Malisoux, Laurent; Frisch, Anne; Urhausen, Axel; Seil, Romain; Theisen, Daniel
Careful modulation of training characteristics in high-level sports optimizes performance and avoids inappropriate workloads and associated sports injury risk. The aims of this study were to compare sport participation characteristics in different youth sport categories and to investigate their relationship with injury. Prospective cohort follow-up. Young (12-19 years) high-level athletes (n=154) from a regional sport school were followed during 41 weeks regarding sport participation characteristics and traumatic and overuse sports injuries (time-loss definition). All data were self-recorded by the athletes in an electronic system "TIPPS" (Training and Injury Prevention Platform for Sports) and subject to a systematic data quality control. Volume and intensity (self-rated perceived exertion) of each sport session were used to compute weekly load, monotony and strain. Sport categories were defined as team, racket, and individual sports. All sport participation characteristics were dependent on sport category (psports were associated with lower injury risk (HR=0.37 and 0.34, p=0.001 and psports. Average sport participation characteristics were not related to injury according to the survival analysis. However, intensity during the week prior to injury was significantly higher (psport participation pattern and injury risk in young athletes. The monitoring method was sensitive to variations according to pertinent variables and might help identify athletes with increased sports injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain
This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; pteam sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; psports, with additionally previous injury being a risk and age a protective factor. The number of competitions per 100 days was significantly higher in team sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; psports the number of competitions per 100 days had a protective effect (HR=0.940; CI95% [0.893; 0.989]; p=0.017). Team sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pasulka, Jacqueline; Jayanthi, Neeru; McCann, Ashley; Dugas, Lara R; LaBella, Cynthia
Current trends among young athletes towards earlier specialization age and year-round training on multiple teams has raised concern for increased injury risk. Our previous analyses showed higher risk for injury in highly specialized young athletes. The goal of this research was to determine whether sports specialization and injury patterns vary by sports type. In this clinical case-control study, injured athletes (aged 7-18 years) were recruited from sports medicine clinics and compared to similarly aged uninjured athletes recruited from primary care clinics. Participants completed a survey reporting age, gender, sport type, specialization patterns, and details regarding sports-related injuries in the previous 6 months. Clinical diagnoses were collected from patients' medical records. Injuries were classified as acute, overuse, or serious overuse. Of 1,190 athletes enrolled, 26% (313) were single-sport specialized (reported participation in one sport and trained >8 months/year). Sports with the highest proportion of single-sport specialized athletes were tennis (46.7%), gymnastics (30.1%), and dance (26.3%). Single-sport specialized athletes in individual sports started specializing at a younger age (11.2 ± 2.4 vs. 12.0 ± 2.7, p = 0.05) and reported higher training volumes (11.8 vs. 10.3 h/week, p = 0.04) than those in team sports. Sports with the youngest specialization age were gymnastics (8.9 ± 1.7), dance (10.8 ± 3.0), and soccer (10.9 ± 2.4). Single-sport specialized athletes in individual sports accounted for a higher proportion of overuse injuries (44.3% vs 32.2%, OR = 1.67, p = 0.037) and serious overuse injuries (23.4% vs 11.6%, OR = 2.38, p = 0.011), but a lower proportion of acute injuries (28.8% vs 13.8%, OR = 0.37, p = 0.001) compared to single-sport specialized athletes involved in team sports. Athletes in individual sports may be more likely to specialize in a single sport than team sport athletes. Single-sport
Sarah A. Richmond
Full Text Available Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n=1,040 at the ages of 11–15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2 and WC (cm were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese were created using validated international (BMI and national (WC cut-off points. A Poisson regression analysis controlling for relevant covariates (sex, previous injury, sport participation, intervention group, and aerobic fitness level estimated the risk of sport injury [incidence rate ratios (IRR with 95% confidence intervals (CI]. Results. There was an increased risk of time loss injury (IRR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.01–8.04 and knee injury (IRR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.00–6.94 in adolescents that were overweight/obese; however, increases in injury risk for all injury and lower extremity injury were not statistically significant. Estimates suggested a greater risk of time loss injury [IRR = 1.63 (95% CI: 0.93–2.47] in adolescents with high measures of WC. Conclusions. There is an increased risk of time loss injury and knee injury in overweight/obese adolescents. Sport injury prevention training programs should include strategies that target all known risk factors for injury.
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Stralen, Maartje M; van Mechelen, Willem
Safety in sports and physical activity is an important prerequisite for continuing participation in sports, as well as for maintenance of a healthy physically active lifestyle. For this reason, prevention, reduction and control of sports injuries are important goals for society as a whole. Recent advances in sports medicine discuss the need for research on real-life injury prevention. Such views call for a more behavioural approach when it comes to actual sports injury prevention. Nevertheless, the role of behaviour in sports injury prevention remains under-researched. In order to push the field of sports injury prevention forward, this article provides an overview of the relationship between behaviour and sports injury risk. Different types of behaviour relate to injury risk factors and injury mechanisms. Behaviour that influences risk factors and injury mechanisms is not confined only to the athlete. Various types of behaviour by, for example, the coach, referee, physical therapist or sports associations, also influence risk factors and injury mechanisms. In addition, multiple behaviours often act together. Some types of behaviour may directly affect injury risk and are by definition a risk factor. Other behaviours may only affect risk factors and injury mechanisms, and influence injury risk indirectly. Recent ideas on injury prevention that call for studies on real-life injury prevention still rely heavily on preventive measures that are established through efficacy research. A serious limitation in such an approach is that one expects that proven preventive measures will be adopted if the determinants and influences of sports safety behaviours are understood. Therefore, if one truly wants to prevent sports injuries in a real-life situation, a broader research focus is needed. In trying to do so, we need to look at lessons learned from other fields of injury prevention research.
Wilkerson, Gary B; Gupta, Ashish; Colston, Marisa A
Sport injuries restrict participation, impose a substantial economic burden, and can have persisting adverse effects on health-related quality of life. The effective use of Internet of Things (IoT), when combined with analytics approaches, can improve player safety through identification of injury risk factors that can be addressed by targeted risk reduction training activities. Use of IoT devices can facilitate highly efficient quantification of relevant functional capabilities prior to sport participation, which could substantially advance the prevailing sport injury management paradigm. This study introduces a framework for using sensor-derived IoT data to supplement other data for objective estimation of each individual college football player's level of injury risk, which is an approach to injury prevention that has not been previously reported. A cohort of 45 NCAA Division I-FCS college players provided data in the form of self-ratings of persisting effects of previous injuries and single-leg postural stability test. Instantaneous change in body mass acceleration (jerk) during the test was quantified by a smartphone accelerometer, with data wirelessly transmitted to a secure cloud server. Injuries sustained from the beginning of practice sessions until the end of the 13-game season were documented, along with the number of games played by each athlete over the course of a 13-game season. Results demonstrate a strong prediction model. Our approach may have strong relevance to the estimation of injury risk for other physically demanding activities. Clearly, there is great potential for improvement of injury prevention initiatives through identification of individual athletes who possess elevated injury risk and targeted interventions. © 2018 Society for Risk Analysis.
Stracciolini, Andrea; Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R
Children and adolescents are now participating in competitive sports at younger ages and with increasing intensity. As a result, increasing numbers of young athletes are presenting to pediatricians for care of sports-related injuries and advice about prevention. Understanding and identifying modifiable risk factors for injury in the young athletic population is a critical first step in injury prevention. Risk factors vary by sport, age, and sex. This article reviews the most common risk factors for injury and the evidence to support proposed strategies for prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e99-e105.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Jayanthi, Neeru A; LaBella, Cynthia R; Fischer, Daniel; Pasulka, Jacqueline; Dugas, Lara R
Data are lacking regarding the independent risk of injury related to intense single-sport training or growth rate in young athletes. To determine whether sports specialization, weekly training volumes, and growth rates are associated with increased risk for injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with healthy controls from affiliated primary care clinics undergoing sports physicals (2010-2013). Participants completed surveys reporting hours per week spent in organized sports, physical education class, and free play, as well as degree of sports specialization and Tanner stage. Heights and weights were measured. Injury details were obtained from athlete surveys and electronic medical records. Of 1214 athletes enrolled, 1190 (50.7% male) had data satisfactory for analysis. There were 822 injured participants (49.5% male; unique injuries, n = 846) and 368 uninjured participants (55% male). Injured athletes were older than uninjured athletes (14.1 ± 2.1 vs. 12.9 ± 2.6 years; P sports activity (11.2 ± 2.6 vs. 9.1 ± 6.3 h/wk; P sports activity spent per week, sports-specialized training was an independent risk for injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52; P sports per week than number of age in years (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.40-3.05; P sports to free play time was >2:1 hours/week had increased odds of having a serious overuse injury (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.26-2.76; P sports. There is an independent risk of injury and serious overuse injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport. Growth rate was not related to injury risk. The study data provide guidance for clinicians counseling young athletes and their parents regarding injury risks associated with sports specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).
Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H
To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.
Goossens, L; Verrelst, R; Cardon, G; De Clercq, D
Sports injuries could be highly detrimental to the career of a physical education teacher education (PETE) student. To enable the development of future sports injury prevention programs, sports injuries in 128 first-year academic bachelor PETE students were registered prospectively during one academic year. Common risk factors for sports injuries, taken from the literature, were also evaluated by means of logistic regression analysis. We found an incidence rate of 1.91 and an injury risk of 0.85, which is higher than generally found in a sports-active population. Most injuries involved the lower extremities, were acute, newly occurring injuries, and took place in non-contact situations. More than half of all injuries lead to an inactivity period of 1 week or more and over 80% of all injuries required medical attention. A major part of these injuries happened during the intracurricular sports classes. Few differences were seen between women and men. A history of injury was a significant risk factor (P = 0.018) for the occurrence of injuries, and performance of cooling-down exercises was significantly related to a lower occurrence of ankle injuries (P = 0.031). These data can inform future programs for the prevention of sports injuries in PETE students. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn
Paralympic sports have seen an exponential increase in participation since 16 patients took part in the first Stoke Mandeville Games on the opening day of the 1948 London Olympic Games. More than 4,000 athletes took part in the London 2012 Paralympic Games. Few sporting events have seen such rapid evolution. This rapid pace of change also has meant challenges for understanding the injury risks of participation, not only because of the variety of sports, impairment types, the evolution of adapted equipment but also because of the inclusion of additional impairment types and development of new sports over time. Early studies were limited in scope but patterns of injuries are slowly emerging within Winter and Summer Paralympic sports. The IPC's London 2012 study is the largest to date with a prospective cohort study involving 49,910 athlete-days. The results identified large differences across sports and highlighted the need for longitudinal sport specific studies rather than solely games-time studies. This will require collaboration with international sports federations to examine injury patterns and risk factors for injury in this population to appropriately inform injury prevention strategies. Further studies will also need to address the impact of sporting participation, injury, and future health. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Guilherme S. Nunes
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The risk of injuries related to physical activity and sports may increase if there is predisposition, inappropriate training and/or coach guidance, and absence of sports medicine follow-up. Objective: To assess the frequency of injuries in athletes treated at a physiotherapy center specialized in sports. Methods: For the data collection was carried out the survey of injuries in records of athletes treated in eight years of activities. The data collected included: characteristics of patients, sport, injury kind, injury characteristics and affected body part. Results: From 1090 patient/athlete records, the average age was 25 years old, the athletes were spread across 44 different sports modalities, being the great majority men (75%. The most common type of injury was joint injury, followed by muscular and bone injuries. Chronic injury was the most frequent (47%, while the most common body part injured was the knee, followed by ankle and shoulder. Among all the sports, soccer, futsal, and track and field presented the highest number of injured athletes, respectively. Conclusion: Soccer was the most common sport among the injured athletes, injury kind most frequent was joint injuries and knee was the body part most injured. Chronic injuries were the most common.
Fagher, K; Lexell, J
The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sedaghati, Parisa; Alizadeh, Mohammad-Hossein; Shirzad, Elham; Ardjmand, Abolfazl
Groin injuries are among the most common injuries co-existing with sports. The aim of this review was to outline the epidemiology and identify risk factors, as well as examine preventative and interventional measures for reducing the occurrence of this form of injury among athletes. An electronic, systematic search for relevant keywords, either separately or in combination was sought in the academic scientific databases. Groin injuries, acute or chronic, consist of a high percentage of injuries that manifest with pain. Despite the specific tendency for injury among some sports, such injuries make up 2-5% of sport-induced injuries. There are few available reports on lower limb injuries, especially groin injuries, in Iran. Numerous factors predispose to groin injuries. A lengthy list of preventive/ treatment measures, from preliminary to sophisticated, have been proposed. Although using a programmed strategy designed to decrease the risk of groin injuries by taking a strategic approach to exercise may alleviate complications, in some cases the chronic nature of the injury may threaten the professional life of the athlete. More research is required to plan suitable programs for reducing the risk of this type of injury in athletes.
Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L.; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria
Background Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. Objective To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Material and methods Five electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included: original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Two independent authors assessed the quality [Downs and Black (DB) criteria] and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Results Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3–15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). Four studies considered interrelationships between risk factors, seven reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention program targeting individuals identified as high-risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Conclusions Future research should focus on high quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating pre-participation screening and LE injury prevention programs through high quality randomized controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based upon screening tests with validated test properties. PMID:27935483
Wilhelm, Andrew; Choi, Changryol; Deitch, John
The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown. To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players' careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players' current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specialize early to play at the professional level. Descriptive epidemiological study. A total of 102 current professional baseball players anonymously completed a 7-question written survey. Early sport specialization was defined as "single-sport participation prior to high school." Injury was defined as "a serious injury or surgery that required the player to refrain from sports (baseball) for an entire year." Chi-square tests were used to investigate the risk of injury in those who specialized early in baseball versus those who did not. Independent-sample t tests were used to compare injury rates based on current player position. Fifty (48%) baseball players specialized early. The mean age at initiation of sport specialization was 8.91 years (SD, 3.7 years). Those who specialized early reported more serious injuries (mean, 0.54; SD, 0.838) during their professional baseball career than those who did not (mean, 0.23; SD, 0.425) ( P = .044). Finally, 63.4% of the queried players believed that early sport specialization was not required to play professional baseball. Our study demonstrated a statistically significant higher rate of serious injury during a baseball player's professional career in those players who specialized early. Most current professional baseball players surveyed believed that sport specialization was not required prior to high school to master the skills needed to play at the professional level. Our findings demonstrate an increased incidence of serious injuries in professional baseball
Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria
Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. 5 electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. 2 independent authors assessed the quality (Downs and Black (DB) criteria) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low-quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3-15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). 4 studies considered inter-relationships between risk factors, 7 reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention programme targeting individuals identified as high risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Future research should focus on high-quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and LE injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based on screening tests with validated test properties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted
Schwebel, David C; Brezausek, Carl M
In 2010, 8.6 million children were treated for unintentional injuries in American emergency departments. Child engagement in sports and recreation offers many health benefits but also exposure to injury risks. In this analysis, we consider possible developmental risk factors in a review of age, sex, and incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries. To assess (1) how the incidence of 39 sport and recreational injuries changed through each year of child and adolescent development, ages 1 to 18 years, and (2) sex differences. Design : Descriptive epidemiology study. Emergency department visits across the United States, as reported in the 2001-2008 National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database. Data represent population-wide emergency department visits in the United States. Main Outcome Measure(s) : Pediatric sport- and recreation-related injuries requiring treatment in hospital emergency departments. Almost 37 pediatric sport or recreational injuries are treated hourly in the United States. The incidence of sport- and recreation-related injuries peaks at widely different ages. Team-sport injuries tend to peak in the middle teen years, playground injuries peak in the early elementary ages and then drop off slowly, and bicycling injuries peak in the preteen years but are a common cause of injury throughout childhood and adolescence. Bowling injuries peaked at the earliest age (4 years), and injuries linked to camping and personal watercraft peaked at the oldest age (18 years). The 5 most common causes of sport and recreational injuries across development, in order, were basketball, football, bicycling, playgrounds, and soccer. Sex disparities were common in the incidence of pediatric sport and recreational injuries. Both biological and sociocultural factors likely influence the developmental aspects of pediatric sport and recreational injury risk. Biologically, changes in perception, cognition, and motor control might influence injury risk. Socioculturally
Pujals, Constanza; Rubio, Víctor J.; Márquez, María Oliva; Sánchez, Ivan; Ruiz Barquín, Roberto
Reconocimiento-Compartir igual Sport injury is a widely extended morbidity condition. However, epidemiological studies are far from giving a convergent outlook. Moreover, there is a lack of studies comparing relative risks of different groups of sports. The present paper is aimed to carry out a descriptive epidemiological study of sport injuries of athletes from 25 sport modalities in order to identify risk factors as well as to compare epidemiological characteristics according to the ...
Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M
Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Boström, A; Thulin, K; Fredriksson, M; Reese, D; Rockborn, P; Hammar, M L
To determine the 1-year self-reported incidence of overuse and traumatic sport injuries and risk factors for injuries in children participating in a summer sports camp representing seven different sports. 4363 children, 11 to 15 years old participating in a summer camp in seven different sports answered a questionnaire. Injury in this cross-sectional study was defined as a sport-related trauma or overload leading to pain and dysfunction preventing the person from participation in training or competition for at least 1 week. A number of risk factors for injury were investigated such as sex, age, number of hours spent on training in general, and on resistance training with weights. Nearly half [49%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 48-51%] of the participants had been injured as a result of participation in a sport during the preceding year, significantly more boys than girls (53%, 95% CI 50-55% vs 46%, 95% CI 43-48%; P sport injuries: age, sex, and resistance training with weights. Time spent on resistance training with weights was significantly associated with sport injuries in a logistic regression analysis. In children age 11 to 15 years, the risk of having a sport-related injury increased with age and occurred more often in boys than in girls. Weight training was the only modifiable risk factor that contributed to a significant increase in the incidence of sport injuries. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Åman, M; Forssblad, M; Larsén, K
Sports with high numbers of athletes and acute injuries are an important target for preventive actions at a national level. Both for the health of the athlete and to reduce costs associated with injury. The aim of this study was to identify injuries where injury prevention should focus, in order to have major impact on decreasing acute injury rates at a national level. All athletes in the seven investigated sport federations (automobile sports, basketball, floorball, football (soccer), handball, ice hockey, and motor sports) were insured by the same insurance company. Using this insurance database, the incidence and proportion of acute injuries, and injuries leading to permanent medical impairment (PMI), at each body location, was calculated. Comparisons were made between sports, sex, and age. In total, there were 84 754 registered injuries during the study period (year 2006-2013). Athletes in team sports, except in male ice hockey, had the highest risk to sustain an injury and PMI in the lower limb. Females had higher risk of injury and PMI in the lower limb compared to males, in all sports except in ice hockey. This study recommends that injury prevention at national level should particularly focus on lower limb injuries. In ice hockey and motor sports, head/neck and upper limb injuries also need attention. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keogh, Justin W L; Winwood, Paul W
Weight-training sports, including weightlifting, powerlifting, bodybuilding, strongman, Highland Games, and CrossFit, are weight-training sports that have separate divisions for males and females of a variety of ages, competitive standards, and bodyweight classes. These sports may be considered dangerous because of the heavy loads commonly used in training and competition. Our objective was to systematically review the injury epidemiology of these weight-training sports, and, where possible, gain some insight into whether this may be affected by age, sex, competitive standard, and bodyweight class. We performed an electronic search using PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and Embase for injury epidemiology studies involving competitive athletes in these weight-training sports. Eligible studies included peer-reviewed journal articles only, with no limit placed on date or language of publication. We assessed the risk of bias in all studies using an adaption of the musculoskeletal injury review method. Only five of the 20 eligible studies had a risk of bias score ≥75 %, meaning the risk of bias in these five studies was considered low. While 14 of the studies had sample sizes >100 participants, only four studies utilized a prospective design. Bodybuilding had the lowest injury rates (0.12-0.7 injuries per lifter per year; 0.24-1 injury per 1000 h), with strongman (4.5-6.1 injuries per 1000 h) and Highland Games (7.5 injuries per 1000 h) reporting the highest rates. The shoulder, lower back, knee, elbow, and wrist/hand were generally the most commonly injured anatomical locations; strains, tendinitis, and sprains were the most common injury type. Very few significant differences in any of the injury outcomes were observed as a function of age, sex, competitive standard, or bodyweight class. While the majority of the research we reviewed utilized retrospective designs, the weight-training sports appear to have relatively low rates of injury compared with common team
Siesmaa, Emma J; Blitvich, Jennifer D; White, Peta E; Finch, Caroline F
Despite the health benefits associated with children's sport participation, the occurrence of injury in this context is common. The extent to which sport injuries impact children's ongoing involvement in sport is largely unknown. Surveys have been shown to be useful for collecting children's injury and sport participation data; however, there are currently no published instruments which investigate the impact of injury on children's sport participation. This study describes the processes undertaken to assess the validity of two survey instruments for collecting self-reported information about child cricket and netball related participation, injury history and injury risk perceptions, as well as the reliability of the cricket-specific version. Face and content validity were assessed through expert feedback from primary and secondary level teachers and from representatives of peak sporting bodies for cricket and netball. Test-retest reliability was measured using a sample of 59 child cricketers who completed the survey on two occasions, 3-4 weeks apart. Based on expert feedback relating to face and content validity, modification and/or deletion of some survey items was undertaken. Survey items with low test-retest reliability (κ≤0.40) were modified or deleted, items with moderate reliability (κ=0.41-0.60) were modified slightly and items with higher reliability (κ≥0.61) were retained, with some undergoing minor modifications. This is the first survey of its kind which has been successfully administered to cricketers aged 10-16 years to collect information about injury risk perceptions and intentions for continued sport participation. Implications for its generalisation to other child sport participants are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ristolainen, Leena; Heinonen, Ari; Waller, Benjamin; Kujala, Urho M; Kettunen, Jyrki A
This twelve months survey compared injury risk and injury types by genders (312 females, 262 males) in 15- to 35-year-old cross-country skiers, swimmers, long- distance runners and soccer players. More male than female athletes reported at least one acute injury (44% vs. 35%, p gender differences in either of these comparisons. After adjustment for sport event males were at increased risk for posterior thigh overuse injuries compared to females (relative risk (RR) 5.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3 to 26.4, p difference between the sexes in overuse injury to the ankle persisted (female 0.11 vs. male 0.02 injuries/1000 exposure hours, p difference was found in such injuries when calculated per 1000 exposure hours. In conclusion, we found some gender differences in sport-related injuries, but most of these differences seemed to be explained at least in part by differences in the amount of training. Key pointsOnly a few sport injury studies have compared in-jury rates between the sexesOverall gender-related risk for acute and overuse injuries in top-level athletes between the sexes was smallSome gender differences in the specific anatomical locations of injuries as well as in specific injuries in sports were foundSome of these differences seem to be explained by the differences in the amount of training.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...
Weiler, Richard; Van Mechelen, Willem; Fuller, Colin; Verhagen, Evert
Background Fifteen percent of the world?s population live with disability, and many of these individuals choose to play sport. There are barriers to sport participation for athletes with disability and sports injury can greatly impact on daily life, which makes sports injury prevention additionally important. Objective The purpose of this review is to systematically review the definitions, methodologies and injury rates in disability sport, which should assist future identification of risk fa...
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
Cortes, Nelson; Porter, Larissa D; Ambegaonkar, Jatin P; Caswell, Shane V
Dancers have a lower incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury compared to athletes in sports that involve cutting and landing motions. Balance can impact ACL injury risk and is related to neuromuscular control during movement. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether balance differences exist among female dancers and female soccer and basketball athletes. Fifty-eight female dancers, soccer, and basketball athletes (16.5 ± 1.6 yrs, 1.6 ± 0.2 m, 60.2 ± 14.1 kg) completed the Stability Evaluation Test (SET) on the NeuroCom VSR Sport (NeuroCom International, Clackamas, OR) to measure sway velocity. Video records of the SET test were used for Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) test scoring. A oneway ANCOVA compared composite sway velocity and BESS scores among sports. There was no statistically significant difference for sway velocity or BESS among sports (sway velocity soccer 2.3 ± 0.4, dance 2.2 ± 0.4, and basketball 2.4 ± 0.4; BESS soccer 13.6 ± 5.0, dance 11.9 ± 5.5, and basketball 14.9 ± 5.1, p>0.05). Balance was similar among athletes participating in different sports (dance, basketball, and soccer). Quasi-static balance may not play a significant role in neuromuscular control during movement and not be a significant risk factor to explain the disparity in ACL injury incidence among sports. Future research should examine the effects of dynamic balance and limb asymmetries among sports to elucidate on the existing differences on ACL injury incidence rates.
Schmikli, Sandor L; Backx, Frank J G; Kemler, Helena J; van Mechelen, Willem
To define target populations for sports injury prevention programs. A computer-assisted telephone survey on sports injuries and sports participation during 2000-2005 using a 3-month recall period. Data obtained from a representative sample of Dutch citizens. Fifty-eight thousand four hundred five Dutch citizens aged older than 3 years. Age, gender, and type of sports were used to distinguish subgroups with a substantial contribution to sports injuries. The absolute number of sports injuries, the incidence of sports injuries per 10,000 hours, the severity, and costs of sports injuries. Sports participation was associated with 1.5 million injuries per year and 10 injuries per 10,000 hours; of these, 50% had to be treated medically. Two-thirds of all medically treated sports injuries were associated with 9 sports (representing 18 subpopulations, all younger than 55 years): outdoor soccer (males 4-54 years and females 4-17 years), indoor soccer (males 18-34 years), tennis (males/females 35-54 years), volleyball (females 18-54 years), field hockey (males 18-34 years and females 4-17 years), running/jogging (males/females 35-54 years), gymnastics (males/females 4-17 years), skiing/snowboarding (males 4-17 years and females 18-34 years), and equestrian sports (females 18-34 years). These groups showed more than average injury rates and covered two-thirds of all direct and indirect costs (euro 400 million). The survey identified the most important (sports-, age-, and gender-specific) target populations for injury prevention programs in the Netherlands. Sports participants aged older than 55 years were excluded from these target groups because of their limited contribution to the total sports injury problem.
Boden, Barry P
Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P
Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or unrealistic optimism. Because behavior is determined by
Magno e Silva, M P; Morato, M P; Bilzon, J L J; Duarte, E
The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes, 11 succumbed to some form of injury during the 5 competitions, which incorporated 23 matches, representing a prevalence of 84.6%. A total of 35 sports injuries were recorded, giving a clinical incidence of 2.7 injuries per athlete and an injury risk of 0.85 and an incidence rate of 0.12 injuries per match. Traumatic injuries (80%) were more common than overuse injuries (20%) (psports-related injuries in 5-a-side football in blind athletes. The results are important in guiding strategies to inform the implementation of preventive pathways and provide a strong rationale for the compulsory use of additional protective equipment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike
Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter
Bagga, Herman S; Fisher, Patrick B; Tasian, Gregory E; Blaschko, Sarah D; McCulloch, Charles E; McAninch, Jack W; Breyer, Benjamin N
To describe epidemiologic features of sports-related genitourinary (GU) injuries and determine patient cohorts and particular sporting activities associated with increased GU injury risk. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a data set validated to provide a probability sample of injury-related US emergency department (ED) presentations, was analyzed to characterize GU injuries between 2002 and 2010. A total of 13,851 observations were analyzed to derive national estimates. Between 2002 and 2010, an estimated 137,525 individuals (95% confidence interval, 104,490-170,620) presented to US EDs with GU injuries sustained during sporting activities. Nearly three-quarters of injuries occurred in the pediatric population. The most common product involved was a bicycle, representing approximately one-third of injuries in both adult and pediatric populations. Injuries related to team sports such as football, baseball or softball, basketball, and soccer were also common, particularly among boys where they represented a combined third of all injuries. Eighty-nine percent of all patients were evaluated and treated in the ED without inpatient admission. The large majority of injuries involved the external genitalia (60%), and significant injuries of paired GU organs (kidneys and testicles) requiring inpatient admission were rare (8.5%). Sports-related GU injuries are most commonly sustained during the use of a bicycle. However, there are other associated activities with identifiable high-risk cohorts, products, and situations. Consumers, practitioners, and injury-prevention experts can use our epidemiologic data to prioritize and develop strategies aimed at the prevention and limitation of such injuries, particularly when counseling at-risk cohorts, such as those with solitary kidneys or testicles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Asker, Martin; Brooke, Hannah L; Waldén, Markus; Tranaeus, Ulrika; Johansson, Fredrik; Skillgate, Eva; Holm, Lena W
To assess the evidence for risk factors and prevention measures for shoulder injuries in overhead sports. Systematic review with best-evidence synthesis. Medline (Ovid), PubMed (complementary search), Embase (Elsevier), Cochrane (Wiley), SPORTDiscus (Ebsco) and Web of Science Core Collection (Thomson Reuters), from 1 January 1990 to 15 May 2017. Randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on risk factors or prevention measures for shoulder injuries in overhead sports. The eligible studies were quality assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network criteria. Of 4778 studies identified, 38 were eligible for quality review and 17 met the quality criteria to be included in the evidence synthesis. One additional quality study presented a shoulder injury prevention programme. Most studies focused on baseball, lacrosse or volleyball (n=13). The risk factors examined included participation level (competition vs training) (n=10), sex (n=4), biomechanics (n=2) and external workload (n=2). The evidence for all risk factors was limited or conflicting. The effect of the prevention programme within the subgroup of uninjured players at baseline was modest and possibly lacked statistical power. All investigated potential risk factors for shoulder injury in overhead sports had limited evidence, and most were non-modifiable (eg, sex). There is also limited evidence for the effect of shoulder injury prevention measures in overhead sports. CRD42015026850. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Traditionally, balance training has been used as part of the rehabilitation programme for ankle injuries. More recently, balance training has been adopted to try and prevent injuries to the ankle and knee joints during sport. The purpose of this review is to synthesise current knowledge in the area of balance ability, training and injury risk, highlight the findings and identify any future research needs. A number of studies have found that poor balance ability is significantly related to an increased risk of ankle injuries in different activities. This relationship appears to be more common in males than females. Multifaceted intervention studies that have included balance training along with jumping, landing and agility exercises have resulted in a significant decrease in ankle or knee injuries in team handball, volleyball and recreational athletes. It is unknown which component of the multifaceted intervention was most effective and whether the effects are additive. As a single intervention, balance training has been shown to significantly reduce the recurrence of ankle ligament injuries in soccer, volleyball and recreational athletes; however, it has not been clearly shown to reduce ankle injuries in athletes without a prior ankle injury. Balance training on its own has also been shown to significantly reduce anterior cruciate ligament injuries in male soccer players. Surprisingly, it was also found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of major knee injuries in female soccer players and overuse knee injuries in male and female volleyball players. The studies with the contrasting findings differed in aspects of their balance training programmes. It would appear that balance training, as a single intervention, is not as effective as when it is part of a multifaceted intervention. Research is required to determine the relative contribution of balance training to a multifaceted intervention so as to generate an effective and efficient preventative
Jayanthi, Neeru A; Holt, Daniel B; LaBella, Cynthia R; Dugas, Lara R
The effect of socioeconomic status (SES) on rates of sports specialization and injury among youth athletes has not been described previously. Young athletes from lower socioeconomic status will have lower rates of sports specialization and subsequently lower risk of overuse injuries. Cohort study. Level 3. Injured athletes aged 7 to 18 years were recruited from 2 hospital-based sports medicine clinics and compared with uninjured athletes presenting for sports physicals at primary care clinics between 2010 and 2013. Participants completed surveys on training patterns. Electronic medical records provided injury details as well as patient zip code, race, and health insurance type. SES was estimated from zip codes. The sample was divided into SES tertiles. Analysis of variance and multivariate regression were used for continuous variables, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore relationships between risk factors and injury. Of 1190 athletes surveyed, 1139 (96%) had satisfactory SES data. Compared with low-SES athletes, high-SES athletes reported more hours per week spent playing organized sports (11.2 ± 6.0 vs 10.0 ± 6.5; P = 0.02), trained more months per year in their main sport (9.7 ± 3.1 vs 7.6 ± 3.7; P sports (64.8% vs 40.0%; P sports to free play increased with SES. Accounting for age and weekly organized sports hours, the odds of reporting a serious overuse injury increased with SES (odds ratio, 1.5; P sports specialization, more hours per week playing organized sports, higher ratio of weekly hours in organized sports to free play, and greater participation in individual sports. As SES increases, young athletes report higher degrees of sports specialization, greater participation in individual sports, and more serious overuse injuries.
Lloyd, John; Conidi, Frank
Helmets are used for sports, military, and transportation to protect against impact forces and associated injuries. The common belief among end users is that the helmet protects the whole head, including the brain. However, current consensus among biomechanists and sports neurologists indicates that helmets do not provide significant protection against concussion and brain injuries. In this paper the authors present existing scientific evidence on the mechanisms underlying traumatic head and brain injuries, along with a biomechanical evaluation of 21 current and retired football helmets. The National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment (NOCSAE) standard test apparatus was modified and validated for impact testing of protective headwear to include the measurement of both linear and angular kinematics. From a drop height of 2.0 m onto a flat steel anvil, each football helmet was impacted 5 times in the occipital area. Skull fracture risk was determined for each of the current varsity football helmets by calculating the percentage reduction in linear acceleration relative to a 140-g skull fracture threshold. Risk of subdural hematoma was determined by calculating the percentage reduction in angular acceleration relative to the bridging vein failure threshold, computed as a function of impact duration. Ranking the helmets according to their performance under these criteria, the authors determined that the Schutt Vengeance performed the best overall. The study findings demonstrated that not all football helmets provide equal or adequate protection against either focal head injuries or traumatic brain injuries. In fact, some of the most popular helmets on the field ranked among the worst. While protection is improving, none of the current or retired varsity football helmets can provide absolute protection against brain injuries, including concussions and subdural hematomas. To maximize protection against head and brain injuries for football players of
Hespanhol Junior, Luiz C; Barboza, Saulo D; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert
Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the implementation of these concepts in practice. The aspects discussed are: (1) sports injury definition; (2) classification of sports injuries; (3) population at risk, prevalence, and incidence; (4) severity measures; (5) economic costs; (6) systems developed to monitor sports injuries; and (7) online technology. Only with reliable monitoring systems applied in a continuous and long-term manner will it be possible to identify the burden of injuries, to identify the possible cases at an early stage, to implement early interventions, and to generate data for sports injury prevention. The implementation of sports injuries monitoring systems in practice is strongly recommended.
Junge, Astrid; Engebretsen, Lars; Mountjoy, Margo L; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Renström, Per A F H; Aubry, Mark John; Dvorak, Jiri
Standardized assessment of sports injuries provides important epidemiological information and also directions for injury prevention. To analyze the frequency, characteristics, and causes of injuries incurred during the Summer Olympic Games 2008. Descriptive epidemiology study. The chief physicians and/or chief medical officers of the national teams were asked to report daily all injuries newly incurred during the Olympic Games on a standardized injury report form. In addition, injuries were reported daily by the physicians at the medical stations at the different Olympic venues and at the polyclinic in the Olympic Village. Physicians and/or therapists of 92 national teams covering 88% of the 10,977 registered athletes took part in the study. In total, 1055 injuries were reported, resulting in an incidence of 96.1 injuries per 1000 registered athletes. Half of the injuries (49.6%) were expected to prevent the athlete from participating in competition or training. The most prevalent diagnoses were ankle sprains and thigh strains. The majority (72.5%) of injuries were incurred in competition. One third of the injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by overuse (22%) and noncontact incidences (20%). Injuries were reported from all sports, but their incidence and characteristics varied substantially. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in soccer, taekwondo, hockey, handball, weightlifting, and boxing (all >or=15% of the athletes) and lowest for sailing, canoeing/kayaking, rowing, synchronized swimming, diving, fencing, and swimming. The data indicate that the injury surveillance system covered almost all of the participating athletes, and the results highlight areas of high risk for sport injury such as the in-competition period, the ankle and thigh, and specific sports. The identification of these factors should stimulate future research and subsequent policy change to prevent injury in
Maffulli, N; Longo, U G; Gougoulias, N; Loppini, M; Denaro, V
Injuries can counter the beneficial effects of sports participation at a young age if a child or adolescent is unable to continue to participate because of residual effects of injury. This paper reviews current knowledge in the field of long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries to evaluate the evidence regarding children dropping out of sport due to injury, physeal injuries and growth disturbance, studies of injuries affecting the spine and knee of young and former athletes and surgical outcome of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in children. Studies of dropping out of sport due to injury are limited primarily to gymnasts and implicate such injuries as ACL rupture and osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow joint in the early retirement of young athletes. Although most physeal injuries resolve with treatment and rest, there is evidence of disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury. Radiological findings implicate the effects of intense physical loading and injury in the development of spinal pathology and back pain during the growth of youth athletes; however, long-term effects are unclear. Follow-up studies of young athletes and adults indicate a high risk of osteoarthritis after meniscus or ACL injury. Prospective cohort studies with a follow-up into adulthood are needed to clarify the long-term health outcomes of youth sports injuries. Important to this research is meticulous documentation of injuries on injury report forms that include age-appropriate designations of the type of injury and accurate determination of exposure-based injury rates.
Havlik, Heather S
Equestrian sports continue to grow in popularity in the Unites States and abroad, with an estimated 30 million people riding horses annually in the United States alone. Approximately one in five of these riders will suffer a serious injury during their riding career, requiring medical care and potentially hospitalization. Riding carries with it an implicit risk of injury associated with the unpredictability of the animals, the rider's head being positioned approximately 9 feet off the ground, and traveling unrestrained at speeds up to 40 mph. This article reviews common equestrian injuries, epidemiology, mechanism of injury, risk factors, and prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the more dangerous aspects of the sport.
Lauren N. Erickson
Full Text Available Hamstring strain injuries are common among sports that involve sprinting, kicking, and high-speed skilled movements or extensive muscle lengthening-type maneuvers with hip flexion and knee extension. These injuries present the challenge of significant recovery time and a lengthy period of increased susceptibility for recurrent injury. Nearly one third of hamstring strains recur within the first year following return to sport with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high re-injury rate suggests that athletes may be returning to sport prematurely due to inadequate return to sport criteria. In this review article, we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, differential diagnosis, and prognosis of an acute hamstring strain. Based on the current available evidence, we then propose a clinical guide for the rehabilitation of acute hamstring strains and an algorithm to assist clinicians in the decision-making process when assessing readiness of an athlete to return to sport.
van der Does, Henrike Teunisje Dorothe; Brink, Michel Sanne; Otter, Ruby Tina Ardi; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen Alfons Plechelmus Marie
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate if changes in perceived stress and recovery over the course of a season are risk factors for acute and overuse injuries. Design: A prospective nonexperimental cohort design. Setting: Data were gathered at the SportsFieldLab Groningen and at the
Junge, Astrid; Langevoort, Gijs; Pipe, Andrew; Peytavin, Annie; Wong, Fook; Mountjoy, Margo; Beltrami, Gianfranco; Terrell, Robert; Holzgraefe, Manfred; Charles, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri
Several authors have analyzed the incidence of injuries in a given sport, but only a few have examined the exposure-related incidence of injuries in different types of sports using the same methodology. Analysis of the incidence, circumstances, and characteristics of injuries in different team sports during the 2004 Olympic Games. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. During the 2004 Olympic Games, injuries in 14 team sport tournaments (men's and women's soccer, men's and women's handball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's field hockey, baseball, softball, men's and women's water polo, and men's and women's volleyball) were analyzed. After each match, the physician of the participating teams or the official medical representative of the sport completed a standardized injury report form. The mean response rate was 93%. A total of 377 injuries were reported from 456 matches, an incidence of 0.8 injuries per match (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.91) or 54 injuries per 1000 player matches (95% confidence interval, 49-60). Half of all injuries affected the lower extremity; 24% involved the head or neck. The most prevalent diagnoses were head contusion and ankle sprain. On average, 78% of injuries were caused by contact with another player. However, a significantly higher percentage of noncontact (57%) versus contact injuries (37%) was expected to prevent the player from participating in his or her sport. Significantly more injuries in male players (46%) versus female players (35%) were expected to result in absence from match or training. The incidence, diagnosis, and causes of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. The risk of injury in different team sports can be compared using standardized methodology. Even if the incidence and characteristics of injuries are not identical in all sports, prevention of injury and promotion of fair play are relevant topics for almost all team sports.
Sewry, Nicola; Verhagen, Evert; Lambert, Mike; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Brown, James
The injury burden in collision sports is relatively high compared to other team sports. Therefore, participants in these sports would benefit by having effective injury prevention programs. Exercise-based interventions have successfully reduced injuries in soccer, but evidence on exercise-based interventions in tackle collision sports is limited. The objective of this review is to systematically examine the evidence of exercise-based intervention programs reducing injuries in tackle collision sports. PubMed, EBSCOHost, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 1995 and December 2015. The methodological quality was assessed using an adapted Cochrane Bone Joint and Muscle Trauma Group quality assessment tool. The inclusion criteria were (1) (randomized) control trials and observational studies; (2) sporting codes: American, Australian and Gaelic Football, rugby union, and rugby league; (3) participants of any age or sex; (4) exercise-based, prehabilitative intervention; and (5) primary outcome was injury rate or incidence (injury risk). The exclusion criteria were (1) unavailability of full-text; and (2) article unavailable in English. Nine studies with a total of 3517 participants were included in this review. Seven of these studies showed a significant decrease in injury risk. These studies included three sporting codes and various age groups, making it difficult to make inferences. The two highest methodological quality studies found no effect of an exercise-based intervention on injury risk. There is evidence that exercise-based injury preventions can be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collision sports, but more studies of high methodological quality are required.
Hoskin, Annette K; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Hanman, Kate; Lam, Geoffrey; Mackey, David A
To identify the causes of sports-related eye and adnexal injuries in children in Perth, Western Australia, to determine which sporting activities pose the highest risk of eye and adnexal injury to children. We performed a 12-year retrospective review of children admitted to hospital from 2002 to 2013 with sports-related ocular and adnexal eye injuries. The main outcome measures were the cause and type of ocular and adnexal injuries, age and gender risk factors. A total of 93 cases of sports-related ocular and adnexal injury were identified in the 12-year time period. A peak in injuries occurred for 12- to 14-year-olds with a second peak in 6- to 8-year-olds; the median age was 8.82 years (range = 1.59-16.47). Cycling, football (including soccer and Australian Rules Football), tennis, trampolining, fishing and swimming were the sports responsible for the greatest number of injuries, a total of 63%. More than one-third (35%) of injuries resulted from being struck by a blunt object, and more than a quarter (26%) were as a result of contact with a blunt projectile. Serious ocular and adnexal injuries have occurred in children as a result of participating in sports, with cycling and football being the largest contributors in the 12-year period we assessed. As we continue to encourage children to spend more time participating in sports and recreational activities, identifying associated risk factors will help us develop injury prevention strategies to promote eye safety for children. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fong Daniel TP
Full Text Available Abstract This paper summarizes the current understanding on acute ankle sprain injury, which is the most common acute sport trauma, accounting for about 14% of all sport-related injuries. Among, 80% are ligamentous sprains caused by explosive inversion or supination. The injury motion often happens at the subtalar joint and tears the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL which possesses the lowest ultimate load among the lateral ligaments at the ankle. For extrinsic risk factors to ankle sprain injury, prescribing orthosis decreases the risk while increased exercise intensity in soccer raises the risk. For intrinsic factors, a foot size with increased width, an increased ankle eversion to inversion strength, plantarflexion strength and ratio between dorsiflexion and plantarflexion strength, and limb dominance could increase the ankle sprain injury risk. Players with a previous sprain history, players wearing shoes with air cells, players who do not stretch before exercising, players with inferior single leg balance, and overweight players are 4.9, 4.3, 2.6, 2.4 and 3.9 times more likely to sustain an ankle sprain injury. The aetiology of most ankle sprain injuries is incorrect foot positioning at landing – a medially-deviated vertical ground reaction force causes an explosive supination or inversion moment at the subtalar joint in a short time (about 50 ms. Another aetiology is the delayed reaction time of the peroneal muscles at the lateral aspect of the ankle (60–90 ms. The failure supination or inversion torque is about 41–45 Nm to cause ligamentous rupture in simulated spraining tests on cadaver. A previous case report revealed that the ankle joint reached 48 degrees inversion and 10 degrees internal rotation during an accidental grade I ankle ligamentous sprain injury during a dynamic cutting trial in laboratory. Diagnosis techniques and grading systems vary, but the management of ankle ligamentous sprain injury is mainly conservative
Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish
The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or ...
Nadarajah, Vidushan; Jauregui, Julio J; Perfetti, Dean; Shasti, Mark; Koh, Eugene Y; Henn, Ralph Frank
Pediatric spinal cord injury (PSCI) is a devastating injury that can cause significant long-term consequences. The purpose of this study is to calculate and report the prevalence of PSCI, identify risk factors for sports-related PSCI, and evaluate associated factors. The data sets of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) from 2000-2012 were analyzed using ICD-9-CM external cause of injury codes to identify the mechanism of injury contributing to PSCI hospitalization. We then extracted demographic data on each admission including age, gender, race, and year of admission. We further stratified the data by sports-related cases of injury. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors. Of our study population, 0.8% had a documented diagnosis of spinal cord injury (SCI). The most common documented external cause of injury code was motor vehicle accidents, representing roughly half of all cases in patients 0-9 years-old (p = 0.001). PSCI due to sports as an external cause of injury was more prevalent in patients 10-17 years old, and was especially prevalent in the 10-13 year-old age category in which sports-related PSCI reached a high of 25.6%. Risk factors for traumatic PSCI after a sports-related external cause included being of older age, male, and white. The prevalence of SCI increased with age. Given the popularity of youth sports in the United States, parents and sports officials should be aware of the increased risk of sports-related PSCI among patients 10-17 years old. Level III, retrospective cohort study.
Falconi, Audrey; Flick, David; Ferguson, Jason; Glorioso, John E
Spinal cord injury is a nonfatal, catastrophic consequence of wave-riding sports. With surfing at the core, a multitude of activities have evolved that attempt to harness the power of ocean waves. The unique qualities of each wave-riding sport, in combination with the environmental factors of the ocean, define the risk for potential injuries. As wave-riding sports have become more advanced, athletes continue to push physical barriers. Taller waves are attempted while incorporating aerial maneuvers, all without protective equipment.
Rieder, Robert W.; Woodruff, William B., Jr.
Analyzes sports injury claims against colleges and universities in recent years to help administrators better understand and minimize liability risks for certain curricular and cocurricular activities. Reviews court cases in areas of duty of care and negligence and proximate cause, and discusses defenses. (Author/NB)
Pyne, D.B.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Mountjoy, M.
In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of
Pyne, David B; Verhagen, Evert A; Mountjoy, Margo
In this review, we outline key principles for prevention of injury and illness in aquatic sports, detail the epidemiology of injury and illness in aquatic athletes at major international competitions and in training, and examine the relevant scientific evidence on nutrients for reducing the risk of illness and injury. Aquatic athletes are encouraged to consume a well-planned diet with sufficient calories, macronutrients (particularly carbohydrate and protein), and micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6, and B12) to maintain health and performance. Ingesting carbohydrate via sports drinks, gels, or sports foods during prolonged training sessions is beneficial in maintaining energy availability. Studies of foods or supplements containing plant polyphenols and selected strains of probiotic species are promising, but further research is required. In terms of injury, intake of vitamin D, protein, and total caloric intake, in combination with treatment and resistance training, promotes recovery back to full health and training.
Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M
Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site of injury was the knee. We believe that specialised Sports Injury Clinics, initially based at the University Hospitals should be established here, to give guidance and education concerning avoidance of injuries, and for the treatment and follow-up of those injured and enable them to return to sports early.
Galic, Tea; Kuncic, Domagoj; Poklepovic Pericic, Tina; Galic, Ivan; Mihanovic, Frane; Bozic, Josko; Herceg, Mark
The increasing popularity of participating in sports activities among children and adolescents has increased the risk of sports-related orofacial and dental injuries. Therefore, it is important to establish efficient preventive strategies regarding sports-related dental trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of sports-related dental injuries in young athletes and to compare the frequency of such injuries between high-risk and medium-risk sports, along with assessing athletes' attitudes and habits regarding mouthguard use. A total of 229 young athletes from four different sports (water polo (n = 59), karate (n = 58), taekwondo (n = 57) and handball (n = 55)) participated in this study. A standardized questionnaire about the frequency of orofacial and dental injuries was used. Questions were also asked about athletes' habits related to mouthguard use. Mean age of the participants was 12.9 ± 3.2 years, and the average time of playing experience was 4.8 ± 3.1 years. Orofacial injury had been experienced by 58 athletes (25.3%), while 31 athletes (13.5%) suffered dental injury. Higher rate of dental injuries was observed in water polo (18.6%), karate (17.2%) and handball (21.8%) than in taekwondo (3.5%) (P = .035). Most participants were aware of mouthguards for dental trauma prevention and considered them efficient for preventing dental injuries during sports activities, but only 94 (41%) used them. There was a statistically significant difference in the use of mouthguards between taekwondo (73.7%) and karate (70.7%) players compared to handball (14.5%) and water polo players (5.1%) (P art sport. Therefore, the classification of sports according to the risk of dental trauma should be reconsidered. It would be beneficial to make wearing a mouthguard mandatory in all high-risk sports, as well as in those with medium-risk for dental injuries. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Öztürk, Selcen; Kılıç, Dilek
Despite the health benefits of sports activities, sports injury and fear of injury are important barriers to participation in sport. The incidence, prevalence and type of sports injuries vary among men and women as well as age groups. It is usually difficult to examine these different aspects of sports injuries due to insufficient data. This study argues that sport injuries can be considered as an important economic burden in terms of the direct and indirect costs it bears. As a result, strong and effective strategies are needed to prevent sports injuries. Sports medicine has also been attracted increasing attention in recent years, particularly. In this article, the importance of sports injuries and their economic costs as well as the role of sport medicine as a prevention method for sports injuries were discussed.
Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching
games. The great variability among the incidence rates may be explained by differences among sports, countries, competitive levels, ages and methodology used in the studies. Sports injuries have been defined as those occurring when athletes are practicing sports and that result in tissue alterations or damages, affecting the operation of the corresponding structures. Contact sports such as soccer, rugby, martial arts, basketball, handball and hockey generate greater risk of injuries. The probability of lesions is higher during competition than in training.
Heaney, Caroline A; Rostron, Claire L; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K
The use of sport psychology strategies during sport injury rehabilitation can lead to several positive outcomes such as improved adherence and self-efficacy. The purpose of this study was to compare the sport psychology related attitudes and behaviours of UK sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs) who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury to those who had not. Ninety-four SIRPs (54 physiotherapists and 40 sports therapists with a mean of 9.22 years' experience of working in sport) completed an online survey and were grouped according to their level of previous exposure to sport injury psychology education at an undergraduate/postgraduate level. Analyses were undertaken to establish whether there were any differences in sport psychology related attitude (MANOVA), usage (MANOVA), and referral behaviours (chi square) between the groups. The MANOVA and chi square tests conducted revealed that those who had studied the psychological aspects of sport injury reported using significantly more sport psychology in their practice and making more referrals to sport psychologists. It was concluded that sport injury psychology education appears to be effective in increasing the sport psychology related behaviours (use of sport psychology and referral) of SIRPs and should be integrated into professional training. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Vinay K.; Rango, Juan; Connaughton, Alexander J.; Lombardo, Daniel J.; Sabesan, Vani J.
Background: Since their conception during the mid-1970s, international participation in extreme sports has grown rapidly. The recent death of extreme snowmobiler Caleb Moore at the 2013 Winter X Games has demonstrated the serious risks associated with these sports. Purpose: To examine the incidence and prevalence of head and neck injuries (HNIs) in extreme sports. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was used to acquire data from 7 sports (2000-2011) that were included in the Winter and Summer X Games. Data from the NEISS database were collected for each individual sport per year and type of HNI. Cumulative data for overall incidence and injuries over the entire 11-year period were calculated. National estimates were determined using NEISS-weighted calculations. Incidence rates were calculated for extreme sports using data from Outdoor Foundation Participation Reports. Results: Over 4 million injuries were reported between 2000 and 2011, of which 11.3% were HNIs. Of all HNIs, 83% were head injuries and 17% neck injuries. The 4 sports with the highest total incidence of HNI were skateboarding (129,600), snowboarding (97,527), skiing (83,313), and motocross (78,236). Severe HNI (cervical or skull fracture) accounted for 2.5% of extreme sports HNIs. Of these, skateboarding had the highest percentage of severe HNIs. Conclusion: The number of serious injuries suffered in extreme sports has increased as participation in the sports continues to grow. A greater awareness of the dangers associated with these sports offers an opportunity for sports medicine and orthopaedic physicians to advocate for safer equipment, improved on-site medical care, and further research regarding extreme sports injuries. PMID:26535369
Chalmers, David; Morrison, Luke
Although the issues of drowning and near-drowning in aquatic sporting and recreational activities receive considerable attention in the epidemiological literature, there is not a recognised literature on non-submersion injuries occurring in these activities. This review draws together the epidemiological literature on non-submersion injuries and describes the incidence, nature and causes of these injuries, common risk factors, and strategies for prevention. Activities covered by the review include swimming, diving, boating, surf sports, fishing, water polo and water sliding. For most activities there is a dearth of good quality descriptive studies, with most involving cases-series designs and few providing estimates of incidence. Inconsistencies in inclusion criteria and the reporting of incidence rates makes comparisons within and between activities difficult. Incidence rates were identified for most activities and in general the incidence of injury was low, especially for more serious injury. However, some activities were associated with severely disabling injury, such as spinal cord injury (diving) and amputation (from propeller strikes in water skiing and swimming). Only three studies reporting the significance of postulated risk factors were identified. Lack of knowledge about the water being entered and alcohol consumption are significant risk factors in recreational diving; increased blood alcohol concentrations were reported to increase the risk of death in boating; and obesity and tandem riding were reported to increase the risk of injury on public water slides. Few evaluations of preventive measures were identified. Two studies reported reductions in the incidence of water slide injuries following the introduction of design changes and supervision, but neither had a non-intervention comparison group. Improvements in swimming and diving skills were reported in three studies, but these were not designed to measure changes in the risk of injury.This review
Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L; Regatte, Ravindar R; Crema, Michel D
In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to confirm and assess the extent of sports-related muscle injuries and may help to guide management, which directly affects the prognosis. This is especially important when the diagnosis or grade of injury is unclear, when recovery is taking longer than expected, and when interventional or surgical management may be necessary. Several imaging techniques are widely available, with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging currently the most frequently applied in sports medicine. This state of the art review will discuss the main imaging modalities for the assessment of sports-related muscle injuries, including advanced imaging techniques, with the focus on the clinical relevance of imaging features of muscle injuries. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan
Paralympic sport provides sporting opportunities for athletes with a disability, with the Paralympic Games as the main event. Participation in sport is, however, associated with a significant risk for sustaining injuries and illnesses. Our knowledge of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport is very limited and there are no large-scale epidemiological cohort studies. The purpose here is to present a protocol for a prospective longitudinal study: The Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport Study (SRIIPSS). An argument-based method for investigation of design problems was used to structure the study protocol. The primary requirement of the protocol is to allow prospective studies over time and include exposure to both training and competition. To reflect the complexity of Paralympic sport with athletes' pre-existing impairments, use of assistive equipment, pain and other and medical issues, it is required that the data collection system is specifically adapted to Paralympic sport. To allow the collection of data, at the same time as there is limited access to coaches and medical personnel, it is advantageous that data can be collected online directly from the athletes. Based on this a self-report athlete monitoring system will be developed, where the athletes can enter data weekly via their mobile phones or lap-tops. Data will be collected from around 100 Swedish Paralympic athletes for approximately 1 year, which will allow us to i) prospectively estimate the annual incidence of sports-related injuries and illnesses and ii) explore risk factors and mechanisms for sustaining sports-related injuries and illnesses based on athlete exposure and training loads. For effective implementation of injury and illness prevention measures, comprehensive epidemiological knowledge is required. This study will be the first prospective longitudinal self-report study of sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport over a longer period
Donaldson, Peter R
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether persons with generalized joint hypermobility have an increased risk of lower limb joint injury during sport. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and SportDiscus were searched through February 2009, without language restrictions, using terms related to risk; hip, ankle, and knee injuries; and joint instability. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were searched by hand. STUDY SELECTION: Selection criteria were peer-reviewed studies with a prospective design that used an objective scale to measure generalized joint hypermobility; the participants were engaged in sport activity, and the injury data were quantitative and based on diagnosis by a health professional, were self-reported, or resulted in time lost to athletic participation. The studies were screened by 1 researcher and checked by a second. Study methods were independently assessed by 2 investigators using the 6-point scale for prognostic studies developed by Pengel. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. Of 4841 studies identified, 18 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 8 were included in random-effects meta-analyses. DATA EXTRACTION: The data extracted by 2 reviewers included participant and sport characteristics and details of joint hypermobility and injury measurements. More detailed data for 4 investigations were obtained from the study authors. Where possible, hypermobility was defined as >\\/=4 of 9 points on the British Society of Rheumatology Scale (BSRS). MAIN RESULTS: Lower limb joint injuries (3 studies, 1047 participants) occurred in 14% of participants. Using the BSRS of joint hypermobility, any lower limb injury was not associated with hypermobility [odds ratio (OR), 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-3.67]. Using the original authors\\' definitions, hypermobility was associated with risk of knee joint injuries (OR, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.04-6.58) in 5 studies. In 4 studies in which the BSRS could be used (1167 participants; incidence
ter Stege, Marloes H. P.; Dallinga, Joan M.; Benjaminse, Anne; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.
Background Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in team ball sports, and prevention is crucial because of health and economic implications. To set up effective prevention programs, these programs must be designed to target potential, modifiable risk factors. In addition, it is
Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C
performed in Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show...... a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0......BACKGROUND/AIM: Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes...
Rosendahl, Karen; Strouse, Peter J
Sports related injuries are common in children and adolescents, with a reported incidence of around one in ten children each year. Boys incur more and severer sports injuries than girls, and chance for injury is greater with contact or jumping sports. Sports injuries seen in children under 10-years of age are non-specific, including contusions, mild sprains, and extremity fractures, usually Salter fractures of the physes (growth plate) or plastic fractures. In the very young athlete, sports injury of the ligaments or muscle is rare as are spine or head injuries. With growth and adolescence, the intensity of sports involvement increases. Pre-pubertal children still have open physes that are prone to injury, both acute or due to stress from a repetitive activity. In addition to injury of the physes of the long bones, injuries to the physes of apophyses are common. Ligamentous injury is uncommon before physeal closure, but can occur. After the physes fuse, ligamentous injury is seen with patterns similar to adults. This review will include a description of sports related injuries seen in children and adolescents. We will concentrate on injuries that are specific for the growing skeleton, with a brief mention of those seen after fusion of the physes.
Ekegren, C L; Gabbe, B J; Finch, C F
A lack of available injury data on community sports participants has hampered the development of informed preventive strategies for the broad-base of sports participation. In community sports settings, sports trainers or first-aiders are well-placed to carry out injury surveillance, but few studies have evaluated their ability to do so. The aim of this study was to investigate the reporting rate and completeness of sports trainers' injury records and agreement between sports trainers' and players' reports of injury in community Australian football. Throughout the football season, one sports trainer from each of four clubs recorded players' injuries. To validate these data, we collected self-reported injury data from players via short message service (SMS). In total, 210 discrete injuries were recorded for 139 players, 21% by sports trainers only, 59% by players via SMS only, and 21% by both. Completeness of injury records ranged from 95% to 100%. Agreement between sports trainers and players ranged from K = 0.32 (95% confidence interval: 0.27, 0.37) for date of return to football to K = 1.00 for activity when injured. Injury data collected by sports trainers may be of adequate quality for providing an understanding of the profile of injuries. However, data are likely to underestimate injury rates and should be interpreted with caution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ibikundle, P.O.; Ani, U.K.; Useh, U.; Akosile, C.O.
Football is an impact collision sport, with injuries occurring in both contact and non-contact situations. Injuries may be caused by complex interactions between internal and external risk factors. The internal factors such as age, sex, and body compositions may influence the risk of sustaining injuries, predisposing the player to injury, and are therefore by definitions risk factors. The main purpose of this study was to review articles and draw attention to the prevalence, severity and mech...
Laoruengthana, Artit; Poosamsai, Paisan; Fangsanau, Tharinee; Supanpaiboon, Pattrawan; Tungkasamesamran, Kasame
Prevention of injury among athletes is of paramount importance for sport events. The incidence of injury differs depending on many factors, such as level of competition, type of sport, and standard of surveillance systems. It is our purpose to provide a descriptive epidemiology of a national level competition multi-sports event. During the 2008 Thailand National "Phitsanulok" Games, official medical teams of the various sports completed a report form after each match or competition. The demographic data, type of sport, details of injury or illness, diagnosis, and treatment were collected from the PLKGames 2008 program and analyzed by the Medical Surveillance Committee. There were 14,429 athletes and staff participating in the "Phitsanulok" games. A total of 496 injuries were reported during the competition, of which 300 male and 196 female athletes sustained injuries, resulting in an incidence rate of 4.1 injuries per 100 registered athletes. For all sports, 71, 50 and 38 injuries occurred during Rugby, Handball and Basketball, respectively, which accounted for 32% of all injuries. No injury was reported from many sports, such as table tennis, shooting, dancing, and golf The most common diagnoses were sprains and strains. About half of injuries were caused by contact with another athlete, followed by noncontact (28.6%) and limited-contact incidences (27.6%). According to the number of athletes, the risk of incurring an injury was highest in Pencak Silat, handball, basketball, and rugby football. About half of injuries affected lower extremities, while 135, 53, and 49 injuries involved upper extremity, head & neck, and axial body parts, respectively. The knee and ankle were the most common sites of injury. The data demonstrates a potential risk of injury occurring predominately in full-contact sports and limited-contact sports. The data is potentially useful in developing injury surveillance systems for future sporting events.
Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit
.14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR 1.38), and previous knee injury (OR 1.78), while participation in soccer (OR 1.64), handball (OR 1.95), basket (OR 2.07), rhythmic (OR 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport...... and participation in soccer, handball, basket, rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times/week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries...... intrinsic and extrinsic factors for risk of these injuries. METHODS: Weekly musculoskeletal pain, sport participation and sports type were reported by 1326 school children (8-15 years). Knee injuries were classified as traumatic or overuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analyses. RESULTS...
Soligard, Torbjørn; Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H Paul; Gabbett, Tim; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R; Janse van Rensburg, Christa; Khan, Karim M; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W; Pluim, Babette M; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars
Athletes participating in elite sports are exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendars. Emerging evidence indicates that poor load management is a major risk factor for injury. The International Olympic Committee convened an expert group to review the scientific evidence for the relationship of load (defined broadly to include rapid changes in training and competition load, competition calendar congestion, psychological load and travel) and health outcomes in sport. We summarise the results linking load to risk of injury in athletes, and provide athletes, coaches and support staff with practical guidelines to manage load in sport. This consensus statement includes guidelines for (1) prescription of training and competition load, as well as for (2) monitoring of training, competition and psychological load, athlete well-being and injury. In the process, we identified research priorities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L.; Maas, M.
This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)
This article provides a review and analysis of the literatures on the gendering of injuries in sport and in work. It argues that, while research on women's work-related injuries has considered the interaction of biological and social bases of risk, research on women's injuries in sport has concentrated to a greater extent on biological risk factors alone. The difference in emphasis between these two literatures has, in turn, provoked contrasting responses to these sets of research. While bringing women into the discussion of work-related injuries is seen as an advance, the profiling of women's sport-related injuries has been viewed with alarm by critics, who see this as a return to historical notions of women's frailty. The analysis suggests that contrasts between these bodies of research derive from differences in the social organisation of sport and work and the broader literatures on health and safety in each setting. The article highlights the importance of conceptualisations of gender in research agenda devoted to understanding health-related concerns. The analysis presented here has important relevance to ergonomics because of the need to better understand how gender is implicated in ergonomics research and practice.
The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book enc...
Al-Shaqsi, Sultan; Al-Kashmiri, Ammar; Al-Risi, Ahmed; Al-Mawali, Suleiman
Prevention of sport injuries and illnesses is a focus for epidemiological surveillance. To record and analyse all sports injuries and illnesses registered during the second Asian Beach Games. A descriptive epidemiological study using the International Olympic Committee Surveillance system to register injuries and illnesses during the second Asian Beach Games. The second Asian Beach Games hosted 1132 athletes from 43 countries competing in 14 beach sports. All National Olympic Committees' physicians of the participating teams were invited to report all injuries and illnesses. In addition, medical officers at the different Olympic venues and the main Olympic village reported injuries and illnesses treated at the clinics on a daily basis. A total of 177 injuries were reported equating to an incidence rate of 156.4 per 1000 registered athletes. Tent pegging recorded the highest incidence of injuries with 357 per 1000 registered athletes. The most prevalent injuries were in the foot/toe with 14.1% of all reported injuries. The majority of injuries were incurred during competition (75.4%). In addition, the most common mechanism of injury was contact with another athlete (n=42, 23.7%) and combined sudden and gradual overuse contributed to 30% of the total injury burden. Furthermore, 118 illnesses were reported resulting in an incidence rate of 104.2 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. The most affected system was the respiratory tract (39.1%) with infection being the most common cause (n=33, 38.0%). The incidence of injury and illness differed significantly among the 14 sports. The data indicate that the risk of injury from beach games is sport dependant. This means that any preventive measures have to be tailored for each discipline. Furthermore, the study showed that respiratory infections are the commonest illness in beach sports and therefore, event organisers should focus improving public health measures and hygiene awareness.
Weiss, Kaitlyn; Whatman, Chris
Knee injuries are prevalent among a variety of competitive sports and can impact an athlete's ability to continue to participate in their sport or, in the worst case, end an athlete's career. The aim was to evaluate biomechanics associated with both patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (in sports involving landing, change in direction, or rapid deceleration) across the three time points frequently reported in the literature: pre-injury, at the time of injury, and following injury. A search of the literature was conducted for research evaluating biomechanics associated with ACL injury and PFPS. The Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, EBSCO, PubMed, and CINAHL databases, to March 2015, were searched, and journal articles focused on ACL injuries and PFPS in sports that met the inclusion criteria were reviewed. The search methodology was created with the intent of extracting case-control, case, and cohort studies of knee injury in athletic populations. The search strategy was restricted to only full-text articles published in English. These articles were included in the review if they met all of the required selection criteria. The following inclusion criteria were used: (1) The study must report lower extremity biomechanics in one of the following settings: (a) a comparison of currently injured and uninjured participants, (b) a prospective study evaluating risk factors for injury, or (c) a study reporting on the injury event itself. (2) The study must include only currently active participants who were similar at baseline (i.e. healthy, high school level basketball players currently in-season) and include biomechanical analysis of either landing, change in direction, or rapid deceleration. (3) The study must include currently injured participants. The studies were graded on the basis of quality, which served as an indication of risk of bias. An adapted version of the 'Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in
Chan, Christie Wl; Eng, Janice J; Tator, Charles H; Krassioukov, Andrei
Despite the recognition of sports as a significant contributor in the etiology of spinal cord injury (SCI), no studies have systematically explored the epidemiology of SCI caused by sports. This paper aims to give a systematic overview of the epidemiology of sport-related spinal cord injury around the world. A systematic review was conducted to identify published literature reporting the epidemiology of SCI caused by sports. The literature search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Sportdiscus with date limits 1980 through to July 2015. Data from 54 studies covering 25 countries was extracted and collated. Important findings include identification of 6 countries in which sports accounts for over 13% of SCI (highest to lowest: Russia, Fiji, New Zealand, Iceland, France and Canada); individual sports with high risk for SCI (diving, skiing, rugby, and horseback riding); and the most common level of injury for various sports (almost entirely cervical for hockey, skiing, diving and American football, while over half of horseback riding and snowboarding injuries are thoracic or lumbosacral). This paper identifies countries and sports with higher rates of sport-related SCIs where implementation of prevention programs and reporting systems to track SCI epidemiology may be helpful, and highlights gaps in our current knowledge for further investigation. The comparison of SCI occurrence for each sport across countries, as well as examination of the specific characteristics of SCI incurred for individual sports will assist in directing efforts for prevention.
Pol, Rafel; Hristovski, Robert; Medina, Daniel; Balague, Natalia
A better understanding of how sports injuries occur in order to improve their prevention is needed for medical, economic, scientific and sports success reasons. This narrative review aims to explain the mechanisms that underlie the occurrence of sports injuries, and an innovative approach for their prevention on the basis of complex dynamic systems approach. First, we explain the multilevel organisation of living systems and how function of the musculoskeletal system may be impaired. Second, we use both, a constraints approach and a connectivity hypothesis to explain why and how the susceptibility to sports injuries may suddenly increase. Constraints acting at multiple levels and timescales replace the static and linear concept of risk factors, and the connectivity hypothesis brings an understanding of how the accumulation of microinjuries creates a macroscopic non-linear effect, that is, how a common motor action may trigger a severe injury. Finally, a recap of practical examples and challenges for the future illustrates how the complex dynamic systems standpoint, changing the way of thinking about sports injuries, offers innovative ideas for improving sports injury prevention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Lim, Bee-Oh; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kim, Jin Goo; An, Keun Ok; Yoo, Jin; Kwon, Young Hoo
Female athletes have a higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury than their male counterparts who play at similar levels in sports involving pivoting and landing. The competitive female basketball players who participated in a sports injury prevention training program would show better muscle strength and flexibility and improved biomechanical properties associated with anterior cruciate ligament injury than during the pretraining period and than posttraining parameters in a control group. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 22 high school female basketball players were recruited and randomly divided into 2 groups (the experimental group and the control group, 11 participants each). The experimental group was instructed in the 6 parts of the sports injury prevention training program and performed it during the first 20 minutes of team practice for the next 8 weeks, while the control group performed their regular training program. Both groups were tested with a rebound-jump task before and after the 8-week period. A total of 21 reflective markers were placed in preassigned positions. In this controlled laboratory study, a 2-way analysis of variance (2 x 2) experimental design was used for the statistical analysis (P training effects on all strength parameters (P = .004 to .043) and on knee flexion, which reflects increased flexibility (P = .022). The experimental group showed higher knee flexion angles (P = .024), greater interknee distances (P = .004), lower hamstring-quadriceps ratios (P = .023), and lower maximum knee extension torques (P = .043) after training. In the control group, no statistical differences were observed between pretraining and posttraining findings (P = .084 to .873). At pretraining, no significant differences were observed between the 2 groups for any parameter (P = .067 to .784). However, a comparison of the 2 groups after training revealed that the experimental group had significantly higher knee flexion angles (P = .023
Stanger, Michael A.
The incidence of injury related to various sports is reviewed according to sport, area of injury, number of participants and hours per week spent at the sport. Organized sports accounted for fewer injuries than unsupervised recreational activities like tree climbing, skateboarding and running. The knee is the most commonly injured site. Sensitivity to patients' commitment to their sport is necessary: sometimes instead of rest, they can substitute a less hazardous form of exercise. Principles ...
The present investigation reports 138 consecutive patients injured in sports, who needed treatment as in-patients in a one year period. More injuries were sustained in soccer than in other sports. The lower extremity was the site of most injuries, fractures and dislocations being the most common type of injury. At follow-up 50% of the patients complained of discomfort. The average stay in hospital after a sports injury requiring hospital care was 6 days. In 52% of the patients the duration of...
Wilhelm, Andrew; Choi, Changryol; Deitch, John
Background: The rate of early sport specialization in professional baseball players is unknown. Purpose: To report the incidence and age of sport specialization in current professional baseball players and the impact of early specialization on the frequency of serious injuries sustained during the players’ careers. We also queried participants about when serious injuries occurred, the players’ current position on the field, and their opinions regarding the need for young athletes to specializ...
Workewych, Adriana M; Ciuffetelli Muzzi, Madeline; Jing, Rowan; Zhang, Stanley; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Cusimano, Michael D
Sport-related traumatic brain injuries are a significant public health burden, with hundreds of thousands sustained annually in North America. While sports offer numerous physical and social health benefits, traumatic brain injuries such as concussion can seriously impact a player's life, athletic career, and sport enjoyment. The culture in many sports encourages winning at all costs, placing athletes at risk for traumatic brain injuries. As social media has become a central part of everyday life, the content of users' messages often reflects the prevailing culture related to a particular event or health issue. We hypothesized that Twitter data might be useful for understanding public perceptions and misperceptions of sport-related traumatic brain injuries. We performed a content and sentiment analysis of 7483 Twitter ® tweets related to traumatic brain injuries in sports collected during June and July 2013. We identified five major themes. Users tweeted about personal traumatic brain injuries experiences, reported traumatic brain injuries in professional athletes, shared research about sport-related concussions, and discussed policy and safety in injury prevention, such as helmet use. We identified mixed perceptions of and sentiment toward traumatic brain injuries in sports: both an understanding that brain injuries are serious and disregard for activities that might reduce the public burden of traumatic brain injuries were prevalent in our Twitter analysis. While the scientific and medical community considers a concussion a form of traumatic brain injuries, our study demonstrates a misunderstanding of this fact among the public. In our current digital age, social media can provide useful insight into the culture around a health issue, facilitating implementation of prevention and treatment strategies.
Greier, K; Riechelmann, H
A high percentage of all sports injuries occur during school sports. It was analysed whether there are differences in frequency, nature and distribution of school sport injuries at two different types of schools. School sport injuries of all secondary modern schools (n = 106) and in lower classes of grammar Schools (n = 17) in the federal state of Tyrol, Austria, from the ten school years 2001/02 to 2010/11 were analysed. All physical injuries occurring during school sports and resulting in the consultation of a medical doctor and therefore being reported to the general accident department (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt [AUVA]) were assessed. During the evaluation period an average number of 32,935 (±1584) school children attended the two types of schools in Tyrol per year. The average incidence of school sports injuries in this ten-year period in both types of schools was 36.4/1,000 (mean) with a standard deviation of 4.4/1,000 per school child per year. The incidence increased from 30.3 in the school year 2001/02 to 40.4 in the school year 2010/11 (r = 0.91; b = 1.34; p school sport injuries at secondary modern schools (37.4 ± 4.9 per 1,000 school children per year) was higher than at the lower classes of grammar schools (32.9 ± 4.0 per 1,000 school children per year; relative risk 1.138; 95% CI = 1.09-1.19; p = 1.8 × 10-8). In addition, the sports injuries of the school year 2010/11 were analysed in detail and a comparison was made between the two types of schools. The distribution pattern of school sports injuries did not show any significant differences between both school types. At the secondary modern schools, as well as in the lower classes of grammar schools, injuries to the upper extremities prevailed (>50%). Ball sports were responsible for every second injury. Secondary modern school pupils had a significantly higher risk of suffering a school sports injury than pupils in the lower classes of grammar schools. The injury pattern did not show
Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...
Iwamoto, Jun; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo
Although both gender- and sports-specific injuries exist among athletes, gender differences in the types of injuries caused by sports activities, except for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and anterior knee pain, are not well established. An observational study with a retrospective case-series design was conducted to investigate gender-specific differences in the types of injuries sustained while engaging in sports activities common to both males and females. We analyzed injuries sustained during sports activities including basketball, volleyball, tennis, skiing, track and field, and swimming, using data on age, sex, sports activities, activity levels, and sports injuries that had been computerized at our sports medicine (orthopedics) clinic. Inclusion criteria were sports activities that had a record of >100 injuries in total and athletes aged sports activity. We determined the absolute number of patients in each category and their percentage (proportion) of our cohort. The proportions of common injuries caused by sports activities were investigated, and gender-specific differences in the types of common injuries caused by sports activities were clarified. The Fisher exact test was used to determine the significance (P gender-specific differences in the types of sports injuries. According to our database, during the 14-year period between October 1992 and December 2006, a total of 2,989 athletes (1,624 males and 1,365 females) aged sports activities described consulted our sports medicine clinic. The most common sports injuries were ACL injury (14.3%) and knee pain (13.7%), followed by ankle sprain (9.4%), lumbar disc disease (7.0%), meniscus injury (5.1%), stress fracture (2.9%), low back pain (2.5%), patellar tendinitis (2.1%), injury of the medial collateral ligament of the knee (2.0%), lumbar spondylolysis (1.7%), and muscle strain (1.5%). Among these 11 types of sports injuries, a significantly higher proportion of females who engaged in basketball
Cumps, E; Verhagen, E; Annemans, L; Meeusen, R
This study determines the injury rate (%) and the associated direct medical and indirect costs of sports injuries in Flanders. Epidemiological cohort designs and a human capital method were set up to measure respectively the medical direct and indirect cost of sports injuries. 72 out of 82 Flemish sports federations participated. Insurance statistics from 2003 were used to determine the overall rate of injury and injury localisations. Using these data, the medical direct cost and the impact sports injuries have on indirect costs were estimated. The indirect costs were determined by multiplying the days of absence from work with the daily cost resulting from a loss of production, being 200 euros. The total direct medical cost extrapolated for the Flemish sports participants was 15,027,423 euros, which amounted to 0.07% to 0.08% of the total budget spent on healthcare. The indirect cost extrapolated for the Flemish sports participants was 111,420,813 euros, which is about 3.4% of the costs arising from absenteeism from work. Of the 14 in-depth analysed sports, the rate of injury was highest in European team handball (8.96%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.95-8.96) and lowest in swimming (0.62%; 95% CI 0.62-0.62). The highest direct medical cost was found for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (1358 euros per injury) and the lowest for foot injuries (52 euros per injury). The costs calculated in this study could become critical statistics in medical care debates. Data obtained here will enable a cost-benefit analysis of the impact of preventive measures to be made.
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to test whether different levels of motivation are related to the injuries suffered by elite athletes. The sample consists of 80 professional handball players of ASOBAL League, with a mean age of 24.83 years (+ 5.21. Motivation was assessed through the CPRD scale (Gimeno, Buceta & Pérez-Llantada; 1999 and a self-report questionnaire was used to register sports injuries. The results indicate that there is a relationship between motivational levels and the risk for injury. Specifically, players with high motivated players had a greater number of moderate injuries. Although it may seem paradoxical, it is possible that an excessively high motivation leads to overachievement and risk behaviors, which in turn facilitate the appearance of lesions.
Full Text Available Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes.The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes.PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles.Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i landing, ii side cutting, iii stop-jump, and iv muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position.Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.
Monajati, Alireza; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Goss-Sampson, Mark; Naclerio, Fernando
Hamstring strain and anterior cruciate ligament injuries are, respectively, the most prevalent and serious non-contact occurring injuries in team sports. Specific biomechanical and neuromuscular variables have been used to estimate the risk of incurring a non-contact injury in athletes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidences for the effectiveness of injury prevention protocols to modify biomechanical and neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injuries associated risk factors in uninjured team sport athletes. PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Cochrane Libraries, U.S. National Institutes of Health clinicaltrials.gov, Sport Discuss and Google Scholar databases were searched for relevant journal articles published until March 2015. A manual review of relevant articles, authors, and journals, including bibliographies was performed from identified articles. Nineteen studies were included in this review. Four assessment categories: i) landing, ii) side cutting, iii) stop-jump, and iv) muscle strength outcomes, were used to analyze the effectiveness of the preventive protocols. Eight studies using multifaceted interventions supported by video and/or technical feedback showed improvement in landing and/or stop-jump biomechanics, while no effects were observed on side-cutting maneuver. Additionally, multifaceted programs including hamstring eccentric exercises increased hamstring strength, hamstring to quadriceps functional ratio and/or promoted a shift of optimal knee flexion peak torque toward a more open angle position. Multifaceted programs, supported by proper video and/or technical feedback, including eccentric hamstring exercises would positively modify the biomechanical and or neuromuscular anterior cruciate and/or hamstring injury risk factors.
Astur, Diego Costa; Xerez, Marcos; Rozas, João; Debieux, Pedro Vargas; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Cohen, Moises
To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) isolated rupture of the ACL; (2) ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3) isolated menisci injury. The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%), followed by group 2 (30.2%) and 3 (25%). Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years) than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years). Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.
Diego Costa Astur
Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1 isolated rupture of the ACL; (2 ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3 isolated menisci injury. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%, followed by group 2 (30.2% and 3 (25%. Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. CONCLUSION: Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years. Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.
Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J
Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic
Richmond, Sarah A.; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Doyle-Baker, Patricia K.; Macpherson, Alison; Emery, Carolyn A.
Objectives. To examine body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) as risk factors for sport injury in adolescents. Design. A secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial. Methods. Adolescents (n = 1,040) at the ages of 11?15 years from two Calgary junior high schools were included. BMI (kg/m2) and WC (cm) were measured from direct measures at baseline assessment. Categories (overweight/obese) were created using validated internati...
Adel Hamed Elbaih
Full Text Available Inroduction: regular physical activity is essential for the prevention of various diseases and reduces the risk of premature mortality in general and coronary heart disease, hypertension, colon cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus in particular. Aim of this study was to assess the most common sports causing injuries and to assess the types and mechanisms of these injuries. Patients and methods: The researcher examined 250 patients attending emergency departmentl. Results: The study showed that the most common type of sports involved in injury was football .The ankle was the most common affected part in the whole body . Chest contusion and back contusion were the most common types of sports injuries in head, neck and trunk. Fracture scaphoid and fissure radius were the most common sport injuries. Ankle sprain was the most common injury. The study showed that (62.7% of the studied patients who were playing football had injuries in the lower limbs. Ankle sprain was the most common sport injury that was associated with wearing football shoes . Conclusion: Ankle sprain was the most common sport injury associated with artificial grass court . Wrist sprain was the common sport injury in the upper limbs associated with artificial grass court .
Emery, Carolyn A; Roy, Thierry-Olivier; Whittaker, Jackie L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; van Mechelen, Willem
Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The objective of the systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of injury prevention neuromuscular training strategies in youth sport. Three electronic databases were systematically searched up to September 2014. Studies selected met the following criteria: original data; analytic prospective design; investigated a neuromuscular training prevention strategy intervention(s) and included outcomes for injury sustained during sport participation. Two authors assessed the quality of evidence using Downs and Black (DB) criteria. Meta-analyses including randomised controlled trials only (RCTs) to ensure study design homogeneity were completed for lower extremity and knee injury outcomes. Of 2504 potentially relevant studies, 25 were included. Meta-analysis revealed a combined preventative effect of neuromuscular training in reducing the risk of lower extremity injury (incidence rate ratio: IRR=0.64 (95% CI 0.49 to 0.84)). Though not statistically significant, the point estimate suggests a protective effect of such programmes in reducing the risk of knee injury (IRR=0.74 (95% CI 0.51 to 1.07)). There is evidence for the effectiveness of neuromuscular training strategies in the reduction of injury in numerous team sports. Lack of uptake and ongoing maintenance of such programmes is an ongoing concern. A focus on implementation is critical to influence knowledge, behaviour change and sustainability of evidence informed injury prevention practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Objective: To determine the aetiology, prevalence and types of oro-facial injuries in a sports festival in Nigeria Materials and Methods: A data form was designed to collect among others, information on age, gender, state of origin, sporting event and types of injury. All consecutive patients who sustained oro-facial sports- ...
Thomson, Eric M; Howard, Thomas M
The powers of lightning have been worshiped and feared by all known human cultures. While the chance of being struck by lightning is statistically very low, that risk becomes much greater in those who frequently work or play outdoors. Over the past 2 yr, there have been nearly 50 lightning-related deaths reported within the United States, with a majority of them associated with outdoor recreational activities. Recent publications primarily have been case studies, review articles, and a discussion of a sixth method of injury. The challenge in reducing lightning-related injuries in organized sports has been addressed well by both the National Athletic Trainers' Association and the National Collegiate Athletic Association in their guidelines on lightning safety. Challenges remain in educating the general population involved in recreational outdoor activities that do not fall under the guidelines of organized sports.
Rex, Camille C.; Metzler, Jonathan N.
The purpose of this research was to develop a measure of sport injury anxiety (SIA), defined as the tendency to make threat appraisals in sport situations where injury is seen as possible and/or likely. The Sport Injury Anxiety Scale (SIAS) was developed in three stages. In Stage 1, expert raters evaluated items to determine their adequacy. In…
Chan, K M; Yuan, Y; Li, C K; Chien, P; Tsang, G
A prospective survey was carried out on 2293 patients attending the Sports Injury Clinic in the Prince of Wales Hospital between May 1984 and December 1990. A Sports Injury Report Form was completed for each patient. Subjects in this study represent a group of nonprofessional and non-élite athletes in a metropolitan area. Soccer, basketball, volleyball, long-distance running and cycling in descending order were the five most common sports causing injury. Different sports produced different in...
Dhillon, Bikramjit Singh; Sood, Nikhil; Sood, Niti; Sah, Nupur; Arora, Dhruv; Mahendra, Ashish
The paper provides a review about the orofacial injuries sustained during sports and the options available to the athletes for their prevention. It was done with a purpose to determine three different aspects incidence of dental injury during sporting activities, role of mouthguards in preventing sports injury, types of mouthguards and their properties. From this review, it is clear that sports carry a considerable risk of injury, this is not only true for the contact sports such as rugby or kickboxing, but also for seemingly less dangerous sports such as football. Amongst the different types of mouthguards, the most acceptable and safe ones are the custom-fabricated mouthguards, in particular the pressure-laminated ones. In general, mouthguard usage is less than the dental profession would recommend. As much of progress has been made in this area, need for the use of mouthguard needs to be emphasized and promoted by the dental profession.
Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W.; Robinson, Philip; Tol, Johannes L.; Regatte, Ravindar R.; Crema, Michel D.
In sports-related muscle injuries, the main goal of the sports medicine physician is to return the athlete to competition-balanced against the need to prevent the injury from worsening or recurring. Prognosis based on the available clinical and imaging information is crucial. Imaging is crucial to
Mori, Tatsuro; Kawamata, Tatsuro; Katayama, Yoichi
The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)
Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C
Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.
Cumps, E.D.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Annemans, L.; Meeusen, R.
Objective: This study determines the injury rate (%) and the associated direct medical and indirect costs of sports injuries in Flanders. Setting: Epidemiological cohort designs and a human capital method were set up to measure respectively the medical direct and indirect cost of sports injuries.
Frisch, A; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Croisier, J L; Lair, M L; Theisen, D
This study analyzed sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors in young athletes (n=256) from 12 sport disciplines practicing at the national or the international level in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg. Injury occurrence as a result of sport practice was analyzed retrospectively over the year 2006 using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Overall incidence was not different between girls and boys (1.20 and 1.21 injuries/1000 athlete-hours, respectively), but in the context of team sport competition girls tended to be at a greater risk (rate ratio 2.05, P=0.053). Girls had a higher proportion of injuries in the ankle/foot region compared with boys (34.8% vs 16.8%). No sex-related differences were found regarding injury severity. Multivariate logistic regression (controlling for age and practice volume) revealed that girls' team sports were associated with a greater injury risk compared with individual sports [odds ratio (OR) of 4.76], while in boys this was observed for racket sports (OR=3.31). Furthermore, physical or emotional stress tended to be a specific risk factor in girls. There was a tendency for injury outside sports to be coupled to a higher injury risk in girls and boys. Consideration of sex-specific injury patterns and risk factors could be of importance for effective injury prevention.
Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola
The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many
Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F
Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Patel, Darshan P; Redshaw, Jeffrey D; Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, Thomas G; Erickson, Bradley A; Majercik, Sarah D; Gaither, Thomas W; Craig, James R; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B
Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. We identified patients with AAST grades III-V blunt renal injuries from four level 1 trauma centres across the United States between 1/2005 and 1/2014. Patients were divided into "Sport" or "Non-sport" related groups. Outcomes included rates of hypotension (systolic blood pressure 110bpm), concomitant abdominal injury, and procedural/surgical intervention between sports and non-sports related injury. 320 patients met study criteria. 18% (59) were sports-related injuries with the most common mechanisms being skiing, snowboarding and contact sports (25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively). Median age was 24 years for sports and 30 years for non-sports related renal injuries (p=0.049). Males were more commonly involved in sports related injuries (85% vs. 72%, p=0.011). Median injury severity score was lower for sports related injuries (10 vs. 27, pinjury scale scores. Sports related trauma was more likely to be isolated without other significant injury (69% vs. 39% (psports and non-sports renal injuries (p=0.30). Sports injuries had lower transfusion (7% vs. 47%, psports vs. 18% non-sports, p=0.95). High-grade sports-related blunt renal trauma is more likely to occur in isolation without other abdominal or thoracic injuries and clinicians must have a high suspicion of renal injury with significant blows to the flank during sports activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sadat-Ali, M; Sankaran-Kutty, M
Saudi Arabia has now a wealth of sporting facilities of which the youth of the country is making full use. A prospective study of sports related injuries was conducted during the twelve months of 1983. We present an analysis of 846 such injuries seen at the King Fahd University Hospital, Al Khobar. These injuries formed 8.36% of those who attended after an accident for emergency treatment, of which 63% were under 20 years. The majority was sustained during soccer games. The most frequent site...
Full Text Available A retrospective study was made of sports injuries occurring in physical education classes in 51 junior and senior high schools in Israel during a period of 14 months (2000-2002. The survey covered a total population of 11439 students aged 12 to 18, 52% male, 48% female. The aim of the study was to assess the incidence, types and risk factors involving sports injuries among students in physical education classes. Physical education teachers were asked to complete questionnaires recording injuries that occurred during their lessons. Data included: socio-demographic parameters (gender, age, height and weight of the injured students, area and type of injury, time of injury during the class, type of sport activity, previous injuries, assessment of sport capabilities and performance. A total of 192 injuries were recorded in the survey (1.70%. Male and female students had fairly similar injury rates (49% female, 51% male. 12-14 year old students showed the greatest number of injuries (52%. The ankle was the most common site of injury in both genders (48% mostly involving ankle sprain. Athletics was the most common sport involving injury (38%. 45% of injuries were reported to occur in the start of the class, whereas 26% of injuries were repeat injuries. This survey showed that the incidence of injuries during supervised physical education classes in high schools in Israel is relatively low and is similar to that of other Western countries.
Silver, J R
An analysis was made of 150 rugby, trampolining, gymnastics and horse-riding injuries between 1952 and 1985, resulting in severe spinal injury. The individual analyses of the separate sports had been published previously. There are common factors to all these sports. Of those injured 121 had cervical injuries often as a result of participation in sport by young impetuous people, and causes included: inadequate supervision; motivation to attempt tasks beyond their abilities; a mismatch between...
Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bickenbach, Jerome; Finch, Caroline F; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordenfelt, Lennart
Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Musahl, Volker; Karlsson, Jon; Cugat, Ramon; Myer, Gregory D
The purpose of this study was to report a comprehensive literature review on the risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in male athletes. All abstracts were read and articles of potential interest were reviewed in detail to determine on inclusion status for systematic review. Information regarding risk factors for ACL injuries in male athletes was extracted from all included studies in systematic fashion and classified as environmental, anatomical, hormonal, neuromuscular, or biomechanical. Data extraction involved general characteristics of the included studies (type of study, characteristics of the sample, type of sport), methodological aspects (for quality assessment), and the principal results for each type of risk factor. The principal findings of this systematic review related to the risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes are: (1) most of the evidence is related to environmental and anatomical risk factors; (2) dry weather conditions may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (3) artificial turf may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes; (4) higher posterior tibial slope of the lateral tibial plateau may increase the risk of non-contact ACL injuries in male athletes. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in male athletes likely has a multi-factorial aetiology. There is a lack of evidence regarding neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in male athletes. Future research in male populations is warranted to provide adequate prevention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of this serious injury in these populations.
Kerssemakers, Steven P. [General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Dept. of Radiology, Medical Center, Alkmaar (Netherlands); Fotiadou, Anastasia N.; Karantanas, Apostolos H. [General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Jonge, Milko C. de; Maas, Mario
With an increasing number of paediatric and adolescent athletes presenting with injuries due to overuse, a greater demand is put on clinicians and radiologists to assess the specific type of injury. Repetitive forces applied to the immature skeleton cause a different type of injury than those seen in adults due to the differences in vulnerability of the musculoskeletal system, especially at the site of the growth cartilage. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors all play a role in the development of overuse injuries. MRI plays a key role in imaging overuse injuries due to its high potential for depicting cartilaginous and soft-tissue structures. Sport-specific biomechanics are described, since this knowledge is essential for adequate MRI assessment. An overview of several sport-related injuries is presented, based on anatomical location. (orig.)
Kerssemakers, Steven P.; Fotiadou, Anastasia N.; Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Jonge, Milko C. de; Maas, Mario
With an increasing number of paediatric and adolescent athletes presenting with injuries due to overuse, a greater demand is put on clinicians and radiologists to assess the specific type of injury. Repetitive forces applied to the immature skeleton cause a different type of injury than those seen in adults due to the differences in vulnerability of the musculoskeletal system, especially at the site of the growth cartilage. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors all play a role in the development of overuse injuries. MRI plays a key role in imaging overuse injuries due to its high potential for depicting cartilaginous and soft-tissue structures. Sport-specific biomechanics are described, since this knowledge is essential for adequate MRI assessment. An overview of several sport-related injuries is presented, based on anatomical location. (orig.)
van der Does, Hendrike
Next to physical load and recovery as a result of training, psychosocial stress and recovery affect performance and injury risk of team sport players. This can be concluded based on a series of studies that focus on the relation between jumping technique, training load, training recovery,
Rossler, R.; Donath, L.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Junge, A.; Schweizer, T.; Faude, O.
Background: The promotion of sport and physical activity (PA) for children is widely recommended to support a healthy lifestyle, but being engaged in sport bears the risk of sustaining injuries. Injuries, in turn, can lead to a reduction in current and future involvement in PA and, therefore, may
... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or fractures of the face. Common symptoms of facial fractures include: swelling and bruising, ...
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, Grete
The accurate measurement of sport exposure time and injury occurrence is key to effective injury prevention and management. Current measures are limited by their inability to identify all types of sport-related injury, narrow scope of injury information, or lack the perspective of the injured...... by trained on-field observers and medical staff (comparison method). We followed 24 elite adolescent handball players over 12 consecutive weeks. Eighty-six injury registrations were obtained by the SPEx and comparison methods. Of them, 35 injury registrations (41%) were captured by SPEx only, 10 injury...... athlete. The aims of the study were to evaluate the proportion of injuries and the agreement between sport exposures reported by the SMS messaging and follow-up telephone part of the SMS, Phone, and medical staff Examination (SPEx) sports injury surveillance system when compared to measures obtained...
Chauhan, M.S.; Chowhan, M.
Full text: Sports injuries are common in individual who participate in sports and exercise related activities. In majority of sports related injuries such as stress fracture, periosteitits, acute stress reaction of bone, the radiological investigations are usually normal in early stages. These injuries can lead to serious complications if not detected early and managed properly. This study was jointly carried out in premier medical institutes. All patients were referred from premier sports institute of the country and also by orthopedic surgeons. All patients were subjected for relevant radiological investigations and 3 phase bone scan. Total number of cases included in this study was 70 (N=70) among which bone scan was positive for stress fracture in 45 patients and shin splint was detected in 15 patients and avulsion injury seen in 3 patients. However, only one patient showed features of avulsion injury in X ray and in 1 patient X-ray was inconclusive. Conclusion:-The study shows that 3 phase bone scan is the most sensitive and relatively an inexpensive study. Bone scan has the ability for early detection of sports injuries and provide physiological information and evaluate multiple sites in single examination.SPECT study will help in the diagnostic specificity. (author)
Full Text Available In this paper the concept of sports ethics is defined and attention is directed to kinds of behavior which are not considered as fair play, the general conception of criminal offence as well as the elements of general idea of criminal act, unlawfulness and guilt with special attention paid to the basis on which unlawfulness and delict, and with them, the criminal offence itself are excluded. Consent of the injured party as basis for excluding unlawfulness has been carefully considered, with emphasis on the fact that with accepting to participate is a certain sport an athlete does not consent to be hurt outside the frame which rules of a particular sport imply. The attitude is accepted that with his consent an athlete consented to the possibility for his integrity be endangered, which still does not mean that he consented to be injured indeed, i.e. a difference is recognized between the consequence of endangering and the consequence of injuring protected assets. After that, rules which are applied in certain sports are explained and connected with the acceptance of the injured party, and the stand is taken that acceptance of the injured party excludes existence of criminal deed only in a situation when an injury occurred within the rules of a particular sport. If the injury occurred by breaking the rules of the sport, it would be considered as a criminal act. In conclusion, the stand is taken that it is necessary to fight against all harmful occurrences in sports, including the injuries which occurred due to severe violation of rules which should be applied in a particular sport. It is concluded that consent of the injured party must not be an excuse for not applying criminal justice, if the injury occurred by violation of the rules of a particular sport.
Kang, Chan; Hwang, Deuk-Soo; Cha, Soo-Min
We wanted to investigate acetabular labral tears and their correlation with femoroacetabular impingement in patients with sports injury. Among 111 patients who were diagnosed with the acetabular labral tears after arthroscopic treatment from January 2004 to December 2007, we selected 41 patients with sports injury. There were 12 cases of Taekwondo injury, 5 of golf injury, 4 of soccer injury, 3 of gymnastics injury, 2 of Hapkido injury, 2 of aerobics injury, 2 of rock-climbing injury, 2 of fitness training injury and 9 of other sports injuries. We checked the subtypes of acetabular labral tears and the accompanying femoroacetabular impingement. For the cases with accompanying femoroacetabular impingement, we investigated the subtypes according to the types of sports, gender and age. At last follow-up, we checked the Harris Hip Score (HHS), the Hip Outcome Score (HOS) sports scale and the percentage of patients who returned to their sports activity. The average age of symptomatic onset was 26 years (range, 12 to 65 years). The ratio of males to females was 29 : 12. An average duration of the hip pain was 17 months (range, 1 to 60 months). The degenerative type of acetabular labral tears was the most prevalent with 32 cases (78%), and there were 9 cases (22%) of the partial tear type. Thirty cases (73%) were accompanied by femoroacetabular impingement. The average age of the 23 cases (56%) of the cam-type was 23 years (range, 12 to 48 years), and it was more likely to occur in men (87%) and for people practicing martial arts such as Taekwondo or Hapkido. An average age of the 5 cases (12%) of the pincer-type was 26 (range, 16 to 43 years), it usually occurred in women (60%) and for non-martial arts such as golf and gymnastics. There were 2 cases of the mixed type (cam + pincer-type). At 27 months follow-up, the HHS was 61 to 92 points, the HOS sports scale increased 43 to 75%, and the rate of returning to sports was 71%. In spite of the early expression of symptoms
Hochmuth, K.; Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J.; Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L.
Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [de
Newsome, P R; Tran, D C; Cooke, M S
This paper examines the literature dealing with oral-facial injuries received during participation in sport and the possibilities open to athletes for their prevention. In particular, the paper examines five different aspects of this topic: the risk of dental injury while playing sports, the role of the mouthguard in preventing injury, types of athletic mouthguard, implications for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment and behavioural aspects of mouthguard wear. It is clear from this review that participation in a number of sports does carry a considerable risk of sustaining dental injury, not only in the so-called contact sports such as rugby and hockey, but also in less obviously dangerous sports such as basketball. Although some evidence exists to the contrary, the majority of studies have found the mouthguard to be the most effective way of preventing such injuries. It is also clear that the custom-fabricated mouthguard, in particular the pressure-laminated variety, is seen to afford most protection. Athletes undergoing orthodontic treatment present a particular problem as they are potentially at greater risk of injury because of increased tooth mobility and the presence of orthodontic appliances. The fabrication of mouthguards for these patients is also problematic and the literature covering this is reviewed. As with other preventive measures, mouthguard usage is often less than the dental profession would like; the reasons for this are explored in a small number of studies. While much progress has been made in this area, the profession could do much more to promote the greater use of mouthguards.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen
Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.
Chrzavzez, G; Chrzavzez, J P; D'Erceville, T; Kharrat, N; Barbillon, C; Pilz, F
Of 249 patients with facial injuries admitted to the Department of Stomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hôpital Bel Air, Thionville, France, between 1981 and 1982, 45 (18%) were cases of injury from sporting activities. The particular characteristics of the latter lesions were their predominance in males, their increased seasonal frequency in spring and early summer, the high incidence of damage to the nasal pyramid and maxillomalar complex, and the fact that the most implicated sport was football (71% of cases). Whereas most accidents resulted in relatively minor lesions, three cases--including two from riding--involved severe, complex injuries comparable to those seen in certain car accidents. Findings in this series confirm the natural "bumper" property of the face. Emphasis is placed on the importance of well-conducted training, and the need to eliminate consideration of sport as a means for expressing aggressiveness that is not always possible in daily life.
Tyler, Timothy F; Silvers, Holly J; Gerhardt, Michael B; Nicholas, Stephen J
An in-season groin injury may be debilitating for the athlete. Proper diagnosis and identification of the pathology are paramount in providing appropriate intervention. Furthermore, an adductor strain that is treated improperly can become chronic and career threatening. Any one of the 6 muscles of the adductor muscle group can be involved. The degree of injury can range from a minor strain (grade 1), where minimal playing time is lost, to a severe strain (grade 3), in which there is complete loss of muscle function. Persistent groin pain and muscle imbalance may lead to athletic pubalgia. Relevant studies were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and the Cochrane database from 1990 to 2009, as well as a manual review of reference lists of identified sources. Ice hockey and soccer players seem particularly susceptible to adductor muscle strains. In professional ice hockey and soccer players throughout the world, approximately 10% to 11% of all injuries are groin strains. These injuries have been linked to hip muscle weakness, a previous injury to that area, preseason practice sessions, and level of experience. This injury may be prevented if these risk factors are addressed before each season. Despite the identification of risk factors and strengthening intervention for athletes, adductor strains continue to occur throughout sport. If groin pain persists, the possibility of athletic pubalgia needs to be explored, because of weakening or tears in the abdominal wall muscles. A diagnosis is confirmed by exclusion of other pathology.
Spectators of the Olympic Games can enjoy a wide variety of sports, including strength, team, timed, endurance, and artistic sports. In the Olympic program, there are two synchronized events: synchronized diving and synchronized swimming. The precision of the synchronization of the athlete's movements and skills is an added feature of entertainment. Synchronized athletes have additional training requirements to perfect the synchronization of their skills. The physical demands on the athlete from the repetition of training required for the perfection of synchronization result in injuries unique to these sports. Although both traumatic and overuse injuries occur, overuse injuries are more common. As these disciplines are artistic, judged sports, these athletes also are susceptible to eating disorders and the female athlete triad. This article reviews the training regimen of these athletes and outlines the injuries and health concerns that are common in the synchronized sports.
Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L
With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.
Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.
Participation in high school sports helps promote a physically active lifestyle. High school sports participation has grown from an estimated 4 million participants during the 1971-72 school year to an estimated 7.2 million in 2005-06. However, despite the documented health benefits of increased physical activity (e.g., weight management, improved self-esteem, and increased strength, endurance, and flexibility), those who participate in athletics are at risk for sports-related injuries. High school athletes account for an estimated 2 million injuries, 500,000 doctor visits, and 30,000 hospitalizations annually. To date, the study of these injuries has been limited by inabilities to calculate injury rates, compare results among groups, and generalize findings from small, nonrepresentative samples. During the 2005-06 school year, researchers at a children's hospital in Ohio used an Internet-based data-collection tool to pilot an injury surveillance system among athletes from a representative national sample of U.S. high schools. This report summarizes the findings of that study, which indicated that participation in high school sports resulted in an estimated 1.4 million injuries at a rate of 2.4 injuries per 1,000 athlete exposures (i.e., practices or competitions). Surveillance of exposure-based injury rates in a nationally representative sample of high school athletes and analysis of injury patterns can help guide activities aimed at reducing these injuries.
Hjerrild, Mette; Videbaek, Solvej; Theisen, Daniel; Malisoux, Laurent; Oestergaard Nielsen, Rasmus
To discuss the interpretability of non-causal associations to sports injury development exemplified via the relationship between navicular drop (ND) and running-related injury (RRI) in novice runners using neutral shoes. 1-year prospective cohort study. Denmark. 926 novice runners, representing 1852 feet, were included. The outcome was "a musculoskeletal complaint of the lower extremity or back caused by running, which restricted the amount of running for at least a week". Fewer feet with small ND than those feet with a reference ND sustained injuries at 50 (risk difference (RD) = -4.1% [95%CI = -7.9%;-0.4%]) and 100 km (RD = -5.3% [95%CI = -9.9%;-0.7%]). Similarly, fewer feet with a large ND sustained injuries than the feet with a reference drop at 250 (RD = -7.6% [95%CI = -14.9%;-0.3%]) and 500 km (RD = -9.8% [95%CI = -19.1%;-0.4%]). Non-causal associations can help to identify sub-groups of athletes at an increased or decreased risk of sports injury. Based on the current results, those with a small or large navicular drop sustain fewer injuries than those with a reference drop. Importantly, navicular drop does not cause RRIs, but influences the relationship between training load and RRI. This illustrates that non-causal associations are unsuitable to respond to the question: Why do sports injury develop? Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Soligard, Torbjørn; Schwellnus, Martin; Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Bahr, Roald; Clarsen, Ben; Dijkstra, H. Paul; Gabbett, Tim; Gleeson, Michael; Hägglund, Martin; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Janse van Rensburg, Christa; Khan, Karim M.; Meeusen, Romain; Orchard, John W.; Pluim, Babette M.; Raftery, Martin; Budgett, Richard; Engebretsen, Lars
Athletes participating in elite sports are exposed to high training loads and increasingly saturated competition calendars. Emerging evidence indicates that poor load management is a major risk factor for injury. The International Olympic Committee convened an expert group to review the scientific
McGee, S; Raffini, L; Witmer, C
With the wide availability of factor and the routine use of prophylaxis boys with haemophilia are now able to participate in regular physical activity, including organized sports. Current guidelines vary regarding specific recommendations for sports participation and concerns remain regarding safety. To determine if participation in organized sports is associated with an increased risk for injury in paediatric subjects with haemophilia. Retrospective single-centre cohort study from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010 in male subjects ages 10-18 years with a factor VIII (FVIII) or FIX level sports was recorded. 48 male subjects with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.6 years (range: 10-18.8) were included; 64.6% (31/48) FVIII deficiency, 54.2% (26/48) severe haemophilia, 18.8% (9/48) moderate and 27.1% (13/48) mild. The majority [62.5% (30/48)] of subjects participated in at least one season of organized sport. There were 77 injuries in 36/48 (75%) subjects. The mean number of injuries per subject was 1.6 ± 1.5. There was no statistical difference in the mean number of injuries (P = 0.44) or target joint formation (P = 0.52) between the subjects who participated in organized sports compared to those who did not. In this study, participation in organized sports by boys with haemophilia, ages 10-18 years, is common and not associated with an increased number of injuries or the development of a target joint. As injuries occurred equally in both groups, concerted efforts should be directed at reducing injuries in all patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mattila, V M; Parkkari, J; Koivusilta, L; Kannus, P; Rimpelä, A
The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence.
Junge, Tina; Runge, Lisbeth; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Wedderkopp, Niels
Knee injuries are frequent in children, with most studies reporting traumatic knee injuries. Evidence of risk factors for knee injuries in children is sparse. The purpose of this study was to report the extent of traumatic and overuse knee injuries in children and to evaluate intrinsic and extrinsic factors for risk of these injuries. Weekly musculoskeletal pain, sport participation, and sports type were reported by 1326 school children (8-15 yr). Knee injuries were classified as traumatic or overuse. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analyses. During the study period, 952 (15% traumatic and 85% overuse) knee injuries were diagnosed. Period prevalence for traumatic and overuse knee injuries were 0.8/1000 and 5.4/1000 sport participations, respectively. Participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor for traumatic knee injuries (OR, 2.14). For overuse knee injuries, intrinsic risk factors were sex (girls OR, 1.38) and previous knee injury (OR, 1.78), whereas participation in soccer (OR, 1.64), handball (OR, 1.95), basket (OR, 2.07), rhythmic (OR, 1.98), and tumbling gymnastics (OR, 1.74) were additional risk factors. For both injury types, sport participation above two times per week increased odds (OR, 1.46-2.40). Overuse knee injuries were the most frequent injury type. For traumatic knee injuries, participation in tumbling gymnastics was a risk factor. Risk factors for overuse knee injuries were being a girl; previous knee injury; and participation in soccer, handball, basket, and rhythmic and tumbling gymnastics. Further risk factors for both types of injury were participation in sports above two times per week. Although growth-related overuse knee injuries are a self-limiting condition, a major part of children are affected by these injuries with unknown short- and long-term consequences.
This thesis deals with current issues in the management of trauma and sports injuries of the elbow. Common sports injuries of the elbow involve ruptures of the distal biceps tendon and the ulnar collateral ligament. We evaluated one of the current thoughts, that the height of the radial bicipital
Krutsch, Werner; Krutsch, Volker; Hilber, Franz; Pfeifer, Christian; Baumann, Florian; Weber, Johannes; Schmitz, Paul; Kerschbaum, Maximilian; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter
Severe sports-related injuries are a common affliction treated in Level I trauma departments. Detailed knowledge on injury characteristics from different medical settings is essential to improve the development of injury prevention strategies in different team sports. Team sport injuries were retrospectively analysed in a Level I trauma department registry over 15 years. Injury and treatment data were compared with regard to competition and training exposure. Injury data such as "time of visitation", "type of injury", "multiple injured body regions" and "immediate hospitalisation" helped to define the severity level of each team sports injury. At the Level I trauma department, 11.361 sports-related injuries were seen over 15 years, of which 34.0 % were sustained during team sports. Soccer injuries were the most common injuries of all team sports (71.4 %). The lower extremity was the most affected body region overall, followed by the upper extremity. Head injuries were mainly seen in Ice hockey and American football and concussion additionally frequently in team handball. Slight injuries like sprains or contusions occurred most frequently in all team sports. In soccer and team handball, injuries sustained in competition were significantly more severe (p team sports, injury prevention strategies should address competitive as well as training situations, whichmay need different strategies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Fuller, Colin; Jaques, Rod; Hunter, Glenn
Background. Describing the frequency, severity, and causes of sports injuries and illnesses reliably is important for quantifying the risk to athletes and providing direction for prevention initiatives. Methods. Time-loss and/or medical-attention definitions have long been used in sports injury/illness epidemiology research, but the limitations to these definitions mean that some events are incorrectly classified or omitted completely, where athletes continue to train and compete at high levels but experience restrictions in their performance. Introducing a graded definition of performance-restriction may provide a solution to this issue. Results. Results from the Great Britain injury/illness performance project (IIPP) are presented using a performance-restriction adaptation of the accepted surveillance consensus methodologies. The IIPP involved 322 Olympic athletes (males: 172; female: 150) from 10 Great Britain Olympic sports between September 2009 and August 2012. Of all injuries (n = 565), 216 were classified as causing time-loss, 346 as causing performance-restriction, and 3 were unclassified. For athlete illnesses (n = 378), the majority (P < 0.01) resulted in time-loss (270) compared with performance-restriction (101) (7 unclassified). Conclusions. Successful implementation of prevention strategies relies on the correct characterisation of injury/illness risk factors. Including a performance-restriction classification could provide a deeper understanding of injuries/illnesses and better informed prevention initiatives. PMID:26464883
Engebretsen, Lars; Soligard, Torbjørn; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Budgett, Richard; Dvorak, Jiri; Jegathesan, Manikavasagam; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Mountjoy, Margo; Palmer-Green, Debbie; Vanhegan, Ivor; Renström, Per A
The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the
Raissaki, Maria; Apostolaki, Eleni; Karantanas, Apostolos H.
Sports injuries may be unique in childhood and adolescence due to the inherent weakness of the growing skeleton at specific sites, mainly the cartilaginous parts. Many injuries are predictable based on the known mechanism of injury encountered in certain sports. There are two distinct patterns of injury in sports; acute and chronic or overuse. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of these entities. Radiologists should be familiar with the advantages and limitations of the various imaging modalities when evaluating the injured young athlete. The present review focuses on the radiological findings and appropriate imaging approach in injuries that are typically or most commonly encountered in the skeletally immature athletes
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000518.htm Returning to sports after a back injury To use the sharing ... Back pain - returning to sports Which Type of Sport is Best? In deciding when and if to ...
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.
Schröter, C; Schulte-Sutum, A; Zeckey, C; Winkelmann, M; Krettek, C; Mommsen, P
Equestrian sports are one of the most popular forms of sport in Germany, while also being one of the most accident-prone sports. Furthermore, riding accidents are frequently associated with a high degree of severity of injuries and mortality. Nevertheless, there are insufficient data regarding incidences, demographics, mechanisms of accidents, injury severity and patterns and outcome of injured persons in amateur equestrian sports. Accordingly, it was the aim of the present study to retrospectively analyze these aspects. A total of 503 patients were treated in the emergency room of the Hannover Medical School because of an accident during recreational horse riding between 2006 and 2011. The female gender was predominantly affected with 89.5 %. The mean age of the patients was 26.2 ± 14.9 years and women (24.5 ± 12.5 years) were on average younger than men (40.2 ± 23.9 years). A special risk group was girls and young women aged between 10 and 39 years. The overall injury severity was measured using the injury severity score (ISS). Based on the total population, head injuries were the most common location of injuries with 17.3 % followed by injuries to the upper extremities with 15.2 % and the thoracic and lumbar spine with 10.9 %. The three most common injury locations after falling from a horse were the head (17.5 %), the upper extremities (17.4 %), the thoracic and lumbar spine (12.9 %). The most frequent injuries while handling horses were foot injuries (17.2 %), followed by head (16.6 %) and mid-facial injuries (15.0 %). With respect to the mechanism of injury accidents while riding were predominant (74 %), while accidents when handling horses accounted for only 26 %. The median ISS was 9.8 points. The proportion of multiple trauma patients (ISS > 16) was 18.1 %. Based on the total sample, the average in-hospital patient stay was 5.3 ± 5.4 days with a significantly higher proportion of hospitalized patients in the
Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Maria Isabel; Teles, Júlia
Physical activity (PA) is beneficial, enhancing healthy development. However, one-third of school-age children practicing sports regularly suffer from an injury. These injuries are associated with sex, chronological age, and PA level. To identify the importance of age, PA level, and maturity as predictors of injury in Portuguese youth. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 3. Information about injury and PA level was assessed via 2 questionnaires (LESADO RAPIL II) from 647 subjects aged 10 to 17 years. Maturity offset according to Mirwald (time before or after peak height velocity) and Tanner-Whitehouse III bone age estimates were used to evaluate maturation. Binary logistic regression and gamma regression were used to determine significant predictors of injury and injury rate. Injury occurrence was higher for both sexes in recreational, school, and federated athletes (athletes engaged in sports that are regulated by their respective federations, with formal competition). These injuries also increased with age in boys and in the higher maturity offset group in girls. Injury rate was higher for both sexes in the no sports participation group. Early-maturing girls, with higher bone age and lower maturity offset, showed higher injury rate. Injuries in Portuguese youth were related to PA level, age, and biological maturation. Recreational, school, and federated athletes had more injury ocurrences while subjects with no sports participation had higher injury risk. Older subjects had more injuries. Early-maturing girls that had just passed peak height velocity may be particularly vulnerable to risk of sports injury because of the growing process. Increased knowledge about injury with specific PA exposure data is important to an overall risk management strategy. This study has deepened the association between injury and biological maturation variables.
Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian
The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Full Text Available ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.
Takeda, Hideki; Nakagawa, Takumi; Nakamura, Kozo; Engebretsen, Lars
Articular cartilage defects in the knee of young or active individuals remain a problem in orthopaedic practice. These defects have limited ability to heal and may progress to osteoarthritis. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis among athletes is higher than in the non-athletic population. The clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis are joint pain, limitation of range of motion and joint stiffness. The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is confirmed by the symptoms and the radiological findings (narrowing joint space, osteophyte formation and subchondral sclerosis). There is no strong correlation between symptoms and radiographic findings. The aetiology of knee osteoarthritis is multifactorial. Excessive musculoskeletal loading (at work or in sports), high body mass index, previous knee injury, female gender and muscle weakness are well-known risk factors. The high-level athlete with a major knee injury has a high incidence of knee osteoarthritis. Cartilage injuries are frequently observed in young and middle-aged active athletes. Often this injury precedes osteoarthritis. Reducing risk factors can decrease the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis. The prevention of knee injury, especially anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus injury in sports, is important to avoid progression of knee osteoarthritis.
Lee, Sangkook; Saetia, Kriangsak; Saha, Suparna; Kline, David G; Kim, Daniel H
The aim of this retrospective study was to present and investigate axillary nerve injuries associated with sports. This study retrospectively reviewed 26 axillary nerve injuries associated with sports between the years 1985 and 2010. Preoperative status of the axillary nerve was evaluated by using the Louisiana State University Health Science Center (LSUHSC) grading system published by the senior authors. Intraoperative nerve action potential recordings were performed to check nerve conduction and assess the possibility of resection. Neurolysis, suture, and nerve grafts were used for the surgical repair of the injured nerves. In 9 patients with partial loss of function and 3 with complete loss, neurolysis based on nerve action potential recordings was the primary treatment. Two patients with complete loss of function were treated with resection and suturing and 12 with resection and nerve grafting. The minimum follow-up period was 16 months (mean 20 months). The injuries were associated with the following sports: skiing (12 cases), football (5), rugby (2), baseball (2), ice hockey (2), soccer (1), weightlifting (1), and wrestling (1). Functional recovery was excellent. Neurolysis was performed in 9 cases, resulting in an average functional recovery of LSUHSC Grade 4.2. Recovery with graft repairs averaged LSUHSC Grade 3 or better in 11 of 12 cases Surgical repair can restore useful deltoid function in patients with sports-associated axillary nerve injuries, even in cases of severe stretch-contusion injury.
Vrbanić, Tea Schnurrer-Luke; Ravlić-Gulan, Jagoda; Gulan, Gordan; Matovinović, Damir
Female athletes participating in high-risk sports suffer anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) knee injury at a 4- to 6-fold greater rate than do male athletes. ACL injuries result either from contact mechanisms or from certain unexplained non-contact mechanisms occurring during daily professional sports activities. The occurrence of non-contact injuries points to the existence of certain factors intrinsic to the knee that can lead to ACL rupture. When knee joint movement overcomes the static and the dynamic constraint systems, non-contact ACL injury may occur. Certain recent results suggest that balance and neuromuscular control play a central role in knee joint stability, protection and prevention of ACL injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate balance neuromuscular skills in healthy Croatian female athletes by measuring their balance index score, as well as to estimate a possible correlation between their balance index score and balance effectiveness. This study is conducted in an effort to reduce the risk of future injuries and thus prevent female athletes from withdrawing from sports prematurely. We analysed fifty-two female athletes in the high-risk sports of handball and volleyball, measuring for their static and dynamic balance index scores, using the Sport KAT 2000 testing system. This method may be used to monitor balance and coordination systems and may help to develop simpler measurements of neuromuscular control, which can be used to estimate risk predictors in athletes who withdraw from sports due to lower sports results or ruptured anterior cruciate ligament and to direct female athletes to more effective, targeted preventive interventions. The tested Croatian female athletes with lower sports results and ACL knee injury incurred after the testing were found to have a higher balance index score compared to healthy athletes. We therefore suggest that a higher balance index score can be used as an effective risk predictor for lower sports results
Williams, J. M.; Wright, P.; Currie, C. E.; Beattie, T. F.
OBJECTIVES: To measure the age and sex distribution of self reported sports and leisure injuries in a 12 month retrospective recall period among a representative national sample of Scottish adolescents, and to examine the characteristics (gender, age, handedness, and level of sports participation) of sports related injuries in relation to injuries sustained during other activities. DESIGN/SETTING: Self completion questionnaire survey administered in schools during April- June 1994. SUBJ...
Finch, C F; Kemp, J L; Clapperton, A J
Previous sports injury is a known risk factor for subsequent osteoarthritis (OA), but population-based rates of sports injury are unknown. The aims of this study were to: (1) describe the trends in the population incidence and burden of all hospital-treated sports injury in Victoria, Australia in adults aged 15+ years; (2) determine the incidence of lower limb and knee injuries; and (3) quantify their population health burden as average direct hospital costs per injury and lengths of stay. Health sector data relating to adults aged 15+ years, for 2004-2010 inclusive, was extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) and Victorian Emergency Minimum Dataset (VEMD). Data relating to sports injuries were identified using activity codes in each dataset Trends in injury frequency and rates were determined, and economic burden was calculated. The overall annual rate of hospital treated sports injuries increased by 24% (P = 0.001), and lower limb injuries by 26% (P = 0.001) over the 7 years. The associated accumulated economic burden was $265 million for all sports injuries and $110 million for lower limb injuries over the 7-years. The findings of this study show a significant increase in sports injuries in the state of Victoria, Australia over a 7-year period. As previous sports injury is a risk factor for the development of OA, the future incidence of OA will escalate, placing an even greater burden on health care systems. Population-wide preventative strategies that reduce the risk of sports injury are urgently required in order to reduce the future burden of OA. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pan, James; Connolly, Ian D; Dangelmajer, Sean; Kintzing, James; Ho, Allen L; Grant, Gerald
Brain injuries are becoming increasingly common in athletes and represent an important diagnostic challenge. Early detection and management of brain injuries in sports are of utmost importance in preventing chronic neurological and psychiatric decline. These types of injuries incurred during sports are referred to as mild traumatic brain injuries, which represent a heterogeneous spectrum of disease. The most dramatic manifestation of chronic mild traumatic brain injuries is termed chronic traumatic encephalopathy, which is associated with profound neuropsychiatric deficits. Because chronic traumatic encephalopathy can only be diagnosed by postmortem examination, new diagnostic methodologies are needed for early detection and amelioration of disease burden. This review examines the pathology driving changes in athletes participating in high-impact sports and how this understanding can lead to innovations in neuroimaging and biomarker discovery.
Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr
This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study
Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather
Heaney, Caroline A; Walker, Natalie C; Green, Alison J K; Rostron, Claire L
Sport psychology education has been shown to have a positive impact on the practice of sport injury rehabilitation professionals (SIRPs). The purpose of this paper is to review recommendations relating to such education. The paper presents a review of existing literature relating to the content and mode of delivery for a sport psychology education programme for SIRPs. The review seeks to address four questions: (1) What topic areas do researchers suggest should be integrated into the sport psychology education of SIRPs? (2) What topic areas are currently being recommended by professional bodies? (3) What are the findings of research examining the impact of sport psychology education on SIRPs? and (4) What do researchers recommend to be the most appropriate mode of delivery for sport psychology education for SIRPs? The findings of the review suggest that in order to maximise adherence amongst already qualified SIRPs sport psychology education should be delivered in a flexible short duration package. Additionally three broad areas that sport psychology education should cover emerged: (1) understanding of the psychological impact of injury, (2) interventions and psychological skills/techniques, and (3) referral and professional boundaries. This has important implications for the future training of SIRPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Doyscher, R; Kraus, K; Finke, B; Scheibel, M
During sports the shoulder complex is exposed to considerable load especially where throwing is important and various pathological changes can occur. In the last two decades the shoulder in athletes has become a special term in clinical sports medicine Selective literature review in PubMed and consideration of personal experience, research results as well as national and international recommendations In general acute lesions of the shoulder caused by sudden sport injuries, such as traumatic luxation, acromioclavicular (AC) joint disruption, traumatic tendon ruptures, labral lesions, cartilage defects and fractures have to be distinguished from chronic or long-standing pathologies due to recurrent microtrauma, such as overuse bursitis and tendinitis, as well as secondary forms of impingement along with rotator cuff tears and labral lesions. Besides common pathological changes that can be observed in almost all overhead-sports, there are also injuries that are more sport-specific due to the particular load profile in each sport. These injuries are especially common in racquet and throwing sports (e.g. golf, tennis, handball and volleyball) as well as in individual and artistic sports (e.g. swimming, gymnastics, dancing and rowing), contact and extreme sports (e.g. judo, mixed martial arts, bodybuilding, weightlifting, motocross and downhill mountain biking). Knowledge about sport-specific load profiles as well as about the variety of treatment options is crucial for successful treatment of these injuries.
Sports medicine is acquiring an important role owing to the increasing number of sports-active people and professional athletes. Accurate diagnosis of the different pathological conditions is therefore of fundamental importance. This book provides an overview of the most frequently observed conditions and correlates them with sports activities, as well as documenting relatively unknown lesions of increasing significance. Diagnostic techniques are described and compared, and their roles defined; interpretative pitfalls ar highlighted. All of the contributing authors have distinguished themselves in the field and have a deep knowledge of the problem involved in the diagnosis and classification of sports injuries. (orig.)
Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C; Urrútia, G; Thorborg, K
Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes in sports. A comprehensive search was performed in May 2014 yielding 1747 potentially relevant references. Two independent assessors evaluated randomised controlled trials for inclusion, extracted data and performed quality assessments using Cochrane's risk of bias tool. Quantitative analyses were performed in Review Manager 5.3. Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show a significant reduction in the number of groin injuries after completing a groin injury prevention programme (relative risk (RR) 0.81; 95% CI 0.60 to 1.09). Subgroup analysis based on type of sports, gender and type of prevention programme showed similar non-significant estimates with RR ranging from 0.48 to 0.81. Meta-analysis revealed a potential clinically meaningful groin injury reduction of 19%, even though no statistical significant reduction in sport-related groin injuries could be documented. PROSPERO registration ID CRD42014009614. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The material available was grouped according to body regions and sport types. The first part contains data on radiography of the injured parts of the body and is intended to be a guide in the radiographic part of the diagnosis and treatment of the injured person. It also contains data on diagnostic pitfalls and recommendations for a comprehensive clarification of X-ray findings after an injury. The second part describes the sport types and hazards. Where possible, the injuries were documented by case studies and literature on the types of injury. The third part contains a collection of X-ray pictures with examples of various injuries. The presentation corresponds to the one of an up-to-date major text book on skeleton radiology. The pictures are presented as a series of problems for the reader to test his/her own diagnostic capabilities before he/she will read the solution to each example. With 411 figs [de
Stracciolini, Andrea; Casciano, Rebecca; Levey Friedman, Hilary; Meehan, William P; Micheli, Lyle J
Significant knowledge deficits exist regarding sports injuries in the young child. Children continue to engage in physically demanding, organized sports to a greater extent despite the lack of physical readiness, predisposing themselves to injury. To evaluate sports injuries sustained in very young children (5-12 years) versus their older counterparts (13-17 years) with regard to the type and location of injuries, severity, and diagnosis. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A retrospective chart review was performed on a 5% random probability sample (final N = 2133) of 5- to 17-year-old patients treated for sports injuries in the Division of Sports Medicine at a large, academic pediatric medical center between 2000 and 2009. Using descriptive statistics, correlates of injuries by age group, injury type, and body area are shown. Five- to 12-year-old patients differed in key ways from older patients. Children in this category sustained injuries that were more often traumatic in nature and more commonly of the upper extremity. Older patients (13-17 years) were more likely to be treated for injuries to the chest, hip/pelvis, and spine. A greater proportion of the older children were treated for overuse injuries, as compared with their younger counterparts (54.4% vs. 49.2%, respectively), and a much larger proportion of these injuries were classified as soft tissue injuries as opposed to bony injuries (37.9% vs. 26.1%, respectively). Injury diagnosis differed between the 2 age groups. The 13- to 17-year age group sustained more anterior cruciate ligament injuries, meniscal tears, and spondylolysis, while younger children were diagnosed with fractures, including physeal fractures, apophysitis, and osteochondritis dissecans. The 5- to 12-year-old patients treated for spine injuries were disproportionately female (75.8%); most of these injuries were overuse (78.8%) and bony (60.6%); over one third of the youngest children were diagnosed with spondylolysis. Surgery
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of injuries in amateur football players during a University Sport South Africa Football tournament and the factors associated with these injuries. A prospective study design to describe football injuries during the University Sport South Africa Football Championships was ...
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G; Lind, M; Sørensen, H; Hebert, J J; Emery, C A; Attermann, J
The accurate measurement of sport exposure time and injury occurrence is key to effective injury prevention and management. Current measures are limited by their inability to identify all types of sport-related injury, narrow scope of injury information, or lack the perspective of the injured athlete. The aims of the study were to evaluate the proportion of injuries and the agreement between sport exposures reported by the SMS messaging and follow-up telephone part of the SMS, Phone, and medical staff Examination (SPEx) sports injury surveillance system when compared to measures obtained by trained on-field observers and medical staff (comparison method). We followed 24 elite adolescent handball players over 12 consecutive weeks. Eighty-six injury registrations were obtained by the SPEx and comparison methods. Of them, 35 injury registrations (41%) were captured by SPEx only, 10 injury registrations (12%) by the comparison method only, and 41 injury registrations (48%) by both methods. Weekly exposure time differences (95% limits of agreement) between SPEx and the comparison method ranged from -4.2 to 6.3 hours (training) and -1.5 to 1.0 hours (match) with systematic differences being 1.1 hours (95% CI 0.7 to 1.4) and -0.2 (95% CI -0.3 to -0.2), respectively. These results support the ability of the SPEx system to measure training and match exposures and injury occurrence among young athletes. High weekly response proportions (mean 83%) indicate that SMS messaging can be used for player measures of injury consequences beyond time-loss from sport. However, this needs to be further evaluated in large-scale studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Murray, I; Murray, S; MacKenzie, K; Coleman, S; Cullen, M
Objectives: To examine the diagnosis and management of adults attending a sports injury clinic, to establish to what extent the management of the two most common injuries treated at this clinic is evidence based, and to explore factors that affect management.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.
Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...
Gabrielle T Goodlin
Full Text Available Recent studies have identified genetic markers associated with risk for certain sports-related injuries and performance-related conditions, with the hope that these markers could be used by individual athletes to personalize their training and diet regimens. We found that we could greatly expand the knowledge base of sports genetic information by using published data originally found in health and disease studies. For example, the results from large genome-wide association studies for low bone mineral density in elderly women can be re-purposed for low bone mineral density in young endurance athletes. In total, we found 124 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with: anterior cruciate ligament tear, Achilles tendon injury, low bone mineral density and stress fracture, osteoarthritis, vitamin/mineral deficiencies, and sickle cell trait. Of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, 91% have not previously been used in sports genetics. We conducted a pilot program on fourteen triathletes using this expanded knowledge base of genetic variants associated with sports injury. These athletes were genotyped and educated about how their individual genetic make-up affected their personal risk profile during an hour-long personal consultation. Overall, participants were favorable of the program, found it informative, and most acted upon their genetic results. This pilot program shows that recent genetic research provides valuable information to help reduce sports injuries and to optimize nutrition. There are many genetic studies for health and disease that can be mined to provide useful information to athletes about their individual risk for relevant injuries.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Fields, Sarah; Comstock, R Dawn
Little is known about the epidemiology of dog sport-related injuries. This study examines injuries among handlers and dogs in the sport of dog agility. A cross-sectional pilot study captured data on demographics, exposures, and injury for a sample of agility handlers and dogs. Logistic regressions predicted odds of injury. Survey of 217 handlers and 431 dogs identified 31 handler injuries (1.55 training injuries per 1000 hours, 2.14 competition injuries per 1000 runs) and 38 dog injuries (1.74 training injuries per 1000 hours, 1.72 competition injuries per 1000 runs). Handlers most commonly injured knees (48.4%) and lower trunk (29.0%). Most common diagnoses were strains (51.6%) and sprains (32.3%). Obese handlers had increased odds of injury compared with normal weight handlers (OR = 5.5, P Dogs most commonly injured front paws (23.7%) and shoulders (15.8%). Most common diagnoses were strains (44.7%) and cut/scrapes (21.1%). Injury was positively associated with dog's age (P benefits, dog agility poses a risk of injury to both handlers and dogs. Future research on specific mechanisms of injury should drive evidence-based injury prevention strategies.
Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo
Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....
Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E
OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to
Bemiller, Jim; Hardin, Robin
The pole vault was considered the ultimate test of physical ability and daring before the advent of modern extreme sports such as skateboarding, snowboarding, and mountain biking. The inherent risks of the pole vault have been well documented. The National Center for Catastrophic Sport Injury Research reported in 2007 that the catastrophic injury…
Chéron, Charlène; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
Sporting activities can cause injuries and overuse injuries of the extremities (OIE) in children have been shown to be more common than injuries caused by trauma. The lower extremity is more frequently affected than the upper extremity in OIE, but it is not known whether injury site and diagnosis vary in different sporting activities. To identify any differences between sports in relation to diagnoses and anatomical areas most likely to be injured. A search was made in November 2014 and again in June 2016 in PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycInfo and Web of Sciences. Search terms were: « overuse injuries OR cumulative trauma disorders OR musculoskeletal injuries » AND « extremity OR limb » AND « physical activity OR sport OR risk factor OR predictors OR exercises » AND « child OR adolescent OR young adults ». Inclusion criteria were: 1) prospective, retrospective, or cross-sectional study design; 2) age ≤19 years; 3) the articles must clearly state if reported cases were classified as traumatic or overuse injuries; 4) reporting on OIE in relation to a particular sports type, and 5) sample size >50. A blinded systematic review was conducted. In all, nine of the 736 identified articles were included, studying soccer, handball, orienteering, running, dance, and gymnastics. The incidence of OIE was given only in a few articles but at least the site and diagnosis of OIE were identifiable. The lower limb is more often affected than the upper in all sports covered, and, in general, the lower leg and knee are the two most often affected areas. However, in handball, the elbow was the second most often reported area, and in gymnastics injuries of the foot appeared to be more frequent than in the other sports. No differences in diagnoses were observed between sports types. Our work contributes new information, namely that the site of OIE in children and adolescents appears to vary only somewhat between different types of sports. Further well-designed surveillance studies
Prasanna J. Gamage
Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.
Finch, C; Valuri, G; Ozanne-Smith, J
Despite the rise in specialist clinical services for the management of sports and active recreation injury, many patients attend hospital emergency departments for treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe sports injury cases presented to selected hospital emergency departments around Australia for the period 1989-1993. Routinely collected emergency department injury presentation data from the Australian National Injury Surveillance Unit were examined. Data on 98,040 sports and active recreation emergency department presentations were analysed. Sports and active recreation activities were ranked according to frequency of presentation. Relative proportions of injury type and body region injured were determined. Data are presented separately for children (15 years of age). Among the 10 activities that most commonly led to a sports or active recreation injury presentation for all ages were cycling, Australian football, basketball, soccer, cricket, netball, and rugby. For children, injuries were also commonly associated with roller skating/blading, skateboarding, and trampolining. Hockey, martial arts, and dancing injuries were frequent in adults. Most sporting injuries occurred during organised competition or practice whereas the active recreation injuries occurred in a variety of settings. Fractures, strains, and sprains, particularly to the lower and upper extremities, were common types of injury. The rich, but nevertheless limited, information available about sports and active recreation injuries from data collected in emergency departments indicates that these activities are a common context for injury at the community level in Australia.
Finch, C.; Valuri, G.; Ozanne-Smith, J.
OBJECTIVE: Despite the rise in specialist clinical services for the management of sports and active recreation injury, many patients attend hospital emergency departments for treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe sports injury cases presented to selected hospital emergency departments around Australia for the period 1989-1993. METHODS: Routinely collected emergency department injury presentation data from the Australian National Injury Surveillance Unit were examined. Data on 98,040 sports and active recreation emergency department presentations were analysed. Sports and active recreation activities were ranked according to frequency of presentation. Relative proportions of injury type and body region injured were determined. Data are presented separately for children (15 years of age). RESULTS: Among the 10 activities that most commonly led to a sports or active recreation injury presentation for all ages were cycling, Australian football, basketball, soccer, cricket, netball, and rugby. For children, injuries were also commonly associated with roller skating/blading, skateboarding, and trampolining. Hockey, martial arts, and dancing injuries were frequent in adults. Most sporting injuries occurred during organised competition or practice whereas the active recreation injuries occurred in a variety of settings. Fractures, strains, and sprains, particularly to the lower and upper extremities, were common types of injury. CONCLUSION: The rich, but nevertheless limited, information available about sports and active recreation injuries from data collected in emergency departments indicates that these activities are a common context for injury at the community level in Australia. PMID:9773170
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Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
ABSTRACTInjuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and ...
Chéron, Charlène; Le Scanff, Christine; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte
Sports injuries are often described as overuse or traumatic. Little is known about the frequency of overuse injuries and, in particular, if they vary between different types of sporting activities. To identify any differences between sports in relation to diagnoses of overuse injuries of the extremities (OIE) and anatomical areas most likely to be injured in adults and to compare these findings with those reported in youngsters, as identified in a previous review. A search was made in May 2015 and again in April 2016 in PubMed, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, and Web of Sciences. Search terms were « overuse injuries OR cumulative trauma disorders OR musculoskeletal injuries » AND « extremity OR limb » AND « physical activity OR sport OR risk factor OR exercises ». Inclusion criteria were: 1) prospective, or cross-sectional study design; 2) at least 1/3 of the population should be ≥ 19 years; 3) articles must clearly state if reported cases were classified as traumatic or overuse injuries in relation to a particular sports type, 4) sample size >50, and 5) articles must not deal with specific occupational subpopulations nor with clinical populations. A blinded systematic review was conducted and results reported per anatomical site of injury and diagnosis for the different sports. In all, 10 of 1435 identified articles were included, studying soccer, beach-volleyball and triathlon. In general, the incidence estimates were low, never above 2.0/1000 h of practice, similar to results seen in children/adolescents. The incidence estimates and the diagnoses of OIE were given only in 4 articles on soccer, making comparisons between sports impossible. As in children/adolescents, the lower limb is more often affected than the upper but contrary to young people the injured site in adults is more often the knee and above, and there were also differences in the diagnoses for the two age groups. The literature does not permit to identify clearly the difference in the
van der Does, Hendrike; Brink, Michel; Benjaminse, Anne; Visscher, Chris; Lemmink, Koen
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventyfive male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing
van der Does, H. T. D.; Brink, M. S.; Benjaminse, A.; Visscher, C.; Lemmink, K. A. P. M.
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing
Sasaki, Taisuke; Saito, Yoko; Sasaki, Yukio; Yodono, Hiraku; Takekawa, Shoichi; Nakamura, Ryujiro; Harata, Seiko
MRI of operatively or arthroscopically proven atraumatic sports injuries of 12 shoulders were reviewed retrospectively. Although it is difficult to diagnose the lesions localised at the superior glenoid labrum and to decide whether rotator interval is injured or not by MRI, MRI could detect thickening of subacromial bursae or rotator cuff injuries due to impingement syndrome and glenoid labrum injuries, such as Bankart lesion. On our limited experience, MRI was more valuable examination than arthrography and CT arthrography. MRI is a useful modality for screening or preoperative evaluation of atraumatic sports injuries of the shoulder. (author)
Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; Bastos, Fabio Nascimento; Tsutsumi, Gustavo Yuki Cantalejo; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Netto Júnior, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos Marcelo
The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries.
Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie
Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in
Holtzhausen, L M; Noakes, T D
Sport rock climbing with its repetitive high-torque movements in gaining the ascent of a rock face or wall, often in steep overhanging positions, is associated with a unique distribution and form of upper limb injuries. In this article, we review the biomechanical aspects of sport rock climbing and the types of injuries commonly encountered in the forearm, wrist, and hand regions of elite sport rock climbers. Because elbow, forearm, wrist, and hand injuries predominate, representing 62% of the total injuries encountered, these anatomical areas have been selected for review. The predominant source of data are the published work of Bollen et al. The remaining sources were obtained through electronic search of the Medline and Current Contents Databases (last searched May 1995). German and French articles were included in the search criteria. Only studies dealing with acute soft tissue and overuse injuries amongst sport rock climbers were selected. Data were extracted directly from the sourced articles. The following injuries have been described in detail with regard to their presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention amongst sport rock climbers: medial epicondylitis, brachialis tendonitis, biceps brachii tendonitis, ulnar collateral ligament sprain of the elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, digital flexor tendon pulley sheath tears, interphalangeal joint effusions, fixed flexion deformities of the interphalangeal joints, and collateral ligament tears of the interphalangeal joints. Many of the injuries are specific to the handhold types used by the rock climber. Accurate diagnosis and effective treatment of these unique injuries will be facilitated by a wider understanding of the biomechanical aspects of rock climbing and an awareness of the patterns and incidence of injuries in this sport.
Slodownik, Robert; Ogonowska-Slodownik, Anna; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia
Handball is known to be one of the team sports representing the highest risk of injury. Several investigators have tried to identify injury risk factors in team sports including handball and suggested the need to develop an optimal tool to capture and quantify the potential risk of injury. The aim of the study was to evaluate potential risk of injury among handball players. It was a mixed design study. Handball players from 1st and 2nd division were evaluated (n = 30) using the Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMSTM). Additionally, self-reported history of injury was collected during FMSTM evaluation and after 6 months. Competitive level, training experience, playing position, anthropometric features, symmetry of movement patterns and history of previous injury were analysed while assessing the potential risk of injury. Significant difference between the right and left side (upper limb) was revealed for Shoulder Mobility Test (U = 308.5, p = 0.014). Odds Ratio analysis revealed that having previous injury in the last 12 months is the only statistically significant injury risk factor (OR = 13.71, p = 0.02). Based on this study we can assume that previous injury history reports are crucial in predicting injuries. FMSTM can help in identifying a typical adaptation in throwing shoulder among handball players, but should not be used alone to assess injury risk.
Inness, C M; Morgan, K L
Polo, one of the world's oldest sports, is unique in merging human skill and balance with animal agility and performance in a contact sport. These modern-day 'centaurs' offer medical, dental and veterinary scientists an unrivalled, if quirky, opportunity to collaborate. Collection of epidemiological data on injuries to UK polo riders and ponies is the first step. To measure the reported risk and risk factors for injuries to UK polo ponies, their perception and mitigation by player-owners. A retrospective cohort design and telephone interviews were used. Data on equine injuries, preseason training and risk perception were collected from a random sample of player-owners using a structured questionnaire. Injuries were defined as requiring veterinary treatment. Frequencies were represented as percentages and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Risk factors for injuries were identified by univariable and multivariable analyses. The cumulative incidence of player-owner-reported injury was 10.6% (95% CI 8.4-12.7). Tendon injuries were most common (4.3%; 95% CI 2.9-5.7), followed by wounds and splints. The only risk factor was stabling all season (odds ratio 4.79; 95% CI 1.46-15.73). Tendon injuries were perceived as the major risk and hard ground the most important risk factor. Risk mitigation practices were bandaging before exercise (45.7%; 95% CI 34.8-56.5), checking tendons (84.0%; 95% CI 76.0-91.9), cold hosing (40.7%; 95% CI 30.0-51.4), bandaging (38.3%; 95% CI 27.7-48.9) and using clays and coolants after exercise (24.7%; 15.3-34.1). Cuts and wounds were considered most frequent by only 2.5% (95% CI 0.0-3.6) of players but were the second most common injury, accounting for 21.6% of veterinary treatments. Splints accounted for 12.5% of injuries. The risk of injury to polo ponies is similar to that in the general horse population; musculoskeletal injuries, particularly tendon injuries, are most common, followed by wounds and splints. The association between stabling and
Emery, C.A.; Roy, T.O.; Whittaker, J.L.; Nettel-Aguirre, A.; van Mechelen, W.
Youth have very high participation and injury rates in sport. Sport is the leading cause of injury in youth. Sport injury reduces future participation in physical activity which adversely affects future health. Sport injury may lead to overweight/obesity and post-traumatic osteoarthritis. The
TENVERGERT, EM; TENDUIS, HJ; KLASEN, HJ
In this study, we analyzed the records of both in-patients and outpatients which were treated for acute sports injuries in the Trauma Department of the University of Groningen (The Netherlands) during the years 1982 to 1988. We examined whether there was a trend in sports injuries in this time
Bentley, Tim; Macky, Keith; Edwards, Jo
The aim of this study was to examine the involvement of adventure tourism and adventure sports activity in injury claims made to the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC). Epidemiological analysis of ACC claims for the period, July 2004 to June 2005, where adventure activities were involved in the injury. 18,697 adventure tourism and adventure sports injury claims were identified from the data, representing 28 activity sectors. Injuries were most common during the summer months, and were most frequently located in the major population centres. The majority of injuries were incurred by claimants in the 20-50 years age groups, although claimants over 50 years of age had highest claims costs. Males incurred 60% of all claims. Four activities (horse riding, mountain biking, tramping/hiking, and surfing) were responsible for approximately 60% of all adventure tourism and adventure sports-related injuries. Slips, trips, and falls were the most common injury initiating events, and injuries were most often to the back/spine, shoulder, and knee. These findings suggest the need to investigate whether regulatory intervention in the form of codes of practice for high injury count activities such as horse riding and mountain biking may be necessary. Health promotion messages and education programs should focus on these and other high-injury risk areas. Improved risk management practices are required for commercial adventure tourism and adventure sports operators in New Zealand if safety is to be improved across this sector.
Craig, J.G.; Holsbeek, M.T. van; Gauthier, T.P.; Cook, W.J.
Sports-related injuries of the musculoskeletal system affect millions of individuals every year. Integrating high-frequency Tissue Harmonic Imaging ultrasound with MRI and CT gives the greatest opportunity for diagnosing specific injuries. (orig.)
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Massey, William V; Hemmings, Brian
Research from the sport medicine professional's (SMP's) perspective indicates that SMPs are often required to address psychosocial aspects of injuries during treatment. However, only a few authors have investigated injured athletes' experiences with these concerns. To explore injured professional athletes' views on the role of SMPs in the psychosocial aspects of sport-injury rehabilitation. Design : Qualitative study. Professional association football and rugby union clubs. Ten professional, male football (n = 4; 40%) and rugby union (n = 6; 60%) players (age = 22.4 ± 3.4 years). Data Collection and Analysis : We collected data using a semistructured interview guide, and the data were then transcribed and analyzed following the interpretative phenomenological analysis guidelines. We peer reviewed and triangulated the established emergent themes to establish trustworthiness. Athletes in our study viewed injuries as "part and parcel" of their sports. Despite normalizing sport injuries, athletes reported frequent feelings of frustration and self-doubt throughout the rehabilitation process. However, athletes' perceived the role of SMPs in injury rehabilitation as addressing physical concerns; any intervention aimed at psychosocial outcomes (eg, motivation, confidence) needed to be subtle and indirect. The SMPs working with injured athletes need to understand the psychosocial principles that underpin athletes' sport-injury processes and the effect psychosocial reactions can have on athletes. Moreover, SMPs must understand the self-regulatory processes that may take place throughout injury rehabilitation and be able to apply psychological principles in natural and subtle ways to aid athletes' self-regulatory abilities.
Briscoe, J H
A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football...
King, Doug; Hume, Patria A; Hardaker, Natalie; Cummins, Cloe; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor
To provide epidemiological data and related costs for sport-related injuries of five sporting codes (cricket, netball, rugby league, rugby union and football) in New Zealand for moderate-to-serious and serious injury claims. A retrospective analytical review using detailed descriptive epidemiological data obtained from the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) for 2012-2016. Over the 5 years of study data, rugby union recorded the most moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claims (25 226) and costs (New Zealand dollars (NZD$)267 359 440 (£139 084 749)) resulting in the highest mean cost (NZD$10 484 (£5454)) per moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claim. Rugby union recorded more serious injury entitlement claims (n=454) than cricket (t (4) =-66.6; P<0.0001); netball (t (4) =-45.1; P<0.0001); rugby league (t (4) =-61.4; P<0.0001) and football (t (4) =66.6; P<0.0001) for 2012-2016. There was a twofold increase in the number of female moderate-to-serious injury entitlement claims for football (RR 2.6 (95%CI 2.2 to 2.9); P<0.0001) compared with cricket, and a threefold increase when compared with rugby union (risk ratio (RR) 3.1 (95%CI 2.9 to 3.3); P<0.0001). Moderate-to-serious concussion claims increased between 2012 and 2016 for netball (RR 3.7 (95%CI 1.9 to 7.1); P<0.0001), rugby union (RR 2.0 (95% CI 1.6 to 2.4); P<0.0001) and football (RR 2.3 (95%CI 1.6 to 3.2); P<0.0001). Nearly a quarter of moderate-to-serious entitlement claims (23%) and costs (24%) were to participants aged 35 years or older. Rugby union and rugby league have the highest total number and costs associated with injury. Accurate sport exposure data are needed to enable injury risk calculations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Fuller, Colin W
Injuries in team sports are normally characterised by the incidence, severity, and location and type of injuries sustained: these measures, however, do not provide an insight into the variable injury-burden experienced during a season. Injury burden varies according to the team's match and training loads, the rate at which injuries are sustained and the time taken for these injuries to resolve. At the present time, this time-based variation of injury burden has not been modelled. To develop a kinetic model describing the time-based injury burden experienced by teams in elite team sports and to demonstrate the model's utility. Rates of injury were quantified using a large eight-season database of rugby injuries (5253) and exposure (60,085 player-match-hours) in English professional rugby. Rates of recovery from injury were quantified using time-to-recovery analysis of the injuries. The kinetic model proposed for predicting a team's time-based injury burden is based on a composite rate equation developed from the incidence of injury, a first-order rate of recovery from injury and the team's playing load. The utility of the model was demonstrated by examining common scenarios encountered in elite rugby. The kinetic model developed describes and predicts the variable injury-burden arising from match play during a season of rugby union based on the incidence of match injuries, the rate of recovery from injury and the playing load. The model is equally applicable to other team sports and other scenarios.
Knapik, Joseph J; Marshall, Stephen W; Lee, Robyn B; Darakjy, Salima S; Jones, Sarah B; Mitchener, Timothy A; delaCruz, Georgia G; Jones, Bruce H
rugged occusal surfaces of molars, soft gingiva). Laminates with different shock absorbing and stress distributing (stiffness) capability may be one way to accommodate these factors.Studies comparing mouthguard users with nonusers have examined different sports, employed a variety of study designs and used widely-varying injury case definitions. Prior to the 1980s, most studies exhibited relatively low methodological quality. Despite these issues, meta-analyses indicated that the risk of an orofacial sports injury was 1.6-1.9 times higher when a mouthguard was not worn. However, the evidence that mouthguards protect against concussion was inconsistent, and no conclusion regarding the effectiveness of mouthguards in preventing concussion can be drawn at present. Mouthguards should continue to be used in sport activities where there is significant risk of orofacial injury.
Myer, Gregory D; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kiefer, Adam W; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J
There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Nonsystematic review. Clinical review. Level 4. Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. C. © 2015 The Author(s).
Hespanhol, L.C.; Barboza, S.D.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.
Sports participation is a major ally for the promotion of physical activity. However, sports injuries are important adverse effects of sports participation and should be monitored in sports populations. The purpose of this paper is to review the basic concepts of injury monitoring and discuss the
Tyrol (Austria) is one of the regions which pioneered skiing. Skiing is considered as a national sport and is deeply rooted within the school system. Thus most pupils partake in skiing courses in this period. It is clear that such a large group of pupils also leads to a significant number of skiing injuries. Preventive issues may be derived from an analysis of the pattern and circumstances of skiing injuries. During a period of ten years (2000 - 2009) 1522 school sports injuries have been reported to the health insurance agency (Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt) from all secondary schools in Tyrol. The major disciplines were ski (48 %, n = 734) ice skateing (23 %, n = 349) and snowboard injuries (21 %, n = 315), followed by tobogganing (6 %, n = 91), cross-country skiing (1 %, n = 17) and other wintersports (1 %, n = 16). Fractures (31 %) dominated in skiing, followed by contusions (23 %), and sprains (22 %). In the analysis of the distribution of injuries during alpine skiing accidents, lower extremity injuries (39 %) dominated followed by upper extremity injuries (34 %). Head and spine injuries (13 %) were rare. Analysing the circumstances of the injuries, most injuries during skiing occurred without person to person collision (82 %), 81 % either shortly before lunch-break or in the afternoon. Skiing injuries account for a significant proportion of all school sport-related injuries in Tyrol. Lower extremity injuries account for the vast majority of all injuries. Overestimation and overtiredness may be responsible for skiing sport injuries. Preventive measures such as a fitness training (e. g., skiing exercises) prior to skiing courses, appropriate breaks and proper protective gear (i. e., helmet and spine protector) may reduce the injury rate in skiing school sport. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Background The participation of young in volleyball is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the risk of installation of sports injuries. Therefore, the objectives the study were identify the characteristics of sports injuries in young volleyball players and associate anthropometric and training variables with contributing factors for injuries. Methods A total of 522 volleyball players participating in the High School Olympic Games of the State of São Paulo (Brazil) were interviewed. A reported condition inquiry was used to gather information on injuries, such as anatomic site affected, mechanism and moment of injury, as well as personal and training data. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A 19% frequency of injuries was found. Higher age, weight, height, body mass index and training duration values were associated with the occurrence of injuries. The most affected anatomic site was the ankle/foot complex (45 injuries, 36.3%). Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the main causes of injuries (61 injuries; 49.2% and 48 injuries; 38.7%, respectively). Training was the moment in which most injuries occurred (93 injuries; 75%), independently of personal and training characteristics. Conclusion Injuries affected the ankle/foot complex with a greater frequency. Direct contact and contactless mechanisms were the most frequently reported and injuries occurred mainly during training sessions. Personal and training characteristics were contributing factors for the occurrence of injuries. PMID:24124803
Bencke, Jesper; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K
, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific......, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts......Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury...
Street, Erica J; Jacobsen, Kathryn H
The goal of this study was to compare the sex-specific prevalence rate of serious sports injuries in the past year among students ages 13-15 years from 25 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) globally. Data from 46,922 nationally-representative students who participated in the Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) were analyzed using complex samples analysis. The GSHS defines injuries as serious when they cause at least one full day of missed school or usual activities or require clinical treatment. Students reporting more than one serious injury in the past year are asked about the single most serious injury. The proportion of students reporting at least one serious injury in the past year ranged from 15-71 % (median 44 %) among boys and 8-70 % (median 30 %) among girls. The proportion of most-serious injuries in the past year that were sports-related ranged from 25-60 % among injured boys (median 35 %) and 12-56 % among injured girls (median 24 %). The most common types of sports-related injuries were broken bones and dislocated joints, reported by 13-62 % (median 28 %) of boys with sports injuries and 10-86 % (median 25 %) of girls with sports injuries. Although the annual injury rates among early adolescents vary widely between countries, the GSHS shows that sports injuries are common globally among both male and female middle school students. Understanding global trends in the health risks for various population groups, such as adolescents, allows community health partnerships to proactively address health needs in the communities they serve.
Hill, C M; Crosher, R F; Mason, D A
Details of injuries to the face and teeth have been collected over a five-year period. One hundred and thirty patients were seen with injuries resulting from 21 different sports. Estimates of the numbers of people playing various team sports in the Bradford area suggest that the incidence of facial injuries is most common in rugby, followed by soccer and cricket. Miniature motor cycling and horse-riding are the most dangerous individual sports. The ages of injured patients varied widely in different sports, but the severity of injuries sustained is less than those due to other causes.
Eun, John C; Bronsert, Michael; Hansen, Kristine; Moulton, Steven L; Jazaeri, Omid; Nehler, Mark; Greenberg, Joshua I
Trauma is the leading cause of injury and death for individuals aged 1-44 years. Up to 8% of the US population participates in winter sports, and although vascular injuries are uncommon in these activities, little is published in this area. We sought to identify the incidence, injury patterns, and outcomes of vascular injuries resulting from winter sports trauma. Patients with winter sports trauma and the subset with vascular injuries were identified by accessing the National Trauma Data Bank querying years 2007-2010. Patients with and without vascular injuries were then compared. Admission variables included transport time, emergency department hypotension (systolic blood pressure Injury Severity Score ≥ 25, fractures, solid organ injury, and vascular injury. Outcomes were analyzed and associations with vascular injuries were determined. A total of 2,298 patients were identified with winter sports-related trauma and 28 (1.2%) had associated vascular injuries. Overall, the top 3 injuries were head trauma (16.7%), thoracic vertebral fractures (5.5%), and lumbar vertebral fractures (5.1%). The most common associated vascular injures were to the popliteal artery (17.7%), splenic artery (14.7%), and brachial blood vessels (14.7%). In the entire cohort, 1 patient (0.04%) suffered an amputation and 15 patients (0.7%) died. There were no amputations in the vascular injury group. Mortality was 0.6% in patients without a vascular injury compared with 7.1% of those with a vascular injury (P = 0.01). Although vascular injury is an uncommon associated finding in winter sports trauma, it is associated with a significant increase in mortality. These findings highlight the need for rapid identification of traumatic vascular injuries, which predicts worse overall outcomes in this patient population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Franciele M. Vanderlei
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The participation of children and adolescents in sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of sports injuries. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the sports injuries and verify the associated factors with injuries in children and adolescents. METHOD: Retrospective, epidemiological study. One thousand three hundred and eleven children and adolescents up to 18 years of age enrolled in a sports initiation school in the city of Presidente Prudente, State of São Paulo, Brazil. A reported condition inquiry in interview form was used to obtain personal data and information on training and sports injuries in the last 12 months. Injury was considered any physical complaint resulting from training and/or competition that limited the participation of the individual for at least one day, regardless of the need for medical care. RESULTS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was 1.20 among the children and 1.30 among the adolescents. Age, anthropometric data, and training characteristics only differed with regard to the presence or absence of injuries among the adolescents. The most commonly reported characteristics involving injuries in both the children and adolescents were the lower limbs, training, non-contact mechanism, mild injury, asymptomatic return to activities, and absence of recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: The injury rate per 1000 hours of exposure was similar among children and adolescents. Nevertheless, some peculiarities among adolescents were observed with greater values for weight, height, duration of training, and weekly hours of practice.
Bentley, Tim A; Page, Stephen J; Macky, Keith A
The primary aims of this study were to establish a client injury baseline for the New Zealand adventure tourism and adventure sport sector, and to examine patterns and trends in claims for injury during participation in adventure activities. Content analysis of narrative text data for compensated injuries occurring in a place for recreation and sport over a 12-month period produced over 15,000 cases involving adventure tourism and adventure sport. As found in previous studies in New Zealand, highest claim counts were observed for activities that are often undertaken independently, rather than commercially. Horse riding, tramping, surfing and mountain biking were found to have highest claim counts, while hang gliding/paragliding/parasailing and jet boating injuries had highest claim costs, suggesting greatest injury severity. Highest claim incidence was observed for horse riding, with female claimants over-represented for this activity. Younger male claimants comprised the largest proportion of adventure injuries, and falls were the most common injury mechanism.
Wirth, C J; Kessler, M
The diagnosis of a sport injury or a sport damage is usually made by the clinical investigation. However, the X-ray examination is indispensable. In addition to standard projections further radiologic techniques such as passive motion, tomography, computed tomography, arthrography or angiography are necessary. The relevant use of these X-ray methods with regard to sports injuries or damages of the particular regions of the locomotor system are described.
Wirth, C.J.; Kessler, M.
The diagnosis of a sport injury or a sport damage is usually made by the clinical investigation. However, the X-ray examination is indispensable. In addition to standard projections further radiologic techniques such as passive motion, tomography, computed tomography, arthrography or angiography are necessary. The relevant use of these X-ray methods with regard to sports injuries or damages of the particular regions of the locomotor system are described. (orig.)
Monroe, Kathy W; Thrash, Chris; Sorrentino, Annalise; King, William D
Participation in sports is a popular activity for children across the country. Prevention of sports-related injuries can be improved if details of injuries are documented and studied. A retrospective medical record review of injuries that occurred as a direct result of sports participation (both organized and non-organized play) from November 2006 to November 2007. Because the vast majority of injuries were a result of participation in football or basketball, these injuries were focused upon. The injuries specifically examined were closed head injury (CHI), lacerations and fractures. There were 350 football and 196 basketball injuries (total 546). Comparing injuries between the two groups fractures were found to be more prevalent in football compared to basketball (z = 2.14; p = 0.03; 95%CI (0.01, 0.16)). Lacerations were found to be less prevalent among helmeted patients than those without helmets. (z = 2.39; p = 0.02; 95%CI (-0.17,-0.03)). CHI was more prevalent among organized play compared to non-organized (z = 3.9; pfootball related visits, organized play had a higher prevalence of injury compared to non-organized play (z = 2.87; p = 0.004; 95%CI (0.04.0.21)). No differences in fracture or laceration prevalence were found between organized and non-organized play. Football and basketball related injuries are common complaints in a pediatric Emergency Department. Frequently seen injuries include CHI, fractures and lacerations. In our institution, fractures were more prevalent among football players and CHI was more prevalent among organized sports participants.
Owoeye Oluwatoyosi BA
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of information on the epidemiology of sports injuries in Nigeria. The study was aimed at documenting sports injuries sustained by Lagos state athletes during the 16th National Sports Festival (KADA Games 2009. It was also aimed at providing information on treatments offered to injured athletes. Methods The study was carried out at Amadu Bello Stadium Complex, sporting arena of the Murtala Square and the team Lagos mini clinic. Participants were accredited Lagos state athletes who at one point in time during the games required treatment from any of the members of the medical team. Demographic data of athletes, type of injuries, body parts injured and treatment modalities used were documented and analysed using descriptive statistics. Results Within the period of the games, a total of 140 sports injuries were documented from 132 athletes with an approximate male to female ratio of 2:1 and age ranging from 15-38 years. Most of the injuries reported by the athletes were "minor" injuries. Muscle strain was the most common type of injury (31.4% followed by ligament sprains (22.9%. The lower extremities were the most injured body region accounting for 50% of all injuries. Over 60% of injuries presented by the athletes were from basketball, cricket, hockey, rugby and baseball. Cryotherapy was the most frequently used treatment modality, followed by bandaging and massage with anti-inflammatory gels. Conclusion Establishing injury prevention programmes directed at the lower extremities may help reduce the risk of injuries to the lower extremities. Since cryotherapy was the most used treatment modality, it is suggested that it should be made abundantly available to the medical team preferably in forms of portable cold sprays for easy transportation and application during the games. It is also important that physiotherapists form the core of the medical team since they are trained to apply most of these treatment
Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M
Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.
Full Text Available Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific muscle activation patterns involved during specific risk conditions. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was (1 to describe anatomical aspects, strength aspects and biomechanical aspects relevant for the understanding of ACL non-contact injury mechanisms in young female athletes, and (2 to review the existing literature on lower limb muscle activation in relation to risk of non-contact ACL-injury and prevention of ACL injury in young female athletes. Studies investigating muscle activity patterns associated with sports-specific risk situations were identified, comprising cohort studies, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts, and suggesting young female athletes to be at elevated risk of non-contact ACL injury. Only few studies (n = 6 examined the effect of preventive exercise-based intervention protocols on lower limb muscle activation during sports-specific movements. A general trend toward enhanced hamstring activation was observed during selected injury risk situations (e.g., sidecutting and drop landings. Only a single study examined the association between muscle activation deficits and ACL
Bencke, Jesper; Aagaard, Per; Zebis, Mette K
Young, adolescent female athletes are at particular high risk of sustaining a non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during sport. Through the last decades much attention has been directed toward various anatomical and biomechanical risk factors for non-contact ACL injury, and important information have been retrieved about the influence of external loading factors on ACL injury risk during given sports-specific movements. However, much less attention has been given to the aspect of neuromuscular control during such movements and only sparse knowledge exists on the specific muscle activation patterns involved during specific risk conditions. Therefore, the aim of this narrative review was (1) to describe anatomical aspects, strength aspects and biomechanical aspects relevant for the understanding of ACL non-contact injury mechanisms in young female athletes, and (2) to review the existing literature on lower limb muscle activation in relation to risk of non-contact ACL-injury and prevention of ACL injury in young female athletes. Studies investigating muscle activity patterns associated with sports-specific risk situations were identified, comprising cohort studies, intervention studies and prospective studies. Based on the retrieved studies, clear gender-specific differences in muscle activation and coordination were identified demonstrating elevated quadriceps activity and reduced hamstring activity in young female athletes compared to their male counterparts, and suggesting young female athletes to be at elevated risk of non-contact ACL injury. Only few studies ( n = 6) examined the effect of preventive exercise-based intervention protocols on lower limb muscle activation during sports-specific movements. A general trend toward enhanced hamstring activation was observed during selected injury risk situations (e.g., sidecutting and drop landings). Only a single study examined the association between muscle activation deficits and ACL injury risk
Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra
Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this work is to relate some of the personal variables (age and experience and sports (post game, sport category more important with injuries to players of handball. The study sample consisted of 100 handball players, with a mean age of 23.92 years (+ 5.21, of which 80% ASOBAL (Association Handball clubs in Spain competed in the league, and the other 20% did so between first and second division. For the evaluation of the variables using a self-report questionnaire in two parts: the first data is collected and sports personality variables, and the second will collect data on sports injuries. The results of this study indicate that the players suffer more injuries on average 2 in a season, with these minor fractures, muscle and tendinitis, being the player's quinces ASOBAL more is injured. The pivots and lateral suffer more injuries than the rest, and the porters seem to have a significantly lower tendency to injure anyone else. The older the greater the likelihood of injury. The completion of jobs that can determine the exact weight of each variable in the injury, which would be very important from prevention, and the performance of their own coaches.Key words: Sports injuries, handball, age, experience, post game, sport category
Aurelio Olmedilla Zafra
Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work is to relate some of the personal variables (age and experience and sports (post game, sport category more important with injuries to players of handball. The study sample consisted of 100 handball players, with a mean age of 23.92 years (+ 5.21, of which 80% ASOBAL (Association Handball clubs in Spain competed in the league, and the other 20% did so between first and second division. For the evaluation of the variables using a self-report questionnaire in two parts: the first data is collected and sports personality variables, and the second will collect data on sports injuries. The results of this study indicate that the players suffer more injuries on average 2 in a season, with these minor fractures, muscle and tendinitis, being the player's quinces ASOBAL more is injured. The pivots and lateral suffer more injuries than the rest, and the porters seem to have a significantly lower tendency to injure anyone else. The older the greater the likelihood of injury. The completion of jobs that can determine the exact weight of each variable in the injury, which would be very important from prevention, and the performance of their own coaches. Key words: Sports injuries, handball, age, experience, post game, sport category
Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet
Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.
Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Tang, L; Zebis, M K
with low KOOS subscale scores (Sport/Recreational (RR: 2.2) and Quality of Life (RR: 3.0) (P time-loss knee...... questionnaires were collected at baseline. Time-loss knee injuries and football exposures were reported weekly by answers to standardized text-message questions, followed by injury telephone interviews. A priori, self-reported previous knee injury and low KOOS subscale scores (... as independent variables in the risk factor analyses. The study showed that self-reported previous knee injury significantly increased the risk of time-loss knee injury [relative risk (RR): 3.65, 95% confidence (CI) 1.73-7.68; P time-loss knee injury was also significantly increased in players...
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Kainberger, F.; Weidekamm, C.; Matzner, M.; Trieb, K.
Sports injuries, especially those due to trend sports, and overuse resulting from monotonous repetitive movement patterns may cause various spinal abnormalities. Indications for diagnostic imaging should be established more readily in this group of young patients than in adults, as there is a higher probability to find morphologic abnormalities. This diagnostic strategy should also be applied for MRI and CT investigations. Image findings should be interpreted with view on kinetic chains related to distinct sporting activities. (orig.)
The arthrography is one of the most important diagnostic methods of sport injuries of the knee joint. The examination must give an exact information to the surgeon; a good technique and standard X-rays are an absolute postulate. The submitted examinations are based on 6687 arthrographies during a period of 5 years. The arthrography should not be carried out before the acute symptomatology has ceased, usually after an interval of 2-3 weeks. Most frequent are the meniscus injuries by rotary traumas of the knee-joint. Football as the most popular sport is responsible for more than 50% of the injuries, followed by skiing, handball and jogging.
The arthrography is one of the most important diagnostic methods of sport injuries of the knee joint. The examination must give an exact information to the surgeon; a good technique and standard X-rays are an absolute postulate. The submitted examinations are based on 6687 arthrographies during a period of 5 years. The arthrography should not be carried out before the acute symptomatology has ceased, usually after an interval of 2-3 weeks. Most frequently are the meniscus injuries by rotary traumas of the knee-joint. Football as the most popular sport is responsible for more than 50% of the injuries, followed by skiing, handball and jogging. (orig.)
The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear.
Dahlström, Ö; Jacobsson, J; Timpka, T
The organization of sports at the national level has seldom been included in scientific discussions of sports injury prevention. The aim of this study was to develop a model for organization of sports that supports prevention of overuse injuries. The quality function deployment technique was applied in seminars over a two-season period to develop a national organizational structure for athletics in Sweden that facilitates prevention of overuse injuries. Three central features of the resulting model for organization of sports at the national level are (a) diminishment of the organizational hierarchy: participatory safety policy design is introduced through annual meetings where actors from different sectors of the sporting community discuss training, injury prevention, and sports safety policy; (b) introduction of a safety surveillance system: a ubiquitous system for routine collection of injury and illness data; and (c) an open forum for discussion of safety issues: maintenance of a safety forum for participants from different sectors of the sport. A nonhierarchical model for organization of sports at the national level - facilitated by modern information technology - adapted for the prevention of overuse injuries has been developed. Further research is warranted to evaluate the new organizational model in prospective effectiveness studies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
In sports with different exercise-loading characteristics, acute and overuse injury profiles and gender differences in injuries were investigated. In addition, trainingrelated risk factors for overuse injuries in endurance athletes were studied. This twelve-month retrospective questionnaire study comprised Finnish elite crosscountry skiers (n=149), swimmers (n=154), long-distance runners (n=143) and soccer players (n=128) aged 15–35 years. Questionnaires were sent to the athlet...
H Mahmoud Hasehmi
Full Text Available Nowadays, sport injuries constitute a major part of social accidents. The aim of the presentstudy, was to investigate the frequency of maxillofacial injuries among athletes-members of differentsports federations in Iran from 1998-2001. For this reason files which was related to sport injuries of men and women athletes-members of sports federations were studied in Medical Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran Sports Organization. The information were received through 26 medical organizations,located in different states of the country. The results showed that maxillofacial injuries constitute the major part of the sports injuries. In male athletes, football was the most important cause for maxillofacial injuries. However, mountain climbing and skiing play the least role in this field. Among female athletes,karate was the cause of the highest rate of maxillofacial sport injuries. Diving, mountain climbing and skiing cause the least number of maxillofacial accidents. Nasal fracture was the most common sport injury among Iraninan male and female athletes.
Fleisig, Glenn S
Research has shown relations between amount of baseball pitching and overuse injuries, as well as between poor mechanics and high loads on the elbow and shoulder. However, overuse injuries continue to be a problem from youth to professional sports. Emerging wearable technology may enable players, parents, coaches, leagues, and clinicians to monitor biomechanics during competition and training, reducing the risk of serious injury. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Worp, M.P. van der
Running is a popular sport worldwide and has a positive effect on health and well-being. However, the rate of running-related injuries and the associated costs are high. Van der Worp performed a systematic review to examine which factors increase the risk of running injuries, and whether this is the
Hanson, Holly R; Pomerantz, Wendy J; Gittelman, Mike
Emergency department (ED) visits for sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) have risen. This study evaluated how the number and severity of admissions have changed as ED visits for sports-related TBIs have increased. A retrospective study of children aged 0 to 19 years at a level 1 trauma center was performed. Patients from 2002 to 2011 with a primary or secondary diagnosis of TBI were identified from the hospital's inpatient and outpatient trauma registries. Frequencies were used to characterize the population, χ(2) analysis was performed to determine differences between groups, and regression analysis looked at relationship between year and injury severity score or length of stay. Sport was responsible for injury in 3878 (15.4%) cases during the study period; 3506 (90.4%) were discharged from the hospital, and 372 (9.6%) were admitted. Seventy-three percent were male patients and 78% Caucasian; mean age was 13 ± 3.5 years. ED visits for sports-related TBIs increased 92% over the study period, yet there was no significant change (χ(2) = 9.8, df = 9, P = .37) in the percentage of children admitted. Mean injury severity score for those admitted decreased from 7.8 to 4.8 (β = -0.46; P = .006); length of stay trended downward (β = -0.05; P = .05). The percentage of children being admitted from the ED with sports-related TBI has not changed over the past 10 years. The severity of admitted sports-related TBI is decreasing. Additional research is needed to correlate these trends with other TBI mechanisms.
Schmitt, H; Gerner, H J
To examine the causes of sport-related spinal cord injuries that developed into paraplegia or tetraplegia, and to compare data from different sports with previous studies in the same geographical region. A retrospective epidemiological study and comparison with previous studies. The Orthopedic Department, specializing in the treatment and rehabilitation of paralyzed patients, at the University of Heidelberg, Germany. Between 1985 and 1997, 1,016 cases of traumatic spinal cord injury presented at the Orthopedic Department at the University of Heidelberg: 6.8% were caused by sport and 7.7% by diving accidents. Sport-related spinal cord injuries with paralysis. A total of 1.016 cases of traumatic spinal cord injury were reviewed. Of these, 14.5% were caused by sport accidents (n = 69) or diving accidents (n = 78). Age of patients ranged from 9 to 52 years. 83% were male. 77% of the patients developed tetraplegia, and 23%, paraplegia. 16 of the sport accidents resulted from downhill skiing, 9 resulted from horseback riding, 7 from modern air sports, 6 from gymnastics, 5 from trampolining, and 26 from other sports. Previous analyses had revealed that paraplegia had mainly occurred from gymnastics, trampolining, or high diving accidents. More recently, however, the number of serious spinal injuries caused by risk-filled sports such as hang gliding and paragliding has significantly increased (p = 0.095), as it has for horseback riding and skiing. Examinations have shown that all patients who were involved in diving accidents developed tetraplegia. An analysis of injury from specific sports is still under way. Analysis of accidents resulting in damage to the spinal cord in respect to different sports shows that sports that have become popular during the last 10 years show an increasing risk of injury. Modern air sports hold the most injuries. Injury-preventing strategies also are presented.
Glaudermans, Andor W.J.M. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Gielen, Jan L.M.A. [Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Sports Medicine; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem (Belgium). Dept. of Medicine; Zwerver, Johannes (ed.) [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Center for Sports Medicine
This comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. Individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities - SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI - are explained. In addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. It is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.
Glaudermans, Andor W.J.M.; Gielen, Jan L.M.A.; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem; Antwerp Univ. Hospital, Edegem; Zwerver, Johannes
This comprehensive book describes in detail how nuclear medicine and radiology can meet the needs of the sports medicine physician by assisting in precise diagnosis, clarification of pathophysiology, imaging of treatment outcome and monitoring of rehabilitation. Individual sections focus on nuclear medicine and radiologic imaging of injuries to the head and face, spine, chest, shoulder, elbow and forearm, wrist and hand, pelvic region, knee, lower leg, ankle and foot. The pathophysiology of sports injuries frequently encountered in different regions of the body is described from the perspective of each specialty, and the potential diagnostic and management benefits offered by the new hybrid imaging modalities - SPECT/CT, PET/CT, and PET/MRI - are explained. In addition, a range of basic and general issues are addressed, including imaging of the injuries characteristic of specific sports. It is hoped that this book will promote interdisciplinary awareness and communication and improve the management of injured recreational or elite athletes.
Hulme, Adam; Thompson, Jason; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M
There have been recent calls for the application of the complex systems approach in sports injury research. However, beyond theoretical description and static models of complexity, little progress has been made towards formalising this approach in way that is practical to sports injury scientists and clinicians. Therefore, our objective was to use a computational modelling method and develop a dynamic simulation in sports injury research. Agent-based modelling (ABM) was used to model the occurrence of sports injury in a synthetic athlete population. The ABM was developed based on sports injury causal frameworks and was applied in the context of distance running-related injury (RRI). Using the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR), we simulated the dynamic relationship between changes in weekly running distance and RRI through the manipulation of various 'athlete management tools'. The findings confirmed that building weekly running distances over time, even within the reported ACWR 'sweet spot', will eventually result in RRI as athletes reach and surpass their individual physical workload limits. Introducing training-related error into the simulation and the modelling of a 'hard ceiling' dynamic resulted in a higher RRI incidence proportion across the population at higher absolute workloads. The presented simulation offers a practical starting point to further apply more sophisticated computational models that can account for the complex nature of sports injury aetiology. Alongside traditional forms of scientific inquiry, the use of ABM and other simulation-based techniques could be considered as a complementary and alternative methodological approach in sports injury research. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
[Purpose] To investigate the gender-related differences in lower limb alignment, range of joint motion, and history of lower limb sports injuries in Japanese university athletes. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 224 Japanese university athletes (154 males and 70 females). The quadriceps angle (Q-angle), arch height index, and ranges of internal and external rotation of the hip joints were measured. History of lower limb sports injury was surveyed using a questionnaire. [Results] Females had a significantly higher Q-angle and hip joint internal rotation angle and a significantly lower arch height index than males. The survey revealed that a significantly higher proportion of females had a history of lower limb sports injuries, and that the proportion of those with a history of foot/ankle injuries was particularly high. [Conclusion] These results suggested that females experience more lower limb sports injuries than males, and that a large proportion of these injuries involve the foot/ankle. Reduced lower limb alignment and increased range of joint motion in females may be risk factors for injury because they lead to increased physical stress being exerted on the lower legs during sporting activities.
Feeley, Brian T; Agel, Julie; LaPrade, Robert F
Over the past 15 years, there has been an increase in youth sports participation with a concomitant increase in early year-round training in a single sport. Many factors contribute to the desire of parents and coaches to encourage early single sport specialization, including the desire to give the young athlete an edge in competition, pursuit of scholarships, and potential professional status, and the ability to label a young athlete as elite at an early age. Despite these perceived advantages, some data suggest that early sport specialization does not lead to a competitive advantage over athletes who participate in multiple sports. Although the data are limited, there is some evidence that early sport specialization may put the young athlete at risk for overuse injuries. The focus of this review is to highlight the evidence regarding early sport specialization and risk for injury; discuss the risk factors for overuse injury in high-risk sports including ice hockey, swimming, gymnastics, and baseball; and discuss future potential research that would help define the risk of injury for young athletes who participate in early sport specialization. © 2015 The Author(s).
van der Does, H T D; Brink, M S; Benjaminse, A; Visscher, C; Lemmink, K A P M
The aim of this study is to investigate the predictive value of landing stability and technique to gain insight into risk factors for ankle and knee injuries in indoor team sport players. Seventy-five male and female basketball, volleyball or korfball players were screened by measuring landing stability after a single-leg jump landing and landing technique during a repeated counter movement jump by detailed 3-dimensional kinematics and kinetics. During the season 11 acute ankle injuries were reported along with 6 acute and 7 overuse knee injuries by the teams' physical therapist. Logistic regression analysis showed less landing stability in the forward and diagonal jump direction (OR 1.01-1.10, p≤0.05) in players who sustained an acute ankle injury. Furthermore landing technique with a greater ankle dorsiflexion moment increased the risk for acute ankle injury (OR 2.16, p≤0.05). A smaller knee flexion moment and greater vertical ground reaction force increased the risk of an overuse knee injury (OR 0.29 and 1.13 respectively, p≤0.05). Less one-legged landing stability and suboptimal landing technique were shown in players sustaining an acute ankle and overuse knee injury compared to healthy players. Determining both landing stability and technique may further guide injury prevention programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Tischer, T; Lembcke, B; Ellenrieder, M; Glass, Ä; Weigert, W; Mittelmeier, W
Background: In literature, the competitive sport of modern karate is almost always characterised as a combat sport involving injuries caused by impact effects and physical contact with opponents. There is a lack of data regarding the outcome after karate injuries, specifically with a view to the contact-free Kata karate. Methods: Performing a random test using a questionnaire, we collected data concerning regular medical treatment, prior surgeries of the locomotor system, and medical care. This study included 300 athletes from 65 countries (average age: 24.1 years; 176 male, 124 female) participating in the Karate World Cup 2014. Seven participants competed in both disciplines, 87 only in the Kata discipline, and 206 only in Kumite (the discipline involving physical contact with opponents). The statistical analysis was performed using a two-sided Chi-square test and the Fisher's exact test. Results : Recurrent medical treatment was most commonly required for the knee region (Kata 28.7 %, Kumite 26.7 %). In Kata the shoulder region came second (22.9 %), in Kumite the ankle region (21.8 %), followed by hand and foot in both groups. Medical treatment of the elbow area was more frequent in the Kata Group (p = 0.033), while in Kumite athletes' hand (p = 0.002) and foot injuries (p = 0.007) prevailed. Prior surgeries of athletes of both disciplines most commonly concerned the knee, followed by the ankle region in the Kata group and by the hand and head region in the Kumite group. Statistically significant differences between the two disciplines were found in head injuries (p = 0.004), which commonly do not occur in the Kata discipline. During the World Cup, 56.0 % of the athletes had no individual medical care and 24.6 % received no sports-related medical care in their home countries. Conclusion: Although the risk of injuries in Kumite Karate has been reduced by the introduction of gumshields, hand and foot protectors as well as a reform of
McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David; Brooks, Margaret Alison; Hetzel, Scott; Pfaller, Adam; Post, Eric
Objectives: Sport specialization has been shown to be associated with increased risk of musculoskeletal lower extremity injuries (LEI) in adolescent athletes presenting in clinical settings. However, the association of sport specialization and incidence of LEI has not been studied prospectively in a large population of adolescent athletes. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of LEI in high school athletes identified as having low (LOW), moderate (MOD) or high (HIGH) level...
Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane
Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsuchiya, Shinobu; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Momma, Haruki; Sekiguchi, Takuya; Kuroki, Kaoru; Kanazawa, Kenji; Koseki, Takeyoshi; Igarashi, Kaoru; Nagatomi, Ryoichi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro
Sports-related dental injuries, such as tooth fracture, loosening, and avulsion, are a major concern among young athletes because they directly impair oral function. Although the preventive efficacy of mouthguards has been well established, the prevalence of sports-related dental injuries remains high among young athletes. The aim of this study is to identify the variables contributing to the risk of sports-related dental injuries by conducting a survey on large population of young athletes in Miyagi prefecture. A cross-sectional study was conducted with school-aged athletes (aged 6-15 years, n = 5735) using a self-reported questionnaire. The questionnaire examined general variables, including sex, age, and body mass index; sports-related variables, including sports-type, team level, activity schedule, break time, and verbal/physical abuse by coaches; and lifestyle variables related to free time, including screen-time and sleep duration. Their associations with sports-related dental injuries were examined using multivariate logistic regression models. The prevalence of sports-related dental injuries was 13.3% (763 of 5735 young athletes) and was higher in males (14.3%, 592 of 4132) than in females (10.7%, 171 of 1603; adjusted odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 1.48 [1.22-1.79], p sports-related dental injuries were evident for three variables-insufficient break time, verbal abuse, and physical punishment-in males (adjusted ORs [95% CI]: 1.35 [1.03-1.77], p = 0.032; 1.31 [1.05-1.62], p = 0.015; and 1.36 [1.06-1.75], p = 0.016, respectively) but not in females (adjusted ORs [95% CI]: 0.88 [0.53-1.47], p = 0.623; 1.29 [0.87-1.91], p = 0.206; and 0.97 [0.57-1.63], p = 0.894, respectively). Although our results might be based on the individual athlete's self-perception to the sports-related variables, our results suggest that insufficient break time, verbal abuse, and physical punishment from coaches are positively
Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Myer, Gregory D; Silvers, Holly J; Samitier, Gonzalo; Romero, Daniel; Lázaro-Haro, Cristina; Cugat, Ramón
Soccer is the most commonly played sport in the world, with an estimated 265 million active soccer players by 2006. Inherent to this sport is the higher risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) relative to other sports. ACL injury causes the most time lost from competition in soccer which has influenced a strong research focus to determine the risk factors for injury. This research emphasis has afforded a rapid influx of literature defining potential modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that increase the risk of injury. The purpose of the current review is to sequence the most recent literature that reports potential mechanisms and risk factors for non-contact ACL injury in soccer players. Most ACL tears in soccer players are non-contact in nature. Common playing situations precluding a non-contact ACL injury include: change of direction or cutting maneuvers combined with deceleration, landing from a jump in or near full extension, and pivoting with knee near full extension and a planted foot. The most common non-contact ACL injury mechanism include a deceleration task with high knee internal extension torque (with or without perturbation) combined with dynamic valgus rotation with the body weight shifted over the injured leg and the plantar surface of the foot fixed flat on the playing surface. Potential extrinsic non-contact ACL injury risk factors include: dry weather and surface, and artificial surface instead of natural grass. Commonly purported intrinsic risk factors include: generalized and specific knee joint laxity, small and narrow intercondylar notch width (ratio of notch width to the diameter and cross sectional area of the ACL), pre-ovulatory phase of menstrual cycle in females not using oral contraceptives, decreased relative (to quadriceps) hamstring strength and recruitment, muscular fatigue by altering neuromuscular control, decreased "core" strength and proprioception, low trunk, hip, and knee flexion angles, and high
Gledhill, Adam; Forsdyke, Dale; Murray, Eliot
To systematically review studies examining the role of psychological interventions in injury prevention. The primary research question was: What is the real-world effectiveness of psychological intervention in preventing sports injuries? Mixed methods systematic review with best evidence synthesis. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Science Direct and PubMed. Randomised controlled trials (RCT), non-RCTs that included a comparison group, before and after study designs and qualitative methods. Studies were required to outline specific unimodal or multimodal psychological interventions used in relation to injury prevention in the real-world setting. Studies were independently appraised with the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Thirteen papers (incorporating 14 studies) met the eligibility criteria, of which 93% (13/14) reported a decrease in injury rates (effect size range=0.2-1.21). There was an overall moderate risk of bias in reporting (52%). There is a dominance of stress management-based interventions in literature due to the prominence of the model of stress and athletic injury within the area. Psychological interventions demonstrate small (0.2) to large (1.21) effects on sports injury rates. The research area demonstrates a cumulative moderate risk in reporting bias (52%). CRD42016035879. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...
Wang, Fengzhe; Chen, Zhian; Pan, Shinong; Liao, Wei; Zhan, Yuhua; Zheng, Liqiang; Wang, Yitong; Lu, Chunxue; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Xiaogang; Liang, Hongjun; Guo, Qiyong
To retrospectively analyse the medical imaging examination results of the injuries and illnesses during the 2008 Olympic Games and 2013 China National Games in Shenyang Divison. Collected and analyzed the health information and medical imaging examination results from Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University during the two games. There was 9 cases of sports injuries in the 2008 Olympic Games, mainly for knee, ankle ligament injury and muscle sprain, 36 cases of sports injuries in the 2013 China National Games, mainly for head traumas (9 cases), knee injuries (7 cases), ankle injuries (7 cases), shoulder injures (4 cases). Competitions of high risk of being injured were wrestling (10 cases), track and field (8 cases), American football (6 cases). The most common cause of illness were respiratory system (60 cases) and the digestive system (27 cases) in the total 233 cases illnesses in the China National Games. Different sports have different characteristic, regularity and mechanism of injury. Medical imaging examination has important value in the diagnosis of injury during large games. The respiratory system and digestive system are the most common illnesses and affect the athletes training and competition as important as injuries. So illness is the focus on the medical care assurance of the large games.
Ziaee, Vahid; Shobbar, Montazer; Lotfian, Sara; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi
Karate is a public sport that has athletes in various age ranges and abundant active sport clubs in Iran. The pattern of injury in this sport in Iranian athletes seems different from other countries. This study was performed with the purpose of considering the incidence and type of injury of karate athletes aged below 30 years from Tehran, Iran clubs. In a cross-sectional study, 10 karate clubs were selected in Tehran. Clubs were selected based on a cluster method from 5 different geographical regions of Tehran. All injuries were collected based on athletes' or clubs' weekly report with a designed questionnaire. The injuries were classified according to: low, medium and severe injury. Collected data was analyzed with SPSS software version 17. 620 athletes were studied totally and incidence rate of injury per athletes was 16.1% and 20.2 per 100 athletes. Ninety percent of injuries were during bout practice, 6% during fitness and 4% during kata. The rate of injury was more common in athletes with weight less than 70 kg and lower sport experience (P ≤ 0.05). The commonest locations for injury were head and neck followed by trunk, lower and upper limb, respectively. Just 2 cases needed surgical intervention and no one led to decreased level of consciousness. The most common type of injury was contusion, bruise and superficial scratch (64%). Severe injury was uncommon in this study and similar to other Iranian studies head and neck had the most injuries. Athletes with lower experience and lower weight were associated with higher injuries.
Steffen, K.; Andersen, T.E.; Krosshaug, T.; van Mechelen, W.; Myklebust, G.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Bahr, R.
To maximize the health benefits of sports and exercise and to minimize the direct and indirect costs associated with injuries, developing and adopting injury prevention strategies is an important goal. The aim of this ECSS consensus paper on injury prevention is to review current evidence on injury
Briscoe, J H
A survey is presented of 346 sports injuries admitted to the Eton College Sanatorium between 1971 and 1982. The incidence of injury was lowest in 13 year olds perhaps because of their lighter weight. The injuries were classified into four groups--minor head injury, soft tissue injury, fractures and dislocations, and eye injury. Football caused 75 per cent of all injuries except eye injury where it accounted for only a third. Comparison of the incidence of injury at the three types of football played at Eton--Rugby, Association and Eton--showed Rugby football to be the most dangerous and Eton football the safest game. Advice on the management and prevention of injury is given.
Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E
The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...
Fernandes, Fábio A O; de Sousa, Ricardo J Alves
Head injuries occur in a great variety of sports. Many of these have been associated with neurological injuries, affecting the central nervous system. Some examples are motorsports, cycling, skiing, horse riding, mountaineering and most contact sports such as football, ice and field hockey, soccer, lacrosse, etc. The outcome of head impacts in these sports can be very severe. The worst-case scenarios of permanent disability or even death are possibilities. Over recent decades, many In recent decades, a great number of head injury criteria and respective thresholds have been proposed. However, the available information is much dispersed and a consensus has still not been achieved regarding the best injury criteria or even their thresholds. This review paper gives a thorough overview of the work carried out by the scientific community in the field of impact biomechanics about head injuries sustained during sports activity. The main goal is to review the head injury criteria, as well as their thresholds. Several are reviewed, from the predictors based on kinematics to the ones based on human tissue thresholds. In this work, we start to briefly introduce the head injuries and their mechanisms commonly seen as a result of head trauma in sports. Then, we present and summarize the head injury criteria and their respective thresholds. © IMechE 2015.
Oller, Daria M; Buckley, W E; Sebastianelli, Wayne J; Vairo, Giampietro L
University-sponsored summer sport camps often employ athletic trainers; however, there is a dearth of epidemiologic studies describing the injury and illness experience of sport-camp participants to guide clinicians. To describe the injury and illness experience of youth participants at a university-sponsored summer sport-camp program during a 4-year period. Descriptive epidemiology study. A National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university that sponsored 76 to 81 camps for 28 sports each summer. A total of 44, 499 camp participants enrolled during the 4 years. Male and female participants ranged in age from 10 to 17 years and in athletic skill from novice to elite. Data from handwritten injury and illness log books, maintained by sports health care personnel, were accessed retrospectively, entered into an electronic spreadsheet, and coded. Data were applied to the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System. Participant-personnel contacts, defined as any instance when a participant sought health care services from personnel, were calculated per 100 participants. Injury and illness rates were calculated per 10 ,000 exposures, measured in participant-days. The distribution of injury and illness conditions and affected body regions were calculated. There were 11 ,735 contacts, for an overall rate of 26 per 100 participants, and 4949 injuries and illnesses, for a rate of 1 per 10, 000 participant-days. Participants at single-sex camps were less likely to sustain injuries and illnesses than participants at coeducational camps (rate ratio [RR] = 0.49; 95% confidence interval = 0.45, 0. 35; P < .001, and RR = 0.47; 95% confidence interval = 0.43, 0.51; P < .001, respectively). The lower extremity was injured most frequently (27.9%). Most injury and illness conditions were dermatologic (37.1%). The contact and injury and illness differences observed among sports and between sexes demonstrated potential differences in the sports health care needs
Arvinen-Barrow, Monna; Clement, Damien; Hamson-Utley, Jennifer Jordan; Kamphoff, Cindra; Zakrajsek, Rebecca; Lee, Sae-Mi; Hemmings, Brian; Lintunen, Taru; Martin, Scott B
Athletes enter injury rehabilitation with certain expectations about the recovery process, outcomes, and the professional providing treatment. Their expectations influence the effectiveness of the assistance received and affect the overall rehabilitation process. Expectations may vary depending on numerous factors such as sport experience, gender, sport type, and cultural background. Unfortunately, limited information is available on athletes' expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation. To examine possible differences in athletes' expectations about sport-injury rehabilitation based on their country of residence and type of sport (contact vs noncontact). Cross-sectional. Recreational, college, and professional athletes from the US, UK, and Finland were surveyed. Of the 1209 athletes ranging from 12 to 80 y of age (mean 23.46 ± 7.91), 529 US [80%], 253 UK [86%], and 199 Finnish [82%] athletes provided details of their geographical location and were included in the final analyses. The Expectations About Athletic Training (EAAT) questionnaire was used to determine athletes' expectations about personal commitment, facilitative conditions, and the expertise of the sports-medicine professional (SMP). A 3 × 2 MANCOVA revealed significant main effects for country (P = .0001, η p 2 = .055) and sport type (P = .0001, η p 2 = .023). Specifically, US athletes were found to have higher expectations of personal commitment and facilitative conditions than their UK and Finnish counterparts. Athletes participating in contact sports had higher expectations of facilitative conditions and the expertise of the SMP than did athletes participating in noncontact sports. SMPs, especially those in the US, should consider the sport and environment when providing services. In addition, SMPs need to highlight and demonstrate their expertise during the rehabilitation process, especially for those who compete in contact sports.
The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion. (orig.) [de
The article reports on injuries of the cervical spine occurring during sports activities. An attempt is made to reconstruct the movements which led to the cervical spine injuries in question. In two cases of accidents occuring during bathing, one football accident and a toboggan accident, the injuries concerned point to hyperextension of the cervical spine as cause of the injury. In another football accident and a riding accident, the changes observed allow us to conclude that the movement leading to the injury must have been a hyperflexion. One accident occurring while jumping on the trampolin resulted in an injury of the upper cervical spine pointing to the action of a compressive force on the cervical spine in addition to the force resulting in hyperflexion.
Almeida, Pedro Henrique Garcia Lopes de; Olmedilla, Aurelio; Rubio, Víctor J.; Palou, Pere
Sport injuries are a constant in physical activity and sport and represent, to a greater or lesser degree, an obstacle that most athletes have to face and which could have an impact on economical, occupational and educational aspects, as well as on physical and psychological health. Traditionally, sport injury was deemed the result of biomechanical forces exerted on the body and sustained during participation in sport activity, under which perspective the athlete is considered merely...
Title: Motivation for risk sports Objectives: The aim of our thesis is to find out primary and secondary motives of athletes for the operation of high-risk sports and coming back to it. We also want to find out what is the starter for doing risk sports. Other questions are why athletes keep doing it and how perceive the potential risk. Methods: In our study, we chose qualitative investigation method and semistructured interview with eight respondents. For the interview, we drew up a list of q...
Sports 1997, 7:304–311. 23. Knapik JJ, Spiess A, Swedler D, Grier T, Darakjy S, Amoroso P, Jones BH: Injury risk factors in parachuting and...reducing parachute-related ankle injuries. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004, 36:S312. 26. Knapik JJ, Grier T, Spiess A, Swedler DI, Hauret KG, Graham B, Yoder...Knapik JJ, Spiess A, Darakjy S, Grier T, Manning F, Livingstone E, Swedler D, Amoroso P, Jones BH: Risk factors for parachute injuries and comments about
Finch, C.; Valuri, G.; Ozanne-Smith, J.
OBJECTIVE: Despite the rise in specialist clinical services for the management of sports and active recreation injury, many patients attend hospital emergency departments for treatment. The purpose of this study was to describe sports injury cases presented to selected hospital emergency departments around Australia for the period 1989-1993. METHODS: Routinely collected emergency department injury presentation data from the Australian National Injury Surveillance Unit were examined. Dat...
Read, Paul J; Oliver, Jon L; De Ste Croix, Mark B A; Myer, Gregory D; Lloyd, Rhodri S
Early specialisation is characterised by formal participation in a single sport at the exclusion of others. Limited data are available to support this approach in the development of soccer players who attain elite status later in life. Of growing concern is the associated increased risk of injury and suggestions that single sport specialisation is a risk factor independent of age, growth, biological maturation and training volumes. In the United Kingdom, elite soccer organisations have recently adopted an early sport specialisation approach following the introduction of the Elite Player Performance Plan. A key tenet of this programme is increased opportunities for training through a marked rise in the specified on-pitch hours per week. The accumulation of high training hours may be less of a relevant marker for success, and the impact of such a significant increase in training volume for young athletes who are experiencing a range of growth and maturational processes is currently unknown. This critical commentary includes an evidence-based discussion of the effectiveness of early sport specialisation and the potential injury risks associated with such programmes placing a specific focus on elite male youth soccer players. Available data indicate that modifications to the existing Elite Player Performance Plan framework could enhance players' development and reduce injury risk. Proposed alterations include reduced volume of soccer-specific training at key stages of growth and maturation and guidelines for the provision of a greater variety of physical activities that are integrated within other programme components.
Leischik, R; Dworrak, B
In the beginning sporting activity may be exhausting, but over time, physical activity turns out to have beneficial effects to the body and even extended cycling or running is an emotional and healthy enrichment in life. On the other hand, spectacular sudden deaths during marathon, football and, just recently, in the trend discipline triathlon seem to support the dark side of the sporting activity. Since years there are constantly appearing reports about a potential myocardial injury induced by intensive sporting activities. Cardiac hypertrophy is the heart's response to arterial hypertension and to physical activity, but can be associated with an unfavorable outcome - in worst case for example with sudden death. The question of the right dose of sporting activity, the question how to prevent cardiac death induced by physical activity and the question how to screen the athletes for the possible risk of sudden death or other cardiac complications during sporting activity are those that will be answered by this review article. In this review we summarize recent insights into the problem of endurance sport and possible negative cardiac remodeling as well as the question how to screen the athletes.
Finch, Caroline F
Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.
O'Dell, M Cody; Jaramillo, Diego; Bancroft, Laura; Varich, Laura; Logsdon, Gregory; Servaes, Sabah
With increasing participation and intensity of training in youth sports in the United States, the incidence of sports-related injuries is increasing, and the types of injuries are shifting. In this article, the authors review sports injuries of the lower extremity, including both acute and overuse injuries, that are common in or specific to the pediatric population. Common traumatic injuries that occur in individuals of all ages (eg, tears of the acetabular labrum and anterior cruciate ligament) are not addressed, although these occur routinely in pediatric sports. However, some injuries that occur almost exclusively in high-level athletes (eg, athletic pubalgia) are reviewed to increase awareness and understanding of these entities among pediatric radiologists who may not be familiar with them and thus may not look for them. Injuries are described according to their location (ie, hip, knee, or foot and ankle) and pathologic process (eg, apophysitis, osteochondritis dissecans). Examples of abnormalities and normal variants of the anatomy that are often misdiagnosed are provided. The injuries reviewed represent a common and growing subset of pathologic processes about which all pediatric and musculoskeletal radiologists should be knowledgeable. Understanding physeal injury is especially important because missed diagnoses can lead to premature physeal closure and osteoarthritis. © RSNA, 2016.
Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr
Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referre...
D'Ailly, Philip N; Sluiter, Judith K; Kuijer, Paul P
Rib stress fractures (RSFs) are injuries frequently sustained by elite rowers with an injury rate of 8-16% over the course of a rowing career, resulting in negative effects on training and performance. For clinical management, the aim of this review was to describe time to return to sports, summarize potentially preventive measures and appraise the evidence on risk factors. A search strategy was performed in PubMed, SportDiscus, Web of Science and Embase till June 1st 2015. All studies were graded on their quality. The search resulted in 124 studies, of which 17 were included: Ten reported on return to sports, 17 reported on risk factors and nine on preventive measures. For return to sports, nine studies mentioned a loss of training of 4-6 weeks. The shortest period was one week and the longest 16 weeks. For risk factors, insufficient or conflicting evidence was found for changes in the training program, incorrect rowing technique, female gender, low bone mineral density, inadequate equipment, and training type. For prevention, gradual changes in the training program, alertness on the part of coaches and clinicians, and supplementation of diet and hormones are suggested as effective measures. However, no effect studies have been found. The main outcome of this review on RSFs is that little evidence is available on return to sports, risk factors and preventive measures. Coaches and clinicians should carefully guide and assist rowers suffering from RSFs in off training and in the subsequent training period to regain their pre-injury level.
Kallinen, M; Markku, A
Illness and aging both cause many structural and functional alterations in the human body, rendering elderly people liable to overloading of the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It should, however, be kept in mind that immobilisation and inactivity have even more deleterious effects on structures and functions in the elderly than in younger adults. Most physically active elderly people are selected individuals with respect to their superior health and physical capacity compared with inactive persons of the same age, thus making it possible to further improve their physical capacity. They will, however, be affected by some of the drawbacks of physical overloading, mostly due to the diminished ability of aging body systems to adapt to high levels of loading. The safety margin of an exercise dose tends to decline with aging. Exertional injuries are common among the elderly, and are connected mostly with degenerative aging processes. Acute injuries are common in those elderly people participating in sport activities which demand high coordination, reaction time, and balance capabilities, such as ball games, down-hill skiing, and gymnastics. Muscle has been reported to be the most commonly acutely injured tissue among active elderly athletes. The lower extremities are the most susceptible to injury. A large proportion of injuries (acute and exertional) are mild and can be treated by brief cessation of training and competition activities. Some of the injuries are, however, long term and cause disability not only during training and competition, but also in the normal activities of daily living. It is important that these injuries are treated as soon as possible and in the most effective way, similarly to injuries suffered by younger people. In treating elderly people, it is most important to avoid the detrimental effects of immobilisation; this requires active treatment and rehabilitation with compensatory exercise therapy. The best 'treatment' for sports
Chan, Derwin King-Chung; Hagger, Martin S
Integrating different theories of motivation to facilitate or predict behaviour change has received an increasing amount of attention within the health, sport and exercise science literature. A recent review article in Sports Medicine, by Keats, Emery and Finch presented an integrated model using two prominent theories in social psychology, self-determination theory (SDT) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), aimed at explaining and enhancing athletes' adherence to sport injury prevention. While echoing their optimistic views about the utility of these two theories to explain adherence in this area and the virtues of theoretical integration, we would like to seize this opportunity to clarify several conceptual principles arising from the authors' integration of the theories. Clarifying the theoretical assumptions and explaining precisely how theoretical integration works is crucial not only for improving the comprehensiveness of the integrated framework for predicting injury prevention behaviour, but also to aid the design of effective intervention strategies targeting behavioural adherence. In this article, we use the integration of SDT and TPB as an example to demonstrate how theoretical integration can advance the understanding of injury prevention behaviour in sport.
Du Boullay, C T; Bardier, M; Cheneau, J; Bortolasso, J; Gaubert, J
Among 49 000 cases of infantile emergencies which were received in the BUCI (Bloc d'urgence chirurgical infantile: surgical infantile emergency unit), 5 546 were sport traumas. At an early age, they were caused by outdoor plays; during adolescence, the main cases were caused by team sports. Males are predominant. The number of cases has been regularly progressing, particularly since 1976. The fashion in sports is influenced by médias (i.e. skate board), and can be opposed to the continuous practice of popular sports (swimming, ball games, bycicle. There are winter, summer, school timed sports (the latter being influenced by the sportive scholar associations). The most frequent sports are cycling, football playing, swimming and horse riding, athleticism skating, Other are occasionnal. Changes in sport fashions, female increasing participation, such as horse riding and skating, democratisation (skiing, riding), the worsening of traumas; the pathology concerning bystanders, are described. Cranial and peripheric pathology are dominant. Trunk traumas are scarce but severe. Each sport has an elective pathologic localisation. Injury mechanisms are found, such as stirrup, saddle, ski baton pathology. There is traumatologic similarities; skate board and roller skating; judo and atheleticism; cycling and horse riding. Sport in children is not a replica of the one among adults. Riding a bike is not cycling. Some sports are dangerous: cycling, horse riding, rugby. A traumatological outline is revealed. Preventive measures should be taken. The socio-economical cost is heavy.
Brumitt, Jason; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; Manske, Robert C; Niemuth, Paul E; Rauh, Mitchell J
Functional tests have been used primarily to assess an athlete's fitness or readiness to return to sport. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to determine the ability of the standing long jump (SLJ) test, the single-leg hop (SLH) for distance test, and the lower extremity functional test (LEFT) as preseason screening tools to identify collegiate athletes who may be at increased risk for a time-loss sports-related low back or lower extremity injury. A total of 193 Division III athletes from 15 university teams (110 females, age 19.1 ± 1.1 y; 83 males, age 19.5 ± 1.3 y) were tested prior to their sports seasons. Athletes performed the functional tests in the following sequence: SLJ, SLH, LEFT. The athletes were then prospectively followed during their sports season for occurrence of low back or LE injury. Female athletes who completed the LEFT in $118 s were 6 times more likely (OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.3, 31.7) to sustain a thigh or knee injury. Male athletes who completed the LEFT in #100 s were more likely to experience a time-loss injury to the low back or LE (OR=3.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 9.5) or a foot or ankle injury (OR=6.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 29.7) than male athletes who completed the LEFT in 101 s or more. Female athletes with a greater than 10% side-to-side asymmetry between SLH distances had a 4-fold increase in foot or ankle injury (cut point: >10%; OR=4.4, 95% CI: 1.2, 15.4). Male athletes with SLH distances (either leg) at least 75% of their height had at least a 3-fold increase (OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for the right LE; OR=3.6, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.2 for left LE) in low back or LE injury. The LEFT and the SLH tests appear useful in identifying Division III athletes at risk for a low back or lower extremity sports injury. Thus, these tests warrant further consideration as preparticipatory screening examination tools for sport injury in this population. The single-leg hop for distance and the lower extremity functional test, when administered to Division III
Dain, Stephen J
Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
Fridman, Liraz; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica L; McFaull, Steven R; Macpherson, Alison K
Although injuries related to sports and recreation represent a significant burden to children and youth, few studies have examined the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injury since 2005, and some sports such as ringette have not been evaluated to date. The primary purpose of this study was to provide the descriptive epidemiology of sports-related injuries treated in emergency departments for children and youth aged 5 - 19. A retrospective data analysis was performed using data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program [CHIRPP] from fiscal years (April - March) 2007/08 to 2009/10. CHIRPP is a computerized information system designed by the Public Health Agency of Canada that collects information about injuries to people evaluated in emergency departments across 11 pediatric hospitals and 5 general hospitals in Canada. Thirteen sports or activities were analyzed (baseball, basketball, cycling, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, ringette, rugby, skiing, sledding, snowboarding, soccer, and volleyball). Descriptive statistics, including frequency by sport, age and sex, as well as the percent of concussions within each sport were calculated. Out of a total of 56, 691 reported sports and recreational injuries, soccer accounted for the largest proportion of injuries with 11,941 reported cases over the 3 year time period. Of these, approximately 30% were fractures. The 10 - 14 year age group reported the greatest proportion of injuries in 10 out of the 13 sports analyzed. In addition, males reported a greater number of overall injuries than females in 11 out of the 13 sports analyzed. The largest percentage of concussions was reported in ringette; these injuries accounted for 17.1% of overall injuries within this sport. Injury prevention programs in Canada should focus on improving evidence-based programs to reduce the burden of injuries in all sports.
Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Gardner, Ryan M; Kuhn, Andrew W; Solomon, Gary S; Bonfield, Christopher M; Zuckerman, Scott L
The risk of sport-related concussion (SRC) has emerged as a major public health concern. In rare instances, sport-related head injuries can be even more severe, such as subdural hemorrhage, epidural hemorrhage, or malignant cerebral edema. Unlike SRCs, sport-related structural brain injury (SRSBI) is rare, may require neurosurgical intervention, and can lead to permanent neurologic deficit or death. Data characterizing SRSBI are limited, and many have recognized the need to better understand these catastrophic brain injuries. The goal of the current series is to describe, in detail, the presentation, management, and outcomes of examples of these rare injuries. During the fall of 2015, three high school football players presented with acute subdural hemorrhages following in-game collisions and were treated at our institution within a span of 2 months. For the 2 athletes who required surgical intervention, a previous SRC was sustained within 4 weeks before the catastrophic event. One year after injury, 2 players have returned to school, though with persistent deficits. One patient remains nonverbal and wheelchair bound. None of the athletes has returned to sports. Acute subdural hemorrhage resultant from an in-game football collision is rare. The temporal proximity of the reported SRSBIs to recent SRCs emphasizes the importance of return-to-play protocols and raises questions regarding the possibility of second impact syndrome. Although epidemiologic conclusions cannot be drawn from this small sample, these cases provide a unique opportunity to demonstrate the presentation, management, and long-term outcomes of SRSBI in American high school football. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akbar, Michael; Brunner, Manuela; Ewerbeck, Volker; Wiedenhöfer, Bernd; Grieser, Thomas; Bruckner, Thomas; Loew, Markus; Raiss, Patric
To analyze whether frequent overhead-sports activity increases the risk for rotator cuff disease in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) who are wheelchair dependent. Cross-sectional study, risk analysis. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Trauma Surgery and Spinal Cord Injury. Patients (N=296) with SCI requiring the full-time use of a manual wheelchair were recruited for this study. The total population was divided into 2 groups (sports vs no sports), among them 103 patients playing overhead sports on a regular basis (at least 1-2 times/wk) and 193 patients involved in overhead sports less than once a week or in no sports activity at all. The mean age of the sports group was 49.1 years. The mean duration of wheelchair dependence was 26.5 years. The mean age of the no-sports group was 48 years. The mean duration of wheelchair dependence was 25.2 years. Each individual completed a questionnaire designed to identify overhead-sports activity on a regular basis and was asked about shoulder problems. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of both shoulders were performed in each patient and analyzed in a standardized fashion. None. Possible differences in continuous data between patients with and without rotator cuff tear were evaluated. The relative risk of suffering from a rotator cuff tear between patients playing overhead sports and those not playing overhead sports was calculated. One hundred three patients played overhead sports regularly and 193 did not. There was no difference between groups regarding age, sex, level of SCI, and duration of wheelchair dependence. The body mass index was significantly lower in the sports group than in the no-sports group (Psports group and in 36.3% of the patients in the no-sports group (Psports group to develop rotator cuff tears was twice as high as for the no-sports group (95% confidence interval, 1.7-2.6; Psports activities have been identified as an additional risk factor, along with age and duration of wheelchair dependence
Ziaee, Vahid; Shobbar, Montazer; Lotfian, Sara; Ahmadinejad, Mahdi
Background: Karate is a public sport that has athletes in various age ranges and abundant active sport clubs in Iran. The pattern of injury in this sport in Iranian athletes seems different from other countries. Objectives: This study was performed with the purpose of considering the incidence and type of injury of karate athletes aged below 30 years from Tehran, Iran clubs. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 10 karate clubs were selected in Tehran. Clubs were selected based o...
Greier, K; Riechelmann, H; Ziemska, J
Karate enjoys great popularity both in professional and recreational sports and can be classified into full, half and low contact styles. The aim of this study was the analysis of sports injuries in Kyokushinkai (full contact) and traditional Karate (semi-contact). In a retrospective study design, 215 active amateur karateka (114 full contact, 101 semi-contact) were interviewed by means of a standardised questionnaire regarding typical sport injuries during the last 36 months. Injuries were categorised into severity grade I (not requiring medical treatment), grade II (single medical treatment), grade III (several outpatient medical treatments) and grade IV (requiring hospitalisation). In total, 217 injuries were reported in detail. 125 injuries (58%) occurred in full contact and 92 (42%) in semi-contact karate. The time related injury rate of full contact karateka was 1.9/1000 h compared to 1.3/1000 h of semi-contact karateka (p injuries were musculoskeletal contusions (33% full contact, 20% semi-contact), followed by articular sprains with 19% and 16%. The lower extremity was affected twice as often in full contact (40%) as in semi-contact (20%) karate. Training injuries were reported by 80% of the full contact and 77% of the semi-contact karateka. Most injuries, both in training and competition, occurred in kumite. 75% of the reported injuries of full contact and 70% of semi-contact karateka were classified as low grade (I or II). The high rate of injuries during training and kumite (sparring) points to specific prevention goals. The emphasis should be put on proprioceptive training and consistent warm-up. In the actual competition the referees play a vital role regarding prevention. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Spiezia, Filippo; Denaro, Vincenzo
Physical activity plays a significant role in the physical and emotional well-being of a child. In the past 15 to 20 years, there has been a dramatic increase in sports participation at a young age, which has offered numerous health benefits, including self-esteem, confidence, team play, fitness, agility, and strength. Children are playing sports at younger ages. This article assesses the long-term outcome of sports injuries in young athletes, with suggestions on how to prevent such injuries. There are no definitive epidemiological data on withdraw from sports activities due to injury in young athletes. Disturbed physeal growth as a result of injury can result in length discrepancy, angular deformity, or altered joint mechanics, and may cause significant long-term disability. Sequelae of Osgood-Schlatter lesion include painful ossicle in the distal patellar tendon. Fragmentation or separation of the apophysis appears to be the result of adaptive changes to the increased stress that occurs in overuse activities. The presence of these changes undeniably demonstrates an osseous reaction, although they are not disabling. Promotion of a physically active lifestyle is encouraged worldwide, particularly with regard to the many health benefits. Reduction of only a moderate proportion of all sports injuries is of significance for the young athletes' health and could have a long-term economic impact on health care costs. It is therefore important to convince medical doctors, physical therapists, athletic trainers and coaches, as well as athletes of the necessity to implement active prevention measures in their therapy and training programs, thus decreasing the injury and re-injury rate and enhancing athletic performance.
Montalvo, Alicia M; Shaefer, Hilary; Rodriguez, Belinda; Li, Tan; Epnere, Katrina; Myer, Gregory D
The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002) and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce the increase risk of injury during CrossFit.
Strahle, Jennifer; Geh, Ndi; Selzer, Béla J; Bower, Regina; Himedan, Mai; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Wetjen, Nicholas M; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O
OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with Chiari I malformation (CM-I). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with the imaging finding of CM-I. METHODS A prospective survey was administered to 503 CM-I patients at 2 sites over a 46-month period. Data were gathered on imaging characteristics, treatment, sports participation, and any sport-related injuries. Additionally, 81 patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry and were included in a prospective group, with a mean prospective follow-up period of 11 months. RESULTS Of the 503 CM-I patients, 328 participated in sports for a cumulative duration of 4641 seasons; 205 of these patients participated in contact sports. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. One patient had temporary extremity paresthesias that resolved within hours, and this was not definitely considered to be related to the CM-I. In the prospective cohort, there were no permanent neurological injuries. CONCLUSIONS No permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries were observed in CM-I patients participating in athletic activities. The authors believe that the risk of such injuries is low and that, in most cases, sports participation by children with CM-I is safe.
Jakse, G; Madersbacher, H
During 1964-1974 112 injuries of the urogenital tract caused by winter sports were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck, Department of Urology. Eighty-eight patients suffered skiing injuries, 20 tobogganing injuries, and one injury each was caused by ski jumping and bobsleighing accidents, two traumas resulted from a fall from a chair lift. On the basis of typical case reports the most common types of trauma of the urogenital tract are demonstrated and the basic mechanisms of the accidents are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the obvious increase of lesions of the external genitalia and the urethra in the last few years caused by the so-called spinning ski, as well as the frequency of kidney traumas, especially in winters with little snow. Tobogganing accidents caused injuries to the kidneys as well as to bladder and urethra. In contrast to traumas caused by skiing, tobogganing injuries were mostly multiple. Analysis of patients records shows an increase of these injuries, which were really not typical for winter sports. The possible reasons as well as their prevention are discussed.
Delahunt, Eamonn; Fitzpatrick, Helen; Blake, Catherine
To determine if pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale scores can identify Gaelic football players at risk of developing groin injury. Prospective study. Senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Fifty-five male elite Gaelic football players (age = 24.0 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 84.48 ± 7.67 kg, height = 1.85 ± 0.06 m, BMI = 24.70 ± 1.77 kg/m 2 ) from a single senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Occurrence of groin injury during the season. Ten time-loss groin injuries were registered representing 13% of all injuries. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season adductor squeeze test score was below 225 mmHg, was 7.78. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale score was football players at risk of developing groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A
To investigate the influence of the diagnostic terms 'concussion' and 'mild traumatic brain injury' (mTBI) on contact-sport players' injury perceptions and expected symptoms from a sport-related mTBI. It was hypothesized that contact-sport players would hold more negative injury perceptions and expect greater symptom disturbance from a sport-related injury that was diagnosed as an 'mTBI' compared to 'concussion' or an undiagnosed injury. One hundred and twenty-two contact-sport players were randomly allocated to one of three conditions in which they read a sport-related mTBI vignette that varied only according to whether the person depicted in the vignette was diagnosed with concussion (n = 40), mTBI (n = 41) or received no diagnosis (control condition; n = 41). After reading the vignette, participants rated their injury perceptions (perceived undesirability, chronicity and consequences) and expectations of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms 6 months post-injury. There were no significant differences in contact-sport players' injury perceptions or symptom expectations from a sport-related mTBI when it was diagnosed as an mTBI, concussion or when no diagnosis was given. Diagnostic terminology does not appear to have a potent influence on symptom expectation and injury perceptions in contact-sport players.
van Wilgen, Cornelis P; Keizer, Doeke
The pathophysiology of chronic sports injuries such as overuse or tendinopathy remains largely unknown. With this exploratory study, we aim to detect signs of sensitization of the nervous system. Sensitization is an indication of the involvement of neuropathic mechanisms in patients with chronic sports injuries. Sensory descriptors were assessed by means of a neuropathic pain questionnaire (DN4-interview) and by three methods of sensory testing. The test results were integrated in a scoring system. Patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic of a University Medical Centre and at primary care physical therapy practices. Fifteen athletes with a unilateral chronic sports injury were included. All subjects filled out the seven-items of the DN4-interview to assess sensory descriptors. Next, the presence of brush-evoked allodynia was assessed and pain thresholds with Von Frey monofilaments and a pressure algometer were measured in all patients to determine signs of sensitization. Based on the scoring system, in 4 out of 15 patients (27%) the presence of sensitization could be detected. In two other patients, signs of hypoalgesia were observed. The involvement of sensitization as an explanation for the pain in chronic sports injuries is credible in a considerable proportion of patients. With respect to treatment, the establishment of such neuropathic pain mechanisms is of clinical significance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
H Mahmoud Hasehmi
Nowadays, sport injuries constitute a major part of social accidents. The aim of the presentstudy, was to investigate the frequency of maxillofacial injuries among athletes-members of differentsports federations in Iran from 1998-2001. For this reason files which was related to sport injuries of men and women athletes-members of sports federations were studied in Medical Federation of the Islamic Republic of Iran Sports Organization. The information were received through 26 medical organizati...
Vállez Garcia, David; Otte, Andreas; Glaudemans, Andor WJM; Dierckx, Rudi AJO; Gielen, Jan LMA; Zwerver, Johannes
Concussions in sports and during recreational activities are a major source of traumatic brain injury in our society. This is mainly relevant in adolescence and young adulthood, where the annual rate of diagnosed concussions is increasing from year to year. Contact sports (e.g., ice hockey, American
embracing Exercise is Medicine® (EIM), with an appeal to all sports medicine and allied ... advocate a greater public health injury prevention role for sports medicine and .... to proactively and assertively encourage implementation of effective.
Delaney, R A
The health benefits of exercise may be attenuated by sports and recreation related injury (SRI). Though the majority of SRI are mild and self-limiting, a significant number are serious and require orthopaedic intervention. The aims of this study were to assess the burden of these serious injuries on the orthopaedic inpatient service, and to investigate potential target areas for injury prevention. All 1,590 SRI seen in the ED over a 3-month period were analysed using the Patient Information Management System to determine which patients received inpatient orthopaedic care. The medical records of those 63 patients who required inpatient care under orthopaedics were reviewed and data collected on demographic features, history, operative procedure and theatre resources, and length of hospital stay. Data were analyzed using SPSS. SRI accounted for 12.3% of all ED presentations. The principal activities resulting in injury requiring orthopaedic care were soccer, hurling and informal play e.g. trampoline. Falls made up 37% of the overall mechanism of injury but 68% of the injuries severe enough to require operative management. Most operative procedures were performed as part of a routine day trauma list but 20% were performed out of hours. This group of injuries places a significant burden on a busy trauma service. Injury prevention measures such as public education regarding falls in sport may have a role in reducing this burden.
Rugg, Caitlin; Kadoor, Adarsh; Feeley, Brian T; Pandya, Nirav K
Athletes who specialize in their sport at an early age may be at risk for burnout, overuse injury, and reduced attainment of elite status. Timing of sport specialization has not been studied in elite basketball athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who played multiple sports during adolescence would be less likely to experience injury and would have higher participation rates in terms of games played and career length compared with single-sport athletes. Descriptive epidemiology study. First-round draft picks from 2008 to 2015 in the NBA were included in the study. From publically available records from the internet, the following data were collected for each athlete: participation in high school sports, major injuries sustained in the NBA, percentage of games played in the NBA, and whether the athlete was still active in the NBA. Athletes who participated in sports in addition to basketball during high school were defined as multisport athletes and were compared with athletes who participated only in basketball in high school. Two hundred thirty-seven athletes were included in the study, of which 36 (15%) were multisport athletes and 201 (85%) were single-sport athletes in high school. The multisport cohort played in a statistically significantly greater percentage of total games (78.4% vs 72.8%; P NBA (94% vs 81.1%; P = .03). While a minority of professional basketball athletes participated in multiple sports in high school, those who were multisport athletes participated in more games, experienced fewer major injuries, and had longer careers than those who participated in a single sport. Further research is needed to determine the reasons behind these differences.
Fraser, Melissa A; Grooms, Dustin R; Guskiewicz, Kevin M; Kerr, Zachary Y
Surveillance data regarding injuries caused by ball contact in collegiate athletes have not been well examined and are mostly limited to discussions of concussions and catastrophic injuries. To describe the epidemiology of ball-contact injuries in 11 National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) sports during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years. Descriptive epidemiology study. Convenience sample of NCAA programs in 11 sports (men's football, women's field hockey, women's volleyball, men's baseball, women's softball, men's and women's basketball, men's and women's lacrosse, and men's and women's soccer) during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years. Collegiate student-athletes participating in 11 sports. Ball-contact-injury rates, proportions, rate ratios, and proportion ratios with 95% confidence intervals were based on data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years. During the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 academic years, 1123 ball-contact injuries were reported, for an overall rate of 3.54/10 000 AEs. The sports with the highest rates were women's softball (8.82/10 000 AEs), women's field hockey (7.71/10 000 AEs), and men's baseball (7.20/10 000 AEs). Most ball-contact injuries were to the hand/wrist (32.7%) and head/face (27.0%) and were diagnosed as contusions (30.5%), sprains (23.1%), and concussions (16.1%). Among sex-comparable sports (ie, baseball/softball, basketball, and soccer), women had a larger proportion of ball-contact injuries diagnosed as concussions than men (injury proportion ratio = 2.33; 95% confidence interval = 1.63, 3.33). More than half (51.0%) of ball-contact injuries were non-time loss (ie, participation-restriction time common severe ball-contact injuries were concussions (n = 18) and finger fractures (n = 10). Ball-contact-injury rates were the highest in women's softball, women's field hockey, and men's baseball. Although
Momaya, Amit; Read, Connor; Estes, Reed
Athletes often engage in various celebration maneuvers during sports events. These celebrations can result in acute injuries. Our objective was to document publicized injuries in collegiate and professional athletes resulting from celebrations and examine associated variables. A retrospective case series study was performed based on internet searches performed using the following major sporting news websites: espn.com, SI.com, bleacherreport.com, totalprosports.com, cbssports.com, larrybrownspots.com, nfl.com, and mlb.com and PubMed. Keywords used during these searches included "celebration injury", "score celebration", and "surgery after celebration". These same sources were used to document the sport, athlete's age at time of injury, celebration action, type of injury, previous play, and whether surgery was required. A total of 62 athletes sustained 62 injuries resulting from various types of celebrations. All but two athletes were males, and the average age was 26.5 years old. The injuries occurred between 1993 and 2015. Sixteen (25.8%) of these injuries required surgery. Professional soccer players accounted for the greatest number of these injuries with a total of 22 injuries. One celebration in a professional soccer player resulted in a cervical spinal cord injury and subsequent death. Common celebration maneuvers included leaping into the air, pile ups, sliding, and somersaults. Serious injuries occur in a diversity of sports after celebrations. The most prevalent celebration maneuvers resulting in injuries included sliding and pile ups. The most common injuries were ACL ruptures and ankle sprains. The most serious injuries were a spinal cord injury and ankle fractures. Sixteen (25.8%) of the injuries required surgery. By encouraging athletes to temper excessive celebrations and prohibiting certain types of celebrations, many injuries may be prevented.
Panagodage Perera, Nirmala Kanthi; Joseph, Corey; Kemp, Joanne Lyn; Finch, Caroline Frances
Team bat-or-stick sports, including cricket, softball and hockey, are popular among women. However, little is known about the injury profile in this population. The aim was to describe the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries in bat-or-stick sports played by women in a competitive league. This review was prospectively registered (PROSPERO CRD42015026715). CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, SPORTDiscus were systematically searched from January 2000 to September 2016, inclusive. Peer-reviewed original research articles reporting the incidence, nature and anatomical location of injuries sustained by women aged 18 + years in competitive bat-or-stick sports were included. Two meta-analyses based on injury incidence proportions (injury IP) and injury rates per 1000 person-days of athletic exposure (AE) were performed. A total of 37 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria, and five had low risk of bias. The weighted injury IP was 0.42 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.45]. The weighted injury rate was 6.12 (95% CI 6.05-6.18) overall, and greater in games [15.79 (95% CI 15.65-15.93)] than in practice [3.07 (95% CI 2.99-3.15)]. The ankle was the most commonly injured anatomical location, followed by the hand (including wrist and fingers), knee and head. Soft tissue and ligament injuries were most common types of injuries. Injury prevention in women's sports is a novel and emerging field of research interest. This review highlights that injury incidence is high among female bat-or-stick players, but little information is known about direct causal mechanisms. This review clearly establishes the need for enhancements to injury data collection. Without this information, it will not be possible to develop evidence-based injury prevention interventions.
Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were recorded in the NTDB, and these injuries represented 11,614 incidents nationally after sample weighting. Fall or interpersonal contact events were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (47.4%). Mild TBI represented 87.1% of the injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital and ICU were 2.68 ± 0.07 days and 2.73 ± 0.12 days, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%, and the prevalence of medical complications was 2.1% across all patients. Severities of head and extracranial injuries were significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Hypotension on admission to the ED was a significant predictor of failure to discharge to home (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07, p sports was independently associated with prolonged hospital LOS compared with FIC events (mean increase
Costa E Silva, Lara; Fragoso, Isabel; Teles, Júlia
It is becoming increasingly apparent that sports can present danger in the form of injuries. The extent of this problem calls for preventive actions based on epidemiological research. Two questionnaires (LESADO and RAPIL II) were distributed in four schools to 651 subjects aged between 10 and 18 years, involved in different levels of physical activity (PA) - recreative sports, school sports, federated sports and no sports participation (except physical education classes). Bone age was evaluated through Tanner-Whitehouse III method and anthropometric measures according to ISAK. From 247 subjects (37.9%) it was reported a sports injury during the previous six months. The most injured body areas were lower limbs (53.8%), followed by upper limbs (29.0%) and the type of injuries found was strains (33.7%), sprains (27.1%) and fractures (23.1%). The most frequent causes were direct trauma (51.9%), indirect trauma (29.5%) and overuse (12.7%). A high percentage was relapses and chronic injuries (40.9%). The OR for age group ≥16 years was 2.26 suggesting that those ≥16 years were 2.26 times more likely to have an injury than the younger subjects and concerning the PA level, school and federated sports subjects were 4.21 and 4.44 times more likely to have an injury than no sports participation subjects. Sports injuries in school age subjects were predominantly minor conditions where sprains and strains were the major injuries. They resulted mostly of trauma situations and lower and upper limbs were the most affected areas. Injury occurrence increased with age and was higher in school and federated athletes.
Gallo-Vallejo, Miguel Ángel; de la Cruz-Márquez, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz-Campos, Adrián; de la Cruz-Campos, Juan Carlos; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco Luis; Carmona-Ruiz, Ginés; Gallo-Galán, Luz María
Objective To analyse the incidence of diseases and injuries suffered by athletes participating in the 27th Winter Sports Universiade held in Granada, Spain. Methods The daily occurrence of injuries and diseases was registered at the point of first aid (Borreguiles, 2665 metres above sea level (masl)) and in the clinic of Pradollano (2017 masl), both in Sierra Nevada, as well as in medical services provided by the organising committee of Granada 2015 Universiade and located in sport pavilions in which indoor competitions are held. Results A total of 1109 athletes (650 men, 58.61%; 459 women, 41.39%). Nine diseases and 68 injuries were recorded. In total, the rate of injury was 6.13% (7.07% for men and 4.79% for women). The percentage of injury was highest in alpine skiing (10.34%) followed by freestyle skiing (8.62%). In relation to the time of exposure, freestyle skiing showed the shortest time of exposure (0.31 hours) before suffering an injury. Short track speed skating showed the longest exposure (9.80 hours), before suffering an injury. The most common anatomical areas of injury were the head, shoulder and knee (13.23%). Only nine diseases were suffered (four women and five men) of which six were infections, one was a friction burn, one was a lipothymy and one a cluster headache due to height. Conclusion In general, 6.13% of the athletes sustained at least one injury and 0.81% a disease, which is a much lower percentage than that recorded in similar events. The incidence of injuries and diseases varied among sport specialities. PMID:28879023
Lischuk, Andrew W; Dorantes, Thomas M; Wong, William; Haims, Andrew H
A normally functioning hip joint is imperative for athletes who use their lower extremities with running, jumping, or kicking activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are far less frequent than injuries to the more distal aspect of the extremity, accounting for less than 10% of lower extremity injuries. Despite the lower incidence, hip and groin injuries can lead to significant clinical and diagnostic challenges related to the complex anatomy and biomechanical considerations of this region. Loads up to 8 times normal body weight have been documented in the joint in common daily activities, such as jogging, with significantly greater force expected during competitive athletics. Additionally, treatment for hip and groin injuries can obviate the participation of medical and surgical specialties, with a multidisciplinary approach frequently required. Delay in diagnosis and triage of these injuries may cause loss of time from competition and, potentially, early onset of degenerative changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip has proven to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of sports-related hip and groin injuries in the setting of negative radiographs. With its exquisite soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capabilities, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is unmatched in the noninvasive diagnosis of intra-articular and extra-articular pathology, as well as intraosseous processes. This review focuses on MRI of common athletic injuries of the hip and groin, including acetabular labral tears, femoral acetabular impingement syndrome, muscle injuries around the hip and groin (including athletic pubalgia), and athletic osseous injuries.
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G; Lind, M; Sørensen, H; Hebert, J J; Attermann, J
Current methods of sports injury surveillance are limited by lack of medical validation of self-reported injuries and/or incomplete information about injury consequences beyond time loss from sport. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the feasibility of the SMS, Phone, and medical Examination injury surveillance (SPEx) system (b) to evaluate the proportion of injuries and injury consequences reported by SPEx when compared to outcomes from a modified version of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire. We followed 679 elite adolescent handball players over 31 weeks using the SPEx system. During the last 7 weeks, we also implemented a modified OSTRC questionnaire in a subgroup of 271 players via telephone interviews. The weekly response proportions to the primary SPEx questions ranged from 85% to 96% (mean 92%). SMS responses were received from 79% of the participants within 1 day. 95% of reported injuries were classified through the telephone interview within a week, and 67% were diagnosed by medical personnel. Comparisons between reported injuries from SPEx and OSTRC demonstrated fair (κ = 39.5% [25.1%-54.0%]) to substantial prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK = 66.8% [95% CI 58.0%-75.6%]) agreement. The average injury severity score difference between SPEx and the OSTRC approach was -0.2 (95% CI -3.69-3.29) of possible 100 with 95% limits of agreement from(-14.81-14.41). These results support the feasibility and validity of the SPEx injury surveillance system in elite youth sport. Future studies should evaluate the external validity of SPEx system in different cohorts of athletes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Templeton, Kimberly J; Hame, Sharon L; Hannafin, Jo A; Griffin, Letha Y; Tosi, Laura L; Shields, Naomi N
There has been a significant increase in the participation of women in sports at all levels, especially after the enactment of the Title IX Education Amendment in 1972. This increased participation at all levels has resulted in more women sustaining sports injuries. Data on sex- and gender-based differences in all organ systems, including the musculoskeletal system, are beign gathered. It is important to review some of the areas of sex- and gender-based differences in sports injuries for which there is significant research, such as osteoporosis, the female athlete triad, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries. It is also necessary to examine those areas in which more information is needed, such as injuries to the shoulder, foot, and ankle.
Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S
Several important methodological issues need to be considered when designing sports injury case-control studies. Major design goals for case-control studies include the accounting for prior injury risk exposure, and optimal definitions of both cases and suitable controls are needed to ensure this. This article reviews methodological aspects of published sports injury case-control studies, particularly with regard to the selection of controls. It argues for a new approach towards selecting controls for case-control studies that draws on an interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts. A review was conducted to identify sport injury case-control studies published in the peer-review literature during 1985-2008. Overall, 32 articles were identified, of which the majority related to upper or lower extremity injuries. Matching considerations were used for control selection in 16 studies. Specific mention of application of biomechanical principles in the selection of appropriate controls was absent from all studies, including those purporting to evaluate the benefits of personal protective equipment to protect against impact injury. This is a problem because it could lead to biased conclusions, as cases and controls are not fully comparable in terms of similar biomechanical impact profiles relating to the injury incident, such as site of the impact on the body. The strength of the conclusions drawn from case-control studies, and the extent to which results can be generalized, is directly influenced by the definition and recruitment of cases and appropriate controls. Future studies should consider the interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts when choosing appropriate controls to ensure that proper adjustment of prior exposure to injury risk is made. To provide necessary guidance for the optimal selection of controls in case-control studies of interventions to prevent sports-related impact injury, this review outlines a new case
Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E
Aims (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Methods Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2–9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14–35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R2). Results The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18–24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R2=0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R2=0.76–0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98–2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Conclusions Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. PMID:27789430
Smith, Laura J; Eichelberger, Tamara D; Kane, Edward J
In 2015-2016, over 214,000 female athletes competed at the collegiate level in the United States (U.S.). The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collects injury data; however, breast-related injuries do not have a specific reporting category. The exact sequelae of breast injury are unknown; however, a relationship between breast injury and fat necrosis, which mimics breast carcinoma, is documented outside of sports participation. Breast injuries related to motor vehicle collisions, seatbelt trauma, and blunt trauma have been reported. For these reasons, it is important to investigate female breast injuries in collegiate sports. The objectives of this study are to report the prevalence of self-reported breast injuries in female collegiate athletes, explore injury types and treatments, and investigate breast injury reporting and impact on sports participation. A cross-sectional study of female collegiate athletes at four U.S. universities participating in basketball, soccer, softball, or volleyball. Main outcome measure was a questionnaire regarding breast injuries during sports participation. Almost half of the 194 participants (47.9%) reported a breast injury during their collegiate career, less than 10% reported their injury to health personnel with 2.1% receiving treatment. Breast injuries reported by breast injuries reported by sport include softball (59.5%), basketball (48.8%), soccer (46.7%), and volleyball (34.6%). The long-term effects and sequelae of breast injuries reported by female collegiate athletes during sport play are unknown. Nearly 50% of participants had a breast injury during sports activities. Although 18.2% indicated that breast injury affected sports participation, only 9.6% of the injuries were reported to medical personnel with 2.1% receiving treatment.
Zuckerman, Scott L; Prather, Colin T; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary S; Sills, Allen K; Bonfield, Christopher M
a cystoperitoneal shunt. Four cases reported medical management only without any surgical intervention. No significant predictors were found for neurological deficit or open craniotomy. In the univariate model predicting the need for a cystoperitoneal shunt, the odds of receiving a shunt decreased as age increased (p = 0.004, OR 0.62 [95% CI 0.45-0.86]) and with male sex (p = 0.036, OR 0.15 [95% CI 0.03-0.88]). CONCLUSIONS This systematic review yielded 65 cases of sport-related structural brain injury associated with ACs. The majority of patients presented with chronic symptoms, and recovery was reported generally to be good. Although the review is subject to publication bias, the authors do not find at present that there is contraindication for patients with an AC to participate in sports, although parents and children should be counseled appropriately. Further studies are necessary to better evaluate AC characteristics that could pose a higher risk of adverse events after trauma.
Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa; Schivartche, Vivian
The authors review the literature about musculoskeletal injuries related to sports, emphasizing the main findings with different imaging methods. They also present the specific characteristics of each method. (author)
Whittaker, Jackie L; Toomey, Clodagh M; Woodhouse, Linda J; Jaremko, Jacob L; Nettel-Aguirre, Alberto; Emery, Carolyn A
Youth and young adults who participate in sport have an increased risk of knee injury and subsequent osteoarthritis. Improved understanding of the relationship between structural and clinical outcomes postinjury could inform targeted osteoarthritis prevention interventions. This secondary analysis examines the association between MRI-defined osteoarthritis and self-reported and functional outcomes, 3-10 years following youth sport-related knee injury in comparison to healthy controls. Participants included a subsample (n=146) of the Alberta Youth Prevention of Early Osteoarthritis cohort: specifically, 73 individuals with 3-10 years history of sport-related intra-articular knee injury and 73 age-matched, sex-matched and sport-matched controls with completed MRI studies. Outcomes included: MRI-defined osteoarthritis, radiographic osteoarthritis, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Intermittent and Constant Osteoarthritis Pain, knee extensor/flexor strength, triple-hop and Y-balance test. Descriptive statistics and univariate logistic regression were used to compare those with and without MRI-defined osteoarthritis. Associations between MRI-defined osteoarthritis and each outcome were assessed using multivariable linear regression considering the influence of injury history, sex, body mass index and time since injury. Participant median age was 23 years (range 15-27), and 63% were female. MRI-defined osteoarthritis varied by injury history, injury type and surgical history and was not isolated to participants with ACL and/or meniscal injuries. Those with a previous knee injury had 10-fold (95% CI 2.3 to 42.8) greater odds of MRI-defined osteoarthritis than uninjured participants. MRI-defined osteoarthritis was independently significantly associated with quality of life, but not symptoms, strength or function. MRI-detected structural changes 3-10 years following youth sport-related knee injury may not dictate clinical symptomatology, strength or function
The practice of combat sports creates a potential for training- and sports-related injuries among military members. During the 4-year surveillance period, there were 12,108 cases of injuries associated with combat sports among active component service members; the overall incidence rate was 21.0 per 10,000 person-years (p-yrs). The rates were higher among service members who were male, Hispanic, in the youngest age groups, in the Army, junior enlisted, and in combat-specific occupations. The rate among recruit/ trainees (779.4 per 10,000 p-yrs) was more than 165 times the rate among all other active component service members (non-recruits) (4.7 per 10,000 p-yrs). Sprains, strains, and contusions accounted for more than one-half of the primary (first-listed) diagnoses associated with combat sports cases. More serious conditions such as concussions/head injuries and skull/face fractures/intracranial injuries were reported among 3.9% and 2.1% of all cases and were more common among boxing-related cases. Hand/wrist fractures were also common among boxing cases. Wrestling had comparatively greater proportions of dislocations and open wounds. Although the combat sport training provides many physical and mental benefits to the individual, safety practices should be enforced to reduce the most frequent and serious injuries.
Ullah, Shahid; Gabbett, Tim J; Finch, Caroline F
Injuries are often recurrent, with subsequent injuries influenced by previous occurrences and hence correlation between events needs to be taken into account when analysing such data. This paper compares five different survival models (Cox proportional hazards (CoxPH) model and the following generalisations to recurrent event data: Andersen-Gill (A-G), frailty, Wei-Lin-Weissfeld total time (WLW-TT) marginal, Prentice-Williams-Peterson gap time (PWP-GT) conditional models) for the analysis of recurrent injury data. Empirical evaluation and comparison of different models were performed using model selection criteria and goodness-of-fit statistics. Simulation studies assessed the size and power of each model fit. The modelling approach is demonstrated through direct application to Australian National Rugby League recurrent injury data collected over the 2008 playing season. Of the 35 players analysed, 14 (40%) players had more than 1 injury and 47 contact injuries were sustained over 29 matches. The CoxPH model provided the poorest fit to the recurrent sports injury data. The fit was improved with the A-G and frailty models, compared to WLW-TT and PWP-GT models. Despite little difference in model fit between the A-G and frailty models, in the interest of fewer statistical assumptions it is recommended that, where relevant, future studies involving modelling of recurrent sports injury data use the frailty model in preference to the CoxPH model or its other generalisations. The paper provides a rationale for future statistical modelling approaches for recurrent sports injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Guillodo, Yannick; Madouas, Gwénaelle; Simon, Thomas; Le Dauphin, Hermine; Saraux, Alain
hamstring injury is the most common musculoskeletal disorder and one of the main causes of missed sporting events. Shortening the time to return to play (TTRTP) is a priority for athletes and sports medicine practitioners. platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection at the site of severe acute hamstring injury increases the healing rate and shortens the TTRTP. Cohort study. all patients with ultrasonography and MRI evidence of severe acute hamstring injury between January 2012 and March 2014 were offered PRP treatment. Those who accepted received a single intramuscular PRP injection within 8 days post-injury; the other patients served as controls. The same standardized rehabilitation program was used in both groups. A physical examination and ultrasonography were performed 10 and 30 days post-injury, then a phone interview 120 days post-injury, to determine the TTRTP at the pre-injury level. of 34 patients, 15 received PRP and 19 did not. Mean TTRTP at the pre-injury level was 50.9±10.7 days in the PRP group and 52.8±15.7 days in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant. a single intramuscular PRP injection did not shorten the TTRTP in sports people with severe acute hamstring injuries.
Harris, Andrew W; Jones, C Allyson; Rowe, Brian H; Voaklander, Donald C
To report the rates of SR-related HIs presenting to EDs in a Canadian population-based sample. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using administrative data, sport and recreation-related emergency department presentations for persons 0-35 years of age, from April 1997 through March 2008, were obtained from the Edmonton Zone (formerly the Capital Health Region), Alberta Health Services through the Ambulatory Care Classification System. Of the 3,230,890 visits to the emergency departments of the five hospitals in Edmonton, 63,219 sport and recreation-related injury records and 4935 sport and recreation-head injury records were identified. Head injuries were most frequently treated for the activities of hockey (20.7%), cycling (12.0%), and skiing/snowboarding/sledding. Males accounted for 71.9% (n=3546) and patients less than 18 years of age sustained 3446 (69.8%) sport and recreation-head injuries. Sport and recreation-related head injuries most frequently treated in emergency departments involve common activities such as hockey, cycling, skiing/snowboarding/sledding, and soccer. Males and those less than 18 years of age sustain the majority of sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in emergency departments. These findings underscore the importance of sport-specific policies and safety promotion for the prevention of head injuries, in sports and recreational activities. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.
Conclusions: Sports injury-related fingers and thumb deformity are relatively common. MRI is an accurate method for evaluation of the anatomy and pathologic conditions of the fingers and thumb. It is a useful tool for accurate diagnosis of the sports-related ligaments and tendons injuries in hand.
Bai, Rong-Jie; Zhang, Hui-Bo; Zhan, Hui-Li; Qian, Zhan-Hua; Wang, Nai-Li; Liu, Yue; Li, Wen-Ting; Yin, Yu-Ming
Hand injuries are very common in sports, such as skiing and ball sports. One of the major reasons causing hand and finger deformity is due to ligament and tendon injury. The aim of this study was to investigate if the high-resolution 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can demonstrate the complex anatomy of the fingers and thumb, especially the tendons and ligaments, and provide the accurate diagnosis of clinically important fingers and thumbs deformity due to ligamentous and tendinous injuries during sport activities. Sixteen fresh un-embalmed cadaveric hands were harvested from eight cadavers. A total of 20 healthy volunteers' hands and 44 patients with fingers or thumb deformity due to sports-related injuries were included in this study. All subjects had MR examination with T1-weighted images and proton density-weighted imaging with fat suppression (PD FS) in axial, coronal, and sagittal plane, respectively. Subsequently, all 16 cadaveric hands were sliced into 2-mm thick slab with a band saw (six in coronal plane, six in sagittal plane, and four in axial plane). The correlation of anatomic sections and the MRI characteristics of tendons of fingers and the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) at the metacarpal phalangeal joint (MCPJ) of thumb between 20 healthy volunteers and 44 patients (confirmed by surgery) were analyzed. The normal ligaments and tendons in 16 cadaveric hands and 20 volunteers' hands showed uniform low-signal intensity on all the sequences of the MRI. Among 44 patients with tendinous and ligamentous injuries in the fingers or thumb, 12 cases with UCL injury at MCPJ of the thumb (Stener lesion = 8 and non-Stener lesion = 4), 6 cases with the central slip injury, 12 cases with terminal tendon injury, and 14 cases with flexor digitorum profundus injury. The ligaments and tendons disruption manifested as increased signal intensity and poor definition, discontinuity, and heterogeneous signal intensity of the involved ligaments and tendons. Sports
There are several types of injuries which are not diagnosable by routine radiographic methods but can be detected easily by nuclear medicine techniques. This chapter describes four primary categories of injury where nuclear medicine techniques may be of use: stress fracture and periosteal injury; covert fractures; joint abnormalities and injuries to connective tissues, especially where they attach to bone; and acute skeletal muscle injury and rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important features of the use of nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of sports and traumatic injury is the ability, in most cases, to be able to differentiate among these various categories. Other uses of nuclear medicine techniques are discussed in this chapter
Ansari, Majid; Nourian, Ruhollah; Khodaee, Morteza
With the increasing popularity of mountain biking, also known as off-road cycling, and the riders pushing the sport into extremes, there has been a corresponding increase in injury. Almost two thirds of acute injuries involve the upper extremities, and a similar proportion of overuse injuries affect the lower extremities. Mountain biking appears to be a high-risk sport for severe spine injuries. New trends of injury patterns are observed with popularity of mountain bike trail parks and freeride cycling. Using protective gear, improving technical proficiency, and physical fitness may somewhat decrease the risk of injuries. Simple modifications in bicycle-rider interface areas and with the bicycle (bike fit) also may decrease some overuse injuries. Bike fit provides the clinician with postural correction during the sport. In this review, we also discuss the importance of race-day management strategies and monitoring the injury trends.
other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change. The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.
Gioia, M C; Cerasa, A; Di Lucente, L; Brunelli, S; Castellano, V; Traballesi, M
To investigate whether sports activity is associated with better psychological profiles in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on psychological benefits. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form X2 (STAI-X2), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and the questionnaire for depression (QD) were administered in a cross-sectional study of 137 males with spinal cord injury including 52 tetraplegics and 85 paraplegics. The subjects were divided into two groups according to sports activity participation (high frequency vs no sports participation). Moreover, multiple regression analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of demographic variables, such as age, educational level, occupational status and marital status, on psychological variables. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the groups for anxiety (STAI-X2), extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and depression (QD). In particular, SCI patients who did not practice sports showed higher anxiety and depression scores and lower extraversion scores than sports participants. In addition, with respect to the paraplegics, the tetraplegic group showed the lowest depression scores. Following multiple regression analysis, only the sports activity factor remained as an independent factor of anxiety scores. These findings demonstrate that sports activity is associated with better psychological status in SCI patients, irrespective of tetraplegia and paraplegia, and that psychological benefits are not emphasized by demographic factors.
McKeag, D B
The importance of the preseason physical examination and preparticipation evaluation of sports candidates is highlighted because it constitutes one of the few occasions in which the physician can actively prevent sports injuries from occurring. As exercise participation continues to increase on a world-wide basis, an understanding of the goals and objectives of such a pre-exercise evaluation are important. The need is not for a standard evaluation form, but for a consistent understanding of adjusting the evaluation to the age of the candidate, the type of sport to be engaged in and the anticipated level of competition. Essentials of any evaluation are musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and psychological examinations. Examinations should have clearly defined objectives, and factors determining the type of evaluation include: prospective athlete; contemplated exercise programme; and motivation. Different types of implementation are individual examinations, locker room technique and the station technique, each with advantages and disadvantages. A pre-exercise evaluation should always occur before any anticipated change in level of school or competition with an interval or intercurrent history and physical examinations occurring at regular intervals. It is important that examinations take place before the commencement of a sports season so previous injuries and problems can be dealt with; timing is vital. Contents of a pre-exercise physical examination should include history, a physical examination, laboratory testing and additional specific screening evaluations. Finally, assessment of the pre-exercise evaluation and injury prediction will aid physicians in preparticipation evaluations.
M A Agbor; C C Azodo; N. E. F. Ngagoue
Background: Dentofacial injuries constitute serious problems among competitive and recreational athletes, worldwide. Objective: To determine the prevalence of dentofacial injuries and related factors among individuals participating in contact sports in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study among individuals participating in karate, judo, basketball, handball, football and wrestling in Yaoundé, Cameroon was conducted between January and April, 2012. Results: Of t...
Strahle, Jennifer; Selzer, Béla J; Geh, Ndi; Srinivasan, Dushyanth; Strahle, MaryKathryn; Martinez-Sosa, Meleine; Muraszko, Karin M; Garton, Hugh J L; Maher, Cormac O
OBJECT There is currently no consensus on the safety of sports participation for patients with an intracranial arachnoid cyst (AC). The authors' goal was to define the risk of sports participation for children with this imaging finding. METHODS A survey was prospectively administered to 185 patients with ACs during a 46-month period at a single institution. Cyst size and location, treatment, sports participation, and any injuries were recorded. Eighty patients completed at least 1 subsequent survey following their initial entry into the registry, and these patients were included in a prospective registry with a mean prospective follow-up interval of 15.9 ± 8.8 months. RESULTS A total 112 patients with ACs participated in 261 sports for a cumulative duration of 4410 months or 1470 seasons. Of these, 94 patients participated in 190 contact sports for a cumulative duration of 2818 months or 939 seasons. There were no serious or catastrophic neurological injuries. Two patients presented with symptomatic subdural hygromas following minor sports injuries. In the prospective cohort, there were no neurological injuries CONCLUSIONS Permanent or catastrophic neurological injuries are very unusual in AC patients who participate in athletic activities. In most cases, sports participation by these patients is safe.
Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A
In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention.
Herman, Katherine; Barton, Christian; Malliaras, Peter; Morrissey, Dylan
Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT) and three controlled clinical trials (CCT). Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR) statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI) 0.54 to 0.84) and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71) lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72) injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP) significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76) and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86) injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP) strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42). The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76) in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP) significantly reduces the incidence of anterior knee pain (RR 0.27, CI 0.14 to 0.54) in
Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Results Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT and three controlled clinical trials (CCT. Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI 0.54 to 0.84 and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71 lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72 injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76 and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86 injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42. The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76 in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP significantly reduces the incidence of anterior
Michael D Cusimano
Full Text Available There is a gap in knowledge about the mechanisms of sports-related brain injuries. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms of brain injuries among children and youth participating in team sports.We conducted a retrospective case series of brain injuries suffered by children participating in team sports. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP database was searched for brain injury cases among 5-19 year-olds playing ice hockey, soccer, American football (football, basketball, baseball, or rugby between 1990 and 2009. Mechanisms of injury were classified as "struck by player," "struck by object," "struck by sport implement," "struck surface," and "other." A descriptive analysis was performed.There were 12,799 brain injuries related to six team sports (16.2% of all brain injuries registered in CHIRPP. Males represented 81% of injuries and the mean age was 13.2 years. Ice hockey accounted for the greatest number of brain injuries (44.3%, followed by soccer (19.0% and football (12.9%. In ice hockey, rugby, and basketball, striking another player was the most common injury mechanism. Football, basketball, and soccer also demonstrated high proportions of injuries due to contact with an object (e.g., post among younger players. In baseball, a common mechanism in the 5-9 year-old group was being hit with a bat as a result of standing too close to the batter (26.1% males, 28.3% females.Many sports-related brain injury mechanisms are preventable. The results suggest that further efforts aimed at universal rule changes, safer playing environments, and the education of coaches, players, and parents should be targeted in maximizing prevention of sport-related brain injury using a multifaceted approach.
Min Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Jong Min; Jung, Han Kee
As for the current state of college Taekwondo athletes’ sport injury, times of occurrence and major causes showed differences in weight class and career, while situations of occurrence had differences in grade, weight class, and career. As for the measures to improve their coping ability, first aid showed differences in grade, while prevention of injury had differences in grade and career. Treatment methods turned out to have no differences. For college Taekwondo athletes, sport injury occurred during exercise, mostly when they fell. In addition, lack of skill was the greatest major cause of sport injury. As for the sport injury coping ability, ice massage was used as first aid and self-massage was performed. For prevention of injury, sufficient fatigue recovery was considered to be the priority of prevention of injury
Randolph, Christopher; Kirkwood, Michael W
Over the past two decades, the management of sport-related concussion has been the topic of increased attention in the scientific literature and in the popular media. Despite a proliferation of competing guidelines for concussion management, the widespread use of neuropsychological "baseline" testing designed to monitor postinjury recovery, and several prospective controlled studies of the natural history of concussion, there has been virtually no attempt to quantify the risks associated with sport-related concussion or to determine whether these risks are modifiable via management strategies. Using American football as a model, the short- and long-term risks of sport-related concussion are reviewed. It is concluded that serious short-term consequences of sport-related concussion are extremely rare and unlikely to be significantly modified via management strategies that rely on baseline testing. Other less serious short-term adverse outcomes are also quite rare, transient, and not likely to be altered by specific management guidelines. The long-term consequences of multiple sport-related head trauma remain unclear but are potentially of greater public health concern and should be the focus of increased research. Based on available evidence, there is little rationale for the use of rigid strategies or guidelines in the place of individual clinical decision-making in the management of these injuries.
Richard, J-B; Thélot, B; Beck, F
Whatever the type of injury considered, prevention requires an improvement in health services' awareness of risk factors. The Health Barometer is a general population survey conducted in France since 1992 to contribute to surveillance in this field. The survey's statistical power and the numerous health topics included in the questionnaire provide accurate information for healthcare professionals and decision-makers. The Health Barometer 2010 was a nationwide telephone survey of 9110 persons representative of the 15-85-year-old population. One part of the questionnaire detailed injuries which had occurred during the past year. The numerous variables recorded enabled application of logistic regression models to explore risk factors related to different types of injury by age group. The findings were compared with the Health Barometer 2005 data to search for temporal trends of injury prevalence. The data analysis showed that 10.3% of the 15-85-year-olds reported an injury during the past year. This rate was higher than recorded in 2005; the increase was mainly due to domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities. Both type of injury and risk factors exhibited age-related variability. Domestic accidents and injuries occurring during recreational activities predominated in the older population and were associated with physical or mental health problems (chronic disease, diability, sleep disorders). For younger people, injuries were related to cannabis use, drunkedness, and insufficient sleep. Risk factors were also depended on type of injury: occupational accident-related injuries were linked with social disadvantage (manual worker population) whereas sports injuries were more common in the socially advantaged population. This survey confirms established knowledge and highlights, at different stages of life, new risk factors that contribute to injuries in France. These findings should be helpful for the development of adapted injury
Pelvic apophyses are places of insertion of strong muscles and tendons and are therefore places of least resistance at the end of skeletal growth. Avulsions and disruptions of pelvic apophyses can be caused by overstrain during different kinds of sport activity. Typical radiological findings in 8 different cases of ruptures of apophyses, osteochondropathies, and resulting conditions of sport injuries are demonstrated. The difficulties of correct diagnosis and different diagnosis are pointed out. The significance of hormonal impairment of ossification for development and stress factor of pelvic apophyses is exposed. Questions of treatment and follow-up studies are discussed.
Pelvic apophyses are places of insertion of strong muscles and tendons and are therefore places of least resistance at the end of skeletal growth. Avulsions and disruptions of pelvic apophyses can be caused by overstrain during different kinds of sport activity. Typical radiological findings in 8 different cases of ruptures of apophyses, osteochondropathies, and resulting conditions of sport injuries are demonstrated. The difficulties of correct diagnosis and different diagnosis are pointed out. The significance of hormonal impairment of ossification for development and stress factor of pelvic apophyses is exposed. Questions of treatment and follow-up studies are discussed. (orig.)
Raukar, Neha P; Zonfrillo, Mark R; Kane, Kathleen; Davenport, Moira; Espinoza, Tamara R; Weiland, Jessica; Franco, Vanessa; Vaca, Federico E
Title IX, the commercialization of sports, the social change in sports participation, and the response to the obesity epidemic have contributed to the rapid proliferation of participation in both competitive organized sports and nontraditional athletic events. As a consequence, emergency physicians are regularly involved in the acute diagnosis, management, disposition, and counseling of a broad range of sports-related pathology. Three important and highly publicized mechanisms of injury in sports relevant to emergency medicine (EM) include concussion, heat illness, and sudden cardiac death. In conjunction with the 2014 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference "Gender-specific Research in Emergency Care: Investigate, Understand, and Translate How Gender Affects Patient Outcomes," a consensus group consisting of experts in EM, emergency neurology, sports medicine, and public health convened to deliberate and develop research questions that could ultimately advance the field of sports medicine and allow for meaningful application in the emergency department (ED) clinical setting. Sex differences in injury risk, diagnosis, ED treatment, and counseling are identified in each of these themes. This article presents the consensus-based priority research agenda. © 2014 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
van Heumen, Moniek; Tol, Johannes L.; de Vos, Robert-Jan; Moen, Maarten H.; Weir, Adam; Orchard, John; Reurink, Gustaaf
A challenge for sports physicians is to estimate the risk of a hamstring re-injury, but the current evidence for MRI variables as a risk factor is unknown. To systematically review the literature on the prognostic value of MRI findings at index injury and/or return to play for acute hamstring
This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from sports injuries, one of the leading causes of child injury.
The SMS, Phone and medical Examination sports injury surveillance (SPEx) system is a feasible and valid approach to measuring handball exposure, injury occurrence and consequences in elite youth sport
Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G
Examination injury surveillance (SPEx) system 2) to evaluate the proportion of injuries and injury consequences reported by SPEx when compared to outcomes from a modified version of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire. We followed 679 elite adolescent handball players...
Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H
The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.
Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E
(1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R 2 ). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R 2 =0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R 2 =0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Michaelidis, Michael; Koumantakis, George A
Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury is frequently encountered in sports. To analyze the effects of ACL injury prevention programs on injury rates in female athletes between different sports. A comprehensive literature search was performed in September 2012 using Pubmed Central, Science Direct, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus. The key words used were: 'anterior cruciate ligament', 'ACL', 'knee joint', 'knee injuries', 'female', 'athletes', 'neuromuscular', 'training', 'prevention'. The inclusion criteria applied were: (1) ACL injury prevention training programs for female athletes; (2) Athlete-exposure data reporting; (3) Effect of training on ACL incidence rates for female athletes. 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three training programs in soccer and one in handball led to reduced ACL injury incidence. In basketball no effective training intervention was found. In season training was more effective than preseason in ACL injury prevention. A combination of strength training, plyometrics, balance training, technique monitoring with feedback, produced the most favorable results. Comparing the main components of ACL injury prevention programs for female athletes, some sports-dependent training specificity issues may need addressing in future studies, related primarily to the individual biomechanics of each sport but also their most effective method of delivery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zazryn, Tsharni R; McCrory, Paul R; Cameron, Peter A
To determine injury rates and risk factors for injury in a cohort of professional boxers. Retrospective cohort design reporting on data collected for a fight statistics database maintained by the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria, Australia. Data were extracted for the years January 1997 through June 2005. Victoria, Australia. 545 professional boxers (age, 18 to 43 years) who participated in a total of 907 fights over the study period. Independent variables under investigation included age, gender, weight, bout exposure, and location of the bout (within or outside of the State of Victoria). Physician-reported acute boxing injuries occurring during bouts of any region or nature. 214 injuries were sustained over the 8.5 years, corresponding to an injury rate of 23.6 per 100 professional fights. The majority of these injuries were lacerations to the head and face. An increasing age and an increasing number of fights were both significant predictors of injury. Injury reduction strategies for professional boxing might include restrictions of eligibility to fight based on age and boxing bout exposure. Future research using prospective cohort designs and standardized injury definitions are needed to confirm these results. Greater mechanistic detail and more complete data entry are necessary to ensure that optimal injury prevention strategies can be developed and implemented. Upon confirmation of the results of this study, the Professional Boxing and Combat Sports Board of Victoria may consider different criteria upon which to sanction a fight.
Valle, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Tol, Johannes L.; Hamilton, Bruce; Garrett, William E.; Pruna, Ricard; Til, Lluís; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Alomar, Xavier; Balius, Ramón; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Monllau, Joan Carles; Whiteley, Rodney; Witvrouw, Erik; Samuelsson, Kristian; Rodas, Gil
Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is
Fousekis, Konstantinos; Billis, Evdokia; Matzaroglou, Charalampos; Mylonas, Konstantinos; Koutsojannis, Constantinos; Tsepis, Elias
Elastic bandages are commonly used in sports to treat and prevent sport injuries. To conduct a systematic review assessing the effectiveness of elastic bandaging in orthopedic- and sports-injury prevention and rehabilitation. The researchers searched the electronic databases MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) with keywords elastic bandaging in combination, respectively, with first aid, sports injuries, orthopedic injuries, and sports injuries prevention and rehabilitation. Research studies were selected based on the use of the term elastic bandaging in the abstract. Final selection was made by applying inclusion and exclusion criteria to the full text. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed clinical trials written in English on the effects of elastic bandaging for orthopedic-injury prevention and rehabilitation. Twelve studies met the criteria and were included in the final analysis. Data collected included number of participants, condition being treated, treatment used, control group, outcome measures, and results. Studies were critically analyzed using the PEDro scale. The studies in this review fell into 2 categories: studies in athletes (n = 2) and nonathletes (n = 10). All included trials had moderate to high quality, scoring ≥5 on the PEDro scale. The PEDro scores for the studies in athletes and nonathletes ranged from 5 to 6 out of 10 and from 5 to 8 out of 10, respectively. The quality of studies was mixed, ranging from higher- to moderate-quality methodological clinical trials. Overall, elastic bandaging can assist proprioceptive function of knee and ankle joint. Because of the moderate methodological quality and insufficient number of clinical trials, further effects of elastic bandaging could not be confirmed.
Knapik, Joseph J; Graham, Bria; Cobbs, Jacketta; Thompson, Diane; Steelman, Ryan; Jones, Bruce H
United States Army military police (MP) training is a 19-week course designed to introduce new recruits to basic soldiering skills, Army values and lifestyle, and law enforcement skills and knowledge. The present investigation examined injury rates and injury risk factors in MP training. At the start of training, 1,838 male and 553 female MP recruits were administered a questionnaire containing items on date of birth, height, weight, tobacco use, prior physical activity, injury history, and menstrual history. Injuries during training were obtained from electronic medical records and the training units provided data on student graduation and attrition. Successfully graduating from the course were 94.3% of the men and 83.7% of the women. Experiencing at least one injury during training were 34.2% of the men and 66.7% of the women (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval = 1.79-2.13). Recruits were at higher injury risk if they reported that they were older, had smoked in the past, or had performed less frequent exercise or sports prior to MP training. Men were at higher injury risk if they reported a prior injury and women were at higher risk if they reported missing at least six menstrual cycles in the last year or had previously been pregnant. The present investigation was the first to identify injury rates and identify specific factors increasing injury risk during MP training.
Full Text Available Introduction: Surveys that collect information on injuries often focus on the single "most serious" event to help limit recall error and reduce survey length. However, this can mask less serious injuries and result in biased incidence estimates for specific injury subcategories. Methods: Data from the 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey and from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP were used to compare estimates of sports injury incidence in Canadian children. Results: HBSC data indicate that 6.7% of children report sustaining a sports injury that required an emergency department (ED visit. However, details were only collected on a child's "most serious" injury, so children who had multiple injuries requiring an ED visit may have had sports injuries that went unreported. The rate of 6.7% can be seen to be an underestimate by as much as 4.3%. Corresponding CHIRPP surveillance data indicate an incidence of 9.9%. Potential masking bias is also highlighted in our analysis of injuries attended by other health care providers. Conclusion: The "one most serious injury" line of questioning induces potentially substantial masking bias in the estimation of sports injury incidence, which limits researchers' ability to quantify the burden of sports injury. Longer survey recall periods naturally lead to greater masking. The design of future surveys should take these issues into account. In order to accurately inform policy decisions and the direction of future research, researchers must be aware of these limitations.
Lima-Borges, Dayanne S; Martinez, Paula F; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Barbosa, Fernando S S; Oliveira-Junior, Silvio A
Young athletes' participation in competitive sports is becoming increasingly common, and this increased involvement raises concerns about the occurrence of overtraining and sports injuries. Since these issues are poorly understood, this study analyzed heart rate variability, stress/recovery relationship, and sports injury incidence during a training macrocycle of young sprint and endurance swimmers. Thirty teenage swimmers (aged 12 to 17 years) were divided into two groups as follows: Sprint (n = 17) and Endurance (n = 13). Subjects were evaluated over 20 weeks, based on the following three schedules: general, specific, and competitive. In addition to heart rate variability and sports injury incidence, the Recovery-Stress-Questionnaire of Athletes was used to analyse stress/recovery states in athletes. All procedures were developed at the initial moment and at the end of each periodization step. The Sprint group presented a reduced standard deviation of normal-normal beats (73.0 ± 6.6 vs. 54.1 ± 3.5 ms; p sports injury than the Endurance group (0.0214 ± 0.0068 vs. 0.0136 ± 0.0050 cases/1000 hours). Sprint training was associated with progressive activation of the sympathetic nervous system as well as a higher incidence of sports injury in comparison to endurance swimming during a training macrocycle.
Hunt, J C
This paper utilizes psychoanalytic theory to examine risk and injury in the case of a male deep sea diver. It examines the unconscious conflicts which appeared to fuel the diver's involvement in deep diving and to lead to a near fatal incident of decompression sickness. Particular attention is paid to the role of the diver's father in the evolution of the preoedipal and oedipal fantasies and conflicts which appear to be linked to the injury. The research is based on interviews with and fieldwork among recreational and deep divers.
Min Kyeong Hoon; Lee, Jong Min; Jung, Han Kee [Dept. of Adaptation Physical Education, Hanshin University, Osan (Korea, Republic of)
As for the current state of college Taekwondo athletes’ sport injury, times of occurrence and major causes showed differences in weight class and career, while situations of occurrence had differences in grade, weight class, and career. As for the measures to improve their coping ability, first aid showed differences in grade, while prevention of injury had differences in grade and career. Treatment methods turned out to have no differences. For college Taekwondo athletes, sport injury occurred during exercise, mostly when they fell. In addition, lack of skill was the greatest major cause of sport injury. As for the sport injury coping ability, ice massage was used as first aid and self-massage was performed. For prevention of injury, sufficient fatigue recovery was considered to be the priority of prevention of injury.
Edouard, Pascal; Depiesse, Frédéric; Branco, Pedro; Alonso, Juan-Manuel
To further analyze newly incurred injuries and illnesses (I&Is) during Athletics International Championships to discuss risk factors. Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. The 2012 European Athletics (EA) Championships in Helsinki, Finland. National team and local organizing committee physicians and physiotherapists and 1342 registered athletes. Incidence and characteristics of new injuries and illnesses. Ninety-three percent of athletes were covered by medical teams, with a response rate of 91%. One hundred thirty-three injuries were reported (incidence of 98.4 injuries per 1000 registered athletes). Sixty-two injuries (47%) resulted in time loss from sport. The most common diagnosis was hamstring strain (11.4% of injuries and 21% of time-loss injuries). Injury risk was higher in males and increased with age. The highest incidences of injuries were found in combined events and middle- and long-distance events. Twenty-seven illnesses were reported (4.0 illnesses per 1000 athlete days). The most common diagnoses were upper respiratory tract infection (33.3%) and gastroenteritis/diarrhea (25.9%). During outdoor EA Championships, injury and illness incidences were slightly lower and injury characteristics were comparable with those during outdoor World Athletics Championships. During elite athletics Championships, gender (male), age (older than 30 years), finals, and some events (combined events and middle- and long-distance races) seem to be injury risk factors. Illness risk factors remain unclear. As in previous recommendations, preventive interventions should focus on overuse injuries, hamstring strains, and adequate rehabilitation of previous injuries, decreasing risk of infectious diseases transmission, appropriate event scheduling, sports clothes, and heat acclimatization.
Whittaker, J L; Woodhouse, L J; Nettel-Aguirre, A; Emery, C A
Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) commonly affects the knee joint. Although the risk of PTOA substantially increases post-joint injury, there is little research examining PTOA outcomes early in the period between joint injury and disease onset. Improved understanding of this interval would inform secondary prevention strategies aimed at preventing and/or delaying PTOA progression. This study examines the association between sport-related knee injury and outcomes related to development of PTOA, 3-10 years post-injury. This preliminary analysis of the first year of a historical cohort study includes 100 (15-26 years) individuals. Fifty with a sport-related intra-articular knee injury sustained 3-10 years previously and 50 uninjured age, sex and sport matched controls. The primary outcome was the 'Symptoms' sub-scale of the Knee Osteoarthritis and Injury Outcome Score (KOOS). Secondary outcomes included; the remaining KOOS subscales, body mass index (BMI), hip abductor/adductor and knee extensor/flexor strength, estimated aerobic capacity (VO2max) and performance scores on three dynamic balance tests. Descriptive statistics (mean within-pair difference; 95% Confidence interval (CI) and conditional odds ratio (OR, 95% CI; BMI) were used to compare study groups. Injured participants demonstrated poorer KOOS outcomes [symptoms -9.4 (-13.6, -5.2), pain -4.0 (-6.8, -1.2), quality-of-life -8.0 (-11.0, -5.1), daily living -3.0 (-5.0, -1.1) and sport/recreation -6.9 (-9.9, -3.8)], were 3.75 times (95% CI 1.24, 11.3) more likely to be overweight/obese and had lower triple single leg hop scores compared to controls. No significant group differences existed for remaining balance scores, estimated VO2max, hip or knee strength ratios or side-to-side difference in hip abductor/adductor or quadricep/hamstring strength. This study provides preliminary evidence that youth/young adults following sport-related knee injury report more symptoms and poorer function, and are at
Leclerc, S.; Herrera, C. D.
In the light of medical evidence of the health risks associated with boxing, a watchful agnostic position among sport physicians is no longer justifiable. The normal activity in a boxing match places the athletes at risk of head injury, some of which may be difficult to detect and impossible to repair. This suggests that sport physicians and others expert in the prevention and diagnosis of such injuries should take a public stand against boxing, as other medical associations have. Although there is a need for continuing research into the health risks, doctors can in the interim take steps to increase public awareness of these risks. Sport physicians in particular can make a strong public statement by also ending their professional involvement with boxing. This need not be interpreted as paternalism; doctors are qualified neither to make laws nor to restrict private behaviour. Sport physicians are, however, well equipped to advise those who do make laws and those who choose to engage in boxing. In the end, because this stance against boxing will probably reduce the number of brain injuries in certain athletes, autonomy will be preserved, rather than restricted. PMID:10597855
Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C
To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Assessment of intercoder agreement. Community Australian football. 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific 'X' code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise.
Alicia M. Montalvo, Hilary Shaefer, Belinda Rodriguez, Tan Li, Katrina Epnere, Gregory D. Myer
Full Text Available The objective of the study is to examine injury epidemiology and risk factors for injury in CrossFit athletes. A survey was administered to athletes at four owner-operated facilities in South Florida. Respondents reported number, location of injury, and training exposure from the preceding six months and answered questions regarding potential risk factors for injury. Fifty out of 191 athletes sustained 62 injuries during CrossFit participation in the preceding six months. The most frequently injured locations were the shoulder, knee, and lower back. Injury incidence was 2.3/1000 athlete training hours. Competitors were more likely to be injured (40% v 19%, p = 0.002 and had greater weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 7.0 v 4.9 ± 2.9, p < 0.001 than non-competitors. Athletes who reported injury also reported significantly higher values for the following risk factors: years of participation (2.7 ± 1.8 v 1.8 ± 1.5, p = 0.001, weekly athlete training hours (7.3 ± 3.8 v 4.9 ± 2.1, p = 0.020, weekly athlete-exposures (6.4 ± 3.8 v 4.7 ± 2.1, p = 0.003, height (1.72 ± 0.09 m v 1.68 ± 0.01 m, p = 0.011, and body mass (78.24 ± 16.86 kg v 72.91 ± 14.77 kg, p = 0.037. Injury rates during CrossFit and location of injuries were similar to those previously reported. Injury incidence was similar to related sports, including gymnastics and powerlifting. While being a competitor was related to injury, increased exposure and length of participation in CrossFit likely underlied this association. Specifically, increased exposure to training in the form of greater weekly athlete training hours and weekly participations may contribute to injury. Increased height and body mass were also related to injury which is likely reflective of increased load utilized during training. Further research is warranted to determine if biomechanical factors associated with greater height and ability to lift greater loads are modifiable factors that can be adapted to reduce
Podlog, Leslie; Dionigi, Rylee
The purpose of this study was to examine coach strategies for addressing athletes' psychosocial challenges in returning to sport following injury rehabilitation. Qualitative interviews with eight elite coaches from the Western Australian Institute of Sport (WAIS) in Perth, Australia revealed that coaches facilitated athletes' return to sport from injury through a variety of means, but did not typically provide systematic forms of assistance. Coaches commented that the idiosyncratic nature of the injury experience meant that they needed to apply strategies consistent with athletes' particular psychosocial needs. Such strategies included: (a) coordination of a "team approach" to rehabilitation; (b) fostering open communication with athletes and treatment team members; (c) social support; (d) positive thinking and goal setting; and (e) role models. Analysis of these strategies revealed that coaches attempted to address competence, autonomy, and relatedness needs in facilitating athletes' return from injury. These findings suggest that self-determination theory may be a valuable approach for examining coach forms of assistance regarding athletes' return to competition following injury. Findings are discussed in relation to injury literature and self-determination theory. Suggestions for future research are also presented.
Fagher, Kristina; Jacobsson, Jenny; Dahlström, Örjan; Timpka, Toomas; Lexell, Jan
Sport participation is associated with a risk of sports-related injuries and illnesses, and Paralympic athletes' additional medical issues can be a challenge to health care providers and medical staff. However, few prospective studies have assessed sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport (SRIIPS) over time. Advances in mobile phone technology and networking systems offer novel opportunities to develop innovative eHealth applications for collection of athletes' self-reports. Using eHealth applications for collection of self-reported SRIIPS is an unexplored area, and before initiation of full-scale research of SRIIPS, the feasibility and usability of such an approach needs to be ascertained. The aim of this study was to perform a 4-week pilot study and (1) evaluate the monitoring feasibility and system usability of a novel eHealth application for self-reported SRIIPS and (2) report preliminary data on SRIIPS. An eHealth application for routine collection of data from athletes was developed and adapted to Paralympic athletes. A 4-week pilot study was performed where Paralympic athletes (n=28) were asked to weekly self-report sport exposure, training load, general well-being, pain, sleep, anxiety, and possible SRIIPS. The data collection was followed by a poststudy use assessment survey. Quantitative data related to the system use (eg, completed self-reports, missing responses, and errors) were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The qualitative feasibility and usability data provided by the athletes were condensed and categorized using thematic analysis methods. The weekly response rate was 95%. The athletes were of the opinion that the eHealth application was usable and feasible but stated that it was not fully adapted to Paralympic athletes and their impairments. For example, it was difficult to understand how a new injury or illness should be identified when the impairment was involved. More survey items related to the impairments were
Background Sport participation is associated with a risk of sports-related injuries and illnesses, and Paralympic athletes’ additional medical issues can be a challenge to health care providers and medical staff. However, few prospective studies have assessed sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport (SRIIPS) over time. Advances in mobile phone technology and networking systems offer novel opportunities to develop innovative eHealth applications for collection of athletes’ self-reports. Using eHealth applications for collection of self-reported SRIIPS is an unexplored area, and before initiation of full-scale research of SRIIPS, the feasibility and usability of such an approach needs to be ascertained. Objective The aim of this study was to perform a 4-week pilot study and (1) evaluate the monitoring feasibility and system usability of a novel eHealth application for self-reported SRIIPS and (2) report preliminary data on SRIIPS. Methods An eHealth application for routine collection of data from athletes was developed and adapted to Paralympic athletes. A 4-week pilot study was performed where Paralympic athletes (n=28) were asked to weekly self-report sport exposure, training load, general well-being, pain, sleep, anxiety, and possible SRIIPS. The data collection was followed by a poststudy use assessment survey. Quantitative data related to the system use (eg, completed self-reports, missing responses, and errors) were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The qualitative feasibility and usability data provided by the athletes were condensed and categorized using thematic analysis methods. Results The weekly response rate was 95%. The athletes were of the opinion that the eHealth application was usable and feasible but stated that it was not fully adapted to Paralympic athletes and their impairments. For example, it was difficult to understand how a new injury or illness should be identified when the impairment was involved. More survey items
Kaneko, Hideto; Murakami, Mototsune; Nishizawa, Kazuya
Stress injuries (stress fractures and stress reactions) of the lumbosacral region are one of the causes of sports-related lower back pain in young individuals. These injuries can be detected by bone marrow edema lesion on MRI. However, little is known about the prevalence and clinical features of early stage lumbosacral stress injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology of lumbosacral stress injuries. A total of 312 patients (under 18 years of age) who complained of sports-related lower back pain that had lasted for ≥7 days underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We reviewed patients' records retrospectively. MRI showed that 33.0% of the patients had lumbar stress injuries and 1.6% had sacral stress injuries. Lumbar stress injuries were more common in males than in females and were found in 30% of 13- to 18-year-old patients. About 50% of the patients that participated in soccer or track and field were diagnosed with lumbar stress injuries. No clinical patterns in the frequencies of sacral stress injuries were detected due to the low number of patients that suffered this type of injury. Plain radiography is rarely able to detect the early stage lesions associated with lumbosacral stress injuries, but such lesions can be detected in the caudal-ventral region of the pars interarticularis on sagittal computed tomography scans. Thirty-three percent of young patients that complained of sports-related lower back pain for ≥7 days had lumbar stress injuries, while 1.6% of them had sacral stress injuries. Clinicians should be aware of the existence of these injuries. MRI is useful for diagnosing lumbosacral stress injuries.
This podcast, developed as part of the Protect the Ones You Love initiative, discusses steps parents can take to help protect their children from sports injuries, one of the leading causes of child injury. Created: 1/14/2010 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 1/14/2010.
Bruno T. Saragiotto
Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives: To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method: This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1 "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2 "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results: We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions: The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance.
Rietveld, Boni; van de Wiel, Albert
Professional theatre dance has high and specific physical demands, comparable to top sport. Dance injuries are often caused by faulty technique due to compensation for physical limitations. Knowledge of these limitations and professional teaching can prevent many problems. Dance injuries mostly involve the lower limbs, especially the ankles and knees. Dance injuries require that the medical professional has knowledge of dance technique and respects the passion of the dancer. The advice to stop dancing has hardly ever to be given. Scientific, prospective dance medical research is recommended.
Vitale, Jacopo A; Bassani, Tito; Galbusera, Fabio; Bianchi, Alberto; Martinelli, Nicolò
Previous studies attempted to identify possible risk factors for acute and overuse injuries in several sports disciplines such as running, gymnastics or team sports. Given the lack of scientific works focused on risk factors for lower limb injuries in martial arts, the present study was aimed to investigate foot anatomy, anthropometric measures, and other background information as possible risk factors of injury in barefoot athletes practicing judo, karate, kung fu, thai boxe, or aikido. In addition, the injury rates were evaluated in relation with the different martial art styles. One group of 130 martial artists was retrospectively evaluated. Data of three foot morphological variables were collected: navicular height (NH), navicular drop (ND) and the rear foot (RF). In addition, each participant filled an interview questionnaire providing the following information: age, sex, body weight, height, BMI, hours of training per week, the kind of injury occurred to the lower limbs in the preceding year. Of 130 subjects, 70 (53.8%) did not sustain injuries, 35 (27.0%) suffered an acute injury and the remaining 25 (19.2%) reported an overuse injury. No significant differences were observed in the injury rates in relation to style and kind of martial art. Age, training volume and BMI were found as significant predictors of injury, while NH, ND and RF were not able to predict acute or overuse injury at lower limbs. The injury rates were similar in karate, judo, kung fu, aikido, and thai boxe. The foot morphology variables were not related with the presence or absence of acute and overuse injuries. Conversely, older and heavier martial artists, performing more hours of barefoot training, are at higher risk of acute and overuse injury. Athletic trainers should strongly take into account the present information in order to develop more accurate and specific injury prevention programs for martial artists.
Finch, Caroline F; Orchard, John W; Twomey, Dara M; Saad Saleem, Muhammad; Ekegren, Christina L; Lloyd, David G; Elliott, Bruce C
Objective To compare Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS-10) sports medicine diagnoses assigned by a clinical and non-clinical coder. Design Assessment of intercoder agreement. Setting Community Australian football. Participants 1082 standardised injury surveillance records. Main outcome measurements Direct comparison of the four-character hierarchical OSICS-10 codes assigned by two independent coders (a sports physician and an epidemiologist). Adjudication by a third coder (biomechanist). Results The coders agreed on the first character 95% of the time and on the first two characters 86% of the time. They assigned the same four-digit OSICS-10 code for only 46% of the 1082 injuries. The majority of disagreements occurred for the third character; 85% were because one coder assigned a non-specific ‘X’ code. The sports physician code was deemed correct in 53% of cases and the epidemiologist in 44%. Reasons for disagreement included the physician not using all of the collected information and the epidemiologist lacking specific anatomical knowledge. Conclusions Sports injury research requires accurate identification and classification of specific injuries and this study found an overall high level of agreement in coding according to OSICS-10. The fact that the majority of the disagreements occurred for the third OSICS character highlights the fact that increasing complexity and diagnostic specificity in injury coding can result in a loss of reliability and demands a high level of anatomical knowledge. Injury report form details need to reflect this level of complexity and data management teams need to include a broad range of expertise. PMID:22919021
Paterno, Mark V.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Ford, Kevin R.; Rauh, Mitchell J.; Myer, Gregory D.; Huang, Bin; Hewett, Timothy E.
Background Athletes who return to sport participation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) have a higher risk of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury (either reinjury or contralateral injury) compared with non–anterior cruciate ligament–injured athletes. Hypotheses Prospective measures of neuromuscular control and postural stability after ACLR will predict relative increased risk for a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Study Design Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods Fifty-six athletes underwent a prospective biomechanical screening after ACLR using 3-dimensional motion analysis during a drop vertical jump maneuver and postural stability assessment before return to pivoting and cutting sports. After the initial test session, each subject was followed for 12 months for occurrence of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Lower extremity joint kinematics, kinetics, and postural stability were assessed and analyzed. Analysis of variance and logistic regression were used to identify predictors of a second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Results Thirteen athletes suffered a subsequent second anterior cruciate ligament injury. Transverse plane hip kinetics and frontal plane knee kinematics during landing, sagittal plane knee moments at landing, and deficits in postural stability predicted a second injury in this population (C statistic = 0.94) with excellent sensitivity (0.92) and specificity (0.88). Specific predictive parameters included an increase in total frontal plane (valgus) movement, greater asymmetry in internal knee extensor moment at initial contact, and a deficit in single-leg postural stability of the involved limb, as measured by the Biodex stability system. Hip rotation moment independently predicted second anterior cruciate ligament injury (C = 0.81) with high sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.81). Conclusion Altered neuromuscular control of the hip and knee during a dynamic landing task
McBeth, Paul B; Ball, Chad G; Mulloy, Robert H; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W
Alpine skiing and snowboarding are popular winter sports in Canada. Every year participation in these activities results in traumatic injury. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and injury patterns, as well as risk factors associated with ski and snowboarding injuries. A comprehensive 10-year retrospective review of Alpine ski and snowboarding injuries from 1996 to 2006 was conducted. The Alberta Trauma Registry was used as the primary source of data. A total of 196 patients (56.6% skiers, 43.4% snowboarders) were identified as having major traumatic injuries (Injury Severity Score, >or=12). Forty-three patients required intensive care unit support. The majority of injuries were related to falls and collisions with natural objects. Head injuries were most common, followed by chest, spinal, and extremity trauma. Seventy-nine patients required emergency surgery. Skiing and snowboarding represent activities with high potential for traumatic injury. Safety initiatives should be developed to target this population.
Full Text Available A 24-year-old male was transferred to the emergency department while being in the state of quadriplegia with a history of performing Parkour sport, which is also called double front flip. Neurological examination revealed that the patient’s muscle power was 0/5 at all extremities. The patient did not show any sense of light touch or pain in his extremities. In radiological studies, cervical spine X-ray and CT scan images showed C4-C5 subluxation with bilateral locked facets and spinal cord injury. The results of this very rare case study revealed that exercising Parkour sport without taking into account safety standards could result in irreversible injuries to the cervical spinal cord with fatal outcome. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Cervical vertebrae; Athletic injuries
Aasa, Ulrika; Svartholm, Ivar; Andersson, Fredrik; Berglund, Lars
Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting are two sports that expose the body to great forces. Injury characteristics have not been systematically reviewed for these two growing sports. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding various definitions of injuries used, injury localisation, the prevalence and incidence of injuries and the associated risk factors for injuries in weightlifting and powerlifting. Systematic review. Five databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched between 9 March and 6 April 2015. Studies assessing injury incidence and prevalence in Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting were included. The Quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess methodological quality. 9 studies were included in the review. Injury was defined fairly consistently across studies. Most studies were of low methodological quality. The spine, shoulder and the knee were the most common injury localisations in both sports. The injury incidence in weightlifting was 2.4-3.3 injuries/1000 hours of training and 1.0-4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training in powerlifting. Only one retrospective study had analysed possible risk factors. The risk of injury in both sports were similar to other non-contact sports also requiring strength/power, but low compared to contact sports. The severity of injuries differed in the included studies. Since little has been studied regarding possible risk factors to injuries, further research is therefore warranted to explain why athletes get injured and how to prevent injuries. PROSPERO CRD42015014805. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Chorba, Rita S; Chorba, David J; Bouillon, Lucinda E; Overmyer, Corey A; Landis, James A
Athletes often utilize compensatory movement strategies to achieve high performance. However, these inefficient movement strategies may reinforce poor biomechanical movement patterns during typical activities, resulting in injury. This study sought to determine if compensatory movement patterns predispose female collegiate athletes to injury, and if a functional movement screening (FMS™) tool can be used to predict injuries in this population. Scores on the FMS™, comprised of seven movement tests, were calculated for 38 NCAA Division II female collegiate athletes before the start of their respective fall and winter sport seasons (soccer, volleyball, and basketball). Seven athletes reported a previous history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Injuries sustained while participating in sport activities were recorded throughout the seasons. The mean FMS™ score and standard deviation for all subjects was 14.3±1.77 (maximum score of 21). Eighteen injuries (17 lower extremity, 1 lower back) were recorded during this study. A score of 14/21 or less was significantly associated with injury (P=0.0496). Sixty-nine percent of athletes scoring 14 or less sustained an injury. Odds ratios were 3.85 with inclusion of all subjects, and 4.58 with exclusion of ACLR subjects. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.58 and 0.74 for all subjects, respectively. A significant correlation was found between low-scoring athletes and injury (P=0.0214, r=0.76). A score of 14 or less on the FMS™ tool resulted in a 4-fold increase in risk of lower extremity injury in female collegiate athletes participating in fall and winter sports. The screening tool was able to predict injury in female athletes without a history of major musculoskeletal injury such as ACLR. Compensatory fundamental movement patterns can increase the risk of injury in female collegiate athletes, and can be identified by using a functional movement screening tool.
Howell, David R; Lynall, Robert C; Buckley, Thomas A; Herman, Daniel C
An emerging area of research has identified that an increased risk of musculoskeletal injury may exist upon returning to sports after a sport-related concussion. The mechanisms underlying this recently discovered phenomenon, however, remain unknown. One theorized reason for this increased injury risk includes residual neuromuscular control deficits that remain impaired despite clinical recovery. Thus, the objectives of this review were: (1) to summarize the literature examining the relationship between concussion and risk of subsequent injury and (2) to summarize the literature for one mechanism with a theorized association with this increased injury risk, i.e., neuromuscular control deficits observed during gait after concussion under dual-task conditions. Two separate reviews were conducted consistent with both specified objectives. Studies published before 9 December, 2016 were identified using PubMed, Web of Science, and Academic Search Premier (EBSCOhost). Inclusion for the objective 1 search included dependent variables of quantitative measurements of musculoskeletal injury after concussion. Inclusion criteria for the objective 2 search included dependent variables pertaining to gait, dynamic balance control, and dual-task function. A total of 32 studies were included in the two reviews (objective 1 n = 10, objective 2 n = 22). According to a variety of study designs, athletes appear to have an increased risk of sustaining a musculoskeletal injury following a concussion. Furthermore, dual-task neuromuscular control deficits may continue to exist after patients report resolution of concussion symptoms, or perform normally on other clinical concussion tests. Therefore, musculoskeletal injury risk appears to increase following a concussion and persistent motor system and attentional deficits also seem to exist after a concussion. While not yet experimentally tested, these motor system and attentional deficits may contribute to the risk of sustaining a
Luiggi, Maxime; Rindler, Victoria; Griffet, Jean
Sport practice is a key factor in a person's physical and mental health but, for adolescent athletes, some injuries lead to health problems in the long term. The literature provides multiple factors for understanding injury but does not give information about injury risk related to each level of play in a large sample of multisport athletes. This study investigates this relationship in 14- to 19-year-old adolescents. The survey on adolescents and health was conducted in classrooms of France, from February to March 2015. Only sports players were included in the analyses (n = 986). The levels of play were divided into five categories: outside of a club/no competition, club player/no competition, club player/local level, club player/state level and club player/national and higher level. A three-step binary logistic regression analysis with age, sex, type of sport, weekly hours of exposure, and level of play was used. During the past year, 48.1% of the adolescents were injured. Age and sex were not risk factors. The injury risk associated with the increases in level of play is higher than those related to the hours of exposure per week or the type of sport. In clubs, adolescents who do not compete or play at a local level showed no evidence of greater injury risk whereas state-level and national- and higher-level athletes were at greater risk than outside-of-club players (OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.13-3.94 and OR = 3.89, 95%CI = 2.07-7.31, respectively). Adolescents who play sports in clubs are clearly more exposed to injury than those who play outside of a club, mainly from state level. Age and sex are not related to injury. Future epidemiological studies should control adolescents' level of play. Special attention should be accorded to the injury risk of athletes playing at these levels of competition.
Zhang, Hui; Kong, Xiang-qing; Cheng, Cong; Liang, Mao-hua
To study the prevalence of chondromalacia patella among college students and the correlation with sports injury. 354 students from gymnastic department and 429 from nongymnastic department with knee joint pain were selected. 184 students from gymnastic department and 342 from nongymnastic department were checked randomly by a surgeon. 77 patients (37 males, 40 females) from gymnastic department and 119 patients (62 males, 57 females) from nongymnastic department were diagnosed as chondromalacia patellae. The amount of exercise and the occurrence of sports injury were investigated in each student. All data were analyzed with SPSS 10.0 statistical software. The prevalence of chondromalacia patella was 20.1% in female students and 11.6% in male students from gymnastic department, and 5.61% in female students and 4.92% in male students from nongymnastic department. The amount of exercise and the occurrence of sports injury to the knee joint in students from gymnastic department were greater than those from nongymnastic department. In both female and male students, the prevalence of chondromalacia patella is higher in gymnastic department than nongymnastic department. Sports injury is an important cause of chondromalacia patella.
Theisen, Daniel; Malisoux, Laurent; Genin, Joakim; Delattre, Nicolas; Seil, Romain; Urhausen, Axel
In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, we tested if leisure-time runners using shoes with less compliant midsoles have a higher running-related injury (RRI) risk. We provided 247 runners with standard running shoes having either a soft study shoes (soft-SS) or a hard study shoes (hard-SS) midsole and followed them prospectively for 5 months regarding RRI. All information about sports practice and injuries was uploaded on a dedicated internet platform and checked for consistency and completeness. RRI was defined as any first-time pain sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding normal running activity for at least 1 day. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to identify RRI risk factors. The type of study shoes used for running was not associated with RRIs (HR=0.92; 95% CI 0.57 to 1.48). The hard-SS had a 15% greater overall stiffness in the heel region. The two study groups were similar regarding personal and sports participation characteristics, except for years of running experience, which was higher (prunning. No between-group differences were found regarding injury location, type, severity or category. Nevertheless, the adjusted regression model revealed positive associations with RRI risk for body mass index (HR=1.126; 95% CI 1.033 to 1.227), previous injury (HR=1.735; 95% CI 1.037 to 2.902) and mean session intensity (HR=1.396; 95% CI 1.040 to 1.874). Protective factors were previous regular running activity (HR=0.422; 95% CI 0.228 to 0.779) and weekly volume of other sports activities (HR=0.702; 95% CI 0.561 to 0.879). Midsole hardness of modern cushioned running shoes does not seem to influence RRI risk.
Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A.; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T.; Dettori, Joseph R.
Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby (n = 10), American football (n = 3), and Irish hurling (n = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport. PMID:27781193
Hutton, Michael James; McGuire, Robert A; Dunn, Robert; Williams, Richard; Robertson, Peter; Twaddle, Bruce; Kiely, Patrick; Clarke, Andrew; Mazda, Keyvan; Davies, Paul; Pagarigan, Krystle T; Dettori, Joseph R
Study Design Systematic review. Objectives To determine the incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries (CCSIs) among elite athletes participating in contact team sports and whether the incidence varies depending on the use of protective gear or by player position. Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles published from January 1, 2000, to January 29, 2016, were searched. Results Fourteen studies were included that reported CCSI in rugby ( n = 10), American football ( n = 3), and Irish hurling ( n = 1). Among Rugby Union players, incidence of CCSI was 4.1 per 100,000 player-hours. Among National Football League players, the CCSI rate was 0.6 per 100,000 player-exposures. At the collegiate level, the CCSI rate ranged from 1.1 to 4.7 per 100,000 player-years. Mixed populations of elite and recreational rugby players in four studies report a CCSI rate of 1.4 to 7.2 per 100,000 player-years. In this same population, the scrum accounted for 30 to 51% of total reported CCSIs in Rugby Union versus 0 to 4% in Rugby League. The tackle accounted for 29 to 39% of injuries in Rugby Union and 78 to 100% of injuries in Rugby League. Making a tackle was responsible for 29 to 80% of injuries in American football. Conclusion CCSIs are infrequent among elite athletes. There is insufficient evidence to determine the effect of protective gear (e.g., helmets, padding) on CCSI incidence. Scrum and tackle in rugby and tackling in American football account for the majority of CCSIs in each respective sport.
Wong-On, Manuel; Til-Pérez, Lluís; Balius, Ramón
A combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with real-time high-resolution ultrasound (US) known as fusion imaging may improve visualization of musculoskeletal (MSK) sports medicine injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of MRI-US fusion technology in MSK sports medicine. This study was conducted by the medical services of the FC Barcelona. The participants included volunteers and referred athletes with symptomatic and asymptomatic MSK injuries. All cases underwent MRI which was loaded into the US system for manual registration on the live US image and fusion imaging examination. After every test, an evaluation form was completed in terms of advantages, disadvantages, and anatomic fusion landmarks. From November 2014 to March 2015, we evaluated 20 subjects who underwent fusion imaging, 5 non-injured volunteers and 15 injured athletes, 11 symptomatic and 4 asymptomatic, age range 16-50 years, mean 22. We describe some of the anatomic landmarks used to guide fusion in different regions. This technology allowed us to examine muscle and tendon injuries simultaneously in US and MRI, and the correlation of both techniques, especially low-grade muscular injuries. This has also helped compensate for the limited field of view with US. It improves spatial orientation of cartilage, labrum and meniscal injuries. However, a high-quality MRI image is essential in achieving an adequate fusion image, and 3D sequences need to be added in MRI protocols to improve navigation. The combination of real-time MRI and US image fusion and navigation is relatively easy to perform and is helping to improve understanding of MSK injuries. However, it requires specific skills in MSK imaging and still needs further research in sports-related injuries. Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation.
Reinberg, Alain; Reinberg, Olivier; Mechkouri, Mohamed; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H
Details of serious injuries to children ≤16 yrs. of age that necessitated urgent surgical intervention by the Department of Pediatric Surgery of the University Hospital of Lausanne, Switzerland were recorded into a database registry. Some 15 110 entries listed the precise time of injury, and 3114 (20.6%) of these resulted from participating in sport-associated activities. Time-of-day, day-of-week and month-of-year differences in the total number of children's accidental sport injuries (CASI) were validated. Time-of-day patterns were substantiated for "All Sports", for both boys and girls 5-16 yrs. of age, with more boys than girls experiencing incidents at almost every clock hour. Moreover, they were substantiated for this age group for each of the six different considered individual and team CASI categories - Physical Exercises at School; Bicycle Riding; Roller Skating and Skateboarding; Snow Skiing, Sledding, and Tobogganing; Soccer; and Basketball - for which sample sizes were sufficiently large (n > 230) to perform statistical assessment by ANOVA, t-test and/or cosinor analyses. CASI happened primarily between 06:00 and 17:00 h and rarely evening or overnight. Features - specific clock-time and number of peaks and troughs - of the CASI daily curve pattern of the individual six sport categories differed somewhat; nonetheless, excess or greatest number of CASI typically happened between 12:00 and 14:00 h, even when summertime and other scheduled school and family vacation periods were taken into account. Time-of-day and day-of-week patterns in the boy/girl sex ratio were also validated, with midday and Friday/Saturday peaks, respectively. We hypothesize the prominent 24 h patterns of CASI of 5-16 yr. olds, in particular, are representative of a combination of several determinants. These include exogenous periodic and cyclic environmental and sociocultural phenomena, genetic sex-related traits, plus endogenous circadian cognitive and physiologic rhythms
Kingma, J; ten Duis, HJ
This study is about the incidence rate of sports injuries in five different types of sports, gymnastics, soccer, volleyball, hockey, and basketball, for which 5,154 patients were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Groningen University Hospital during the period 1990 through 1994. Incidence rate
Full Text Available Introduction: For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim: To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods: A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5–24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results: LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%. The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p0.05. The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion: LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP.
Triki, Moez; Koubaa, Abdessalem; Masmoudi, Liwa; Fellmann, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair
Introduction : For obvious reasons, athletes are at greater risk of sustaining a lumber (lower) spine injury due to physical activity. To our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) in a Tunisian sports and physical education institute. Aim : To assess the prevalence of LBP in different sports among students studying in a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia, to determine the causes of the injuries, and to propose solutions. Methods : A total of 3,379 boys and 2,579 girls were studied. A retrospective cross-sectional survey was conducted on a group of students aged 18.5-24.5 years at the Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax to estimate the prevalence of LBP and its relation to the type of sports. Data on age, weight, height, smoking, and the sport in which the student was injured in the low back were collected from the institute health service records from 2005 until 2013. Results : LBP was reported by 879 of the 5,958 study participants (14.8%). The prevalence of LBP was significantly higher (p0.05). The sports associated with the higher rates of LBP were gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball, followed by basketball and athletics. Conclusion : LBP is frequent among undergraduate students of a sports and physical education institute in Tunisia. It is strongly associated with fatigue after the long periods of training in different sports. Gymnastics, judo, handball, and volleyball were identified as high-risk sports for causing LBP.
Hulme, Adam; Finch, Caroline F
The science of sports injury control, including both its cause and prevention, has largely been informed by a biomedical and mechanistic model of health. Traditional scientific practice in sports injury research has routinely involved collapsing the broader socioecological landscape down in order to analyse individual-level determinants of injury - whether biomechanical and/or behavioural. This approach has made key gains for sports injury prevention research and should be further encouraged and allowed to evolve naturally. However, the public health, Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, and injury epidemiological literature more broadly, has accepted the value of a socioecological paradigm for better understanding disease and injury processes, and sports injury research will fall further behind unless it does the same. A complementary and alternative conceptual approach towards injury control known as systems thinking that builds on socioecological science, both methodologically and analytically, is readily available and fast developing in other research areas. This review outlines the historical progression of causal concepts in the field of epidemiology over the course of the modern scientific era. From here, causal concepts in injury epidemiology, and models of aetiology as found in the context of sports injury research are presented. The paper finishes by proposing a new research agenda that considers the potential for a systems thinking approach to further enhance sports injury aetiological understanding. A complementary systems paradigm, however, will require that sports injury epidemiologists bring their knowledge and skillsets forwards in an attempt to use, adapt, and even refine existing systems-based approaches. Alongside the natural development of conventional scientific methodologies and analyses in sports injury research, progressing forwards to a systems paradigm is now required.
Malisoux, L; Ramesh, J; Mann, R; Seil, R; Urhausen, A; Theisen, D
The aim of this study was to determine if runners who use concomitantly different pairs of running shoes are at a lower risk of running-related injury (RRI). Recreational runners (n = 264) participated in this 22-week prospective follow-up and reported all information about their running session characteristics, other sport participation and injuries on a dedicated Internet platform. A RRI was defined as a physical pain or complaint located at the lower limbs or lower back region, sustained during or as a result of running practice and impeding planned running activity for at least 1 day. One-third of the participants (n = 87) experienced at least one RRI during the observation period. The adjusted Cox regression analysis revealed that the parallel use of more than one pair of running shoes was a protective factor [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.614; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.389-0.969], while previous injury was a risk factor (HR = 1.722; 95%CI = 1.114-2.661). Additionally, increased mean session distance (km; HR = 0.795; 95%CI = 0.725-0.872) and increased weekly volume of other sports (h/week; HR = 0.848; 95%CI = 0.732-0.982) were associated with lower RRI risk. Multiple shoe use and participation in other sports are strategies potentially leading to a variation of the load applied to the musculoskeletal system. They could be advised to recreational runners to prevent RRI. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Steffen, Kathrin; Moseid, Christine Holm; Engebretsen, Lars; Søberg, Pia K; Amundsen, Olav; Holm, Kristian; Moger, Thomas; Soligard, Torbjørn
Injury and illness surveillance during high-level youth sports events is an important first step in health prevention and caretaking of the young elite athletes. To analyse injuries and illnesses that occurred during the 10 days 2nd Youth Olympic Winter Games (YOG), held in Lillehammer 2016. We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses through the reporting of (1) all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) the polyclinic and medical venues by the Lillehammer Organising Committee (LYOCOG) medical staff. In total, 1083 athletes (48 double-starters), 46% (n=502) of them females, from 70 NOCs were registered in the study. NOCs and LYOCOG reported 108 injuries and 81 illnesses, equalling to 9.5 injuries and 7.2 illnesses per 100 athletes. The percentage of injured athletes was highest in the snowboard and ski slopestyle and cross disciplines, alpine skiing and skeleton, and lowest in the Nordic skiing disciplines. Approximately, two-thirds of the injuries (n=71, 65.7%) prevented the athlete from training or competition, while 10 injuries (9.3%) were registered with an estimated absence from sport for >7 days. The rate of illness was highest in curling and the Nordic skiing disciplines with most of them being respiratory tract infections (81.5%). Overall, 9% of the athletes incurred at least one injury during the games, and 7% an illness, which is similar to the first YOG in Innsbruck 2012 and slightly lower compared with previous Winter Olympic Games. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Ye, C; Sun, T; Li, J; Zhang, F
Retrospective study. To determine the characteristics of sports- and recreation-related (SR-related) spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in Beijing. Beijing, China. A review of the complete medical records of 57 consecutive SR-related SCI patients referred to four general hospitals and two rehabilitation institutions was carried out. Patients were injured between 1993 and 2006. The variables studied included demography, sports and recreation characteristics, diagnoses and outcome. There were 44 males and 13 females with a ratio of 3.3:1. The mean age was 24.49+/-11.92 years. In 37 patients (64.9%), water sports was the single most commont cause. Of them, injury because of diving was seen in 34, which constituted 59.6% of the total. Other types of sports and recreation accounted for 35.1%. Level of cord lesion was cervical in 89.5% and thoracic in 10.5% of the injured. The lesion of C4 alone constituted 45.6% of the total. The ratio of complete to incomplete lesion was 1.2:1. In all, two patients died, and one with an injury at the C4 level recovered completely. Of the other 54 survivals, 48 (89%) remained tetraplegic and six remained paraplegic (11%). The main underlying cause was the lack of safety awareness, safety regulations and their implementation. SR-related SCI was most commonly seen among young male adults, predominantly as a result of diving accidents. There was a significant increase in sports injuries, other than those caused by diving, in later years. Successful prevention programs of other countries are being adopted in Beijing in recent years, hence an improvement in safety is expected in the years to come. This work was sponsored by Funding Project for Academic Human Resources Development in Institutions of Higher Learning Under the Jurisdiction of Beijing Municipality(2007) and Funding Project for Science and Technology Development of Beijing Municipality(km200710029003).
Valle, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Garrett, William E; Pruna, Ricard; Til, Lluís; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Alomar, Xavier; Balius, Ramón; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Monllau, Joan Carles; Whiteley, Rodney; Witvrouw, Erik; Samuelsson, Kristian; Rodas, Gil
Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is essential for a full understanding of the injury and to optimize its management and return-to-play process. The ongoing failure to establish a classification system with broad acceptance has resulted from factors such as limited clinical applicability, and the inclusion of subjective findings and ambiguous terminology. The purpose of this article was to describe a classification system for muscle injuries with easy clinical application, adequate grouping of injuries with similar functional impairment, and potential prognostic value. This evidence-informed and expert consensus-based classification system for muscle injuries is based on a four-letter initialism system: MLG-R, respectively referring to the mechanism of injury (M), location of injury (L), grading of severity (G), and number of muscle re-injuries (R). The goal of the classification is to enhance communication between healthcare and sports-related professionals and facilitate rehabilitation and return-to-play decision making.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria
Background Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improvi...
van Seters, Christine; van Rijn, Rogier M; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Stubbe, Janine H
To determine whether student characteristics, lower-extremity kinematics, and strength are risk factors for sustaining lower-extremity injuries in preprofessional contemporary dancers. Prospective cohort study. Codarts University of the Arts. Forty-five first-year students of Bachelor Dance and Bachelor Dance Teacher. At the beginning of the academic year, the injury history (only lower-extremity) and student characteristics (age, sex, educational program) were assessed using a questionnaire. Besides, lower-extremity kinematics [single-leg squat (SLS)], strength (countermovement jump) and height and weight (body mass index) were measured during a physical performance test. Substantial lower-extremity injuries during the academic year were defined as any problems leading to moderate or severe reductions in training volume or in performance, or complete inability to participate in dance at least once during follow-up as measured with the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC) Questionnaire on Health Problems. Injuries were recorded on a monthly basis using a questionnaire. Analyses on leg-level were performed using generalized estimating equations to test the associations between substantial lower-extremity injuries and potential risk factors. The 1-year incidence of lower-extremity injuries was 82.2%. Of these, 51.4% was a substantial lower-extremity injury. Multivariate analyses identified that ankle dorsiflexion during the SLS (OR 1.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.52) was a risk factor for a substantial lower-extremity injury. The findings indicate that contemporary dance students are at high risk for lower-extremity injuries. Therefore, the identified risk factor (ankle dorsiflexion) should be considered for prevention purposes.
Drury, Benjamin Todd; Lehman, Thomas P; Rayan, Ghazi
Hand and wrist injuries in martial arts are typically a reflection of the combat nature of this discipline. In striking sports, the axial load mechanism of injury is common and causes fractures and dislocations; in grappling sports, sprain injuries and degenerative changes predominate. There is clear evidence to support that hand protection reduces the risk of hand injury. Traditional training in martial arts on proper technique and target selection in striking sports reduces the risk of hand injury, and is an important component of hand and wrist injury prevention. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Judy C. Kelly
Full Text Available Over the past forty years, a tremendous amount of information has been gained on the mechanisms and consequences of mild traumatic brain injuries. Using sports as a laboratory to study this phenomenon, a natural recovery curve emerged, along with standards for managing concussions and returning athletes back to play. Although advances have been made in this area, investigation into recovery and return to play continues. With the increase in combat-related traumatic brain injuries in the military setting, lessons learned from sports concussion research are being applied by the Department of Defense to the assessment of blast concussions and return to duty decision making. Concussion management and treatment for military personnel can be complicated by additional combat related stressors not present in the civilian environment. Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the interventions that has been successful in treating symptoms of postconcussion syndrome. While we are beginning to have an understanding of the impact of multiple concussions and subconcussive blows in the sports world, much is still unknown about the impact of multiple blast injuries.
Adler, D; Majerle, S; Schmidt, M; von Salis-Soglio, G
Asian martial arts became very popular in Germany during the last years, nevertheless there are only few clinical inquiries concerning sportorthopaedic or -traumatological aspects. In this study we analyzed the risk and the prevalence of sport-injuries and sport-damages in Aikidô and Ving Tsun. 19 Aicidôca and 24 Ving Tsun athletes were to undergo broad survey and sport-orthopedic inspection. In this process an especially adapted examination-sheet after Baumann was used. 68.4 % of the Aikidoca and 79.2 % of the Ving Tsun athletes reported injuries, whereupon soft injuries dominated, severe injuries like luxations, ligamental und muscular ruptures appeared infrequently, the incidence of fractures was 1 % resp. 0.2 %. 37 % resp. 33.3 % of all injuries where related to the lower limb, 14.8 % resp. 16.7 % to the head and neck. Disorders dominated with 60 % resp. 50 % in the range of the knees. Persistent sport-damages could not be found in the clinical examinations. There is even just a low risk for severe sport-injuries and sport-damages while intensely practicing martial arts Aikidô and Ving Tsun for years. In the range of prevention the consequent use of protective gear (specificly bump cap and footwear) is important. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
Sport participation is a common occupation for many children and youth and can lead to improved physical and psychosocial health. Despite these benefits, it exposes children and youth to the increased risk of injury. Concussion, also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is one of the most common sports injuries reported in the…
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Sobhani, S.; Dekker, R.; Postema, K.; Dijkstra, P. U.
Studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries are quite diverse in research methodology, data reporting, and outcomes. The aims of this systematic review were to analyze the methodology of published studies regarding ankle and foot overuse injuries in different sports disciplines and to
Capovilla, Giuseppe; Kaufman, Kenneth R; Perucca, Emilio; Moshé, Solomon L; Arida, Ricardo M
People with epilepsy (PWEs) are often advised against participating in sports and exercise, mostly because of fear, overprotection, and ignorance about the specific benefits and risks associated with such activities. Available evidence suggests that physical exercise and active participation in sports may favorably affect seizure control, in addition to producing broader health and psychosocial benefits. This consensus paper prepared by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy offers general guidance concerning participation of PWEs in sport activities, and provides suggestions on the issuance of medical fitness certificates related to involvement in different sports. Sports are divided into three categories based on potential risk of injury or death should a seizure occur: group 1, sports with no significant additional risk; group 2, sports with moderate risk to PWEs, but no risk to bystanders; and group 3, sports with major risk. Factors to be considered when advising whether a PWE can participate in specific activities include the type of sport, the probability of a seizure occurring, the type and severity of the seizures, seizure precipitating factors, the usual timing of seizure occurrence, and the person's attitude in accepting some level of risk. The Task Force on Sports and Epilepsy considers this document as a work in progress to be updated as additional data become available. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.
It poses questions for sports physicians, healthcare providers, educators and for governing bodies of sports to address in a systematic fashion. Additionally the governing body, as an employer, will need to meet the requirements for risk assessment for professional sport and its ethical responsibility to the athlete.
Orchard, John; Rae, Katherine; Brooks, John; Hägglund, Martin; Til, Lluis; Wales, David; Wood, Tim
The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is one of the world’s most commonly used systems for coding injury diagnoses in sports injury surveillance systems. Its major strengths are that it has wide usage, has codes specific to sports medicine and that it is free to use. Literature searches and stakeholder consultations were made to assess the uptake of OSICS and to develop new versions. OSICS was commonly used in the sports of football (soccer), Australian football, rugby union, cricket and tennis. It is referenced in international papers in three sports and used in four commercially available computerised injury management systems. Suggested injury categories for the major sports are presented. New versions OSICS 9 (three digit codes) and OSICS 10.1 (four digit codes) are presented. OSICS is a potentially helpful component of a comprehensive sports injury surveillance system, but many other components are required. Choices made in developing these components should ideally be agreed upon by groups of researchers in consensus statements. PMID:24198559
Roessler, K K; Andersen, T E; Lohmander, S; Roos, E M
Aim of the study was to access how individual's motives for participation in sports impact on self-reported outcomes 2 years after an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Based on a longitudinal cohort study, this secondary analysis present data from the Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Nonsurgical versus Surgical Treatment (KANON) study, a randomized controlled trial. At baseline, 121 patients recorded in an initial questionnaire that their motives for sports participation fell into four categories: achievement, health, social integration, or fun and well-being. These four categories were used as variables in the analyses. All 121 subjects completed the 2-year follow-up. The largest improvement was seen in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscale sports and recreation function, with an effect size of 2.43. KOOS sports and recreation function was also the subscale score best predicted by the motives for sports participation. Baseline motives achievement and fun and well-being predicted worse levels of pain and function 2 years after the injury, even after adjusting for age, gender, treatment and baseline scores. Psychological aspects, such as motives for participation in sport, can be factors in predicting of patient-reported outcomes 2 years after injury. Evaluating motives for sports participation may help predict the outcome 2 years after ACL injury. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Clarsen, B.; Bahr, R.; Heymans, M.W.; Engedahl, M.; Midtsundstad, G.; Rosenlund, L.; Thorsen, G.; Myklebust, G.
Little is known about the true extent and severity of overuse injuries in sport, largely because of methodological challenges involved in recording them. This study assessed the prevalence of overuse injuries among Norwegian athletes from five sports using a newly developed method designed
Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K (Dept. of Radiology, Toeoeloe Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved
Bensch, Frank V; Koivikko, Mika P; Koskinen, Seppo K
Background. Sports and recreational accidents involving critical areas of the body occur commonly in the general population. Reports on their demographics and recommendations for screening procedures are, however, few. Purpose. To assess injuries of the craniofacial area, spine, and torso resulting from sports and recreational accidents with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as primary imaging method in a Level I trauma center. Material and Methods. All emergency room CT requests over a time span of 105 months were reviewed retrospectively for trauma mechanism and injury. Patients were identified using an electronic picture archiving and communications system (PACS), and MDCT studies interpreted by two radiologists independently. Results. Of a total of 5898 patients, 492 patients (301 boys/men, 191 girls/women, age range 2-76 years, mean 33.5 years, median 29.5 years) with sports or recreational accidents emerged. A total of 102 traumatic findings were diagnosed, thereof 72 (71%) serious. The three most commonly encountered serious injuries were intracranial injury, fractures of facial bones, and vertebral injuries. The three most common injury mechanisms were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. Patients from recreational activities were on average significantly younger (29.2 years) than those from sports accidents (36.9 years; P < 0.001). Only age groups <21 years and 41-50 years differed in injury severity from the other age groups (P = 0.004 and P = 0.063, respectively). Of all trauma mechanisms, only bicycling had a significantly increased risk of injury (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Injuries in sports and recreational accidents presented with an overall incidence of 21%, of which 71% are serious. The most common mechanisms of injury were bicycling, horseback riding, and team ball sports. The largest incidence of serious injury involved bicycling. Because of the high probability of a serious injury and the high energies that are often involved
Corticosteroids act as potent anti-inflammatory drugs and have been used in various sport settings for the treatment of both acute and chronic injuries. Basic physiology and mechanisms of action for gluco- and mineralocorticoids are discussed. Methods of administration, the action on the inflammatory response, and ...
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to report the current state of Korean medicine (KM treatment on sports injury by implementing survey with volleyball team medical doctors participating in 2013-2014 season. Six KM doctors completed a questionnaire that includes injury parameters: type, location, situation, and pain scores. We collected 166 injury cases from 94 Korean male and female national volleyball players. Knee (25.9%, low back (13.3%, elbow, and ankle (8.4% injuries were most common. Joint (41.6% and muscle (30.7% were major injured tissues. KM team medical doctors utilized acupuncture (40.4%, chuna manual therapy (16.0%, physical therapy (15.2%, taping (9.0%, and cupping (7.8% to treat volleyball injuries. Any types of medications were used infrequently. Additional physical and exercise therapy were preferred after receiving acupuncture (both 46.9%. This study presented the preliminary injury profile of Korean elite volleyball players. Injury and treatment parameters could be useful to build advanced KM model in sport medicine.
... your knee is bent also can cause this injury. Risk factors Being in a motor vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors for a PCL injury. Complications In ...
van Wilgen, Cornelis P.; Keizer, Doeke
Objective. The pathophysiology of chronic sports injuries such as overuse or tendinopathy remains largely unknown. With this exploratory study, we aim to detect signs of sensitization of the nervous system. Sensitization is an indication of the involvement of neuropathic mechanisms in patients with
Best, Thomas M; Caplan, Arnold; Coleman, Michael; Goodrich, Laurie; Hurd, Jason; Kaplan, Lee D; Noonan, Ben; Schoettle, Philip; Scott, Christopher; Stiene, Henry; Huard, Johnny
In August 2016, a group including sport medicine clinicians, researchers, and a bioethicist met in Vail, Colorado to discuss regenerative medicine and its potential role in youth sports injuries. There was consensus that a call to action is urgently needed to understand the current evidence base, the risks and rewards, and future directions of research and clinical practice for regenerative medicine therapies in youth sports. We present here a summary of our meeting, which was supported by the National Youth Sports Health and Safety Institute (NYSHSI), a partnership between the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) and Sanford Health. The group's goal is to educate practitioners and the public, and to pioneer a means of accumulating meaningful clinical data on regenerative medicine therapies in pediatric and adolescent athletes.
Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne
Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.
Buckley, Patrick S.; Bishop, Meghan; Kane, Patrick; Ciccotti, Michael C.; Selverian, Stephen; Exume, Dominique; Emper, William D.; Freedman, Kevin B.; Hammoud, Sommer; Cohen, Steven B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.
Objectives: Youth participation in organized sports in the United States is rising, with many athletes focusing on a single sport at an increasingly younger age. There is considerable debate regarding the rationale, optimal timing, injury risk, and the psychosocial health of a young athlete specializing early in a single sport. The purpose of our study was to compare youth single sport specialization in high school (HS), collegiate, and professional athletes with respect to the age of special...
Mirsafaei Rizi, Rezvan; Yeung, Simon S; Stewart, Nathan J; Yeung, Ella W
To investigate injury incidence and the influence of physical fitness parameters on the risk of severe injuries in players on rugby sevens university teams. Prospective cohort study. Rugby players from three universities (N=104; 90M:14F; 20.6±1.9years) were recruited before the beginning of the season. Players underwent pre-season assessments of power, strength, speed, agility, endurance, stability, and flexibility. Throughout the season, rugby-related injury and exposure data were collected. Potential predictor variables were analyzed using Cox proportional regression model to identify risk factors associated with severe injuries (time loss>28days). Thirty-one injuries occurred during the rugby season. The match and training injury incidence rates were 59.3 injuries and 3.3 injuries per 1000 player-hours, respectively. Lower limb injuries were most common and most severe. The ankle joint was the most prevalent site of injury, and ligamentous injury was most common (48.4%). Nine severe injuries were sustained resulting in an average time loss of 51.3±14.6days. Female (hazard ratio [HR]=8.35; 95% confidence intervals [CI]=2.01-34.8), slower (HR=3.51; 95% CI=1.17-10.5), and less agile (HR=2.22; 95% CI=1.26-3.92) players as well as those with hip flexors tightness (HR=1.12; 95% CI=1.00-1.25) were at significantly greater risk for sustaining severe injuries. Limited studies are available on risk factors associated with amateur rugby players in the Sevens version. The development of gender-specific injury prevention measures that emphasize speed and agility training, and improve hip flexor extensibility may be important to reduce the risk of severe injuries. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)
Paterson, Anne [Royal Belfast Hospital for Sick Children, Radiology Department, Belfast (United Kingdom)
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics. (orig.)
Soccer is the most popular sport in the world, with FIFA recognising more than 265 million amateur players. Despite the fact that soccer is a contact sport, it is perceived to be relatively safe to play, a factor that has contributed to its status as the fastest growing team sport in the USA. Acute and minor injuries predominate in the statistics, with contusions and abrasions being the most commonly recorded. As would be expected, the majority of soccer injuries are to the lower limbs, with serious truncal and spinal trauma being rare. This article examines the type and anatomic location of injuries sustained by children and adolescents who play soccer, and the main mechanisms whereby such injuries occur. The risk factors underpinning injury occurrence are considered, along with injury avoidance tactics.
Quarrie, Kenneth Lincoln; Brooks, John H M; Burger, Nicholas; Hume, Patria A; Jackson, Steve
A clash of values has been identified between those who assert that:1. all childhood injuries, regardless of origin, are inherently undesirable and should be prevented and;2. those who believe that some measure of injury to children is an acceptable compromise for the physical benefits associated with physical activity and the development of abilities to appraise and deal with risks.A debate regarding whether the tackles and collisions permitted in schools' rugby represent acceptable risks, and what steps should be taken if they do not, exemplifies the issue.Questions regarding the magnitude of injury risks in sport are issues of fact and can be quantified via the results of injury surveillance studies. Risks are neither high nor low in isolation; they are relatively high or low with reference to other activities or across groups participating in an activity. Issues of the acceptability of a given degree of risk are value dependent. Research regarding perceptions of risk reveals wide variations in the degree of risk people view as acceptable. Factors impacting on risk perception include whether the risks are well known and understood, whether they are 'dread' risks and the degree to which people undertake the risks voluntarily and feel they have control over them.Based on the evidence currently available, the risks to children playing rugby do not appear to be inordinately high compared with those in a range of other childhood sports and activities, but better comparative information is urgently needed. Further evidence, however, should not necessarily be expected to result in the resolution of acceptable risk debates-pre-existing values shape our perspectives on whether new evidence is relevant, valid and reliable. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Wadey, Ross; Evans, Lynne; Hanton, Sheldon; Neil, Rich
This qualitative follow-up study aimed to enhance the interpretability and meaningfulness of the findings that emerged from a quantitative study that explored the effect of hardiness on the prediction of, and response to, sport injury (i.e., Wadey, Evans, Hanton, & Neil, 2012). Using theory-based and maximum-variation sampling to contextualize and provide an in-depth understanding of the previous findings, the participants comprised a purposeful sample of 10 athletes from the quantitative study (M age = 21.7; SD= 1.06). Data were derived through semi-structured interviews, and analysed and displayed using composite sequence analysis (Miles & Huberman, 1994). The findings extended Wadey et al.'s (2012) study by identifying the perceived mechanisms by which athletes high and low in hardiness exacerbated or attenuated the impact of pre-injury negative major life events (i.e., a significant predictor of sport injury) and post-injury responses. Specifically, the findings demonstrate that athletes high in hardiness possessed a refined repertoire of problem- and emotion-focused coping strategies that they used pre- and post-injury. Those athletes low in hardiness used avoidance coping strategies that had long-term negative implications. These findings have important implications for the structure, timing, and content of hardiness interventions that aim to reduce rates of injury occurrence and expedite injured athletes' return to competitive sport. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.
Background: Physiotherapists are important members of the sports medicine team and are involved in the prevention and management of injured athletes right from the acute stage of injury to the stage of rehabilitation. However, the type of treatments rendered to injured athletes and level of physiotherapy utilisation in terms ...
Full Text Available At the last World Conference on Sport and Physical Therapy celebrated in Bern (Switzerland, 2015, it was confirmed that the functional skills of an athlete are a very important variable to be considered in the recovery of an injury. On the other hand, its use as a predictive risk tool still lacks solid evidence. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a battery of functional tests (FPT could be used as a preliminary measure for the season in order to identify the injury risk in a professional soccer team in the Spanish Second Division B League. Fifty-two soccer players (ages of 25.3 ± 4.6 years, 10.33% ± 0.9% fat were functionally assessed during two seasons (2012–2013 and 2013–2014 and analyzed from an injury perspective. A total of 125 injuries were recorded. The sample was grouped based on the number of injuries and the required absence days. Except for the bipodal vertical jump (CMJ, none of the functional tests revealed differences among the groups. The correlation study between the functional condition and the suffered injuries did not show any significant results.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries are common presenting complaints to the accident and emergency department. Frequently these are diagnosed as musculoskeletal injuries, even when no definitive cause is found. Vascular injuries following trauma are uncommon and are an extremely rare cause of ankle swelling and pain. These injuries may however be limb threatening and are important to diagnose early, in order that appropriate treatment can be delivered. We highlight the steps to diagnosis of these injuries, and methods of managing these injuries. It is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for this injury in patients with seemingly innocuous trauma from sports injuries, who have significant ankle pain and swelling. Case presentation A young, professional sportsman presented with a swollen, painful ankle after an innocuous hyper-plantar flexion injury whilst playing football, which was initially diagnosed as a ligamentous injury after no bony injury was revealed on X-Ray. He returned 2 days later with a large ulcer at the lateral malleolus and further investigation by duplex ultrasound and transfemoral arteriogram revealed a Pseudo-Aneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery. This was initially managed with percutaneous injection of thrombin, and later open surgery to ligate the feeding vessel. The patient recovered fully and was able to return to recreational sport. Conclusion Vascular injuries remain a rare cause of ankle pain and swelling following sports injuries, however it is important to consider these injuries when no definite musculo-skeletal cause is found. Ultrasound duplex and Transfemoral arteriogram are appropriate, sensitive modalities for investigation, and may allow novel treatment to be directed percutaneously. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential for the successful outcome in these patients.
Full Text Available John Orchard1, Katherine Rae1, John Brooks2, Martin Hägglund3, Lluis Til4, David Wales5, Tim Wood61Sports Medicine at Sydney University, Sydney NSW Australia; 2Rugby Football Union, Twickenham, England, UK; 3Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4FC Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 5Arsenal FC, Highbury, England, UK; 6Tennis Australia, Melbourne, Vic, AustraliaAbstract: The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS is one of the world’s most commonly used systems for coding injury diagnoses in sports injury surveillance systems. Its major strengths are that it has wide usage, has codes specific to sports medicine and that it is free to use. Literature searches and stakeholder consultations were made to assess the uptake of OSICS and to develop new versions. OSICS was commonly used in the sports of football (soccer, Australian football, rugby union, cricket and tennis. It is referenced in international papers in three sports and used in four commercially available computerised injury management systems. Suggested injury categories for the major sports are presented. New versions OSICS 9 (three digit codes and OSICS 10.1 (four digit codes are presented. OSICS is a potentially helpful component of a comprehensive sports injury surveillance system, but many other components are required. Choices made in developing these components should ideally be agreed upon by groups of researchers in consensus statements.Keywords: sports injury classification, epidemiology, surveillance, coding
Carmont, Michael R
Mountain biking is a fast, exciting adventure sport with increasing numbers of participants and competitions. A search of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, DH data, and Embase databases was performed using the following keywords: mountain, biking and injuries. This revealed 2 review articles, 17 case controlled studies, 4 case series and 5 case reports. This review summarises the published literature on mountain biking injuries, discusses injury frequency and common injury mechanisms. Riders are quick to adopt safety measures. Helmet usage is now increasingly common and handlebar adaptations have been discontinued. Although the sport has a reputation for speed and risk with research and awareness, injury prevention measures are being adopted making the sport as safe as possible.
Full Text Available Adae O Amoako,1 Agyenim B Amoako,2 George GA Pujalte3 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USA; 2Department of Family Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences Northwest, Fayetteville, AR, USA; 3Sports Medicine, Divisions of Primary Care, and Orthopedics, Mayo Clinic Health System, Waycross, GA, USA Background and objective: Family physicians are expected to be comfortable in treating common sports injuries. Evidence shows a limited level of comfort in treating these injuries in pediatric and internal medicine residents. Studies are lacking, however, in family medicine residents. The purpose of this study is to assess the comfort level of family medicine residents in treating common sports injuries in adults and children based on their perceived level of knowledge and attitudes. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of family medicine residents in the United Sates. A written survey of 25 questions related to sports injury knowledge and factors affecting comfort level were collected. A chi-square test was implemented in calculating P-values. Results: Five hundred and fifty-seven residents responded to the survey. A higher percentage of doctors of osteopathy (86.6%, 82.5%, 69.6%, and 68.7% compared to doctors of medicine (78.5%, 71.6%, 53.4%, and 52.8% respectively identified ankle sprain, concussion, plantar fasciitis, and lateral epicondylitis as common injuries, and felt comfortable in treating them (P-values =0.015, 0.004, 0.0001, and 0.0002, respectively. Residents with high interest in sports medicine correctly identified the injuries as common and felt comfortable treating them as well (knowledge, P=0.027, 0.0029, <0.0001, and 0.0001, respectively; comfort level, P=0.0016, <0.0001, 0.0897, and 0.0010, respectively. Conclusion: Medical education background, factors that affect training, and an interest in sports medicine contribute to residents' knowledge and comfort
Donnelly, John P; Griffin, Russell Lee; Sathiakumar, Nalini; McGwin, Gerald
This study sought to describe variations in the risk of motor vehicle collision (MVC) injury and death by occupant body mass index (BMI) class and vehicle type. We hypothesized that the relationship between BMI and the risk of MVC injury or mortality would be modified by vehicle type. This is a retrospective cohort study of occupants involved in MVCs using data from the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network and the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Occupants were grouped based on vehicle body style (passenger car, sport utility vehicle, or light truck) and vehicle size (compact or normal, corresponding to below- or above-average curb weight). The relationship between occupant BMI class (underweight, normal weight, overweight, or obese) and risk of injury or mortality was examined for each vehicle type. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for various occupant and collision characteristics were estimated. Of an estimated 44 million occupants of MVCs sampled from 2000 to 2009, 37.1% sustained an injury. We limited our analysis to injuries achieving an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2 or more severe, totaling 17 million injuries. Occupants differed substantially in terms of demographic and collision characteristics. After adjustment for confounding factors, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality caused by MVC (OR, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.0). When stratified by vehicle type, we found that obesity was a risk factor for mortality in larger vehicles, including any-sized light trucks (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.5), normal-sized passenger cars (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and normal-sized sports utility vehicles or vans (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8). Being overweight was a risk factor in any-sized light trucks (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1). We identified a significant interaction between occupant BMI class and vehicle type in terms of MVC-related mortality risk. Both factors should be taken into account when
Resch, Jacob E; Kutcher, Jeffrey S
During the past two decades the focus on sport concussion has increased significantly. Young athletes represent the most vulnerable population to sustain a sport concussion yet receive the least amount of attention. Specifically, young athletes who sustain a sport concussion can go unrecognized and continue to participate in sport putting them at an increased risk for a more significant injury. The purpose of this review is to provide a clinical framework for the evaluation and management of sport concussion. In addition, this review provides considerations for health care professionals in regard to clinical measures and follow-up strategies during the acute phase following concussion in young concussed athletes following injury. © The Author(s) 2015.
Slater, Daniel; Meade, Michelle A
Recreation and sports following Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) are beneficial, but under-studied, aspects of community integration. Previous studies have shown that sports and recreation can offer numerous physiological and psychological benefits to those who participate. This manuscript critically reviews available literature focused upon participation in recreation and sports among persons with SCI. Issues of participation, technology and safety are discussed and recommendations are provided.
Amir Ali Narvani
Full Text Available Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1 Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2 Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3 Drugs in sport, 4 Exercise and health promotion, 5 Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6 The psychology of performance and injury. PURPOSE The Key Topics format provides extensive, concise information in an accessible, easy-to-follow manner. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the students and specialists in sports medicine and rehabilitation, athletic training, physiotherapy and orthopaedic surgery. The editors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depends on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book contains the information for clinical guidance, rapid access to concise details and facts. It is composed of 99 topics which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Functional Anatomy, 2. Training Principles / Development of Strength and Power, 3. Biomechanical Principles, 4. Biomechanical Analysis, 5. Physiology of Training, 6. Monitoring of Training Progress, 7. Nutrition, 8. Hot and Cold Climates, 9. Altitude, 10. Sport and Travelling, 11. Principles of Sport Injury Diagnosis, 12. Principles of Sport and Soft Tissue Management, 13. Principles of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation, 14. Principles of Sport Injury Prevention, 15. Sports Psychology, 16. Team Sports, 17. Psychological Aspects of Injury in Sport, 18. Injury Repair Process, 19. Basic Biomechanics of Tissue Injury, 20. Plain Film Radiography in Sport, 21. Nuclear Medicine, 22. Diagnostic Ultrasound, 23. MRI Scan, 24. Other Imaging, 5. Head Injury, 26. Eye
Hochmuth, K. [Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik, Stiftung Friedrichsheim der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mack, M.G.; Vogl, T.J. [Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kurth, A.A.; Zichner, L. [Orthopaedische Universitaetsklinik, Stiftung Friedrichsheim der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
Different sports show different patterns and frequencies of injuries, which are discussed in this paper. About 3% of all sports accidents relate to the spine. These injuries often have far-reaching consequences for the patients. A very early and extensive diagnosis of all changes is decisive for the start of an adequate therapy and thus for the prognosis of the injury. Radiological diagnosis is also of decisive importance for the documentation of late injuries and in the question of rehabilitation. Here special focus is put on MRT and CT diagnostics.A healthy spine of humans is normally able to resist all static and dynamic strains of the usual sports. However, anomalies and dysfunctions of the spine can reduce its capacity to resist strain. The recommendations of sporting activities are given according to the extent of deflection and the expected growth. The importance of radiology in primary diagnosis and in the follow-up due to typical changes like scoliosis, Morbus Scheuerman, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis is discussed here as well. (orig.) [German] Die verschiedenen Sportarten weisen unterschiedliche Verletzungshaeufigkeiten und -muster auf, die im Rahmen dieser Uebersichtsarbeit diskutiert werden sollen. Circa 3% der Sportunfaelle betreffen die Wirbelsaeule. Diese Verletzungen sind haeufig von besonderer Tragweite fuer den Patienten. Eine fruehestmoegliche und umfassende Diagnose aller Veraenderungen ist dabei entscheidend fuer die Einleitung einer adaequaten Therapie und somit fuer die Prognose der Verletzung. Auch in der Dokumentation von Spaetschaeden und in der Frage der Rehabilitation kommt der radiologischen Diagnostik eine entscheidende Bedeutung zu. Ein besonderer Fokus wird dabei auf die Magnetresonanztomographie-(MRT-)und Computertomographie-(CT-)Diagnostik gelegt.Die gesunde Wirbelsaeule des Menschen ist in der Regel allen statischen und dynamischen Belastungen der ueblichen Sportarten gewachsen. Formanomalien und Funktionsstoerungen der
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Finch, Caroline F
It is now understood that sports injury interventions will not have significant public health impact if they are not widely accepted and adopted by target sports participants. Although there has been increasing recognition of the need for intervention studies conducted within the real-world context of sports delivery, very few studies have been conducted in this important area. A major reason for this is that there are significant challenges in conducting implementation research; the more traditional sports medicine approaches may not be fully appropriate and new ways of thinking about how to design, conduct and report such research is needed. Moreover, real-world implementation of sports injury interventions and evaluation of their effectiveness needs to start to take into account the broad ecological context in which they are introduced, as well as considering the best way to translate this knowledge to reach the audiences who most need to benefit from such research. This overview paper provides perspectives and guidance on the design, conduct and evaluation of sports injury intervention implementation studies, including better understanding of the complexity of the ecological settings for intervention delivery. Some conceptual approaches that could be adopted in future implementation studies are discussed; particular emphasis is given to intervention mapping as a tool to assist intervention development, diffusion of innovations theory to guide the planning of intervention strategies and the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework for programme evaluation and programme design. Finally, a broad agenda for this emerging important field of sports medicine research is outlined.
Erlanger, David M
Current characterizations of chronic traumatic brain injury (CTBI) in boxing, football and other sports are reviewed in the context of the history of research on sub-concussive brain trauma in athletes. The utility of exposure models for understanding CTBI in boxers is examined and concerns regarding the paucity of findings supportive of an exposure model for CTBI in football players are discussed. Recommendations for development of exposure models for sport-specific phenotypic characterizations of CTBI are presented.
Olson, David E; Sikka, Robby Singh; Hamilton, Abigail; Krohn, Austin
Football is one of the most popular sports in the United States and is the leading cause of sports-related injury. A large focus in recent years has been on concussions, sudden cardiac death, and heat illness, all thought to be largely preventable health issues in the young athlete. Injury prevention through better understanding of injury mechanisms, education, proper equipment, and practice techniques and preseason screening may aid in reducing the number of injuries. Proper management of on-field injuries and health emergencies can reduce the morbidity associated with these injuries and may lead to faster return to play and reduced risk of future injury. This article reviews current concepts surrounding frequently seen football-related injuries.
Ardern, Clare L.; Glasgow, Philip; Schneiders, Anthony; Witvrouw, Erik; Clarsen, Benjamin; Cools, Ann; Gojanovic, Boris; Griffin, Steffan; Khan, Karim M.; Moksnes, Havard; Mutch, Stephen A.; Phillips, Nicola; Reurink, Gustaaf; Sadler, Robin; Silbernagel, Karin Gravare
Copyright © 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Deciding when to return to sport after injury is complex and multifactorial—an exercise in risk management. Return to sport decisions are made every day by clinicians, athletes and coaches, ideally in a collaborative way. The purpose of this consensus statement was to present and synthesise current evidence to make recommendations for return to sport decision-making, clinical practice and future research directions related to returning athletes to spor...
Dekker, R; van der Sluis, CK; Groothoff, JW; Eisma, WH; ten Duis, HJ
Objective: To investigate whether sports injuries result in long-term disabilities and handicaps and to establish variables with a prognostic value for the occurrence of these long-term consequences. Materials and methods: All patients older than 17 years of age and admitted to the University
MacKnight, John M.
Clinical properties of infectious mononucleosis include prolonged fatigue, spleen enlargement and fragility, and risk for spleen rupture. Sports medicine practitioners must recognize and manage these clinical features and promote safe, timely return of athletes to sports. Safeguarding against splenic injury and minimizing the duration of…
Rugby Union and Rugby League are popular sports with high participation across the world. The high impact nature of the sport results in a high proportion of injuries. Rugby has an association with cervical spine injury which has potentially catastrophic consequences for the patient. Anecdotal evidence suggests that radiographers find it challenging to visualise the cervicothoracic junction on the lateral supine cervical spine projection in broad shouldered athletes. This paper intends to analyse the risk factors for cervical spine injuries in rugby and discuss the imaging strategy in respect to radiography and CT scanning in high risk patient groups such as rugby players who are suspected of suffering a cervical spine injury. - Highlights: • Rugby as a participation sport represents a risk of cervical spine injury. • Conventional radiography lacks sensitivity in identifying cervical spine injury. • The body habitus of rugby players makes the imaging of the cervicothoracic junction challenging. • CT scanning should replace radiography in the event of serious suspicion of cervical spine injury. • The notion of CT being a high dose modality should be questioned.
Foley, E C; Bird, H A
The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.
McVeigh, Sonja A; Hitzig, Sander L; Craven, B Cathy
To determine whether community integration and/or quality of life (QoL) among people living with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are superior among sport participants vs non-sport participants. Cross-sectional study. Persons (n=90) living in the community with SCI (ASIA Impairment Scale A-D), level C5 or below, > 15 years of age, >12 months postinjury, and requiring a wheelchair for >1 hours/day were divided into 2 groups based on their self-reported sport participation at interview: sport participants (n=45) and non-sport participants (n 5). Independent-sample t tests revealed that both Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) and Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNL) total mean scores were higher among sport participants vs nonsport participants (P sport participants. Similarly, the unadjusted odds ratio of a high RNL score was 7.00 (95% CI 2.3, 21.0) among current sport participants. Regression-adjusted odds ratios of high CIQ and high RNL scores were 1.36 (95% CI 0.09, 1.45) and 0.15 (95% CI 0.04, 0.55), respectively. The odds ratio for pre-SCI sport participation predicting post-SCI sport participation was 3.06 (95% CI 1.23, 7.65). CIQ and QoL scores were higher among sport participants compared to non-sport participants. There was an association between mean CIQ and RNL scores for both groups. Sport participants were 4.75 and 7.00 times as likely to have high CIQ and QoL scores. Both groups had a similar likelihood of high CIQ and RNL scores after adjusting for important confounders. Individuals who participated in sports prior to SCI were more likely to participate in sports post-SCI.
Stracciolini, Andrea; Yen, Yi-Meng; d'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Lewis, Cara L; Sugimoto, Dai
To compare sports-related hip injuries on the basis of sex and age in a cohort of young athletes. A 5% random probability sample of all new patients' charts over a 10-year time period was selected for investigation. The most common hip injury diagnoses, sport at time of injury, mechanism (acute/traumatic vs. overuse), and types (bony vs. soft tissue) were compared by sex and age (preadolescent vs. adolescent). Descriptive and χ-analyses were carried out. The interaction of sex and age with respect to hip injury over time was examined by two-way (sex, age) analysis of variance. A total of 2133 charts were reviewed; N=87 hip injuries. The main diagnoses for males included labral tear (23.1%), avulsion fracture (11.5%), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (11.5%), dislocation (7.7%), and tendonitis (7.7%). The main diagnoses for females were labral tear (59.0%), tendonitis (14.8%), snapping hip syndrome (6.6%), strain (4.9%), and bursitis (4.9%). The five most common sports/activities at the time of hip injury were dancing/ballet (23.0%), soccer (18.4%), gymnastics (9.2%), ice hockey (8.1%), and track and field (6.9%). Age by sex comparisons showed a greater proportion of the total hip injuries (38.5%) in males compared with females (8.2%) during preadolescence (5-12 years). However, in adolescence (13-17 years), the hip injury proportion was significantly higher in females (91.8%) compared with males (61.5%; PInjury mechanism and type differed by sex, with females sustaining more chronic/overuse (95.1%) and soft tissue type injuries (93.4%) compared with males (50.0 and 53.8%, respectively; Pinjury proportion as they progressed through puberty compared with males (analysis of variance sex-by-age interaction; Pinjury mechanism and type differed significantly between males and females during growth. Notably, the proportion of hip injuries in the young female athletes showed a significantly greater increase with advancing age compared with males. Hip injuries in children
Gabbett, Tim J; Domrow, Nathan
The purpose of this study was to develop statistical models that estimate the influence of training load on training injury and physical fitness in collision sport athletes. The incidence of training injuries was studied in 183 rugby league players over two competitive seasons. Participants were assessed for height, body mass, skinfold thickness, vertical jump, 10-m, 20-m and 40-m sprint time, agility, and estimated maximal aerobic power in the off-season, pre-season, mid-season, and end-season. Training load and injury data were summarised into pre-season, early-competition, and late-competition training phases. Individual training load, fitness, and injury data were modelled using a logistic regression model with a binomial distribution and logit link function, while team training load and injury data were modelled using a linear regression model. While physical fitness improved with training, there was no association (P=0.16-0.99) between training load and changes in physical fitness during any of the training phases. However, increases in training load during the early-competition training phase decreased (P= 0.04) agility performance. A relationship (P= 0.01-0.04) was observed between the log of training load and odds of injury during each training phase, resulting in a 1.50 - 2.85 increase in the odds of injury for each arbitrary unit increase in training load. Furthermore, during the pre-season training phase there was a relationship (P= 0.01) between training load and injury incidence within the training load range of 155 and 590 arbitrary units. During the early and late-competition training phases, increases in training load of 175-620 arbitrary units and 145-410 arbitrary units, respectively, resulted in no further increase in injury incidence. These findings demonstrate that increases in training load, particularly during the pre-season training phase, increase the odds of injury in collision sport athletes. However, while increases in training load
von Rosen, P; Frohm, A; Kottorp, A; Fridén, C; Heijne, A
Many risk factors for injury are presented in the literature, few of those are however consistent and the majority is associated with adult and not adolescent elite athletes. The aim was to identify risk factors for injury in adolescent elite athletes, by applying a biopsychosocial approach. A total of 496 adolescent elite athletes (age range 15-19), participating in 16 different sports, were monitored repeatedly over 52 weeks using a valid questionnaire about injuries, training exposure, sleep, stress, nutrition, and competence-based self-esteem. Univariate and multiple Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for risk factors for first reported injury. The main finding was that an increase in training load, training intensity, and at the same time decreasing the sleep volume resulted in a higher risk for injury compared to no change in these variables (HR 2.25, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45, Pself-esteem increased the hazard for injury with 1.02 (HR 95% CI, 1.00-1.04, P=.01). Based on the multiple Cox regression analysis, an athlete having the identified risk factors (Risk Index, competence-based self-esteem), with an average competence-based self-esteem score, had more than a threefold increased risk for injury (HR 3.35), compared to an athlete with a low competence-based self-esteem and no change in sleep or training volume. Our findings confirm injury occurrence as a result of multiple risk factors interacting in complex ways. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Molloy, Michael G
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease in the world and the single largest cause of disability for those over 18 years. It affects more than twice as many people as does cardiac disease, and increases in incidence and prevalence with age. Animal and human studies have shown no evidence of increased risk of hip or knee OA with moderate exercise and in the absence of traumatic injury, sporting activity has a protective effect. One age-matched case control study found recreational runners who ran 12-14 miles per week for up to 40 years had no increase in radiological or symptomatic hip or knee OA. However, higher rates of hip OA occur in contact sports than in age-matched controls, with the highest rate in professional players. Soccer players with torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) are more likely to develop knee OA than those with intact ACL. Early ACL repair reduces the risk of knee OA, but does not prevent it. Established injury prevention programmes have been refined to prevent injuries such as ACL rupture.
Wanke, E M; Thiel, N; Groneberg, D A; Fischer, A
Parkour sport is the playfully breaching of obstacles originally not created to get from A to B in the fastest manner. There have been only few publications on injuries in this young and trendy sport mainly performed in urban areas. The aim of this study is to analyse parkour-related acute injuries and their factors. For the retrospective cross-sectional study, a total of n = 266 traceurs (m: n = 255, w: n = 11) completed anonymized online questionnaires. On average, each traceur sustained 1.9 injuries per sport career/year, or 5.5 injuries/1000 h training, respectively. The upper extremity was the most affected body region (58 %), followed by the lower extremity (27 %), head and the back. An increase of injuries from proximal to distal was observed in the upper extremity. However, for the lower extremity it was the opposite. Of all injuries, the most common were skin abrasions (70.3 %). Muscle injuries were observed in 13.1 % of the traceurs, followed by dislocations (6.1 %), and soft tissue (e. g., ligaments, tendons) injuries (5.3 %). Passive precautionary measures were abandoned by the majority of the traceurs (88 %). Landing belonged to the movement elements resulting in most of the injuries (61 %), followed by supportive and static efforts of the arms (10.7 %). Overestimation (23 %) as well as misjudging the situation (20 %) were the most common causes. Other than expected, parkour is an urban movement style with most of the injuries being neither severe nor common despite the lack of precautionary measures. Localisation and type of injuries reflect the characteristic movement elements. There is a need for further investigations to allow a more differentiated analysis in order to develop injury prevention concepts. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
DiStefano, Lindsay J; Beltz, Eleanor M; Root, Hayley J; Martinez, Jessica C; Houghton, Andrew; Taranto, Nicole; Pearce, Katherine; McConnell, Erin; Muscat, Courtney; Boyle, Steve; Trojian, Thomas H
Sport sampling is recommended to promote fundamental movement skill acquisition and physical activity. In contrast, sport specialization is associated with musculoskeletal injury risk, burnout, and attrition from sport. There is limited evidence to support the influence of sport sampling on neuromuscular control, which is associated with injury risk, in youth athletes. Athletes who participated in only 1 sport during the previous year would demonstrate higher Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) scores than their counterparts. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. A total of 355 youth athletes (age range, 8-14 years) completed a test session with a jump-landing task, which was evaluated using the LESS. Participants were categorized as single sport (SS) or multisport (MS) based on their self-reported sport participation in the past year. Their duration of sport sampling (low, moderate, high) was determined based on their sport participation history. Participants were dichotomized into good (LESS sampling duration (low, moderate, high). The MS group was 2.5 times (95% CI, 1.9-3.1) as likely to be categorized as having good control compared with the SS group (χ 2 (355) = 10.10, P sampling duration group were 5.8 times (95% CI, 3.1-8.5) and 5.4 times (95% CI, 4.0-6.8) as likely to be categorized as having good control compared with the moderate and low groups (χ 2 (216) = 11.20, P sampling at a young age is associated with improved neuromuscular control, which may reduce injury risk in youth athletes. Youth athletes should be encouraged to try participating in multiple sports to enhance their neuromuscular