Fuller, Colin W
Because the risk of injury in many sports is high, governing bodies and individuals involved with these sports have a responsibility to manage the risks at acceptable levels. Risk management provides a structured framework within which risks can be identified, evaluated, assessed, and controlled through appropriate mitigation strategies. Exploring inferences obtained from the relationship between risk and the incidence and severity of injury contributes to the understanding and control of risks in sport. Studies related to intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors should be focused on determining which factors cause an athlete's risk level to fall within the high-risk or low-risk regions of the population's risk distribution. Risk values can be used to derive risk contours, which illustrate the interdependence of incidence and severity on the development of effective risk mitigation strategies. The wide variation in the levels of risk across different sports is used to demonstrate the impact that athletes' perception and acceptance of risk have on their choice of sport. Finally, the use of incidence and severity data for predicting the prevalence of injury in a team and for the economic evaluation of intervention programmes is discussed.
Daily physical activity ist a predictive factor for cardio-vascular disease and for obesity. In military, police and firefighter service duty sport is used to increase and to keep a work specifical physical fitness. Till today no study data with direct data acquisition exists for a risk assessment of the injury rates in duty sport. In this one-year study in a German Armed Forces armoured brigade with 22 companies, every sport-related injury on duty and the following sick days were recorded. Apart from the sport type, the duration of the athletic activity and the number of soldiers that took part in it were monitored. 275 sport injuries were recorded. Soccer was the sport with the highest risk of injuries. Team sports proved to be more dangerous than individual physical activity. The author has demonstrated a reduction of the total injury rate by 39 %, of sick days by 50 %, and of the days with partial unfitness for duty by 42 % when team sports are reduced in favour to other physical activities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ward, Cynthia W.
Youth participation in sports has increased greatly over the past 20 years. Consequently, there has been a rise in the number of sports injuries. A study was conducted to determine teen's level of physical activity, knowledge about risk factors for sports injuries, use of protective equipment, and parental involvement. Two groups of teens, one of…
Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain
This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; pteam sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; pteam sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; pTeam sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Frisch, Anne; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Sports injuries in young athletes are a public health issue which deserves special attention. Effective prevention can be achieved with training programmes originating from the field of physical therapy and medicine. A systematic literature search on injury prevention in youth sport was performed in the MEDLINE database. For prevention programmes to reduce sports injuries, critical factors must be considered, such as training content, duration and frequency, as well as athlete compliance. Home-based programmes could be inferior to supervised training, but are efficient if compliance is high. So far prevention programmes have focused on team sports and their efficiency in individual sports remains to be proven. Active prevention programmes focusing specifically on the upper extremity are scarce. Initiatives enhancing the awareness of trainers, athletes and therapists about risk factors and systematic prevention measures should be encouraged.
Traditionally, balance training has been used as part of the rehabilitation programme for ankle injuries. More recently, balance training has been adopted to try and prevent injuries to the ankle and knee joints during sport. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current knowledge in the area of balance ability, training and injury risk, highlight the findings and identify any future research needs. A number of studies have found that poor balance ability is significantly related to an increased risk of ankle injuries in different activities. This relationship appears to be more common in males than females. Multifaceted intervention studies that have included balance training along with jumping, landing and agility exercises have resulted in a significant decrease in ankle or knee injuries in team handball, volleyball and recreational athletes. It is unknown which component of the multifaceted intervention was most effective and whether the effects are additive. As a single intervention, balance training has been shown to significantly reduce the recurrence of ankle ligament injuries in soccer, volleyball and recreational athletes; however, it has not been clearly shown to reduce ankle injuries in athletes without a prior ankle injury. Balance training on its own has also been shown to significantly reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in male soccer players. Surprisingly, it was also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of major knee injuries in female soccer players and overuse knee injuries in male and female volleyball players. The studies with the contrasting findings differed in aspects of their balance training programmes. It would appear that balance training, as a single intervention, is not as effective as when it is part of a multifaceted intervention. Research is required to determine the relative contribution of balance training to a multifaceted intervention so as to generate an effective and efficient preventative
The objective of this review is to identify the available research regarding the risk factors and prevention of injuries in high school athletes (ages 14 to 18 years). Relevant manuscripts were identified by searching six electronic databases with a combination of key words and medical subject headings (high school, adolescent, athletic injury, sports injury, risk factors, prevention, and prospective). Original research that reported prospective data on high school athletes (ages 14 to 18), reported injury and exposure data, and used data collected throughout the entire sport season or school year. Twenty-nine studies that identified injury risk factors or injury prevention strategies were reviewed and summarized. Data extracted from the studies included a) sport(s) or injuries studied, b) year of publication, c) lead author, d) description of the subjects, e) sample-size calculation, f) variables studied (baseline demographic or performance variables), g) whether multivariate analyses were used, h) data reported (injury rates, risk ratios, and 95% CI), and i) results. Studies that introduced an intervention were characterized by the same data as well as the type of intervention employed and randomization procedures used. The quality of each injury-risk and injury-prevention study was assessed, and the results were summarized. The risk factors for injury in several specific sports such as soccer, American football, and basketball have been documented. Other sports are less well represented in the current literature. The risk factors for injuries to the ankle, head, and knee have been identified, to a limited degree. Upper-extremity injury risk factors are less well known. There is a need for high-quality prospective studies to further identify injury risk factors and injury-prevention strategies for high school athletes.
Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.
Sytema, Renee; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U; ten Duis, Hendrik J; van der Sluis, Corry K
To analyze differences in sports injury characteristics of the upper and lower extremity and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of sustaining an upper extremity injury compared with the risk of sustaining a lower extremity injury. Retrospective cohort study. An emergency department of a large European level I trauma center. A total of 25 120 patients with a simple sports injury, attending during 1990-2005. Independent variables used to assess risk factors were extracted from a local database. These include age, sex, type of injury, site and side of the injury, type of sport, injury mechanism, and data on admission. Main outcome measure was the relation of various risk factors to the occurrence of either upper or lower extremity injury. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify predictors for upper extremity injury. Thirty-five percent upper and 53% lower extremity injuries were recorded. Most injuries were sustained when playing soccer (36%). Fractures were more frequently diagnosed in the upper than in the lower extremities (44% and 14%, respectively), especially in children. Falling was the main cause of upper extremity injury. Further risk factors were young age and playing individual sports, no-contact sports, or no-ball sports. Women were at risk in speed skating, inline skating, and basketball, whereas men mostly got injured during skiing and snowboarding. A high percentage of sports injuries are sustained to the upper extremity. Different risk factors were identified for both sexes. These risk factors should be taken into account when designing preventive measures.
Conclusions: Given the selected studies we were not able to introduce general conclusions regarding the connection between various injury risk factors, since all studies partially differ from each other, regarding age range of study participants, geographical sampling, selected injury risk factors, and different injury definitions. It can be concluded that a higher level of physical/sports activity brings a higher risk of injury.
Sytema, Renee; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; ten Duis, Hendrik J.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
Objective: To analyze differences in sports injury characteristics of the upper and lower extremity and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of sustaining an upper extremity injury compared with the risk of sustaining a lower extremity injury. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: An emergency department of a large European level I trauma center. Patients: A total of 25 120 patients with a simple sports injury, attending during 1990-2005. Assessment of Risk Factors: Independ...
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Kemler, E; Vriend, I; Paulis, W D; Schoots, W; van Middelkoop, M; Koes, B
Physical activity and sports participation are promoted to counteract the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and young adults. Both high body mass index and physical activity level have been associated with an increased risk of sports injuries. The objective is to determine the relationship between sports injuries and overweight in sports participants (4-24 years), taking physical activity into account. Data were obtained from the 2006-2011 "Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands" survey. Analyses were based on a representative sample of 3846 sports participants (4-24 years). Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were applied to investigate the association between sports injury and weight status. Of all the sports participants, 14.7% were overweight. Compared with normal-weight sports participants, the odds of sustaining a sports injury was 0.73 [confidence interval (CI): 0.53-1.00, P = 0.050] for overweight sports participants; the odds for underweight sports participants was 0.80 (CI: 0.56-1.15, P = 0.226). There is some evidence that overweight sports participants (4-24 years) do not have an increased injury risk compared with normal-weight sports participants, even when the level of physical activity is taken into account. Additional research is recommended regarding overweight people who start to participate in a physically active lifestyle. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan
Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.
Sarah A. Richmond
Full Text Available Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n=1,040 at the ages of 11–15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese were created using validated international (BMI and national (WC cut-off points. A Poisson regression analysis controlling for relevant covariates (sex, previous injury, sport participation, intervention group, and aerobic fitness level estimated the risk of sport injury [incidence rate ratios (IRR with 95% confidence intervals (CI]. Results. There was an increased risk of time loss injury (IRR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.01–8.04 and knee injury (IRR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00–6.94 in adolescents that were overweight/obese; however, increases in injury risk for all injury and lower extremity injury were not statistically significant. Estimates suggested a greater risk of time loss injury [IRR = 1.63 (95% CI: 0.93–2.47] in adolescents with high measures of WC. Conclusions. There is an increased risk of time loss injury and knee injury in overweight/obese adolescents. Sport injury prevention training programs should include strategies that target all known risk factors for injury.
Micheli, Lyle J.
Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)
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Green, Brady; Pizzari, Tania
To systematically review the literature to identify risk factors for calf strain injury, and to direct future research into calf muscle injuries. Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Database searches conducted for Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, AUSPORT, SportDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library. Manual reference checks, ahead of press searches, citation tracking. From inception to June 2016. Studies evaluating and presenting data related to intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for sustaining future calf injury. Ten studies were obtained for review. Subjects across football, Australian football, rugby union, basketball and triathlon were reported on, representing 5397 athletes and 518 calf/ lower leg muscle injuries. Best evidence synthesis highlights chronological age and previous history of calf strain are the strongest risk factors for future calf muscle injury. Previous lower limb injuries (hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, knee) show some limited evidence for an association. Numerous factors lack evidence of an association, including height, weight, gender and side dominance. Increasing age and previous calf strain injury are the most predictive of future calf injury. The overall paucity of evidence and the trend for studies of a high risk of bias show that further research needs to be undertaken. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
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Sytema, Renee; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; ten Duis, Hendrik J.; van der Sluis, Corry K.
Objective: To analyze differences in sports injury characteristics of the upper and lower extremity and to identify factors that contribute to the risk of sustaining an upper extremity injury compared with the risk of sustaining a lower extremity injury. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting:
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin
In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID
Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer
Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.
Whittaker, Jackie L; Small, Claire; Maffey, Lorrie; Emery, Carolyn A
The identification of risk factors for groin injury in sport is important to develop and implement injury prevention strategies. To identify and evaluate the evidence examining risk factors for groin injury in sport. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to June 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic design; investigated a risk factor(s); included outcomes for groin injury sustained during sport participation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed and two independent authors assessed the quality and level of evidence with the Downs and Black (DB) criteria and Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model, respectively. Of 2521 potentially relevant studies, 29 were included and scored. Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The most common risk factors investigated included age, hip range of motion, hip adductor strength and height. The median DB score across studies was 11/33 (range 6-20). The majority of studies represented level 2 evidence (cohort studies) however few considered the inter-relationships between risk factors. There is level 1 and 2 evidence that previous groin injury, higher-level of play, reduced hip adductor (absolute and relative to the hip abductors) strength and lower levels of sport-specific training are associated with increased risk of groin injury in sport. We recommended that investigators focus on developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and groin injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting athletes at greater risk of injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Stracciolini, Andrea; Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R
Children and adolescents are now participating in competitive sports at younger ages and with increasing intensity. As a result, increasing numbers of young athletes are presenting to pediatricians for care of sports-related injuries and advice about prevention. Understanding and identifying modifiable risk factors for injury in the young athletic population is a critical first step in injury prevention. Risk factors vary by sport, age, and sex. This article reviews the most common risk factors for injury and the evidence to support proposed strategies for prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e99-e105.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria
Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. 5 electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. 2 independent authors assessed the quality (Downs and Black (DB) criteria) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low-quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3-15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). 4 studies considered inter-relationships between risk factors, 7 reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention programme targeting individuals identified as high risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Future research should focus on high-quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and LE injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based on screening tests with validated test properties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Woollings, Kaikanani Y; McKay, Carly D; Emery, Carolyn A
Rock climbing is an increasingly popular sport worldwide, as a recreational activity and a competitive sport. Several disciplines including sport climbing and bouldering have developed, each employing specific movements and techniques, leading to specific injuries. To examine risk factors and prevention measures for injury in sport climbing and bouldering, and to assess the methodological quality of existing studies. 12 electronic databases and several other sources were searched systematically using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eligible articles were peer-reviewed, based on primary research using original data; outcome measures included injury, morbidity or mortality in rock climbing, and included one or more potential risk factor or injury prevention strategy. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodology of research in each study using the Downs and Black Quality Index. The data extracted is summarised, and appraisals of the articles are presented with respect to the quality of evidence presented. 19 studies met the inclusion criteria, and introduced 35 possible risk factors or injury prevention measures in climbing. Age, increasing years of climbing experience, highest climbing grade achieved (skill level), high climbing intensity score (CIS) and participating in lead climbing are potential risk factors. Results regarding injury prevention measures remain inconclusive. This field is relatively new and, as such, the data are not as robust as for more established sports with a larger research foundation. The key need is establishing modifiable risk factors using prospective studies and high quality methodology, such that injury prevention strategies can be developed. The CIS may be a useful measure in this field of research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
Roe, Mark; Malone, Shane; Blake, Catherine; Collins, Kieran; Gissane, Conor; Büttner, Fionn; Murphy, John C; Delahunt, Eamonn
Managing injury risk is important for maximising athlete availability and performance. Although athletes are inherently predisposed to musculoskeletal injuries by participating in sports, etiology models have illustrated how susceptibility is influenced by repeat interactions between the athlete (i.e. intrinsic factors) and environmental stimuli (i.e. extrinsic factors). Such models also reveal that the likelihood of an injury emerging across time is related to the interconnectedness of multiple factors cumulating in a pattern of either positive (i.e. increased fitness) or negative adaptation (i.e. injury).The process of repeatedly exposing athletes to workloads in order to promote positive adaptations whilst minimising injury risk can be difficult to manage. Etiology models have highlighted that preventing injuries in sport, as opposed to reducing injury risk, is likely impossible given our inability to appreciate the interactions of the factors at play. Given these uncertainties, practitioners need to be able to design, deliver, and monitor risk management strategies that ensure a low susceptibility to injury is maintained during pursuits to enhance performance. The current article discusses previous etiology and injury prevention models before proposing a new operational framework.
Wilkerson, Gary B; Gupta, Ashish; Colston, Marisa A
Sport injuries restrict participation, impose a substantial economic burden, and can have persisting adverse effects on health-related quality of life. The effective use of Internet of Things (IoT), when combined with analytics approaches, can improve player safety through identification of injury risk factors that can be addressed by targeted risk reduction training activities. Use of IoT devices can facilitate highly efficient quantification of relevant functional capabilities prior to sport participation, which could substantially advance the prevailing sport injury management paradigm. This study introduces a framework for using sensor-derived IoT data to supplement other data for objective estimation of each individual college football player's level of injury risk, which is an approach to injury prevention that has not been previously reported. A cohort of 45 NCAA Division I-FCS college players provided data in the form of self-ratings of persisting effects of previous injuries and single-leg postural stability test. Instantaneous change in body mass acceleration (jerk) during the test was quantified by a smartphone accelerometer, with data wirelessly transmitted to a secure cloud server. Injuries sustained from the beginning of practice sessions until the end of the 13-game season were documented, along with the number of games played by each athlete over the course of a 13-game season. Results demonstrate a strong prediction model. Our approach may have strong relevance to the estimation of injury risk for other physically demanding activities. Clearly, there is great potential for improvement of injury prevention initiatives through identification of individual athletes who possess elevated injury risk and targeted interventions. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.
van der Does, Henrike Teunisje Dorothe; Brink, Michel Sanne; Otter, Ruby Tina Ardi; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen Alfons Plechelmus Marie
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if changes in perceived stress and recovery over the course of a season are risk factors for acute and overuse injuries. Design: A prospective nonexperimental cohort design. Setting: Data were gathered at the SportsFieldLab Groningen and at the
Janssen, Kasper W; van der Zwaard, Babette C; Finch, Caroline F; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M
To describe the association between participants' person-related potential predictor variables and cumulative compliance with interventions for preventing ankle sprains: neuromuscular training, wearing an ankle brace, and a combined training and bracing. Secondary analysis of compliance data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing measures preventing ankle ligament injuries. Ordinal regression with a backward selection method was used to obtain a descriptive statistical model linking participants' person-related potential predictor variables with the monthly cumulative compliance measurements for three interventions preventing ankle ligament injuries. Having had a previous ankle injury was significantly associated with a higher compliance with all of the preventive measures trialed. Overall compliance with bracing and the combined intervention was significantly lower than the compliance with NM training. Per group analysis found that participating in a high-risk sport, like soccer, basketball, and volleyball, was significantly associated with a higher compliance with bracing, or a combined bracing and NM training. In contrast, participating in a high-risk sport was significantly associated with a lower per group compliance with NM training. Future studies should include at least registration of previous ankle sprains, sport participation (high- or low-risk), experience in NM training, and hours of sport exposure as possible predictors of compliance with interventions preventing ankle sprains. Practitioners should take into account these variables when prescribing preventive neuromuscular training or bracing. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cortes, Nelson; Porter, Larissa D; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Shane V
Dancers have a lower incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared to athletes in sports that involve cutting and landing motions. Balance can impact ACL injury risk and is related to neuromuscular control during movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether balance differences exist among female dancers and female soccer and basketball athletes. Fifty-eight female dancers, soccer, and basketball athletes (16.5 ± 1.6 yrs, 1.6 ± 0.2 m, 60.2 ± 14.1 kg) completed the Stability Evaluation Test (SET) on the NeuroCom VSR Sport (NeuroCom International, Clackamas, OR) to measure sway velocity. Video records of the SET test were used for Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) test scoring. A oneway ANCOVA compared composite sway velocity and BESS scores among sports. There was no statistically significant difference for sway velocity or BESS among sports (sway velocity soccer 2.3 ± 0.4, dance 2.2 ± 0.4, and basketball 2.4 ± 0.4; BESS soccer 13.6 ± 5.0, dance 11.9 ± 5.5, and basketball 14.9 ± 5.1, p>0.05). Balance was similar among athletes participating in different sports (dance, basketball, and soccer). Quasi-static balance may not play a significant role in neuromuscular control during movement and not be a significant risk factor to explain the disparity in ACL injury incidence among sports. Future research should examine the effects of dynamic balance and limb asymmetries among sports to elucidate on the existing differences on ACL injury incidence rates.
Medina, G I S; Jesus, C L M; Ferreira, D M; Pacheco, E M B; Beraldo, G L; de Franca Urquiza, F; Cliquet, A
A retrospective cohort. To report the incidence rates of shoulder injuries diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in tetraplegic athletes and sedentary tetraplegic individuals. To evaluate whether sport practice increases the risk of shoulder injuries in tetraplegic individuals. Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Ten tetraplegic athletes with traumatic spinal cord injury were selected among quad rugby athletes and had both the shoulders evaluated by MRI. They were compared with 10 sedentary tetraplegic individuals who were submitted to the same radiological protocol. All athletes were male with a mean age of 32.1 years (range 25-44 years, s.d.=6.44). Time since injury ranged from 6 to 17 years, with a mean value of 9.7 years and s.d. of 3.1 years. All sedentary individuals were male with a mean age of 35.9 years (range 22-47 years, s.d.=8.36). Statistical analysis showed a protective effect of sport in the development of shoulder injuries, with a weak correlation for infraspinatus and subscapularis tendinopathy (P=0.09 and P=0.08, respectively) and muscle atrophy (P=0.08). There was a strong correlation for acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) and labrum injuries (P=0.04), with sedentary individuals at a higher risk for these injuries. Tetraplegic athletes and sedentary individuals have a high incidence of supraspinatus tendinosis, bursitis and ACJ degeneration. Statistical analysis showed that there is a possible protective effect of sport in the development of shoulder injuries. Weak evidence was encountered for infraspinatus and subscapularis tendinopathy and muscle atrophy (P=0.09, P=0.08 and P=0.08, respectively). Strong evidence with P=0.04 suggests that sedentary tetraplegic individuals are at a greater risk for ACJ and labrum injuries.
Ristolainen, L; Kettunen, J A; Waller, B; Heinonen, A; Kujala, U M
The purpose of this study was to clarify training-related risk factors for overuse injuries. This was twelve-month retrospective study which was done by self-reported postal questionnaire. The study group consisted of 446 men and women top-level Finnish athletes representing three different endurance sports (cross-country skiing, swimming, long-distance running) between the ages of 15-35. Self-reported anthropometric and training-related variables (such as starting age of training, years of active training, hours trained yearly, competition hours and weekly resting days) and occurrence of overuse injuries. Athletes with less than 2 rest days per week during the training season had 5.2-fold risk (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.89-14.06, P=0.001) for an overuse injury, and athletes who trained more than 700 hours during a year had 2.1-fold risk (95% CI 1.21-3.61, P=0.008) for an overuse injury compared to the others. Athletes who reported a tendon injury were on average two years older than athletes without such an injury (Ptraining are training-related risk factors for overuse injuries in top-level endurance athletes. The higher number of tendon overuse injuries in older than younger athletes may indicate that age-related degeneration plays an important role in the etiology of tendon injuries. These findings should be taken into account when planning exercise programs for endurance athletes.
Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R
Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).
Richmond, Sarah A.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Macpherson, Alison; Emery, Carolyn A.
Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n = 1,040) at the ages of 11?15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese) were created using validated internati...
Williams, Alun G; Wackerhage, Henning; Day, Stephen H
This paper addresses practical and ethical considerations regarding genetic tests to predict performance and/or risk of exercise-related injury or illness. Various people might wish to conduct sport-related genetic tests for a variety of reasons. For example, an individual might seek personal genetic information to help guide their own sport participation. A sports coach might wish to test young athletes to aid team selection or individualize training. A physician might want to predict the risk of injury or illness in athletes and advise regarding selection or preventative measures. An insurance company might seek to estimate the risk of career-threatening injury for athletes based partly on genetic information. Whilst this information is, in part, encoded in our DNA sequence, the available tests allow generally only a poor prediction of the aforementioned variables. In other words, the current genetic tests and analysis methods are not powerful enough to inform important decisions in sport to a substantial degree. It is particularly disappointing that more than half of the commercially available genetic tests related to exercise and sport do not appear to identify publicly the genetic variants they assess, making scrutiny by academic scholars and consumers (or their representatives) impossible. There are also challenging ethical issues to consider. For example, the imposition of genetic tests on individuals (especially young people) by third parties is potentially susceptible to abuse. Scientists and practitioners should understand the limitations of the tests currently available, the ethical concerns and the importance of counselling before and after testing so that they are only used in a responsible manner. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Santiago Patiño Giraldo
Full Text Available Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100 games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training. El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes
Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang
Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.
Thomson, Beth J.
Acceptance of adult roles by children increases "adult injuries," notably broken bones from sports. Suggests camp administrators be familiar with clientele, particular sports, and the kinds of injuries that generally result in each. Discusses children's age, types of sports, and other factors that come into play when anticipating and treating…
Hoang, Quynh B; Mortazavi, Mohammed
Overuse injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population are a growing problem in the United States as more children participate in recreational and organized sports. It is not uncommon for children and adolescents to play on multiple teams simultaneously or to be involved in sports year-round. Without adequate rest, the demands of exercise can exceed the body's ability to repair tissues, leading to repetitive microtrauma and overuse injury. Unlike in adults, the consequences of overuse injury in the pediatric and adolescent athlete are far more serious because the growing bones are vulnerable to stress. The ability to identify individuals who are at risk of overuse injuries is key so that education, prevention, and early diagnosis and treatment can occur. Preventive measures of modifying training factors (ie, magnitude, intensity, and frequency of sports participation) and correcting improper biomechanics (alignment, laxity, inflexibility, and muscle imbalance) should always be part of the management plan.
Meehan, William P.; Jordaan, Marc; Prabhu, Sanjay P.; Carew, Liz; Mannix, Rebekah C.; Proctor, Mark R.
Objective To estimate the risk of athletes with Chiari malformations sustaining a catastrophic injury. Design Retrospective, descriptive cohort study. Participants All patients diagnosed with Chiari malformation at our institution between June 2008 and November 2011. Assessment of Risk Factors Participants were mailed a questionnaire regarding the number of seasons they participated in organized athletics. Magnetic resonance images were reviewed to describe the characteristics of respondent’s Chiari malformations. Main Outcome Measures Whether or not the patient had sustained an injury resulting in death, coma, or paralysis. Results We had a 53% (N=147) response rate. Respondents were a mean age of 15 years (SD 2 years) at the time of diagnosis. The mean length of protrusion of the cerebellar tonsils below the foramen magnum was 11.2mm (SD 5.7mm). The majority of respondents had pointed cerebellar tonsils and some degree of crowding within the foramen magnum. During a total of 1,627 athletic seasons played by patients with Chiari malformation, 0 respondents (95% CI 0.0000, 0.0023) sustained an injury resulting in death, coma or paralysis. Likewise, during 191 collision sport athletic seasons, 0 (95% CI 0.0000, 0.0191) respondents sustained an injury resulting in death, coma or paralysis. Conclusions The risk of athletes with Chiari malformations suffering catastrophic injuries during sports participation is low. This estimate of risk should be considered when making return-to-play decisions. Given the variability of anatomical consideration for patients with Chiari malformations, however, each return-to-play decision must continue to be made on a case-by-case basis, considering all of the available information. PMID:24905537
ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is
Guilherme S. Nunes
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The risk of injuries related to physical activity and sports may increase if there is predisposition, inappropriate training and/or coach guidance, and absence of sports medicine follow-up. Objective: To assess the frequency of injuries in athletes treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports. Methods: For the data collection was carried out the survey of injuries in records of athletes treated in eight years of activities. The data collected included: characteristics of patients, sport, injury kind, injury characteristics and affected body part. Results: From 1090 patient/athlete records, the average age was 25 years old, the athletes were spread across 44 different sports modalities, being the great majority men (75%. The most common type of injury was joint injury, followed by muscular and bone injuries. Chronic injury was the most frequent (47%, while the most common body part injured was the knee, followed by ankle and shoulder. Among all the sports, soccer, futsal, and track and field presented the highest number of injured athletes, respectively. Conclusion: Soccer was the most common sport among the injured athletes, injury kind most frequent was joint injuries and knee was the body part most injured. Chronic injuries were the most common.
Participation in sporting activities carries an injury risk. Conversely, the increased awareness that physical inactivity is a major risk factor for disease has led government agencies and the medical community to encourage increased levels of physical activity. Many people will achieve this through participation in sport. Injury inevitably leads to a reduction in participation on a temporary or permanent basis, but the injury experience may also influence the lifelong physical activity behaviour. Few studies adequately examine the possible long-term consequences of sport participation after the competitive period has been completed, but by understanding the patterns of injuries in different sports one test can develop strategies to prevent and better manage the conditions that occur and promote lifelong physical activity. There is a need to develop models of understanding of injury risk at different life phases and levels of participation in a specific sport. The risk assessment of sport participation has to be relevant to a particular sport, the level of participation, skill, age and potential future health consequences. This article describes a sport-specific model which will improve guidance for coaches and healthcare professionals. It poses questions for sports physicians, healthcare providers, educators and for governing bodies of sports to address in a systematic fashion. Additionally the governing body, as an employer, will need to meet the requirements for risk assessment for professional sport and its ethical responsibility to the athlete.
Boden, Barry P
Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.
Cantu, R C
Injuries to the head and neck are the most frequent catastrophic sports injury, and head injuries are the most common direct athletic cause of death. Although direct compressive forces may injure the brain, neural tissue is particularly susceptible to injury from shearing stresses, which are most likely to occur when rotational forces are applied to the head. The most common athletic head injury is concussion, which may very widely in severity. Intracranial haemorrhage is the leading cause of head injury death in sports, making rapid initial assessment and appropriate follow up mandatory after a head injury. Diffuse cerebral swelling is another serious condition that may be found in the child or adolescent athlete, and the second impact syndrome is a major concern in adult athletes. Many head injuries in athletes are the result of improper playing techniques and can be reduced by teaching proper skills and enforcing safety promoting rules. Improved conditioning (particularly of the neck), protective headgear, and careful medical supervision of athletes will also minimise this type of injury.
Wilhelm, Andrew; Choi, Changryol; Deitch, John
Background: The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown. Purpose: To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players’ careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players’ current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specializ...
Asker, Martin; Brooke, Hannah L; Waldén, Markus; Tranaeus, Ulrika; Johansson, Fredrik; Skillgate, Eva; Holm, Lena W
To assess the evidence for risk factors and prevention measures for shoulder injuries in overhead sports. Systematic review with best-evidence synthesis. Medline (Ovid), PubMed (complementary search), Embase (Elsevier), Cochrane (Wiley), SPORTDiscus (Ebsco) and Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters), from 1 January 1990 to 15 May 2017. Randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on risk factors or prevention measures for shoulder injuries in overhead sports. The eligible studies were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Of 4778 studies identified, 38 were eligible for quality review and 17 met the quality criteria to be included in the evidence synthesis. One additional quality study presented a shoulder injury prevention programme. Most studies focused on baseball, lacrosse or volleyball (n=13). The risk factors examined included participation level (competition vs training) (n=10), sex (n=4), biomechanics (n=2) and external workload (n=2). The evidence for all risk factors was limited or conflicting. The effect of the prevention programme within the subgroup of uninjured players at baseline was modest and possibly lacked statistical power. All investigated potential risk factors for shoulder injury in overhead sports had limited evidence, and most were non-modifiable (eg, sex). There is also limited evidence for the effect of shoulder injury prevention measures in overhead sports. CRD42015026850. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Taft, Timothy N.
A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…
Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L
To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Luke, Anthony; Lazaro, Rondy M; Bergeron, Michael F; Keyser, Laura; Benjamin, Holly; Brenner, Joel; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Grady, Matthew; Philpott, John; Smith, Angela
To examine the association between "overscheduling" and sports-related overuse and acute injuries in young athletes and to identify other potential contributing factors to create a working definition for "overscheduling injury." Survey. Six university-based sports medicine clinics in North America. Athletes aged 6 to 18 years (13.8 ± 2.6) and their parents and pediatric sports medicine-trained physicians. Questionnaires developed from literature review and expert consensus to investigate overscheduling and sports-related injuries were completed over a 3-month period. Physician's clinical diagnosis and injury categorization: acute not fatigue related (AI), overuse not fatigue related (OI), acute fatigue related (AFI), or overuse fatigue related (OFI). Overall, 360 questionnaires were completed (84% response rate). Overuse not fatigue-related injuries were encountered most often (44.7%), compared with AI (41.9%) and OFI (9.7%). Number of practices within 48 hours before injury was higher (1.7 ± 1.5) for athletes with OI versus those with AI (1.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.025). Athlete or parent perception of excessive play/training without adequate rest in the days before the injury was related to overuse (P = 0.016) and fatigue-related injuries (P = 0.010). Fatigue-related injuries were related to sleeping ≤6 hours the night before the injury (P = 0.028). When scheduling youth sporting events, potential activity volume and intensity over any 48-hour period, recovery time between all training and competition bouts, and potential between-day sleep time (≥ 7 hours) should be considered to optimize safety. An overscheduling injury can be defined as an injury related to excessive planned physical activity without adequate time for rest and recovery, including between training sessions/competitions and consecutive days.
Richmond, Sarah A; Kang, Jian; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn A
To examine a school-based high-intensity neuromuscular training (NMT) program in reducing sport injury risk and improving fitness in youth. Students (ages 11-15) (n = 725) in physical education (PE) classes were randomized by school to intervention or control groups. A 12-week high-intensity NMT program (including aerobic, strength, balance, and agility components) was designed to reduce sport injury risk and improve measures of fitness. The control program was a standard of practice warm-up (including running and stretching). A Poisson regression model using an intent-to-treat analysis demonstrated a reduced risk of sport injury: incidence rate ratio (IRR)all injury = 0.30 (95% CI, 0.19-0.49), IRRlower extremity injury = 0.31 (95% CI, 0.19-0.51), IRRankle sprain injury = 0.27 (95% CI, 0.15-0.50), and IRRknee sprain injury = 0.36 (95% CI, 0.13-0.98). A change in waist circumference: -0.99 centimeters (95% CI, -1.84 to -0.14) and an increase in indirect measures of aerobic fitness: 1.28 mL·kg·min (95% CI, 0.66-1.90) in the intervention school compared with the control school also occurred. A NMT program in junior high school PE class was efficacious in reducing sport-related injury and improving measures of adiposity and fitness in the intervention group.
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Musahl, Volker; Karlsson, Jon; Cugat, Ramon; Myer, Gregory D
The purpose of this study was to report a comprehensive literature review on the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in male athletes. All abstracts were read and articles of potential interest were reviewed in detail to determine on inclusion status for systematic review. Information regarding risk factors for ACL injuries in male athletes was extracted from all included studies in systematic fashion and classified as environmental, anatomical, hormonal, neuromuscular, or biomechanical. Data extraction involved general characteristics of the included studies (type of study, characteristics of the sample, type of sport), methodological aspects (for quality assessment), and the principal results for each type of risk factor. The principal findings of this systematic review related to the risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes are: (1) most of the evidence is related to environmental and anatomical risk factors; (2) dry weather conditions may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (3) artificial turf may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (4) higher posterior tibial slope of the lateral tibial plateau may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in male athletes likely has a multi-factorial aetiology. There is a lack of evidence regarding neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes. Future research in male populations is warranted to provide adequate prevention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of this serious injury in these populations.
Hume, Patria A; Lorimer, Anna V; Griffiths, Peter C; Carlson, Isaac; Lamont, Mike
Snow sports (alpine skiing/snowboarding) would benefit from easily implemented and cost-effective injury prevention countermeasures that are effective in reducing injury rate and severity. For snow sports, to identify risk factors and to quantify evidence for effectiveness of injury prevention countermeasures. Searches of electronic literature databases to February 2014 identified 98 articles focused on snow sports that met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently reviewed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 90% confidence intervals (CIs) and inferences (percentage likelihood of benefit/harm) were calculated using data from 55 studies using a spreadsheet for combining independent groups with a weighting factor based on quality rating scores for effects. More experienced skiers and snowboarders are more likely to sustain an injury as a result of jumps, while beginners sustain injuries primarily as a result of falls. Key risk factors that countermeasure interventions should focus on include, beginner skiers (OR 2.72; 90% CI 2.15-3.44, 99% most likely harmful), beginner snowboarders (OR 2.66; 90% CI 2.08-3.40, 99% harmful), skiers/snowboarders who rent snow equipment (OR 2.58; 90% CI 1.98-3.37, 99% harmful) and poor visibility due to inclement weather (OR 2.69; 90% CI 1.43-5.07, 97% harmful). Effective countermeasures include helmets for skiers/snowboarders to prevent head injuries (OR 0.58; 90% CI 0.51-0.66, 99% most likely beneficial), and wrist guards for snowboarders to prevent wrist injuries (OR 0.33; 90% CI 0.23-0.47, 99% beneficial). The review identified key risk factors for snow-sport injuries and evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of existing injury prevention countermeasures in recreational (general public use of slopes, not racing) snow sports using a Haddon's matrix conceptual framework for injury causation (host/snow-sport participant, agent/mechanism and environment/community). Best evidence for the effectiveness of injury prevention
Soligard, Torbjørn; Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Gabbett, Tim; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Janse van Rensburg, Christa; Khan, Karim M.; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W.; Pluim, Babette M.; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars
Athletes participating in elite sports are exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendars. Emerging evidence indicates that poor load management is a major risk factor for injury. The International Olympic Committee convened an expert group to review the scientific
Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn
Paralympic sports have seen an exponential increase in participation since 16 patients took part in the first Stoke Mandeville Games on the opening day of the 1948 London Olympic Games. More than 4,000 athletes took part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Few sporting events have seen such rapid evolution. This rapid pace of change also has meant challenges for understanding the injury risks of participation, not only because of the variety of sports, impairment types, the evolution of adapted equipment but also because of the inclusion of additional impairment types and development of new sports over time. Early studies were limited in scope but patterns of injuries are slowly emerging within Winter and Summer Paralympic sports. The IPC's London 2012 study is the largest to date with a prospective cohort study involving 49,910 athlete-days. The results identified large differences across sports and highlighted the need for longitudinal sport specific studies rather than solely games-time studies. This will require collaboration with international sports federations to examine injury patterns and risk factors for injury in this population to appropriately inform injury prevention strategies. Further studies will also need to address the impact of sporting participation, injury, and future health. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Damore, Dorothy T; Metzl, Jordan D; Ramundo, Maria; Pan, Sharon; Van Amerongen, Robert
The purpose of this epidemiologic study is twofold: first, to determine the relative frequency of sports-related injuries compared with all musculoskeletal injuries in patients 5 to 21 years of age presenting to the emergency department (ED), and second, to evaluate the sports-specific and anatomic site-specific nature of these injuries. Patterns of injury in patients 5 to 21 years of age presenting to four pediatric EDs with musculoskeletal injuries in October 1999 and April 2000 were prospectively studied. Information collected included age, sex, injury type, anatomical injury site, and cause of injury (sports-related or otherwise). Information about patient outcome and disposition was also obtained. There were a total of 1421 injuries in 1275 patients. Musculoskeletal injuries were more common in male patients (790/62%) than in female patients. The mean age of the patients was 12.2 years (95% CI, 12.0-12.4). Sprains, contusions, and fractures were the most common injury types (34, 30, and 25%, respectively). Female patients experienced a greater percentage of sprains (44% vs 36%) and contusions (37% vs 33%) and fewer fractures (22% vs 31%) than male patients. Sports injuries accounted for 41% (521) of all musculoskeletal injuries and were responsible for 8% (495/6173) of all ED visits. Head, forearm, and wrist injuries were most commonly seen in biking, hand injuries in football and basketball, knee injuries in soccer, and ankle and foot injuries in basketball. Sports injuries in children and adolescents were by far the most common cause of musculoskeletal injuries treated in the ED, accounting for 41% of all musculoskeletal injuries. This represents the highest percentage of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries per ED visit reported in children to date. As children and adolescents participate in sports in record numbers nationwide, sports injury research and prevention will become increasingly more important.
Weiler, Richard; Van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Verhagen, Evert
Background Fifteen percent of the world?s population live with disability, and many of these individuals choose to play sport. There are barriers to sport participation for athletes with disability and sports injury can greatly impact on daily life, which makes sports injury prevention additionally important. Objective The purpose of this review is to systematically review the definitions, methodologies and injury rates in disability sport, which should assist future identification of risk fa...
Presents statistics on injury patterns in youth sports, recommending that physicians who care for young athletes understand the kinds of injuries likely to be sustained. Awareness of injury patterns helps medical professionals identify variables associated with injury, anticipate or prevent injuries, plan medical coverage, and compare individual…
... Adults can experience a similar condition, called ulnar collateral ligament injury. Symptoms are pain of the inside ... winter. This kind of variety can eliminate the risk of putting stress on the same joints week ...
Spinks, Anneliese B; McClure, Roderick J
Injuries caused by sports and other forms of physical activity in young children constitute a significant public health burden. It is important to quantify this risk to ensure that the benefits of sport participation are not outweighed by the potential harms. This review summarises the literature reporting exposure-based injury rates for various forms of physical activity in children aged 15 years and younger. Forty eight studies were found, of which 27 reported injury rates per hourly based exposure measured and 21 reported injury rates according to some other measure. Fourteen different sports and activities were covered, mostly team ball sports, with soccer being the most widely studied. Injury definition and the method of ascertaining and measuring injuries differed between studies, which created a large variation in reported injury rates that did not necessarily represent actual differences in injury risk between activities. The highest hourly based injury rates were reported for ice hockey, and the lowest were for soccer, although the range of injury rates for both of these activities was wide. Very few studies have investigated sports-related injuries in children younger than 8 years or in unorganised sports situations.
Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L.; Maas, M.
This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)
Tyler, Timothy F; Silvers, Holly J; Gerhardt, Michael B; Nicholas, Stephen J
An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Persistent groin pain and muscle imbalance may lead to athletic pubalgia. Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database from 1990 to 2009, as well as a manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey and soccer players throughout the world, approximately 10% to 11% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries have been linked to hip muscle weakness, a previous injury to that area, preseason practice sessions, and level of experience. This injury may be prevented if these risk factors are addressed before each season. Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for athletes, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. If groin pain persists, the possibility of athletic pubalgia needs to be explored, because of weakening or tears in the abdominal wall muscles. A diagnosis is confirmed by exclusion of other pathology.
Fehr, Shayne D; Nelson, Lindsay D; Scharer, Kyle R; Traudt, Elizabeth A; Veenstra, Joshua M; Tarima, Sergey S; Liu, Xue-Cheng; Walter, Kevin D
To examine predictors of prolonged symptom duration from mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in a pediatric sports medicine specialty clinic cohort as these predictors may be distinct in this population. Retrospective chart review. Outpatient specialty clinic. Charts of 549 patients (age range: 10-18 years) with concussions were reviewed in an outpatient clinic that predominantly managed sports-related injuries (77.3%). Patients (n = 431) included in the final analysis met the criteria for mTBI and were symptomatic at their first visit. Patient history, injury, and recovery variables were evaluated. Predictors of prolonged time to reach self-reported symptom recovery were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards. Median time to symptom recovery of the 431 patients who presented to clinic with symptoms was 40 days (full clinic sample median = 34 days). Analyses identified 3 unique predictors of symptom recovery: loss of consciousness (LOC) [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.56, P < 0.0001], female sex (HR = 0.57, P < 0.0001), and concussion symptom score at first clinic visit (HR = 0.76, P < 0.0001). Prolonged duration of mTBI symptoms in patients who present to a pediatric sports-based concussion clinic is related to initial symptom severity, female sex, and LOC.
Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Gougoulias, Nikolaos; Caine, Dennis; Denaro, Vincenzo
Injuries can counter the beneficial aspects related to sports activities if an athlete is unable to continue to participate because of residual effects of injury. We provide an updated synthesis of existing clinical evidence of long-term follow-up outcome of sports injuries. A systematic computerized literature search was conducted on following databases were accessed: PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL and Embase databases. At a young age, injury to the physis can result in limb deformities and leg-length discrepancy. Weight-bearing joints including the hip, knee and ankle are at risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA) in former athletes, after injury or in the presence of malalignment, especially in association with high impact sport. Knee injury is a risk factor for OA. Ankle ligament injuries in athletes result in incomplete recovery (up to 40% at 6 months), and OA in the long term (latency period more than 25 years). Spine pathologies are associated more commonly with certain sports (e.g. wrestling, heavy-weight lifting, gymnastics, tennis, soccer). Evolution in arthroscopy allows more accurate assessment of hip, ankle, shoulder, elbow and wrist intra-articular post-traumatic pathologies, and possibly more successful management. Few well-conducted studies are available to establish the long-term follow-up of former athletes. To assess whether benefits from sports participation outweigh the risks, future research should involve questionnaires regarding the health-related quality of life in former athletes, to be compared with the general population.
Pyne, D.B.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mountjoy, M.
In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of
Bonfield, Christopher M; Shin, Samuel S; Kanter, Adam S
Research on the mechanism of concussion in recent years has been focused on the mechanism of injury as well as strategies to minimize or reverse injury. Sports-related head injury research has led to the development of head protective gear that has evolved over the years. Headgears have been designed to protect athletes from skull fractures, subdural hemorrhages and concussions. Over the years, through experience of athletes and continued scientific research, improvements in helmet design have been made. Although these advances have decreased the number of catastrophic injuries throughout sports, the effects on concussions are promising, but largely unproven. In this review, we will discuss development of helmets and studies analyzing their level of protection for both concussion and head injury. This will help us understand what future developments are still needed to minimize the risk of concussion among athletes in various forms of sports.
Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C
in sports. METHODS: A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 yielding 1747 potentially relevant references. Two independent assessors evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and performed quality assessments using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Quantitative analyses were...... a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0.......81. CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis revealed a potential clinically meaningful groin injury reduction of 19%, even though no statistical significant reduction in sport-related groin injuries could be documented. TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registration ID CRD42014009614....
Henke, T; Luig, P; Schulz, D
Almost one of four Germans is registered in a sports club. Nowadays, sport is acknowledged as an integral component of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous studies provide evidence of the benefits of sports on health. However, about 2 million sports injuries per year diminish the health benefits of sport. (a) Description of the epidemiology of sports injuries in German sports club between 1987 and 2012 and (b) identification of focal areas for the development and implementation of prevention measures. Continuous questionnaire-based injury monitoring of club sports injuries that have been reported to the respective sports insurance. Full survey among selected federal sports associations. Since 1987, a sample of 200,884 sports injuries has been established. About two thirds of the injuries are reported in soccer, handball, basketball, and volleyball, although only one third of all sports club members are registered in these team sports. The number of women's soccer injuries has risen from 7.5 to 15.6 %. Ankle injuries have decreased from 28.7 to 16.9 %. By contrast, the rate of knee injuries has increased from 18.4 to 20.3 %. Days of disability have dropped steadily since the 1990s. Inpatient hospital days have decreased from 10 to 5 days, whereas the share of injuries that needed surgery increased from 30 to 40 %. Team ball sports are still a clear focal area for injury prevention, as participation and injury risk are highest in this group. While the prevention of ankle injuries seems to be headed in the right direction, knee injuries are increasing. As team ball sports become more popular among women, who are more prone to severe knee injuries, prevention programs should be tailored toward the specific situation and needs of the targeted sports participants.
Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando
Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.
Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.
Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo
In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.
Weaver, Nancy L; Marshall, Stephen W; Miller, Mark D
Participation in youth sports has steadily grown over the past 30 years and continues to rise. During the 1998-1999 school year over 360,000 collegiate athletes and almost 6.5 million high school athletes participated in sports. This expansion has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the injury problem associated with participation in youth sports. Estimates are that one-third of high school athletes will sustain an injury during a sports season serious enough to result in time lost from participation. While there may always be some risk associated with sports participation, health professionals can actively encourage injury prevention. In this paper, we describe the benefits of sport participation, the injury problem associated with sports, injury prevention frameworks, and conclude by discussing the changing role of the team physician in youth sports.
Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.)
Lim, Bee-Oh; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Jin Goo; An, Keun Ok; Yoo, Jin; Kwon, Young Hoo
Female athletes have a higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than their male counterparts who play at similar levels in sports involving pivoting and landing. The competitive female basketball players who participated in a sports injury prevention training program would show better muscle strength and flexibility and improved biomechanical properties associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury than during the pretraining period and than posttraining parameters in a control group. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 22 high school female basketball players were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups (the experimental group and the control group, 11 participants each). The experimental group was instructed in the 6 parts of the sports injury prevention training program and performed it during the first 20 minutes of team practice for the next 8 weeks, while the control group performed their regular training program. Both groups were tested with a rebound-jump task before and after the 8-week period. A total of 21 reflective markers were placed in preassigned positions. In this controlled laboratory study, a 2-way analysis of variance (2 x 2) experimental design was used for the statistical analysis (P training effects on all strength parameters (P = .004 to .043) and on knee flexion, which reflects increased flexibility (P = .022). The experimental group showed higher knee flexion angles (P = .024), greater interknee distances (P = .004), lower hamstring-quadriceps ratios (P = .023), and lower maximum knee extension torques (P = .043) after training. In the control group, no statistical differences were observed between pretraining and posttraining findings (P = .084 to .873). At pretraining, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for any parameter (P = .067 to .784). However, a comparison of the 2 groups after training revealed that the experimental group had significantly higher knee flexion angles (P = .023
Prien, Annika; Mountjoy, Margo; Miller, Jim; Boyd, Kevin; van den Hoogenband, Cees; Gerrard, David; Cherif, Mohamed Yahia; Lu, Yifan; Nanousis, Kyriakos; Ortiz Liscano, Edgar Ivan; Shahpar, Farhad Moradi; Junge, Astrid
Epidemiological information on injury/illness is required to develop effective injury prevention strategies. To assess the frequency and characteristics of injuries/illnesses (1) in the 4 weeks prior to and (2) during the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA) World Championships 2015 compared with 2013 and 2009. (1) Athletes answered a retrospective questionnaire, and (2) the medical staff reported injuries/illnesses prospectively during the championships. (1) A quarter of responding athletes reported symptoms in the 4 weeks prior to the championships. More than half of all affected athletes presented with substantial severity, 80% took medication, 70% had overuse injuries and 30% did not modify their training regime despite symptoms. At the start of the championships, 70% of affected participants were still symptomatic. (2) During the championships, injury and illness incidence was 12.9 per 100 athletes. The most common injuries were shoulder sprains (5.7%) and muscle cramps of the lower back (5.7%). The most common illnesses were infections of the respiratory (33.9%) and gastrointestinal tract (23.5%). Risk factors included discipline and age, but not gender. Incidence was highest in athletes competing in high diving (HD), water polo (WP) and diving (DIV) for injuries, and WP and swimming (SW) for illnesses. The significantly higher incidence of injuries and illnesses at the FINA World Championships 2015 compared with 2013 and 2009 was most probably due to a similarly improved response rate of the medical staff. In aquatic sports, surveillance and health promotion should focus on prevention of out-of-competition overuse injuries and athlete education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Goossens, L; Verrelst, R; Cardon, G; De Clercq, D
Sports injuries could be highly detrimental to the career of a physical education teacher education (PETE) student. To enable the development of future sports injury prevention programs, sports injuries in 128 first-year academic bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Common risk factors for sports injuries, taken from the literature, were also evaluated by means of logistic regression analysis. We found an incidence rate of 1.91 and an injury risk of 0.85, which is higher than generally found in a sports-active population. Most injuries involved the lower extremities, were acute, newly occurring injuries, and took place in non-contact situations. More than half of all injuries lead to an inactivity period of 1 week or more and over 80% of all injuries required medical attention. A major part of these injuries happened during the intracurricular sports classes. Few differences were seen between women and men. A history of injury was a significant risk factor (P = 0.018) for the occurrence of injuries, and performance of cooling-down exercises was significantly related to a lower occurrence of ankle injuries (P = 0.031). These data can inform future programs for the prevention of sports injuries in PETE students. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Black, Amanda M; Patton, Declan A; Eliason, Paul H; Emery, Carolyn A
There is evidence that eye protection, mouth guards, helmets, and face guards are effective in reducing the risk of facial injury; however, such safety practices are not adopted universally by all athletes playing high-risk sports. Underlying beliefs about risk perception, comfort, ineffectiveness, utility, and a lack of awareness or enforcement have been identified as reasons people may not adopt preventive measures. There are several high-risk sports that have not mandated or do not enforce use of protective equipment. Valid evidence can assist with addressing the resistance caused by prevailing beliefs and could be essential in influencing rule changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barata, Pedro; Cervaens, Mariana; Resende, Rita; Camacho, Oscar; Marques, Frankim
In the last decade, competitive sports have taken on a whole new meaning, where intensity has increased together with the incidence of injuries to the athletes. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop better and faster treatments that allow the injured athlete to return to competition faster than with the normal course of rehabilitation, with a low risk of re-injury. Hyperbaric therapies are methods used to treat diseases or injuries using pressures higher than local atmospheric pressure inside a hyperbaric chamber. Within hyperbaric therapies, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is the administration of pure oxygen (100%) at pressures greater than atmospheric pressure, i.e. more than 1 atmosphere absolute (ATA), for therapeutic reasons. The application of HBO for the treatment of sports injuries has recently been suggested in the scientific literature as a modality of therapy either as a primary or an adjunct treatment. Although results have proven to be promising in terms of using HBO as a treatment modality in sports-related injuries, these studies have been limited due to the small sample size, lack of blinding and randomization problems. HBO seems to be promising in the recovery of injuries for high-performance athletes; however, there is a need for larger samples, randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trials combined with studies using animal models so that its effects and mechanisms can be identified to confirm that it is a safe and effective therapy for the treatment of sports injuries.
Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Ciuffreda, Mauro; Locher, Joel; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo
The authors reviewed the current English literature regarding apophyseal injuries affecting young athletes, to highlight the frequency and characteristics of these injuries, to clarify risk factors and specific prevention measures, and to identify future research objectives. The authors performed a comprehensive search of the medical literature, using the Medline database, including all English articles. Various combinations of the Keywords 'injury', 'sports', 'athletic injuries', 'avulsion fractures', 'physeal', 'physis', 'apophysis', 'apophysitis', 'growth plate' were used. Growth benefits from a moderate physical activity. Growth deficit may occur in young athletes involved in intensive practice of sport following apophysitis. Apophyseal injuries occurring during sport are less common than overall rate of injuries affecting the adolescent population. Growth disturbance occurs only rarely after an apophyseal injury. Further studies should consider analytical as well as descriptive components of apophyseal injuries, to allow the identification of new possible risk factors and preventive measures and to help early detection and proper treatment as well. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...
Chrzavzez, G; Chrzavzez, J P; D'Erceville, T; Kharrat, N; Barbillon, C; Pilz, F
Of 249 patients with facial injuries admitted to the Department of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hôpital Bel Air, Thionville, France, between 1981 and 1982, 45 (18%) were cases of injury from sporting activities. The particular characteristics of the latter lesions were their predominance in males, their increased seasonal frequency in spring and early summer, the high incidence of damage to the nasal pyramid and maxillomalar complex, and the fact that the most implicated sport was football (71% of cases). Whereas most accidents resulted in relatively minor lesions, three cases--including two from riding--involved severe, complex injuries comparable to those seen in certain car accidents. Findings in this series confirm the natural "bumper" property of the face. Emphasis is placed on the importance of well-conducted training, and the need to eliminate consideration of sport as a means for expressing aggressiveness that is not always possible in daily life.
Stanger, Michael A.
The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...
The material available was grouped according to body regions and sport types. The first part contains data on radiography of the injured parts of the body and is intended to be a guide in the radiographic part of the diagnosis and treatment of the injured person. It also contains data on diagnostic pitfalls and recommendations for a comprehensive clarification of X-ray findings after an injury. The second part describes the sport types and hazards. Where possible, the injuries were documented by case studies and literature on the types of injury. The third part contains a collection of X-ray pictures with examples of various injuries. The presentation corresponds to the one of an up-to-date major text book on skeleton radiology. The pictures are presented as a series of problems for the reader to test his/her own diagnostic capabilities before he/she will read the solution to each example. With 411 figs [de
Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.
The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…
Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri
Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.
Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...
... Diseases Muscle and Bone Diseases Joint Replacement Surgery Bursitis Fibromyalgia Fibrous Dysplasia Growth Plate Injuries Marfan Syndrome ... Health Sprains and Strains, Questions and Answers about Bursitis and Tendinitis, Questions and Answers about Last Reviewed: ...
Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish
The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or ...
Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M
In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001-2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in perception, cognition, and motor control might influence injury risk. Socioculturally
Jan 4, 2012 ... A behaviorist perspective. Adv Psychosom Med 2011;30:8–21. 7. Podlog L, Dimmock J, Miller J. A review of return to sport concerns following injury rehabilitation: practitioner strategies for enhancing recovery outcomes. Phys Ther Sport. 2011;12:36-42. 8. Bianco T, Malo S, Orlick T. Sport injury and illness: ...
Rauh, Mitchell J; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Wiksten, Denise L
Girls' participation in high school sports has increased 79.5% since 1975-1976. The incidence of injury among boys in high school sports has been well documented, but information regarding the incidence, severity, and type of injury among girls in high school sports is limited. To examine the effects of subsequent injuries among high school girls in 5 sports. Observational cohort. Existing data from the 1995-1997 National Athletic Trainers' Association High School Injury Surveillance database. Girl athletes (n = 25 187 player-seasons) participating in 5 varsity high school sports: basketball, field hockey, soccer, softball, and volleyball. Injury status, body location, injury type, time lost from injury, and number of players at risk for injury as recorded by athletic trainers and submitted to the Sports Injury Monitoring System. Overall, 23.3% of the athletes had 2 or more injuries within a sport; basketball and soccer athletes were most vulnerable. Overall, the probability of an athlete sustaining 3 or more injuries was 38.6%, and the risk was highest for field hockey players (61.9%). The risk of subsequent injury at a new body location was almost 2 times higher than reinjury at the same body location (risk ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval = 1.6, 1.8) and was similar for all sports except volleyball. Only in softball was the proportion of reinjuries causing 8 or more days lost from participation greater than the proportion of new injuries causing similar time loss. Softball and volleyball had the highest proportion of reinjuries at the shoulder, especially rotator cuff strains. The proportion of knee reinjuries was significantly higher than new injuries for all sports except soccer. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injuries was significantly higher for volleyball players only. Overall, the proportion of reinjuries was significantly higher for stress fractures and musculoskeletal condition injuries. Patterns of subsequent injury risk appear to vary
Participation in sporting activities carries an injury risk. Conversely, the increased awareness that physical inactivity is a major risk factor for disease has led government agencies and the medical community to encourage increased levels of physical activity. Many people will achieve this through participation in sport.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.
Fong, Daniel TP; Chan, Yue-Yan; Mok, Kam-Ming; Yung, Patrick SH; Chan, Kai-Ming
Abstract This paper summarizes the current understanding on acute ankle sprain injury, which is the most common acute sport trauma, accounting for about 14% of all sport-related injuries. Among, 80% are ligamentous sprains caused by explosive inversion or supination. The injury motion often happens at the subtalar joint and tears the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) which possesses the lowest ultimate load among the lateral ligaments at the ankle. For extrinsic risk factors to ankle sprai...
Lauren N. Erickson
Full Text Available Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.
Matheson, G O
A substantial part of our work as physicians involves treating sport- and exercise-related injuries. We also recommend exercise, knowing that it will result in a certain number of acute and overuse injuries. As team physicians, we attend competitive events despite awareness that participants in certain sports run a high risk of significant harm. So then, where do we stand in relation to the Hippocratic Oath: "First do no harm"?
Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W.; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L.; Regatte, Ravindar R.; Crema, Michel D.
In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to
Caine, Dennis J
The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current knowledge related to the epidemiology of injury in selected adventure and extreme sports. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms 'epidemiology', 'injury,' 'adventure sports' and 'extreme sports'. Publications from the past 10 years were largely selected, but commonly referenced or highly regarded older publications were also included. References lists of articles identified in the search strategy were also searched and articles selected that were judged to be relevant. Important aspects of the epidemiology of injury related to adventure and extreme sports are discussed including occurrence of injury, who is affected by injury, where and when injury occurs, injury outcome, risk factors, inciting events, prevention and further research. Given the life-changing impact injury can have in sports (personal, social, financial, psychological, political, and medical), the current paucity of well-designed descriptive and particularly analytical epidemiological studies in some adventure and extreme sports is disturbing. The importance of denominator-based and longitudinal data collection in obtaining an accurate picture of injury risk and severity and as a basis for testing risk factors and evaluating preventive measures is emphasized. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kindig, Louise E.
Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…
Alonso, Juan Manuel; Junge, Astrid; Renström, Per; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo; Dvorak, Jiri
The aim of this study was to analyze all sports injuries incurred in competitions and/or training during the 2007 World Athletics Championships and to prove the feasibility of the injury surveillance system developed for the 2008 Olympic Games for individual sports. Prospective recording of injuries. 11 IAAF World Championships in Athletics 2007 in Osaka, Japan. All national team physicians and physiotherapists; Local Organising Committee (LOC) physicians working in the Medical Centres at the stadium and warm-up area. Frequency, characteristics, and incidence of injuries. 192 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 97 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. More than half of the injuries (56%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. Eighty percent affected the lower extremity; the most common diagnosis was thigh strain (16%). In most cases, the injury was caused by overuse (44%). A quarter of the injuries were incurred during training and 137 (71%) in competition. On average, 72.4 injuries per 1000 competing athletes were incurred in competitions. The incidence of injury varied substantially among the disciplines. The risk of a time-loss injury was highest in heptathlon, women's 10,000 m, women's 3000 m steeplechase, decathlon, and men's marathon. The injury surveillance system proved feasible for individual sports. Risk of injury varied among the disciplines, with highest risk in combined disciplines, steeplechase, and long-distance runs. Preventive interventions should mainly focus on overuse injuries and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries.
Hespanhol, Luiz C.; Barboza, Saulo D.; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert
Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the implementation of these concepts in practice. The aspects discussed are: (1) sports injury definition; (2) classification of sports injuries; (3) population at risk, prevalence, and incidence; (4) severity measures; (5) economic costs; (6) systems developed to monitor sports injuries; and (7) online technology. Only with reliable monitoring systems applied in a continuous and long-term manner will it be possible to identify the burden of injuries, to identify the possible cases at an early stage, to implement early interventions, and to generate data for sports injury prevention. The implementation of sports injuries monitoring systems in practice is strongly recommended. PMID:26537807
Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C; Barboza, Saulo D; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert
Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the implementation of these concepts in practice. The aspects discussed are: (1) sports injury definition; (2) classification of sports injuries; (3) population at risk, prevalence, and incidence; (4) severity measures; (5) economic costs; (6) systems developed to monitor sports injuries; and (7) online technology. Only with reliable monitoring systems applied in a continuous and long-term manner will it be possible to identify the burden of injuries, to identify the possible cases at an early stage, to implement early interventions, and to generate data for sports injury prevention. The implementation of sports injuries monitoring systems in practice is strongly recommended.
Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M
The powers of lightning have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by lightning is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 lightning-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing lightning-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on lightning safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.
Prommersberger, K-J; Mühldorfer-Fodor, M; Kalb, K
Apart from clean cut finger amputations, every kind of hand injury can be seen in mountain and winter sports but only skier's thumb and injuries of the pulley system in sport climbers are seen in a greater number of cases. Nevertheless, these two common injuries as well as the rare frostbite of the fingers are often underdiagnosed or overdiagnosed as well as undertreated or overtreated. This paper describes the diagnostics and treatment of skier's thumb, injuries of the pulley system in sport climbers and frostbite of the fingers. Before checking the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint of the thumb for stability, radiographs should be taken to exclude a bony avulsion of the ulnar collateral ligament in skier's thumb. If there is no bony ligament avulsion further diagnostic procedures, e.g. ultrasound, are recommended to prove or exclude a Stener lesion, which is an absolute indication for operative treatment together with a dislocated bony ligament avulsion. To quantify the severity of a lesion of the pulley system ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are needed. Most lesions of the pulley system can be treated conservatively. Only multiple pulley ruptures or isolated ruptures associated with a lesion of the lumbrical muscles or collateral ligaments require operative treatment. As long as there is no infection amputation should be done as late as possible in frostbite of the fingers because the extent of the frostbite can rarely be correctly estimated. Most cases of skier's thumb as well as lesions of the pulley system can be treated non-operatively but precise diagnostics are needed.
Fagher, K; Lexell, J
The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Petushek, Erich J.; Ward, Paul; Cokely, Edward T.; Myer, Gregory D.
Background: Simple observational assessment of movement is a potentially low-cost method for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury screening and prevention. Although many individuals utilize some form of observational assessment of movement, there are currently no substantial data on group skill differences in observational screening of ACL injury risk. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare various groups’ abilities to visually assess ACL injury risk as well as the associated strategies and ACL knowledge levels. The hypothesis was that sports medicine professionals would perform better than coaches and exercise science academics/students and that these subgroups would all perform better than parents and other general population members. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 428 individuals, including physicians, physical therapists, athletic trainers, strength and conditioning coaches, exercise science researchers/students, athletes, parents, and members of the general public participated in the study. Participants completed the ACL Injury Risk Estimation Quiz (ACL-IQ) and answered questions related to assessment strategy and ACL knowledge. Results: Strength and conditioning coaches, athletic trainers, physical therapists, and exercise science students exhibited consistently superior ACL injury risk estimation ability (+2 SD) as compared with sport coaches, parents of athletes, and members of the general public. The performance of a substantial number of individuals in the exercise sciences/sports medicines (approximately 40%) was similar to or exceeded clinical instrument-based biomechanical assessment methods (eg, ACL nomogram). Parents, sport coaches, and the general public had lower ACL-IQ, likely due to their lower ACL knowledge and to rating the importance of knee/thigh motion lower and weight and jump height higher. Conclusion: Substantial cross-professional/group differences in visual ACL
Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike
Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter
Powell, John W.; Barber-Foss, Kim D.
Described injury patterns in 10 high school sports, identifying risk as measured by observed injury patterns. Certified athletic trainers recorded data daily on observed injuries over two academic years. Results indicated an inherent risk of injury associated with participation in certain sports and activities of the players. Therefore,…
Hamstring strains are one of the most prevalent and recurrent injuries in sport. The main mechanism of hamstring injuries involves the eccentric muscle loading associated with the terminal swing-phase during sprinting. Risk factors for hamstring strains can be divided into intrinsic risk and extrinsic factors. The main aim of ...
Pardiwala, Dinshaw N; Rao, Nandan N; Anand, Karthik; Raut, Alhad
Knee dislocations are devastating when they occur on the athletic field or secondary to motor sports. The complexity of presentation and spectrum of treatment options makes these injuries unique and extremely challenging to even the most experienced knee surgeons. An astute appreciation of the treatment algorithm is essential to plan individualized management since no two complex knee dislocations are ever the same. Moreover, attention to detail and finesse of surgical technique are required to obtain a good functional result and ensure return to play. Over the past 10 years, our service has treated 43 competitive sportsmen with knee dislocations, and this experience forms the basis for this narrative review. PMID:28966379
Shimon, Jane M.
Describes how providing a well-designed injury prevention program that includes attention to growth and development, training and conditioning, protective equipment, and emergency care can minimize youth sport injuries. (SM)
Full Text Available This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p < 0.05, and more male than female runners reported at least one overuse injury (69% vs. 51%, p < 0.05. When the incidence of acute and overuse injuries both separately and combined was calculated per 1000 training hours, per 1000 competition hours and all exposure hours combined we found no gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.3 to 26.4, p < 0.05 while females were at increased risk for overuse injuries in the ankle compared to males (RR 3.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 9.3, p < 0.05. After adjustment for exposure time (injuries/1000 exposure hours significance of the difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p < 0.05. Six athletes had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, of whom four were female soccer players. After combining all reported acute and overuse ankle and knee injuries, the proportion of athletes with such injury was higher in the female compared to male soccer players (75% and 54% respectively; p < 0.05, but no difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training
Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J
Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic
Burt, C W; Overpeck, M D
We sought to estimate the effect and magnitude of patients with sports-related injuries presenting to hospital emergency departments in the United States and to examine differences in patient and visit characteristics between sports- and nonsports-related injuries. Data from the 1997 and 1998 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a national probabilistic sample of 496 US hospital EDs, were combined to examine emergency visits for sports-related injuries. Data from 16,997 sample ED encounter records for injuries that included narrative cause of injury text were analyzed. Narrative text entries were coded to 1 of 84 sport and recreational activity codes. Sample weights were applied to provide annual national estimates. Estimates of sports-related injury visits were based on 1,775 records with an assigned sports-related activity code. There were an average annual estimated 2.6 million emergency visits for sports-related injuries by persons between the ages of 5 and 24 years. They accounted for over 68% of the total 3.7 million sport injuries presented to the ED by persons of all ages. As a proportion of all kinds of injuries presenting to the ED, sports-related injuries accounted for more than one fifth of the visits by persons 5 to 24 years old. The use rate was 33.9 ED visits per 1,000 persons in this age group (95% confidence interval 30.3 to 37.5). The sports-related injury visit rate for male patients was more than double the rate for female patients (48.2 versus 19.2 per 1,000 persons between 5 and 24 years of age). Visits from sports-related activities for this age group were more frequent for basketball and cycling compared with other categories (eg, baseball, skateboarding, gymnastics). Compared with nonsports-related injuries for this age group, sports-related injuries were more likely to be to the brain or skull and upper and lower extremities. Patients with sports-related injuries were more likely to have a diagnosis of fracture and sprain or
Concussions in sports have become such a large issue in today’s sports society. Each year it seems that we hear more and more about athletes who struggle dealing with head injuries. Athletes continue to get bigger, stronger and faster which brings more excitement to sports. There have been many injuries in contact sports at all levels that not only result in concussions but long-term head injuries that can that cause permanent damage. We have learned and studied so much about the effects that...
This thesis deals with current issues in the management of trauma and sports injuries of the elbow. Common sports injuries of the elbow involve ruptures of the distal biceps tendon and the ulnar collateral ligament. We evaluated one of the current thoughts, that the height of the radial bicipital
Full Text Available Sports-related maxillofacial traumas, nasal fractures and auricular hematomas situations like have important role due to encounter frequency in ENT clinic's patient population. The aim of article is defining the incidence of sports-related injuries , mostly seen traumas according to the sport types, conditions that needs treatment , different treatment approaches and interventions that should be done for prevention of these injuries.
Åman, M; Forssblad, M; Larsén, K
Sports with high numbers of athletes and acute injuries are an important target for preventive actions at a national level. Both for the health of the athlete and to reduce costs associated with injury. The aim of this study was to identify injuries where injury prevention should focus, in order to have major impact on decreasing acute injury rates at a national level. All athletes in the seven investigated sport federations (automobile sports, basketball, floorball, football (soccer), handball, ice hockey, and motor sports) were insured by the same insurance company. Using this insurance database, the incidence and proportion of acute injuries, and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI), at each body location, was calculated. Comparisons were made between sports, sex, and age. In total, there were 84 754 registered injuries during the study period (year 2006-2013). Athletes in team sports, except in male ice hockey, had the highest risk to sustain an injury and PMI in the lower limb. Females had higher risk of injury and PMI in the lower limb compared to males, in all sports except in ice hockey. This study recommends that injury prevention at national level should particularly focus on lower limb injuries. In ice hockey and motor sports, head/neck and upper limb injuries also need attention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem
To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.
Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman
Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.
Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nagahiro, Shinji
We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Zuckerman, Scott L; Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Wasserman, Erin B; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Dompier, Thomas P; Comstock, R Dawn; Marshall, Stephen W
Numerous sports injury surveillance systems exist with the capability of tracking concussion incidence data. It is important for the consumers of sport-related concussion data, be they researchers or the public, to have a comprehensive understanding of the strengths and limitations of sports injury surveillance systems. This article discusses issues of system design and analysis that affect the interpretation and understanding of sport-related concussion incidence data from sports injury surveillance systems. Such understanding will help inform the design of sports injury surveillance systems and research studies that aim to identify risk factors, develop prevention strategies, and evaluate prevention mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Briscoe, J H
A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football...
Kondric, Miran; Matković, Branka R; Furjan-Mandić, Gordana; Hadzić, Vedran; Dervisević, Edvin
On the sample of 83 top Slovenian athletes we have studied the frequency of injuries among table tennis, tennis and badminton players, types of injuries and severity of injuries--the latter based on data of players absences from training and/or competition processes. The most liable parts to injuries are shoulder girdle (17.27%), spine (16.55%) and ankle (15.83%), while foot (10.07%) and wrist (12.23%) are slightly less liable to injuries. The most frequent injuries in racket sports pertain to muscle tissues. According to this data, the majority of injuries occur halfway through a training session or a competition event, mostly during a competition season. The injuries primarily pertain to muscle tissues; these are followed by joint and tendon injuries. There are no differences between male and female players. Compared to other racket sports players, table tennis players suffer from fewer injuries.
Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo L; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per A F H; Aubry, Mark John; Dvorak, Jiri
Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Descriptive epidemiology study. The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standardized injury report form. In addition, injuries were reported daily by the physicians at the medical stations at the different Olympic venues and at the polyclinic in the Olympic Village. Physicians and/or therapists of 92 national teams covering 88% of the 10,977 registered athletes took part in the study. In total, 1055 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 96.1 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Half of the injuries (49.6%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. The most prevalent diagnoses were ankle sprains and thigh strains. The majority (72.5%) of injuries were incurred in competition. One third of the injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by overuse (22%) and noncontact incidences (20%). Injuries were reported from all sports, but their incidence and characteristics varied substantially. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in soccer, taekwondo, hockey, handball, weightlifting, and boxing (all >or=15% of the athletes) and lowest for sailing, canoeing/kayaking, rowing, synchronized swimming, diving, fencing, and swimming. The data indicate that the injury surveillance system covered almost all of the participating athletes, and the results highlight areas of high risk for sport injury such as the in-competition period, the ankle and thigh, and specific sports. The identification of these factors should stimulate future research and subsequent policy change to prevent injury in
Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L; Regatte, Ravindar R; Crema, Michel D
In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to confirm and assess the extent of sports-related muscle injuries and may help to guide management, which directly affects the prognosis. This is especially important when the diagnosis or grade of injury is unclear, when recovery is taking longer than expected, and when interventional or surgical management may be necessary. Several imaging techniques are widely available, with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging currently the most frequently applied in sports medicine. This state of the art review will discuss the main imaging modalities for the assessment of sports-related muscle injuries, including advanced imaging techniques, with the focus on the clinical relevance of imaging features of muscle injuries. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Asperti, André Marangoni; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Pedrinelli, André; Hernandez, Arnaldo José
To obtain information on the incidence and nature of sports injuries at a Brazilian university. Data from 396 student amateur athletes (61% male) playing 15 different sports during the 2013 season were retrospectively evaluated. Subjects completed the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System questionnaire at the conclusion of the 2013 sports season. Injuries that resulted in at least one day of time lost were included. Exposure was defined as one student amateur athlete participating in one practice or game and is expressed as an athlete-exposure (A-E). Injury rates were significantly greater in games (13.13 injuries per 1000 A-Es, 95% CI = 10.3-15) than in practices (4.47 injuries per 1000 A-Es, 95% CI = 3.9-5.1). The mechanisms that accounted for the most injuries in games and practices were player contact (52.9%) and non-contact (54.5%), respectively. Ankle ligament sprains were the most common injury (18.2% of all reported injuries). A relatively high incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury was also observed (0.16 injuries per 1000 A-Es). Brazilian student amateur athletes are at great risk of sustaining non-contact injuries such as ankle sprains and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Level III of Evidence, Study of non consecutive patients; without consistently applied reference ''gold'' standard.
Marshall, S W
Heat injury is a potentially lethal condition that is considered to be completely preventable. Fatal heat injury is relatively rare (0.20 per 100 000 player-seasons in US high school football) and there are very limited data on non-fatal incidence. Expert recommendations for prevention include gradual acclimatisation of youth athletes to hot conditions, reductions in activity in hot and humid conditions, wearing light and light-coloured clothing, careful monitoring of athletes for signs of heat injury to facilitate immediate detection, having the resources to immediately and rapidly cool affected athletes, and education of athletes, care givers, and coaches about heat injury. Although a base of observational case data, physiological information, and expert opinion exists, the science surrounding this field is devoid of health communication and health behaviour research, and there is a pressing need for analytical studies to evaluate intervention programmes and/or identify new risk factors. There is also a need for ongoing data collection on heat injury incidence and on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards heat injury among youth athletes, their care givers and their coaches.
Micieli, Jonathan A; Easterbrook, Michael
Sports-related eye and orbital injuries continue to occur regularly and may have serious consequences. They are completely preventable when appropriate protection is worn, particularly with polycarbonate lenses. Eye protection is available for most sports and should be worn in accordance with the standards of regional authorities. It is important for first responders to identify red flags in the history and physical examination of an injured athlete for urgent referral to an ophthalmologist. Common sports-related eye injuries include corneal abrasion, subconjunctival hemorrhage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal tears and detachment. The mechanism and treatment of these injuries are discussed in further detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keogh, Justin W L; Winwood, Paul W
Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes. These sports may be considered dangerous because of the heavy loads commonly used in training and competition. Our objective was to systematically review the injury epidemiology of these weight-training sports, and, where possible, gain some insight into whether this may be affected by age, sex, competitive standard, and bodyweight class. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Embase for injury epidemiology studies involving competitive athletes in these weight-training sports. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed journal articles only, with no limit placed on date or language of publication. We assessed the risk of bias in all studies using an adaption of the musculoskeletal injury review method. Only five of the 20 eligible studies had a risk of bias score ≥75 %, meaning the risk of bias in these five studies was considered low. While 14 of the studies had sample sizes >100 participants, only four studies utilized a prospective design. Bodybuilding had the lowest injury rates (0.12-0.7 injuries per lifter per year; 0.24-1 injury per 1000 h), with strongman (4.5-6.1 injuries per 1000 h) and Highland Games (7.5 injuries per 1000 h) reporting the highest rates. The shoulder, lower back, knee, elbow, and wrist/hand were generally the most commonly injured anatomical locations; strains, tendinitis, and sprains were the most common injury type. Very few significant differences in any of the injury outcomes were observed as a function of age, sex, competitive standard, or bodyweight class. While the majority of the research we reviewed utilized retrospective designs, the weight-training sports appear to have relatively low rates of injury compared with common team
Giuliano Moreto Onaka
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: In soccer, the players’ positions have been associated with specific functional overload, which may cause sports injuries. Objective: To investigate the occurrence and characterize sport injuries according to soccer player position. Methods: 232 male soccer players (129 professionals and 103 amateurs from different sport teams in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were distributed in groups according to their soccer player position. Besides anthropometric characteristics, sports injuries were registered by using a referred morbidity survey. The occurrence of injuries was analyzed by means of the Goodman Test. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between different risk factors and the occurrence/-recurrence of sports injuries. Results: Forwards showed higher occurrence rates of sport injuries than other soccer position groups. Joint injuries in lower limbs constituted the most frequent registered cases. Muscle injuries in the back region were the most registered sports injuries among midfielders, while muscle damages in lower limbs were the primary injuries registered for other line positions. In the etiologic context, contact was the main cause of sports injuries in all groups. Most athletes (195 reported recurrence of sports injuries. Conclusion: The occurrence of sports injuries was higher among forwards. Traumatic joint and muscle injuries were the most prevalent registers in all line positions.
Kahlenberg, Cynthia A; Nair, Rueben; Monroe, Emily; Terry, Michael A; Edwards, Sara L
Youth participation in competitive athletics has significantly increased in the past two decades. There has also been a recent rise in the number of sports injuries that physicians are seeing in young athletes. The objective of this study was to assess the likelihood of sports injuries based on several risk factors in a general sample of athletes at a suburban-area high school. This was a cross-sectional study. An online survey was distributed to 2,200 student-athletes at a local high school with a mean age of 15.9 years. Four hundred eighty four (22%) complete responses were received. Data collected in the survey included demographics, frequency of sports participation, level of participation, types of sports played, participation in cross-training, injuries incurred, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and treatment for sports injuries. Athletes played an average of 1.6 different sports. The average number of hours of participation in sports annually was 504.3 ± 371.6 hours. The average total number of sports injuries experienced by athletes in our study was 1.7 per participant. 80.8% of respondents reported having sustained at least one sports injury. A higher total number of hours per year of sports participation and playing a contact sport were significantly associated with more reported lifetime sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and playing on a travel/club team were associated with students using NSAIDs for sports injuries. Older age, playing a contact sport, and doing cross training are also associated with having had surgery for a sports injury. Although more hours of participation and playing a contact sport may lead to an increased number of injuries, this risk must be weighed against the myriad of benefits that sports provide for young athletes.
Dhillon, Himmat; Dhilllon, Sidak; Dhillon, Mandeep S
In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before progression has now
Dhillon, Himmat; Dhilllon, Sidak; Dhillon, Mandeep S
In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before progression has now
Full Text Available In the modern era, rehabilitation after sports injury has become a domain for specialists, and its evolution has necessarily brought together the sports physiotherapist, the sports physician, and the orthopedic surgeon. The changing profile of sports related injury, as well as limited availability of facilities for rehabilitation in many areas of India, is a matter of concern. Elite sportspersons have some protection, but the average athlete is often left to fend for himself. Key factors in successful sports injury rehabilitation protocols are the application of modern rehabilitation protocols under appropriate supervision, appropriate and well timed surgical interventions, and judicious and need based use of pharmaceutical agents. Modern rehabilitation protocols emphasize teamwork and proper rehabilitation planning, and the rehabilitation team has to be lead by a trained sports physiotherapist, with an understanding of the protocols and interventions required at various stages. Injury specific rehabilitation protocols are being practiced worldwide but need to be introduced according to the nature of the sport as well as available facilities. Even in India, sports physicians are increasingly joining specialist rehabilitation teams, and they can help with medication, nutritional supplements, and specialized tests that could improve injury understanding. Inputs from surgeons are mandatory if surgical interventions have been performed. What is often missing in the underdeveloped world is psychological support and a clear understanding by the athlete of his/her rehabilitation protocols. World over, the primary aims are safe return to sports and minimizing reinjury on return to sport; this involves rehabilitation in stages, and current methodology clearly demarcates acute and chronic phases of injury. Close coordination with trainers and coaches is mandatory, and all need to understand that the reconditioning phase is crucial; skill assessment before
Kainberger, F.; Weidekamm, C.; Matzner, M.; Trieb, K.
Sports injuries, especially those due to trend sports, and overuse resulting from monotonous repetitive movement patterns may cause various spinal abnormalities. Indications for diagnostic imaging should be established more readily in this group of young patients than in adults, as there is a higher probability to find morphologic abnormalities. This diagnostic strategy should also be applied for MRI and CT investigations. Image findings should be interpreted with view on kinetic chains related to distinct sporting activities. (orig.)
Öztürk, Selcen; Kılıç, Dilek
Despite the health benefits of sports activities, sports injury and fear of injury are important barriers to participation in sport. The incidence, prevalence and type of sports injuries vary among men and women as well as age groups. It is usually difficult to examine these different aspects of sports injuries due to insufficient data. This study argues that sport injuries can be considered as an important economic burden in terms of the direct and indirect costs it bears. As a result, strong and effective strategies are needed to prevent sports injuries. Sports medicine has also been attracted increasing attention in recent years, particularly. In this article, the importance of sports injuries and their economic costs as well as the role of sport medicine as a prevention method for sports injuries were discussed.
Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi
We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries.
Weiss, Kaitlyn; Whatman, Chris
Knee injuries are prevalent among a variety of competitive sports and can impact an athlete's ability to continue to participate in their sport or, in the worst case, end an athlete's career. The aim was to evaluate biomechanics associated with both patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (in sports involving landing, change in direction, or rapid deceleration) across the three time points frequently reported in the literature: pre-injury, at the time of injury, and following injury. A search of the literature was conducted for research evaluating biomechanics associated with ACL injury and PFPS. The Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, EBSCO, PubMed, and CINAHL databases, to March 2015, were searched, and journal articles focused on ACL injuries and PFPS in sports that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The search methodology was created with the intent of extracting case-control, case, and cohort studies of knee injury in athletic populations. The search strategy was restricted to only full-text articles published in English. These articles were included in the review if they met all of the required selection criteria. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) The study must report lower extremity biomechanics in one of the following settings: (a) a comparison of currently injured and uninjured participants, (b) a prospective study evaluating risk factors for injury, or (c) a study reporting on the injury event itself. (2) The study must include only currently active participants who were similar at baseline (i.e. healthy, high school level basketball players currently in-season) and include biomechanical analysis of either landing, change in direction, or rapid deceleration. (3) The study must include currently injured participants. The studies were graded on the basis of quality, which served as an indication of risk of bias. An adapted version of the 'Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in
Flynn, John M; Lou, Julia E; Ganley, Theodore J
As children around the world become involved in increasingly competitive and more organized sports activities, the frequency and severity of both acute and overuse injuries continues to rise. Over the past year, several important studies have contributed to our knowledge in the prevention of sports injuries in children. Safety guidelines and protective equipment are crucial to minimizing pediatric recreational injuries. Protective headgear, mouth guards, and wrist and shin guards have all been shown to be effective in preventing injuries. Nutrition and nutritional supplements (eg, creatine) for the pediatric athlete have also received greater attention recently. Combined with appropriate physical activity programs, nutrition is essential in battling the increasing epidemic of childhood obesity. Increased attention has also been directed toward specific injuries and injury rates in the female athlete. Specific training for the female pediatric athlete may have a preventive effect in halting the rising injury rates.
Full Text Available PURPOSE To investigate the accuracy of MRI in evaluation of sports related knee injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS From June 2015 to 1 st week of July 2016. Thirty patients referred for sports related knee pain have been included in this study. Patients were subjected to a dedicated MR knee study (GE HD XT 1.5T MR System and correlated knee arthroscopy and surgery. RESULTS The study included Thirty patients complaining of sports related knee pain, only 5 patients (16.67 % were with normal MRI findings and 25 patients (83.33% were with abnormal MRI findings. Among the 25 patients who had injuries of their knees, 15 patients (60% had ACL injuries, 6 patients (24% had PCL injuries, 10 patients (40% had meniscal injuries, 8 patients (32% had collateral ligament injuries, 5 patients (20% had bone injuries and 2 patients (8% had muscular injuries. Only 5 patients (20% were represented with isolated injury and 20 patients (80% were represented with combined injuries. In correlation with arthroscopies and surgeries, morphological analysis was true-positive in 23 (92% patients of the 25 injured patients, and true-negative in 1 (60% patient of the 2 normal patients. Morphological analysis revealed overall 92% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Regarding the 15 patients who had ACL injuries, 13 patients (86.6% were true-positive and 8 patients (80% of the 10 patients who had meniscal injuries were true-positive. CONCLUSION MRI represents the optimal imaging modalities in the evaluation of the sports related knee injuries, which has been shown to be an accurate and non-invasive method of diagnosing ligament, meniscal, cartilage and muscular knee injuries.
Briscoe, J H
A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football played at Eton--Rugby, Association and Eton--showed Rugby football to be the most dangerous and Eton football the safest game. Advice on the management and prevention of injury is given.
Chauhan, M.S.; Chowhan, M.
Full text: Sports injuries are common in individual who participate in sports and exercise related activities. In majority of sports related injuries such as stress fracture, periosteitits, acute stress reaction of bone, the radiological investigations are usually normal in early stages. These injuries can lead to serious complications if not detected early and managed properly. This study was jointly carried out in premier medical institutes. All patients were referred from premier sports institute of the country and also by orthopedic surgeons. All patients were subjected for relevant radiological investigations and 3 phase bone scan. Total number of cases included in this study was 70 (N=70) among which bone scan was positive for stress fracture in 45 patients and shin splint was detected in 15 patients and avulsion injury seen in 3 patients. However, only one patient showed features of avulsion injury in X ray and in 1 patient X-ray was inconclusive. Conclusion:-The study shows that 3 phase bone scan is the most sensitive and relatively an inexpensive study. Bone scan has the ability for early detection of sports injuries and provide physiological information and evaluate multiple sites in single examination.SPECT study will help in the diagnostic specificity. (author)
Du Boullay, C T; Bardier, M; Cheneau, J; Bortolasso, J; Gaubert, J
Among 49 000 cases of infantile emergencies which were received in the BUCI (Bloc d'urgence chirurgical infantile: surgical infantile emergency unit), 5 546 were sport traumas. At an early age, they were caused by outdoor plays; during adolescence, the main cases were caused by team sports. Males are predominant. The number of cases has been regularly progressing, particularly since 1976. The fashion in sports is influenced by médias (i.e. skate board), and can be opposed to the continuous practice of popular sports (swimming, ball games, bycicle. There are winter, summer, school timed sports (the latter being influenced by the sportive scholar associations). The most frequent sports are cycling, football playing, swimming and horse riding, athleticism skating, Other are occasionnal. Changes in sport fashions, female increasing participation, such as horse riding and skating, democratisation (skiing, riding), the worsening of traumas; the pathology concerning bystanders, are described. Cranial and peripheric pathology are dominant. Trunk traumas are scarce but severe. Each sport has an elective pathologic localisation. Injury mechanisms are found, such as stirrup, saddle, ski baton pathology. There is traumatologic similarities; skate board and roller skating; judo and atheleticism; cycling and horse riding. Sport in children is not a replica of the one among adults. Riding a bike is not cycling. Some sports are dangerous: cycling, horse riding, rugby. A traumatological outline is revealed. Preventive measures should be taken. The socio-economical cost is heavy.
Full Text Available In this paper the concept of sports ethics is defined and attention is directed to kinds of behavior which are not considered as fair play, the general conception of criminal offence as well as the elements of general idea of criminal act, unlawfulness and guilt with special attention paid to the basis on which unlawfulness and delict, and with them, the criminal offence itself are excluded. Consent of the injured party as basis for excluding unlawfulness has been carefully considered, with emphasis on the fact that with accepting to participate is a certain sport an athlete does not consent to be hurt outside the frame which rules of a particular sport imply. The attitude is accepted that with his consent an athlete consented to the possibility for his integrity be endangered, which still does not mean that he consented to be injured indeed, i.e. a difference is recognized between the consequence of endangering and the consequence of injuring protected assets. After that, rules which are applied in certain sports are explained and connected with the acceptance of the injured party, and the stand is taken that acceptance of the injured party excludes existence of criminal deed only in a situation when an injury occurred within the rules of a particular sport. If the injury occurred by breaking the rules of the sport, it would be considered as a criminal act. In conclusion, the stand is taken that it is necessary to fight against all harmful occurrences in sports, including the injuries which occurred due to severe violation of rules which should be applied in a particular sport. It is concluded that consent of the injured party must not be an excuse for not applying criminal justice, if the injury occurred by violation of the rules of a particular sport.
... than one person is jumping at a time. Sports-Related Emotional Stress The pressure to win can cause significant emotional stress for a child. Sadly, many coaches and parents consider winning the most important aspect of sports. Young athletes should be judged on effort, sportsmanship ...
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G
Introduction. Sports activities play an important role in today’s society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in gener...
van der Does, Hendrike
Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,
Fong Daniel TP
Full Text Available Abstract This paper summarizes the current understanding on acute ankle sprain injury, which is the most common acute sport trauma, accounting for about 14% of all sport-related injuries. Among, 80% are ligamentous sprains caused by explosive inversion or supination. The injury motion often happens at the subtalar joint and tears the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL which possesses the lowest ultimate load among the lateral ligaments at the ankle. For extrinsic risk factors to ankle sprain injury, prescribing orthosis decreases the risk while increased exercise intensity in soccer raises the risk. For intrinsic factors, a foot size with increased width, an increased ankle eversion to inversion strength, plantarflexion strength and ratio between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength, and limb dominance could increase the ankle sprain injury risk. Players with a previous sprain history, players wearing shoes with air cells, players who do not stretch before exercising, players with inferior single leg balance, and overweight players are 4.9, 4.3, 2.6, 2.4 and 3.9 times more likely to sustain an ankle sprain injury. The aetiology of most ankle sprain injuries is incorrect foot positioning at landing – a medially-deviated vertical ground reaction force causes an explosive supination or inversion moment at the subtalar joint in a short time (about 50 ms. Another aetiology is the delayed reaction time of the peroneal muscles at the lateral aspect of the ankle (60–90 ms. The failure supination or inversion torque is about 41–45 Nm to cause ligamentous rupture in simulated spraining tests on cadaver. A previous case report revealed that the ankle joint reached 48 degrees inversion and 10 degrees internal rotation during an accidental grade I ankle ligamentous sprain injury during a dynamic cutting trial in laboratory. Diagnosis techniques and grading systems vary, but the management of ankle ligamentous sprain injury is mainly conservative
Laoruengthana, Artit; Poosamsai, Paisan; Fangsanau, Tharinee; Supanpaiboon, Pattrawan; Tungkasamesamran, Kasame
Prevention of injury among athletes is of paramount importance for sport events. The incidence of injury differs depending on many factors, such as level of competition, type of sport, and standard of surveillance systems. It is our purpose to provide a descriptive epidemiology of a national level competition multi-sports event. During the 2008 Thailand National "Phitsanulok" Games, official medical teams of the various sports completed a report form after each match or competition. The demographic data, type of sport, details of injury or illness, diagnosis, and treatment were collected from the PLKGames 2008 program and analyzed by the Medical Surveillance Committee. There were 14,429 athletes and staff participating in the "Phitsanulok" games. A total of 496 injuries were reported during the competition, of which 300 male and 196 female athletes sustained injuries, resulting in an incidence rate of 4.1 injuries per 100 registered athletes. For all sports, 71, 50 and 38 injuries occurred during Rugby, Handball and Basketball, respectively, which accounted for 32% of all injuries. No injury was reported from many sports, such as table tennis, shooting, dancing, and golf The most common diagnoses were sprains and strains. About half of injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by noncontact (28.6%) and limited-contact incidences (27.6%). According to the number of athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in Pencak Silat, handball, basketball, and rugby football. About half of injuries affected lower extremities, while 135, 53, and 49 injuries involved upper extremity, head & neck, and axial body parts, respectively. The knee and ankle were the most common sites of injury. The data demonstrates a potential risk of injury occurring predominately in full-contact sports and limited-contact sports. The data is potentially useful in developing injury surveillance systems for future sporting events.
Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H
The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.
Increased intensity of sports activities combined with a decrease in daily physical activity is making overuse injuries in children more common. These injuries are located mainly in the epiphyseal cartilage. The broad term for these injuries is osteochondrosis, rather than osteochondritis, which more specifically refers to inflammatory conditions of bone and cartilage. The osteochondrosis may be epiphyseal, physeal, or apophyseal, depending on the affected site. The condition can either be in the primary deformans form or the dissecans form. While there is no consensus on the etiology of osteochondrosis, multiple factors seem to be involved: vascular, traumatic, or even microtraumatic factors. Most overuse injuries involve the lower limbs, especially the knees, ankle and feet. The most typical are Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sever's disease; in both conditions, the tendons remain relatively short during the pubescent grown spurt. The main treatment for these injuries is temporary suspension of athletic activities, combined with physical therapy in many cases. Surgery may be performed if conservative treatment fails. It is best, however, to try to prevent these injuries by analyzing and correcting problems with sports equipment, lifestyle habits, training intensity and the child's level of physical activity, and by avoiding premature specialization. Pain in children during sports should not be considered normal. It is a warning sign of overtraining, which may require the activity to be modified, reduced or even discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hochmuth, K.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L.
Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [de
The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.) [de
Brooks, William H.; Bixby-Hammett, Doris M.
Risk of neurological injuries accompanies horseback riding, especially for children and adolescents. This article describes the mechanisms of craniospinal injuries and suggests measures to lessen risks. Measures include: identifying individuals who should not ride, developing criteria for resumption of riding after injury, developing protective…
Aman, Malin; Forssblad, Magnus; Henriksson-Larsén, Karin
Before preventive actions can be suggested for sports injuries at the national level, a solid surveillance system is required in order to study their epidemiology, risk factors and mechanisms. There are guidelines for sports injury data collection and classifications in the literature for that purpose. In Sweden, 90% of all athletes (57/70 sports federations) are insured with the same insurance company and data from their database could be a foundation for studies on acute sports injuries at the national level. To evaluate the usefulness of sports injury insurance claims data in sports injury surveillance at the national level. A database with 27 947 injuries was exported to an Excel file. Access to the corresponding text files was also obtained. Data were reviewed on available information, missing information and dropouts. Comparison with ASIDD (Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary) and existing consensus statements in the literature (football (soccer), rugby union, tennis, cricket and thoroughbred horse racing) was performed in a structured manner. Comparison with ASIDD showed that 93% of the suggested data items were present in the database to at least some extent. Compliance with the consensus statements was generally high (13/18). Almost all claims (83%) contained text information concerning the injury. Relatively high-quality sports injury data can be obtained from a specific insurance company at the national level in Sweden. The database has the potential to be a solid base for research on acute sports injuries in different sports at the national level. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear.
Pelvic apophyses are places of insertion of strong muscles and tendons and are therefore places of least resistance at the end of skeletal growth. Avulsions and disruptions of pelvic apophyses can be caused by overstrain during different kinds of sport activity. Typical radiological findings in 8 different cases of ruptures of apophyses, osteochondropathies, and resulting conditions of sport injuries are demonstrated. The difficulties of correct diagnosis and different diagnosis are pointed out. The significance of hormonal impairment of ossification for development and stress factor of pelvic apophyses is exposed. Questions of treatment and follow-up studies are discussed. (orig.)
Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash
Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children's Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children's Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children's Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur.
Parkkari, J; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Lapinleimu, I; Palvanen, M; Heiskanen, M; Vuori, I; Järvinen, M
The purpose of this study was to get reliable insight into injury risk in various commuting and lifestyle activities, as well as recreational and competitive sports. A cohort of 3 657 persons was randomly selected from the 15- to 74-year-old Finnish population. Ninety-two percent (n = 3 363) of the subjects accepted to participate the one-year follow-up, record all their physical activities that lasted 15 min or more, and register all acute and overuse injuries that occurred during these activities. To collect the information, the study subjects were interviewed by phone by the trained personnel of the Statistics Finland three times in four-month intervals. The individual injury risk per exposure time was relatively low, ranging from 0.19 to 1.5 per 1 000 hours of participation, in commuting and lifestyle activities including walking and cycling to work, gardening, home repair, hunting and fishing, and, in sports such as golf, dancing, swimming, walking, and rowing. The risk was clearly higher in squash, orienteering, and contact and team sports, such as judo, wrestling, karate, rinkball, floorball, basketball, soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, and Finnish baseball ranging from 6.6 to 18.3 per 1 000 hours of participation. However, the highest absolute number of injuries occurred in low-risk activities, such as gardening, walking, home-repair, and cycling, because they are performed so often. In conclusion, individual injury risk per exposure hours is relatively low in commuting and lifestyle activities compared to many recreational and competitive sports. However, at a population level, these low-to-moderate intensity activities are widely practised producing a rather high absolute number of injuries, and thus, preventive efforts are needed in these activities, too.
Merkel, Donna L; Molony, Joseph T
As the number of youth sports participants continues to rise over the past decade, so too have sports related injuries and emergency department visits. With low levels of oversight and regulation observed in youth sports, the responsibility for safety education of coaches, parents, law makers, organizations and institutions falls largely on the sports medicine practitioner. The highly publicized catastrophic events of concussion, sudden cardiac death, and heat related illness have moved these topics to the forefront of sports medicine discussions. Updated guidelines for concussion in youth athletes call for a more conservative approach to management in both the acute and return to sport phases. Athletes younger than eighteen suspected of having a concussion are no longer allowed to return to play on the same day. Reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death in the young athlete is a multi-factorial process encompassing pre-participation screenings, proper use of safety equipment, proper rules and regulations, and immediate access to Automated External Defibrillators (AED) as corner stones. Susceptibility to heat related illness for youth athletes is no longer viewed as rooted in physiologic variations from adults, but instead, as the result of various situations and conditions in which participation takes place. Hydration before, during and after strenuous exercise in a high heat stress environment is of significant importance. Knowledge of identification, management and risk reduction in emergency medical conditions of the young athlete positions the sports physical therapist as an effective provider, advocate and resource for safety in youth sports participation. This manuscript provides the basis for management of 3 major youth emergency sports medicine conditions.
Full Text Available A retrospective study was made of sports injuries occurring in physical education classes in 51 junior and senior high schools in Israel during a period of 14 months (2000-2002. The survey covered a total population of 11439 students aged 12 to 18, 52% male, 48% female. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence, types and risk factors involving sports injuries among students in physical education classes. Physical education teachers were asked to complete questionnaires recording injuries that occurred during their lessons. Data included: socio-demographic parameters (gender, age, height and weight of the injured students, area and type of injury, time of injury during the class, type of sport activity, previous injuries, assessment of sport capabilities and performance. A total of 192 injuries were recorded in the survey (1.70%. Male and female students had fairly similar injury rates (49% female, 51% male. 12-14 year old students showed the greatest number of injuries (52%. The ankle was the most common site of injury in both genders (48% mostly involving ankle sprain. Athletics was the most common sport involving injury (38%. 45% of injuries were reported to occur in the start of the class, whereas 26% of injuries were repeat injuries. This survey showed that the incidence of injuries during supervised physical education classes in high schools in Israel is relatively low and is similar to that of other Western countries.
Overhead sport places great demands on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in overhead athletes and throwers can in the majority of cases be attributed to lesions resulting from chronic overuse of tendons and capsuloligamentous structures or to sequels of microinstability and secondary impingement. Due to its great impact on therapeutic decisions, imaging in athletes with unclear shoulder pain is a challenge. In this connection, magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography represents the cross-sectional imaging modality of first choice, as it allows depiction and exclusion of pathologic alterations of all relevant joint structures with sufficient confidence. This article reviews the biomechanical and clinical aspects and MR arthrographic features of the most common shoulder pathologies in overhead athletes, including biceps tendinopathy, superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions, rotator cuff lesions, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic impingement syndromes. (orig.) [de
Overhead sport places great demands on the shoulder joint. Shoulder pain in overhead athletes and throwers can in the majority of cases be attributed to lesions resulting from chronic overuse of tendons and capsuloligamentous structures or to sequels of microinstability and secondary impingement. Due to its great impact on therapeutic decisions, imaging in athletes with unclear shoulder pain is a challenge. In this connection, magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography represents the cross-sectional imaging modality of first choice, as it allows depiction and exclusion of pathologic alterations of all relevant joint structures with sufficient confidence.This article reviews the biomechanical and clinical aspects and MR arthrographic features of the most common shoulder pathologies in overhead athletes, including biceps tendinopathy, superior labral anterior-posterior (SLAP) lesions, rotator cuff lesions, as well as extrinsic and intrinsic impingement syndromes.
Reiser, M.; Rupp, N.
Computed tomography (CT) provides axial slices plane and shows excellent details of bones and different soft tissues, favoring its use in traumatic lesions caused by sporting activities. Complex anatomical structures such as the shoulder, the vertebral column, the pelvis, the knee, the tarsal and carpal bones are often better recognized in detail than by conventional radiography. Fracture lines, localization of bone fragments and involvement of soft tissues are clearly demonstrated. Luxations and bone changes leading to luxations can be shown. CT arthrography provides for the first time a direct visualization of joint cartilage and of cruciate ligaments in the knee joint, so traumatic lesions such as chondropathia patellae or rupture of the cruciate ligaments are shown with a high degree of reliability. (orig.)
Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish
The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession.
Rauh, Mitchell J; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Wiksten, Denise L
Context: Girls' participation in high school sports has increased 79.5% since 1975–1976. The incidence of injury among boys in high school sports has been well documented, but information regarding the incidence, severity, and type of injury among girls in high school sports is limited.
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A. N.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Backx, Frank J. G.
Methods. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. Results. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related
Powell, Christie; Jensen, Jody; Johnson, Samantha
As sport participation increases globally, so will the injury-related risks. The process used to determine return-to-sport, following injury, is vital to future sport participation and injury prevention. Early specialization along with poor management of sport participation causes an increase in injury risk and potential long-term health consequences for youth athletes. Previous injury is a common intrinsic risk factor for new injuries. Identifying functional performance deficits, defined by return-to-sport criteria, minimizes these risk factors and provides athletes guidelines to return safely to sport. The purpose of this clinical commentary and literature review is to provide a summary of current concepts and clinical practices and identify functional performance measures as clinical assessment tools for return-to-play criteria in the youth population. A literature review was completed using numerous databases where 154 relevant articles were reviewed and 22 articles were included in this commentary. Of the 22 articles using functional performance measures for return-to-sport criteria, six were specific to youth, 12 had mixed populations of adults and youth, and four were normative samples for specific youth populations. The gaps in the literature pertaining to functional performance measures in the youth population are addressed and future research needs for return-to-sport criteria is identified.
Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan
Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS). An argument-based method for investigation of design problems was used to structure the study protocol. The primary requirement of the protocol is to allow prospective studies over time and include exposure to both training and competition. To reflect the complexity of Paralympic sport with athletes' pre-existing impairments, use of assistive equipment, pain and other and medical issues, it is required that the data collection system is specifically adapted to Paralympic sport. To allow the collection of data, at the same time as there is limited access to coaches and medical personnel, it is advantageous that data can be collected online directly from the athletes. Based on this a self-report athlete monitoring system will be developed, where the athletes can enter data weekly via their mobile phones or lap-tops. Data will be collected from around 100 Swedish Paralympic athletes for approximately 1 year, which will allow us to i) prospectively estimate the annual incidence of sports-related injuries and illnesses and ii) explore risk factors and mechanisms for sustaining sports-related injuries and illnesses based on athlete exposure and training loads. For effective implementation of injury and illness prevention measures, comprehensive epidemiological knowledge is required. This study will be the first prospective longitudinal self-report study of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport over a longer period
Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F
A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K = 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K = 1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Objective: To determine the aetiology, prevalence and types of oro-facial injuries in a sports festival in Nigeria Materials and Methods: A data form was designed to collect among others, information on age, gender, state of origin, sporting event and types of injury. All consecutive patients who sustained oro-facial sports- ...
Adel Hamed Elbaih
Full Text Available Inroduction: regular physical activity is essential for the prevention of various diseases and reduces the risk of premature mortality in general and coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus in particular. Aim of this study was to assess the most common sports causing injuries and to assess the types and mechanisms of these injuries. Patients and methods: The researcher examined 250 patients attending emergency departmentl. Results: The study showed that the most common type of sports involved in injury was football .The ankle was the most common affected part in the whole body . Chest contusion and back contusion were the most common types of sports injuries in head, neck and trunk. Fracture scaphoid and fissure radius were the most common sport injuries. Ankle sprain was the most common injury. The study showed that (62.7% of the studied patients who were playing football had injuries in the lower limbs. Ankle sprain was the most common sport injury that was associated with wearing football shoes . Conclusion: Ankle sprain was the most common sport injury associated with artificial grass court . Wrist sprain was the common sport injury in the upper limbs associated with artificial grass court .
Falconi, Audrey; Flick, David; Ferguson, Jason; Glorioso, John E
Spinal cord injury is a nonfatal, catastrophic consequence of wave-riding sports. With surfing at the core, a multitude of activities have evolved that attempt to harness the power of ocean waves. The unique qualities of each wave-riding sport, in combination with the environmental factors of the ocean, define the risk for potential injuries. As wave-riding sports have become more advanced, athletes continue to push physical barriers. Taller waves are attempted while incorporating aerial maneuvers, all without protective equipment.
Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Emery, Carolyn A; Meeuwisse, Willem H; McAllister, Jenelle R
To examine (1) sport participation and (2) sport injury in adolescents. This was a retrospective survey design. In total, 2873 adolescents were recruited from a random sample of classes from 24 Calgary and area high schools. Each subject completed an in-class questionnaire in March 2004. Overall and sport-specific participation rates (number of sport participants/number of students completing survey). Overall and sport-specific injury rates (number of injuries/number of participants). In the previous 1 year, 94% of students participated in sport. The top 5 sports by participation for males were basketball, hockey, football, snowboarding, and soccer, and for females, basketball, dance, volleyball, snowboarding, and soccer. The injury rate including only injuries requiring medical attention was 40.2 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 38.4-42.1), presenting to a hospital emergency department was 8.1 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 7.1-9.2), resulting in time loss from sport was 49.9 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 48-51.8), and resulting in loss of consciousness was 9.3 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 8.3-10.5). The greatest proportion of injuries occurred in basketball, hockey, soccer, and snowboarding. The top 5 body parts injured were the ankle, knee, head, back, and wrist. The top 5 injury types were sprain, contusion, concussion, fracture, and muscle strain. A previous injury was associated with 49% of the injuries and direct contact with 45% of injuries. Rates of participation in sport and sport injury are high in adolescents. Future research should focus on prevention strategies in sports with high participation and injury rates to maximize population health impact.
Bailly, Nicolas; Laporte, Jean-Dominique; Afquir, Sanae; Masson, Catherine; Donnadieu, Thierry; Delay, Jean-Baptiste; Arnoux, Pierre-Jean
Sport helmet effectiveness in preventing traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been repeatedly questioned. This study assesses the effect of helmet use on risk of TBI and other types of head injury (OTHI) in alpine sports. From 2012 to 2014, data on the injured population were collected by physicians in on-mountain clinics in 30 French ski resorts, and interviews were conducted on the slope to sample a noninjured control population. Two sets of cases (1425 participants with TBI and 1386 with OTHI) were compared with 2 sets of controls (2145 participants without injury and 40,288 with an injury to a body part other than the head). The effect of helmet use on the risk of TBI and OTHI was evaluated with a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, sport, skill level, crash type, and crash location. Using participants without injury as control, we found that helmet wearers were less likely to sustain any head injury (odds ratio [OR] TBI = 0.65; OR OTHI = 0.42). When considering participants with an injury to another body part as control, the risk of OTHI was lower among helmet wearers (OR OTHI : 0.61). However, no significant effect was found for the risk of TBI. Participants with low skill levels, those aged 50 years, snowboarders, and those involved in collision and in snowpark accidents were at higher risk of head injury. This study confirms the effectiveness of helmets in protecting users from head injuries but questions their effects on TBI, especially concussion. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A
High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ 2 = 84.7, P sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized, potentially placing them at increased risk of injury. Youth athletes, parents, and clinicians should be aware of the potential risks of intense, year-round participation in organized sports.
Dekker, R; Kingma, J; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH; Ten Duis, HJ
Objective: To evaluate the severity of sports injuries in relation to the severity of injuries due to other causes and in relation to type of sport, using generally applied measures of injury severity. Subjects: A total of 12 403 patients, 4-50 years old, who were treated in the trauma department of
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injuries in amateur football players during a University Sport South Africa Football tournament and the factors associated with these injuries. A prospective study design to describe football injuries during the University Sport South Africa Football Championships was ...
Pol, Rafel; Hristovski, Robert; Medina, Daniel; Balague, Natalia
A better understanding of how sports injuries occur in order to improve their prevention is needed for medical, economic, scientific and sports success reasons. This narrative review aims to explain the mechanisms that underlie the occurrence of sports injuries, and an innovative approach for their prevention on the basis of complex dynamic systems approach. First, we explain the multilevel organisation of living systems and how function of the musculoskeletal system may be impaired. Second, we use both, a constraints approach and a connectivity hypothesis to explain why and how the susceptibility to sports injuries may suddenly increase. Constraints acting at multiple levels and timescales replace the static and linear concept of risk factors, and the connectivity hypothesis brings an understanding of how the accumulation of microinjuries creates a macroscopic non-linear effect, that is, how a common motor action may trigger a severe injury. Finally, a recap of practical examples and challenges for the future illustrates how the complex dynamic systems standpoint, changing the way of thinking about sports injuries, offers innovative ideas for improving sports injury prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Ardern, Clare L; Taylor, Nicholas F; Feller, Julian A; Webster, Kate E
Psychological factors have been shown to be associated with the recovery and rehabilitation period following sports injury, but less is known about the psychological response associated with returning to sport after injury. The aim of this review was to identify psychological factors associated with returning to sport following sports injury evaluated with the self-determination theory framework. Systematic review. Electronic databases were searched from the earliest possible entry to March 2012. Quantitative studies were reviewed that included athletes who had sustained an athletic injury, reported the return to sport rate and measured at least one psychological variable. The risk of bias in each study was appraised with a quality checklist. Eleven studies that evaluated 983 athletes and 15 psychological factors were included for review. The three central elements of self-determination theory-autonomy, competence and relatedness were found to be related to returning to sport following injury. Positive psychological responses including motivation, confidence and low fear were associated with a greater likelihood of returning to the preinjury level of participation and returning to sport more quickly. Fear was a prominent emotional response at the time of returning to sport despite the fact that overall emotions became more positive as recovery and rehabilitation progressed. There is preliminary evidence that positive psychological responses are associated with a higher rate of returning to sport following athletic injury, and should be taken into account by clinicians during rehabilitation.
Fabricant, Peter D; Lakomkin, Nikita; Sugimoto, Dai; Tepolt, Frances A; Stracciolini, Andrea; Kocher, Mininder S
Early sports specialization is being seen with increasing frequency in children and adolescents in an attempt to achieve elite performance status. This phenomenon has attracted negative medical and lay media attention due, in part, to the possibility of an increased risk of acute and overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to systematically review available research on youth sport specialization and musculoskeletal injury. A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for studies evaluating sports specialization and injury rates in participants under age 18. Inclusion criteria were: (1) youth patient population (defined as sports specialization and incidence of injury, and (3) original research article (rather than a review, case report, or meta-analysis). Exclusion criteria were: (1) reliance on surrogate measure(s) of sports specialization (eg. hours of participation), (2) language other than English, and (3) not a clinically-based study. Rates of sport specialization, acute and overuse injuries, and frequency of organized training regimens were recorded. Three studies met final inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of these studies two were retrospective cohort studies and one was a case-control study. All three studies reported an increased risk of overuse injures (OR range: 1.27-4.0; P sport and anatomic pathology. One study noted an increased rate of withdrawal from tennis matches (OR = 1.55, P sports specialization is "B" (recommendation based on limited-quality patient-oriented evidence). The primary evidence that currently exists with regard to early sport specialization is scarce, retrospective, and shows only modest associations between early sports specialization and overuse injury. Further prospective research is needed to more definitively determine if early sports specialization in children is associated with increased injury risk. Systematic Review
Colburn, Nona T; Meyer, Richard D
A prospective analysis of the injuries of off-road competition motorcyclist at four International Six Day Enduro (ISDE) events was performed utilizing the injury severity score (ISS) and the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). Of the 1787 participants, approximately 10% received injuries that required attention from a medical response unit. The majority (85%) sustained a mild injury (mean ISS 3.9). Loss of control while jumping and striking immovable objects were important risk determinants for serious injury. Although seasoned in off-road experiences, mean 15.3 years, 54% of those injured were first year rookies to the ISDE event. Speeds were below 50 km/h in the majority of accidents (80%), and were not statistically correlated with severity. The most frequently injured anatomical regions were the extremities (57%). The most common types of injury were ligamentous (50%). Seventy-seven percent of all fractures were AIS grades 1 and 2. The most common fractures were those of the foot and ankle (36%). Multiple fractures involving different anatomical regions, or a combination of serious injuries was seen with only one rider. When compared to the injuries of the street motorcyclist, competition riders had lower AIS grades of head and limb trauma. Off-road motorcycle competition is a relatively safe sport with injury rates comparably less than those of contact sports such as American football and hockey.
Heaney, Caroline A; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K
The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not. Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists with a mean of 9.22 years' experience of working in sport) completed an online survey and were grouped according to their level of previous exposure to sport injury psychology education at an undergraduate/postgraduate level. Analyses were undertaken to establish whether there were any differences in sport psychology related attitude (MANOVA), usage (MANOVA), and referral behaviours (chi square) between the groups. The MANOVA and chi square tests conducted revealed that those who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury reported using significantly more sport psychology in their practice and making more referrals to sport psychologists. It was concluded that sport injury psychology education appears to be effective in increasing the sport psychology related behaviours (use of sport psychology and referral) of SIRPs and should be integrated into professional training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caine, Dennis; Caine, Caroline; Maffulli, Nicola
To provide a critical review of the available literature on the descriptive epidemiology of pediatric sport-related injuries. MEDLINE (1966 to 2006) and SPORTDiscus (1975 to 2006) were searched to identify potentially relevant articles. A combination of medical subject headings and text words was used (epidemiology, children, adolescents, athletic injuries, sports, injury, and injuries). Additional references from the bibliographies of retrieved articles were also reviewed. Published research reports on the incidence and distribution of injury in children's and youth sports. Specific emphasis was placed on reviewing original studies, which report incidence rates (rate of injuries per unit athlete time). Forty-nine studies were selected for this review. Data summarized include incidence of injury relative to who is affected by injury (sport, participation level, gender, and player position), where injury occurs (anatomical and environmental location), when injury occurs (injury onset and chronometry), and injury outcome (injury type, time loss, clinical outcome, and economic cost). There is little epidemiological data on injuries for some pediatric sports. Many of the studies retrieved were characterized by methodological short-comings and study differences that limit interpretation and comparison of findings across studies. Notwithstanding, the studies reviewed are encouraging and injury patterns that should be studied further with more rigorous study designs to confirm original findings and to probe causes of injury and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Incidence and severity of injury are high in some child and youth sports. This review will assist in targeting the relevant groups and in designing future research on the epidemiology of pediatric sports injuries. Well-designed descriptive and analytical studies are needed to identify the public health impact of pediatric sport injury.
Cumps, E.D.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Annemans, L.; Meeusen, R.
Objective: This study determines the injury rate (%) and the associated direct medical and indirect costs of sports injuries in Flanders. Setting: Epidemiological cohort designs and a human capital method were set up to measure respectively the medical direct and indirect cost of sports injuries.
Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James
The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.
Panagiota Papageorgiou; George Mavrommatis; George Costa
The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3%) boys and 100 (29.7%) g...
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G
Sports activities play an important role in today's society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in general practice and to provide information about the nature and treatment of these injuries. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related injuries was 23.7 in 1000 patients and prevalence 27.8 in 1000 patients. Soccer-related injuries are most prominent in this population, lower extremities being three times more often involved than upper extremities. GPs often (60.9%) used a symptom-based diagnosis. In 80% of the cases, no additional diagnostic testing took place, while in 36.5% of the cases, only explanation and advice sufficed. Few patients were referred to the hospital (6.6%). Patients with sports-related injuries regularly consult GPs (on average one to two times per week). GPs tend to use non-specific diagnoses in sports-related injuries. In part, this may be due to the lack of specific diagnoses available in the current registration system (International Classification of Primary Care). Most often these injuries require only explanation and medical advice from the GP. Usually, additional tests or hospital referrals are not necessary. Presumably, mostly patients with mild sports-related injuries consult the GP.
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A N; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Backx, Frank J G
Introduction. Sports activities play an important role in today’s society. However, as more people become involved in these activities, the number of sports-related injuries also increases. In the Netherlands, 3.5 million sports injuries occur annually. Twenty per cent of these injuries are first seen by a GP. Little is known about the epidemiology of these injuries in general practice. This study has been conducted to determine the incidence and prevalence of sports-related injuries in general practice and to provide information about the nature and treatment of these injuries. Methods. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. Results. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related injuries was 23.7 in 1000 patients and prevalence 27.8 in 1000 patients. Soccer-related injuries are most prominent in this population, lower extremities being three times more often involved than upper extremities. GPs often (60.9%) used a symptom-based diagnosis. In 80% of the cases, no additional diagnostic testing took place, while in 36.5% of the cases, only explanation and advice sufficed. Few patients were referred to the hospital (6.6%). Discussion. Patients with sports-related injuries regularly consult GPs (on average one to two times per week). GPs tend to use non-specific diagnoses in sports-related injuries. In part, this may be due to the lack of specific diagnoses available in the current registration system (International Classification of Primary Care). Most often these injuries require only explanation and medical advice from the GP. Usually, additional tests or hospital referrals are not necessary. Presumably, mostly patients with mild sports-related injuries consult the GP. PMID:20923967
Nonoyama, Toshiya; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Nakagaki, Haruo; Tsuge, Shinpei
Students often injure their teeth during participation in school-based sports clubs. This study examined the frequencies and types of dental injuries sustained at school sports clubs and compared the risk of dental injury among different sports. Based on injury statistics from the Japan Sport Council of the junior high schools and high schools in seven prefectures during fiscal year 2006, the risk of dental injury was estimated using a rate ratio (RR) by calculating the ratio of occurrence of dental injury under various circumstances. The RRs of exercise-related dental injury for boys and girls in junior high school were 0.7 (P sports clubs than outside school sports clubs among high school boys. Contact or limited-contact sports had significantly higher risks for dental injuries than did noncontact sports. The results of this study suggest that teachers and administrators at schools should pay attention to the risk of dental injury among students participating in high-risk sports. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.
Dekker, R; Groothoff, JW; Van der Sluis, CK; Eisma, WH; Ten Duis, HJ
Purpose: The aim was to investigate whether long-term disabilities and handicaps arise from a sports injury requiring outpatient treatment and to identify the potential risk factors. Method: A representative sample was taken from a population of patients treated as outpatients due to a sports
Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.
Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)
Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian
The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.
Raissaki, Maria; Apostolaki, Eleni; Karantanas, Apostolos H.
Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes
Raissaki, Maria [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Apostolaki, Eleni [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece); Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, Heraklion University Hospital, University of Crete, Stavrakia, Heraklion 711 10 (Greece)]. E-mail: email@example.com
Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes.
Diego Costa Astur
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1 isolated rupture of the ACL; (2 ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3 isolated menisci injury. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%, followed by group 2 (30.2% and 3 (25%. Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. CONCLUSION: Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years. Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.
Jaworski, Carrie A; Krause, Michelle; Brown, Jennifer
In sports, wrist and hand injuries are commonplace. Too often, injuries to these areas can be under-treated and left for further complications to arise. While some injuries to the wrist and hand can be treated conservatively with immediate return to play, others require a more in-depth assessment prior to return to play. This article describes the most common wrist and hand injuries in sport, and provides information related to current treatment approaches.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P
Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or unrealistic optimism. Because behavior is determined by
Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Bliekendaal, S.; Brink, M.; Stubbe, J.H.
Introduction: Sports injuries are highly disadvantageous for Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students, since they can lead to physical discomfort and absence from sports classes. The purpose of this study is to investigate the magnitude of the injury problem in PETE students and to
Mar 16, 2002 ... are thus seen as useful adjuncts in the treatment of some sports- related injuries. On the basis of their ability to down regulate the immune response, corticosteroids have been used extensively in the management of sports injuries to promote rapid return to the field of play. But to what extent do they affect ...
Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo
Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....
Steffen, K.; Andersen, T.E.; Krosshaug, T.; van Mechelen, W.; Myklebust, G.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Bahr, R.
To maximize the health benefits of sports and exercise and to minimize the direct and indirect costs associated with injuries, developing and adopting injury prevention strategies is an important goal. The aim of this ECSS consensus paper on injury prevention is to review current evidence on injury
Wirth, C.J.; Kessler, M.
The diagnosis of a sport injury or a sport damage is usually made by the clinical investigation. However, the X-ray examination is indispensable. In addition to standard projections further radiologic techniques such as passive motion, tomography, computed tomography, arthrography or angiography are necessary. The relevant use of these X-ray methods with regard to sports injuries or damages of the particular regions of the locomotor system are described. (orig.)
Hoskin, Annette K; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hanman, Kate; Lam, Geoffrey; Mackey, David A
To identify the causes of sports-related eye and adnexal injuries in children in Perth, Western Australia, to determine which sporting activities pose the highest risk of eye and adnexal injury to children. We performed a 12-year retrospective review of children admitted to hospital from 2002 to 2013 with sports-related ocular and adnexal eye injuries. The main outcome measures were the cause and type of ocular and adnexal injuries, age and gender risk factors. A total of 93 cases of sports-related ocular and adnexal injury were identified in the 12-year time period. A peak in injuries occurred for 12- to 14-year-olds with a second peak in 6- to 8-year-olds; the median age was 8.82 years (range = 1.59-16.47). Cycling, football (including soccer and Australian Rules Football), tennis, trampolining, fishing and swimming were the sports responsible for the greatest number of injuries, a total of 63%. More than one-third (35%) of injuries resulted from being struck by a blunt object, and more than a quarter (26%) were as a result of contact with a blunt projectile. Serious ocular and adnexal injuries have occurred in children as a result of participating in sports, with cycling and football being the largest contributors in the 12-year period we assessed. As we continue to encourage children to spend more time participating in sports and recreational activities, identifying associated risk factors will help us develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem
Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Greier, K; Riechelmann, H
A high percentage of all sports injuries occur during school sports. It was analysed whether there are differences in frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at two different types of schools. School sport injuries of all secondary modern schools (n = 106) and in lower classes of grammar Schools (n = 17) in the federal state of Tyrol, Austria, from the ten school years 2001/02 to 2010/11 were analysed. All physical injuries occurring during school sports and resulting in the consultation of a medical doctor and therefore being reported to the general accident department (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt [AUVA]) were assessed. During the evaluation period an average number of 32,935 (±1584) school children attended the two types of schools in Tyrol per year. The average incidence of school sports injuries in this ten-year period in both types of schools was 36.4/1,000 (mean) with a standard deviation of 4.4/1,000 per school child per year. The incidence increased from 30.3 in the school year 2001/02 to 40.4 in the school year 2010/11 (r = 0.91; b = 1.34; p sport injuries at secondary modern schools (37.4 ± 4.9 per 1,000 school children per year) was higher than at the lower classes of grammar schools (32.9 ± 4.0 per 1,000 school children per year; relative risk 1.138; 95% CI = 1.09-1.19; p = 1.8 × 10-8). In addition, the sports injuries of the school year 2010/11 were analysed in detail and a comparison was made between the two types of schools. The distribution pattern of school sports injuries did not show any significant differences between both school types. At the secondary modern schools, as well as in the lower classes of grammar schools, injuries to the upper extremities prevailed (>50%). Ball sports were responsible for every second injury. Secondary modern school pupils had a significantly higher risk of suffering a school sports injury than pupils in the lower classes of grammar schools. The injury pattern did not show
Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M
Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.
Rossler, R.; Donath, L.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Junge, A.; Schweizer, T.; Faude, O.
Background: The promotion of sport and physical activity (PA) for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle, but being engaged in sport bears the risk of sustaining injuries. Injuries, in turn, can lead to a reduction in current and future involvement in PA and, therefore, may
Noh, Ji-Woong; Park, Byoung-Sun; Kim, Mee-Young; Lee, Lim-Kyu; Yang, Seung-Min; Lee, Won-Deok; Shin, Yong-Sub; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Jaehong; Kim, Junghwan
[Purpose] This study describes the characteristics of injuries in strike and non-strike combat sports, and the results are intended for use in the area of sports physiotherapy research. [Subjects and Methods] The study was conducted on 159 athletes involved in a variety of combat sports. The participants included elite college players of the following sports: judo (47), ssireum (19), wrestling (13), kendo (30), boxing (16), and taekwondo (34). Of the participants, 133 were male and 26 were female. In the case of ssireum and boxing, all of the athletes were male. [Results] In the case of the combat sports, the types of injury and injured regions differed according to playing style. Dislocation and injuries to the neck, shoulders, and elbows were more frequent in the non-strike sports, while injuries to the wrists and hands were more frequent in the strike sports. There was a high incidence of sprains, strains, bruises, and injuries to the lower limbs in both groups. [Conclusion] We suggest that the characteristics of injuries in combat sports differ according to playing style, and our study will therefore provide physical therapists and researchers with information that can be used to prevent injury. PMID:26357420
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Riekena, Jeremy W; Hetzel, Scott; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
, sex, and weekly organized sport volume. Athletes who exceeded volume recommendations were more likely to have a history of overuse injuries. Parents and youth athletes should be aware of the risks of specialization and excessive sport volume to maximize safe sport participation.
Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.
Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A
The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.
Schöffl, Volker; Morrison, Audry; Schwarz, Ulrich; Schöffl, Isabelle; Küpper, Thomas
Rock and ice climbing are widely considered to be 'high-risk' sporting activities that are associated with a high incidence of severe injury and even death, compared with more mainstream sports. However, objective scientific data to support this perception are questionable. Accordingly, >400 sport-specific injury studies were analysed and compared by quantifying the injury incidence and objectively grading the injury severity (using the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics score) per 1000 hours of sporting participation. Fatalities were also analysed. The analysis revealed that fatalities occurred in all sports, but it was not always clear whether the sport itself or pre-existing health conditions contributed or caused the deaths. Bouldering (ropeless climbing to low heights), sport climbing (mostly bolt protected lead climbing with little objective danger) and indoor climbing (climbing indoors on artificial rock structures), showed a small injury rate, minor injury severity and few fatalities. As more objective/external dangers exist for alpine and ice climbing, the injury rate, injury severity and fatality were all higher. Overall, climbing sports had a lower injury incidence and severity score than many popular sports, including basketball, sailing or soccer; indoor climbing ranked the lowest in terms of injuries of all sports assessed. Nevertheless, a fatality risk remains, especially in alpine and ice climbing. In the absence of a standard definition for a 'high-risk' sport, categorizing climbing as a high-risk sport was found to be either subjective or dependent on the definition used. In conclusion, this analysis showed that retrospective data on sport-specific injuries and fatalities are not reported in a standardized manner. To improve preventative injury measures for climbing sports, it is recommended that a standardized, robust and comprehensive sport-specific scoring model should be developed to report and fully evaluate the injury risk, severity
Pakzad-Vaezi, Kaivon; Singhal, Ash
BACKGROUND: Sport- and recreation-related injuries are a major source of morbidity in the paediatric population. Long-term trends for these injuries are largely unknown. METHODS: A traumatic injury surveillance system (the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program) was used to examine the demographics and trends of paediatric sports injuries in children who presented to or were directly admitted to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (Vancouver, British Columbia) emergency department or intensive care unit from 1992 to 2005. RESULTS: Over the 14-year study period, there was a significant increase in sport- and recreation-related injuries among patients who presented to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital. Of 104,414 injuries between 1992 and 2005, 27,466 were related to sports and recreational activities. The number of sport-related injuries increased by 28%, while all-cause injuries did not change significantly. Males comprised 68% of the sport-related injuries, and both sexes displayed an increasing trend over time. Cycling, basketball, soccer and ice hockey were the top four injury-causing activities. The main body parts injured were the face, head and digits. CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric sports injuries significantly increased at the British Columbia Children’s Hospital over the 14-year study period. This is likely due to increased sport participation, increased risk associated with certain sports, or both. Trends in paediatric sports injury may be predicted by changes in popular media, possibly allowing prevention programs to help to avoid these injuries before they occur. PMID:22468125
Stracciolini, Andrea; Casciano, Rebecca; Levey Friedman, Hilary; Meehan, William P; Micheli, Lyle J
Significant knowledge deficits exist regarding sports injuries in the young child. Children continue to engage in physically demanding, organized sports to a greater extent despite the lack of physical readiness, predisposing themselves to injury. To evaluate sports injuries sustained in very young children (5-12 years) versus their older counterparts (13-17 years) with regard to the type and location of injuries, severity, and diagnosis. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review was performed on a 5% random probability sample (final N = 2133) of 5- to 17-year-old patients treated for sports injuries in the Division of Sports Medicine at a large, academic pediatric medical center between 2000 and 2009. Using descriptive statistics, correlates of injuries by age group, injury type, and body area are shown. Five- to 12-year-old patients differed in key ways from older patients. Children in this category sustained injuries that were more often traumatic in nature and more commonly of the upper extremity. Older patients (13-17 years) were more likely to be treated for injuries to the chest, hip/pelvis, and spine. A greater proportion of the older children were treated for overuse injuries, as compared with their younger counterparts (54.4% vs. 49.2%, respectively), and a much larger proportion of these injuries were classified as soft tissue injuries as opposed to bony injuries (37.9% vs. 26.1%, respectively). Injury diagnosis differed between the 2 age groups. The 13- to 17-year age group sustained more anterior cruciate ligament injuries, meniscal tears, and spondylolysis, while younger children were diagnosed with fractures, including physeal fractures, apophysitis, and osteochondritis dissecans. The 5- to 12-year-old patients treated for spine injuries were disproportionately female (75.8%); most of these injuries were overuse (78.8%) and bony (60.6%); over one third of the youngest children were diagnosed with spondylolysis. Surgery
Luciano, Alexandre de Paiva; Lara, Luiz Carlos Ribeiro
This is a retrospective study showing the incidence, type and extent of injuries occurring in the foot and/or ankle as a result of recreational sports practice. We treated 131 patients, of which 123 were male and 8 female, with a history of trauma and pain in the foot and/or ankle after the practicing recreational sports. The average age of the male patients was 24.53 years. The evaluation was done through a research protocol, which contained the variables age, sex, diagnosis, and type of recreational sport. The sports were classified according to the American Medical Association, which divides them into contact and non-contact sports. 82.4% of the sample practiced contact sports, while 17.6% practiced sports classified as non-contact. The sprained ankle was the most frequent type of injury, especially those of grade I and II. Soccer was the sport responsible for the highest incidence of injuries and among its various forms the indoor soccer presented the highest frequency of injuries (35%). In the non-contact sports, the highest incidence was found in running. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.
Mueller, Frederick O.
Describes the incidence of catastrophic head injuries within high school and college sports. Data from a national surveillance system indicated that a football-related fatality occurred every year except one from 1945-99, mainly related to head injuries. From 1984-99, 69 football head-related injuries resulted in permanent disability. Deaths and…
Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Collins, Christy L; Pommering, Thomas L; Fields, Sarah K; Comstock, R Dawn
To investigate the epidemiology of dislocations/separations in a nationally representative sample of high school student-athletes participating in 9 sports. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Sports injury data for the 2005-2009 academic years were collected using an Internet-based injury surveillance system, Reporting Information Online (RIO). A nationally representative sample of 100 US high schools. Injuries sustained as a function of sport and gender. Dislocation/separation rates, body site, outcome, surgery, and mechanism. Dislocations/separations represented 3.6% (n = 755) of all injuries. The most commonly injured body sites were the shoulder (54.9%), wrist/hand (16.5%), and knee (16.0%); 18.4% of dislocations/separations were recurrences of previous injuries at the same body site; 32.3% of injuries were severe (ie, student-athletes unable to return to play within 3 weeks of the injury date), and 11.8% required surgical repair. The most common mechanisms of injury were contact with another player (52.4%) and contact with the playing surface (26.4%). Injury rates varied by sport. In gender-comparable sports, few variations in patterns of injury existed. Rates were highest in football (2.10 per 10 000 athletic exposures) and wrestling (1.99) and lowest in baseball (0.24) and girls' soccer (0.27). Although dislocation/separation injuries represent a relatively small proportion of all injuries sustained by high school student-athletes, the severity of these injuries indicates a need for enhanced injury prevention efforts. Developing effective targeted preventive measures depends on increasing our knowledge of dislocation/separation rates, patterns, and risk factors among high school athletes.
Emery, C.A.; Roy, T.O.; Whittaker, J.L.; Nettel-Aguirre, A.; van Mechelen, W.
Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The
Background The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. Methods A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Conclusion Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries. PMID:24124803
Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo
The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.
Fleisig, Glenn S
Research has shown relations between amount of baseball pitching and overuse injuries, as well as between poor mechanics and high loads on the elbow and shoulder. However, overuse injuries continue to be a problem from youth to professional sports. Emerging wearable technology may enable players, parents, coaches, leagues, and clinicians to monitor biomechanics during competition and training, reducing the risk of serious injury. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.
Shield, Anthony J; Bourne, Matthew N
Hamstring strain injuries are endemic in running-based sports. Given the economic and performance implications of these injuries, a significant body of research has emerged in recent years in an attempt to identify risk factors and develop or optimise injury prevention strategies. Surveys of injury prevention practices among medical and conditioning staff in elite sport suggest that many sporting clubs invest significant efforts in eccentric hamstring conditioning and lumbo-pelvic or trunk stability programmes. The purpose of this narrative review was to critically evaluate the evidence underpinning these practices. Single-exercise eccentric training interventions have proven effective in the prevention of primary and recurrent hamstring strains, when compliance is adequate. However, despite its almost universal acceptance, the authors are aware of only one, very recent, prospective risk factor study examining the effect of lumbo-pelvic motion during sprinting on hamstring injury risk. Furthermore, the interventions exploring the effect of lumbo-pelvic training on hamstring injury rates have not measured stability in any way. An improved understanding of the evidence underpinning commonly employed hamstring injury prevention practices may enable clinicians and coaches to better prioritise effective strategies in the increasingly complex environment of elite sport.
Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Schivartche, Vivian
The authors review the literature about musculoskeletal injuries related to sports, emphasizing the main findings with different imaging methods. They also present the specific characteristics of each method. (author)
Kerr, Zachary Y; Fields, Sarah; Comstock, R Dawn
Little is known about the epidemiology of dog sport-related injuries. This study examines injuries among handlers and dogs in the sport of dog agility. A cross-sectional pilot study captured data on demographics, exposures, and injury for a sample of agility handlers and dogs. Logistic regressions predicted odds of injury. Survey of 217 handlers and 431 dogs identified 31 handler injuries (1.55 training injuries per 1000 hours, 2.14 competition injuries per 1000 runs) and 38 dog injuries (1.74 training injuries per 1000 hours, 1.72 competition injuries per 1000 runs). Handlers most commonly injured knees (48.4%) and lower trunk (29.0%). Most common diagnoses were strains (51.6%) and sprains (32.3%). Obese handlers had increased odds of injury compared with normal weight handlers (OR = 5.5, P Dogs most commonly injured front paws (23.7%) and shoulders (15.8%). Most common diagnoses were strains (44.7%) and cut/scrapes (21.1%). Injury was positively associated with dog's age (P benefits, dog agility poses a risk of injury to both handlers and dogs. Future research on specific mechanisms of injury should drive evidence-based injury prevention strategies.
Zuckerman, Scott L; Morgan, Clinton D; Burks, Stephen; Forbes, Jonathan A; Chambless, Lola B; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K
Sports-related concussions and traumatic brain injury (TBI) represent a growing public health concern. We reviewed the literature regarding equestrian-related brain injury, ranging from concussion to severe TBI. A literature review was performed to address the epidemiology of sports-related concussion and TBI in equestrian-related sports. MEDLINE and PUBMED databases were searched to identify all studies pertaining to brain injury in equestrian-related sports. We included two broad types of brain injury using a distinction established in the literature: 1) TBI with functional impairment, including concussion, or mild TBI, with negative imaging findings; and 2) TBI with structural impairment, with positive imaging and at least one of the following pathologies identified: subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, cerebral contusions, and skull fractures. Our literature search yielded 199 results. We found 26 studies describing functional TBI and 25 mentioning structural TBI, and 8 including both. Of all modern sporting activities, equestrian sports were found to cause some of the highest rates of total bodily injury, severe brain injury, and mortality. Concussions comprise 9.7%-15% of all equestrian-related injuries brought to hospitals for evaluation. Structural TBI was rare, and documentation of these injuries was poor. Although demographic risk factors like age and sex are minimally discussed in the literature, two studies identified a protective effect of increasing rider experience on all forms of bodily injury. However, it remains unclear whether increasing rider experience protects specifically against head injury. Finally, rates of helmet use in horseback riding remain dismally low-ranging from 9%-25%, depending on the activity. These low rates have persisted over time, despite evidence in this literature that helmets lead to an absolute risk reduction for head injury of 40%-50% in equestrian sports
Vállez Garcia, David; Otte, Andreas; Glaudemans, Andor WJM; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Gielen, Jan LMA; Zwerver, Johannes
Concussions in sports and during recreational activities are a major source of traumatic brain injury in our society. This is mainly relevant in adolescence and young adulthood, where the annual rate of diagnosed concussions is increasing from year to year. Contact sports (e.g., ice hockey, American
Cumps, E; Verhagen, E; Annemans, L; Meeusen, R
This study determines the injury rate (%) and the associated direct medical and indirect costs of sports injuries in Flanders. Epidemiological cohort designs and a human capital method were set up to measure respectively the medical direct and indirect cost of sports injuries. 72 out of 82 Flemish sports federations participated. Insurance statistics from 2003 were used to determine the overall rate of injury and injury localisations. Using these data, the medical direct cost and the impact sports injuries have on indirect costs were estimated. The indirect costs were determined by multiplying the days of absence from work with the daily cost resulting from a loss of production, being 200 euros. The total direct medical cost extrapolated for the Flemish sports participants was 15,027,423 euros, which amounted to 0.07% to 0.08% of the total budget spent on healthcare. The indirect cost extrapolated for the Flemish sports participants was 111,420,813 euros, which is about 3.4% of the costs arising from absenteeism from work. Of the 14 in-depth analysed sports, the rate of injury was highest in European team handball (8.96%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.95-8.96) and lowest in swimming (0.62%; 95% CI 0.62-0.62). The highest direct medical cost was found for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (1358 euros per injury) and the lowest for foot injuries (52 euros per injury). The costs calculated in this study could become critical statistics in medical care debates. Data obtained here will enable a cost-benefit analysis of the impact of preventive measures to be made.
Sasaki, Taisuke; Saito, Yoko; Sasaki, Yukio; Yodono, Hiraku; Takekawa, Shoichi; Nakamura, Ryujiro; Harata, Seiko (Hirosaki Univ., Aomori (Japan). School of Medicine)
MRI of operatively or arthroscopically proven atraumatic sports injuries of 12 shoulders were reviewed retrospectively. Although it is difficult to diagnose the lesions localised at the superior glenoid labrum and to decide whether rotator interval is injured or not by MRI, MRI could detect thickening of subacromial bursae or rotator cuff injuries due to impingement syndrome and glenoid labrum injuries, such as Bankart lesion. On our limited experience, MRI was more valuable examination than arthrography and CT arthrography. MRI is a useful modality for screening or preoperative evaluation of atraumatic sports injuries of the shoulder. (author).
Sasaki, Taisuke; Saito, Yoko; Sasaki, Yukio; Yodono, Hiraku; Takekawa, Shoichi; Nakamura, Ryujiro; Harata, Seiko
MRI of operatively or arthroscopically proven atraumatic sports injuries of 12 shoulders were reviewed retrospectively. Although it is difficult to diagnose the lesions localised at the superior glenoid labrum and to decide whether rotator interval is injured or not by MRI, MRI could detect thickening of subacromial bursae or rotator cuff injuries due to impingement syndrome and glenoid labrum injuries, such as Bankart lesion. On our limited experience, MRI was more valuable examination than arthrography and CT arthrography. MRI is a useful modality for screening or preoperative evaluation of atraumatic sports injuries of the shoulder. (author)
Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr
Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...
Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr
This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study
Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather
Mori, Tatsuro; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi
The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)
Pan, James; Connolly, Ian D; Dangelmajer, Sean; Kintzing, James; Ho, Allen L; Grant, Gerald
Brain injuries are becoming increasingly common in athletes and represent an important diagnostic challenge. Early detection and management of brain injuries in sports are of utmost importance in preventing chronic neurological and psychiatric decline. These types of injuries incurred during sports are referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries, which represent a heterogeneous spectrum of disease. The most dramatic manifestation of chronic mild traumatic brain injuries is termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is associated with profound neuropsychiatric deficits. Because chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be diagnosed by postmortem examination, new diagnostic methodologies are needed for early detection and amelioration of disease burden. This review examines the pathology driving changes in athletes participating in high-impact sports and how this understanding can lead to innovations in neuroimaging and biomarker discovery.
Mattila, V M; Parkkari, J; Koivusilta, L; Kannus, P; Rimpelä, A
The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence.
Kerssemakers, Steven P. [General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Fotiadou, Anastasia N.; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Jonge, Milko C. de; Maas, Mario
With an increasing number of paediatric and adolescent athletes presenting with injuries due to overuse, a greater demand is put on clinicians and radiologists to assess the specific type of injury. Repetitive forces applied to the immature skeleton cause a different type of injury than those seen in adults due to the differences in vulnerability of the musculoskeletal system, especially at the site of the growth cartilage. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors all play a role in the development of overuse injuries. MRI plays a key role in imaging overuse injuries due to its high potential for depicting cartilaginous and soft-tissue structures. Sport-specific biomechanics are described, since this knowledge is essential for adequate MRI assessment. An overview of several sport-related injuries is presented, based on anatomical location. (orig.)
Kerssemakers, Steven P.; Fotiadou, Anastasia N.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Jonge, Milko C. de; Maas, Mario
With an increasing number of paediatric and adolescent athletes presenting with injuries due to overuse, a greater demand is put on clinicians and radiologists to assess the specific type of injury. Repetitive forces applied to the immature skeleton cause a different type of injury than those seen in adults due to the differences in vulnerability of the musculoskeletal system, especially at the site of the growth cartilage. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors all play a role in the development of overuse injuries. MRI plays a key role in imaging overuse injuries due to its high potential for depicting cartilaginous and soft-tissue structures. Sport-specific biomechanics are described, since this knowledge is essential for adequate MRI assessment. An overview of several sport-related injuries is presented, based on anatomical location. (orig.)
Chéron, Charlène; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
Sporting activities can cause injuries and overuse injuries of the extremities (OIE) in children have been shown to be more common than injuries caused by trauma. The lower extremity is more frequently affected than the upper extremity in OIE, but it is not known whether injury site and diagnosis vary in different sporting activities. To identify any differences between sports in relation to diagnoses and anatomical areas most likely to be injured. A search was made in November 2014 and again in June 2016 in PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycInfo and Web of Sciences. Search terms were: « overuse injuries OR cumulative trauma disorders OR musculoskeletal injuries » AND « extremity OR limb » AND « physical activity OR sport OR risk factor OR predictors OR exercises » AND « child OR adolescent OR young adults ». Inclusion criteria were: 1) prospective, retrospective, or cross-sectional study design; 2) age ≤19 years; 3) the articles must clearly state if reported cases were classified as traumatic or overuse injuries; 4) reporting on OIE in relation to a particular sports type, and 5) sample size >50. A blinded systematic review was conducted. In all, nine of the 736 identified articles were included, studying soccer, handball, orienteering, running, dance, and gymnastics. The incidence of OIE was given only in a few articles but at least the site and diagnosis of OIE were identifiable. The lower limb is more often affected than the upper in all sports covered, and, in general, the lower leg and knee are the two most often affected areas. However, in handball, the elbow was the second most often reported area, and in gymnastics injuries of the foot appeared to be more frequent than in the other sports. No differences in diagnoses were observed between sports types. Our work contributes new information, namely that the site of OIE in children and adolescents appears to vary only somewhat between different types of sports. Further well-designed surveillance studies
McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David; Brooks, Margaret Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Pfaller, Adam; Post, Eric
Objectives: Sport specialization has been shown to be associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEI) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, the association of sport specialization and incidence of LEI has not been studied prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of LEI in high school athletes identified as having low (LOW), moderate (MOD) or high (HIGH) level...
There are several types of injuries which are not diagnosable by routine radiographic methods but can be detected easily by nuclear medicine techniques. This chapter describes four primary categories of injury where nuclear medicine techniques may be of use: stress fracture and periosteal injury; covert fractures; joint abnormalities and injuries to connective tissues, especially where they attach to bone; and acute skeletal muscle injury and rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important features of the use of nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of sports and traumatic injury is the ability, in most cases, to be able to differentiate among these various categories. Other uses of nuclear medicine techniques are discussed in this chapter
Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L
With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.
Nagle, Kyle; Johnson, Bernadette; Brou, Lina; Landman, Tyler; Sochanska, Ada; Comstock, R Dawn
Laboratory-based experiments demonstrate that fatigue may contribute to lower extremity injury (LEI). Few studies have examined the timing of LEIs during competition and practice, specifically in high school athletes across multiple sports, to consider the possible relationship between fatigue and LEIs during sport events. The purpose of this study was to describe the timing of LEIs in high school athletes within games and practices across multiple sports, with a hypothesis that more and severe injuries occur later in games and practices. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Level 4. Using the National High School RIO (Reporting Information Online) sport injury surveillance system, LEI severity and time of occurrence data during practice and competition were extracted for 9 high school sports. During the school years 2005-2006 through 2013-2014, 16,967,702 athlete exposures and 19,676 total LEIs were examined. In all sports surveyed, there was a higher LEI rate, relative risk for LEI, and LEI requiring surgery during competition than practice. During practice, the majority of LEIs occurred over an hour into practice in all sports. In quarter-based competition, more LEIs occurred in the second (31% to 32%) and third quarters (30% to 35%) than in the first (11% to 15%) and fourth quarters (22% to 26%). In games with halves, the majority (53% to 66%) of LEIs occurred in the second half. The greater severity LEIs tended to occur earlier in games. Fatigue may play a role in the predominance of injuries in the second half of games, though various factors may be involved. Greater severity of injuries earlier in games may be because of higher energy injuries when athletes are not fatigued. These findings can help prepare sports medicine personnel and guide further related research to prevent LEIs.
Wu, S K; Williams, T
This exploratory study examined the relationships between pre- and post-injury sport participation among active individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United Kingdom. In particular, factors that influence individuals with SCI into sport were identified. A total of 143 British individuals with SCI currently participating in wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby, wheelchair tennis, and wheelchair athletics were recruited. A total of 112 subjects were active prelesion, and 31 subjects were inactive preinjury. A Disability Sport Participation questionnaire developed by the authors was used for data collection. The questionnaire was distributed through the British Wheelchair Sport Associations. Personal, impairment, health and fitness, socialization, and participation data of athletes with SCI were collected. Groups of active preinjury and inactive preinjury were compared. For athletes who had been active pre-SCI, the in-hospital rehabilitation program and specialized sport club for people with disabilities were more important contexts for introducing the sport after injury to individuals. Friends and peers with disabilities were much more influential as initial and continuing socialization agents than rehabilitation therapists. The main reasons for athletes with SCI who participated in sports after injury were for fitness, fun, health, and competition, although many athletes noted that social aspects and rehabilitation also influenced their sport participation. This study identified social contexts, social agents, difficulties, sources of information, and reasons for sport participation of athletes with SCI. The results may offer some directions for the improvement of rehabilitation programs for people with SCI and also help the development of appropriate strategies to encourage people with SCI to participate in sports and leisure activities.
Holtzhausen, L M; Noakes, T D
Sport rock climbing with its repetitive high-torque movements in gaining the ascent of a rock face or wall, often in steep overhanging positions, is associated with a unique distribution and form of upper limb injuries. In this article, we review the biomechanical aspects of sport rock climbing and the types of injuries commonly encountered in the forearm, wrist, and hand regions of elite sport rock climbers. Because elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries predominate, representing 62% of the total injuries encountered, these anatomical areas have been selected for review. The predominant source of data are the published work of Bollen et al. The remaining sources were obtained through electronic search of the Medline and Current Contents Databases (last searched May 1995). German and French articles were included in the search criteria. Only studies dealing with acute soft tissue and overuse injuries amongst sport rock climbers were selected. Data were extracted directly from the sourced articles. The following injuries have been described in detail with regard to their presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention amongst sport rock climbers: medial epicondylitis, brachialis tendonitis, biceps brachii tendonitis, ulnar collateral ligament sprain of the elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, digital flexor tendon pulley sheath tears, interphalangeal joint effusions, fixed flexion deformities of the interphalangeal joints, and collateral ligament tears of the interphalangeal joints. Many of the injuries are specific to the handhold types used by the rock climber. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these unique injuries will be facilitated by a wider understanding of the biomechanical aspects of rock climbing and an awareness of the patterns and incidence of injuries in this sport.
McGee, S; Raffini, L; Witmer, C
With the wide availability of factor and the routine use of prophylaxis boys with haemophilia are now able to participate in regular physical activity, including organized sports. Current guidelines vary regarding specific recommendations for sports participation and concerns remain regarding safety. To determine if participation in organized sports is associated with an increased risk for injury in paediatric subjects with haemophilia. Retrospective single-centre cohort study from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010 in male subjects ages 10-18 years with a factor VIII (FVIII) or FIX level sports was recorded. 48 male subjects with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.6 years (range: 10-18.8) were included; 64.6% (31/48) FVIII deficiency, 54.2% (26/48) severe haemophilia, 18.8% (9/48) moderate and 27.1% (13/48) mild. The majority [62.5% (30/48)] of subjects participated in at least one season of organized sport. There were 77 injuries in 36/48 (75%) subjects. The mean number of injuries per subject was 1.6 ± 1.5. There was no statistical difference in the mean number of injuries (P = 0.44) or target joint formation (P = 0.52) between the subjects who participated in organized sports compared to those who did not. In this study, participation in organized sports by boys with haemophilia, ages 10-18 years, is common and not associated with an increased number of injuries or the development of a target joint. As injuries occurred equally in both groups, concerted efforts should be directed at reducing injuries in all patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The arthrography is one of the most important diagnostic methods of sport injuries of the knee joint. The examination must give an exact information to the surgeon; a good technique and standard X-rays are an absolute postulate. The submitted examinations are based on 6687 arthrographies during a period of 5 years. The arthrography should not be carried out before the acute symptomatology has ceased, usually after an interval of 2-3 weeks. Most frequently are the meniscus injuries by rotary traumas of the knee-joint. Football as the most popular sport is responsible for more than 50% of the injuries, followed by skiing, handball and jogging. (orig.)
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.
Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...
Full Text Available Introduction: Contact sports may lead to dental injures, which may often be prevented by using mouthguards. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of traumatic dental injuries (TDI in professional contact sport athletes and to determine the awareness regarding use of mouthguards in this group. Methods: A questionnaire containing a number of questions regarding the demographic data of participants, experiences of trauma and their behavior after that and use of mouthguard, was distributed amongst 100 contact sport athletes. Results: eighty athletes returned the questionnaire. The age range of most of the participants (44.2% was between 20-30 .Also most of them had been practicing in contact sports for 1 to 5 years (37.3%. 26.2% of the athletes had experienced some sort of dental trauma. There was no significant difference between the injuries in males and females (p> 0.05. Luxation injuries were the most common type of TDI (47.7%, followed by crown fractures (42.1% and avulsion (10.5%. 89.7% of athletes had already been informed about using mouthguards, however only 10.3% reported having used them. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the rate of TDI among contact sport practitioners in Iran is high; however the use of mouthguards by athletes is low. Dentists and sports authorities should promote the use of mouthguards in contact sports to decreases the risk of dental trauma and tooth loss.
Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A
The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the
Patel, Darshan P; Redshaw, Jeffrey D; Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, Thomas G; Erickson, Bradley A; Majercik, Sarah D; Gaither, Thomas W; Craig, James R; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B
Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. We identified patients with AAST grades III-V blunt renal injuries from four level 1 trauma centres across the United States between 1/2005 and 1/2014. Patients were divided into "Sport" or "Non-sport" related groups. Outcomes included rates of hypotension (systolic blood pressure 110bpm), concomitant abdominal injury, and procedural/surgical intervention between sports and non-sports related injury. 320 patients met study criteria. 18% (59) were sports-related injuries with the most common mechanisms being skiing, snowboarding and contact sports (25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively). Median age was 24 years for sports and 30 years for non-sports related renal injuries (p=0.049). Males were more commonly involved in sports related injuries (85% vs. 72%, p=0.011). Median injury severity score was lower for sports related injuries (10 vs. 27, pinjury scale scores. Sports related trauma was more likely to be isolated without other significant injury (69% vs. 39% (psports and non-sports renal injuries (p=0.30). Sports injuries had lower transfusion (7% vs. 47%, psports vs. 18% non-sports, p=0.95). High-grade sports-related blunt renal trauma is more likely to occur in isolation without other abdominal or thoracic injuries and clinicians must have a high suspicion of renal injury with significant blows to the flank during sports activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Sport medicine is a relatively new scientific branch in Iran. In order to evaluate sport injuries in Iranian skiers we examined and followed all ski players who was injured while skiing in Shemshak slope during a skiing season (January to April 2000. Materials and Methods: During a period of 3 months, a total of 32050 persons skied in Shemshak slope and 76 case of injuries were identified; the injury rate was calculated as 2.3/1000 skiers. Among the injured organs knee (32% and head and neck region (20% were respectively the most common sites of injury. Sprain of the medial collateral ligament was the most frequent knee injury (28% of the cases. 26.7% of the injured cases were amateurs and 21% of them used hired ski instruments. Results: In this study such factors as lack of exercise before skiing, fatigue and time of skiing (beginning or end of the season were not found to be related to the injury rate. However, head and neck injuries in contrast to knee injuries were most frequent in the end of the season (P<0.01. Conclusion: This study confirms the necessity of greater care of knee joints during skiing and probable need of wearing helmet for head protection in the end of skiing season. More studies are necessary to clarify other details regarding sport injuries in skiers.
Galic, Tea; Kuncic, Domagoj; Poklepovic Pericic, Tina; Galic, Ivan; Mihanovic, Frane; Bozic, Josko; Herceg, Mark
The increasing popularity of participating in sports activities among children and adolescents has increased the risk of sports-retaled orofacial and dental injuries. Therefore, it is important to establish efficient preventive strategies regarding sports-related dental trauma The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of sports-related dental injuries in young athletes and to compare the frequency of such injuries between high-risk and medium-risk sports, along with assessing athletes' attitudes and habits regarding mouthguard use. A total of 229 young athletes from four different sports (water polo (n=59), karate (n=58), taekwondo (n=57) and handball (n=55), participated in this study. A standardized questionnaire about the frequency of orofacial and dental injuries was used. Questions were also asked about athletes' habits related to mouthguard use. Mean age of the participants was 12.9±3.2 years and the average time of playing experience was 4.8±3.1 years. Orofacial injury had been experienced by 58 athletes (25.3%), while 31 athletes (13.5%) suffered dental injury. Higher rate of dental injuries was observed in water polo (18.6%), karate (17.2%) and handball (21.8%) than in taekwondo (3.5%) (P=0.035). Most participants were aware of mouthguards for dental trauma prevention and considered them efficient for preventing dental injuries during sports activities, but only 94 (41%) used them. There was a statistically significant difference in the use of mouthguards between taekwondo (73.7%) and karate (70.7%) players compared to handball (14.5%) and water polo players (5.1%) (Pmartial art sport. Therefore, the classification of sports according to the risk of dental trauma should be reconsidered. It would be beneficial to make wearing a mouthguard mandatory in all high-risk sports, as well as in those with medium-risk for dental injuries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights
Full Text Available The research attempted to compose a psycjhological profile of high risk sports athletes, based on personality, values and sensation seeking. 38 high risk sports athletes participated in the research (alpinists, sky divers, parachute gliders, white water kayakers, downhill mountain bikers, motocross riders, downhill skiers and Nordic jumpers, the non risk sports athletes consisted of 38 swimmers, track athletes, sailers, still water kayakers, rowers, Nordic skiers, sports climbers and karate players, whereas non athletes were equalled with both groups in age and education and included 76 non athletes. We used the self descriptive scale Big five observer, Musek's Value scale and Zuckerman' Sensation seeking scale IV. The dimensions, obtained from the discrimination analysis, were named personality maturity and sensation seeking in a social environment. Our results show that high risk sports athletes are more mature personalities than non risk sports athletes and non athletes and that they do not attempt to find stimulation in social environments. We also suggest some possibilities for further research.
Slagers, Anton J.; Reininga, Inge H. F.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge
The ACL-Return to Sport after Injury scale (ACL-RSI) measures athletes' emotions, confidence in performance, and risk appraisal in relation to return to sport after ACL reconstruction. Aim of this study was to study the validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the ACL-RSI (ACL-RSI (NL)).
Heaney, Caroline A; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K; Rostron, Claire L
Sport psychology education has been shown to have a positive impact on the practice of sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs). The purpose of this paper is to review recommendations relating to such education. The paper presents a review of existing literature relating to the content and mode of delivery for a sport psychology education programme for SIRPs. The review seeks to address four questions: (1) What topic areas do researchers suggest should be integrated into the sport psychology education of SIRPs? (2) What topic areas are currently being recommended by professional bodies? (3) What are the findings of research examining the impact of sport psychology education on SIRPs? and (4) What do researchers recommend to be the most appropriate mode of delivery for sport psychology education for SIRPs? The findings of the review suggest that in order to maximise adherence amongst already qualified SIRPs sport psychology education should be delivered in a flexible short duration package. Additionally three broad areas that sport psychology education should cover emerged: (1) understanding of the psychological impact of injury, (2) interventions and psychological skills/techniques, and (3) referral and professional boundaries. This has important implications for the future training of SIRPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G
3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.
van der Does, H. T. D.; Brink, M. S.; Benjaminse, A.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing
Full Text Available Background. Describing the frequency, severity, and causes of sports injuries and illnesses reliably is important for quantifying the risk to athletes and providing direction for prevention initiatives. Methods. Time-loss and/or medical-attention definitions have long been used in sports injury/illness epidemiology research, but the limitations to these definitions mean that some events are incorrectly classified or omitted completely, where athletes continue to train and compete at high levels but experience restrictions in their performance. Introducing a graded definition of performance-restriction may provide a solution to this issue. Results. Results from the Great Britain injury/illness performance project (IIPP are presented using a performance-restriction adaptation of the accepted surveillance consensus methodologies. The IIPP involved 322 Olympic athletes (males: 172; female: 150 from 10 Great Britain Olympic sports between September 2009 and August 2012. Of all injuries (n=565, 216 were classified as causing time-loss, 346 as causing performance-restriction, and 3 were unclassified. For athlete illnesses (n=378, the majority (P<0.01 resulted in time-loss (270 compared with performance-restriction (101 (7 unclassified. Conclusions. Successful implementation of prevention strategies relies on the correct characterisation of injury/illness risk factors. Including a performance-restriction classification could provide a deeper understanding of injuries/illnesses and better informed prevention initiatives.
Amador Blas Redondo
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived social stress and its relation to sports injuries in tennis players. Sixty-three male tennis players, with a mean age of 31.62 years (SD = 8.93, Sports Clubs belonging to the Province of Alicante (Spain completed instruments of psychosocial stress and injuries sustained during the previous year the assessment. The results indicate that life events experienced was related to some of the injuries suffered by players. Relationships were found between the degree of psychological stress experienced and the negative evaluation of this strain, the type (lesions on wrists, ankles and sprains, and severity of injuries (minor injuries.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1 wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102 that did not require a medical intervention, 2 only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3 sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4 offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day.
Full Text Available Sport Management is, without doubt, a modern, practical but at the same time scientific and theoretical trend. Starting with the definition of the word „event“ as an activity that is limited in terms of time, place and a number of participants who gather together with a certain agenda in their mind, an unbreakable connection between it and sport has been made. Risks that appear in this branch of industry of sport are multiple, hardly foreseeable, and with possible long-term consequences. Precisely for that reason, it is important to provide the answers to the questions of what the crisis and crisis management in sport management are, and to establish the processes and stages of risk management
Glaudermans, Andor W.J.M.; Gielen, Jan L.M.A.; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem; Zwerver, Johannes
This comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. Individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities - SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI - are explained. In addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. It is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.
Glaudermans, Andor W.J.M. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Gielen, Jan L.M.A. [Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Sports Medicine; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Medicine; Zwerver, Johannes (ed.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Center for Sports Medicine
This comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. Individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities - SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI - are explained. In addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. It is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.
Hodgson, Lisa; Gissane, Conor; Gabbett, Tim J; King, Doug A
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the most effective method of collecting injury data by using a definition that encompasses all injuries into the data collection system. The definition provides an accurate picture of injury incidence and also allows filtering of records so that data can be reported in a variety of comparable ways. A qualitative review of literature in team sports, plus expert opinion, served as the basis for data collection strategies. Articles were retrieved from SportsDiscus and PubMed using the terms "sports injury definition" and "injury definition." These terms were searched for the period 1966 to November 2006. One of the major results (from this paper) that supports the use of an all-encompassing injury definition is that 70% to 92% of all injuries sustained fall into the transient category--that is, by only recording injuries that result in missed matches, the majority of injuries are missed and therefore injury rates are underreported. An injury definition should be the most encompassing definition that enables a true, global picture of injury incidence to be seen in participation in any team sport.
... School Soccer Season Prime time for foot and ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ... Ankle Tennis involves much foot work. Foot and ankle injuries can occur from the continuous side-to-side ...
Lischuk, Andrew W; Dorantes, Thomas M; Wong, William; Haims, Andrew H
A normally functioning hip joint is imperative for athletes who use their lower extremities with running, jumping, or kicking activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are far less frequent than injuries to the more distal aspect of the extremity, accounting for less than 10% of lower extremity injuries. Despite the lower incidence, hip and groin injuries can lead to significant clinical and diagnostic challenges related to the complex anatomy and biomechanical considerations of this region. Loads up to 8 times normal body weight have been documented in the joint in common daily activities, such as jogging, with significantly greater force expected during competitive athletics. Additionally, treatment for hip and groin injuries can obviate the participation of medical and surgical specialties, with a multidisciplinary approach frequently required. Delay in diagnosis and triage of these injuries may cause loss of time from competition and, potentially, early onset of degenerative changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip has proven to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of sports-related hip and groin injuries in the setting of negative radiographs. With its exquisite soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capabilities, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is unmatched in the noninvasive diagnosis of intra-articular and extra-articular pathology, as well as intraosseous processes. This review focuses on MRI of common athletic injuries of the hip and groin, including acetabular labral tears, femoral acetabular impingement syndrome, muscle injuries around the hip and groin (including athletic pubalgia), and athletic osseous injuries.
Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and ...
Hespanhol, L.C.; Barboza, S.D.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.
Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the
Knobloch, K; Rossner, D; Jagodzinski, M; Zeichen, J; Gössling, T; Martin-Schmitt, S; Richter, M; Krettek, C
Ball sport school injuries account for a significant morbidity among children and adolescents. During a school year 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Regarding the non-gender-specific distribution of the ball sport disciplines, basketball leads with 32 % (n = 431), followed by soccer (24 %, n = 316), volleyball (17 %, n = 232), handball (8.3 %, n = 110) and hockey (4.9 %, n = 65). Sprains (27 %) dominate in basketball, followed by ligament distorsions and ruptures (23 %) and fractures (21 %), with frequent finger injuries (61 %) without contact of an opponent, and injuries of the lower extremity (28 %). Soccer leads to contusions (29 %), in 52 % of the lower extremity frequently after collision with an opponent (22 %) or the ball (20 %). In volleyball upper extremity injuries (71 %) dominate with 53 % finger sprains in individual volleyball play. Ball school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity with frequent finger injuries. Proprioceptive deficits may play a role in those finger injuries in basketball, volleyball and handball. During hockey, severe dental and facial injuries were apparent. A prospective proprioceptive training program aiming on fingers and the ankle region may therefore be a preventive measure such as helmets with facial protection in hockey school sport.
Newsome, P R; Tran, D C; Cooke, M S
This paper examines the literature dealing with oral-facial injuries received during participation in sport and the possibilities open to athletes for their prevention. In particular, the paper examines five different aspects of this topic: the risk of dental injury while playing sports, the role of the mouthguard in preventing injury, types of athletic mouthguard, implications for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and behavioural aspects of mouthguard wear. It is clear from this review that participation in a number of sports does carry a considerable risk of sustaining dental injury, not only in the so-called contact sports such as rugby and hockey, but also in less obviously dangerous sports such as basketball. Although some evidence exists to the contrary, the majority of studies have found the mouthguard to be the most effective way of preventing such injuries. It is also clear that the custom-fabricated mouthguard, in particular the pressure-laminated variety, is seen to afford most protection. Athletes undergoing orthodontic treatment present a particular problem as they are potentially at greater risk of injury because of increased tooth mobility and the presence of orthodontic appliances. The fabrication of mouthguards for these patients is also problematic and the literature covering this is reviewed. As with other preventive measures, mouthguard usage is often less than the dental profession would like; the reasons for this are explored in a small number of studies. While much progress has been made in this area, the profession could do much more to promote the greater use of mouthguards.
We aimed to identify any pattern of injuries that impacted on the long-term physical wellbeing o f players, sustained by Senior County Gaelic-football players during their playing career and the impact of those injuries on their quality of life. A questionnaire was sent to different Donegal-Panels looking for injuries and surgical procedures undergone in playing and post-playing career including chronic joint and musculoskeletal problems.
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien; Hamson-Utley, Jennifer J; Zakrajsek, Rebecca A; Lee, Sae-Mi; Kamphoff, Cindra; Lintunen, Taru; Hemmings, Brian; Martin, Scott B
Existing theoretical frameworks and empirical research support the applicability and usefulness of integrating mental skills throughout sport injury rehabilitation. To determine what, if any, mental skills athletes use during injury rehabilitation, and by who these skills were taught. Cross-cultural differences were also examined. Cross-sectional design. College athletes from 5 universities in the United States and a mixture of collegiate, professional, and recreational club athletes from the United Kingdom and Finland were recruited for this study. A total of 1283 athletes from the United States, United Kingdom, and Finland, who participated in diverse sports at varying competitive levels took part in this study. As part of a larger study on athletes' expectations of injury rehabilitation, participants were asked a series of open-ended and closed-ended questions concerning their use of mental skills during injury rehabilitation. Over half (64.0%) of the sample reported previous experience with athletic training, while 27.0% indicated that they used mental skills during injury rehabilitation. The top 3 mental skills reported were goal setting, positive self-talk/positive thoughts, and imagery. Of those athletes that used mental skills, 71.6% indicated that they felt mental skills helped them to rehabilitate faster. A greater proportion of athletes from the United States (33.4%) reported that they used mental skills during rehabilitation compared with athletes from the United Kingdom (23.4%) and Finland (20.3%). A small portion (27.6%) of the participants indicated that their sports medicine professional had taught them how to use mental skills; only 3% were taught mental skills by a sport psychologist. The low number of athletes who reported using mental skills during rehabilitation is discouraging, but not surprising given research findings that mental skills are underutilized by injured athletes in the 3 countries examined. More effort should be focused on
The articles revealed that the risk of injury in professional football is substantial; its prevalence astronomical and extremely severe. Injuries also affect performance in a negative way and teams that can avoid injuries have greater success as evaluated by their position in the league system. Prevention of injury in football is of ...
Maffulli, Nicola; Margiotti, Katia; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Fazio, Vito Michele; Denaro, Vincenzo
in the last two decades, several evidences have been provided to support the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms and the susceptibility to develop injuries participating in sport and performance related to sports activity. We report up-to-date review of the genetics factors involved in tendon injuries and athletic performance. we searched PubMed using the terms "sports injuries", "athletic performance" and "genetics" over the period 1990 to the present day. We also included non-English journals. most of the currently established or putative tendinopathy susceptibility loci have been analyzed by candidate gene studies. The genes currently associated with tendon injuries include gene encoding for collagen, matrix metallopeptidase, tenascin and growth factors. Several genes have been related to the physical performance phenotypes affecting endurance capacity and muscle performance. The most studied include ACE and ACTN3 genes. genetics determines the response of an individual to the surrounding environment. Recently, some of the individual genetic variations contributing to the athletic performance and the onset of musculoskeletal injuries, particularly in tendon and ligament tissues, have been identified. However, the identification of the genetic background related to susceptibility to injuries and physical performance of the athletes is challenging yet and further studies must be performed to establish the specific role of each gene and the potential effect of the interaction of these.
Gallo-Vallejo, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz-Márquez, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz-Campos, Adrián; de la Cruz-Campos, Juan Carlos; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Carmona-Ruiz, Ginés; Gallo-Galán, Luz María
Objective To analyse the incidence of diseases and injuries suffered by athletes participating in the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in Granada, Spain. Methods The daily occurrence of injuries and diseases was registered at the point of first aid (Borreguiles, 2665 metres above sea level (masl)) and in the clinic of Pradollano (2017 masl), both in Sierra Nevada, as well as in medical services provided by the organising committee of Granada 2015 Universiade and located in sport pavilions in which indoor competitions are held. Results A total of 1109 athletes (650 men, 58.61%; 459 women, 41.39%). Nine diseases and 68 injuries were recorded. In total, the rate of injury was 6.13% (7.07% for men and 4.79% for women). The percentage of injury was highest in alpine skiing (10.34%) followed by freestyle skiing (8.62%). In relation to the time of exposure, freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure (0.31 hours) before suffering an injury. Short track speed skating showed the longest exposure (9.80 hours), before suffering an injury. The most common anatomical areas of injury were the head, shoulder and knee (13.23%). Only nine diseases were suffered (four women and five men) of which six were infections, one was a friction burn, one was a lipothymy and one a cluster headache due to height. Conclusion In general, 6.13% of the athletes sustained at least one injury and 0.81% a disease, which is a much lower percentage than that recorded in similar events. The incidence of injuries and diseases varied among sport specialities. PMID:28879023
Gallo-Vallejo, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz-Márquez, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz-Campos, Adrián; de la Cruz-Campos, Juan Carlos; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Carmona-Ruiz, Ginés; Gallo-Galán, Luz María
To analyse the incidence of diseases and injuries suffered by athletes participating in the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in Granada, Spain. The daily occurrence of injuries and diseases was registered at the point of first aid (Borreguiles, 2665 metres above sea level (masl)) and in the clinic of Pradollano (2017 masl), both in Sierra Nevada, as well as in medical services provided by the organising committee of Granada 2015 Universiade and located in sport pavilions in which indoor competitions are held. A total of 1109 athletes (650 men, 58.61%; 459 women, 41.39%). Nine diseases and 68 injuries were recorded. In total, the rate of injury was 6.13% (7.07% for men and 4.79% for women). The percentage of injury was highest in alpine skiing (10.34%) followed by freestyle skiing (8.62%). In relation to the time of exposure, freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure (0.31 hours) before suffering an injury. Short track speed skating showed the longest exposure (9.80 hours), before suffering an injury. The most common anatomical areas of injury were the head, shoulder and knee (13.23%). Only nine diseases were suffered (four women and five men) of which six were infections, one was a friction burn, one was a lipothymy and one a cluster headache due to height. In general, 6.13% of the athletes sustained at least one injury and 0.81% a disease, which is a much lower percentage than that recorded in similar events. The incidence of injuries and diseases varied among sport specialities.
Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F
The use of text messaging or short message service (SMS) for injury reporting is a recent innovation in sport and has not yet been trialled at the community level. Considering the lack of personnel and resources in community sport, SMS may represent a viable option for ongoing injury surveillance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of injury self-reporting via SMS in community Australian football. A total of 4 clubs were randomly selected from a possible 22 men's community Australian football clubs. Consenting players received an SMS after each football round game asking whether they had been injured in the preceding week. Outcome variables included the number of SMS-reported injuries, players' response rates and response time. Poisson regression was used to evaluate any change in response rate over the season and the association between response rate and the number of reported injuries. The sample of 139 football players reported 167 injuries via SMS over the course of the season. The total response rate ranged from 90% to 98%. Of those participants who replied on the same day, 47% replied within 5 min. The number of reported injuries decreased as the season progressed but this was not significantly associated with a change in the response rate. The number of injuries reported via SMS was consistent with previous studies in community Australian football. Injury reporting via SMS yielded a high response rate and fast response time and should be considered a viable injury reporting method for community sports settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Bentley, Tim; Macky, Keith; Edwards, Jo
The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of adventure tourism and adventure sports activity in injury claims made to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Epidemiological analysis of ACC claims for the period, July 2004 to June 2005, where adventure activities were involved in the injury. 18,697 adventure tourism and adventure sports injury claims were identified from the data, representing 28 activity sectors. Injuries were most common during the summer months, and were most frequently located in the major population centres. The majority of injuries were incurred by claimants in the 20-50 years age groups, although claimants over 50 years of age had highest claims costs. Males incurred 60% of all claims. Four activities (horse riding, mountain biking, tramping/hiking, and surfing) were responsible for approximately 60% of all adventure tourism and adventure sports-related injuries. Slips, trips, and falls were the most common injury initiating events, and injuries were most often to the back/spine, shoulder, and knee. These findings suggest the need to investigate whether regulatory intervention in the form of codes of practice for high injury count activities such as horse riding and mountain biking may be necessary. Health promotion messages and education programs should focus on these and other high-injury risk areas. Improved risk management practices are required for commercial adventure tourism and adventure sports operators in New Zealand if safety is to be improved across this sector.
Donaldson, Peter R
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons with generalized joint hypermobility have an increased risk of lower limb joint injury during sport. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SportDiscus were searched through February 2009, without language restrictions, using terms related to risk; hip, ankle, and knee injuries; and joint instability. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were searched by hand. STUDY SELECTION: Selection criteria were peer-reviewed studies with a prospective design that used an objective scale to measure generalized joint hypermobility; the participants were engaged in sport activity, and the injury data were quantitative and based on diagnosis by a health professional, were self-reported, or resulted in time lost to athletic participation. The studies were screened by 1 researcher and checked by a second. Study methods were independently assessed by 2 investigators using the 6-point scale for prognostic studies developed by Pengel. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Of 4841 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 were included in random-effects meta-analyses. DATA EXTRACTION: The data extracted by 2 reviewers included participant and sport characteristics and details of joint hypermobility and injury measurements. More detailed data for 4 investigations were obtained from the study authors. Where possible, hypermobility was defined as >\\/=4 of 9 points on the British Society of Rheumatology Scale (BSRS). MAIN RESULTS: Lower limb joint injuries (3 studies, 1047 participants) occurred in 14% of participants. Using the BSRS of joint hypermobility, any lower limb injury was not associated with hypermobility [odds ratio (OR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-3.67]. Using the original authors\\' definitions, hypermobility was associated with risk of knee joint injuries (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.04-6.58) in 5 studies. In 4 studies in which the BSRS could be used (1167 participants; incidence
The body grows stronger and performs best when appropriate loads and activities are followed by appropriate physical and mental rest and recovery. With this understanding, one has to question the true value of developing a particular sport skill set during childhood and adolescence at the expense of early injury, burnout, and lack of coping-skill development.
Corticosteroids act as potent anti-inflammatory drugs and have been used in various sport settings for the treatment of both acute and chronic injuries. Basic physiology and mechanisms of action for gluco- and mineralocorticoids are discussed. Methods of administration, the action on the inflammatory response, and ...
Background: Physiotherapists are important members of the sports medicine team and are involved in the prevention and management of injured athletes right from the acute stage of injury to the stage of rehabilitation. However, the type of treatments rendered to injured athletes and level of physiotherapy utilisation in terms ...
Gurchiek, Larry; Mokha, Monique Butcher
Most coaches recognize the importance of creating a safe environment and preventing injuries of their athletes. Domain 2 is dedicated to this important aspect of coaching, and outlines specific areas within safety and injury prevention that coaches should address. Domain 2 sets the standards for facility, equipment, and environmental safety…
If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…
Delaney, R A
The health benefits of exercise may be attenuated by sports and recreation related injury (SRI). Though the majority of SRI are mild and self-limiting, a significant number are serious and require orthopaedic intervention. The aims of this study were to assess the burden of these serious injuries on the orthopaedic inpatient service, and to investigate potential target areas for injury prevention. All 1,590 SRI seen in the ED over a 3-month period were analysed using the Patient Information Management System to determine which patients received inpatient orthopaedic care. The medical records of those 63 patients who required inpatient care under orthopaedics were reviewed and data collected on demographic features, history, operative procedure and theatre resources, and length of hospital stay. Data were analyzed using SPSS. SRI accounted for 12.3% of all ED presentations. The principal activities resulting in injury requiring orthopaedic care were soccer, hurling and informal play e.g. trampoline. Falls made up 37% of the overall mechanism of injury but 68% of the injuries severe enough to require operative management. Most operative procedures were performed as part of a routine day trauma list but 20% were performed out of hours. This group of injuries places a significant burden on a busy trauma service. Injury prevention measures such as public education regarding falls in sport may have a role in reducing this burden.
Knee ligament injuries often result in a premature end to a career in sports. The treatment after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be operative or conservative. In both cases, the goal is to reach the best functional level for the patient without risking new injuries or degenerative changes in the knee. Return to high level of athletic activity has been an indicator of treatment success. Rehabilitation is an important part of the treatment. Knowledge of healing processes and biomechanics in the knee joint after injury and reconstruction, together with physiological aspects on training effects is important for the construction of rehabilitation programmes. Current rehabilitation programmes use immediate training of range of motion. Weight bearing is encouraged within the first week after an ACL reconstruction. Commonly, the patients are allowed to return to light sporting activities such as running at 2-3 months after surgery and to contact sports, including cutting and jumping, after 6 months. In many cases, the decisions are empirically based and the rehabilitation programmes are adjusted to the time selected for returning to sports. In this article, some criteria that should be fulfilled in order to allow the patient to return to sports are presented. Surgery together with completed rehabilitation and sport-specific exercises should result in functional stability of the knee joint. In addition, adequate muscle strength and performance should be used as a critical criterion. Other factors, such as associated injuries and social and psychological hindrances may also influence the return to sports and must be taken into consideration, both during the rehabilitation and at the evaluation of the treatment.
van Beijsterveldt, Anne-Marie; Richardson, Angelo; Clarsen, Benjamin; Stubbe, Janine
We aimed to investigate the magnitude and characteristics of injuries and illnesses in Dutch physical education teacher education (PETE) students. During the first 21 weeks of the academic year, 245 first-year students registered their health problems online using the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Questionnaire on Health Problems. A total of 276 injuries, 140 illnesses and 69 unclassified health problems were reported. We found an injury incidence rate of 11.7 injuries per 1000 hours (95% CI 10.4 to 13.2). Injury characteristics were: 42% overuse injuries, 62% causing absence from sports (median injury time loss=2 days) and 64% reinjuries. Most injuries were located at the knee, lower leg (anterior) and ankle. The duration of the illnesses was short (<1 week). We implemented a new registration method in the PETE academic programme. The results show that the risk for health problems is high for PETE students. Prevention is necessary, and to decrease injuries prevention programmes should focus on the lower extremities.
Tator, Charles H
Spinal injuries and spinal cord injuries in sports and recreation represent frequent and important causes of injury and disability. These injuries are virtually all preventable through strict adherence to the codes of conduct of the rules and regulations for sports and recreation and through an attitude of respect for one's own welfare and the welfare of the opponents or other participants. Adherence to guidelines for return to sport after injury can help to prevent worsening of deficits and the onset of new deficits.
Parkkari, J; Kujala, U M; Kannus, P
Sports injuries are one of the most common injuries in modern western societies. Treating sports injuries is often difficult, expensive and time consuming, and thus, preventive strategies and activities are justified on medical as well as economic grounds. A successful injury surveillance and prevention requires valid pre- and post-intervention data on the extent of the problem. The aetiology, risk factors and exact mechanisms of injuries need to be identified before initiating a measure or programme for preventing sports injuries, and measurement of the outcome (injury) must include a standardised definition of the injury and its severity, as well as a systematic method of collecting the information. Valid and reliable measurement of the exposure includes exact information about the population at risk and exposure time. The true efficacy of a preventive measure or programme can be best evaluated through a well-planned randomised trial. Until now, 16 randomised, controlled trials (RCT) have been published on prevention of sports injuries. According to these RCT, the general injury rate can be reduced by a multifactorial injury prevention programme in soccer (relative risk 0.25, p ankle disk training, combined with a thorough warm-up, in European team handball [odds ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.32, p Ankle sprains can be prevented by ankle supports (i.e. semirigid orthoses or air-cast braces) in high-risk sporting activities, such as soccer and basketball (Peto odds ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.37 to 0.66), and stress fractures of the lower limb by the use of shock-absorbing insoles in footwear (Peto odds ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.30 to 0.76). In future studies, it is extremely important for researches to seek consultation with epidemiologists and statisticians to be certain that the study hypothesis is appropriate and that the methodology can lead to reliable and valid information. Further well-designed randomised studies are needed on preventive actions
Ullah, Shahid; Gabbett, Tim J; Finch, Caroline F
Injuries are often recurrent, with subsequent injuries influenced by previous occurrences and hence correlation between events needs to be taken into account when analysing such data. This paper compares five different survival models (Cox proportional hazards (CoxPH) model and the following generalisations to recurrent event data: Andersen-Gill (A-G), frailty, Wei-Lin-Weissfeld total time (WLW-TT) marginal, Prentice-Williams-Peterson gap time (PWP-GT) conditional models) for the analysis of recurrent injury data. Empirical evaluation and comparison of different models were performed using model selection criteria and goodness-of-fit statistics. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. The modelling approach is demonstrated through direct application to Australian National Rugby League recurrent injury data collected over the 2008 playing season. Of the 35 players analysed, 14 (40%) players had more than 1 injury and 47 contact injuries were sustained over 29 matches. The CoxPH model provided the poorest fit to the recurrent sports injury data. The fit was improved with the A-G and frailty models, compared to WLW-TT and PWP-GT models. Despite little difference in model fit between the A-G and frailty models, in the interest of fewer statistical assumptions it is recommended that, where relevant, future studies involving modelling of recurrent sports injury data use the frailty model in preference to the CoxPH model or its other generalisations. The paper provides a rationale for future statistical modelling approaches for recurrent sports injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
van Wilgen, Cornelis P.; Keizer, Doeke
Objective. The pathophysiology of chronic sports injuries such as overuse or tendinopathy remains largely unknown. With this exploratory study, we aim to detect signs of sensitization of the nervous system. Sensitization is an indication of the involvement of neuropathic mechanisms in patients with
van Wilgen, Cornelis P; Keizer, Doeke
The pathophysiology of chronic sports injuries such as overuse or tendinopathy remains largely unknown. With this exploratory study, we aim to detect signs of sensitization of the nervous system. Sensitization is an indication of the involvement of neuropathic mechanisms in patients with chronic sports injuries. Sensory descriptors were assessed by means of a neuropathic pain questionnaire (DN4-interview) and by three methods of sensory testing. The test results were integrated in a scoring system. Patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic of a University Medical Centre and at primary care physical therapy practices. Fifteen athletes with a unilateral chronic sports injury were included. All subjects filled out the seven-items of the DN4-interview to assess sensory descriptors. Next, the presence of brush-evoked allodynia was assessed and pain thresholds with Von Frey monofilaments and a pressure algometer were measured in all patients to determine signs of sensitization. Based on the scoring system, in 4 out of 15 patients (27%) the presence of sensitization could be detected. In two other patients, signs of hypoalgesia were observed. The involvement of sensitization as an explanation for the pain in chronic sports injuries is credible in a considerable proportion of patients. With respect to treatment, the establishment of such neuropathic pain mechanisms is of clinical significance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Finch, C F; Kemp, J L; Clapperton, A J
Previous sports injury is a known risk factor for subsequent osteoarthritis (OA), but population-based rates of sports injury are unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the trends in the population incidence and burden of all hospital-treated sports injury in Victoria, Australia in adults aged 15+ years; (2) determine the incidence of lower limb and knee injuries; and (3) quantify their population health burden as average direct hospital costs per injury and lengths of stay. Health sector data relating to adults aged 15+ years, for 2004-2010 inclusive, was extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) and Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD). Data relating to sports injuries were identified using activity codes in each dataset Trends in injury frequency and rates were determined, and economic burden was calculated. The overall annual rate of hospital treated sports injuries increased by 24% (P = 0.001), and lower limb injuries by 26% (P = 0.001) over the 7 years. The associated accumulated economic burden was $265 million for all sports injuries and $110 million for lower limb injuries over the 7-years. The findings of this study show a significant increase in sports injuries in the state of Victoria, Australia over a 7-year period. As previous sports injury is a risk factor for the development of OA, the future incidence of OA will escalate, placing an even greater burden on health care systems. Population-wide preventative strategies that reduce the risk of sports injury are urgently required in order to reduce the future burden of OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rietveld, Boni; van de Wiel, Albert
Professional theatre dance has high and specific physical demands, comparable to top sport. Dance injuries are often caused by faulty technique due to compensation for physical limitations. Knowledge of these limitations and professional teaching can prevent many problems. Dance injuries mostly involve the lower limbs, especially the ankles and knees. Dance injuries require that the medical professional has knowledge of dance technique and respects the passion of the dancer. The advice to stop dancing has hardly ever to be given. Scientific, prospective dance medical research is recommended.
Fernando, D Tharanga; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Finch, Caroline F
To report the incidence of presentations to emergency departments (EDs) in Victoria for sport- and active recreation-related injuries; to establish which sports have the highest rates of injury per participant; to assess the effects of age and sport type on the rate of serious sport injury (resulting in admission to hospital). Retrospective analysis of 171 541 ED presentations to 38 Victorian hospitals, 2012-13 to 2014-15. Sports- and active recreation-related injuries in people aged 5 years or more were identified from coded data and by text searches. Population rates of injuries by sport and ranking of sports by per participant injury rates (for people aged 15 years or more); proportions of presenting patients subsequently admitted to hospital (serious sport injuries) (for people aged 5 years or more). During 2012-13 to 2014-15, there were 171 541 presentations to EDs with sports-related injuries. Sports most commonly associated with presentation by people aged 15 years or more were Australian football, motor sports, and cycling/BMX; the highest per participant injury rates (people aged 15 or more) were for motor sports, rugby, and skateboarding/inline hockey/roller sports. 11% of ED patients aged 5 years or more were subsequently admitted to hospital; the odds of admission were highest for those with injuries from motor sports, horse riding, or cycling/BMX. Assessing sports injury rates corrected for participation rates and evaluating the relative severity of injuries is important for monitoring safety. Our findings can assist decisions about which sports should be the focus of injury prevention efforts.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Roos, Karen G; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P; Marshall, Stephen W
To examine how injury definition inclusiveness affects the rank order of injury rates in 27 high school (HS) sports. The National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) used certified athletic trainers (ATs) to collect injury and athlete-exposure (AE) data in practices and competitions for 27 HS sports during the 2011/2012 to 2013/2014 academic years. Time loss (TL) injuries resulted in ≥24 hours of participation restriction. Nontime loss (NTL) injuries resulted in sports. High school student-athletes. Sports injury data from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network. Time loss and TL + NTL injury rates were calculated. Sport-specific rates were placed in rank order, stratified by gender. Most of the 47 014 injuries reported were NTL (82.8%). Among boys' sports, TL injury rates were greatest in football (3.27/1000AE) and wrestling (2.43/1000AE); TL + NTL injury rates were greatest also in football (15.29/1000AE) and wrestling (11.62/1000AE). Among girls' sports, TL injury rates were greatest in soccer (1.97/1000AE) and basketball (1.76/1000AE); TL + NTL injury rates were greatest in field hockey and lacrosse (both 11.32/1000AE). The rank order of injury rates and the resulting injury prevention priorities may depend on injury definition inclusiveness, particularly in female HS sports.
Ducheyne, Paul; Mauck, Robert L.; Smith, Douglas H.
The optimal stimulation of tissue regeneration in bone, cartilage and spinal cord injuries involves a judicious selection of biomaterials with tailored chemical compositions, micro- and nanostructures, porosities and kinetic release properties for the delivery of relevant biologically active molecules.
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, Grete
The accurate measurement of sport exposure time and injury occurrence is key to effective injury prevention and management. Current measures are limited by their inability to identify all types of sport-related injury, narrow scope of injury information, or lack the perspective of the injured...... athlete. The aims of the study were to evaluate the proportion of injuries and the agreement between sport exposures reported by the SMS messaging and follow-up telephone part of the SMS, Phone, and medical staff Examination (SPEx) sports injury surveillance system when compared to measures obtained...... measures of injury consequences beyond time-loss from sport. However, this needs to be further evaluated in large-scale studies....
Jakse, G; Madersbacher, H
During 1964-1974 112 injuries of the urogenital tract caused by winter sports were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck, Department of Urology. Eighty-eight patients suffered skiing injuries, 20 tobogganing injuries, and one injury each was caused by ski jumping and bobsleighing accidents, two traumas resulted from a fall from a chair lift. On the basis of typical case reports the most common types of trauma of the urogenital tract are demonstrated and the basic mechanisms of the accidents are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the obvious increase of lesions of the external genitalia and the urethra in the last few years caused by the so-called spinning ski, as well as the frequency of kidney traumas, especially in winters with little snow. Tobogganing accidents caused injuries to the kidneys as well as to bladder and urethra. In contrast to traumas caused by skiing, tobogganing injuries were mostly multiple. Analysis of patients records shows an increase of these injuries, which were really not typical for winter sports. The possible reasons as well as their prevention are discussed.
TENVERGERT, EM; TENDUIS, HJ; KLASEN, HJ
In this study, we analyzed the records of both in-patients and outpatients which were treated for acute sports injuries in the Trauma Department of the University of Groningen (The Netherlands) during the years 1982 to 1988. We examined whether there was a trend in sports injuries in this time
McKeag, D B
The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.
Junge, A; Engebretsen, L; Alonso, J M; Renström, P; Mountjoy, M; Aubry, M; Dvorak, J
The protection of athletes' health by preventing injuries is an important task for international sports federations. Standardised injury surveillance provides not only important epidemiological information, but also directions for injury prevention, and the opportunity for monitoring long-term changes in the frequency and circumstances of injury. Numerous studies have evaluated sports injuries during the season, but few have focused on injuries during major sport events such as World Championships, World Cups or the Olympic Games. To provide an injury surveillance system for multi-sports tournaments, using the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing as an example. A group of experienced researchers reviewed existing injury report systems and developed a scientific sound and concise injury surveillance system for large multi-sport events. The injury report system for multi-sport events is based on an established system for team sports tournaments and has proved feasible for individual sports during the International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2007. The most important principles and advantages of the system are comprehensive definition of injury, injury report by the physician responsible for the athlete, a single-page report of all injuries, and daily report irrespective of whether or not an injury occurred. Implementation of the injury surveillance system, all definitions, the report form, and the analysis of data are described in detail to enable other researchers to implement the injury surveillance system in any sports tournament. The injury surveillance system has been accepted by experienced team physicians and shown to be feasible for single-sport and multi-sport events. It can be modified depending on the specific objectives of a certain sport or research question; however, a standardised use of injury definition, report forms and methodology will ensure the comparability of results.
Mitchell, Rebecca; Brighton, Barbara; Sherker, Shauna
To describe the epidemiology of competition and training-based surf sport-related injury in Australia in the years 2003-2011. A retrospective epidemiological review. Information on surf sport-related injuries was obtained from Surf Life Saving Australia's SurfGuard Incident Reporting Database during 1 January 2003 to 20 August 2011. There were 2645 surf sport-related competition or training-related incidents. Males and females experienced similar proportions of injury by activity type, with older individuals experiencing a higher proportion of injuries during training than younger individuals. Minor first aid was required for 54.5% of the competition and 43.7% of the training-related incidents, with major first aid required in just over 10% of both incident types. Overall, inflatable rescue boats, beach flags, and surf boats were the most common activities performed at the time of the incident, with returning to shore and negotiating the break the most common possible contributing factors to surf boat incidents. Bruises/contusions, strains, inflammation/swelling, and sprains were the most common types of injuries that occurred during both competition and training. RICE--Rest-Ice-Compression-Elevation--was the most common form of initial treatment for the injury during both competition and training. Participation in surf sports is not without risk of injury. Information from this study will inform injury prevention efforts for surf sport and act as a guide for future research in this area, and towards improved injury surveillance for surf sport-related injuries. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Uitenbroek, Daan G.
Telephone interviews with individuals representing various age and sex groups in Scotland examined how sport and exercise injury rates compared with injury rates for other activities. Results indicated that 46% of male and 14% of female injuries were sport or exercise related. Such injuries decreased with increasing age. (SM)
Soomro, Najeebullah; Sanders, Ross; Hackett, Daniel; Hubka, Tate; Ebrahimi, Saahil; Freeston, Jonathan; Cobley, Stephen
Intensive sport participation in childhood and adolescence is an established cause of acute and overuse injury. Interventions and programs designed to prevent such injuries are important in reducing individual and societal costs associated with treatment and recovery. Likewise, they help to maintain the accrual of positive outcomes from participation, such as cardiovascular health and skill development. To date, several studies have individually tested the effectiveness of injury prevention programs (IPPs). To determine the overall efficacy of structured multifaceted IPPs containing a combination of warm-up, neuromuscular strength, or proprioception training, targeting injury reduction rates according to risk exposure time in adolescent team sport contexts. Systematic review and meta-analysis. With established inclusion criteria, studies were searched in the following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, EMBASE, CINAHL, and AusSportMed. The keyword search terms (including derivations) included the following: adolescents, sports, athletic injuries, prevention/warm-up programs. Eligible studies were then pooled for meta-analysis with an invariance random-effects model, with injury rate ratio (IRR) as the primary outcome. Heterogeneity among studies and publication bias were tested, and subgroup analysis examined heterogeneity sources. Across 10 studies, including 9 randomized controlled trials, a pooled overall point estimate yielded an IRR of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.48-0.75; a 40% reduction) while accounting for hours of risk exposure. Publication bias assessment suggested an 8% reduction in the estimate (IRR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.54-0.84), and the prediction interval intimated that any study estimate could still fall between 0.33 and 1.48. Subgroup analyses identified no significant moderators, although possible influences may have been masked because of data constraints. Compared with normative practices or control
Myer, Gregory D.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Best, Thomas M.; Bergeron, Michael F.; Hewett, Timothy E.
Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities; and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Recent trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong regular physical activity. PMID:21623307
Glass, Todd; Ruddy, Richard M; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Gorelick, Marc; Callahan, James; Lee, Lois; Gerardi, Mike; Melville, Kraig; Miskin, Michelle; Holmes, James F; Kuppermann, Nathan
Childhood sports-related head trauma is common, frequently leading to emergency department (ED) visits. We describe the spectrum of these injuries and trends in computed tomography (CT) use in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. This was a secondary analysis of a large prospective cohort of children with head trauma in 25 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network EDs between 2004 and 2006. We described and compared children 5 to 18 years old by CT rate, traumatic brain injury (TBI) on CT, and clinically important TBI (ciTBI). We used multi-variable logistic regression to compare CT rates, adjusting for clinical severity. Outcomes included frequency of CT, TBIs on CT, and ciTBIs (defined by [a] death, [b] neurosurgery, [c] intubation>24 hours, or [d] hospitalization for ≥2 nights). A total of 3289 (14%) of 23082 children had sports-related head trauma. Two percent had Glasgow Coma Scale scores less than 14. 53% received ED CTs, 4% had TBIs on CT, and 1% had ciTBIs. Equestrians had increased adjusted odds (1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-3.0]) of CTs; the rate of TBI on CT was 4% (95% CI, 3%-5%). Compared with team sports, snow (adjusted odds ratio, 4.1; 95% CI 1.5-11.4) and nonmotorized wheeled (adjusted odds ratio, 12.8; 95% CI, 5.5-32.4) sports had increased adjusted odds of ciTBIs. Children with sports-related head trauma commonly undergo CT. Only 4% of those imaged had TBIs on CT. Clinically important TBIs occurred in 1%, with significant variation by sport. There is an opportunity for injury prevention efforts in high-risk sports and opportunities to reduce CT use in general by use of evidence-based prediction rules. What is known about this subject: Pediatric sports-related head injuries are a common and increasingly frequent ED presentation, as is the use of CT in their evaluation. Little is known about TBIs resulting from different types of sports activities in children. What this study adds to existing knowledge: This
Street, Erica J; Jacobsen, Kathryn H
The goal of this study was to compare the sex-specific prevalence rate of serious sports injuries in the past year among students ages 13-15 years from 25 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) globally. Data from 46,922 nationally-representative students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) were analyzed using complex samples analysis. The GSHS defines injuries as serious when they cause at least one full day of missed school or usual activities or require clinical treatment. Students reporting more than one serious injury in the past year are asked about the single most serious injury. The proportion of students reporting at least one serious injury in the past year ranged from 15-71 % (median 44 %) among boys and 8-70 % (median 30 %) among girls. The proportion of most-serious injuries in the past year that were sports-related ranged from 25-60 % among injured boys (median 35 %) and 12-56 % among injured girls (median 24 %). The most common types of sports-related injuries were broken bones and dislocated joints, reported by 13-62 % (median 28 %) of boys with sports injuries and 10-86 % (median 25 %) of girls with sports injuries. Although the annual injury rates among early adolescents vary widely between countries, the GSHS shows that sports injuries are common globally among both male and female middle school students. Understanding global trends in the health risks for various population groups, such as adolescents, allows community health partnerships to proactively address health needs in the communities they serve.
Kang, Jian; Hagel, Brent; Emery, Carolyn A; Senger, Trudi; Meeuwisse, Willem
The objective of this study was to assess the representativeness of sport and recreational injury data from Canadian Hospital Injury Reporting and Prevention Programme (CHIRPP) in Calgary. Internal representativeness was assessed by comparing CHIRPP and regional health administrative data (ambulatory care classification system-ACCS) at Alberta Children's Hospital (ACH). External representativeness was assessed by comparing CHIRPP with ACCS at all hospitals. Comparisons were performed using descriptive statistics for top injury-producing sports and sports that produced severe injuries. Stratified distributions of injury-producing sports by gender, age group and severity of injury in CHIRPP and ACCS were compared. The proportion of all injuries in Calgary captured by CHIRPP was 64.8% (99%CI: 64.02-65.54%) (16,977/26,206). CHIRPP captured more cases of top injury-producing sports than ACCS at ACH. Rankings of top injury-producing sports in CHIRPP and ACCS at ACH were remarkably consistent (ρ = 0.92, p sports in CHIRPP and ACCS at all hospitals were almost identical (ρ = 0.98, p sports by gender, age group and the severity of injury showed strong consistency between CHIRPP and ACCS. It is concluded that CHIRPP in Calgary provides a representative profile of injuries compared to regional health administrative data. This project supports the use of CHIRPP for establishing injury prevention priorities.
Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Jörgensen, Sophie; Stapleton, Jessica
This review article provides an overview of the evidence that links exercise and sports participation to physical and psychological well-being among people with spinal cord injury. Two aspects of physical well-being are examined, including the prevention of chronic disease and the promotion of physical fitness. Multiple aspects of psychosocial well-being are discussed, including mental health, social participation, and life satisfaction. The review concludes with future research recommendations and a discussion of challenges and opportunities for using exercise and sports to promote health and well-being among people living with spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C; Urrútia, G; Thorborg, K
Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes in sports. A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 yielding 1747 potentially relevant references. Two independent assessors evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and performed quality assessments using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Quantitative analyses were performed in Review Manager 5.3. Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0.81. Meta-analysis revealed a potential clinically meaningful groin injury reduction of 19%, even though no statistical significant reduction in sport-related groin injuries could be documented. PROSPERO registration ID CRD42014009614. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Takeda, Hideki; Nakagawa, Takumi; Nakamura, Kozo; Engebretsen, Lars
Articular cartilage defects in the knee of young or active individuals remain a problem in orthopaedic practice. These defects have limited ability to heal and may progress to osteoarthritis. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis among athletes is higher than in the non-athletic population. The clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint pain, limitation of range of motion and joint stiffness. The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is confirmed by the symptoms and the radiological findings (narrowing joint space, osteophyte formation and subchondral sclerosis). There is no strong correlation between symptoms and radiographic findings. The aetiology of knee osteoarthritis is multifactorial. Excessive musculoskeletal loading (at work or in sports), high body mass index, previous knee injury, female gender and muscle weakness are well-known risk factors. The high-level athlete with a major knee injury has a high incidence of knee osteoarthritis. Cartilage injuries are frequently observed in young and middle-aged active athletes. Often this injury precedes osteoarthritis. Reducing risk factors can decrease the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis. The prevention of knee injury, especially anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injury in sports, is important to avoid progression of knee osteoarthritis.
Gledhill, Adam; Forsdyke, Dale; Murray, Eliot
To systematically review studies examining the role of psychological interventions in injury prevention. The primary research question was: What is the real-world effectiveness of psychological intervention in preventing sports injuries? Mixed methods systematic review with best evidence synthesis. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Science Direct and PubMed. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-RCTs that included a comparison group, before and after study designs and qualitative methods. Studies were required to outline specific unimodal or multimodal psychological interventions used in relation to injury prevention in the real-world setting. Studies were independently appraised with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Thirteen papers (incorporating 14 studies) met the eligibility criteria, of which 93% (13/14) reported a decrease in injury rates (effect size range=0.2-1.21). There was an overall moderate risk of bias in reporting (52%). There is a dominance of stress management-based interventions in literature due to the prominence of the model of stress and athletic injury within the area. Psychological interventions demonstrate small (0.2) to large (1.21) effects on sports injury rates. The research area demonstrates a cumulative moderate risk in reporting bias (52%). CRD42016035879. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S
Several important methodological issues need to be considered when designing sports injury case-control studies. Major design goals for case-control studies include the accounting for prior injury risk exposure, and optimal definitions of both cases and suitable controls are needed to ensure this. This article reviews methodological aspects of published sports injury case-control studies, particularly with regard to the selection of controls. It argues for a new approach towards selecting controls for case-control studies that draws on an interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts. A review was conducted to identify sport injury case-control studies published in the peer-review literature during 1985-2008. Overall, 32 articles were identified, of which the majority related to upper or lower extremity injuries. Matching considerations were used for control selection in 16 studies. Specific mention of application of biomechanical principles in the selection of appropriate controls was absent from all studies, including those purporting to evaluate the benefits of personal protective equipment to protect against impact injury. This is a problem because it could lead to biased conclusions, as cases and controls are not fully comparable in terms of similar biomechanical impact profiles relating to the injury incident, such as site of the impact on the body. The strength of the conclusions drawn from case-control studies, and the extent to which results can be generalized, is directly influenced by the definition and recruitment of cases and appropriate controls. Future studies should consider the interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts when choosing appropriate controls to ensure that proper adjustment of prior exposure to injury risk is made. To provide necessary guidance for the optimal selection of controls in case-control studies of interventions to prevent sports-related impact injury, this review outlines a new case
The purpose of this study is to identify the injury profile of non-contact sports among Perak SUKMA athletes. The data from this injury is examined based on the five research questions which are nature of injury, body part, severity of injury (mild, moderate, severe), types of injury (acute or chronic), and factors of injury.
Pellicciari, Leonardo; Piscitelli, Daniele; De Vita, Marilena; D'Ingianna, Lucia; Bacciu, Serenella; Perno, Giacomo; Lunetta, Laura; Rosulescu, Eugenia; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe; Foti, Calogero
During training and competition, athletic dancers perform complex artistic movements that can lead to stress on the musculoskeletal system, making them subject to high risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, location, and nature of musculoskeletal injuries among dancesport athletes and to identify potential risk factors for injury. This cross-sectional study was performed at several national dancesport meetings in Italy. All 168 dancesport athletes who participated at the meetings were invited to complete a questionnaire related to injuries they may have suffered during the previous year; other information collected included demographic data (age, sex, height, weight), dance participation (discipline, categories), training (training duration, years since starting to dance), and injury (location, etiology). Of the 168 dancers, 153 completed the questionnaire. Of the 102 injuries reported, 73 athletes (47.7%) reported at least 1 injury. The locations of the injuries were the lower limbs (n=75, 73.5%), upper limbs (8, 7.8%), and spine (19, 18.7%). Significant differences were found in the injury location (pathletes in demographic data, dance participation, and training variables (p>0.05). The results indicate that about half of the dancers reported at least 1 injury, with these being located particularly in the lower limbs and predominantly strain and sprain injuries. To reduce the prevalence of injuries, a prevention program may be indicated, with future research needed to identify appropriate strategies to prevent injuries.
O'Malley, Margaret; Evans, David S; Hewson, Antonia; Owens, Jenny
The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear. To determine the extent of mouthguard use, dental trauma and barriers to use among children. The survey also investigated school and sports club policy on mouthguard use in sport. A questionnaire was sent to parents of 1,111 children aged nine to 13 years attending 25 randomly selected schools in the Health Service Executive West region of Ireland. It sought information about children's sporting activities, mouthguard policy and use, barriers to use, and dental accidents. A total of 505 questionnaires were returned (46%). More than nine out of ten children were involved in sport. Mouthguards were worn by 22% of children during sport. Less than one-third of schools and sports clubs that children attended had a mouthguard policy. Significantly more children used mouthguards where there was a mouthguard policy. Reasons for not wearing mouthguards included cost, lack of knowledge and information, and lack of a mouthguard policy. One in ten children had suffered a sports accident in the previous year, of which 51% injured teeth. Of these, 72% visited a dentist within two hours. The dental profession and individual practitioners should promote mouthguard use for children during sport and be advocates for the development of policies in schools and sporting organisations.
Patel, Dilip R; Yamasaki, Ai; Brown, Kelly
Over the past several decades there has been increased participation in sports by children and adolescents at earlier ages in the United States, as well as more intense participation and specialization in sports at very early ages. This trend has also partly contributed to the patterns of injuries seen in young athletes, and especially in recent years, injuries previously seen in mature athletes are being seen in young athletes. Overall, the vast majority of sport-related musculoskeletal injuries in children and adolescents are due to repetitive overuse and acute macrotrauma is less frequently seen in young athletes. Epidemiological data on sports injuries are provided by several national surveys. Investigators have used different methods to define sports injuries and the most widely used definition is based on athlete-exposure time. Certain aspects related to adolescent growth and development modulate the pattern of injuries. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of sports-related musculoskeletal injuries seen in children and adolescents.
Wanke, E M; Fischer, T; Pieper, H G; Groneberg, D A
Latin American formation dancing ranks among the technical-compositional types of sport and represents a discipline of dance sport due to its performance- and competition-orientated mode. Despite its high degree of popularity and a movement profile favouring injuries, there has been a lack of studies as to health hazards and damage in Latin American formation dancing. The aim of this study is to analyse formation dance-related health hazards and their causes. A total of n = 100 (m: n = 52, f: n = 48) Latin American dancers of the German top-level league participated in this anonymised retrospective cross-sectional investigation. Mean weights of the male dancers were 75.2 kg and respectively 58.2 kg for the females, mean body height/size were 1.82 m (m) and 1.67 m (f) and mean BMI 22.2 (m) and 20.0 (f), respectively. At least one each traumatic injury/chronic damage was sustained by 69.3 % (m) and 77.6 % (f) of the dancers in the course of their dance sport activities. Almost all (97.9 %) injuries occurred during the training. A total of 409 injuries/overuse damages (= 4.1 injuries/athlete) was reported with 80.4 % traumatic injuries and 19.5 % chronic damages. Female dancers were more often injured than their male counterparts. The lower extremity was the most commonly affected body region [64.5 % (m) and, respectively, 71.2 % (f)], followed by upper extremity (m: 21.2 %, f: 17.6 %) and spinal column/trunk region (m: 12.0 %, f: 8.5 %). Blockages and pulled muscles were the most common complaints reported by males with contusions and pulled muscles being reported by females. Chondropathy/osteoarthrosis were the most frequent chronic diseases. Of all injuries sustained, circa two thirds were caused by extrinsic and circa one third by intrinsic factors. The injury profiles/patterns in Latin American formation dancing show on the one hand parallels to the individual partner dances. On the other hand, typical and gender
Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels
Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate intrinsic and extrinsic factors for risk of these injuries. Weekly musculoskeletal pain, sport participation, and sports type were reported by 1326 school children (8-15 yr). Knee injuries were classified as traumatic or overuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analyses. During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic and 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR, 2.14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR, 1.38) and previous knee injury (OR, 1.78), whereas participation in soccer (OR, 1.64), handball (OR, 1.95), basket (OR, 2.07), rhythmic (OR, 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR, 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport participation above two times per week increased odds (OR, 1.46-2.40). Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type. For traumatic knee injuries, participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor. Risk factors for overuse knee injuries were being a girl; previous knee injury; and participation in soccer, handball, basket, and rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times per week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries with unknown short- and long-term consequences.
van der Does, H T D; Brink, M S; Benjaminse, A; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing stability after a single-leg jump landing and landing technique during a repeated counter movement jump by detailed 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. During the season 11 acute ankle injuries were reported along with 6 acute and 7 overuse knee injuries by the teams' physical therapist. Logistic regression analysis showed less landing stability in the forward and diagonal jump direction (OR 1.01-1.10, p≤0.05) in players who sustained an acute ankle injury. Furthermore landing technique with a greater ankle dorsiflexion moment increased the risk for acute ankle injury (OR 2.16, p≤0.05). A smaller knee flexion moment and greater vertical ground reaction force increased the risk of an overuse knee injury (OR 0.29 and 1.13 respectively, p≤0.05). Less one-legged landing stability and suboptimal landing technique were shown in players sustaining an acute ankle and overuse knee injury compared to healthy players. Determining both landing stability and technique may further guide injury prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Among the injury types, sports ones constitute a considerable proportion of patients who refer to the medical centers. This research was conducted to examine the frequency of sportsrelated injuries referring to Kashan University of Medical Sciences Trauma Research Center from 2005 to 2011. Methods: This was a retrospective research in which existing data from the data bank of Kashan University of Medical Sciences Trauma Research Center were employed. The data were extracted from the main source by SPSS version 16.0. Variables such as age, education, occupation and gender were analyzed. Results: The highest proportion of injuries was observed in students (59.4% followed by workers (11.8%. Upper and lower extremities were most commonly injured. The most frequent injury was strain (35.4%, followed by sprain (27.7%. Conclusion: The results of this research showed that the majority of the sports trauma occurrs in students; therefore, they need more attention in regard to sports injuries. Preventive measures such as informing the coaches and teachers as well as increasing the students’ awareness about the injury risk can decrease the incidences of sports injuries. Key words: Athletic injuries; Epidemiology; Kashan
Prasanna J. Gamage
Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.
Preventive Medicine THE PARACHUTE ANKLE BRACE: ENTANGLEMENTS AND INJURIES AFTER CONTROLLING FOR EXTRINSIC RISK...Amoroso P.J. (2005). Effectiveness of an external ankle brace in reducing parachute-related ankle injuries . Injury Prevention . 11: 163- 168. 25...M. (1994). The efficacy of a semirigid ankle stabilizer to reduce acute ankle injury in basketball . American Journal of Sports Medicine. 22:
Donohue, Benjamin F; Lubitz, Marc G; Kremchek, Timothy E
Injuries to the latissimus dorsi and teres major muscles, while rare, are debilitating. They are seen in a variety of sports, although disproportionately in the throwing shoulder of baseball pitchers. There have been 25 case reports and 2 case series published on the nonoperative and operative management of these injuries. Latissimus dorsi and teres major muscle anatomy, function, and common injury patterns are well described in these case reports. Also well detailed are the typical patient presentation, physical examination, and imaging findings. Latissimus dorsi tendon injuries are sometimes treated operatively, whereas latissimus dorsi muscle belly or isolated teres major injuries are treated nonoperatively. Nonoperative treatment includes oral anti-inflammatories and shoulder physical therapy. A number of surgical patient positions, approaches, and fixation constructs have been described, although 2 techniques of positioning and surgical approach are used most commonly. Fixation is most often performed with suture anchors. Return-to-play timing, shoulder strength, and healing on magnetic resonance imaging are variable. No standard of care currently exists for the treatment of latissimus dorsi or teres major injuries. If treating a patient with an injury to either muscle, the clinician should be familiar with accumulated experience as reported in the published literature.
Bruce, D A; Schut, L; Sutton, L N
Eighty per cent of severe sports-related central nervous system trauma occurs as a result of collision sports, chiefly American football and rugby union football, followed by wrestling and gymnastics. Although serious head injury is uncommon, episodes of concussion are frequent; repeated concussion should be grounds for suggesting that the athlete give up collision sport. American and rugby union football are the sports mainly responsible for cervical spine injury with resultant quadriplegia.
Almeida, Pedro Henrique Garcia Lopes de; Olmedilla, Aurelio; Rubio, Víctor J.; Palou, Pere
Sport injuries are a constant in physical activity and sport and represent, to a greater or lesser degree, an obstacle that most athletes have to face and which could have an impact on economical, occupational and educational aspects, as well as on physical and psychological health. Traditionally, sport injury was deemed the result of biomechanical forces exerted on the body and sustained during participation in sport activity, under which perspective the athlete is considered merely...
... Right Eye Protection Resources for Adults Resources for Children About Sports Eye Injury and Protective Eyewear Parents and coaches play an ... States and most injuries occurring in school-aged children are sports-related. 1 These injuries account for an estimated 100,000 physician visits ...
Bowling, Tyler; Edizer, Bahadir; Kunze, Heather; Thistlethwaite, John; Abimbola, Oluwole
Injuries among student athletes are a major concern, especially when the prevalence of injury is high among load-bearing sports (e.g. basketball, volleyball, football, soccer). The purpose of this study was to determine the most common injuries among college-aged individuals that participated in load-bearing sports, to determine the most common method of treatment/rehab for these injuries, and the prevalence of reoccurrence. We hypothesized that ankle and knee injuries would be the most preva...
Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
This study prospectively analysed sports injury incidence over 3 seasons in a regional sports school within an injury surveillance project, involving 372 athletes (12-19 years) from 16 different disciplines. A personal sports diary was used to record all sporting activities daily for every athlete. Injuries (time-loss definition) were registered via a standardized questionnaire. Sports injury incidence (injuries/1,000 h) evolved from 3.9 in the first year to 4.8 in the second (p injury incidence in the third year were also observed when classifying injuries as traumatic or overuse, and as new or recurrent. The proportion of recurrent injuries was lower in the third period (11 %) when compared to the first (19.5 %, p Injury incidence was lowest during the third period for all severity categories. The same was found when considering injuries within racket, team and individual sports. Implementing an injury surveillance system in this setting was associated with a lower injury incidence in the third observation period. This project may have influenced stakeholders' awareness and attitude towards the sports injury problematic.
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Gardner, Ryan M; Kuhn, Andrew W; Solomon, Gary S; Bonfield, Christopher M; Zuckerman, Scott L
The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries. The goal of the current series is to describe, in detail, the presentation, management, and outcomes of examples of these rare injuries. During the fall of 2015, three high school football players presented with acute subdural hemorrhages following in-game collisions and were treated at our institution within a span of 2 months. For the 2 athletes who required surgical intervention, a previous SRC was sustained within 4 weeks before the catastrophic event. One year after injury, 2 players have returned to school, though with persistent deficits. One patient remains nonverbal and wheelchair bound. None of the athletes has returned to sports. Acute subdural hemorrhage resultant from an in-game football collision is rare. The temporal proximity of the reported SRSBIs to recent SRCs emphasizes the importance of return-to-play protocols and raises questions regarding the possibility of second impact syndrome. Although epidemiologic conclusions cannot be drawn from this small sample, these cases provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the presentation, management, and long-term outcomes of SRSBI in American high school football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McBeth, Paul B; Ball, Chad G; Mulloy, Robert H; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W
Alpine skiing and snowboarding are popular winter sports in Canada. Every year participation in these activities results in traumatic injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and injury patterns, as well as risk factors associated with ski and snowboarding injuries. A comprehensive 10-year retrospective review of Alpine ski and snowboarding injuries from 1996 to 2006 was conducted. The Alberta Trauma Registry was used as the primary source of data. A total of 196 patients (56.6% skiers, 43.4% snowboarders) were identified as having major traumatic injuries (Injury Severity Score, >or=12). Forty-three patients required intensive care unit support. The majority of injuries were related to falls and collisions with natural objects. Head injuries were most common, followed by chest, spinal, and extremity trauma. Seventy-nine patients required emergency surgery. Skiing and snowboarding represent activities with high potential for traumatic injury. Safety initiatives should be developed to target this population.
Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit
.14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR 1.38), and previous knee injury (OR 1.78), while participation in soccer (OR 1.64), handball (OR 1.95), basket (OR 2.07), rhythmic (OR 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport...... and participation in soccer, handball, basket, rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times/week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries......INTRODUCTION: Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate...
Knapik, Joseph J; Marshall, Stephen W; Lee, Robyn B; Darakjy, Salima S; Jones, Sarah B; Mitchener, Timothy A; delaCruz, Georgia G; Jones, Bruce H
rugged occusal surfaces of molars, soft gingiva). Laminates with different shock absorbing and stress distributing (stiffness) capability may be one way to accommodate these factors.Studies comparing mouthguard users with nonusers have examined different sports, employed a variety of study designs and used widely-varying injury case definitions. Prior to the 1980s, most studies exhibited relatively low methodological quality. Despite these issues, meta-analyses indicated that the risk of an orofacial sports injury was 1.6-1.9 times higher when a mouthguard was not worn. However, the evidence that mouthguards protect against concussion was inconsistent, and no conclusion regarding the effectiveness of mouthguards in preventing concussion can be drawn at present. Mouthguards should continue to be used in sport activities where there is significant risk of orofacial injury.
Collins, Loel; Collins, Dave
Adventure sport coaches practice in environments that are dynamic and high in risk, both perceived and actual. The inherent risks associated with these activities, individuals' responses and the optimal exploitation of both combine to make the processes of risk management more complex and hazardous than the traditional sports where risk management…
Hill, C M; Crosher, R F; Mason, D A
Details of injuries to the face and teeth have been collected over a five-year period. One hundred and thirty patients were seen with injuries resulting from 21 different sports. Estimates of the numbers of people playing various team sports in the Bradford area suggest that the incidence of facial injuries is most common in rugby, followed by soccer and cricket. Miniature motor cycling and horse-riding are the most dangerous individual sports. The ages of injured patients varied widely in different sports, but the severity of injuries sustained is less than those due to other causes.
Dallinga, Joan M; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A P M
Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is evident. From this point of view it is important to know which screening tools can identify athletes who are at risk of injury to their lower extremities. The aim of this article is to determine the predictive values of anthropometric and/or physical screening tests for injuries to the leg, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), knee, hamstring, groin and ankle in team sports. A systematic review was conducted in MEDLINE (1966 to September 2011), EMBASE (1989 to September 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to September 2011). Based on inclusion criteria defined a priori, titles, abstracts and full texts were analysed to find relevant studies. The analysis showed that different screening tools can be predictive for injuries to the knee, ACL, hamstring, groin and ankle. For injuries in general there is some support in the literature to suggest that general joint laxity is a predictive measure for leg injuries. The anterior right/left reach distance >4 cm and the composite reach distance injuries. Furthermore, an increasing age, a lower hamstring/quadriceps (H : Q) ratio and a decreased range of motion (ROM) of hip abduction may predict the occurrence of leg injuries. Hyperextension of the knee, side-to-side differences in anterior-posterior knee laxity and differences in knee abduction moment between both legs are suggested to be predictive tests for sustaining an ACL injury and height was a predictive screening tool for knee ligament injuries. There is some evidence that when age increases, the probability of sustaining a hamstring injury increases. Debate exists in the analysed literature regarding measurement of the flexibility of the hamstring as a predictive screening tool, as well as using the H
Objective. There is a real risk of transmitting HIV through open wounds during participation in sport. The aim of this study was to investigate athlete s knowledge and attitudes towards HIV transmission in a competitive sport environment how their sporting codes, demographics, knowledge and interaction with colleagues ...
Rössler, Roland; Donath, Lars; Verhagen, Evert; Junge, Astrid; Schweizer, Thomas; Faude, Oliver
The promotion of sport and physical activity (PA) for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle, but being engaged in sport bears the risk of sustaining injuries. Injuries, in turn, can lead to a reduction in current and future involvement in PA and, therefore, may negatively affect future health as well as quality of life. Thus, sports injury prevention is of particular importance in youth. The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the effectiveness of exercise-based injury prevention programs in child and adolescent sport in general, and with respect to different characteristics of the target group, injury prevention program, and outcome variables. An Internet-based literature search was conducted in six databases (CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, PubMed, SPORTDiscus) using the following search terms with Boolean conjunction: (sport injur* OR athletic injur* OR sport accident*) AND (prevent* OR prophylaxis OR avoidance) AND (child* OR adolescent OR youth). Randomized controlled trials and controlled intervention studies in organized sport, published in English in a peer-reviewed journal, analyzing the effects of an exercise-based injury prevention program in athletes younger than 19 years of age. Two reviewers evaluated eligibility and methodological quality. Main outcome extracted was the rate ratio (RR). Statistical analyses were conducted using the inverse-variance random effects model. Twenty-one trials, conducted on a total of 27,561 athletes (median age 16.7 years [range 10.7-17.8]), were included. The overall RR was 0.54 (95% CI 0.45-0.67) [p prevention than boys (p = 0.05). Both prevention programs with a focus on specific injuries (RR 0.48 [95% CI 0.37-0.63]) and those aiming at all injuries (RR 0.62 [95% CI 0.48-0.81]) showed significant reduction effects. Pre-season and in-season interventions were similarly beneficial (p = 0.93). Studies on programs that include jumping/plyometric exercises showed a significant
Rugg, Caitlin; Kadoor, Adarsh; Feeley, Brian T; Pandya, Nirav K
Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who played multiple sports during adolescence would be less likely to experience injury and would have higher participation rates in terms of games played and career length compared with single-sport athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. First-round draft picks from 2008 to 2015 in the NBA were included in the study. From publically available records from the internet, the following data were collected for each athlete: participation in high school sports, major injuries sustained in the NBA, percentage of games played in the NBA, and whether the athlete was still active in the NBA. Athletes who participated in sports in addition to basketball during high school were defined as multisport athletes and were compared with athletes who participated only in basketball in high school. Two hundred thirty-seven athletes were included in the study, of which 36 (15%) were multisport athletes and 201 (85%) were single-sport athletes in high school. The multisport cohort played in a statistically significantly greater percentage of total games (78.4% vs 72.8%; P basketball athletes participated in multiple sports in high school, those who were multisport athletes participated in more games, experienced fewer major injuries, and had longer careers than those who participated in a single sport. Further research is needed to determine the reasons behind these differences.
Podlog, Leslie; Dimmock, James; Miller, John
Evidence suggests that competitive athletes returning to sport following injury rehabilitation may experience a range of psychosocial concerns. The purpose of this paper is to review some of the psychosocial stresses common among returning athletes and to provide practitioner strategies for enhancing recovery outcomes. Findings are based on a database search of Sport Discus, Psychinfo, and Medline using sport injury, fear of re-injury, return to full activity. Salient apprehensions among athletes' returning to sport following injury were found to include: anxieties associated with re-injury; concerns about an inability to perform to pre-injury standards; feelings of isolation, a lack of athletic identity and insufficient social support; pressures to return to sport; and finally, self-presentational concerns about the prospect of appearing unfit, or lacking in skill in relation to competitors. The results suggest that athletes returning to sport from injury may experience concerns related to their sense of competence, autonomy and relatedness. Given its focus on competence, autonomy and relatedness issues, self-determination theory (SDT) is offered as a framework for understanding athlete concerns in the return to sport from injury. Practical suggestions for sport medicine practitioners, researchers and applied sport psychology specialists seeking to address athlete issues are provided using an SDT perspective. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vrbanić, Tea Schnurrer-Luke; Ravlić-Gulan, Jagoda; Gulan, Gordan; Matovinović, Damir
Female athletes participating in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) knee injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. ACL injuries result either from contact mechanisms or from certain unexplained non-contact mechanisms occurring during daily professional sports activities. The occurrence of non-contact injuries points to the existence of certain factors intrinsic to the knee that can lead to ACL rupture. When knee joint movement overcomes the static and the dynamic constraint systems, non-contact ACL injury may occur. Certain recent results suggest that balance and neuromuscular control play a central role in knee joint stability, protection and prevention of ACL injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate balance neuromuscular skills in healthy Croatian female athletes by measuring their balance index score, as well as to estimate a possible correlation between their balance index score and balance effectiveness. This study is conducted in an effort to reduce the risk of future injuries and thus prevent female athletes from withdrawing from sports prematurely. We analysed fifty-two female athletes in the high-risk sports of handball and volleyball, measuring for their static and dynamic balance index scores, using the Sport KAT 2000 testing system. This method may be used to monitor balance and coordination systems and may help to develop simpler measurements of neuromuscular control, which can be used to estimate risk predictors in athletes who withdraw from sports due to lower sports results or ruptured anterior cruciate ligament and to direct female athletes to more effective, targeted preventive interventions. The tested Croatian female athletes with lower sports results and ACL knee injury incurred after the testing were found to have a higher balance index score compared to healthy athletes. We therefore suggest that a higher balance index score can be used as an effective risk predictor for lower sports results
Owoeye Oluwatoyosi BA
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009. It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4% followed by ligament sprains (22.9%. The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian
Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design : Qualitative study. Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis : We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Athletes in our study viewed injuries as "part and parcel" of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities.
Gould, Trenton E.; Piland, Scott G.; Caswell, Shane V.; Ranalli, Dennis; Mills, Stephen; Ferrara, Michael S.; Courson, Ron
Objective: To provide athletic trainers, health care professionals, and all those responsible for the care of athletes with clinical recommendations for preventing and managing sport-related dental and oral injuries. Background: Participation in competitive sports continues to grow at both the interscholastic and intercollegiate levels. Therefore, exposure to, and the incidence of athletic-related injury, including orofacial injury, will also likely increase. At the time of this writing, the leading governing agencies for interscholastic (National Federation of State High School Associations) and intercollegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association) sports require only protective orofacial equipment (eg, mouthguards) for 5 and 4, respectively, of their sanctioned sports. Although orofacial injuries represent a small percentage of all sport-related injuries, the financial burden associated with these injuries (eg, tooth avulsion) can exceed $15 000 over an adult life. Therefore, effective management of sport-related dental injuries is critical to the long-term financial, physical, and emotional health of people who have experienced dental trauma. Recommendations: Based upon the current evidence regarding sport-related orofacial injury, we provide recommendations related to planning considerations, education, and mouthguard efficacy, material, fabrication, and care considerations. Additionally, suggested best practices for managing sport-related dental injury are also given for athletic trainers and other health care professionals. PMID:27875057
Full Text Available The study examined sensation seeking intensity level in males involved in recreational high risk sports and investigated whether its level depends on type of sport practised. Additionally, in case of parachutists, sport experience of study participants were scrutinised with regard to its possible impact on the level of sensation seeking.The research involved 217 males aged 17 to 45, practising recreational high risk sports, namely: parachuting (n=98; wakeboarding (n=30; snowboarding (n=30; scuba diving (n=22; alpinism (n=20; paragliding (n=17. The control group included 54 men not involved in sports. Polish version of Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-IV of Zuckerman was applied.Results show, that high risk sports males are featured by stronger need of sensations in comparison to control group and this concerned all but one aspect of sensation seeking variable. The only exception was the need of intellectual stimulation. Except from the thrill and adventure seeking dimension, type of sport may also be an important determinant of sensation seeking. Men practising snowboard and wakeboard presented stronger need for sensations, especially in the dimension of experience seeking, disinhibition and boredom susceptibility. Sport experience (number of jumps in parachuting did not differentiate the level of sensation seeking among investigated parachutists. Population of sport high risk male takers was not homogeneous, and therefore in future research one should analyse specific sports (or events in a certain sport separately.
Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...
Deng, Xiao; Jin, Ye; Ye, Pengpeng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Ji, Cuirong; Er, Yuliang; Wang, Linhong; Duan, Leilei
To understand the trend and characteristics of sports and recreation related injuries reported from National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) to provide basis for corresponding prevention strategies and decision-making. Descriptive analysis was applied to display the overall trend, general information, injury event and clinical characteristics of sports and recreation related injuries from 2009 to 2013. The proportion of sports and recreation related injuries among all injuries increased from 2009 to 2013, with an annual increase exceeding 45% (46.21%, 47.32%, 48.14%, 52.00%, 53.65%, respectively). Sports and recreation related injuries mainly involved males, with 15-29 age groups, particularly in summer and autumn. Sports and recreation related injuries mostly occurred at home, with annual rates of proportion as 33.07%, 34.16%, 32.98%, 34.57 and 36.22%, mostly caused by falls (41.19%, 41.64%, 44.70%, 47.41%, 47.96%). Contusion and abrasion were the leading types of injuries (43.49%, 44.56%, 45.14%, 45.02%, 45.62%) with the serious leading types as fracture, concussion/cerebral contusion or laceration, and sharp force injury/bite/open wounds. Head was the part mainly involved (31.30%, 32.48%, 31.89%, 30.88%, 29.44%) in injuries. Most sports and recreation related injuries were minor and most of the patients headed home after treatment. Sports and recreation related injury appeared a growing public health problem in China. Children and the elderly should be the target groups for intervention. Falls prevention in sports and the use of protection gears should be the focus countermeasures for prevention.
Scherr, Carlos; Fabiano, Leonardo Corrêa Castro; Guerra, Renata Leborato; Belém, Luciano Herman Juacaba; Câmara, Ana Carolina Gurgel; Campos, Adriana
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of deaths in the world, and many events could be prevented by healthy life habits. To compare the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents enrolled at public schools in the city of Rio de Janeiro, including a renowned school for sport practices. Cross-sectional study, convenience sampling of 422 students enrolled at the Experimental Olympic Gymnasium (EOG) and at Figueiredo Pimentel School (FP). Using descriptive analyses, continuous variables were expressed as mean and standard deviation or median and interquartile ranges, and the Student's t-test or the chi-square test, respectively, was used for comparisons. The sports were classified according to the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) (below or above 5). We included 274 students enrolled at the EOG and 148 at FP. Mean age was similar between schools -12.5 ± 1.6 years at FP and 12.6 ± 0.9 at the EOG; 65.5% of the students at FP and 43.8% of the students at the EOG were female (p eating habits outside school may contribute to a better metabolic profile and reduction in cardiovascular risk factors in students. Public health measures are also need.
Carson, F; Polman, R C J
Avoidance coping has commonly been reported within literature to be a debilitative process. However, in situations where goal attainment is reduced or eradicated avoidance coping strategies appear to have some benefit. The aim of this study was to identify the role of avoidance coping within the sports injury rehabilitation setting. A mixed methodological approach was utilized with four professional male rugby union players, concurrent with their rehabilitation from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery. Twice monthly interviews were conducted with each player, along with a self-report diary and the Coping with Health, Injuries and Problems (CHIP; Endler & Parker, 2000) inventory. Content analysis showed six higher-order themes split into two general dimensions: (a) behavioral avoidance coping (physical distraction, social interaction, maladaptive behaviors), and (b) cognitive avoidance coping (denial, thought stopping, cognitive distraction). Results suggest avoidance coping strategies facilitate control of short-term emotional states, as well has appearing to have long-term benefits for injured players. Particular benefits were associated with undertaking alternate work within the sports organization.
The coaches in Nigeria claimed to recognise the importance of mouth guards in prevention of oro-facial injuries during sports but need more information in this regard. Key Words: Oro-facial injuries; mouth guard; sports; knowledge and attitude; Nigerian Coaches. Nig. J Health and Biomed. Sciences Vol.2(2) 2003: 68-72 ...
Kox, Laura S.; Kuijer, P. Paul F. M.; Opperman, Jip; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Maas, Mario; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.
This study's objective was to collect items from experienced sports physicians, relating to the presence and severity of overuse wrist injuries in young athletes, for developing a measurement instrument for signals of overuse wrist injury. Seven Dutch elite sports physicians involved in guidance and
Patel, Dilip R.; Yamasaki, Ai; Brown, Kelly
Over the past several decades there has been increased participation in sports by children and adolescents at earlier ages in the United States, as well as more intense participation and specialization in sports at very early ages. This trend has also partly contributed to the patterns of injuries seen in young athletes, and especially in recent years, injuries previously seen in mature athletes are being seen in young athletes. Overall, the vast majority of sport-related musculoskeletal inju...
Onaka, Giuliano Moreto; Gaspar-Jr, Jair José; Graças, Dayana das; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio Silva; Martinez, Paula Felippe; Oliveira-Junior, Silvio Assis de
Abstract Introduction: In soccer, the players’ positions have been associated with specific functional overload, which may cause sports injuries. Objective: To investigate the occurrence and characterize sport injuries according to soccer player position. Methods: 232 male soccer players (129 professionals and 103 amateurs) from different sport teams in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were distributed in groups according to their soccer player position. Besides anthropometric characteristics, ...
McKay, Damien; Broderick, Carolyn; Steinbeck, Katharine
With the advent of long-term athlete development programs and early sport specialization, the training of elite athletes now spans the period of adolescence. Adolescence represents a period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, but also a time of physical and psychological vulnerability. Changes in skeletal and physiological attributes coincide with an increased risk of sport related injury. A window of vulnerability is shaped by the properties of the musculoskeletal system, the influence of pubertal hormones and the lag time between physical and cognitive development. This article aims to challenge the assumption of adolescence as a time of increased vigor alone, by highlighting the presence of specific vulnerabilities, and proposing that the hormonal, musculoskeletal, and neurocognitive changes of adolescence may represent intrinsic risk factors for sport related injury.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie
Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in
Full Text Available The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI.We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption.Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20 who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms.Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed.Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1 reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1. Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months. Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers.TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol
Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D
The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with
Gabbett, Tim J
Limited information exists on the training dose-response relationship in elite collision sport athletes. In addition, no study has developed an injury prediction model for collision sport athletes. The purpose of this study was to develop an injury prediction model for noncontact, soft-tissue injuries in elite collision sport athletes. Ninety-one professional rugby league players participated in this 4-year prospective study. This study was conducted in 2 phases. Firstly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over 2 competitive seasons in elite collision sport athletes. Training load and injury data were modeled using a logistic regression model with a binomial distribution (injury vs. no injury) and logit link function. Secondly, training load and injury data were prospectively recorded over a further 2 competitive seasons in the same cohort of elite collision sport athletes. An injury prediction model based on planned and actual training loads was developed and implemented to determine if noncontact, soft-tissue injuries could be predicted and therefore prevented in elite collision sport athletes. Players were 50-80% likely to sustain a preseason injury within the training load range of 3,000-5,000 units. These training load 'thresholds' were considerably reduced (1,700-3,000 units) in the late-competition phase of the season. A total of 159 noncontact, soft-tissue injuries were sustained over the latter 2 seasons. The percentage of true positive predictions was 62.3% (n = 121), whereas the total number of false positive and false negative predictions was 20 and 18, respectively. Players that exceeded the training load threshold were 70 times more likely to test positive for noncontact, soft-tissue injury, whereas players that did not exceed the training load threshold were injured 1/10 as often. These findings provide information on the training dose-response relationship and a scientific method of monitoring and regulating training load in
Chan, Derwin King Chung; Hagger, Martin S
The present study investigated the transcontextual process of motivation in sport injury prevention. We examined whether general causality orientation, perceived autonomy support from coaches (PAS), self-determined motivation (SD-Mtv), and basic need satisfaction in a sport context predicted SD-Mtv, beliefs, and adherence with respect to sport injury prevention. Elite athletes (N = 533) completed self-report measures of the predictors (Week 1) and the dependent variables (Week 2). Variance-based structural equation modeling supported hypotheses: SD-Mtv in a sport context was significantly predicted by PAS and basic need satisfaction and was positively associated with SD-Mtv for sport injury prevention when controlling for general causality orientation. SD-Mtv for sport injury prevention was a significant predictor of adherence to injury-preventive behaviors and beliefs regarding safety in sport. In conclusion, the transcontextual mechanism of motivation may explain the process by which distal motivational factors in sport direct the formation of proximal motivation, beliefs, and behaviors of sport injury prevention.
Worp, M.P. van der
Running is a popular sport worldwide and has a positive effect on health and well-being. However, the rate of running-related injuries and the associated costs are high. Van der Worp performed a systematic review to examine which factors increase the risk of running injuries, and whether this is the
Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.
Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T
The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gabrielle T Goodlin
Full Text Available Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries.
Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 34:356-363...Basic Combat Training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 33:946-954. 4. Jones BH, Bovee MW, Harris JM, Cowan DN (1993). Intrinsic risk...E, Canham-Chervak M, Hauret K, Lescault E, Hoedebecke E (2003). Injury risk factors among Ordnance School soldiers. Medicine and Science in Sports and
Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E
OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to
van Heumen, Moniek; Tol, Johannes L.; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Orchard, John; Reurink, Gustaaf
A challenge for sports physicians is to estimate the risk of a hamstring re-injury, but the current evidence for MRI variables as a risk factor is unknown. To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of MRI findings at index injury and/or return to play for acute hamstring
Forsdyke, Dale; Smith, Andy; Jones, Michelle; Gledhill, Adam
The prime focus of research on sports injury has been on physical factors. This is despite our understanding that when an athlete sustains an injury it has psychosocial as well as physical impacts. Psychosocial factors have been suggested as prognostic influences on the outcomes of rehabilitation. The aim of this work was to address the question: are psychosocial factors associated with sports injury rehabilitation outcomes in competitive athletes? Mixed studies systematic review (PROSPERO reg.CRD42014008667). Electronic database and bibliographic searching was undertaken from the earliest entry until 1 June 2015. Studies that included injured competitive athletes, psychosocial factors and a sports injury rehabilitation outcome were reviewed by the authors. A quality appraisal of the studies was undertaken to establish the risk of reporting bias. 25 studies were evaluated that included 942 injured competitive athletes were appraised and synthesised. Twenty studies had not been included in previous reviews. The mean methodological quality of the studies was 59% (moderate risk of reporting bias). Convergent thematic analysis uncovered three core themes across the studies: (1) emotion associated with rehabilitation outcomes; (2) cognitions associated with rehabilitation outcomes; and (3) behaviours associated with rehabilitation outcomes. Injury and performance-related fears, anxiety and confidence were associated with rehabilitation outcomes. There is gender-related, age-related and injury-related bias in the reviewed literature. Psychosocial factors were associated with a range of sports injury rehabilitation outcomes. Practitioners need to recognise that an injured athlete's thoughts, feelings and actions may influence the outcome of rehabilitation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia
It is becoming increasingly apparent that sports can present danger in the form of injuries. The extent of this problem calls for preventive actions based on epidemiological research. Two questionnaires (LESADO and RAPIL II) were distributed in four schools to 651 subjects aged between 10 and 18 years, involved in different levels of physical activity (PA) - recreative sports, school sports, federated sports and no sports participation (except physical education classes). Bone age was evaluated through Tanner-Whitehouse III method and anthropometric measures according to ISAK. From 247 subjects (37.9%) it was reported a sports injury during the previous six months. The most injured body areas were lower limbs (53.8%), followed by upper limbs (29.0%) and the type of injuries found was strains (33.7%), sprains (27.1%) and fractures (23.1%). The most frequent causes were direct trauma (51.9%), indirect trauma (29.5%) and overuse (12.7%). A high percentage was relapses and chronic injuries (40.9%). The OR for age group ≥16 years was 2.26 suggesting that those ≥16 years were 2.26 times more likely to have an injury than the younger subjects and concerning the PA level, school and federated sports subjects were 4.21 and 4.44 times more likely to have an injury than no sports participation subjects. Sports injuries in school age subjects were predominantly minor conditions where sprains and strains were the major injuries. They resulted mostly of trauma situations and lower and upper limbs were the most affected areas. Injury occurrence increased with age and was higher in school and federated athletes.
Muscle injuries are the most common injury in sports and both athletes and non-athletes are commonly seen in general practice and in the emergency department. Muscle pain is a common cause for absence from work and the cost to society is high. The present thesis was aimed to study biomechanical and biological causes of muscle injury and pain in order to better design prevention programs and treatment of muscle injury. Hamstring injuries in sprinters are common, and not cause...
Everhart, Joshua S; Du, Amy; Chalasani, Radhika; Kirven, James C; Magnussen, Robert A; Flanigan, David C
To systematically review multiligament knee injury (MLKI) outcome studies to determine overall rates of return to work or sport after MLKI and risk factors for lack of return to work or sport after MLKI. A search was performed of MLKI outcome studies from 1950 to March 1, 2017. Ninety-two studies were identified. All included reported return to work, return to sport, or Tegner activity scores. Rates of return to work or sport were determined for overall population and by obesity status, injury severity, and presence of peroneal nerve or vascular injury. A total of 524 patients (21 studies) were included. Return to high-level sport was low (22%-33%). Return to any level of sport was 53.6% overall (178/332), with a higher rate reported in studies with all surgical patients (59.1%, 114/193 patients) versus studies with mixed surgical and nonoperative treatment (46.0%, 64/139 patients) (P = .02). Rate of return to work with little or no modifications was 62.1% (146/200) and return to any work was 88.4% (190/215). Obese patients had lower postoperative Tegner scores than a general population (obese: mean 1.7 ± 1.2; nonobese: mean 4.5 ± 1.0; P < .001). Among studies without Schenck grade IV and V injuries, return to work with no or minimal modifications (100%, 12/12 patients) was higher than studies including grade IV and V patients (66.0%, 70/106 patients) (P = .017). Return to any work was higher in studies without vascular injuries (96.3%, 105/109) versus those including them (80.2%, 85/106) (P < .001). Return to sport after MLKI occurs in approximately 60% of surgically treated patients, though return to high-level sport is lower. Return to work is frequently possible after MLKI though it may require workplace or job duty modifications. Obesity, nonoperative treatment, higher injury severity, and vascular injury are associated with poorer functional outcomes. Level IV, systematic review of level III and IV studies. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of
Franciele M. Vanderlei
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.
Vanderlei, Franciele M; Vanderlei, Luiz C M; Bastos, Fabio N; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos M
The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.
Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane
Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toohey, Liam A; Drew, Michael K; Fortington, Lauren V; Finch, Caroline F; Cook, Jill L
Accounting for subsequent injuries is critical for sports injury epidemiology. The subsequent injury categorisation (SIC-1.0) model was developed to create a framework for accurate categorisation of subsequent injuries but its operationalisation has been challenging. The objective of this study was to update the subsequent injury categorisation (SIC-1.0 to SIC-2.0) model to improve its utility and application to sports injury datasets, and to test its applicability to a sports injury dataset. The SIC-1.0 model was expanded to include two levels of categorisation describing how previous injuries relate to subsequent events. A data-driven classification level was established containing eight discrete injury categories identifiable without clinical input. A sequential classification level that sub-categorised the data-driven categories according to their level of clinical relatedness has 16 distinct subsequent injury types. Manual and automated SIC-2.0 model categorisation were applied to a prospective injury dataset collected for elite rugby sevens players over a 2-year period. Absolute agreement between the two coding methods was assessed. An automated script for automatic data-driven categorisation and a flowchart for manual coding were developed for the SIC-2.0 model. The SIC-2.0 model was applied to 246 injuries sustained by 55 players (median four injuries, range 1-12), 46 (83.6%) of whom experienced more than one injury. The majority of subsequent injuries (78.7%) were sustained to a different site and were of a different nature. Absolute agreement between the manual coding and automated statistical script category allocation was 100%. The updated SIC-2.0 model provides a simple flowchart and automated electronic script to allow both an accurate and efficient method of categorising subsequent injury data in sport.
Nauta, Joske; Martin-Diener, Eva; Martin, Brian W; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert
The current focus on a physically active lifestyle in children puts children at increased physical activity-related injury risk. To summarise, in a systematic review, the evidence for the injury risk of several physical activity behaviours in 6- to 12-year-old children. An electronic search was performed in three databases (Embase, PubMed and SPORTDiscus). Inclusion criteria were: age 6-12 years; report on injuries related to overall physical activity, active commuting, unorganised leisure time physical activity, physical education and/or organised sports; incidence rates expressed as injuries per hours of physical activity; and published after January 1st 2000. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies included. Eight studies were included. The risk of bias assessment resulted in two studies with a score that was higher than 75 %; risk bias of those two studies was considered low. The medically treated, injury incidence rate was reported to be between 0.15 and 0.27 injuries per 1,000 h of physical activity. The absolute number of injuries related to unorganised leisure time physical activity was higher than the absolute number of injuries reported in organised sports. The respective injury incidence rate expressed per 1,000 h exposure was, however, generally lower during unorganised leisure time than during organised sports. Reported injury incidence rates related to active commuting were comparable to those for unorganised leisure time physical activity. Conflicting injury incidence rates were reported for physical education. Subgroup analysis suggested that girls and children with low habitual levels of physical activity are at increased injury risk. A limitation of the review is that no standard bias assessment was available for this specific context. Children are at an inherent injury risk while participating in physical activities. Most injury prevention efforts have focussed on the sports setting, but our results suggest that many children sustain an injury
Richmond, Sarah A; Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Ezzat, Allison; Schneider, Kathryn; Schneider, Geoff; Emery, Carolyn A
Systematic review with meta-analysis. To identify risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, hip, and ankle, including joint injury, sport, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and occupational activity, in all age groups. OA is a significant health problem worldwide, affecting up to 10% of men and 18% of women over 60 years of age. There has not been a comprehensive review examining modifiable physical risk factors associated with the onset of OA. This evidence is important to inform the physiotherapy management of individuals following onset of OA. Twelve electronic databases were systematically reviewed. The studies selected met the following criteria: (1) original data; (2) joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and/or occupational activity investigated as risk factors; (3) outcomes included OA (hip, knee, and/or ankle); and (4) analytic component of study design. The data extracted included study design, years of follow-up, study population, OA definition, risk factors, and results (effect estimates reported or calculated where available). The quality of evidence was assessed based on a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity were associated with an increased risk of OA of the knee and hip. Sport and physical activity produced inconsistent findings. Joint injury was identified as a significant risk factor for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.2) and hip OA (combined odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 18.2), as was previous meniscectomy with or without anterior cruciate ligament injury for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval: 4.0, 13.7). There is a paucity of research examining risk factors associated with ankle OA; this review identified only 2 studies with this outcome. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity are associated with an increased risk of knee and hip OA. Some findings
McGuine, Timothy A; Post, Eric G; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; Trigsted, Stephanie; Bell, David R
Sport specialization is associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEIs) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, sport specialization and the incidence of LEIs have not been investigated prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. To determine if sport specialization was associated with an increased risk of LEIs in high school athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Participants (interscholastic athletes in grades 9-12) were recruited from 29 Wisconsin high schools during the 2015-2016 school year. Participants completed a questionnaire identifying their sport participation and history of LEIs. Sport specialization of low, moderate, or high was determined using a previously published 3-point scale. Athletic trainers reported all LEIs that occurred during the school year. Analyses included group proportions, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs, and days lost due to injury (median and interquartile range [IQR]). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs were calculated to investigate the association between the incidence of LEIs and sport specialization level. A total of 1544 participants (50.5% female; mean age, 16.1 ± 1.1 years) enrolled in the study, competed in 2843 athletic seasons, and participated in 167,349 athlete-exposures. Sport specialization was classified as low (59.5%), moderate (27.1%), or high (13.4%). Two hundred thirty-five participants (15.2%) sustained a total of 276 LEIs that caused them to miss a median of 7.0 days (IQR, 2.0-22.8). Injuries occurred most often to the ankle (34.4%), knee (25.0%), and upper leg (12.7%) and included ligament sprains (40.9%), muscle/tendon strains (25.4%), and tendinitis/tenosynovitis (19.6%). The incidence of LEIs for moderate participants was higher than for low participants (HR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.04-2.20]; P = .03). The incidence of LEIs for high participants was higher than for low participants (HR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1
Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Background: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these injuries is
This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from sports injuries, one of the leading causes of child injury. Created: 1/14/2010 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 1/14/2010.
Abrahams, Shameemah; Fie, Sarah Mc; Patricios, Jon; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V
Concussion is a common sports injury with approximately 1.6-3.8 million sport-related concussions reported in the USA annually. Identifying risk factors may help in preventing these injuries. This systematic review aims to identify such risk factors. Three electronic databases; ScienceDirect, PubMed and SpringerLink, were searched using the keywords 'RISK FACTORS' or 'PREDISPOSITION' in conjunction with 'SPORT' and 'CONCUSSION'. Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 13 628 identified titles were independently analysed by two of the authors to a final list of 86 articles. Only articles with a level of evidence of I, II and III were included according to robust study design and data analysis. The level of certainty for each risk factor was determined. A high level of certainty for increased risk of a subsequent concussion in athletes sustaining more than one previous concussion was reported in 10 of 13 studies. Further, a high level of certainty was assigned to match play with all 29 studies reporting an increased concussion risk during matches. All other risk factors were evaluated as having a low level of certainty. Although several risk factors were identified from the appraised studies, prospective cohort studies, larger sample sizes, consistent and robust measures of risk should be employed in future research.
Myer, Gregory D; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Ford, Kevin R; Best, Thomas M; Bergeron, Michael F; Hewett, Timothy E
Regular participation in organized youth sports does not ensure adequate exposure to skill- and health-related fitness activities, and sport training without preparatory conditioning does not appear to reduce risk of injury in young athletes. Current trends indicate that widespread participation in organized youth sports is occurring at a younger age, especially in girls. Current public health recommendations developed to promote muscle strengthening and bone building activities for youth aged 6 yr and older, along with increased involvement in competitive sport activities at younger ages, has increased interest and concern from parents, clinicians, coaches, and teachers regarding the optimal age to encourage and integrate more specialized physical training into youth development programs. This review synthesizes the latest literature and expert opinion regarding when to initiate neuromuscular conditioning in youth and presents a how-to integrative training conceptual model that could maximize the potential health-related benefits for children by reducing sports-related injury risk and encouraging lifelong, regular physical activity.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G; Lind, M; Sørensen, H; Hebert, J J; Attermann, J
Current methods of sports injury surveillance are limited by lack of medical validation of self-reported injuries and/or incomplete information about injury consequences beyond time loss from sport. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the feasibility of the SMS, Phone, and medical Examination injury surveillance (SPEx) system (b) to evaluate the proportion of injuries and injury consequences reported by SPEx when compared to outcomes from a modified version of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire. We followed 679 elite adolescent handball players over 31 weeks using the SPEx system. During the last 7 weeks, we also implemented a modified OSTRC questionnaire in a subgroup of 271 players via telephone interviews. The weekly response proportions to the primary SPEx questions ranged from 85% to 96% (mean 92%). SMS responses were received from 79% of the participants within 1 day. 95% of reported injuries were classified through the telephone interview within a week, and 67% were diagnosed by medical personnel. Comparisons between reported injuries from SPEx and OSTRC demonstrated fair (κ = 39.5% [25.1%-54.0%]) to substantial prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK = 66.8% [95% CI 58.0%-75.6%]) agreement. The average injury severity score difference between SPEx and the OSTRC approach was -0.2 (95% CI -3.69-3.29) of possible 100 with 95% limits of agreement from(-14.81-14.41). These results support the feasibility and validity of the SPEx injury surveillance system in elite youth sport. Future studies should evaluate the external validity of SPEx system in different cohorts of athletes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dain, Stephen J
Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to relate some of the personal variables (age and experience and sports (post game, sport category more important with injuries to players of handball. The study sample consisted of 100 handball players, with a mean age of 23.92 years (+ 5.21, of which 80% ASOBAL (Association Handball clubs in Spain competed in the league, and the other 20% did so between first and second division. For the evaluation of the variables using a self-report questionnaire in two parts: the first data is collected and sports personality variables, and the second will collect data on sports injuries. The results of this study indicate that the players suffer more injuries on average 2 in a season, with these minor fractures, muscle and tendinitis, being the player's quinces ASOBAL more is injured. The pivots and lateral suffer more injuries than the rest, and the porters seem to have a significantly lower tendency to injure anyone else. The older the greater the likelihood of injury. The completion of jobs that can determine the exact weight of each variable in the injury, which would be very important from prevention, and the performance of their own coaches. Key words: Sports injuries, handball, age, experience, post game, sport category
Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra
Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this work is to relate some of the personal variables (age and experience and sports (post game, sport category more important with injuries to players of handball. The study sample consisted of 100 handball players, with a mean age of 23.92 years (+ 5.21, of which 80% ASOBAL (Association Handball clubs in Spain competed in the league, and the other 20% did so between first and second division. For the evaluation of the variables using a self-report questionnaire in two parts: the first data is collected and sports personality variables, and the second will collect data on sports injuries. The results of this study indicate that the players suffer more injuries on average 2 in a season, with these minor fractures, muscle and tendinitis, being the player's quinces ASOBAL more is injured. The pivots and lateral suffer more injuries than the rest, and the porters seem to have a significantly lower tendency to injure anyone else. The older the greater the likelihood of injury. The completion of jobs that can determine the exact weight of each variable in the injury, which would be very important from prevention, and the performance of their own coaches.Key words: Sports injuries, handball, age, experience, post game, sport category
Sheu, Yahtyng; Chen, Li-Hui; Hedegaard, Holly
Objective-Much of the research on sports- and recreation-related injuries focuses on a specific population, activity, or type of injury, and national estimates of the total burden of sports- and recreation-related injuries are limited. This study provides national estimates of the injury burden and examines the distribution of sports- and recreation-related injuries across demographic groups, activities, and injury circumstances. Methods-Information on medically attended injury episodes for persons aged 5 years and over were obtained from the 2011-2014 National Health Interview Survey. Sports- and recreation-related injuries are categorized by the associated activity using a classification scheme based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injury. Results-An average annual estimate of 8.6 million sports- and recreation-related injury episodes was reported, with an age-adjusted rate of 34.1 per 1,000 population. Males (61.3%) and persons aged 5-24 years (64.9%) accounted for more than one-half of injury episodes. Injury rates were higher among males, children aged 5-14 years, and non-Hispanic white persons than for their counterparts. One-half of the sports- and recreation-related injury episodes (50.0%) resulted in treatment at a doctor's office or other health clinic without an emergency department visit or hospitalization. Overall, general exercise was the most frequently mentioned activity associated with sports- and recreation-related injuries, but types of activities varied across sex and age groups. Body regions injured while engaging in sports and recreation activities included the lower extremity (42.0%), upper extremity (30.3%), and head and neck (16.4%). Conclusion-As the nation continues to recognize the importance of physical activity to maintain health, more research efforts are needed to examine sport and recreation injury across various activities, demographic groups, and health care settings, especially settings other than
Conclusion: This systematic yet pragmatic and iterative intervention development process is potentially applicable to any injury prevention topic across all sports settings and levels. It will guide researchers wishing to undertake intervention development.
Davis, Elaine K
Youth and children's sports are becoming increasingly popular in America. Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents are not small adults in their responses to exercise and stress. As children around the world become involved in more competitive and organized sports activities, the frequency and severity of acute and overuse injuries continue to rise. Safety guidelines, protective equipment and prevention education are crucial to reducing pediatric recreational and sports injuries. Preventing injuries and ensuring safe athletic practices are necessary for children and adolescents to continue to receive benefits from organized sports and recreational activities. Efforts to minimize these injuries are warranted both to ensure the long-term health of children and to reduce medical costs.
Bracko, Michael R.
Examines data from research on stretching as it relates to enhanced performance and injury prevention so that fitness, exercise, and sports performance professionals can make informed decisions about stretching programs for clients. The paper notes that stretching is a misunderstood component of fitness and sports training. Few studies show…
Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Thijs, K.M.; Backx, F.J.G.; Steffen, K.; Brozicevic, V.; Stubbe, J.H.
Background The European Youth Olympic Festival (EYOF) is a biennial sporting event of nine Olympic Summer Sports for talented athletes, aged 13–18 years, from all over Europe. Objective To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the multisport event (14–19 July 2013), with the
Van Beijsterveldt, A. M C; Thijs, K. M.; Backx, F. J G; Steffen, K.; Brozičević, V.; Stubbe, J. H.
Background: The European Youth Olympic Festival (EYOF) is a biennial sporting event of nine Olympic Summer Sports for talented athletes, aged 13-18 years, from all over Europe. Objective: To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the multisport event (14-19 July 2013), with the
Kordi, R; Wallace, W A
Athletes are at risk of blood borne infections through bleeding injuries or injection of drugs with contaminated syringes. Prevention should focus on reducing non-sport associated risky behaviour, as well as dealing appropriately with bleeding injuries. The risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus is particularly high in athletes in contact and collision sports, those who live in or travel to endemic regions, injecting drug abusers, and those who practice first aid when there is no healthcare practitioner available. It is recommended that such athletes, and also adolescent athletes, should be vaccinated against the virus as a routine.
D'Ailly, Philip N; Sluiter, Judith K; Kuijer, Paul P
Rib stress fractures (RSFs) are injuries frequently sustained by elite rowers with an injury rate of 8-16% over the course of a rowing career, resulting in negative effects on training and performance. For clinical management, the aim of this review was to describe time to return to sports, summarize potentially preventive measures and appraise the evidence on risk factors. A search strategy was performed in PubMed, SportDiscus, Web of Science and Embase till June 1st 2015. All studies were graded on their quality. The search resulted in 124 studies, of which 17 were included: Ten reported on return to sports, 17 reported on risk factors and nine on preventive measures. For return to sports, nine studies mentioned a loss of training of 4-6 weeks. The shortest period was one week and the longest 16 weeks. For risk factors, insufficient or conflicting evidence was found for changes in the training program, incorrect rowing technique, female gender, low bone mineral density, inadequate equipment, and training type. For prevention, gradual changes in the training program, alertness on the part of coaches and clinicians, and supplementation of diet and hormones are suggested as effective measures. However, no effect studies have been found. The main outcome of this review on RSFs is that little evidence is available on return to sports, risk factors and preventive measures. Coaches and clinicians should carefully guide and assist rowers suffering from RSFs in off training and in the subsequent training period to regain their pre-injury level.
Blauwet, Cheri; Sudhakar, Supreetha; Doherty, Ashley L; Garshick, Eric; Zafonte, Ross; Morse, Leslie R
The aim of this study was to determine the association between participation in organized sports programs and employment in adults with chronic spinal cord injury. This is a cross-sectional study of 149 adults with chronic spinal cord injury. Motor level and completeness of injury were confirmed by physical examination. Information related to demographics, employment, level of education, body mass index, duration of injury, participation in individually planned exercise, and participation in organized sports was obtained using a standardized questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with employment. In univariate analyses, employment was associated with younger age (P = 0.001) and a higher level of education (P = 0.01), whereas obesity decreased the likelihood of employment (P = 0.04). Participation in organized sports approached significance (P = 0.06). In the multivariable analysis and after adjusting for age, education, and body mass index, participation in organized sports was significantly associated with employment (odds ratio, 2.4; P = 0.04). Sex, duration of injury, wheelchair use, and participation in individually planned exercise were not significantly associated with employment (P = 0.16-0.94). In the adults with chronic spinal cord injury, participation in organized sports was positively associated with employment. Further studies are necessary to determine the causative nature of this association and how various factors related to sports participation may contribute.
Palmer-Green, Debbie; Elliott, Niall
Background Sports injury and illness surveillance is the first step in injury and illness prevention, and is important for the protection of both athlete health and performance in major competitions. Aim To identify the prevalence, severity nature and causes of athlete injuries and illnesses in the Great Britain Olympic Team (TeamGB) during the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Methods The observational prospective cohort study followed the Great Britain Injury/Illness Performance Project surveillance methodology and obtained information on injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games between 30 January and 23 February 2014 in TeamGB athletes (n=56). Results Among the 56 TeamGB athletes, there were 27 injuries and 11 illnesses during the Olympic Games period. This equated to 39% sustaining at least one injury and 18% at least one illness, with an incidence of 48.2 injuries and 19.6 illnesses per 100 athletes, respectively. Of all injuries and illnesses, 9% and 7%, respectively, resulted in time loss. The risk of sustaining an injury was highest for freestyle skiing, skeleton and snowboarding; and lowest for curling, biathlon and Alpine skiing (with no reported injuries); with the lower limb being the most commonly injured location. Respiratory system illnesses were most frequently reported overall, and older female athletes were the ones most affected by illness. Conclusions The risk of injury was double the risk of illness for TeamGB athletes. Overall, the rate of time-loss issues was low. Methodological considerations are important when interpreting data, and prevention strategies should focus on those issues causing the greatest risk, in terms of prevalence and severity, to athlete health and performance. PMID:25425714
Orchard, John; Hoskins, Wayne
To compare the most commonly used and proposed injury definitions for surveillance systems in team sports and attempt to assess their suitability for consensus definitions in terms of reliability and functionality. The PubMed and SportDiscus databases were searched for papers on team sports that discussed consensus definitions or compared various definitions of injury. A continuum between the most broad "tissue damage" definition and the most narrow "match time loss only" definition was developed. A "match time loss only" injury definition can be reliably and accurately applied but only captures a small percentage of the total pool of all "tissue damage" injuries. There are some inherent biases in using a match time loss only definition (late season matches, matches with unequal breaks between games), but these are clearly visible. All other definitions improve the volume of data captured but suffer serious theoretical and/or practical flaws with respect to accuracy and reliability. No study using a broad definition has demonstrated good reliability to date (eg, using 2 independent recorders at the same team). A "match time loss only" injury definition is the most accurate and reliable of those commonly used in team sports. Other injury definitions are broader and may be more appropriate for individual team and specific injury studies. However, a match time loss definition is the most accurate and reliable tool for comparing injury rates at different teams and between different seasons within teams. Hence, we recommend this as the basis for the injury definition in a consensus statement.
O'Dell, M Cody; Jaramillo, Diego; Bancroft, Laura; Varich, Laura; Logsdon, Gregory; Servaes, Sabah
With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports. However, some injuries that occur almost exclusively in high-level athletes (eg, athletic pubalgia) are reviewed to increase awareness and understanding of these entities among pediatric radiologists who may not be familiar with them and thus may not look for them. Injuries are described according to their location (ie, hip, knee, or foot and ankle) and pathologic process (eg, apophysitis, osteochondritis dissecans). Examples of abnormalities and normal variants of the anatomy that are often misdiagnosed are provided. The injuries reviewed represent a common and growing subset of pathologic processes about which all pediatric and musculoskeletal radiologists should be knowledgeable. Understanding physeal injury is especially important because missed diagnoses can lead to premature physeal closure and osteoarthritis. © RSNA, 2016.
Gabbe, Belinda J; Finch, Caroline F; Cameron, Peter A
The promotion of safe sports participation has become a public health issue due to rising obesity rates and the potential for parental concerns about safety to inhibit sports participation. The safety of Australian football and its elite game, the Australian Football League (AFL), is often the focus of media commentary. Participation in the modified version of the game (Auskick) has been shown to be safer but by the time children reach the under-15 age group, adult rules are in place and the umbrella of safety provided by modified rules is gone. Figures released recently by the AFL suggest that injury rates at the elite-level are at an historical low, but equivalent information for the more than 400,000 non-elite participants is not available. Published literature related to preventing injuries in Australian football highlights a significant knowledge gap with respect to the aetiology of injuries in non-elite participants and only a very small evidence base for prevention of injuries in this sport. Gains in reducing the public health impact of football injuries, and injury-related barriers to Australian football participation, will only come from substantial investment in large-scale trials at the non-elite level, and a co-ordinated and multidisciplinary approach to dealing with safety and injury issues across all levels of play. Active and committed collaboration of key stakeholders such as government health agencies, peak sports bodies, sports administrators, clinicians, researchers, clubs, coaches and the participants themselves will be necessary.
Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C
To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Assessment of intercoder agreement. Community Australian football. 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific 'X' code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise.
tobacco has no effect on reaction time.89-91 It is possible that the increased risk of injury associated with smokeless tobacco use could be...Grabiner M. Smokeless tobacco, reaction time, and strength in athletes. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1998; 30: 1548- 1551. 92...Candau R, Belli A, Millet GY, George D, Barbier B, Rouillon JD. Energy cost and running mechanics during a treadmill run to voluntary exhaustion in
Panagodage Perera, Nirmala Kanthi; Joseph, Corey; Kemp, Joanne Lyn; Finch, Caroline Frances
Team bat-or-stick sports, including cricket, softball and hockey, are popular among women. However, little is known about the injury profile in this population. The aim was to describe the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries in bat-or-stick sports played by women in a competitive league. This review was prospectively registered (PROSPERO CRD42015026715). CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus were systematically searched from January 2000 to September 2016, inclusive. Peer-reviewed original research articles reporting the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries sustained by women aged 18 + years in competitive bat-or-stick sports were included. Two meta-analyses based on injury incidence proportions (injury IP) and injury rates per 1000 person-days of athletic exposure (AE) were performed. A total of 37 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, and five had low risk of bias. The weighted injury IP was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.45]. The weighted injury rate was 6.12 (95% CI 6.05-6.18) overall, and greater in games [15.79 (95% CI 15.65-15.93)] than in practice [3.07 (95% CI 2.99-3.15)]. The ankle was the most commonly injured anatomical location, followed by the hand (including wrist and fingers), knee and head. Soft tissue and ligament injuries were most common types of injuries. Injury prevention in women's sports is a novel and emerging field of research interest. This review highlights that injury incidence is high among female bat-or-stick players, but little information is known about direct causal mechanisms. This review clearly establishes the need for enhancements to injury data collection. Without this information, it will not be possible to develop evidence-based injury prevention interventions.
Müller, Ulrike; Krüger-Franke, Michael; Schmidt, Michael; Rosemeyer, Bernd
The aim of the study was to find predictive parameters for a successful resumption of pre-injury level of sport 6 months post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In a prospective study, 40 patients with a ruptured ACL were surgically treated with semitendinosus tendon autograft. Six months after surgery, strength of knee extensors and flexors, four single-leg hop tests, Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Return to Sport after Injury Scale (ACL-RSI), subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) 2000 and the Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia-11 (TSK-11) were assessed. Seven months post-operatively, a standardized interview was conducted to identify "return to sport" (RS) and "non-return to sport" (nRS) patients. Logistic regression and "Receiver Operating Characteristic" (ROC) analyses were used to determine predictive parameters. No significant differences could be detected between RS and nRS patients concerning socio-demographic data, muscle tests, square hop and TSK-11. In nRS patients, the Limb Symmetry Index (LSI) of single hop for distance (p = 0.005), crossover hop (p = 0.008) and triple hop (p = 0.001) were significantly lower, in addition to the ACL-RSI (p = 0.013) and IKDC 2000 (p = 0.037). The cut-off points for LSI single hop for distance were 75.4 % (sensitivity 0.74; specificity 0.88), and for ACL-RSI 51.3 points (sensitivity 0.97; specificity 0.63). Logistic regression distinguished between RS and nRS subjects (sensitivity 0.97; specificity 0.63). The single hop for distance and ACL-RSI were found to be the strongest predictive parameters, assessing both the objective functional and the subjective psychological aspects of returning to sport. Both tests may help to identify patients at risk of not returning to pre-injury sport. II.
Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela
To determine the population-level burden of sports injuries compared with that for road traffic injury for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases in children aged sports-related cases and ICD-10-AM cause and location codes to identify road traffic injuries; and injury presentations to 38 Victorian public hospital emergency departments, using a combination of activity, cause and location codes. Trends in injury frequency and rate were analysed by log-linear Poisson regression and the population-level injury burden was assessed in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), hospital bed-days and direct hospital costs. Over the 7-year period, the annual frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury increased significantly by 29% (from N=7405 to N=9923; pSports injury accounted for a larger population health burden than did road traffic injury on all measures: 3-fold the number of YLDs (7324.8 vs 2453.9); 1.9-fold the number of bed-days (26 233 vs 13 886) and 2.6-fold the direct hospital costs ($A5.9 millions vs $A2.2 millions). The significant 7-year increase in the frequency of hospital-treated sports injury and the substantially higher injury population-health burden (direct hospital costs, bed-day usage and YLD impacts) for sports injury compared with road traffic injury for children aged sports injury prevention in this age group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Background Although injuries related to sports and recreation represent a significant burden to children and youth, few studies have examined the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injury since 2005, and some sports such as ringette have not been evaluated to date. The primary purpose of this study was to provide the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injuries treated in emergency departments for children and youth aged 5 – 19. Methods A retrospective data analysis was performed using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program [CHIRPP] from fiscal years (April – March) 2007/08 to 2009/10. CHIRPP is a computerized information system designed by the Public Health Agency of Canada that collects information about injuries to people evaluated in emergency departments across 11 pediatric hospitals and 5 general hospitals in Canada. Thirteen sports or activities were analyzed (baseball, basketball, cycling, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rugby, skiing, sledding, snowboarding, soccer, and volleyball). Descriptive statistics, including frequency by sport, age and sex, as well as the percent of concussions within each sport were calculated. Results Out of a total of 56, 691 reported sports and recreational injuries, soccer accounted for the largest proportion of injuries with 11,941 reported cases over the 3 year time period. Of these, approximately 30% were fractures. The 10 – 14 year age group reported the greatest proportion of injuries in 10 out of the 13 sports analyzed. In addition, males reported a greater number of overall injuries than females in 11 out of the 13 sports analyzed. The largest percentage of concussions was reported in ringette; these injuries accounted for 17.1% of overall injuries within this sport. Conclusions Injury prevention programs in Canada should focus on improving evidence-based programs to reduce the burden of injuries in all sports. PMID:24364875
Bancroft, Laura W
Wrist injuries can be categorized as those caused by high- or low-impact sports. High-impact sports include auto racing, motorcross or bicycle racing, in-line skating, gymnastics, football, soccer, ice skating, snowboarding, and alpine skiing. Low-impact sports include tennis, track and field, and golf. High-impact injuries of the wrist range from displaced fractures and dislocations to ligamentous and acute tendinous tears. Low-impact sports typically result in nondisplaced or occult fractures, contusions, stress reaction, ligamentous sprain, tendinopathy, tenosynovitis, or tendon subluxation. Imaging modalities for detection of injuries include radiography, computed tomography (CT) magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance CT arthrography, and skeletal scintigraphy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rechel, Julie A; Yard, Ellen E; Comstock, R Dawn
More than 7 million US high school students play sports. To compare practice and competition injury rates and patterns in 5 boys' sports (football, soccer, basketball, wrestling, and baseball) and 4 girls' sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, and softball) during the 2005-2006 school year. Prospective injury surveillance study. Injury data were collected from 100 nationally representative United States high schools via High School RIO (Reporting Information Online). Athletes from participating high schools injured while participating in a school-sanctioned practice or competition in one of the above sports. Practice and competition injury rates, body site, diagnosis, and severity. High school athletes participating in these 9 sports at participating schools sustained 4350 injuries during the 2005-2006 school year, which corresponds to an estimated 1 442 533 injuries nationally. The rate of injury per 1000 athlete-exposures was higher in competition (4.63) than in practice (1.69) (rate ratio [RR] = 2.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.58, 2.90). Of all sports, football had the highest competition (12.09) and practice (2.54) injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures. Compared with injuries sustained during practice, higher proportions of competition injuries were head/face/neck injuries (proportion ratio [PR] = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.94), particularly in boys' soccer (PR = 7.74, 95% CI = 2.53, 23.65) and girls' basketball (PR = 6.03, 95% CI = 2.39, 15.22). Competition injuries were more likely to be concussions (PR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.56, 2.62), especially in boys' soccer (PR = 6.94, 95% CI = 2.01, 23.95) and girls' basketball (PR = 5.83, 95% CI = 2.06, 16.49). Higher proportions of competition injuries caused the athlete to miss more than 3 weeks of play (PR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.52), particularly in baseball (PR = 3.47, 95% CI = 1.48, 8.11) and volleyball (PR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.01, 8.24). Rates and patterns of high school sport injuries differed between
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien; Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Kamphoff, Cindra; Zakrajsek, Rebecca; Lee, Sae-Mi; Hemmings, Brian; Lintunen, Taru; Martin, Scott B
Athletes enter injury rehabilitation with certain expectations about the recovery process, outcomes, and the professional providing treatment. Their expectations influence the effectiveness of the assistance received and affect the overall rehabilitation process. Expectations may vary depending on numerous factors such as sport experience, gender, sport type, and cultural background. Unfortunately, limited information is available on athletes' expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation. To examine possible differences in athletes' expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation based on their country of residence and type of sport (contact vs noncontact). Cross-sectional. Recreational, college, and professional athletes from the US, UK, and Finland were surveyed. Of the 1209 athletes ranging from 12 to 80 y of age (mean 23.46 ± 7.91), 529 US [80%], 253 UK [86%], and 199 Finnish [82%] athletes provided details of their geographical location and were included in the final analyses. The Expectations About Athletic Training (EAAT) questionnaire was used to determine athletes' expectations about personal commitment, facilitative conditions, and the expertise of the sports-medicine professional (SMP). A 3 × 2 MANCOVA revealed significant main effects for country (P = .0001, η p 2 = .055) and sport type (P = .0001, η p 2 = .023). Specifically, US athletes were found to have higher expectations of personal commitment and facilitative conditions than their UK and Finnish counterparts. Athletes participating in contact sports had higher expectations of facilitative conditions and the expertise of the SMP than did athletes participating in noncontact sports. SMPs, especially those in the US, should consider the sport and environment when providing services. In addition, SMPs need to highlight and demonstrate their expertise during the rehabilitation process, especially for those who compete in contact sports.
Kingma, J; Ten Duis, HJ
505 kindergarten and primary school children from 4 to 13 years of age were treated for school sports injuries during the period 1990-1997. The incidence of injuries increased statistically significantly from .5 per 1,000 children 4- to 5-yr.-old to 4.8 injured children per 1,000 in 12- to
Anne Benjaminse; Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; J.M. Dallinga
Abstract BACKGROUND: Injuries to lower extremities are common in team sports such as soccer, basketball, volleyball, football and field hockey. Considering personal grief, disabling consequences and high costs caused by injuries to lower extremities, the importance for the prevention of these
Sobhani, S.; Dekker, R.; Postema, K.; Dijkstra, P. U.
Studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries are quite diverse in research methodology, data reporting, and outcomes. The aims of this systematic review were to analyze the methodology of published studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries in different sports disciplines and to
Montalvo, Alicia M; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D
The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit.
Ziaee, Vahid; Shobbar, Montazer; Lotfian, Sara; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi
Karate is a public sport that has athletes in various age ranges and abundant active sport clubs in Iran. The pattern of injury in this sport in Iranian athletes seems different from other countries. This study was performed with the purpose of considering the incidence and type of injury of karate athletes aged below 30 years from Tehran, Iran clubs. In a cross-sectional study, 10 karate clubs were selected in Tehran. Clubs were selected based on a cluster method from 5 different geographical regions of Tehran. All injuries were collected based on athletes' or clubs' weekly report with a designed questionnaire. The injuries were classified according to: low, medium and severe injury. Collected data was analyzed with SPSS software version 17. 620 athletes were studied totally and incidence rate of injury per athletes was 16.1% and 20.2 per 100 athletes. Ninety percent of injuries were during bout practice, 6% during fitness and 4% during kata. The rate of injury was more common in athletes with weight less than 70 kg and lower sport experience (P ≤ 0.05). The commonest locations for injury were head and neck followed by trunk, lower and upper limb, respectively. Just 2 cases needed surgical intervention and no one led to decreased level of consciousness. The most common type of injury was contusion, bruise and superficial scratch (64%). Severe injury was uncommon in this study and similar to other Iranian studies head and neck had the most injuries. Athletes with lower experience and lower weight were associated with higher injuries.
Howell, David Robert; Buckley, Thomas; Lynall, Robert C; Meehan, William
Prior studies suggest that concussion may lead to an increased risk of a subsequent time-loss sport-related injury, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. We measured the symptom and dual-task gait outcomes for athletes initially post-concussion and after clinical recovery. Participants then self-reported any additional injuries incurred in the year after their concussion. Forty-two athletes (52% female, mean age=16.8±3.2 years) completed the study. They underwent a dual-task gait evaluation and symptom inventory within 21 days post-concussion, and again after they were deemed clinically recovered. Approximately one year later, participants documented if they had sustained any subsequent sport-related injuries. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate changes in dual-task gait and symptoms across time and between groups. A significant group*time interaction (p=0.02) indicated that the group who went on to sustain a subsequent time-loss injury after returning to sports (n=15) demonstrated significant average walking speed dual-task cost worsening across time (-17.9±9.1% vs. -25.1±12.5%; p=0.007). In contrast, the group who did not sustain an additional injury walked with consistent dual-task cost values across time (-25.2±9.2% vs. -24.6±8.4%; p=0.76). Symptoms improved for all participants (main effect of time p<0.001; PCSS= 25.0±16.9 vs. 2.8±7.5; p<0.001), but did not differ between groups (p=0.77). Significant dual-task gait cost worsening throughout concussion recovery was associated with time-loss injuries during sports in the year after a concussion. These findings indicate that worsening ability to execute a concurrent gait and cognitive task may relate to the risk of incurring an injury during sports after clinical concussion recovery.
Inness, C M; Morgan, K L
Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is unique in merging human skill and balance with animal agility and performance in a contact sport. These modern-day 'centaurs' offer medical, dental and veterinary scientists an unrivalled, if quirky, opportunity to collaborate. Collection of epidemiological data on injuries to UK polo riders and ponies is the first step. To measure the reported risk and risk factors for injuries to UK polo ponies, their perception and mitigation by player-owners. A retrospective cohort design and telephone interviews were used. Data on equine injuries, preseason training and risk perception were collected from a random sample of player-owners using a structured questionnaire. Injuries were defined as requiring veterinary treatment. Frequencies were represented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risk factors for injuries were identified by univariable and multivariable analyses. The cumulative incidence of player-owner-reported injury was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4-12.7). Tendon injuries were most common (4.3%; 95% CI 2.9-5.7), followed by wounds and splints. The only risk factor was stabling all season (odds ratio 4.79; 95% CI 1.46-15.73). Tendon injuries were perceived as the major risk and hard ground the most important risk factor. Risk mitigation practices were bandaging before exercise (45.7%; 95% CI 34.8-56.5), checking tendons (84.0%; 95% CI 76.0-91.9), cold hosing (40.7%; 95% CI 30.0-51.4), bandaging (38.3%; 95% CI 27.7-48.9) and using clays and coolants after exercise (24.7%; 15.3-34.1). Cuts and wounds were considered most frequent by only 2.5% (95% CI 0.0-3.6) of players but were the second most common injury, accounting for 21.6% of veterinary treatments. Splints accounted for 12.5% of injuries. The risk of injury to polo ponies is similar to that in the general horse population; musculoskeletal injuries, particularly tendon injuries, are most common, followed by wounds and splints. The association between stabling and
Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H
The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.
Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A
To investigate the influence of the diagnostic terms 'concussion' and 'mild traumatic brain injury' (mTBI) on contact-sport players' injury perceptions and expected symptoms from a sport-related mTBI. It was hypothesized that contact-sport players would hold more negative injury perceptions and expect greater symptom disturbance from a sport-related injury that was diagnosed as an 'mTBI' compared to 'concussion' or an undiagnosed injury. One hundred and twenty-two contact-sport players were randomly allocated to one of three conditions in which they read a sport-related mTBI vignette that varied only according to whether the person depicted in the vignette was diagnosed with concussion (n = 40), mTBI (n = 41) or received no diagnosis (control condition; n = 41). After reading the vignette, participants rated their injury perceptions (perceived undesirability, chronicity and consequences) and expectations of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms 6 months post-injury. There were no significant differences in contact-sport players' injury perceptions or symptom expectations from a sport-related mTBI when it was diagnosed as an mTBI, concussion or when no diagnosis was given. Diagnostic terminology does not appear to have a potent influence on symptom expectation and injury perceptions in contact-sport players.
Burman, Erik; Lysholm, Jack; Shahim, Pashtun; Malm, Christer; Tegner, Yelverton
Ice hockey and football players suffering concussions might have an increased risk for injuries afterwards. We aimed to investigate if concussions predisposed athletes for subsequent sport injuries. Patient data were obtained from a data base established at the University Hospital in Umea, Sweden. Athletes who had suffered a concussion were included if they had been aged between 15 and 35 years of age, and played ice hockey, football (soccer), floorball and handball. They were studied in terms of all new or previous injuries during 24 months before and after their concussion. Results were compared with a control group of athletes from the same four sports with an ankle injury. Athletes with a concussion were more likely to sustain injuries compared with the control group, both before (OR 1.98. 95% CI 1.45 to 2.72) and after the concussion (OR 1.72. 95% CI 1.26 to 2.37). No increase in frequency of injury was found after a concussion compared with before. This was true for athletes in all four sports and for both sexes. This study indicates that athletes sustaining a concussion may have a more aggressive or risk-taking style of play than their counterparts. Our data do not suggest that a concussion injury, per se, leads to subsequent injuries.
Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya
Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.
Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Man, Chi-Yin; Yung, Patrick Shu-Hang; Cheung, Shui-Yuk; Chan, Kai-Ming
This study investigated the sport-related ankle injuries attending an accident and emergency (A&E) department during a 1-year period. A total of 1715 sports injuries cases attending an A&E department from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005 were prospectively recorded. Details of each classified case were recorded in a computerised record system by the triage nurse. At the end of the study period, all sport-related ankle injury cases were analysed. A total of 240 sport-related ankle injury cases were reported. Most cases were sustained from basketball (32.9%), soccer (31.7%) and hiking (5.8%) sports. The majority of the cases was ligamentous sprains (81.3%) and fractures (10.4%). The mean age of all patients was 24.6 years (S.D. = 12.3). Four fifths (80.4%) were male patients. All cases were not life threatening. Most cases (99.2%) were referred to orthopedics specialty. Radiography was routinely employed in 99.2% of the cases. Ligamentous sprains were mostly sustained in basketball (37.4%) and soccer (28.7%), and were often treated with bandaging (60.0%) and analgesics (48.7%). Most cases were discharged with or without referral to physiotherapy and specialty clinic (95.4%). Fractures were mostly sustained in soccer (52.0%), basketball (20.0%) and hiking (16.0%), and were very often admitted to hospital wards (84.0%). The estimated A&E attendance rate for all sports injuries, ankle injuries, ligamentous sprains and fractures were 1.68, 0.24, 0.19 and 0.02/1000 person-year. The results of this study together with the previous study on ankle sprain epidemiology suggested the following sports ankle injury pattern in Hong Kong-major and serious ankle ligamentous sprains and fractures were sustained from basketball, soccer and hiking, leading to A&E attendance, while minor sprains were sustained in running and jogging and racquet sports. We suggested that the Sports medicine specialists in Hong Kong should emphasise the ankle injury prevention strategies in these sports.
Cuellar, Trajan A; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Moore, Frederick A
Contact sports have long been a part of human existence. The two earliest recorded organized contact games, both of which still exist, include Royal Shrovetide Football played since the 12(th) century in England and Caid played since 1308 AD in Ireland. Rugby is the premier contact sport played throughout the world with the very popular derivative American football being the premier contact sport of the North American continent. American football in the USA has on average 1,205,037 players at the high school and collegiate level per year while rugby in the USA boasts a playing enrollment of 457,983 at all levels. Recent media have highlighted injury in the context of competitive contact sports including their long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that had previously been underappreciated. Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has become a recognized injury pattern for trauma; however, a paucity of data regarding this injury can be found in the sports trauma literature. We present a case of an international level scrum-half playing Rugby Union at club level for a local non-professional team, in which a player sustained a fatal BCVI followed by a discussion of the literature surrounding sport related BCVI.
Triki, Moez; Koubaa, Abdessalem; Masmoudi, Liwa; Fellmann, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair
Introduction For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower) spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5–24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%). The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p0.05). The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP. PMID:25758252
Full Text Available Introduction: For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim: To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods: A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5–24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results: LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%. The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p0.05. The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion: LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP.
Triki, Moez; Koubaa, Abdessalem; Masmoudi, Liwa; Fellmann, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair
Introduction : For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower) spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim : To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods : A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5-24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results : LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%). The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p0.05). The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion : LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP.
Karges, Joy Renae; Salsbery, Mitchell A.; Smith, Danna; Stanley, Erica J.
Purpose/Background: Some physical therapists (PTs) provide services at sporting events, but there are limited studies investigating whether PTs are properly prepared to provide such services. The purpose of this study was to assess acute sports injury and medical condition management decision-making skills of PTs. Methods: A Web-based survey presented 17 case scenarios related to acute medical conditions and sport injuries. PTs from the Sports Physical Therapy Section of The American Physical Therapy Association were e-mailed a cover letter/Web link to the survey and invited to participate over a 30-day period. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18.0. Results: A total of 411 of 5158 PTs who were members of the Sports Physical Therapy Association in 2009 and had valid e-mail addresses completed the survey, of which 389 (7.5%) were appropriate for analysis. Over 75.0% of respondents felt “prepared” or “somewhat prepared” to provide immediate care for 13 out of 16 medical conditions, with seizures, spinal cord injuries, and internal organ injuries having the lowest percentages. Over 75.0% of the respondents made “appropriate” or “overly cautious” decisions for 11 of the 17 acute injury or medical condition cases. Conclusions: Results of the current study indicate that PTs felt more “prepared” and tended to make “appropriate” return to play decisions on the acute sports injury and medical condition case studies more often than coaches who participated in a similar study, regardless of level of importance of the game or whether the athlete was a starter vs. non-starter. However, for PTs who plan on assisting at sporting events, additional preparation/education may be recommended, such as what is taught in an emergency responder course. PMID:21904695
West, Christopher R; Krassioukov, Andrei V
Purpose To investigate the relationship between the classification systems used in wheelchair sports and cardiovascular function in Paralympic athletes with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods 26 wheelchair rugby (C3-C8) and 14 wheelchair basketball (T3-L1) were assessed for their International Wheelchair Rugby and Basketball Federation sports classification. Next, athletes were assessed for resting and reflex cardiovascular and autonomic function via the change (delta) in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) in response to sit-up, and sympathetic skin responses (SSRs), respectively. Results There were no differences in supine, seated, or delta SBP and HR between different sport classes in rugby or basketball (all p > 0.23). Athletes with autonomically complete injuries (SSR score 0-1) exhibited a lower supine SBP, seated SBP and delta SBP compared to those with autonomically incomplete injuries (SSR score >1; all p athletes with SCI. We suggest that testing for remaining autonomic function, which is closely related to the degree of cardiovascular control, should be incorporated into sporting classification. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury is a debilitating condition that affects the function of almost every physiological system. It is becoming increasingly apparent that spinal cord injury induced changes in autonomic and cardiovascular function are important determinants of sports performance in athletes with spinal cord injury. This study shows that the current sports classification systems used in wheelchair rugby and basketball do not accurately reflect autonomic and cardiovascular function and thus are placing some athletes at a distinct disadvantage/advantage within their respective sport.
Monroe, Kathy W; Thrash, Chris; Sorrentino, Annalise; King, William D
Participation in sports is a popular activity for children across the country. Prevention of sports-related injuries can be improved if details of injuries are documented and studied. A retrospective medical record review of injuries that occurred as a direct result of sports participation (both organized and non-organized play) from November 2006 to November 2007. Because the vast majority of injuries were a result of participation in football or basketball, these injuries were focused upon. The injuries specifically examined were closed head injury (CHI), lacerations and fractures. There were 350 football and 196 basketball injuries (total 546). Comparing injuries between the two groups fractures were found to be more prevalent in football compared to basketball (z = 2.14; p = 0.03; 95%CI (0.01, 0.16)). Lacerations were found to be less prevalent among helmeted patients than those without helmets. (z = 2.39; p = 0.02; 95%CI (-0.17,-0.03)). CHI was more prevalent among organized play compared to non-organized (z = 3.9; psports participants.
The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.
Nalliah, Romesh P; Anderson, Ingrid M; Lee, Min Kyeong; Rampa, Sankeerth; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Allareddy, Veerajalandhar
Sports-related injuries in adolescents incur a significant amount of hospital resources. Sports-related injuries are not an uncommon cause of ED visit; however, national estimates of such injuries in teenagers are unknown. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize emergency department (ED) visits that result from sports-related injuries among teenagers across the United States. This study describes the outcomes associated with sports-related injuries necessitating ED visits among teenagers at a national level. This is a descriptive epidemiology study. The 2008 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample data set, the largest all-payer health care database in the United States, was used to identify ED visits with external cause of injury related to sports occurring in patients aged 13 through 19 years. Outcomes examined included discharge status after the ED visit and presence of concomitant injuries. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the estimates. Nationwide representative estimates were computed using the discharge weight variable. There were 432,609 ED visits by those between the ages of 13 and 19 years who experienced sports-related injuries, with total charges close to $447.4 million, with a mean total per-visit charge of $1205. The male patients accounted for 76.8% of the total ED visits. The most frequently occurring injuries were superficial injury or contusion (n = 118,250 ED visits); sprains and strains (n = 105,476); fracture of the upper limb (n = 63,151); open wounds of the head, the neck, and the trunk (n = 46,176); as well as intracranial injury (n = 30,726). Close to 29% of all ED visits occurred among those residing in geographical areas with median household income levels of greater than $64,000. After the ED visit, 1.6% were admitted to the same hospital, with a mean length of stay of 2.4 days and a mean hospital charge for ED visit and inpatient services of $22,703. The male patients composed 87.5% of the hospitalizations. The
Jung, Carla S; Zweckberger, Klaus; Schick, Uta; Unterberg, Andreas W
During the last winter season, some fatal sport injuries with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) prompted major discussions about protective helmet use. Although ski helmets reportedly lead to a 60% decrease of risk to incur TBI, little is known about the distribution of helmet users and which factors are crucial for the decision to wear a helmet. Especially, it is unknown whether knowledge or experience concerning TBI in winter sports influences the use of helmets, as well as the attitude and opinion of people. Since treatment of TBI is a major field in neurosurgery, 55 neurosurgical departments (NS) in Germany, Switzerland and Austria were addressed and asked to answer anonymous questionnaires. A "non-trauma-educated" control cohort (NTP) was interviewed in ski resorts in Austria as well as sports equipment stores in Germany. Questionnaires were returned by 465 NS and 546 NTP. Half of NS and NTP wore helmets in winter sports. Although some interviewees showed cognitive dissonant behaviour, experience in TBI after ski or snowboard accidents significantly affected the decision to wear helmets. After the fatal ski accidents, and increased media coverage 15.4% NS and 13.2% NTP bought their helmet. Furthermore, incidence of helmet use in children was correlated with the actual use and disposition of their parents to make the use of helmet compulsory. This study indicates that brain-trauma education affects ones attitude and opinion concerning protective helmet use in winter sports. However, without neglecting educational measures, emotional arguments should be added in the promotion of helmets to make them a popular integral part of winter sport outfits.
Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were recorded in the NTDB, and these injuries represented 11,614 incidents nationally after sample weighting. Fall or interpersonal contact events were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (47.4%). Mild TBI represented 87.1% of the injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital and ICU were 2.68 ± 0.07 days and 2.73 ± 0.12 days, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%, and the prevalence of medical complications was 2.1% across all patients. Severities of head and extracranial injuries were significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Hypotension on admission to the ED was a significant predictor of failure to discharge to home (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07, p sports was independently associated with prolonged hospital LOS compared with FIC events (mean increase
Best, Thomas M; Caplan, Arnold; Coleman, Michael; Goodrich, Laurie; Hurd, Jason; Kaplan, Lee D; Noonan, Ben; Schoettle, Philip; Scott, Christopher; Stiene, Henry; Huard, Johnny
In August 2016, a group including sport medicine clinicians, researchers, and a bioethicist met in Vail, Colorado to discuss regenerative medicine and its potential role in youth sports injuries. There was consensus that a call to action is urgently needed to understand the current evidence base, the risks and rewards, and future directions of research and clinical practice for regenerative medicine therapies in youth sports. We present here a summary of our meeting, which was supported by the National Youth Sports Health and Safety Institute (NYSHSI), a partnership between the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and Sanford Health. The group's goal is to educate practitioners and the public, and to pioneer a means of accumulating meaningful clinical data on regenerative medicine therapies in pediatric and adolescent athletes.
Knapik, Joseph J; Graham, Bria; Cobbs, Jacketta; Thompson, Diane; Steelman, Ryan; Jones, Bruce H
United States Army military police (MP) training is a 19-week course designed to introduce new recruits to basic soldiering skills, Army values and lifestyle, and law enforcement skills and knowledge. The present investigation examined injury rates and injury risk factors in MP training. At the start of training, 1,838 male and 553 female MP recruits were administered a questionnaire containing items on date of birth, height, weight, tobacco use, prior physical activity, injury history, and menstrual history. Injuries during training were obtained from electronic medical records and the training units provided data on student graduation and attrition. Successfully graduating from the course were 94.3% of the men and 83.7% of the women. Experiencing at least one injury during training were 34.2% of the men and 66.7% of the women (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.79-2.13). Recruits were at higher injury risk if they reported that they were older, had smoked in the past, or had performed less frequent exercise or sports prior to MP training. Men were at higher injury risk if they reported a prior injury and women were at higher risk if they reported missing at least six menstrual cycles in the last year or had previously been pregnant. The present investigation was the first to identify injury rates and identify specific factors increasing injury risk during MP training.
Bell, Adriane E; Falconi, Audrey
For sports injuries in an austere environment, narcotic pain medications are often unavailable or have limiting side effects like sedation or constipation. Meanwhile, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications are frequently associated with gastrointestinal side effects and acetaminophen liver toxicity. A trained physician can rapidly use certain acupuncture techniques in an austere environment with potentially fewer side effects. Current medical literature notes low to moderate quality evidence for the use of acupuncture in lower back pain and osteoarthritis of the knee. There is emerging evidence for the use of acupuncture in traumatic brain injury. The U.S. military uses acupuncture in deployed settings to treat battlefield injuries with promising results. This article reviews the military's current use of acupuncture to treat injuries in a deployed setting and how this may translate to the care of a sports injury in an austere environment.
Yard, Ellen E; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn
High school athletes sustain more than 1.4 million injuries annually. National high school sports injury surveillance forms the foundation for developing and evaluating preventive interventions to reduce injury rates. For national surveillance, individuals must report consistently and accurately with little one-on-one interaction with study staff. To examine the feasibility of relying on high school coaches as data reporters in a national, Internet-based sports injury surveillance study, using the same methods that have already proven successful in the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance Study, which calls on certified athletic trainers (ATs) as reporters. Prospective injury surveillance study. Eighteen United States high schools Athletic trainers and varsity coaches for football, boys' and girls' soccer, and boys' and girls' basketball. Quantity and quality of exposure and injury reports. All enrolled ATs participated, compared with only 43.0% of enrolled coaches. Participating ATs submitted 96.7% of expected exposure reports, whereas participating coaches submitted only 36.5%. All ATs reported athlete exposures correctly, compared with only 2 in 3 coaches. Participating ATs submitted 338 injury reports; participating coaches submitted only 55 (16.3% of the 338 submitted by ATs). Injury patterns differed between AT-submitted and coach-submitted injury reports, with ATs reporting a higher proportion of ankle injuries and coaches reporting a higher proportion of knee injuries. The reports submitted by ATs and coaches for the same injury had low agreement for diagnosis and time loss, with only 63.2% and 55.3% of pairs, respectively, providing the same response. The ATs lacked more responses for demographic questions, whereas coaches lacked more responses regarding the need for surgery. Whenever possible, ATs should be the primary data reporters in large, national studies. In high schools without access to an AT, researchers must be willing to
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Andersen, H M
A batch of college students was followed with the object of describing the pattern of athletic injuries. Men sustained the greatest number of acute injuries while no sex difference was observed in the number of stress injuries. The majority of injuries occurred in connection with gymnastics but, when all ball games are considered together, ball game injuries exceeded the gymnastic injuries in number. This difference is further increased when the fact that, in this college, twice as much time is spent on gymnastics as on ball games, is taken into consideration.
Hallquist, Charlotte; Fitzgerald, Ulrika Tranaeus; Alricsson, Marie
The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communication as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordinator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibility for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be communicated to participants who are involved in children's and adolescent's sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not.
Coronado, Victor G; Haileyesus, Tadesse; Cheng, Tabitha A; Bell, Jeneita M; Haarbauer-Krupa, Juliet; Lionbarger, Michael R; Flores-Herrera, Javier; McGuire, Lisa C; Gilchrist, Julie
Sports- and recreation-related traumatic brain injuries (SRR-TBIs) are a growing public health problem affecting persons of all ages in the United States. To describe the trends of SRR-TBIs treated in US emergency departments (EDs) from 2001 to 2012 and to identify which sports and recreational activities and demographic groups are at higher risk for these injuries. Data on initial ED visits for an SRR-TBI from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) for 2001-2012 were analyzed. NEISS-AIP data are drawn from a nationally representative sample of hospital-based EDs. Cases of TBI were identified from approximately 500,000 annual initial visits for all causes and types of injuries treated in EDs captured by NEISS-AIP. Numbers and rates by age group, sex, and year were estimated. Aggregated numbers and percentages by discharge disposition were produced. Approximately 3.42 million ED visits for an SRR-TBI occurred during 2001-2012. During this period, the rates of SRR-TBIs treated in US EDs significantly increased in both males and females regardless of age (all Ps sports and recreational activity, age, and sex.
Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna
The current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sports, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record the monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. To assess the reliability, content validity and concurrent validity of the survey and to evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. 145 consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed 2 days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients was included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the 12th postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was a substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ=0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete da