 × 50-min game). Players wore global positioning system (GPS) microtechnology during each game to provide information on match activity profiles. The Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test (level 1) was used to assess physical fitness before the competition. High-standard players had an initially higher pacing strategy than the low-standard players, covering greater distances at high (ES = 1.32) and moderate speed (ES = 1.41) in game 1 and moderate speed (ES = 1.55) in game 2. However, low-standard players increased their playing intensity across the competition (ES = 0.57-2.04). High-standard/high-fitness players maintained a similar playing intensity, whereas high-standard/low-fitness players reduced their playing intensities across the competition. Well-developed physical fitness allows for a higher-intensity pacing strategy that can be maintained throughout a tournament. High-standard/low-fitness players reduce playing intensity, most likely due to increased levels of fatigue as the competition progresses. Low-standard players adopt a pacing strategy that allows them to conserve energy to produce an "end spurt" in the latter games. Maximizing endurance fitness across an entire playing group will maximize playing intensity and minimize performance reductions during the latter stages of a tournament.
Batistič, S.; Kenda, R.
Project work is becoming more and more important in everyday business, as is staffing the right newcomers for the project. Recognizing that not all new project team workers possess equally important specific knowledge, skills and abilities for the success of projects, we draw on project management,
...) or unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), length of healthcare experience, and educational preparation play in a perioperative staff member's attitude toward cost-containment in general, and specifically, the reprocessing of disposables...
Partnering with major league baseball, basketball, hockey, football and even lacrosse teams isn't just about building brand recognition. It's also a way to promote health and fitness in the community.
utilization included musculoskeletal injwylpain (e.g., seeking chiropractic care, acupuncture , massage therapy for back, neck pain ) and occupational stress... military members to (and between) medical facilities throughout various parts of the globe. The performance, readiness, and health of such airmen...conditions between AE and CCATT members who function in deployed settings to provide critical aeromedical care to military personnel. All AE and CCATT
Watson, Jack C; Krantz, Andrew J
To identify the relations between new stadiums and home team performance and attendance for professional baseball (MLB) (n=14), basketball (NBA) (n=13), and football (NFL) (n=25) teams in the USA since 1950 dependent t tests assessed significance of increases in attendance in both MLB and the NBA and a significantly improved home winning percentage in MLB following the building of new stadiums. Implications include a better understanding of the rationales used by owners, fans, and players for building new stadiums.
O'Brien, James; Finch, Caroline F
Team ball sports such as soccer, basketball and volleyball have high participation levels worldwide. Musculoskeletal injuries are common in team ball sports and are associated with significant treatment costs, participation loss and long-term negative side effects. The results of recent randomized controlled trials provide support for the protective effect of injury-prevention exercise programmes (IPEPs) in team ball sports, but also highlight that achieving adequate compliance can be challenging. A key process in enhancing the ultimate impact of team ball sport IPEPs is identifying the specific implementation components that influence the adoption, execution and maintenance of these interventions. Despite this, no systematic review focussing on the specific implementation components of team ball sport IPEPs has been conducted. Our objective was to assess the reporting of specific implementation components in the published literature on team ball sport IPEPs using the Reach Efficacy Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Six electronic databases were systematically searched from inception to December 2012 for papers reporting team ball sport IPEP trials. All eligible papers were independently evaluated by two raters before reaching consensus on the reporting of individual RE-AIM items, using the RE-AIM Model Dimension Items Checklist (RE-AIM MDIC). A total of 60 papers, reporting 52 unique intervention trials, met eligibility criteria. Before consensus, the level of agreement across all trials between reviewers using the RE-AIM MDIC ranged from 81 to 91%. The RE-AIM MDIC dimension of 'efficacy' had the highest level of reporting, with the five individual items in this dimension reported in 19-100% of eligible trials (mean 58%). The RE-AIM MDIC dimension 'maintenance-setting level' had the lowest level of reporting, with none of the four individual items in this dimension reported. For other dimensions, the mean level of reporting and range across
Visek, Amanda J.; Harris, Brandonn; Blom, Lindsey C.
Working with youth athletes requires knowledge of the inherent variability in child and adolescent development that will impact the implementation of a mental training program. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of developmental considerations that should be noted when doing mental training, particularly for athletes participating in sport at mid-childhood, early adolescence, and mid-adolescence. Gender differences at these stages of development are also highlighted. Addition...
Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Polglaze, Ted; Freiwald, Jürgen
This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction. During the circuit, athletes wore two devices of each positioning system. From the reported and filtered velocity data, the distances covered and sprint mechanical properties (i.e., the theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, force, and power output) were computed. The sprint mechanical properties were modeled via an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center of mass. The validity was determined by comparing the measured and criterion data via the typical error of estimate (TEE), whereas the reliability was examined by comparing the two devices of each technology (i.e., the between-device reliability) via the coefficient of variation (CV). Outliers due to measurement errors were statistically identified and excluded from validity and reliability analyses. The 18 Hz GPS showed better validity and reliability for determining the distances covered (TEE: 1.6-8.0%; CV: 1.1-5.1%) and sprint mechanical properties (TEE: 4.5-14.3%; CV: 3.1-7.5%) than the 10 Hz GPS (TEE: 3.0-12.9%; CV: 2.5-13.0% and TEE: 4.1-23.1%; CV: 3.3-20.0%). However, the 20 Hz LPS demonstrated superior validity and reliability overall (TEE: 1.0-6.0%; CV: 0.7-5.0% and TEE: 2.1-9.2%; CV: 1.6-7.3%). For the 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS, and 20 Hz LPS, the relative loss of data sets due to measurement errors was 10.0%, 20.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. This study shows that
Minnick, Ann F; Donaghey, Beth; Slagle, Jason; Weinger, Matthew B
Interventions such as mandatory "time-outs" have contributed to intraoperative safety but improvements are still necessary. We present data provided by 3 professions always present in the intraoperative setting that suggest next steps in the quest for improvements. We describe the differences and similarities in operating room (OR) nurses', anesthesia providers', and surgeons' beliefs about team function, case difficulty, nonroutine event (NRE), and error causation using a qualitative design at 3 Veterans' Administration hospitals. Intraoperative errors are costly in lives, suffering, and dollars. A quality improvement tenet states that workers are a rich information source regarding the context within which quality can be improved. Identifying and describing OR providers' beliefs are necessary steps in devising novel approaches to quality improvement. Intraoperative NRE and error prevention opportunities exist within and outside of the OR. There may be "cascade" and "perfect storm conditions" before and during operative procedures that increase the likelihood of NREs. Confirmation of these phenomena could improve prediction and prevention of NREs. Exploration of differences in team definition and team performance ratings by provider type may also identify avenues for improvement. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.
A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team poses with Astronauts (from left) Steven W. Lindsey, Nancy Jane Currie and Laurel B. Clark. The team arrived at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station with First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.
Labat, Francoise; Sharma, Anjali
To identify potential barriers to patient safety (PS) interventions from the perspective of surgical team members working in an operating theatre in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In-depth interviews were conducted and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Governmental referral teaching hospital in Eastern DRC. We purposively selected 2-4 national and expatriate surgical team members from each specialisation. Of the 31 eligible surgical health workers (HWs), 17 volunteered to be interviewed. Economics issues affected PS throughout the entire health system, from human resources and hospital management, to access to healthcare for patients. Surgical team members seemed embedded in a paternalistic organisational structure and blame culture accompanied by perceived inefficient support services and low salaries. The armed conflict did not only worsen these system failures, it also carried direct threats to patients and HWs, and resulted in complex indirect consequences compromising PS. The increased corruption within health organisations, and population impoverishment and substance abuse among health staff adversely altered safe care. Simultaneously, HWs' reported resilience and resourcefulness to address barrier to PS. Participants had varying views on external aid depending on its relevance. The complex links between war and PS emphasise the importance of a comprehensive approach including occupational health to strengthen HWs' resilience, external clinical audits to limit corruption, and educational programmes in PS to support patient-centred care and address blame culture. Finally, improvement of equity in the health financing system seems essential to ensure access to healthcare and safe perioperative outcomes for all. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Davis, Louise; Appleby, Ralph; Davis, Paul; Wetherell, Mark; Gustafsson, Henrik
The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experimental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach-athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship.
Lee, Soonhwan; Shin, Hongbum; Park, Jung-Jun; Kwon, Oh-Ryun
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among the attitudinal brand loyalty variables (i.e., cognitive, affective, and conative components), team identification, and customer satisfaction by developing a structural equation model, based on Oliver's (1997) attitudinal brand loyalty model. The results of this study confirmed…
Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Valero-Campo, Carlos; Berzosa, César; Bataller, Ana Vanessa; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Moras, Gerard; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto
To analyze the effects of 2 different eccentric-overload training (EOT) programs, using a rotational conical pulley, on functional performance in team-sport players. A traditional movement paradigm (ie, squat) including several sets of 1 bilateral and vertical movement was compared with a novel paradigm including a different exercise in each set of unilateral and multi-directional movements. Forty-eight amateur or semiprofessional team-sport players were randomly assigned to an EOT program including either the same bilateral vertical (CBV, n = 24) movement (squat) or different unilateral multidirectional (VUMD, n = 24) movements. Training programs consisted of 6 sets of 1 exercise (CBV) or 1 set of 6 exercises (VUMD) × 6-10 repetitions with 3 min of passive recovery between sets and exercises, biweekly for 8 wk. Functional-performance assessment included several change-of-direction (COD) tests, a 25-m linear-sprint test, unilateral multidirectional jumping tests (ie, lateral, horizontal, and vertical), and a bilateral vertical-jump test. Within-group analysis showed substantial improvements in all tests in both groups, with VUMD showing more robust adaptations in pooled COD tests and lateral/horizontal jumping, whereas the opposite occurred in CBV respecting linear sprinting and vertical jumping. Between-groups analyses showed substantially better results in lateral jumps (ES = 0.21), left-leg horizontal jump (ES = 0.35), and 10-m COD with right leg (ES = 0.42) in VUMD than in CBV. In contrast, left-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.26) was possibly better in CBV than in VUMD. Eight weeks of EOT induced substantial improvements in functional-performance tests, although the force-vector application may play a key role to develop different and specific functional adaptations.
Köklü, Y; Arslan, Y; Alemdaroğlu, U; Duffield, R
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of SPI ProX global positioning system (GPS) devices for measuring movement at various speeds and movement patterns as evident in team sport demands. Eleven amateur soccer players performed a 40 m straight sprint test (with 10-20-30 m split times), a zigzag test, 30 m walking, jogging and moderate intensity runs. Results indicated that the SPI ProX GPS measurements showed acceptable accuracy for all movement patterns for distance (coefficient of variation [CV]=0.14% to 3.73%; 95% ratio limits of agreement [95% ratio LOA]=0.97 x / ÷ 1.09 to 1.00 x / ÷ 1.05) and speed (CV=4.22% to 9.52%; 95%LOA=-0.17 ± 1.70 km h-1 to 2.30 ± 1.17 km h-1) compared with the measured distance and speed determined from timing gates, respectively. Furthermore, acceptable reliability of SPI ProX GPS measures for distance (CV=0.34% to 3.81%; 95%LOA=-0.09 ± 0.23 m to -0.34 ± 2.31 m) and speed (CV=3.19% to 6.95%; 95%LOA=-0.05 ± 3.90 km h-1 to 0.42 ± 3.68 km h-1) were also evident. Whilst SPI ProX GPS devices were within acceptable ranges of reliability, they remained significantly different to criterion measures of team sport movement demands.
Robert G Lockie
Full Text Available There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]. Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05 examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05 were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725. However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829. A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes.
Schultz, AB; Callaghan, SJ; Jordan, CA; Luczo, TM; Jeffriess, MD
There is little research investigating relationships between the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and athletic performance in female athletes. This study analyzed the relationships between FMS (deep squat; hurdle step [HS]; in-line lunge [ILL]; shoulder mobility; active straight-leg raise [ASLR]; trunk stability push-up; rotary stability) scores, and performance tests (bilateral and unilateral sit-and-reach [flexibility]; 20-m sprint [linear speed]; 505 with turns from each leg; modified T-test with movement to left and right [change-of-direction speed]; bilateral and unilateral vertical and standing broad jumps; lateral jumps [leg power]). Nine healthy female recreational team sport athletes (age = 22.67 ± 5.12 years; height = 1.66 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 64.22 ± 4.44 kilograms) were screened in the FMS and completed the afore-mentioned tests. Percentage between-leg differences in unilateral sit-and-reach, 505 turns and the jumps, and difference between the T-test conditions, were also calculated. Spearman's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) examined relationships between the FMS and performance tests. Stepwise multiple regressions (p ≤ 0.05) were conducted for the performance tests to determine FMS predictors. Unilateral sit-and-reach positive correlated with the left-leg ASLR (r = 0.704-0.725). However, higher-scoring HS, ILL, and ASLR related to poorer 505 and T-test performance (r = 0.722-0.829). A higher-scored left-leg ASLR related to a poorer unilateral vertical and standing broad jump, which were the only significant relationships for jump performance. Predictive data tended to confirm the correlations. The results suggest limitations in using the FMS to identify movement deficiencies that could negatively impact athletic performance in female team sport athletes. PMID:25729149
Vanrenterghem, Jos; Nedergaard, Niels Jensby; Robinson, Mark A; Drust, Barry
There have been considerable advances in monitoring training load in running-based team sports in recent years. Novel technologies nowadays offer ample opportunities to continuously monitor the activities of a player. These activities lead to internal biochemical stresses on the various physiological subsystems; however, they also cause internal mechanical stresses on the various musculoskeletal tissues. Based on the amount and periodization of these stresses, the subsystems and tissues adapt. Therefore, by monitoring external loads, one hopes to estimate internal loads to predict adaptation, through understanding the load-adaptation pathways. We propose a new theoretical framework in which physiological and biomechanical load-adaptation pathways are considered separately, shedding new light on some of the previously published evidence. We hope that it can help the various practitioners in this field (trainers, coaches, medical staff, sport scientists) to align their thoughts when considering the value of monitoring load, and that it can help researchers design experiments that can better rationalize training-load monitoring for improving performance while preventing injury.
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an introduction to the process of writing for publication in Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, where three issues in particular are analyzed. The first one explains how to write an article for an international scientific publication, drawing the attention that it must be in accordance to the aims and the scope of the journal and that instructions regarding structure should be followed, as well as articles must be clear in regard to theory, method, results, conclusions, summary and key words. The second issue is a step-by-step guide to the review process, which involves the editor´s first decision, the decision to return the submission to the author or select two reviewers to revise the article; the feedback given by the reviewers to the editor, which decides and communicates the author; and, if the author must re-submission the article, the way how it happens. Last issue explains how Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy acts in regard to articles written in English as a foreign language.
Jorge Cuadrado Reyes
Full Text Available Abstract This research developed a logarithms for calculating the maximum heart rate (max. HR for players in team sports in game situations. The sample was made of thirteen players (aged 24 ± 3 to a Division Two Handball team. HR was initially measured by Course Navette test. Later, twenty one training sessions were conducted in which HR and Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE, were continuously monitored, in each task. A lineal regression analysis was done to help find a max. HR prediction equation from the max. HR of the three highest intensity sessions. Results from this equation correlate significantly with data obtained in the Course Navette test and with those obtained by other indirect methods. The conclusion of this research is that this equation provides a very useful and easy way to measure the max. HR in real game situations, avoiding non-specific analytical tests and, therefore laboratory testing.. Key words: workout control, functional evaluation, prediction equation.
Aughey, Robert J; Falloon, Cameron
Real-time (RT) GPS is used to monitor performance during Australian Football matches. Typically athlete targets monitored in RT are set from post-game (PG) data. The validity of RT compared to PG data is not yet known. This study compared RT data for key parameters to those obtained PG, using MinimaxX GPS. RT was different to PG for jog 4.2-5.0, run 5.0-6.9, sprint 6.9-10.0 m s(-1), and total distance (CV=6.4-19.6%). The signal to noise ratio was low for jog and run distance. For sprint noise exceeded the signal, with the opposite true for total distance. Caution must be applied if using RT data to monitor performance, especially if targets are set for players using PG data. 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Walker, Emily J; McAinch, Andrew J; Sweeting, Alice; Aughey, Robert J
To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. Cross sectional observation study. An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches. The algorithm was used to validate a metabolic power calculation used by Catapult Innovations (Scoresby Australia) in their proprietary GPS software. The SenseWear™ (Model MF-SW, Bodymedia, Pittsburgh, PA) armband was used to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis and was worn for 7 days leading into a match. Training, match and non-exercise activity thermogenesis data was summed for total daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for field training was estimated to be 2719±666kJ and for matches to be 5745±1468kJ. The estimated energy expenditure in the current study showed a large correlation (r=0.57, 90% CI 0.06-0.84) with the metabolic power calculation. The mean total daily energy expenditure for an in-season main training day was approximately 18,504kJ and match day approximately 19,160kJ with non-exercise activity thermogenesis contributing approximately 85% and 69% on training and match days, respectively. The MiniMax 4.0 and SenseWear™ armband accelerometers provide a practical, non-invasive and an effective method to successfully measure training and match energy expenditure, and non-exercise activity thermogenesis in field sport athletes. Taking methodological limitations into consideration, measuring energy expenditure allows for individualised nutrition programming to enhance performance and achieve body composition goals. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edwards, Samuel T; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Meredith, Lisa S; Schmidt Hackbarth, Nicole; Stockdale, Susan E; Cordasco, Kristina M; Lanto, Andrew B; Roos, Philip J; Yano, Elizabeth M
Unclear roles in interdisciplinary primary care teams can impede optimal team-based care. We assessed perceived task allocation among primary care providers (PCPs) and staff during implementation of a new patient-centered care model in Veterans Affairs (VA) primary care practices. We performed a cross-sectional survey of PCPs and primary care staff (registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical/vocational nurses (LPNs), and medical assistants/clerks (MAs)) in 23 primary care practices within one VA region. We asked subjects whether PCPs performed each of 14 common primary care tasks alone, or relied upon staff for help. Tasks included gathering preventive service history, disease screening, evaluating patients and making treatment decisions, intervening on lifestyle factors, educating patients about self-care activities and medications, refilling prescriptions, receiving and resolving patient messages, completing forms, tracking diagnostic data, referral tracking, and arranging home health care. We then performed multivariable regression to determine predictors of perceived PCP reliance on staff for each task. 162 PCPs and 257 staff members responded, a 60% response rate. For 12/14 tasks, fewer than 50% of PCPs reported relying on staff for help. For all 14 tasks, over 85% of RNs reported they were relied upon. For 12/14 tasks, over 50% of LPNs reported they were relied on, while for 5/14 tasks a majority of MAs reported being relied upon. Nurse practitioners and physician assistants (NP/PAs) reported relying on staff less than physicians. Early in the implementation of a team-based primary care model, most PCPs perceived they were solely responsible for most clinical tasks. RNs, and LPNs felt they were relied upon for most of the same tasks, while medical assistants/clerks reported being relied on for fewer tasks. Better understanding of optimal inter-professional team task allocation in primary care is needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Guyard, E.; Lescoat, D.A.
Reactors are at present operated from a conventional control room, where information is continuously available, by two operators under the responsibility of a shift supervisor (CDQ). A safety engineer (ISR) who does not perform any action on the process, holds a back position towards control. He is entrusted with the specific surveillance of the points important for the safety of the installation, in parallel with the work of the operators. The very nature of this task makes it more important in incident condition and determining in accident condition. In 1984, it was decided to equip the new nuclear power plants with entirely computerized control rooms. The introduction of the computerization of the control means involves an important evolution in the operators' work. The organization of control teams and the evolution of inter-operators relations are essential part of the problematics of the human factors evaluation carried out on S3C. For our part, we took a particular interest in the evolution of the ISR function, in reference with its usual task in a conventional control room
Lyndes, Kathryn A; Fitchett, George; Berlinger, Nancy; Cadge, Wendy; Misasi, Jennifer; Flanagan, Erin
To date, the field of health care chaplaincy has had little information about how pediatric palliative care (PPC) programs meet the spiritual needs of patients and families. We conducted a qualitative study consisting of surveys of 28 well-established PPC programs in the United States followed by interviews with medical directors and professional chaplains in 8 randomly selected programs among those surveyed. In this report, we describe the PPC chaplain activities, evidence regarding chaplain integration with the PPC team, and physician and chaplain perspectives on the chaplains' contributions. Chaplains described their work in terms of processes such as presence, while physicians emphasized outcomes of chaplains' care such as improved communication. Learning to translate what they do into the language of outcomes will help chaplains improve health care colleagues' understanding of chaplains' contributions to care for PPC patients and their families. In addition, future research should describe the spiritual needs and resources of PPC patients and families and examine the contribution chaplains make to improved outcomes for families and children facing life-limiting illnesses.
Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Sugita, Takashi; Ikeda, Shigaku
The emerging outbreak of Trichophyton tonsurans infection among members of combat sports clubs in Japan during the last 4 years has become a serious public health problem. To overcome this outbreak, a survey for T. tonsurans infection in Japan may be essential. We sought to clarify the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection among members of combat sports clubs in Japan. We conducted a survey of members of participating combat sports clubs using a standardized questionnaire to assess background factors and using the hairbrush method to identify T. tonsurans infection. Statistical significance of the correlation between data from the questionnaire and the hairbrush culture results was determined. We surveyed 1000 people (826 male) from 49 institutions and found 115 (11.5%) were positive for T. tonsurans infection revealed by the hairbrush method. Demographic factors associated with high positive rates (> or =20%) of the infection were familial T. tonsurans infection (20.0%), history of tinea corporis (24.2%), increased dandruff (32.1%), and concomitant tinea corporis (31.6%). Those with positive hairbrush culture results without current or previous tinea were considered asymptomatic carriers. The study population was limited to members of judo clubs all over Japan; they were asked to participate in this survey via the All Japan Judo Federation. Infection of T. tonsurans appears to have spread widely among members of combat sports club in Japan. The questionnaire used in this study is a simple and useful tool to estimate epidemiology of this infection.
Schildmeijer, Kristina; Nilsson, Lena; Perk, Joep; Arestedt, Kristofer; Nilsson, Gunilla
The aim was to describe the strengths and weaknesses, from team member perspectives, of working with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) method of retrospective record review to identify adverse events causing patient harm. A qualitative, descriptive approach with focus group interviews using content analysis. 5 Swedish hospitals in 2011. 5 GTT teams, with 5 physicians and 11 registered nurses. 5 focus group interviews were carried out with the five teams. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. 8 categories emerged relating to the strengths and weaknesses of the GTT method. The categories found were: Usefulness of the GTT, Application of the GTT, Triggers, Preventability of harm, Team composition, Team tasks, Team members' knowledge development and Documentation. Gradually, changes in the methodology were made by the teams, for example, the teams reported how the registered nurses divided up the charts into two sets, each being read respectively. The teams described the method as important and well functioning. Not only the most important, but also the most difficult, was the task of bringing the results back to the clinic. The teams found it easier to discuss findings at their own clinics. The GTT method functions well for identifying adverse events and is strengthened by its adaptability to different specialties. However, small, gradual methodological changes together with continuingly developed expertise and adaption to looking at harm from a patient's perspective may contribute to large differences in assessment over time.
Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J
Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete-tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. This study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using global positioning system (GPS) data. Velocity and acceleration data from a professional soccer match were recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data were filtered using either a median or an exponential filter. Acceleration data were derived from velocity data over a 0.2-s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3-second time interval. High-speed-running (≥4.17 m/s 2 ), sprint (≥7.00 m/s 2 ), and acceleration (≥2.78 m/s 2 ) efforts were then identified using minimum-effort durations (0.1-0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Different velocity-filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (effect size [ES] 0.28-1.09) in the number of high-speed-running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.
Espin, Sherry; Levinson, Wendy; Regehr, Glenn; Baker, G Ross; Lingard, Lorelei
Calls abound for a culture change in health care to improve patient safety. However, effective change cannot proceed without a clear understanding of perceptions and beliefs about error. In this study, we describe and compare operative team members' and patients' perceptions of error, reporting of error, and disclosure of error. Thirty-nine interviews of team members (9 surgeons, 9 nurses, 10 anesthesiologists) and patients (11) were conducted at 2 teaching hospitals using 4 scenarios as prompts. Transcribed responses to open questions were analyzed by 2 researchers for recurrent themes using the grounded-theory method. Yes/no answers were compared across groups using chi-square analyses. Team members and patients agreed on what constitutes an error. Deviation from standards and negative outcome were emphasized as definitive features. Patients and nurse professionals differed significantly in their perception of whether errors should be reported. Nurses were willing to report only events within their disciplinary scope of practice. Although most patients strongly advocated full disclosure of errors (what happened and how), team members preferred to disclose only what happened. When patients did support partial disclosure, their rationales varied from that of team members. Both operative teams and patients define error in terms of breaking the rules and the concept of "no harm no foul." These concepts pose challenges for treating errors as system failures. A strong culture of individualism pervades nurses' perception of error reporting, suggesting that interventions are needed to foster collective responsibility and a constructive approach to error identification.
Guilherme F. Reis
Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjective:To establish the injury profile of soccer players from a first division Brazilian soccer team. In addition, we investigated the association between the characteristics of the injuries and the player's age and position.Method: Forty-eight players from a Brazilian first division soccer team were followed during one season. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the injury profile. Spearman's tests were used to verify the association between the number and severity of injuries and the player's age. Chi-square test was used to verify the association between type of injury and player's position. Fisher's exact test was used to verify the association between the severity of injuries and player's position.Results: The incidence of injuries was 42.84/1000 hours in matches and 2.40/1000 hours in training. The injury severity was 19.5±34.4 days off competition or training. Lower limb was the most common location of injury and most injuries were muscular/tendinous, overuse, non-recurrent, and non-contact injuries. Player's age correlated with the amount and severity of muscle and tendon injuries. Defenders had more minimal injuries (1-3 days lost, while forwards had more moderate (8-28 days lost and severe injuries (>28 days lost. Furthermore, wingbacks had more muscle and tendon injuries, while midfielders had more joint and ligament injuries.Conclusion: The injury profile of the Brazilian players investigated in this study reflected regional differences in soccer practices. Results confirm the influence of the player's age and position on the soccer injuries profile.
Whaley, Alan; Gillis, William E
Hospitals throughout the United States establish leadership and management programs for their middle managers. Despite their pervasiveness and an increased emphasis on physician leadership, there is limited research regarding the development programs designed for clinical and nonclinical health care middle managers. Using two theoretical lenses, signaling and institutional theory, this exploratory study investigates mid-sized hospital development programs from the perspective of top management team (TMT) members. Our objective is to find out what types of programs hospitals have, how they are developed, and how they are evaluated. We conducted semistructured interviews with 13 TMT members in six purposefully selected hospitals and matched these interviews with program curricula. Careful coding of the data allowed us not only to show our data in a meaningful visual representation but also to show the progression of the data from raw form to aggregate themes in the qualitative research process. We identified four types of development programs used in the selected hospitals: (a) ongoing series, (b) curriculum-based, (c) management orientation, and (d) mentoring. Challenges existed in aligning the need for the program with program content. Communication occurred both through direct messaging regarding policies and procedures and through hidden signals. TMT members referenced other programs for guidance but were not always clear about what it is they wanted the programs to accomplish. Finally, there was limited program outcome measurement. Our small sample indicates that specific, structured, and comprehensive programs perform best. The better programs were always trying to improve but that most needed better accountability of tracking outcomes. In setting up a program, a collaborative approach among TMT members to establish what the needs are and how to measure outcomes worked well. Successful programs also tied in their leadership development with overall employee
A member of the U.S. Women's World Cup Soccer Team is greeted by NASA Astronaut Heidemarie M. Stefanyshyn-Piper (left) upon her arrival at the Skid Strip at Cape Canaveral Air Station to view the launch of Space Shuttle mission STS-93. Liftoff is scheduled for 12:36 a.m. EDT July 20. Much attention has been generated over the launch due to Commander Eileen M. Collins, the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The primary payload of the five-day mission is the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The new telescope is 20 to 50 times more sensitive than any previous X-ray telescope and is expected to unlock the secrets of supernovae, quasars and black holes.
Carol L. Perryman
reported ARL average of 35. Requested on the survey, but not reported, were time since terminal degree and in position, temporary or permanent status, and current job title. Hypothesis 1, that most library leaders base decisions on budget concerns rather than upon library and external administration strategic planning, was refuted. Hypothesis 2, that changes to the academic structure are incremental rather than global (e.g., alterations to job titles and responsibilities, was supported by responses. Major organizational changes in the next three to five years were predicted, led by role changes, addition of new positions, and unit consolidation. Most participants agreed that while there are sufficient personnel to replace top level library administrators, there will be a crisis for mid-level positions as retirements occur. A priority focus emerging from interview responses was preparing for next-generation administrators. There was disagreement among respondents about whether a crisis exists in the availability of new leaders to replace those who are retiring. Conclusion – Decisions are primarily made in collaboration with senior leadership teams, and based on strategic planning and goals as well as university strategic plans in order to effect incremental change as opposed to wholesale structural change.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in the United States. Diets high in fat, especially saturated fat, are often linked to obesity, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, all risk factors for CVD. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between diet and CVD risk factors in members of a university marching band, dance team and cheer squad. Methods In 2004, 232 marching band, dance team and cheer squad members completed a self-administered survey evaluating dietary intake. Body mass index (BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure, fasting serum glucose and cholesterol were measured. Unpaired t-test and Pearson's chi square test were used to determine baseline differences by gender. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the cross-sectional association between dietary intake of various food groups such as grains, meats, fruits & vegetables, dairy, water, alcohol and risk factors for CVD namely BMI, WHR, blood glucose, total cholesterol, and blood pressure (BP. Results 45% of the participants were overweight; 30% of females and 4.3% of males had WHR ≥ 0.80 and 0.95 respectively. Almost 8% were hyperglycemic, 10% hypercholesterolemic, 15% had high systolic and 9% had high diastolic BP. Less than 50% consumed the recommended servings of grains, fruits and vegetables, dairy and water and 58% consumed alcohol. Higher grains intake was positively associated with higher BMI (Adjusted β = 1.97, p = 0.030, 95% CI: 0.19, 3.74 and; higher alcohol intake was also positively associated with higher BMI (Adjusted β = 0.15, p = 0.002, 95% CI: 0.06, 0.24. Conclusion These results warrant the evaluation of existing college-based health programs and development of new interventions to improve dietary habits and promote a healthy lifestyle in these athletes.
Papadopoulou, Sousana K; Gouvianaki, Anna; Grammatikopoulou, Maria G; Maraki, Zoi; Pagkalos, Ioannis G; Malliaropoulos, Nikolaos; Hassapidou, Maria N; Maffulli, Nicola
To assess the anthropometric characteristics and dietary intake of the Greek national cross-country skiing team. Thirty-three athletes (10 females aged 20 ± 5 years; 23 males aged 20 ± 6 years old) participated in the study. All athletes were members of the Greek national ski team, and they had been selected to take part in the Winter Olympics, World Ski Championships, European Ski Championships or other international events, according to their performance. Body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance (BIA) and skinfold thickness. The athletes recorded their physical activity and dietary intake for 3 training days, and on a competition day. The female skiers had 14.2±1.9% body fat, the men 11.0±1.5% body fat. Female athletes consumed a diet of 1988±319 Kcal during training days and 2011±330 Kcal during competition days. Male athletes consumed 2255±790 Kcal and 2125±639 Kcal respectively. These values are below those recommended for highly active people. During the training period, carbohydrate, fat and protein contributed to 44.5±7.1%, 39.2±5.3% and 16.1±3.7% of the total energy intake (EI) respectively for the males, and to 52.8±5.6%, 33.0±3.7% and 14.3±2.5% of the EI of the women. Between training and competition days, men demonstrated an increased carbohydrate and reduced fat consumption when competing (PGreek national cross-country ski team could put the athletes at risk of nutritional deficiencies, and possibly compromise their athletic performance.
Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143 PMID:29016675
Vorup, Jacob; Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Brahe, Lena Kirchner; Melcher, Pia Sandfeld; Alstrøm, Joachim Meno; Bangsbo, Jens
The effect of small-sided team sport training and protein intake on muscle mass, physical function, and adaptations important for health in untrained older adults was examined. Forty-eight untrained older (72±6 (±standard deviation, SD) years men and women were divided into either a team sport group ingesting a drink high in protein (18 g) immediately and 3 h after each training session (TS-HP, n = 13), a team sport group ingesting an isocaloric drink with low protein content (3 g; TS-LP, n = 18), or a control group continuing their normal activities (CON, n = 17). The team sport training was performed as ~20 min of small-sided ball games twice a week over 12 weeks. After the intervention period, leg muscle mass was 0.6 kg higher (P = 0.047) in TS-HP, with no effect in TS-LP. In TS-HP, number of sit-to-stand repetitions increased (1.2±0.6, P = 0.054), time to perform 2.45 m up-and-go was lower (0.7±0.3 s, P = 0.03) and number of arm curl repetitions increased (3.5±1.2, P = 0.01), whereas in TS-LP only number of repetitions in sit-to-stand was higher (1.6±0.6, P = 0.01). In TS-LP, reductions were observed in total and abdominal fat mass (1.2±0.5 and 0.4±0.2 kg, P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively), heart rate at rest (9±3 bpm, P = 0.002) and plasma C-reactive protein (1.8±0.8 mmol/L, P = 0.03), with no effects in TS-HP. Thus, team sport training improves functional capacity of untrained older adults and increases leg muscle mass only when ingesting proteins after training. Furthermore, team sport training followed by intake of drink with low protein content does lower fat mass, heart rate at rest and level of systemic inflammation. clinicaltrials.gov NCT03120143.
Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ
This study is about the incidence rate of sports injuries in five different types of sports, gymnastics, soccer, volleyball, hockey, and basketball, for which 5,154 patients were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Groningen University Hospital during the period 1990 through 1994. Incidence rate
form its architecture, but institutions of higher education have responded by producing human talent that is adept at using the latest technologies...managed, skilled and efficient Cybersecurity Incident Response Team (CSIRT). For CSIRT managers, finding the right mixture of talent and creating the...members join. Managers should have regular team social activities (e.g., team lunches, sports activities), especially if the team is not new. Engaging
Hohmann, Tanja; Obelöer, Hilke; Schlapkohl, Nele; Raab, Markus
We examined the effectiveness of video-based decision training in national youth handball teams. Extending previous research, we tested in Study 1 whether a three-dimensional (3D) video training group would outperform a two-dimensional (2D) group. In Study 2, a 3D training group was compared to a control group and a group trained with a traditional tactic board. In both studies, training duration was 6 weeks. Performance was measured in a pre- to post-retention design. The tests consisted of a decision-making task measuring quality of decisions (first and best option) and decision time (time for first and best option). The results of Study 1 showed learning effects and revealed that the 3D video group made faster first-option choices than the 2D group, but differences in the quality of options were not pronounced. The results of Study 2 revealed learning effects for both training groups compared to the control group, and faster choices in the 3D group compared to both other groups. Together, the results show that 3D video training is the most useful tool for improving choices in handball, but only in reference to decision time and not decision quality. We discuss the usefulness of a 3D video tool for training of decision-making skills outside the laboratory or gym.
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.
Henke, T; Luig, P; Schulz, D
Almost one of four Germans is registered in a sports club. Nowadays, sport is acknowledged as an integral component of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous studies provide evidence of the benefits of sports on health. However, about 2 million sports injuries per year diminish the health benefits of sport. (a) Description of the epidemiology of sports injuries in German sports club between 1987 and 2012 and (b) identification of focal areas for the development and implementation of prevention measures. Continuous questionnaire-based injury monitoring of club sports injuries that have been reported to the respective sports insurance. Full survey among selected federal sports associations. Since 1987, a sample of 200,884 sports injuries has been established. About two thirds of the injuries are reported in soccer, handball, basketball, and volleyball, although only one third of all sports club members are registered in these team sports. The number of women's soccer injuries has risen from 7.5 to 15.6 %. Ankle injuries have decreased from 28.7 to 16.9 %. By contrast, the rate of knee injuries has increased from 18.4 to 20.3 %. Days of disability have dropped steadily since the 1990s. Inpatient hospital days have decreased from 10 to 5 days, whereas the share of injuries that needed surgery increased from 30 to 40 %. Team ball sports are still a clear focal area for injury prevention, as participation and injury risk are highest in this group. While the prevention of ankle injuries seems to be headed in the right direction, knee injuries are increasing. As team ball sports become more popular among women, who are more prone to severe knee injuries, prevention programs should be tailored toward the specific situation and needs of the targeted sports participants.
No clinical laboratory would admit they do not practice team medicine, at least conceptually. However, true team medicine is more than an aspiration--it is an intentional care structure built, led, and delivered by a diverse, multidisciplinary team of physicians, medical technologists, nurses, pharmacists, and dozens of other professionals. We clinical laboratory physicians are able to fulfill an important role as competent members of the team medicine. Because we can look at the results of clinical examinations of patients earlier than anyone else, we can interpret the patient's condition by analyzing that results, and provide useful information to facilitate team medicine. I have conducted a questionnaire survey on team medicine targeting clinical laboratory physicians to clarify the tasks we are performing. In this paper, I describe what clinical laboratory physicians are currently doing, and how should we develop in the future.
Full Text Available In order to identify to what extent competitiveness trait is related to sport performance in soccer, and to what extent the age and sport category can influence these variables, a descriptive cross-sectional study has been developed. The variables age, sport category, sport performance, achievement motivation (Me, motivation to avoid the failure (Mef and competitiveness trait have been assessed in 151 men soccer players (between 14 and 24 y.o. of a Spanish sport club. The results indicated that the sport performance ascends with age. Consequently, a direct relationship between the sport category and the performance has been observed. Me, Mef and competitiveness trait have been associated with the performance and has varied based on the sport category. No correlation between Me, Mef, competitiveness and age of the sportsmen has been found
Bezodis, Neil E; North, Jamie S; Razavet, Jane L
A more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector is related to higher levels of sprint acceleration performance across a range of athletes. However, the effects of acute experimental alterations to the force vector orientation within athletes are unknown. Fifteen male team sports athletes completed maximal effort 10-m accelerations in three conditions following different verbal instructions intended to manipulate the force vector orientation. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were collected from the step nearest 5-m and stance leg kinematics at touchdown were also analysed to understand specific kinematic features of touchdown technique which may influence the consequent force vector orientation. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare findings between conditions. There was a likely more horizontally oriented ground reaction force vector and a likely lower peak vertical force in the control condition compared with the experimental conditions. 10-m sprint time was very likely quickest in the control condition which confirmed the importance of force vector orientation for acceleration performance on a within-athlete basis. The stance leg kinematics revealed that a more horizontally oriented force vector during stance was preceded at touchdown by a likely more dorsiflexed ankle, a likely more flexed knee, and a possibly or likely greater hip extension velocity.
Binnie, Martyn John; Dawson, Brian; Arnot, Mark Alexander; Pinnington, Hugh; Landers, Grant; Peeling, Peter
This study compared the use of sand and grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme in well-trained female team sport athletes (n = 24). Performance testing was conducted pre- and post-training and included measures of leg strength and balance, vertical jump, agility, 20 m speed, repeat speed (8 × 20 m every 20 s), as well as running economy and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Heart rate (HR), training load (rating of perceived exertion (RPE) × duration), movement patterns and perceptual measures were monitored throughout each training session. Participants completed 2 × 1 h conditioning sessions per week on sand (SAND) or grass (GRASS) surfaces, incorporating interval training, sprint and agility drills, and small-sided games. Results showed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) HR and training load in the SAND versus GRASS group throughout each week of training, plus some moderate effect sizes to suggest lower perceptual ratings of soreness and fatigue on SAND. Significantly greater (P < 0.05) improvements in VO2max were measured for SAND compared to GRASS. These results suggest that substituting sand for grass training surfaces throughout an 8-week conditioning programme can significantly increase the relative exercise intensity and training load, subsequently leading to superior improvements in aerobic fitness.
Wehbe, George M; Gabbett, Tim J; Hartwig, Timothy B; Mclellan, Christopher P
Given the importance of ensuring athletes train and compete in a nonfatigued state, reliable tests are required to regularly monitor fatigue. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a cycle ergometer to measure peak power during short maximal sprint cycle efforts in running-based team sport athletes. Fourteen professional male Australian rules footballers performed a sprint cycle protocol during 3 separate trials, with each trial separated by 7 days. The protocol consisted of a standardized warm-up, a maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort, a 1-minute active recovery, and a second maximal 6-second sprint cycle effort. Peak power was recorded as the highest power output of the 2 sprint cycle efforts. Absolute peak power (mean ± SD) was 1502 ± 202, 1498 ± 191, and 1495 ± 210 W for trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean coefficient of variation, intraclass correlation coefficient, and SE of measurement for peak power between trials was 3.0% (90% confidence intervals [CIs] = 2.5-3.8%), 0.96 (90% CIs = 0.91-0.98), and 39 W, respectively. The smallest worthwhile change for relative peak power was 6.0%, which equated to 1.03 W·kg⁻¹. The cycle ergometer sprint test protocol described in this study is highly reliable in elite Australian rules footballers and can be used to track meaningful changes in performance over time, making it a potentially useful fatigue-monitoring tool.
Johnston, Richard J; Watsford, Mark L; Pine, Matthew J; Spurrs, Robert W; Murphy, Aron J; Pruyn, Elizabeth C
The purpose of this research was to investigate the validity and the reliability of 5-Hz MinimaxX global positioning system (GPS) units measuring athlete movement demands. A team sport simulation circuit (files collected from each unit = 12) and flying 50-m sprints (files collected from each unit = 34) were undertaken, during which the total distance covered; peak speed; player load; the distance covered; time spent and number of efforts performed walking, jogging, running, high-speed running, and sprinting were examined. Movement demands were also separately categorized into low-intensity activity, high-intensity running, and very high-intensity running. The results revealed that GPS was a valid and reliable measure of total distance covered (p > 0.05, percentage typical error of measurement [%TEM] 0.05, %TEM 5-10%). Further, GPS was found to be a reliable measure of player load (%TEM 4.9%) and the distance covered, time spent, and number of efforts performed at certain velocity zones (%TEM 10%). The level of GPS error was found to increase along with the velocity of exercise. The findings demonstrated that GPS is capable of measuring movement demands performed at velocities GPS velocities >20 km·h(-1).
McLaren, Shaun J; Macpherson, Tom W; Coutts, Aaron J; Hurst, Christopher; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew
The associations between internal and external measures of training load and intensity are important in understanding the training process and the validity of specific internal measures. We aimed to provide meta-analytic estimates of the relationships, as determined by a correlation coefficient, between internal and external measures of load and intensity during team-sport training and competition. A further aim was to examine the moderating effects of training mode on these relationships. We searched six electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL) for original research articles published up to September 2017. A Boolean search phrase was created to include search terms relevant to team-sport athletes (population; 37 keywords), internal load (dependent variable; 35 keywords), and external load (independent variable; 81 keywords). Articles were considered for meta-analysis when a correlation coefficient describing the association between at least one internal and one external measure of session load or intensity, measured in the time or frequency domain, was obtained from team-sport athletes during normal training or match-play (i.e., unstructured observational study). The final data sample included 122 estimates from 13 independent studies describing 15 unique relationships between three internal and nine external measures of load and intensity. This sample included 295 athletes and 10,418 individual session observations. Internal measures were session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), sRPE training load (sRPE-TL), and heart-rate-derived training impulse (TRIMP). External measures were total distance (TD), the distance covered at high and very high speeds (HSRD ≥ 13.1-15.0 km h -1 and VHSRD ≥ 16.9-19.8 km h -1 , respectively), accelerometer load (AL), and the number of sustained impacts (Impacts > 2-5 G). Distinct training modes were identified as either mixed (reference condition), skills, metabolic, or
Wann, Daniel L.; Koch, Katrina; Knoth, Tasha; Fox, David; Aljubaily, Hesham; Lantz, Christopher D.
The current investigation examined sport fans' impressions of an athlete described as a potential member of their team or a potential member of a rival team. In Study 1, we predicted that individuals would exhibit an ingroup favoritism effect by reporting more positive evaluations of the player's performance when he was described as a…
Paul J. Tofari
Full Text Available This study assessed the reliability of a ‘self-paced’ 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT. Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials. The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV < 5%, and < 6% for each 10-min activity block. All power variables exhibited a CV < 7.5%, except walking (CV 8.3-10.1%. The most reliable variables were maximum and mean sprint speed (CV < 2%. All variables produced a CV% greater than the SWC. A self-paced, team-sport running protocol performed on a NMT produces reliable speed/distance and power data. Importantly, a single familiarisation session allowed for adequate test-retest reliability. The self-paced design provides an ecologically-valid alternative to externally-paced team-sport running simulations.
Osborne, Hamish R; Quinlan, John F; Allison, Garry T
Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...
Boon, BH; Sierksma, G
One of the problems in sports and human resources management is the scouting or headhunting of new team members to fill open positions and to enhance the quality of the team. Also to measure whether everyone is on the right place, meaning that (the supply of) all qualities of the employees are
Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A
Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sport athletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sport athletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport.
Tofari, Paul J.; McLean, Blake D.; Kemp, Justin; Cormack, Stuart
This study assessed the reliability of a ‘self-paced’ 30-min, team-sport running protocol on a Woodway Curve 3.0 non-motorised treadmill (NMT). Ten male team-sport athletes (20.3 ± 1.2 y, 74.4 ± 9.7 kg, VO2peak 57.1 ± 4.5 ml·kg-1·min-1) attended five sessions (VO2peak testing + familiarisation; four reliability trials). The 30-min protocol consisted of three identical 10-min activity blocks, with visual and audible commands directing locomotor activity; however, actual speeds were self-selected by participants. Reliability of variables was estimated using typical error ± 90% confidence limits expressed as a percentage [coefficient of variation (CV)] and intraclass correlation coefficient. The smallest worthwhile change (SWC) was calculated as 0.2 × between participant standard deviation. Peak/mean speed and distance variables assessed across the 30-min protocol exhibited a CV simulations. Key points Self-paced team-sport running protocols on a curved NMT that closely match the locomotor demands of competition deliver reliable test-retest measures of speed, distance and power. Such protocols may be sensitive to changes in running profile following an intervention that may not be detectable during externally-paced protocols. One familiarisation session is adequate to ensure test-retest reliability. PMID:25729291
by those who studied human behavior. Behaviorists such as Abraham Maslow, and Frederick Herzberg developed theories of motivation which share much of...tried, but were never totally effective. Fear, reward, slavery, and freedom have all been tried as motivators. FREDERICK TAYLOR The earliest modern...research into motivation and how to do things in a working environment was done by Frederick Taylor. His theories were gleaned from his studies of
Bourbousson, Jérôme; Fortes-Bourbousson, Marina
Based on a diagnosis action research design, the present study assessed the fluctuations of the team experience of togetherness. Reported experiences of 12 basketball team members playing in the under-18 years old national championship were studied during a four-month training and competitive period. Time series analysis (Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average procedures) served to describe temporal properties of the way in which the fluctuations of task-cohesion and shared understanding were step-by-step experienced over time, respectively. Correlations, running-correlations and cross-lagged correlations were used to describe the temporal links that governed the relationships between both phenomena. The results indicated that the task-cohesion dimensions differed mainly for shared understanding dynamics in that their time fluctuations were not embedded in external events, and that the variations in shared understanding tend to precede 'individual attractions to the task' variations with seven team practical sessions. This study argues for further investigation of how 'togetherness' is experienced alternatively as a feeling of cohesion or shared understanding. Practitioner Summary: The present action research study investigated the experience that the team members have to share information during practice, and the subsequent benefices on team cohesion. Results call for specific interventions that make team members accept the fluctuating nature of team phenomena, to help them maintaining their daily efforts.
Marsteller Jill A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Team-based interventions are effective for improving safety and quality of healthcare. However, contextual factors, such as team functioning, leadership, and organizational support, can vary significantly across teams and affect the level of implementation success. Yet, the science for measuring context is immature. The goal of this study is to validate measures from a short instrument tailored to track dynamic context and progress for a team-based quality improvement (QI intervention. Methods Design: Secondary cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of data from a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT of a team-based quality improvement intervention to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI rates in intensive care units (ICUs. Setting: Forty-six ICUs located within 35 faith-based, not-for-profit community hospitals across 12 states in the U.S. Population: Team members participating in an ICU-based QI intervention. Measures: The primary measure is the Team Check-up Tool (TCT, an original instrument that assesses context and progress of a team-based QI intervention. The TCT is administered monthly. Validation measures include CLABSI rate, Team Functioning Survey (TFS and Practice Environment Scale (PES from the Nursing Work Index. Analysis: Temporal stability, responsiveness and validity of the TCT. Results We found evidence supporting the temporal stability, construct validity, and responsiveness of TCT measures of intervention activities, perceived group-level behaviors, and barriers to team progress. Conclusions The TCT demonstrates good measurement reliability, validity, and responsiveness. By having more validated measures on implementation context, researchers can more readily conduct rigorous studies to identify contextual variables linked to key intervention and patient outcomes and strengthen the evidence base on successful spread of efficacious team-based interventions. QI teams
McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Liess, Carsten; Kemp, Justin
Little research has been done on the physiological and performance effects of altitude training on team-sport athletes. Therefore, this study examined changes in 2000-m time-trial running performance (TT), hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), and intramuscular carnosine content of elite Australian Football (AF) players after a preseason altitude camp. Thirty elite AF players completed 19 days of living and training at either moderate altitude (~2130 m; ALT, n = 21) or sea level (CON, n = 9). TT performance and Hbmass were assessed preintervention (PRE) and postintervention (POST1) in both groups and at 4 wk after returning to sea level (POST2) in ALT only. Improvement in TT performance after altitude was likely 1.5% (± 4.8-90%CL) greater in ALT than in CON, with an individual responsiveness of 0.8%. Improvements in TT were maintained at POST2 in ALT. Hbmass after altitude was very likely increased in ALT compared with CON (2.8% ± 3.5%), with an individual responsiveness of 1.3%. Hbmass returned to baseline at POST2. Intramuscular carnosine did not change in either gastrocnemius or soleus from PRE to POST1. A preseason altitude camp improved TT performance and Hbmass in elite AF players to a magnitude similar to that demonstrated by elite endurance athletes undertaking altitude training. The individual responsiveness of both TT and Hbmass was approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. The maintenance of running performance for 4 wk, despite Hbmass returning to baseline, suggests that altitude training is a valuable preparation for AF players leading into the competitive season.
Hallingberg, Britt; Moore, Simon; Morgan, Joanne; Bowen, Katharine; van Goozen, Stephanie H M
There is a lack of research investigating organised activity participation and associated alcohol use in vulnerable groups. The purpose of this research was to test and compare associations between participation in organised activities and indicators of hazardous drinking between young offenders and young non-offenders. Two groups of 13-18 year-old males were recruited in Cardiff, UK: 93 young offenders and 53 non-offenders from secondary schools matched on estimated IQ, sex and socioeconomic status. Indicators of hazardous drinking were measured using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). Organised activity participation and externalising behaviour was measured by the Youth Self Report. The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence was also administered. Young offenders participated in fewer organised activities and had higher FAST scores than non-offenders. Young offenders and non-offenders significantly differed on mean FAST scores if they participated in no organised activities but not if they participated in at least one team sport. Externalising behaviour problems were unrelated to participation in organised activities. Although young offenders were less likely to have participated in organised activities, for them, participation in a team sport was associated with less hazardous drinking. Vulnerable youths who might benefit most from sporting activities actually access them the least. Future research should identify the different barriers to participation that they face. © 2014 The Authors. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wetton, Abigail R; Radley, Rebecca; Jones, Angela R; Pearce, Mark S
Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health), exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires (n = 60) and semistructured interviews (n = 6) to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers' attitudes and shifting the media's focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation's female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport.
Abigail R. Wetton
Full Text Available Given the clear benefits of regular physical activity (such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity, as well as other benefits including those related to mental health, exploration of the reasons that adolescent girls give for not taking part in team sports may be particularly valuable for enhancing later rates of participation. We combined questionnaires ( and semistructured interviews ( to assess the barriers that prevent 15-16-year-old girls from participating in extracurricular team games and what can be done to overcome these barriers and improve physical activity levels. Four barriers became prominent as to why girls in this sample do not participate: Internal Factors, Existing Stereotypes, Other Hobbies and Teachers. Methods to overcome these barriers were identified; changing teachers’ attitudes and shifting the media’s focus away from male sport. Following the successful summer Olympics and Paralympics in the UK, and the resulting positive focus on some of the nation’s female athletes, a shift in focus may be possible. However, this needs to be maintained to allow girls more opportunities, role models and motivation to participate in sport.
Stela GUZUN, PhD Student,Free International University of Moldova
Full Text Available The actuality of the theme consists in concretizing the importance of the management teams, identifying and classifying the most adequate individual and personality qualities and the behavior specificity of their members. The author emphasizes the analysis methods of premises that encourages the formation of the management teams, analyzes the impact of the place and the role of the property, of its structure on the practice regarding the formation of the management teams within the companies of the Republic of Moldova. The results are considered as useful and axiomatic in the process of elaborating the management model by the administration of the local companies. The aim is to motivate scientifically and to elaborate the concept fundamentals concerning the formation and the functioning of the management teams, which might improve the management of the modern companies from the Republic of Moldova.
Reimers, C D; Reuter, I; Straube, A; Tettenborn, B; Braumann, K M; Reimers, A K
Physical inactivity is a major but modifiable risk factor for morbidity and mortality. Regular physical activity has preventive and therapeutic effects on numerous diseases including neurological disorders. Therefore, it is desirable that physicians motivate their patients to increase their physical and sports activities and that they help them to overcome barriers to exercising. The present study is a survey of neurologists who are members of the German Neurological Society with their own practices; they were asked whether they advised their patients on the benefits of physical activity. Details on physician counseling on physical activity were obtained, such as the frequency of counseling, the neurological disorders considered by the practitioners to be worth the effort of counseling, and the barriers to exercise on the part of patients. More than 80 % of the participants who responded to the survey stated that they frequently provide their patients with advice on the preventive and therapeutic aspects of physical activity. Almost all of them recommended endurance sports; this was followed by Far Eastern types of sport such as tai chi or yoga (70 % of all physicians who advice sports activities). The frequency of counseling about physical activity significantly correlated to the physician's own sports activity. Frequency of counseling was reduced if the physician assessed the patients to be incapable of adopting and maintaining a lifestyle of habitual physical activity. Lack of time as well as an insufficient reimbursement of the counseling, however, did not significantly influence the frequency of counseling. The physician's own sports activity matched that of individuals with similar social status. Thus, a selection bias does not seem to be of importance regarding the results of the survey. However, since only 169 of the 784 invited neurologists (21.6 %) responded to the questionnaire, the representativeness of the survey may be limited. Counseling about
Kujala, U M; Heinonen, O J; Lehto, M; Järvinen, M; Bergfeld, J A
Physicians nowadays commonly attend sports competitions or journeys with a sports team. In some competitions the rules ensure the attendance of a physician. The team physician has to take care of all kinds of medical problems within the team, while the competition physician basically takes care of acute complaints. The competition physician must organise the medical coverage of both athletes and spectators, also taking into account medical emergencies. In addition he should inform the teams and spectators about the medical coverage. The team physician must also perform a precompetition health screening of individual team members, and take care of infection prophylaxis before and during journeys. Usually the physician carries drugs for respiratory infections, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, gastrointestinal medications, antihistamines, eyedrops, local anaesthetics and dermatological medications. The physician's bag should not include banned substances, other than specially labelled emergency medications. The inclusion of other medications and equipment and the need for other medical resources is highly dependent on the length of the journey, the destination, the type of sports, and the number of participants and spectators. Each sport has its characteristic injury profile and there are also sport-specific regulations which the physician must be aware of. Acute injuries are more common in contact sports, and overuse injuries in non-contact sports. In addition to musculoskeletal injuries, other conditions such as heat exhaustion and dehydration may be encountered, while cold can also cause special problems.
need for honesty and for being a reflective listener to team member input. Sports leaders stressed the importance of interactions between members and...The relationship between task cohesion and competitive state anxiety. Journal of Sports & Exercise Psychology, 25,66-76. Athletes commonly report...Technical Report 1159 Cohesion in Sports and Organizational Psychology: An Annotated Bibliography and Suggestions for U.S. Army Aviation (1993 to
Antar, Ahmad H.
The concepts of workplace social interactions and team effectiveness have garnered a great deal of attention in organizational literature. However, these two concepts are seldom integrated for examination within the offshore technology groups. Drawing from the theory of workplace social exchange, this empirical study was initiated to investigate…
Hammami, Amri; Gabbett, Tim J; Slimani, Maamer; Bouhlel, Ezdine
This paper aimed to systematically review and meta-analyse the training effects of small-sided games (SSG) on physical fitness and specific skills related to team sport according to the level of play and the period of the season. The search covered the following electronic databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect). The publications' search period ranged from 2000 to 2016. The terms (small- sided game, training, skill-based game, aerobic fitness, sprint, agility, jump and team sports) were used either singularly or combined in a systematic sequence. Appraisal of 16 articles (15 were meta-analysed) was performed after the application of exclusion criteria and quality assurance processes and the standardized mean effects were measured using random effects. The results revealed that SSG training had a large beneficial effect on maximal oxygen uptake VO2max (effect size 1.94; 95 % CL 0.15, 3.74; I2 = 94 %), agility (-1.49; 95% CL -2.27, -0.71; I2 = 80%), and repeated sprint ability (-1.19; 95% CL - 2.17, -0.21; I2= 53%).There was a moderate beneficial effect on 10- and 20-m sprint performance (-0.89; 95 % CL -1.7, -0.07; I2 =88%), jump height (0.68; 95% CL 0.03, 1.33; I2= 79%), and intermittent endurance (0.61; 95% CL 0.17, 1.05; I2= 0%). The results also showed greater positive effects on specific skills (specific endurance and agility tests and techniques) after SSG when compared with generic or agility training. Small-sided games may represent an effective strategy of multicomponent training that can induce greater positive effects on specific skills tasks when compared with interval or agility training and moderate to large improvements in team sport-related physical fitness.
Full Text Available Socialization is a process that a part of a specific culture and a specific member of society. The aim of this study is to discuss how sport effects to socialization of children and young, and re - socialization of adults.The study is a descriptive, theoretical and conceptive study. Acc ording to some studies that sport is an obtained gain in socialization process. Sport, especially team sports learned to children and young that how to behave in social group and how to control their behaviors. According a study, young people who after the start of sportive activities, its seen that “they evaluate their leisure time more beneficially” (98.6%, “they understand the importance of team working” (95.8%, “they are aware of their responsibility” (97.2% and “they gain planning study habit” (94,4 %. In addition to sport effected socialization that “understanding the importance of division of labor and solidarity” (93%, “be aware and be more careful of social rules” (92.3%, and “be tolerant of others idea and beliefs” (88.7% (Bulgu&Akcan, 2003;1 57 - 159. If the sportive activities be on children and young life, it’s an important and effective communication tools. Sport, improves social relationship and decrease social distance. Sport requires feel empathy with someone and improves the empathy hab it. Sport contributes the children and young for self - expression to be truer and better. Sport is an effective tool for to be important and meaningful part of group. Sport contributes the children and young for become integrated with a group. Also sport pl aying important role for reinforcement to solidarity and to gain the habit of obey the rules. Sport makes a major contribute socialization and re - socialization of children and young. Accordingly these results, sport has to play active role in social life a nd instructional program.
Chung, Yun-Ching; Stoner, Julia B
The ultimate goal of AAC provision is to promote students' active participation across settings through interactions involving a variety of partners and functions. To achieve such outcomes, educational teams must collaborate and consider the characteristics of students, their families, and relevant environments during AAC assessment and intervention. To date, AAC team collaboration has rarely been evaluated collectively outside intervention or case study research. In this investigation, a meta-synthesis was conducted to review qualitative studies of perspectives of team members on supporting students who used AAC, ranging in age from kindergarten to post-secondary, in public schools in the United States. Analyses yielded three primary themes necessary for effective AAC services; inputs, activities, and outcomes. Implications and recommendations for service providers and future researchers are described.
Task conflict and its potential positive effect on team outcomes has been questioned over the years. The findings have been inconsistent, with different studies indicating that task conflict can be positively related, negatively related or unrelated to measures of team outcomes. This study is a response to the request presented in de Wit, Greer and Jehn s (2012) recent meta-analysis, to further investigate the effect relationship conflict can have on the association between task conflict and...
Marcos Gimenes Fernandes
Full Text Available The present study had the following objectives: i to examine the inter-scale correlations between the three dimensions of responses (intensity, direction and frequency of the CSAI-2R and its relationship with competitive experience, and ii evaluate the effect of competitive experience anxiety (cognitive and somatic and self-confidence in the total sample and for different types of modalities (individual vs. team. The sample consisted of 267 athletes (196 male and 71 female, of different sports, aged between 18 and 40 years (M = 24.30, SD = 5.62. Athletes completed the Brazilian version of the CSAI-2, which included the addition of the dimensions of direction and frequency response. Spearman test and Manova were used for the data analysis. Overall, it was found that the competitive experience has a high multivariate and significant effect on the dimensions of competitive anxiety. Both individual and team athletes with low competitive experience showed a trend to report lower levels of self-confidence intensity, compared to counterparts with high competitive experience. These results were discussed in view of the theoretic framework and practical implications planning Sport Psychology intervention programs in local athletes with different backgrounds.
Gabbett, Tim J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Pritchard-Peschek, Kellie R; Leveritt, Michael D; Aldred, Murry J
In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of two different dynamic warm-up conditions, one that was inclusive of open skills (i.e., reactive movements) and one that included only preplanned dynamic activities (i.e., closed skills) on the performance of speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and reactive agility in team sport athletes. Fourteen (six male, eight female) junior (mean +/- SD age, 16.3 +/- 0.7 year) basketball players participated in this study. Testing was conducted on 2 separate days using a within-subjects cross-over study design. Each athlete performed a standardized 7-minute warm-up consisting of general dynamic movements and stretching. After the general warm-up, athletes were randomly allocated into one of two groups that performed a dynamic 15-minute warm-up consisting entirely of open or closed skills. Each of the warm-up conditions consisted of five activities of 3 minute duration. At the completion of the warm-up protocol, players completed assessments of reactive agility, speed (5-, 10-, and 20-m sprints), change of direction speed (T-test), and vertical jump. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were detected among warm-up conditions for speed, vertical jump, change of direction speed, and reactive agility performances. The results of this study demonstrate that either open skill or closed skill warm-ups can be used effectively for team sport athletes without compromising performance on open skill and closed skill tasks.
Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando
Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.
Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne
Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566–2985 kcal and 1997–2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg−1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%–80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg−1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 min per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg−1. However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation. PMID:28208581
Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne
Web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires were obtained from 553 Dutch well-trained athletes. The total energy and macronutrient intake was compared between discipline-categories (endurance, team, and strength) within gender, and dietary inadequacy, i.e., too low or high intakes, according to selected recommendations and guidelines, was evaluated by applying a probability approach. On average, 2.83 days per person were reported with a mean energy intake of 2566-2985 kcal and 1997-2457 kcal per day, for men and women, respectively. Between disciplines, small differences in the mean intake of energy and macronutrients were seen for both men and women. Overall, 80% of the athletes met the suggested lower-limit sport nutrition recommendation of 1.2 g·kg -1 of protein per day. The carbohydrate intake of 50%-80% of athletes was between 3 and 5 g·kg -1 bodyweight, irrespective of the category of their discipline. This can be considered as low to moderate, in view of their daily total exercise load (athletes reported on average ~100 minutes per day). In conclusion, only small differences in the mean energy and macronutrient intake between elite endurance, strength, and team sport athletes, were found. The majority of the athletes were able to meet the generally accepted protein recommendation for athletes, of 1.2 g·kg -1 . However, for most athletes, the carbohydrate intake was lower than generally recommended in the existing consensus guidelines on sport nutrition. This suggests that athletes could either optimize their carbohydrate intake, or that average carbohydrate requirements merit a re-evaluation.
Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.
van Veelen, Ruth; Otten, Sabine; Hansen, Nina
Majority members often react negatively to efforts to stimulate diversity. An important reason for this is that in diverse groups, majority members' own group bond is typically based on perceived prototypicality, which serves to disregard those who are different. In the present research we
Adams, Adi; Anderson, Eric
Despite decreasing homophobia, openly gay male athletes are still rare in organized, competitive teamsports. In this action research, we explore two aspects of homosexuality and sport: (1) the effect of a gay male soccer player coming out to his teammates; and (2) the effect of having an openly gay researcher in the field. This is, therefore, the…
Panagodage Perera, Nirmala Kanthi; Joseph, Corey; Kemp, Joanne Lyn; Finch, Caroline Frances
Team bat-or-stick sports, including cricket, softball and hockey, are popular among women. However, little is known about the injury profile in this population. The aim was to describe the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries in bat-or-stick sports played by women in a competitive league. This review was prospectively registered (PROSPERO CRD42015026715). CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus were systematically searched from January 2000 to September 2016, inclusive. Peer-reviewed original research articles reporting the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries sustained by women aged 18 + years in competitive bat-or-stick sports were included. Two meta-analyses based on injury incidence proportions (injury IP) and injury rates per 1000 person-days of athletic exposure (AE) were performed. A total of 37 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, and five had low risk of bias. The weighted injury IP was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.45]. The weighted injury rate was 6.12 (95% CI 6.05-6.18) overall, and greater in games [15.79 (95% CI 15.65-15.93)] than in practice [3.07 (95% CI 2.99-3.15)]. The ankle was the most commonly injured anatomical location, followed by the hand (including wrist and fingers), knee and head. Soft tissue and ligament injuries were most common types of injuries. Injury prevention in women's sports is a novel and emerging field of research interest. This review highlights that injury incidence is high among female bat-or-stick players, but little information is known about direct causal mechanisms. This review clearly establishes the need for enhancements to injury data collection. Without this information, it will not be possible to develop evidence-based injury prevention interventions.
Vickery, William M; Dascombe, Ben J; Baker, John D; Higham, Dean G; Spratford, Wayne A; Duffield, Rob
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 5, 10, and 15 Hz global positioning system (GPS) devices. Two male subjects (mean ± SD; age, 25.5 ± 0.7 years; height, 1.75 ± 0.01 m; body mass, 74 ± 5.7 kg) completed 10 repetitions of drills replicating movements typical of tennis, cricket, and field-based (football) sports. All movements were completed wearing two 5 and 10 Hz MinimaxX and 2 GPS-Sports 15 Hz GPS devices in a specially designed harness. Criterion movement data for distance and speed were provided from a 22-camera VICON system sampling at 100 Hz. Accuracy was determined using 1-way analysis of variance with Tukey's post hoc tests. Interunit reliability was determined using intraclass correlation (ICC), and typical error was estimated as coefficient of variation (CV). Overall, for the majority of distance and speed measures, as measured using the 5, 10, and 15 Hz GPS devices, were not significantly different (p > 0.05) to the VICON data. Additionally, no improvements in the accuracy or reliability of GPS devices were observed with an increase in the sampling rate. However, the CV for the 5 and 15 Hz devices for distance and speed measures ranged between 3 and 33%, with increasing variability evident in higher speed zones. The majority of ICC measures possessed a low level of interunit reliability (r = -0.35 to 0.39). Based on these results, practitioners of these devices should be aware that measurements of distance and speed may be consistently underestimated, regardless of the movements performed.
Evans, Blair; Adler, Ashley; Macdonald, Dany; Côté, Jean
Bullying is a specific pattern of repeated victimization explored with great frequency in school-based literature, but receiving little attention within sport. The current study explored the prevalence of bullying in sport, and examined whether bullying experiences were associated with perceptions about relationships with peers and coaches. Adolescent sport team members (n = 359, 64% female) with an average age of 14.47 years (SD = 1.34) completed a pen-and-paper or online questionnaire assessing how frequently they perpetrated or were victimized by bullying during school and sport generally, as well as recent experiences with 16 bullying behaviors on their sport team. Participants also reported on relationships with their coach and teammates. Bullying was less prevalent in sport compared with school, and occurred at a relatively low frequency overall. However, by identifying participants who reported experiencing one or more act of bullying on their team recently, results revealed that those victimized through bullying reported weaker connections with peers, whereas those perpetrating bullying only reported weaker coach relationships. With the underlying message that bullying may occur in adolescent sport through negative teammate interactions, sport researchers should build upon these findings to develop approaches to mitigate peer victimization in sport.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Norberta Elisa Fernandes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.
Mills, Jane Elizabeth; Francis, Karen; Birks, Melanie; Coyle, Meaghan; Henderson, Sue; Jones, Jan
Nurses represent the largest occupational group of health care professionals in Australia. The ratio of nurses to population is relatively consistent, unlike other health care professional groups (including medical doctors and allied health staff) whose numbers decline as population density and distance from metropolitan areas increases. Nurses working in areas where other health care professionals are limited or absent have expanded scopes of practice with their work being more generalist than specialist. The role of nurses in remote and isolated areas of Queensland, Australia was the focus of a commissioned multi-case research project. Findings reported in this paper relate to the position of registered nurses as part of an interprofessional team. These findings indicated that, in some instances, local health care teams were limited to a single nurse and Indigenous health care worker/s, while in others the teams were more diverse. In all cases collegial support was available either locally or via telecommunication technology. Understanding the role of each team member, having useful strategies to enhance communication and work collaboratively were identified as essential criteria for "good practice".
Kladopoulos, C N; McComas, J J
The effects of instruction and feedback in proper form on foul-shooting performance was evaluated in 3 players of a women's NCAA Division II college basketball team. Players showed an increase in percentage of shots made and in correct form compared to baseline shooting without instruction or feedback. All players reached criterion within seven training sessions. The results suggest that training proper form is an effective strategy for improving foul-shooting performance.
Haun, Markus W; Kordy, Henrike; Ochs, Matthias; Schweitzer, Jochen; Zwack, Julika
Assessing long-term effects of a family systems therapy approach (systems therapy methods in acute psychiatry, SYMPA) on occupational stress and interdisciplinary cooperation of team members in three German psychiatric hospitals. Pre-post-follow-up survey using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Team Climate Inventory (TCI) questionnaires complemented by semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 56). Three years after implementing a family systems therapy approach, experienced work load and staff burnout remain significantly lower than before. Interdisciplinary cooperation was intensified and nursing staff status increased. Following systemic case conceptualisations and interventions the therapeutic alliance moved towards a need-adapted treatment approach. Seven years after implementation, the family systems therapy approach still included significantly lower workload burden, an intensified interdisciplinary cooperation, and a need-adapted treatment orientation that strengthens the alliance between staff and client system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Shani, Michal; Koss, Cathie
In an ideal school, where inclusion is implemented successfully, staff members collaborate and create an inclusive environment in their schools. In order to achieve such a sustainable environment of inclusion, pedagogical, organisational and psychological restructuring should occur, and a strong inclusion-oriented leadership has to be activated.…
Shani, Michal; Ram, Drorit
Based on an ecological perspective, inclusive education should involve two essential components: a shared ideology of providing a culturally responsive educational system where the needs of every child are met and a school policy geared towards the implementation of inclusion practices, with collaborations among staff members who create…
contribution of individual team member behaviors to the development of team trust and cohesion , as moderated by the emergence of team rapport. Team...member behaviors to the development of team trust and cohesion , as moderated by the emergence of team rapport. Team rapport may provide an early...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Understanding social processes that lead to wise decision making and peak performance is critical for predicting
"Writing on the Bus" showcases the what, how, and why of using athletic team notebooks and journals. The book guides coaches and athletes, from elementary school through college, in analyzing games while thinking deeply about motivation, goal setting, and communication in order to optimize performance. Filled with lesson plans, writing activities,…
Adams, Adi; Anderson, E.
Despite decreasing homophobia, openly gay male athletes are still rare in organized, competitive teamsports. In this action research, we explore two aspects of homosexuality and sport: (1) the effect of a gay male soccer player coming out to his teammates; and (2) the effect of having an openly gay researcher in the field. This is, therefore, the first-ever first-hand account of an athlete's coming-out process with researchers in the field. Even though this is action research and, therefore, ...
Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.; Hootegem, G. van; Huys, R.
The purpose is to analyse the impact of team responsibility (the division of job regulation tasks between team leader and team members) on team performance. It bases an analysis on 36 case studies in The Netherlands which are known to have implemented team-based work. The case studies were executed
Elbe, Anne-Marie; Wikman, Johan Michael; Zheng, Miky; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Nielsen, Glen; Krustrup, Peter
This study investigates the enjoyment and cohesion of school children participating in a school-based high-intensity physical activity (PA) intervention. Both enjoyment and cohesion have been found to be important factors for adherence to regular physical and sport activity, an important outcome of PA interventions. The sample consisted of 300 pupils (mean age: 9.3 years; 52.7% female) assigned to a team sport intervention, an individual sport intervention, or a control group for 10 months. The Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale and Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire were used to measure enjoyment and cohesion. The Yo-Yo IR1C test determined fitness improvements. Results showed that enjoyment and cohesion (social) measured at the beginning of the intervention significantly predict fitness improvements achieved after 10 months. No differing developmental effects over time could be found in the intervention groups with regard to cohesion and enjoyment when comparing them to the control group. However, enjoyment and cohesion (social) significantly decreased in the groups that performed individual sports. Team sports seem to be more advantageous for the development of enjoyment and cohesion, which are both factors that positively impact the health outcomes of the intervention.
Both ATLAS members and the team engaged in transport and reception, of the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter, will not forget installation of the first active piece of the detector!
Both ATLAS members and the team engaged in transport and reception, of the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter, will not forget installation of the first active piece of the detector!
Keitshokile Dintle Mogobe
Full Text Available Low health literacy has been linked to inadequate engagement in care and may serve as a contributor to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this paper was to examine the perspectives of health care providers and professional care team members regarding health literacy in HIV disease. A secondary data analysis was conducted from a qualitative study aimed at understanding factors that help an HIV positive person to manage their HIV disease. Data were collected from sites in Botswana, the US, and Puerto Rico. In the parent study, data were collected through focus group discussions with 135 people living with HIV, 32 HIV health care providers (HCPs, and 39 HIV professional care team members (PCTMs. SPSS was used to analyze quantitative data while ATLAS.ti was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings from analyses of the perspectives of HCPs/PCTMs suggested that linguistic and cultural factors were important themes in the exchange of HIV information between health care providers and PLHIV. These themes included ineffective communication, health seeking behavior, cultural facilitators, and complementary and alternative/traditional healing methods. Thus, this study suggests that language and culture have a major role in health literacy for PLHIV.
Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Shaibu, Sheila; Matshediso, Ellah; Sabone, Motshedisi; Ntsayagae, Esther; Nicholas, Patrice K; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Rose, Carol Dawson; Johnson, Mallory O; Webel, Allison; Cuca, Yvette; Rivero-Méndez, Marta; Solís Báez, Solymar S; Nokes, Kathleen; Reyes, Darcel; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Reid, Paula; Sanzero Eller, Lucille; Lindgren, Teri; Holzemer, William L; Wantland, Dean
Low health literacy has been linked to inadequate engagement in care and may serve as a contributor to poor health outcomes among people living with HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this paper was to examine the perspectives of health care providers and professional care team members regarding health literacy in HIV disease. A secondary data analysis was conducted from a qualitative study aimed at understanding factors that help an HIV positive person to manage their HIV disease. Data were collected from sites in Botswana, the US, and Puerto Rico. In the parent study, data were collected through focus group discussions with 135 people living with HIV, 32 HIV health care providers (HCPs), and 39 HIV professional care team members (PCTMs). SPSS was used to analyze quantitative data while ATLAS.ti was used to analyze qualitative data. The findings from analyses of the perspectives of HCPs/PCTMs suggested that linguistic and cultural factors were important themes in the exchange of HIV information between health care providers and PLHIV. These themes included ineffective communication, health seeking behavior, cultural facilitators, and complementary and alternative/traditional healing methods. Thus, this study suggests that language and culture have a major role in health literacy for PLHIV.
Background: Physiotherapists are important members of the sports medicine team and are involved in the prevention and management of injured athletes right from the acute stage of injury to the stage of rehabilitation. However, the type of treatments rendered to injured athletes and level of physiotherapy utilisation in terms ...
Gershgoren, Lael; Basevitch, Itay; Filho, Edson; Gershgoren, Aaron; Brill, Yaron S.; Schinke, Robert J.; Tenenbaum, Gershon
Aims. The purpose of the current study was to establish a conceptual framework of team chemistry components in sport with an emphasis on Shared Mental Models (SMM).\\ud Method. Elite soccer coaches (n = 6) and players (n = 3) were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. An inductive thematic analysis was employed to analyze the data. Results. Four themes related to team chemistry components were identified: (1) members' characteristics (i.e., demographic data, on-field characteris...
Hamlin, Michael J; Lizamore, Catherine A; Hopkins, Will G
While adaptation to hypoxia at natural or simulated altitude has long been used with endurance athletes, it has only recently gained popularity for team-sport athletes. To analyse the effect of hypoxic interventions on high-intensity intermittent running performance in team-sport athletes. A systematic literature search of five journal databases was performed. Percent change in performance (distance covered) in the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1 and level 2 were used without differentiation) in hypoxic (natural or simulated altitude) and control (sea level or normoxic placebo) groups was meta-analyzed with a mixed model. The modifying effects of study characteristics (type and dose of hypoxic exposure, training duration, post-altitude duration) were estimated with fixed effects, random effects allowed for repeated measurement within studies and residual real differences between studies, and the standard-error weighting factors were derived or imputed via standard deviations of change scores. Effects and their uncertainty were assessed with magnitude-based inference, with a smallest important improvement of 4% estimated via between-athlete standard deviations of performance at baseline. Ten studies qualified for inclusion, but two were excluded owing to small sample size and risk of publication bias. Hypoxic interventions occurred over a period of 7-28 days, and the range of total hypoxic exposure (in effective altitude-hours) was 4.5-33 km h in the intermittent-hypoxia studies and 180-710 km h in the live-high studies. There were 11 control and 15 experimental study-estimates in the final meta-analysis. Training effects were moderate and very likely beneficial in the control groups at 1 week (20 ± 14%, percent estimate, ± 90% confidence limits) and 4-week post-intervention (25 ± 23%). The intermittent and live-high hypoxic groups experienced additional likely beneficial gains at 1 week (13 ± 16%; 13 ± 15%) and 4-week post
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine provides reliable definitions of sports science and medicine terms. It provides an invaluable reference book for anyone interested in the captivating subject of sport. PURPOSE This dictionary aims to include almost every sports science, anatomy, physiology, biomechanical, injuries description, and psychological term as related to sports medicine and science and support the explanations by illustrations wherever necessary. AUDIENCE As a comprehensive dictionary of sports science and medicine, it will be of particular help to medical specialists and general practitioners, as well as students of PE, coaches, and athletes who need to understand the anatomical structures and physiological processes which affect athletic performance. Any member of public interested in health and fitness; exercise and sport or wants to understand what the obscure terms mean, like jogger's nipple, social loafing, and Zatopek phenomenon will also benefit from this book. FEATURES The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine features terms in A to Z fashion at all the major areas of sports science and medicine including: anatomy, physiology/exercise physiology, biomechanics, training principles and techniques, nutrition, sports psychology and sociology, sports injuries and rehabilitation. A team of prominent contributors and advisers put together this dictionary in the first edition. The third edition includes around 8000 cross-referenced terms which have been updated or added since the first edition. There are plenty of illustrations wherever appropriate to make the terms easily understandable. ASSESSMENT A must-have dictionary for all medics practising in sports and exercise medicine, as well as students of medicine, physical education, nursing and physiotherapy. Even coaches, trainers, biomechanical experts; in fact anyone who has a special interest in this area will find this dictionary useful.
Milne, C J
Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000929.htm Your cancer care team To use the sharing features on this page, ... help your body heal. Working with Your Care Team Each member of your care team plays an ...
Full Text Available
The purpose of our study was to identify the main reasons for dropout in young soccer players and to compare withdrawal motives to those rated important by participants in other team sports. Dropouts (150 males and 159 females, ranging in age from 14 to 18 years were administered the Questionnaire of Reasons for Attrition by Gould, Feltz, Horn and Weiss (1982. Represented were youth who participated in the sport of soccer (n=127, basketball (n=122, and volleyball (n=60. The most important reasons for attrition from the different team sports were having other things to do, dislike of the coach, and lack of team spirit. Reasons related to the team work were also given high ratings. Less important reasons concerned old age, rewards and competition. Although discriminant analysis revealed some differences between sports, the finding remains that both conflict of interests and aspects of the sports environment are major motives for withdrawal from team sports.
Key Words: Dropout, team sport, soccer.
Buzaev, Igor Vyacheslavovich; Plechev, Vladimir Vyacheslavovich; Nikolaeva, Irina Evgenievna; Galimova, Rezida Maratovna
The continuous uninterrupted feedback system is the essential part of any well-organized system. We propose aLYNX concept that is a possibility to use an artificial intelligence algorithm or a neural network model in decision-making system so as to avoid possible mistakes and to remind the doctors to review tactics once more in selected cases. aLYNX system includes: registry with significant factors, decisions and results; machine learning process based on this registry data; the use of the machine learning results as the adviser. We show a possibility to build a computer adviser with a neural network model for making a choice between coronary aortic bypass surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in order to achieve a higher 5-year survival rate in patients with angina based on the experience of 5107 patients. The neural network was trained by 4679 patients who achieved 5-year survival. Among them, 2390 patients underwent PCI and 2289 CABG. After training, the correlation coefficient ( r ) of the network was 0.74 for training, 0.67 for validation, 0.71 for test and 0.73 for total. Simulation of the neural network function has been performed after training in the two groups of patients with known 5-year outcome. The disagreement rate was significantly higher in the dead patient group than that in the survivor group between neural network model and heart team [16.8% (787/4679) vs. 20.3% (87/428), P = 0.065)]. The study shows the possibility to build a computer adviser with a neural network model for making a choice between CABG and PCI in order to achieve a higher 5-year survival rate in patients with angina.
Igor Vyacheslavovich Buzaev
Full Text Available Objective: The continuous uninterrupted feedback system is the essential part of any well-organized system. We propose aLYNX concept that is a possibility to use an artificial intelligence algorithm or a neural network model in decision-making system so as to avoid possible mistakes and to remind the doctors to review tactics once more in selected cases. Method: aLYNX system includes: registry with significant factors, decisions and results; machine learning process based on this registry data; the use of the machine learning results as the adviser. We show a possibility to build a computer adviser with a neural network model for making a choice between coronary aortic bypass surgery (CABG and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI in order to achieve a higher 5-year survival rate in patients with angina based on the experience of 5107 patients. Results: The neural network was trained by 4679 patients who achieved 5-year survival. Among them, 2390 patients underwent PCI and 2289 CABG. After training, the correlation coefficient (r of the network was 0.74 for training, 0.67 for validation, 0.71 for test and 0.73 for total. Simulation of the neural network function has been performed after training in the two groups of patients with known 5-year outcome. The disagreement rate was significantly higher in the dead patient group than that in the survivor group between neural network model and heart team [16.8% (787/4679 vs. 20.3% (87/428, P = 0.065]. Conclusion: The study shows the possibility to build a computer adviser with a neural network model for making a choice between CABG and PCI in order to achieve a higher 5-year survival rate in patients with angina. Keywords: Coronary artery bypass grafting, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Artificial intelligence, Decision making
Almost anyone has held various roles on a team, be it a family unit, sports team, or a project-oriented team. As an educator, one must make a conscious decision to build and invest in a team. Gathering the best team possible will help one achieve one's goals. This article explores some of the key reasons why it is important to focus on the team…
Osborne Hamish R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N to 202 N (p Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.
Full Text Available This opinion piece aims to describe the process of learning in team sports, with a rationale in ecological dynamics sustained on the interactive nature of performance in that context. The first part of this article focuses on the information variables that discriminate affordances (invitations for action, supporting the emergence of anticipatory behaviours. Here we note that affordances emerge at different time scales of performance, with clear implications for planning and designing practice sessions. Acquiring interactive skills in team sports and perceiving information variables of relevance during performance is strictly connected to the concept of representative task design. In the applied section of this paper we show how the constraints-based approach is a suitable tool to create representative learning environments that produce changes in players' interactive behaviours over short and long time scales. Resumen Este artículo de opinión tiene como objetivo describir el proceso de aprendizaje en los deportes de equipo fundamentado en una dinámica ecológica, sustentada en la naturaleza interactiva del rendimiento en ese contexto. La primera parte de este artículo se centra en las variables informativas que discriminan las affordances (invitaciones para la acción que permiten la aparición de conductas anticipatorias. Observamos que las affordances emergen en diferentes escalas temporales del rendimiento, con claras implicaciones para la planificación y el diseño de sesiones de práctica. La adquisición de habilidades interactivas en los deportes de equipo así como la percepción de las variables informativas relevantes durante la acción está estrechamente vinculada con el concepto de diseño de las tareas representativas. En la sección aplicada de este trabajo se muestra cómo el enfoque basado en las restricciones es una herramienta adecuada para crear ambientes de aprendizaje representativos que producen cambios en los
Duffield, Rob; Steinbacher, Geoff; Fairchild, Timothy J
The current study investigated the effects of a pre-cooling intervention on physiological and performance responses to team-sport training in the heat. Seven male lacrosse players performed a familiarization session and 2 randomized, counterbalanced sessions consisting of a 30-minute intermittent-sprint conditioning session. Prior to the sessions, players performed a 20-minute mixed-method, part-body cooling intervention (consisting of cooling vests, cold towels to the neck, and ice packs to the quadriceps) or no cooling intervention. Performance was determined from collection of 1 Hz global positioning system (GPS) data and analyzed for distance and speed. Prior to, during, and following the sessions, core temperature, heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and thermal sensation scale (TSS) were measured; additionally, a venous blood sample was collected before and after each session for measurement of interleukin-6 (IL-6), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein3 (IGF-BP3). Results indicated that a greater distance was covered during the pre-cooling condition (3.35 +/- 0.20 vs. 3.11 +/- 0.13 km; p = 0.05). Further, most of this improvement was evident from a greater distance covered during moderate intensities of 7 to 14 km/h (2.28 +/- 0.18 vs. 2.00 +/- 0.24 km; p = 0.05). Peak speeds and very-high-intensity efforts (20 km/h +/-) were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). The increase in core temperature was blunted following cooling, with a lower core temperature throughout the cooling session (38.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 39.3 +/- 0.4 degrees C; p 0.05). Accordingly, the use of a mixed-method, part-body cooling intervention prior to an intermittent-sprint training session in the heat can assist in reducing thermoregulatory load and improve aspects of training performance for team sports.
Minehan, Michelle R; Riley, Malcolm D; Burke, Louise M
A palatable flavor is known to enhance fluid intake during exercise; however, a fear of excessive kilojoule intake may deter female athletes from consuming a sports drink during training sessions. In order to examine this issue, we monitored fluid balance during 9 separate training sessions undertaken by junior elite female netball players (n = 9), female basketball players (n = 7), and male basketball players (n = 8). The beverages tested were water, a regular carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (6.8% CHO, 18.7 mmol/L Na, 3.0 mmol/L K, 1,130 kJ/L), and an identical tasting, low kilojoule electrolyte beverage (1% CHO, 18.7 mmol/L Na, 3.0 mmoI/L K, 170 kJ/L). Each subject received each of the 3 drinks at 3 separate training sessions, in a randomized, balanced order. Subjects were aware of the beverage provided. Change in body mass over the training session was used to estimate body fluid change, while voluntary fluid intake was determined from the change in weight of drink bottles used in each session. The overall fluid balance on drinks classified as regular, low kilojoule, and water was -11.3 ml/h (95%CI -99.6 to 77.0), -29.5 ml/h (95%CI -101.4 to 42.5) and-156.4 ml/h (95%CI-215.1 to-97.6), respectively. Theresults indicate that, overall, better fluid balance was achieved using either of the flavored drinks compared to water. These data confirm that flavored drinks enhance fluid balance in a field situation, and suggest that the energy content of the drink is relatively unimportant in determining voluntary fluid intake.
Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .