Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.
Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…
Perception of cohesion and imagery use among 45 elite team sport players in Botswana were assessed with the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985) and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998) to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables, and whether imagery use will ...
Gill, Diane L.; Deeter, Thomas E.
An analysis of the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, a multidimensional, sport-specific measure of individual differences in achievement orientation, indicates that it is a valid and reliable measure of individual sport achievement orientation. (JD)
Anuar, Nurwina; Williams, Sarah E; Cumming, Jennifer
The present study aimed to examine whether physical and environment elements of PETTLEP imagery relate to the ability to image five types of sport imagery (i.e. skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery). Two hundred and ninety participants (152 males, 148 females; M age = 20.24 years, SD = 4.36) from various sports completed the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ), and a set of items designed specifically for the study to assess how frequently participants incorporate physical (e.g. 'I make small movements or gestures during the imagery') and environment (e.g. 'I image in the real training/competition environment') elements of PETTLEP imagery. Structural equation modelling tested a hypothesised model in which imagery priming (i.e. the best fitting physical and environment elements) significantly and positively predicted imagery ability of the different imagery types (skill, β = 0.38; strategy, β = 0.23; goal, β = 0.21; affect, β = 0.25; mastery, β = 0.22). The model was a good fit to the data: χ 2 (174) = 263.87, p environment elements is associated with better skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery imagery ability. The findings extend models of imagery use by indicating that how athletes images may influence their imagery ability.
Full Text Available Background Imagery is often beneficial not only in gaining a psychological advantage when competing but also in building self-esteem and self-confidence. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Polish adaptation of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3, consisting of 12 questions measuring 3 dimensions: visual internal imagery, visual external imagery and kinesthetic imagery. Participants and procedure A sample of athletes (N = 276 – 102 women, 174 men (M = 21.25, SD = 6.35 of various disciplines (football, volleyball, karate, swimming, etc. with different sport experience (from recreation to the national team filled in the MIQ-3 questionnaire in the Polish language. Results The results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA with maximum likelihood confirmed that the established three-factor model reflects well the relationships observed in the respondents’ answers (satisfactory value of RMSEA below the recommended value of .05 (RMSEA = .04 and a high value of the index above .90 CFI (CFI = .93. Reliability indicators (composite reliability – CR observed for individual factors indicated a very high internal consistency (external visual imagery = .75, internal visual imagery = .79 and kinesthetic imagery = .82. The results indicated that good stability and internal consistency were maintained over a 3-week period. In addition, analyses were examined across age, level of experience and gender. Conclusions The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of the MIQ-3.
Full Text Available Background Stress resistance is very substantial and interesting for scientists, competitors, coaches, and psychologists. The main aim of the article was the psychometric examination of mental toughness in the sport questionnaire (MTSQ. Participants and procedure The group of participants consisted of athletes presenting different levels of experience: Olympians, first-league, national team: N = 421 athletes, including 190 women and 231 men, age M = 20.40, SD = 5.30. Test procedure: 124 statements were selected for exploratory factor analysis with the method of main components with rotation of intercorrelational orthogonal factors. It was used in order to check the factor structure of the tool and for the clear interpretation of isolated factors. As a result of the validation, 42 statements were finally selected measuring three dimensions of mental toughness. Each subscale consisted of 14 items. Next the reliability and the validity of the questionnaire were analysed. Results The three-factor structure of the measured model of stress resistance accurately reflects the relation among stress resistances factors. Individual scales, at least mutually correlated, present accurate and reliable operationalisation of dimensions of the stress resistance. Conclusions The mental toughness in sport questionnaire (MTSQ presents accurate and reliable operationalisation of stress resistance dimensions.
The study also provided evidence of the role of mental imagery ability and social desirability in reported use of mental imagery. The findings are discussed with reference to the existing literature on the use of mental imagery in sport and implications for the practice of sport psychology. South African Journal for Research in ...
Full Text Available Background Imagery is an effective performance enhancement technique. Imagery has been described previously in a range of psychological domains. Measuring imagery is critical in research and practice in sport. Self-report questionnaires are the most regularly used method. The aim of the present study was to examine reliability and validity characteristics of the Imagination in Sport Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz Wyobraźni w Sporcie – KWS. Participants and procedure Five and hundred eight (N = 326 – study I; N = 182 – study II Polish athletes completed questionnaires (169 male, 156 female – study I; 139 male, 43 female – study II, aged between 12 and 57 years (M = 22.08, SD = 8.18 – study I; age 19-24, M = 20.46, SD = 1.1 – study II, at different competitive levels and recruited from various sports disciplines. Results Results indicated the maintained good stability and internal consistency over a 3-week period. Results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor structure of the KWS resulted in acceptable model fit indices (NC = 2416.63, df = 1203, GFI = 0.944, AGFI = 0.944, CFI = 0.786, RMSEA = 0.056, p (RMSEA < 0.05 = 0.002 – first study; NC = 2234.39, df = 1203, GFI = 0.673, AGFI = = 0.640, CFI = 0.691, RMSEA = 0.069, p (RMSEA < 0.05 = = 0.000 – second study. Concurrent validity was supported by examination of the relationships between the KWS subscales and the SIAM (Sport Imagery Ability Measure in Polish adaptation. In addition, differences in athletes’ imagery ability were examined across competitive levels, and in relation to both gender and age. Conclusions Overall, the results supported the reliability and construct validity of the KWS.
Levy, A R; Perry, J; Nicholls, A R; Larkin, D; Davies, J
This study explored the mediating role of sport confidence upon (1) sources of sport confidence-performance relationship and (2) imagery-performance relationship. Participants were 157 competitive athletes who completed state measures of confidence level/sources, imagery type and performance within one hour after competition. Among the current sample, confirmatory factor analysis revealed appropriate support for the nine-factor SSCQ and the five-factor SIQ. Mediational analysis revealed that sport confidence had a mediating influence upon the achievement source of confidence-performance relationship. In addition, both cognitive and motivational imagery types were found to be important sources of confidence, as sport confidence mediated imagery type- performance relationship. Findings indicated that athletes who construed confidence from their own achievements and report multiple images on a more frequent basis are likely to benefit from enhanced levels of state sport confidence and subsequent performance.
Rocchi, Meredith; Pelletier, Luc; Desmarais, Philippe
According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), basic psychological needs will be influenced by other individuals' interpersonal behaviors. The objective of the present research is to extend the validity of the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ and IBQ-Self) to the sport context. The measure was designed to assess perceptions of…
Fuell, Kevin K.; Molthan, Andrew L.
MODIS Snow/Cloud and True Color RGB imagery has been used by SPoRT partners since 2004 to examine changes in surface features such as snow cover, vegetation, ocean color, fires, smoke plumes, and oil spills.
Kleb, Cerise; Welding, Kevin; Cohen, Joanna E; Smith, Katherine C
Tobacco companies have historically associated their products with sports through event sponsorship and sports-themed advertising campaigns. Such linkages serve to enhance brand image by connecting cigarette brands to ideals associated with sports such as strength, individual accomplishment, and a healthy body. Public health policy progress has created restrictions for tobacco sponsorship and restricted traditional advertising avenues for tobacco products. Nonetheless, the pack itself remains as a mechanism by which to link cigarettes to sports and sporting prowess. Thus, we analyze depictions of sport and references to sports terminology on cigarette packs. To describe the sports-related marketing appeals on cigarette packages purchased in 14 low and middle income countries. In 2013, we collected and coded cigarette packs from 14 low and middle income countries and we returned to four of these countries for further data collection in 2015. Packs from both years were assessed for sports-related appeals (text and imagery) and sports-related brand names to identify sports appeals on cigarette packs. The analysis yielded 36 brands with distinct depictions of sport or sporting terminology on the pack. Text-based appeals were found on 24 of the 36 distinct "sports appeal" packs (e.g., "Polo," "Olympic," "Win," "iScore"). Sporting imagery was present on 22 packs (e.g., soccer ball, race car, wrestling match, trophy). The pack is a powerful medium through which tobacco companies continue to associate their products with idealized concepts associated with sports. These are potentially problematic associations that could be restricted through plain and standardized packaging policy initiatives.
Martindale, Russell J J; Collins, Dave; Wang, John C K; McNeill, Michael; Lee, Kok Sonk; Sproule, John; Westbury, Tony
As sporting challenge at the elite level becomes ever harder, maximizing effectiveness of the talent development pathway is crucial. Reflecting this need, this paper describes the development of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire, which has been designed to facilitate the development of sporting potential to world-class standard. The questionnaire measures the experiences of developing athletes in relation to empirically identified "key features" of effective talent development environments. The first phase involved the generation of questionnaire items with clear content and face validity. The second phase explored the factor structure and reliability. This was carried out with 590 developing athletes through application of exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation, principal axis factoring extraction and cronbach alpha tests. This yielded a 59-item, seven-factor structure with good internal consistency (0.616-0.978). The Talent Development Environment Questionnaire appears to be a promising psychometric instrument that can potentially be useful for education and formative review in applied settings, and as a measurement tool in talent development research.
Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina
Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…
Randhawa, Bubblepreet; Harris, Susan; Boyd, Lara A
It is not known whether individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) can practice movements mentally. Before this question can be addressed, a reliable imagery assessment tool must be established. The recently developed Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ) is valid for non-disabled individuals and individuals with stroke. We have extended this work by examining the test-retest reliability and concurrent validity of the KVIQ in individuals with PD. Eleven individuals with mild to moderate PD were assessed, while on medication, by the same examiner at 2 sessions (5-12 days apart). Test-retest reliability was measured using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). To examine concurrent validity, KVIQ scores from the second session were compared with a gold standard, the revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire, using Spearman rank order correlation coefficients. There was no significant difference between total KVIQ scores for the test-retest sessions (P > 0.05). Overall, test-retest reliability of the KVIQ was good (ICC = 0.87), and reliability of the subscale of the KVIQ for indexing visual imagery and kinesthetic imagery was also good (ICC = 0.82 and 0.95, respectively). However, the subscale indexing axial visual imagery showed less reliability (ICC = 0.74), suggesting that individuals with PD were not as reliable when imagining axial visual movements as they were for imagining limb movements. Concurrent validity between the second session KVIQ score and the revised Movement Imagery Questionnaire score (gold standard) was excellent (rho = 0.93). Our data support the conclusion that the KVIQ is a reliable and valid test for indexing mental imagery ability in individuals with PD. The KVIQ is easy to administer, and the movements (both real and imagined) required are appropriate for individuals with neuropathology. Our data suggest that the KVIQ is a good choice for clinicians who may wish to index motor imagery ability before implementing imagery as a
Fuell, Kevin; LeRoy, Anita; Smith, Matt; Miller, Steve; Kann, Diedre; Bernhardt, David; Reydell, Nezette; Cox, Robert
The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program and NOAA/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) work within the NOAA/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Ground to demonstrate the unique capabilities of the VIIRS instrument. Very similar to MODIS, the VIIRS instrument provides many high-resolution visible and infrared channels in a broad spectrum. In addition, VIIRS is equipped with a low-light sensor that is able to detect light emissions from the land and atmosphere as well as reflected sunlight by the lunar surface. This band is referred to as the Day-Night Band due to the sunlight being used at night to see cloud and topographic features just as one would typically see in day-time visible imagery. NWS forecast offices that collaborate with SPoRT and CIRA have utilized MODIS imagery in operations, but have longed for more frequent passes of polar-orbiting data. The VIIRS instrument enhances SPoRT collaborations with WFOs by providing another day and night-time pass, and at times two additional passes due to its large swath width. This means that multi-spectral, RGB imagery composites are more readily available to prepare users for their use in GOES-R era and high-resolution imagery for use in high-latitudes is more frequently able to supplement standard GOES imagery within the SPoRT Hybrid GEO-LEO product. The transition of VIIRS also introduces the new Day-Night Band capability to forecast operations. An Intensive Evaluation Period (IEP) was conducted in Summer 2013 with a group of "Front Range" NWS offices related to VIIRS night-time imagery. VIIRS single-channel imagery is able to better analyze the specific location of fire hotspots and other land features, as well as provide a more true measurement of various cloud and aerosol properties than geostationary measurements, especially at night. Viewed within the SPoRT Hybrid imagery, the VIIRS data allows forecasters to better interpret the more frequent, but
Dey, Abhishikta; Barnsley, Nadia; Mohan, Rahul; McCormick, Marianne; McAuley, James H; Moseley, G Lorimer
Playing a sport or a musical instrument is presumed to improve motor ability. One would therefore predict that children who play a sport or music are better at motor imagery tasks, which rely on an intact cortical proprioceptive representation and precise motor planning, than children who do not. The authors tested this prediction. This study involved an online questionnaire and then a motor imagery task. The task measured the reaction time (RT) and the accuracy for left/right-hand judgements in children aged 5 to 17 years. Forty pictured hands (20 left), held in various positions and rotated zero, 90°, 180° or 270°, were displayed on a screen. Participants indicated whether the displayed hands were left or right by pressing keys on a keyboard. Fifty-seven children (30 boys; mean±SD age=10±3.3 years) participated. The mean±SD RT was 3015.4±1330.0 ms and the accuracy was 73.9±16.6%. There was no difference in RT between children who played sport, music, neither or both (four-level one-way analysis of variance, p=0.85). There was no difference in accuracy between groups either (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.46). In a secondary analysis, participants whose parents rated them as being 'clumsy' were no slower (n.s.) but were about 25% less accurate than those rated coordinated or very coordinated (psport or music is associated with better cortical proprioceptive representation and motor planning. Secondary analyses suggest that parent-rated clumsiness is negatively related to motor imagery performance.
Robin , Nicolas; Flochlay , Carine
International audience; L’imagerie mentale, pratiquée depuis longtemps dans le domaine sportif, et avec des effets avérés sur la réussite, peut également être bénéfique dans le domaine de l’EPS. L’intérêt de ce moyen est de représenter un excellent complément pour l’apprentissage d’habiletés motrices, de techniques, de séquences ou d’enchainements de mouvements.
Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Martindale, Russell
Given the significance of monitoring the critical environmental factors that facilitate athlete performance, this two-phase research aimed to validate and refine the revised talent development environment questionnaire (TDEQ). The TDEQ is a multidimensional self-report scale that assesses talented athletes' environmental experiences. Study 1 (the first phase) involved the examination of the revised TDEQ through an exploratory factor analysis (n = 363). This exploratory investigation identified a 28-item five-factor structure (i.e., TDEQ-5) with adequate internal consistency. Study 2 (the second phase) examined the factorial structure of the TDEQ-5, including convergent validity, discriminant validity, and group invariance (i.e., gender and sports type). The second phase was carried out with 496 talented athletes through the application of confirmatory factor analyses and multigroup invariance tests. The results supported the convergent validity, discriminant validity, and group invariance of the TDEQ-5. In conclusion, the TDEQ-5 with 25 items appears to be a reliable and valid scale for use in talent development environments.
Loison, B; Moussaddaq, A-S; Cormier, J; Richard, I; Ferrapie, A-L; Ramond, A; Dinomais, M
Motor imagery can be defined as a dynamic state during which the representation of a movement is internally rehearsed in the absence of voluntary movements. There are two strategies to mentally simulate the movements, either a visual representation of the movements (visual imagery), or kinesthetic feeling of the movement (kinetic imagery). In stroke rehabilitation, studies indicate that motor imagery associated with physical therapy results in cortical reorganization and correlative functional improvements. The aim of this study is to provide to the French-speaking community a valid and reliable version of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire - Revised Second Version (MIQ-RS). We examined the test-retest, inter-rate reliability and the internal consistency of the visual and kinesthetic items of our French version of MIQ-RS in 153 healthy subjects. Results showed the internal consistency (Cronbach α=0.90) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient for visual items=0.68 and for kinesthetic items=0.78) of the French version of MIQ-RS were satisfactory; the two-factor structure was supported by confirmatory factor analysis. The French version of MIQ-RS is a valid and reliable instrument in French-speaking population and therefore useful as a measure for motor imagery ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Selina Christin Wriessnegger
Full Text Available Motor imagery (MI is a commonly used paradigm for the study of motor learning or cognitive aspects of action control. The rationale for using MI training to promote the relearning of motor function arises from research on the functional correlates that MI shares with the execution of physical movements. While most of the previous studies investigating MI were based on simple movements in the present study a more attractive mental practice was used to investigate cortical activation during MI. We measured cerebral responses with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in twenty three healthy volunteers as they imagined playing soccer or tennis before and after a short physical sports exercise. Our results demonstrated that only 10 minutes of training are enough to boost motor imagery patterns in motor related brain regions including premotor cortex and supplementary motor area (SMA but also fronto-parietal and subcortical structures. This supports previous findings that motor imagery has beneficial effects especially in combination with motor execution when used in motor rehabilitation or motor learning processes. We conclude that sports MI combined with an interactive game environment could be a promising additional tool in future rehabilitation programs aiming to improve upper or lower limb functions or support neuroplasticity.
Full Text Available Background An important component of mental training in sport is the utilization of positive imagery. The “human brain cannot distinguish between an imagined experience and a real experience. The same areas of the brain light up in an imagined experience or imagined performance as in a real experience or performance. For that reason, positive performance imagery has enormous potential” (Orlick, 2008, p. 101. Imagery “has been described as a centre pillar of applied sport psychology” research (Morris, Spittle, & Perry, 2004, p. 344. The aim of the present study was to examine reliability and validity characteristics of the Polish language version of the Sport Imagery Ability Measure (SIAM. Participants and procedure Polish athletes (N = 316 from a range of sports and competitive levels completed the 48 item SIAM. The participants (163 male, 153 female were aged between 12 and 57 years (M = 22.15, SD = 8.25. Results Results indicated that the SIAM had sound internal consistency and maintained good stability over a 3-week period. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the a priori 3-factor structure of the SIAM resulted in a set of acceptable and poor fit indices (CFI = .91, NFI = .90, RMSEA = .12. Finally, differences in athletes’ imagery abilities were examined in relation to competitive level, gender, and age. Conclusions Overall, results generally supported the reliability and construct validity of the Polish version of the SIAM.
The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of Wood's Job Satisfaction Questionnaire (JSQ) among Taiwanese workers. The participants were 341 nonprofit sport organization workers (M[subscript age] = 35.89, SD = 9.23) who completed the job satisfaction questionnaire, turnover intention scale, and organizational commitment.…
Andrew J. Butler
Full Text Available Mental imagery can improve motor performance in stroke populations when combined with physical therapy. Valid and reliable instruments to evaluate the imagery ability of stroke survivors are needed to maximize the benefits of mental imagery therapy. The purposes of this study were to: examine and compare the test-retest intra-rate reliability of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS in stroke survivors and able-bodied controls, examine internal consistency of the visual and kinesthetic items of the MIQ-RS, determine if the MIQ-RS includes both the visual and kinesthetic dimensions of mental imagery, correlate impairment and motor imagery scores, and investigate the criterion validity of the MIQ-RS in stroke survivors by comparing the results to the KVIQ-10. Test-retest analysis indicated good levels of reliability (ICC range: .83–.99 and internal consistency (Cronbach α: .95–.98 of the visual and kinesthetic subscales in both groups. The two-factor structure of the MIQ-RS was supported by factor analysis, with the visual and kinesthetic components accounting for 88.6% and 83.4% of the total variance in the able-bodied and stroke groups, respectively. The MIQ-RS is a valid and reliable instrument in the stroke population examined and able-bodied populations and therefore useful as an outcome measure for motor imagery ability.
Butler, Andrew J.; Cazeaux, Jennifer; Fidler, Anna; Jansen, Jessica; Lefkove, Nehama; Gregg, Melanie; Hall, Craig; Easley, Kirk A.; Shenvi, Neeta; Wolf, Steven L.
Mental imagery can improve motor performance in stroke populations when combined with physical therapy. Valid and reliable instruments to evaluate the imagery ability of stroke survivors are needed to maximize the benefits of mental imagery therapy. The purposes of this study were to: examine and compare the test-retest intra-rate reliability of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS) in stroke survivors and able-bodied controls, examine internal consistency of the visual and kinesthetic items of the MIQ-RS, determine if the MIQ-RS includes both the visual and kinesthetic dimensions of mental imagery, correlate impairment and motor imagery scores, and investigate the criterion validity of the MIQ-RS in stroke survivors by comparing the results to the KVIQ-10. Test-retest analysis indicated good levels of reliability (ICC range: .83–.99) and internal consistency (Cronbach α: .95–.98) of the visual and kinesthetic subscales in both groups. The two-factor structure of the MIQ-RS was supported by factor analysis, with the visual and kinesthetic components accounting for 88.6% and 83.4% of the total variance in the able-bodied and stroke groups, respectively. The MIQ-RS is a valid and reliable instrument in the stroke population examined and able-bodied populations and therefore useful as an outcome measure for motor imagery ability. PMID:22474504
Pellicciari, Leonardo; Piscitelli, Daniele; De Vita, Marilena; D'Ingianna, Lucia; Bacciu, Serenella; Perno, Giacomo; Lunetta, Laura; Rosulescu, Eugenia; Cerri, Cesare Giuseppe; Foti, Calogero
During training and competition, athletic dancers perform complex artistic movements that can lead to stress on the musculoskeletal system, making them subject to high risk of injury. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, location, and nature of musculoskeletal injuries among dancesport athletes and to identify potential risk factors for injury. This cross-sectional study was performed at several national dancesport meetings in Italy. All 168 dancesport athletes who participated at the meetings were invited to complete a questionnaire related to injuries they may have suffered during the previous year; other information collected included demographic data (age, sex, height, weight), dance participation (discipline, categories), training (training duration, years since starting to dance), and injury (location, etiology). Of the 168 dancers, 153 completed the questionnaire. Of the 102 injuries reported, 73 athletes (47.7%) reported at least 1 injury. The locations of the injuries were the lower limbs (n=75, 73.5%), upper limbs (8, 7.8%), and spine (19, 18.7%). Significant differences were found in the injury location (pathletes in demographic data, dance participation, and training variables (p>0.05). The results indicate that about half of the dancers reported at least 1 injury, with these being located particularly in the lower limbs and predominantly strain and sprain injuries. To reduce the prevalence of injuries, a prevention program may be indicated, with future research needed to identify appropriate strategies to prevent injuries.
María del Pilar Vílchez, Cristina De Francisco
Full Text Available Understanding the motives that influence physical activity participation is important in order to orientate physical activity promotion and increase physical activity levels of practice of the population. Although many instruments been created and validated to measure motives to perform physical activity, one of the most frequently used scales during years is the Participation of Motives Questionnaire (PMQ by Gill et al. (1983. Unfortunately, despite being so used and translated into many languages, there is no psychometric support for some factors about due to a low internal consistency. The purpose of this research was to present a reduced model of the Spanish version of the PMQ and to analyze the motives for sports participation. The Spanish version of PMQ was applied to participants of both sexes with ages between 12 and 60 years (M = 19.20; SD = 6.37. Factorial validity of the questionnaire was checked using exploratory and confirmatory analyses. Analysis of items and internal consistency of the factors were carried out. Reduced version measures seven dimensions (competition, status, teamwork, energy release, family/peers, skill development and health/fitness with good values of validity and reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha were between 0.713 and 0.879. Different reasons for exercise and sport by sociodemographic variables were found. For example, females practice for exercise and sports for competition and teamwork than males Elite athletes practice more exercise and sport also for teamwork, skills development and health/fitness than amateurs. Finally those who have more experience, practice more physical activity and sport for competition, status and health/fitness.
García Bengoechea, Enrique; Sabiston, Catherine M; Wilson, Philip M
The aim of this study was to provide initial evidence of validity and reliability of scores derived from the Activity Context in Youth Sport Questionnaire (ACYSQ), an instrument designed to offer a comprehensive assessment of the activities adolescents take part in during sport practices. Two studies were designed for the purposes of item development and selection, and to provide evidence of structural and criterion validity of ACYSQ scores, respectively (N = 334; M age = 14.93, SD = 1.76 years). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the adequacy of a 20-item ACYSQ measurement model, which was invariant across gender, and comprised the following dimensions: (1) stimulation; (2) usefulness-value; (3) authenticity; (4) repetition-boredom; and (5) ineffectiveness. Internal consistency reliability estimates and composite reliability estimates for ACYSQ subscale scores ranged from 0.72 to 0.91. In regression analyses, stimulation predicted enjoyment and perceived competence, ineffectiveness was significantly associated with perceived competence and authenticity emerged as a predictor of commitment in sport. These findings indicate that the ACYSQ displays adequate psychometric properties and the use of the instrument may be useful for studying selected activity-based features of the practice environment and their motivational consequences in youth sport.
Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David
The Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) (Jones, M. V., Lane, A. M., Bray, S. R., Uphill, M., & Catlin, J. (2005). Development and validation of the SEQ. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27, 407-431) was developed and initially validated to assess sport performers' pre-competitive emotions. The purpose of this study was to test the factor structure of the SEQ in a different environment (viz. organisational) and at a different time point (viz. the past month). A further aim was to examine if the SEQ was invariant across different groups of sport performers. A diverse sample of athletes (n = 1277) completed the questionnaire. Fit indices from confirmatory factor analyses provided partial support for the hypothesised measurement model, with equal or better fit demonstrated than evident in initial validation. The comparative fit index values were above acceptable guidelines for all factors at subscale level. Evidence was also found for the invariance of the SEQ across different groups. Overall, the findings support the reliability and validity of the SEQ as a measure of the emotions experienced by sport performers in an organisational environment during the past month.
Full Text Available Sport psychology literature suggests that understanding engagement levels is pivotal to promote positive sporting experiences among athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Athlete Engagement Questionnaire among Portuguese sport athletes. Two distinct samples of Portuguese athletes from different competitive levels were collected, and the results of a confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a good fit of the model to the data. A review of the psychometric properties indicated that all factors showed good composite reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. In addition, a multi-groups analysis showed the invariance of the model in two independent samples providing evidence of cross validity. Implications of these results for scholars and coaches are discussed and guidelines for future studies are suggested.
O'Malley, Margaret; Evans, David S; Hewson, Antonia; Owens, Jenny
The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear. To determine the extent of mouthguard use, dental trauma and barriers to use among children. The survey also investigated school and sports club policy on mouthguard use in sport. A questionnaire was sent to parents of 1,111 children aged nine to 13 years attending 25 randomly selected schools in the Health Service Executive West region of Ireland. It sought information about children's sporting activities, mouthguard policy and use, barriers to use, and dental accidents. A total of 505 questionnaires were returned (46%). More than nine out of ten children were involved in sport. Mouthguards were worn by 22% of children during sport. Less than one-third of schools and sports clubs that children attended had a mouthguard policy. Significantly more children used mouthguards where there was a mouthguard policy. Reasons for not wearing mouthguards included cost, lack of knowledge and information, and lack of a mouthguard policy. One in ten children had suffered a sports accident in the previous year, of which 51% injured teeth. Of these, 72% visited a dentist within two hours. The dental profession and individual practitioners should promote mouthguard use for children during sport and be advocates for the development of policies in schools and sporting organisations.
Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark
The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2 = 197; N Study 3 = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4 = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.
A sample of 16 rowers (eight male and eight female) participated in the study. The Sports Imagery Questionnaire was administered seven days, three days, 24 hours, and three hours prior to competition. The study aimed to investigate changes in the use of five types of imagery, over four time-periods preceding a ...
Kassam, H; Tzortziou Brown, V; O'Halloran, P; Wheeler, P; Fairclough, J; Maffulli, N; Morrissey, D
Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) aims to manage sporting injuries and promote physical activity. This study explores general practitioners' (GPs) awareness, understanding and utilisation of their local SEM services. A questionnaire survey, including patient case scenarios, was administered between February and May 2011. 693 GPs working in Cardiff and Vale, Leicester and Tower Hamlets were invited to participate. 244 GPs responded to the questionnaire (35.2% response rate). Less than half (46%; 112/244) were aware of their nearest SEM service and only 38% (92/244) had a clear understanding on referral indications. The majority (82%; 199/244) felt confident advising less active patients about exercise. There were divergent management opinions about the case scenarios of patients who were SEM referral candidates. Overall, GPs were significantly more likely to refer younger patients and patients with sport-related problems rather than patients who would benefit from increasing their activity levels in order to prevent or manage chronic conditions (p<0.01). GPs with previous SEM training were significantly more likely to refer (p<0.01). The majority (62%; 151/244) had never referred patients to their local SEM clinics but of those who had 75% (70/93) rated the service as good. There is a lack of awareness and understanding among GPs on the role of SEM within the National Health Service which may be resulting in suboptimal utilisation especially for patients who could benefit from increasing their activity levels. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina
Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant ( p < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation ( r = 0.92, p < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic
Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung
The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement.
Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung
The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes’ Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes’ motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes’ motivation towards athletic and academic achievement. PMID:26331138
Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez; Abraham Wall-Medrano; Óscar A. Esparza-Del Villar; Rosa Patricia Hernández-Torres
Several self-report questionnaires have been used to evaluate various determiners of sports practice in young people, but very few have been applied to Mexicans. In this analysis, the questionnaire was administered to 222 subjects (13-25 years). We determined its internal consistency (Cronbach ), content validity (document analysis), construct (Exploratory Factor Analysis, EFA) as well as that of the criterion. The latter, by its correlation (Spearman) with anthropometric variables: body ...
Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning
Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome...
Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning
Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome meas...
Yousef Moghadas Tabrizi
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Motor imagery (MI has been recently considered as an adjunct to physical rehabilitation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It is necessary to assess MI abilities and benefits in patients with MS by using a reliable tool. The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ was recently developed to assess MI ability in patients with stroke and other disabilities. Considering the different underlying pathologies, the present study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the KVIQ in MS patients. METHOD: Fifteen MS patients were assessed using the KVIQ in 2 sessions (5-14days apart by the same examiner. In the second session, the participants also completed a revised MI questionnaire (MIQ-R as the gold standard. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs were measured to determine test-retest reliability. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to assess concurrent validity with the MIQ-R. Furthermore, the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and factorial structure of the KVIQ were studied. RESULTS: The test-retest reliability for the KVIQ was good (ICCs: total KVIQ=0.89, visual KVIQ=0.85, and kinesthetic KVIQ=0.93, and the concurrent validity between the KVIQ and MIQ-R was good (r=0.79. The KVIQ had good internal consistency, with high Cronbach's alpha (alpha=0.84. Factorial analysis showed the bi-factorial structure of the KVIQ, which was explained by visual=57.6% and kinesthetic=32.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study revealed that the KVIQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing MI in MS patients.
Martínez Rodríguez, Alejandro; Vicente Salar, Néstor; Montero Carretero, Carlos; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Roche Collado, Enrique
there is a growing concern in the appearance of eating disorders in athletes, especially those that practice sports grouped into weight categories. This affects the way athletes eat, using frequently unhealthy strategies to control weight, especially during the pre-competition period. this study analyses the prevalence of contact sports athletes in developing eating disorders, and how a controlled diet plan can reduce this risk. At the same time, it evaluates the use of the EAT-26 questionnaire to detect such disorders. a randomized frequency study was performed on 244 athletes (158 men, 86 women), who were separated into two groups: those that followed a diet plan given by a nutritionist, and a control group on a free diet. The athletes completed an EAT-26 questionnaire while participating in the University-level National Championships. the free diet group scored significantly higher on the questionnaire. Also, the female athletes controlled diet group scored significantly higher than their male counterparts. the results of the questionnaire indicate that an adequate nutritional program circumvents the use of unhealthy habits to control body weight and therefore avoids developing particular eating disorders. EAT-26 questionnaire does not seem the most appropriate tool to detect these disorders. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Several self-report questionnaires have been used to evaluate various determiners of sports practice in young people, but very few have been applied to Mexicans. In this analysis, the questionnaire was administered to 222 subjects (13-25 years. We determined its internal consistency (Cronbach , content validity (document analysis, construct (Exploratory Factor Analysis, EFA as well as that of the criterion. The latter, by its correlation (Spearman with anthropometric variables: body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC* and physiological (VO2max. The results showed that the internal consistency is acceptable (Cronbach’s = 0.68 to 0.85. Moreover, this questionnaire similarly responds to queries posed in surveys already reported (to find out the physical, educational, psychological and socio-demographic characteristics of physical/sports practice. The EFA showed 1, 2 and 3 factor structures with adequate Cronbach´s (~0,70 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (~0,72 values. The practice of physical activity was associated with a lower BMI and higher VO2max. The questionnaire proved to be a valid instrument for investigating physical/sports habits and behavior in young people from northern Mexico.
Aleksandra E. Gorovaya
Full Text Available This article describes the connection between the use of types of mental imagery by athletes and the level of their imagination. Taking the model of imagery use suggested by K. Martin, S. Moritz and С Hall, the authors used a Russian version of "The Sport Imagery Questionnaire" (SIQ with soccer players 8, 10 and 14 years old. The data shows that subjects with a higher level of imagination are more inclined to use mental imagery in their practice. Age differences in types of imagery usage are shown. The results indicated that mentalimagery training can result in enhanced performance among junior athletes.
Sasaki, Ryohei; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki; Nishio, Teiji; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Ashino, Yasuo; Onishi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nagata, Yasushi
Questionnaire for the contents of cancer professional training plan by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology Japan were widely assessed and introduced in the 4th Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) Future Planning Seminar held on March 8, 2008 in Tokyo, Japan. From the assessment, small number of instructors for medical physicists was elucidated as the most important problem for the future of fields of radiation oncology in Japan. (author)
Full Text Available Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK was carried out in six phases as follows: (1 item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2 pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3 measurement of the internal consistency; (4 reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5 concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6 construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults.
Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Dourian, Tara; Raynault, Marie-France
We assessed the potential for harmful messages in online advertisements targeted to youth, using the example of the Canadian "Light It Up" marketing campaign from a large sports corporation. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 secondary school classes in Montreal, Canada. Classes were randomly allocated to view a "Light It Up" advertisement (n = 205) or a neutral comparison advertisement (n = 192). The main outcome measures were self-reports of illicit drug messages in the advertisements. Of the students, 22.9% reported that the "Light It Up" advertisement contained illicit drug messages compared with 1.0% for the comparison advertisement (relative risk, 22.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-74.9). Although meant to promote sports, youth in this study believed that the "Light It Up" advertisement was related to illicit drugs. The campaign illustrates how advertisements may inadvertently market unwanted behaviors to children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jorgensen, J E; Rathleff, C R; Rathleff, M S; Andreasen, J
The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire (OSTRC-O) and the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaire on Health Problems (The OSTRC-H) make it possible to monitor illness and injury at regular intervals capturing prevalence and incidence of acute injury, overuse injury, and illnesses. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and establish the face validity of the OSTRC-O and the OSTRC-H into a Danish context (DK) through cognitive interviews and the assessment of test-retest reliability. The OSTRC-O.DK was distributed to 57 heterogenous respondents; response rate was 89%. The OSTRC-H was distributed to 58 heterogenous respondents; response rate was 86%. No major disagreements were observed between the original and translated versions of the questionnaires. The OSTRC-O had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.80-0.93). The primary reliability analyses including all participants, showed reliability ICC: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.77. The secondary reliability analyses that only included subjects who did not change injury region from the test to the retest showed an ICC of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92).The questionnaires were found to be valid, reliable, and acceptable for use in a Danish population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schmid, Julia; Gut, Vanessa; Conzelmann, Achim; Sudeck, Gorden
Target group-specific intervention strategies are often called for in order to effectively promote exercise and sport. Currently, motives and goals are rarely included systematically in the design of interventions, despite the key role they play in well-being and adherence to exercise. The Bernese motive and goal inventory (BMZI) allows an individual diagnosis of motives and goals in exercise and sport in people in middle adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to elaborate on the original BMZI and to modify the questionnaire in order to improve its psychometric properties. The study is based on data from two samples (sample A: 448 employees of companies and authorities; sample B: 853 patients of a medical rehabilitation programme). We applied confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modelling. Overall, both the original and the updated BMZI had an acceptable to good validity and a good reliability. However, the revised questionnaire had slightly better reliability. The updated BMZI consists of 23 items and covers the following motives and goals: Body/Appearance, Contact, Competition/Performance, Aesthetics, Distraction/Catharsis, Fitness and Health. It is recommended as an economical inventory for the individual diagnosis of important psychological conditions for exercise and sport.
André Luiz Felix Rodacki
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.
Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J
This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.
Olivares, Pedro R.; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J. J.
This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1–5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings. PMID:28582387
Franck Di Rienzo
Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to
Dietrich, Hanno; Ehrlenspiel, Felix
Cognitive models postulate that respondents to a questionnaire follow a four-stage process when answering a question: comprehension, memory retrieval, decision, and response. Cognitive interviewing is a qualitative tool to gain insight into this process by means of letting respondents think aloud or asking them specific questions (Willis, 2005).…
Newton, M; Duda, J L; Yin, Z
We undertook two studies to determine the validity and reliability of the revised Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2). In Study 1, 201 female athletes (mean age 16.4 years) were administered the initial version of the PMCSQ-2 and a measure of reported tension and pressure experienced in sport. Exploratory principal component analysis suggested that the PMCSQ-2 contained two higher-order scales (Task-Involving and Ego-Involving climates), each with three subscales (Task: Cooperative Learning, Effort/ Improvement, Important Role; Ego: Intra-Team Member Rivalry, Unequal Recognition, Punishment for Mistakes). In Study 2, 385 female volleyball players (mean age 15.2 years) completed the PMCSQ-2, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and a measure of Team Satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to six competing models. The oblique six-factor model and oblique hierarchical model provided comparable fit to the data. Acceptable fit was reached based on model respecification. Across Studies 1 and 2, internal consistency was found to be acceptable for the higher-order scales and subscales (with the exception of the Intra-Team Member Rivalry subscale). We found evidence for the concurrent validity of the instrument.
The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear.
Sierevelt, Inger; van Sterkenburg, Maayke; Tol, Hans; van Dalen, Bella; van Dijk, Niek; Haverkamp, Daniel
To translate the Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire into the Dutch language (VISA-A-NL), and to assess its reliability, validity, and applicability to non-athletes. After translation according to a forward-backward protocol, 101 patients with complaints of
Shiraki, Yumi; Hiruma, Masataro; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; Sugita, Takashi; Ikeda, Shigaku
The emerging outbreak of Trichophyton tonsurans infection among members of combat sports clubs in Japan during the last 4 years has become a serious public health problem. To overcome this outbreak, a survey for T. tonsurans infection in Japan may be essential. We sought to clarify the prevalence of T. tonsurans infection among members of combat sports clubs in Japan. We conducted a survey of members of participating combat sports clubs using a standardized questionnaire to assess background factors and using the hairbrush method to identify T. tonsurans infection. Statistical significance of the correlation between data from the questionnaire and the hairbrush culture results was determined. We surveyed 1000 people (826 male) from 49 institutions and found 115 (11.5%) were positive for T. tonsurans infection revealed by the hairbrush method. Demographic factors associated with high positive rates (> or =20%) of the infection were familial T. tonsurans infection (20.0%), history of tinea corporis (24.2%), increased dandruff (32.1%), and concomitant tinea corporis (31.6%). Those with positive hairbrush culture results without current or previous tinea were considered asymptomatic carriers. The study population was limited to members of judo clubs all over Japan; they were asked to participate in this survey via the All Japan Judo Federation. Infection of T. tonsurans appears to have spread widely among members of combat sports club in Japan. The questionnaire used in this study is a simple and useful tool to estimate epidemiology of this infection.
D. Pecher (Diane); S. van Dantzig (Saskia); H.N.J. Schifferstien (Hendrik)
textabstractAccording to theories of grounded cognition, conceptual representation and perception share processing mechanisms. We investigated whether this overlap is due to conscious perceptual imagery. Participants filled out questionnaires to assess the vividness of their imagery (Questionnaire
Karageorghis, Costas I; Smith, Danielle L; Priest, David-Lee
A device was developed in 2008 by Hypnoke International Ltd. for use by performance consultants and hypnotherapists. It enhances a practitioner's voice and blocks out auditory distractions while delivering imagery inductions, thereby increasing their effectiveness. This study examined the impact of voice-enhancement technology and relaxing music on the frequency of imagery experienced by a sample of elite British break dancers (N = 20; mean age = 26.5 years, SD = 1.5 years). An imagery script was administered to participants under four conditions: voice enhancement with music, voice enhancement only, a music-only control, and a no-voice-enhancement-and-no-music control. Frequency of imagery was assessed using the Sport Imagery Questionnaire. There was a higher incidence of imagery in the voice enhancement with music, voice enhancement only, and music-only conditions when compared to the no-voice-enhancement-and-no-music control. The key finding was that imagery was most frequent when voice enhancement was combined with music in a complementary manner. Thus, it is concluded that the use of voice enhancement technology can improve the efficacy of relaxation and imagery training for break dancers, and potentially, dancers in general.
Clarsen, Benjamin; Rønsen, Ola; Myklebust, Grethe; Flørenes, Tonje Wåle; Bahr, Roald
Little information exists on the illness and injury patterns of athletes preparing for the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Among the possible explanations for the current lack of knowledge are the methodological challenges faced in conducting prospective studies of large, heterogeneous groups of athletes, particularly when overuse injuries and illnesses are of concern. To describe a new surveillance method that is capable of recording all types of health problems and to use it to study the illness and injury patterns of Norwegian athletes preparing for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. A total of 142 athletes were monitored over a 40-week period using a weekly online questionnaire on health problems. Team medical personnel were used to classify and diagnose all reported complaints. A total of 617 health problems were registered during the project, including 329 illnesses and 288 injuries. At any given time, 36% of athletes had health problems (95% CI 34% to 38%) and 15% of athletes (95% CI 14% to 16%) had substantial problems, defined as those leading to moderate or severe reductions in sports performance or participation, or time loss. Overuse injuries represented 49% of the total burden of health problems, measured as the cumulative severity score, compared to illness (36%) and acute injuries (13%). The new method was sensitive and valid in documenting the pattern of acute injuries, overuse injuries and illnesses in a large, heterogeneous group of athletes preparing for the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
Longitudinal microvascularity in achilles tendinopathy (power doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging time-intensity curves and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire): a pilot study
Richards, Paula J.; McCall, Iain W.; Day, Christopher; Belcher, John; Maffulli, Nicola
To evaluate the imaging of the natural history of Achilles tendinopathy microvascularisation in comparison with symptoms, using a validated disease-specific questionnaire [the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A)]. A longitudinal prospective pilot study of nine patients with post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), time-intensity curve (TIC) enhancement, ultrasound (US) and power Doppler (PD) evaluation of tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon undergoing conservative management (eccentric exercise) over 1 year. There were five men and four women [mean age 47 (range 30-62) years]. Six asymptomatic tendons with normal US and MRI appearance showed less enhancement than the tibial metaphysis did and showed a flat, constant, but very low rate of enhancement in the bone and Achilles tendon (9-73 arbitrary TIC units). These normal Achilles tendons on imaging showed a constant size throughout the year (mean 4.9 mm). At baseline the TIC enhancement in those with tendinopathy ranged from 90 arbitrary units to 509 arbitrary units. Over time, 11 abnormal Achilles tendons, whose symptoms settled, were associated with a reduction in MRI enhancement mirrored by a reduction in the number of vessels on power Doppler (8.0 to 2.7), with an improvement in morphology and a reduction in tendon size (mean 15-10.6 mm). One tendon did not change its abnormal imaging features, despite improving symptoms. Two patients developed contralateral symptoms and tendinopathy, and one had more abnormal vascularity on power Doppler and higher MRI TIC peaks in the asymptomatic side. In patient with conservatively managed tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon over 1 year there was a reduction of MRI enhancement and number of vessels on power Doppler, followed by morphological improvements and a reduction in size. Vessels per se related to the abnormal morphology and size of the tendon rather than symptoms. Symptoms improve before the Achilles size reduces and the
Longitudinal microvascularity in achilles tendinopathy (power doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging time-intensity curves and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire): a pilot study
Richards, Paula J. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (UHNS), Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); North Staffs. Royal Infirmary, X-ray Department, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); McCall, Iain W. [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); North Staffordshire NHS Trust, Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Day, Christopher [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (UHNS), Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Belcher, John [Cardiff University, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, North Wales Clinical School, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Maffulli, Nicola [Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire (United Kingdom)
To evaluate the imaging of the natural history of Achilles tendinopathy microvascularisation in comparison with symptoms, using a validated disease-specific questionnaire [the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A)]. A longitudinal prospective pilot study of nine patients with post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), time-intensity curve (TIC) enhancement, ultrasound (US) and power Doppler (PD) evaluation of tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon undergoing conservative management (eccentric exercise) over 1 year. There were five men and four women [mean age 47 (range 30-62) years]. Six asymptomatic tendons with normal US and MRI appearance showed less enhancement than the tibial metaphysis did and showed a flat, constant, but very low rate of enhancement in the bone and Achilles tendon (9-73 arbitrary TIC units). These normal Achilles tendons on imaging showed a constant size throughout the year (mean 4.9 mm). At baseline the TIC enhancement in those with tendinopathy ranged from 90 arbitrary units to 509 arbitrary units. Over time, 11 abnormal Achilles tendons, whose symptoms settled, were associated with a reduction in MRI enhancement mirrored by a reduction in the number of vessels on power Doppler (8.0 to 2.7), with an improvement in morphology and a reduction in tendon size (mean 15-10.6 mm). One tendon did not change its abnormal imaging features, despite improving symptoms. Two patients developed contralateral symptoms and tendinopathy, and one had more abnormal vascularity on power Doppler and higher MRI TIC peaks in the asymptomatic side. In patient with conservatively managed tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon over 1 year there was a reduction of MRI enhancement and number of vessels on power Doppler, followed by morphological improvements and a reduction in size. Vessels per se related to the abnormal morphology and size of the tendon rather than symptoms. Symptoms improve before the Achilles size reduces and the
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Existing evidence for olfactory imagery is mixed and mainly based on reports from hallucinations and volitional imagery. Using a questionnaire, Stevenson and Case (2005) showed that olfactory dreams provided a good source for olfactory imagery studies. This study applied an extended version of the same questionnaire and examined olfactory dreams and their relation to real-life experienced odors, volitional imagery, and olfactory interest. Results showed that olfactory dreams were similar to r...
The subjective dimension of decision making in sport development and validity of the cetd questionnaire of sport decision style Dimensión subjetiva de la toma de decisiones en el deporte: desarrollo y validación del cuestionario cetd de estilo de decision en el deporte
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One of the main objectives of sport psychological research is knowing how sportsmen and women understand, perceive, interpret and decide in sport situations. This study presents the results of the development and validation of a questionnaire for analysing the personal dimension of decision making in sport. This instrument permits to explore different aspects of this process such as commitment with the decision training, perceived decisional competence and anxiety with decisional situations. Its psychometric properties permits to say that is an adequate tool for sport psychologists and coaches in order to improve psychological process implied in sport decisions.
KEY WORDS: Decision making, questionnaire, psychological processes, assessment
Una de los retos de la investigación sobre los procesos psicológicos en el ámbito deportivo es acercarse a la comprensión de lo que percibe, interpreta y decide el deportista ante las situaciones que su deporte le presenta. En el presente estudio se presenta el desarrollo y validación de un instrumento para analizar la dimensión subjetiva de la toma de decisiones en el deporte. Este instrumento permite explorar aspectos relacionados con la toma de decisiones tales como el compromiso al decidir, la competencia decisional percibida así como la ansiedad y el agobio al decidir.
Sus características psicométricas permite que se puede considerar adecuados para poder ser empleado por los profesionales del Deporte y la Psicología con intenciones de mejorar los aspectos psicológicos y emocionales de los deportistas participantes en deportes en los que la decisión es fundamental.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Toma de decisiones, Cuestionario, procesos psicológicos, evaluación
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Imagery Data Base Facility supports AFRL and other government organizations by providing imagery interpretation and analysis to users for data selection, imagery...
Tradução e validação da adaptação para o exercício do Perceived Motivational Climate Sport Questionnaire Translation and validation of the exercise adaptation of the Perceived Motivational Climate Sport Questionnaire
Full Text Available O objetivo principal do estudo é a tradução e validação da versão portuguesa da adaptação ao exercício do Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ, com recurso à análise fatorial exploratória (AFE e confirmatória (AFC, realizadas com dois grupos independentes de praticantes de exercício em ginásios, de ambos os géneros e com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 64 anos. Na AFE os resultados revelam uma estrutura que explica 52% da variância dos resultados, pesos fatoriais entre 0.63 e 0.80, e uma boa consistência interna (αMestria=0.78; αPerformance=0.74. Na AFC os resultados indicam um excelente ajustamento do modelo: S-Bχ²=40.6; df=34; p=0.20; S-Bχ²/df=1.19; SRMR=0.03; NNFI=0.98; CFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.02; 90% IC RMSEA=0.00-0.05, uma consistência interna razoável (αMestria=0.74; αPerformance=0.75, e pesos fatoriais entre 0.50 e 0.79, o que nos leva a concluir que a versão Portuguesa da adaptação do PMCSQ ao exercício pode ser utilizada na avaliação do clima motivacional no exercício.The main purpose of this study is to present the results of translation and validation of the Portuguese version of Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ adaptation to exercise, through exploratory (EFA and confirmatory (CFA factor analysis, performed with two independent groups of participants, all exercisers in private fitness clubs, of both sexes, and aged between 14 and 64 years old. The EFA results reveal a structure explaining 52% of total variance, with factor loadings ranged from 0.63 to 0.80, and reasonable reliability (αMastery=0.78; αPerformance=0.74. The AFC results showed an excellent model fit to data: S-Bχ²=40.6; df=34; p=0.20; S-Bχ²/df=1.19; SRMR=0.03; NNFI=0.98; CFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.02; 90% IC RMSEA=0.00-0.05, an acceptable reliability (αMastery=0.74; αPerformance=0.75, and factor loadings ranged from 0.50 to 0.79, which leads us to conclude that Portuguese version of
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
Finch, Laura M.
Imagery is a powerful sport psychology tool easily accessible to coaches. These reminders can help coaches improve their athletes' images and performance: (1) Create vivid and controllable images; (2) Use polysensory images and instructional cues, delivered, ideally, in real time; (3) Use internal and external perspectives; (4) Use imagery during…
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this ... or routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find ...
... with Paralysis > Health > Staying active > Team sports Team sports ☷ ▾ Page contents Basketball Quad rugby Sled hockey Softball ... Basketball Basketball is probably the most well-developed sport for wheelchair users in the United States, for ...
Sport tourism is one specific type of travel and tourism. The goal of this article is to introduce the definition and importance of sport tourism to academic and sports professionals. At present, sport tourism is a diverse social, economic and cultural phenomenon arising from the unique interaction of activity, people and place. The second part of this article reports about sports events as an important part of sport tourism.
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Peters, Chris; Allan, Stuart
the gradual disappearance of media from personal consciousness in a digital age. If ceaselessness is a defining characteristic of the current era, our analysis reveals that the use of smartphone cameras is indicative of people affectively and self-consciously deploying the technology to try to arrest......User-based research into the lived experiences associated with smartphone camera practices – in particular, the taking, storing, curating, and sharing of personal imagery in the digital media sphere – remains scarce, especially in contrast to their increasing ubiquity. Accordingly, this article...
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen staan centraal in deze toekomstverkenning over sport die werd uitgevoerd door het RIVM en het SCP, op verzoek van het ministerie van Volksgezondheid, Welzijn en Sport (VWS). In de Sport Toekomstverken...
Full Text Available Introduction. This article is devoted to sports tourism. The purpose of this article is to examine theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. Material and methods. In this part the authors develop the idea of the role of doing sports and keeping fit. For anyone who really wants to be healthy, fitness has become an integral part of their lives. Results. The purpose of this research is to study theoretical material on sports tourism, to analyze sports tourism in Russia and to search for promising areas for the study of sports tourism in our country. On the basis of their research the authors come to the conclusion that sports and tourism are interconnected. There are important factors affecting the situation of sports tourism in Russia. The paper examines sports tourism attractions in Russia. Conclusion. The authors conclude that there exists a high correlation dependence of foreign and domestic development of sports tourism on resources allocated for sports infrastructure. All in all, sports tourism tours draw visitors to their favorite sporting event, facility, or destination throughout the world.
Jiang, Dan; Edwards, Martin G; Mullins, Paul; Callow, Nichola
Research highlights that internal visual, external visual and kinesthetic imagery differentially effect motor performance (White & Hardy, 1995; Hardy & Callow, 1999). However, patterns of brain activation subserving these different imagery perspectives and modalities have not yet been established. In the current study, we applied the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2) to study the brain activation underpinning these types of imagery. Participants with high imagery ability (using the VMIQ-2) were selected to participate in the study. The experimental conditions involved imagining an action (one item from the VMIQ-2) using internal visual imagery, external visual imagery, kinesthetic imagery and a perceptual control condition involved looking at a fixation cross. The imagery conditions were presented using a block design and the participants' brain activation was recorded using 3T fMRI. A post-experimental questionnaire was administered to test if participants were able to maintain the imagery during the task and if they switched between the imagery perspective/modalities. Four participants failed to adhere to the imagery conditions, and their data was excluded from analysis. As hypothesized, the different perspectives and modalities of imagery elicited both common areas of activation (in the right supplementary motor area, BA6) and dissociated areas of activation. Specifically, internal visual imagery activated occipital, parietal and frontal brain areas (i.e., the dorsal stream) while external visual imagery activated occipital ventral stream areas and kinesthetic imagery activated caudate and cerebellum areas. These results provide the first central evidence for the visual perspectives and modalities delineated in the VMIQ-2, and, initial biological validity for the VMIQ-2. However, given that only one item from the VMIQ-2 was employed, future fMRI research needs to explore all items to further examine these contentions. Copyright © 2015
Hubbard, Timothy L.
The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…
Background: Sport tourism plays an important role in the tourism industry and consequently in the economy. Sport tourism centres as providers of sport services need to be familiar with the basic needs of their customers and tailor their services accordingly. Objectives: The aim of the paper is to determine the models for customizing sport tourism services to address the needs specific for an individual sport. Methods/Approach: A questionnaire has been created and sent electronically or physic...
Overbye, Marie Birch
Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...... a web-based questionnaire (N = 645; response rate 43%) and uses qualitative findings to elaborate on and explain quantitative results. Results showed that two-thirds of the athletes reported the national testing programme in their sport to be appropriate. A majority of the athletes who had an opinion...
Andressa Melina Becker da Silva
Full Text Available Resumo O estresse ocorre na transação indivíduo-ambiente quando eventos são avaliados como excedendo a capacidade de enfrentá-los e ameaçam o bem-estar. Para sua avaliação no contexto da dança, há poucos instrumentos. Este estudo adaptou para dançarinos adolescentes o questionário Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport, verificando-se suas evidências de validade. Foram avaliados 264 dançarinos brasileiros, de ambos os sexos (93,18% mulheres, com idade média de 14,69 anos, durante festivais de dança de nível nacional e internacional. Verificaram-se as evidências de validade de conteúdo, com auxílio de juízes, e evidências de validade de consistência interna (análise fatorial e alfa de Cronbach. O RESTQ-Dance ficou com 63 itens, organizados em três fatores: Fator 1 - Estresse Geral (26 itens, α = 0,92; Fator 2 - Recuperação (27 itens, α = 0,91; Fator 3 - Estresse Específico (10 itens, α = 0,79; sendo excluídos 14 itens nesse processo. O instrumento apresenta propriedades psicométricas adequadas para uso com dançarinos.
Dana, Amir; Gozalzadeh, Elmira
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of internal and external visual imagery perspectives on performance accuracy of open and closed tennis skills (i.e., serve, forehand, and backhand) among novices. Thirty-six young male novices, aged 15-18 years, from a summer tennis program participated. Following initial skill acquisition (12 sessions), baseline assessments of imagery ability and imagery perspective preference were used to assign participants to one of three groups: internal imagery ( n = 12), external imagery ( n = 12), or a no-imagery (mental math exercise) control group ( n = 12). The experimental interventions of 15 minutes of mental imagery (internal or external) or mental math exercises followed by 15 minutes of physical practice were held three times a week for six weeks. The performance accuracy of the groups on the serve, forehand, and backhand strokes was measured at pre- and post-test using videotaping. Results showed significant increases in the performance accuracy of all three tennis strokes in all three groups, but serve accuracy in the internal imagery group and forehand accuracy in the external imagery group showed greater improvements, while backhand accuracy was similarly improved in all three groups. These findings highlight differential efficacy of internal and external visual imagery for performance improvement on complex sport skills in early stage motor learning.
Schwab, Keri A.; Dustin, Daniel; Legg, Eric; Timmerman, Danielle; Wells, Mary Sara; Arthur-Banning, Skye G.
The purpose of this study was to better understand sport management students within departments of parks, recreation, and tourism, and to address the often uneasy fit faculty experience when trying to educate sport and recreation students in the same classes. Researchers sent a 16-item online questionnaire to 1,337 undergraduate sport management…
Full Text Available Realisation of sport activities always demanded certain conditions. Among those, sports facilities are certainly necessary. Since there were important changes in the process of training itself and successful performance, as well as, the results achieved by the sportsmen; there is a need for adequate sports facilities, that include whole variety of systems,equipment and necessities. Nowadays, Sport facilities are not only “the place of event”, but also a condition/necessity in achieving best sport results. It is demanded that these facilities are comfortable, absolutely secure and that they can accommodate transmissions: an opening, the course of sports activities and the announcement of the winner. The kind of sport activity, age, sex; so the “sports level” of the competitors is emphasising the specific demands to wards sports facilities.
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
There are different motor sets, which a human subject can be in or act from: he or she can be in a self-initiated voluntary movement set (action) or in a response set (re-action). Also, imagery sets are available that are necessary for the acquisition and practice of skill. Most important are such imagery sets for rehearsal in theatre, dance, music, sports, combat, etc.
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
If you are an athlete or sports enthusiast, you know that every second counts. To find that 1-2% improvement that can make the difference between 1st and 5th place, sport biomechanists use science to investigate sports techniques and equipment, seeking ways to improve athlete performance and reduce injury risk. In essence, they want athletes to…
Full Text Available Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.
Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter
Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.
Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter
Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants’ galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level. PMID:28414741
Full Text Available Moral behavior in sports is one of the most important issues that concern sportspersons. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ethical work climate that prevails in non profit sport teams is related to moral behaviours (sports personship. Two hundred and fourteen students of three sport schools (n=126males, n=88females, aged between 12-18 years, from ten different sports (both individual and team have been used in this study. The students filled in the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor &Cullen, 1987, 1988 and the Multidimensional Sportsperson-ship Orientation Scale (Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, & Provencher, 1997. The results revealed the presence of a caring climate in non profit sport teams. Moreover, it was found that the individual climate is positively related to the four dimensions of sportsperson ship, while the machiavelianism climate is negatively related to the dimension respect for rules and officials.
Williams, Sarah E; Cumming, Jennifer; Edwards, Martin G
Based on literature identifying movement imagery, observation, and execution to elicit similar areas of neural activity, research has demonstrated that movement imagery and observation successfully prime movement execution. To investigate whether movement and observation could prime ease of imaging from an external visual-imagery perspective, an internal visual-imagery perspective, and kinesthetic modality, 36 participants (M age = 20.58; SD = 3.11; 18 women and 18 men) completed an adapted version of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised under four modes of delivery (movement prime, external observation prime, internal observation prime, and image-only). The results revealed that ease of imaging was significantly greater during the movement and observation prime conditions compared to the image-only condition (p movement and observation to facilitate ease of imaging, but highlight the importance of considering the visual perspective when using observation.
Pérez-Fabello, Maria José; Campos, Alfredo; Gómez-Juncal, Rocío
This study investigated relationships between visual imaging abilities (imaging capacity and imagery control) and academic performance in 146 Fine Arts students (31 men, 115 women). Mean age was 22.3 yr. (SD= 1.9; range 20-26 yr.). All of the participants who volunteered for the experiment regularly attended classes and were first, second, or third year students. For evaluation of imaging abilities, the Spanish versions of the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control, the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire, and Betts' Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery were used. Academic performance was assessed in four areas, Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, and Complementary Subjects, over a three-year period. The results indicate that imagery control was associated with academic performance in Fine Arts. These findings are discussed in the context of previous studies, and new lines of research are proposed.
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback web application allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program...
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...
Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity
This survey attempted to measure student involvement in intramural sports and related interests. A three-part questionnaire dealing with personal information, intramural sports, and related sports interests was completed by 1,159 Iowa State University students. The data indicated the following: (a) most students surveyed either participated in…
Pavlik, Katherine; Nordin-Bates, Sanna
Dance imagery is a consciously created mental representation of an experience, either real or imaginary, that may affect the dancer and her or his movement. In this study, imagery research in dance was reviewed in order to: 1. describe the themes and ideas that the current literature has attempted to illuminate and 2. discover the extent to which this literature fits the Revised Applied Model of Deliberate Imagery Use. A systematic search was performed, and 43 articles from 24 journals were found to fit the inclusion criteria. The articles were reviewed, analyzed, and categorized. The findings from the articles were then reported using the Revised Applied Model as a framework. Detailed descriptions of Who, What, When and Where, Why, How, and Imagery Ability were provided, along with comparisons to the field of sports imagery. Limitations within the field, such as the use of non-dance-specific and study-specific measurements, make comparisons and clear conclusions difficult to formulate. Future research can address these problems through the creation of dance-specific measurements, higher participant rates, and consistent methodologies between studies.
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing......Ever since its first manifesto in Greece around 3000 years ago, sports as a field has accumulated a long history with strong traditions while at the same time, gone through tremendous changes toward professionalization and commercialization. The current waves of digitalization have intensified its...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
Full Text Available Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (cognitive style on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4x4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ. Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches.
Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K
Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences ("cognitive style") on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task requiring memorization of a 4 × 4 lettered matrix and subsequent mental construction of shapes within the matrix from four-letter auditory cues. They also completed the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale (SBSoDS) and a self-evaluation of cognitive style. The sighted participants also completed the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ). Visual status affected performance on the spatial imagery task: the blind performed significantly worse than the sighted, independently of the age at which form vision was completely lost. Visual status did not affect the distribution of preferences based on self-reported cognitive style. Across all participants, self-reported verbalizer scores were significantly negatively correlated with accuracy on the spatial imagery task. There was a positive correlation between the SBSoDS score and accuracy on the spatial imagery task, across all participants, indicating that a better sense of direction is related to a more proficient spatial representation and that the imagery task indexes ecologically relevant spatial abilities. Moreover, the older the participants were, the worse their performance was, indicating a detrimental effect of age on spatial imagery performance. Thus, spatial skills represent an important target for rehabilitative approaches to visual impairment, and individual differences, which can modulate performance, should be taken into account in such approaches.
Purpose: determine the social significance and especially the development of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine. Material : a questionnaire survey of 50 experts in the sphere of physical culture and sports. Results : notes that children and youth and sports reserve three tasks: training of sports reserve, rehabilitation of children and youth, education of children and youth. Structure of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine in 1455 has youth sports schools, 184 specialized youth sports school...
Pérez-Fabello, María José; Campos, Alfredo
The relationship between dissociation and auditory imagery were assessed, 2 variables that sometime influence on artistic creativity. A total of 170 fine arts undergraduates (94 women and 76 men) received 2 dissociation questionnaires--the Dissociative Ability Scale (DAS), and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES)--and 2 auditory imagery…
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Wheeler, Robert F.
Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)
Schack, Thomas; Essig, Kai; Frank, Cornelia; Koester, Dirk
Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that basic action concepts (BACs) are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, the structural dimensional analysis of mental representation (SDA-M), to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations (MTMR) has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.
Full Text Available Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that Basic Action Concepts (BACs are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, SDA-M (structural dimensional analysis of mental representation, to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.
Krotee, March L.
Sport psychology is defined in terms of human behavior in athletic situations. The psychosocial cross-cultural setting provides a model for studying trait and state psychosocial attributes and suggests issues and concerns for further study. (JMF)
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Zeri, F; Livi, S; Maffioletti, S
To evaluate sport professionals' attitudes towards visual correction in sport. A questionnaire was handed out in schools, gyms, sports centres and universities, to coaches, physical education teachers and final year students of motor science. The questionnaire was given to one group of sport physicians prior to a 1-day scientific update course on the benefits of contact lenses (CLs) in sport. At the end of the course, certain questions from the questionnaire were given out again in order to evaluate the effect of the update on their opinions. A total of 245 questionnaires were collected. The interviewees stated that correcting a vision defect during sports practice was important, but their propensity to suggest CLs for sport, though still rather high in value, showed a statistically significant drop. This drop did not occur if the CLs were recommended for competitive sports. This trend remained unchanged if a specific judgement was requested for the adolescent category. The tendency to suggest CLs was higher in CL wearers as compared to non-wearers. The sport with the lowest recommendation of CLs was swimming. In the sample of sports physicians, a specific education on the subject of CLs increased the propensity to adopt CLs in sports. The main "actors" in the sports sector regard correcting a vision defect during sport to be important. Nevertheless, their tendency to suggest CLs is significantly lower. Works that make these categories aware of the benefits of CLs in sport can certainly help to fill this gap. Copyright © 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
Zahariadis, Panayotis; Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos; Alexandris, Konstantinos
The study tested utility of self-determination and sport commitment theories to understanding young athletes' sport commitment. 343 young athletes (M= 13.5 yr., SD= +/- 1.1) from soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, and water polo teams volunteered to participate. All completed the Sport Motivation Scale and the Sport Commitment Questionnaire. Pearson correlations showed a strong relationship between commitment and intrinsic motivation scores. In contrast, extrinsic motivation scores were not significantly correlated to commitment, whereas amotivation scores showed a negative correlation to commitment. Path analysis resulted in strong positive association of intrinsic motivation and commitment. Amotivation had small negative relation to commitment. According to the model tested, social constraints and involvement opportunities were not significant contributors to sport commitment. An alternative model supported the mediating role of enjoyment to psychological commitment. The results showed that high self-determination is supportive of sport commitment, whereas low self-determination reduces sport commitment.
Background Extracurricular school-based sports are considered to be an ideal means of reaching children who are not active in community sports. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent to which pupils not engaging in community sports do participate in extracurricular school-based sports, and to assess whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or more autonomously motivated towards sports in daily life than children who do not participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Methods One thousand forty-nine children (53.7% boys; M age = 11.02 years, SD = 0.02) out of 60 classes from 30 Flemish elementary schools, with an extracurricular school-based sports offer, completed validated questionnaires to assess physical activity (Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire) and motivation (Behavioral Regulations in Physical Education Questionnaire). Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the data generated from these questionnaires. Results More than three quarters of the children (76%) reported participating in extracurricular school-based sports during the current school year and 73% reported engaging in organized community sports. Almost two third of the children (65%) not participating in community sports stated that they did participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Extracurricular school-based sports participants were significantly more physically active than children not participating in extracurricular school-based sports (β = 157.62, p sports participation × community sports participation) were found for autonomous motivation, with boys engaging in extracurricular school-based sports but not in community sports being significantly more autonomously motivated towards sports than boys not engaging in community or extracurricular school-based sports (β = 0.58, p = 0.003). Such differences were not noted among girls. Conclusions If extracurricular school-based sports are offered
Blazhenkova, Olesya; Becker, Michael; Kozhevnikov, Maria
A new self-report instrument, the Children's Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (C-OSIVQ), was designed to assess cognitive styles in younger populations (8-17 years old). The questionnaire was based on the previously developed adult version of the Object-Spatial Imagery and Verbal Questionnaire (OSIVQ; Blazhenkova & Kozhevnikov,…
N. V. Tikhonova
Full Text Available Purpose: determine the social significance and especially the development of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine. Material : a questionnaire survey of 50 experts in the sphere of physical culture and sports. Results : notes that children and youth and sports reserve three tasks: training of sports reserve, rehabilitation of children and youth, education of children and youth. Structure of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine in 1455 has youth sports schools, 184 specialized youth sports school of Olympic reserve, sports club 4522, 891 children and youth sports and sports club in the community population, 17 schools of Physical Culture and Olympic reserve, 35 high school sports. Conclusions : Children and Youth and reserve a sport that requires a thorough reform. Determined that develop youth sport must youth sports school.
... athletes' age, sport participation experience and year of study. Data were collected through participation motivation questionnaire (PMQ) from 132 female athletes participating in university sport championship. Results indicated that the primary motives for participation were to improve skills, physical fitness and team spirit.
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John
Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave
The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander
Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689
Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean
Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children
symptoms signifying a hostile-aggressive dimension, factor 2 an anxious-fearful dimension, and factor 3 emerged as a ... Objective. This paper examines the factor structure of the. Yoruba translation of the Children's Behaviour Questionnaire .... Twitches/mannerisms/tics. Sucks thumb/finger. Bites nails. Often disobedient.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is in response to natural disasters. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The majority...
畑, 攻; 小野里, 真弓
Spectator sports in Japan have been rapidly increasing, and sports marketing area has been so highlighted, The purpose of this study was to clarify efficient spectator sports market segments. This study employed specially designed questionnaire which were consisted of general demographics, favorite sports, and items of attendance behavior. Samples were gathered from real attendance of Japan Professional Baseball League, Japan Professional Football League, and Japan Women's Basketball League. ...
The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes’ dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year students). A total of 216 responses were collected. All participants of this study belonged to university sport clubs and they majored in sport an...
Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.
This document presents the Ohio Integrated Technical and Academic Competency profile for sports marketing. The profile is to serve as the basis for curriculum development in Ohio's secondary, adult, and postsecondary programs. The profile includes a comprehensive listing of 999 specialty key indicators for evaluating mastery of 113 competencies in…
Zebas, Carole J., Ed.; Groppel, Jack L., Ed.
In six articles on racquet sports, the origins of the games are traced, methods for teaching skills such as footwork, racquetball strategy, and badminton techniques are discussed, and the biomechanics of the one- and two-handed backhand in tennis are reviewed. Information about paddle tennis is included. (PP)
This review describes and classifies the trajectories of sports projectiles that have spherical symmetry, cylindrical symmetry, or (almost) no symmetry. This classification allows us to discuss the large diversity observed in the paths of spherical balls, the flip properties of shuttlecocks, and the optimal position and stability of ski jumpers.
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
... motivator. Physically, you need strength and endurance. Your training will vary with your sport. You would not train the same way for pole vaulting as for swimming. You might, however, cross train. Cross training simply means that you include a variety of ...
The present study aimed to examine how players’ positional data can be used to assess the transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports (basketball, football and rugby) in early specialized and diversified sport careers. Thirty-four college students were divided into early specialization and early diversification groups, according to information provided by a questionnaire designed to obtain detailed information about their sports career. In-game derived variables were calculated based on ...
Henke, T; Luig, P; Schulz, D
Almost one of four Germans is registered in a sports club. Nowadays, sport is acknowledged as an integral component of a healthy lifestyle. Numerous studies provide evidence of the benefits of sports on health. However, about 2 million sports injuries per year diminish the health benefits of sport. (a) Description of the epidemiology of sports injuries in German sports club between 1987 and 2012 and (b) identification of focal areas for the development and implementation of prevention measures. Continuous questionnaire-based injury monitoring of club sports injuries that have been reported to the respective sports insurance. Full survey among selected federal sports associations. Since 1987, a sample of 200,884 sports injuries has been established. About two thirds of the injuries are reported in soccer, handball, basketball, and volleyball, although only one third of all sports club members are registered in these team sports. The number of women's soccer injuries has risen from 7.5 to 15.6 %. Ankle injuries have decreased from 28.7 to 16.9 %. By contrast, the rate of knee injuries has increased from 18.4 to 20.3 %. Days of disability have dropped steadily since the 1990s. Inpatient hospital days have decreased from 10 to 5 days, whereas the share of injuries that needed surgery increased from 30 to 40 %. Team ball sports are still a clear focal area for injury prevention, as participation and injury risk are highest in this group. While the prevention of ankle injuries seems to be headed in the right direction, knee injuries are increasing. As team ball sports become more popular among women, who are more prone to severe knee injuries, prevention programs should be tailored toward the specific situation and needs of the targeted sports participants.
Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.
Gürkan, Alper Cenk
The purpose of this study is to determine visually disabled athletes' reasons of starting sport, and their expectations from sport in Turkey. Totally 100 athletes with visual disability in Turkey (26 individual sport, 74 team sports) participated in the research. Athletes with visual disability answered the questionnaire which was prepared by…
López-Vicente, Mónica; Tiemeier, Henning; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Sunyer, Jordi; White, Tonya
We studied cortical morphology in relation to sports participation and type of sport using a large sample of healthy children (n = 911). Sports participation data was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired, and different morphological brain features were quantified. Global volumetric measures were not associated with sports participation. We observed thicker cortex in motor and premotor areas associated with sports participation. In boys, team sports participation, relative to individual sports, was related to thinner cortex in prefrontal brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviors. This study showed a relationship between sports participation and brain maturation.
Full Text Available Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004.The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge of sports nutrition in sports coaching. Mthods: The sample was composed of 30 licensed coaches from Montenegro (football, handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics and tennis. Knowledge of sports nutrition was tested by means of a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to determine the knowledge manager on sports nutrition, the ingredients that are necessary in order to provide a sufficient amount of energy to training and competition, the dietary supplements, meal prior to the competition as well as dehydration and rehydration during training and competition. The survey was anonymous. The data were analyzed by statistical methods, using the statistical software STATISTICA for WINDOWS. Results: According to the results as a whole, it can be concluded that the trainer's knowledge of sports nutrition at a satisfactory level. Out of 600 responses was achieved 469 correct answers, or 78.1%. However, when looking at individual responses then satisfaction with the relative high percentage loss since the observed large gaps on very important issues related to sports nutrition. Discussion: By analyzing and comparing research results (Matkovic, Prince & Cigrovski, 2006 that in a sample of 56 coaches basketball and skiing, received 77.8% of correct answers and insight into the results of our study, it is clear that the results of the approximate value of both work, which is an indicator of quality
Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165
When I am looking at my coffee machine that makes funny noises, this is an instance of multisensory perception - I perceive this event by means of both vision and audition. But very often we only receive sensory stimulation from a multisensory event by means of one sense modality, for example, when I hear the noisy coffee machine in the next room, that is, without seeing it. The aim of this paper is to bring together empirical findings about multimodal perception and empirical findings about (visual, auditory, tactile) mental imagery and argue that on occasions like this, we have multimodal mental imagery: perceptual processing in one sense modality (here: vision) that is triggered by sensory stimulation in another sense modality (here: audition). Multimodal mental imagery is not a rare and obscure phenomenon. The vast majority of what we perceive are multisensory events: events that can be perceived in more than one sense modality - like the noisy coffee machine. And most of the time we are only acquainted with these multisensory events via a subset of the sense modalities involved - all the other aspects of these multisensory events are represented by means of multisensory mental imagery. This means that multisensory mental imagery is a crucial element of almost all instances of everyday perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dorota M. Jankowska
Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.
Christensen, Mette Krogh
Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those...
Covassin, Tracey; Beidler, Erica; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Wallace, Jessica
When an athlete is injured, the primary focus of the sports medicine team is to treat the physical effects of the injury. However, many injured athletes experience negative psychological responses that should also be addressed throughout the rehabilitation process. Sports medicine professions should use psychosocial skills to help decrease the negative consequences of the injury, such as fear of reinjury, anxiety, depression, and adherence to rehabilitation. These psychosocial skills include goal setting, imagery, relaxation techniques, motivation, and self-talk. This article addresses the negative consequences of injury, psychosocial skills used to aid in the rehabilitation process, and clinical implications of the psychological aspects of rehabilitation in sport. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not
This manual presents information on motivation, communication, stress management, the use of mental imagery, and other topics for enhancing coach-athlete relationships and for stimulating improved sport performances. Part I, "Psychological Perspectives," contains two chapters dealing with the philosophy of coaching and motivation. Part II,…
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2017 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...
Ryan, Allan J.
Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...
Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate
... and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ... Splints Home Prevention and Wellness Exercise and Fitness Sports Safety Eye Injuries in Sports Eye Injuries in ...
Livesey, David J.
Investigated the relationship between Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire scores and kinesthetic acuity--the sense of body position and movement--among 10- and 14-year-olds. Found that in the older group, those with high levels of visual movement imagery performed better on measures of kinesthetic acuity; no such effect was found for…
Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu
This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…
Full Text Available Nowadays, contextual dynamics of society require new understandings of leisure available to the individual. The manner in which he intends to spend his free time may affect the quality of life, beneficial or not. We intend to identify the preferences of the population over 25 years in Iași city, for leisure practicing sport and physical activities in specialized institutions. The sample survey included 150 citizens of Iasi (75 male, 75 female, distributed by age ranges: 25-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55-64 years. They answered a questionnaire with 14 questions that focused customer profile (demographics: age, sex, the behavior of consumption (frequency of practicing sport and physical leisure activities, frequency of practicing sport and physical activities in sports clubs, preferences for various sport and physical activities. The results suggest that sport and physical activities play an important place in free time, preferences turning to programs and services offered by sports clubs and associations in the city. There are gender differences regarding: leisure sports (men devote more time to, but also include several sports activities in their free time than women; also, young people pay more attention to sports activities compared to subjects other intervals age; in sports (even if there are a number of common sports, the reasons underlying their practice (women prevail desire to lose weight and men wish to keep fit. The understanding that free time is becoming shorter and shorter and precious determines behavior directed towards ensuring the individual benefits: better health condition, relaxation and satisfaction.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...
The contemporary science of sport and exercise psychology requires the standardisation of mental skills questionnaires to facilitate accurate assessment of and intervention for individuals and groups in various health and sport related contexts. The study presents international research findings regarding the ...
Title: The using of combat sports in physical education at high school Goals: To find out the high school pupils' relation to physical education, their relation to combat sports and their relation to class of combat sports Methods: This is a quantitative research, in which will be used method of questioning by questionnaire. Results: Results indicate what the relations of high school pupils to physical education, to combat sports and to the class of combat sports. We found out, that the relat...
... Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Sports and Concussions Burner (Stinger) Concussions: Alex's Story Compulsive Exercise Repetitive Stress Injuries View more Partner Message About Us Contact ...
Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain
This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; pteam sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; pteam sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; pTeam sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
Thomson, Beth J.
Acceptance of adult roles by children increases "adult injuries," notably broken bones from sports. Suggests camp administrators be familiar with clientele, particular sports, and the kinds of injuries that generally result in each. Discusses children's age, types of sports, and other factors that come into play when anticipating and treating…
Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M
Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.
Rosanne Lynn Rademaker
Full Text Available Visual imagery has been closely linked to brain mechanisms involved in perception. Can visual imagery, like visual perception, improve by means of training? Previous research has demonstrated that people can reliably evaluate the vividness of single episodes of sensory imagination – might the metacognition of imagery also improve over the course of training? We had participants imagine colored Gabor patterns for an hour a day, over the course of five consecutive days, and again two weeks after training. Participants rated the subjective vividness and effort of their mental imagery on each trial. The influence of imagery on subsequent binocular rivalry dominance was taken as our measure of imagery strength. We found no overall effect of training on imagery strength. Training did, however, improve participant’s metacognition of imagery. Trial-by-trial ratings of vividness gained predictive power on subsequent rivalry dominance as a function of training. These data suggest that, while imagery strength might be immune to training in the current context, people’s metacognitive understanding of mental imagery can improve with practice.
Jaarsma, Eva A; Dekker, Rienk; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U
To analyse barriers to, and facilitators of, sports participation among people with physical disabilities after rehabilitation and to compare differences between inactive and active participants regarding these experienced barriers and facilitators. Participants were 1,223 adults (mean age 51.6 years, standard deviation 15.1 years) treated in the Rehabilitation Centre of the University Medical Center Groningen, who completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of a self-constructed questionnaire regarding barriers and facilitators. Fifty-eight percent of the participants were active in sports after their rehabilitation. Younger age and a higher level of education were positively associated with sports participation, whereas using assistive devices and experiencing environmental barriers were negatively associated. Facilitators of sports participation were health, fun and increasing physical strength, and advice from rehabilitation professionals. Rehabilitation professionals should emphasize the health benefits of, and enjoyment from, sports participation for people with physical disabilities. They should repeatedly remind people with physical disabilities to stay/become active after completing their rehabilitation programme. Rehabilitation professionals should also provide information about strategies to reduce environmental barriers to sports participation, which could help people using assistive devices to overcome these barriers.
Předmětem diplomové práce je návrh novostavby sportovního zařízení na úrovni dokumentace pro provedení stavby. Návrh klade důraz na dispoziční řešení včetně zajištění konstrukce pro statické stránce, architektonické, požární bezpečnosti, úspory energie a bezpečnosti při užívání objektu. Práce obsahuje textovou i grafickou část. Grafická část práce je zpracována v programu ArchiCad. The subject of the diploma thesis is to design a new building of sports facilities at the documentation for b...
Prins, Richard G; Mohnen, Sigrid M; van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; Oenema, Anke
The aim of this study is to explore whether availability of sports facilities, parks, and neighbourhood social capital (NSC) and their interaction are associated with leisure time sports participation among Dutch adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on complete data from the last wave of the YouRAction evaluation trial. Adolescents (n = 852) completed a questionnaire asking for sports participation, perceived NSC and demographics. Ecometric methods were used to aggregate perceived NSC to zip code level. Availability of sports facilities and parks was assessed by means of geographic information systems within the zip-code area and within a 1600 meter buffer. Multilevel logistic regression analyses, with neighborhood and individual as levels, were conducted to examine associations between physical and social environmental factors and leisure time sports participation. Simple slopes analysis was conducted to decompose interaction effects. NSC was significantly associated with sports participation (OR: 3.51 (95%CI: 1.18;10.41)) after adjustment for potential confounders. Availability of sports facilities and availability of parks were not associated with sports participation. A significant interaction between NSC and density of parks within the neighbourhood area (OR: 1.22 (90%CI: 1.01;1.34)) was found. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that adolescents were most likely to engage in leisure time sports when both availability of parks and NSC were highest. The results of this study indicate that leisure time sports participation is associated with levels of NSC, but not with availability of parks or sports facilities. In addition, NSC and availability of parks in the zip code area interacted in such a way that leisure time sports participation is most likely among adolescents living in zip code areas with higher levels of NSC, and higher availability of parks. Hence, availability of parks appears only to be important for leisure time
Full Text Available The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1 analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values and 2 examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy, it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.
Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry
While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
GEBRIL MOHAMED R.
Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag
Bloomquist, Lorraine E.
This report on a visit to the People's Republic of China in April 1985 to explore methodology of sports science research, treatment of injuries, and role of sports in everyday life discusses the following topics: (1) introduction to China; (2) sports and physical culture; (3) sports medicine and rehabilitation; (4) health factors; (5) cost of…
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Andries van den Broek
Oringinal title: Sport en cultuur Many people derive enjoyment from sport and culture in their free time: attending matches, performances, exhibitions or festivals, following sport and culture via the media or participating in a sport or cultural activity. Who takes part in which activities? Does
Full Text Available Analyzing questions related to business communications, especially communications in sport, is possible if the analysis of the size and the subject of the communication concept has been done before, in order to enter into a specific stratum of sport communications. This stratum contains the subjects of communications which could be realized in sport or somehow are connected with sport.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...
Malouin, Francine; Richards, Carol L; Durand, Anne; Descent, Micheline; Poiré, Diane; Frémont, Pierre; Pelet, Stéphane; Gresset, Jacques; Doyon, Julien
The ability to generate vivid images of movements is variable across individuals and likely influenced by sensorimotor inputs. The authors examined (1) the vividness of motor imagery in dancers and in persons with late blindness, with amputation or an immobilization of one lower limb; (2) the effects of prosthesis use on motor imagery; and (3) the temporal characteristics of motor imagery. Eleven dancers, 10 persons with late blindness, 14 with amputation, 6 with immobilization, and 2 groups of age-matched healthy individuals (27 in control group A; 35 in control group B) participated. The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire served to assess motor imagery vividness. Temporal characteristics were assessed with mental chronometry. The late blindness group and dance group displayed higher imagery scores than respective control groups. In the amputation and immobilization groups, imagery scores were lower on the affected side than the intact side and specifically for imagined foot movements. Imagery scores of the affected limb positively correlated with the time since walking with prosthesis. Movement times during imagination and execution (amputation and immobilization) were longer on the affected side than the intact side, but the temporal congruence between real and imagined movement times was similar to that in the control group. The mental representation of actions is highly modulated by imagery practice and motor activities. The ability to generate vivid images of movements can be specifically weakened by limb loss or disuse, but lack of movement does not affect the temporal characteristics of motor imagery.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are
Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are traveling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory, or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.
Our aim was to characterise the attitudes towards participation in sporting activities of isiZulu-speaking female students at the University of Zululand, South Africa. Using a selfadministered questionnaire, we surveyed a non-random sample of 1 004 students who did not participate in physical exercise or sport and a sample ...
The standardised TEOSQ (Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire) of Duda (1989) and intra- and interpersonal relations scale of Minnaar (1997) were administered to 112 male and female South African competitive sport participants between the ages of 17 and 25 years. The results of the study confirmed the ...
The purpose of this investigation was to establish what techniques or strategies are used by sports coaches in South Africa to motivate their athletes/players. Altogether 780 questionnaires were distributed to sports coaches, of which 274 were used for the interpretation of the data collected. A factor analysis showed that ...
Al-Arfaj, Ibrahim; Al-Shammari, Ahmad; Al-Subai, Turki; Al-Absi, Ghanim; AlJaffari, Mohammad; Al-Kadi, Ahmad; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim
The risk of dental trauma may increase during sports participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of sports participants concerning sports-related dental trauma and associated emergency/preventive practices. The study included 124 male subjects over 18 years of age participating in contact and non-contact sports in three clubs in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to assess past experience of dental trauma related to...
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Sponsorship is recognised as a significant marketing tool and restricting unhealthy food sponsorship of children's sport has been recommended by leading health agencies as a contribution towards preventing childhood obesity. This study aimed to determine the junior sporting community's support for policy interventions to restrict unhealthy food sponsorship. Sports clubs known to have food sponsors and representing the most popular sports for Australian children across a range of demographic areas were recruited. Interview-based questionnaires were conducted at clubs with parents (n=200) and officials (n=20), and with governing sporting associations (n=20). Questionnaires measured respondents' attitudes towards sponsorship and support for sponsorship regulations. Many officials and parents perceived children to be 'very' influenced by elite sport sponsorship (65% of association officials, 53% of parents and 45% of club officials). Children were thought to be less influenced by sponsorship of their own sporting clubs (10%, 11% and 10%, respectively). However, 50% of officials and 70% of parents supported restrictions to children's sport sponsorship. Respondents were most supportive of restricting the use of unhealthy food logos on children's uniforms. Restricting unhealthy food sponsorship is supported by the sporting community and policy change is needed to reduce the perceived impact of this marketing. Alternative funding mechanisms have the potential to maintain sport funding whilst reducing promotional opportunities for unhealthy food. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.
Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in motivation to participate in sport activities among sports students from three different countries. On a sample of 390 sports students from Slovenia, Croatia and Germany we studied what motivates an interest in being sports active. The sample was stratified across the choice to attend table tennis lessons at all three institutions and all students have completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ. The results revealed that the latent structure of the types of sports students' motives consisted of six factors (sport action with friend, popularity, fitness & health, social status, sports events, relaxation through sports. We also found significant sex differences in motivation to participate in sport activities for all sports students from the three different countries. We did not find relevant age-based differences among the students, and this is the only initial hypothesis that we can reject.
Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.
.... Because raw imagery has limited value until it has been exploited, the increased volume of raw imagery demands an enhanced ability for combatant commanders and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA...
PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
Santiago Romero Granados
Full Text Available This article comes from the interest in learning about the behaviour of parents in the sport of her child in the Municipal Sports Academies in Sevilla. The aim of the study is to know how much parents are able to get involved in sport practiced by their children, which behaviours they adopt and which points of view have sport technicians and children themselves of that involvement, analyzing whether all this is done as educational or not. The study consists of a sample of parents, children and technicians from different Municipal Sports Academies in Sevilla, to which were passed out a questionnaire related to the behaviour and attitudes of parents in their children’s sports, both at the level of training and level of competitions in which their children are involved. The results show that participation is largely dependent on the practiced sport and on the districts where the children involved. There are differences regarding the behaviour of both parents in training, competition, involvement ... according to where they belong.
There is a dearth of empirical data about cheating in sport. This study attempts to help fill this void by investigating perceptions regarding cheating in sport. The sample consisted of 233 final-year university sport science male (n=137) and female (n=96) students. The responses to a self-designed questionnaire revealed that ...
Davis, Kathleen A.
The purpose of this investigation was to identify and order significant factors in the career preparation of sport/recreation managers. Three hundred-ten practicing sport/recreation managers responded to a three-part questionnaire. Findings are presented, and recommendations for research and program development for sport/recreation management…
Roberts, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This report details the work performed in FY11 under project LL11-GS-PD06, “Benchmark Imagery for Assessing Geospatial Semantic Extraction Algorithms.” The original LCP for the Benchmark Imagery project called for creating a set of benchmark imagery for verifying and validating algorithms that extract semantic content from imagery. More specifically, the first year was slated to deliver real imagery that had been annotated, the second year to deliver real imagery that had composited features, and the final year was to deliver synthetic imagery modeled after the real imagery.
Tiggelman, Dana; van de Ven, Monique O M; van Schayck, Onno C P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E
Sport participation is especially important for patients with asthma in that it decreases psychosocial and physiological problems associated with inactivity. However, adolescents with asthma seem to participate less in sports compared to their non-asthmatic peers. The current study tested the direct associations between maternal sport-specific factors and sport club participation of early adolescents with asthma and the indirect effect through adolescent's sport-specific cognitions. During home visits, 261 adolescents (aged 10-15) completed questionnaires about self-efficacy, beliefs regarding sport participation, and their actual sport club participation. Their mothers reported their sport-specific support, beliefs about offspring's and own sport participation, their own levels of physical activity, and their self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports. Path analyses were used to examine the direct and indirect associations of maternal sport-specific factors with adolescents sport club participation via adolescent sport-specific cognitions. Analyses showed that maternal sport-specific support (β = 0.20, P = 0.007) and self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports (β = 0.20, P = 0.027) related positively to adolescents' sport club participation. Adolescents' self-efficacy (indirect effect = 0.09, SE = 3.01, P adolescents' participation in sport clubs. Maternal sport-specific factors related to adolescents' sport club participation directly and indirectly through adolescents' sport-specific cognitions. Intervention programs should focus on maternal sport-specific support and self-efficacy and adolescents' self-efficacy to increase sport participation of adolescents with asthma. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…
Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M
Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.
Romano, Joao M.; Felton, Melvin; Chenault, David; Sohr, Brian
The Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE) is a collaborative effort between the US Army ARDEC and ARL that is focused on the collection of mid-wave and long-wave infrared imagery using hyperspectral, polarimetric, and broadband sensors. The objective of the program is to collect a comprehensive database of the different modalities over the course of 1 to 2 years to capture sensor performance over a wide variety of weather conditions, diurnal, and seasonal changes inherent to Picatinny's northern New Jersey location. Using the Precision Armament Laboratory (PAL) tower at Picatinny Arsenal, the sensors will autonomously collect the desired data around the clock at different ranges where surrogate 2S3 Self-Propelled Howitzer targets are positioned at different viewing perspectives in an open field. The database will allow for: 1) Understanding of signature variability under adverse weather conditions; 2) Development of robust algorithms; 3) Development of new sensors; 4) Evaluation of polarimetric technology; and 5) Evaluation of fusing the different sensor modalities. In this paper, we will present the SPICE data collection objectives, the ongoing effort, the sensors that are currently deployed, and how this work will assist researches on the development and evaluation of sensors, algorithms, and fusion applications.
Romano, Joao M.; Rosario, Dalton; Farley, Vincent; Sohr, Brian
The Spectral and Polarimetric Imagery Collection Experiment (SPICE) is a collaborative effort between the US Army ARDEC and ARL for the collection of mid-wave and long-wave infrared imagery using hyperspectral, polarimetric, and broadband sensors. The objective of the program is to collect a comprehensive database of the different modalities over the course of 1 to 2 years to capture sensor performance over a wide variety of adverse weather conditions, diurnal, and seasonal changes inherent to Picatinny's northern New Jersey location. Using the Precision Armament Laboratory (PAL) tower at Picatinny Arsenal, the sensors will autonomously collect the desired data around the clock at different ranges where surrogate 2S3 Self-Propelled Howitzer targets are positioned at different viewing perspectives at 549 and 1280m from the sensor location. The collected database will allow for: 1) Understand of signature variability under the different weather conditions; 2) Development of robust algorithms; 3) Development of new sensors; 4) Evaluation of hyperspectral and polarimetric technologies; and 5) Evaluation of fusing the different sensor modalities. In this paper, we will present the SPICE data collection objectives, the ongoing effort, the sensors that are currently deployed, and how this work will assist researches on the development and evaluation of sensors, algorithms, and fusion applications.
Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...
Emery, Carolyn A; Meeuwisse, Willem H; McAllister, Jenelle R
To examine (1) sport participation and (2) sport injury in adolescents. This was a retrospective survey design. In total, 2873 adolescents were recruited from a random sample of classes from 24 Calgary and area high schools. Each subject completed an in-class questionnaire in March 2004. Overall and sport-specific participation rates (number of sport participants/number of students completing survey). Overall and sport-specific injury rates (number of injuries/number of participants). In the previous 1 year, 94% of students participated in sport. The top 5 sports by participation for males were basketball, hockey, football, snowboarding, and soccer, and for females, basketball, dance, volleyball, snowboarding, and soccer. The injury rate including only injuries requiring medical attention was 40.2 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 38.4-42.1), presenting to a hospital emergency department was 8.1 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 7.1-9.2), resulting in time loss from sport was 49.9 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 48-51.8), and resulting in loss of consciousness was 9.3 injuries/100 adolescents/y (95% CI, 8.3-10.5). The greatest proportion of injuries occurred in basketball, hockey, soccer, and snowboarding. The top 5 body parts injured were the ankle, knee, head, back, and wrist. The top 5 injury types were sprain, contusion, concussion, fracture, and muscle strain. A previous injury was associated with 49% of the injuries and direct contact with 45% of injuries. Rates of participation in sport and sport injury are high in adolescents. Future research should focus on prevention strategies in sports with high participation and injury rates to maximize population health impact.
Cem Sinan Aslan
Full Text Available It is believed by the community that physical education and sports school (PES's students are always selected among successful athletes. However, especially in recent years, this belief has been losing value because of arrangements done by Higher Education Institutions (YÖK following Undergraduate Placement Examination (LYS scores and secondary school achievement scores affecting Physical Education and Sports entrance exam score nearly % 67. The purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of doing sport and their sport branches of students of PES in a university of Turkey. In this study, 285 (113 women and 172 man Physical Education students participated as volunteers. It was requested to fill out a questionnaire including demographic information as "age, gender, educational department, sport branches and training year" from the participants. For analysis of the obtained data, "Descriptive Statistics" section of SPSS (Ver.22 package program was used. Results showed that 62,1% (177 people have done sports but the 37,9% (108 people of all students have never done any sport competitive. Football was the highest preferred sport branch among students with the proportion of 25,3%, the lowest ones were karate, skiing, and cycling with 0,4%.
from the depths of human evolution. Conclusions: We understand current sport as a cultural phenomenon in two dimensions. The first dimension is sport from 19th to 21st century, as an integral part of universal human culture, as a general cultural artefact. In connection with the civilization, there are all compatible features of today existing civilizations showed in sport. The second dimension of viewing the sport shifts to the forefront its aesthetic aspects, its imagery and ability to experience as domains of fine arts and sports aesthetics. The problem of current relationship between civilizations and sport also includes the sports aspect of migration. Migrating athletes bring to the new homeland (and often to another civilization excellent sport values and they are largely pragmatically assimilated into the culture of a new home and are seeking a new form of identity. In a historically short period of time when this phenomenon appeared in the sports scene, it cannot be exactly confirmed that the identity of migrating athletes who left their own civilization or original national culture, is actually changing. The problem of sports migration has to be seen in terms of coexistence of civilizations along the lines of tolerance and multiculturalism today. However, on the basis of previo
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
Heo, Jimmoo; King, Carina
Stebbins (1992) defined serious leisure as the systematic pursuit of amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer activity that is substantial and interesting for the participants involved. This study investigated associations between serious leisure and sport tourism using Indiana Senior Games participants. This study used a self-report questionnaire to…
When detailed product information is not available to consumers inferences are made using product cues to reduce uncertainty and to form perceptions of products. Advertisers can make use of sport sponsorship and sport celebrity endorsement as extrinsic cues to influence consumers\\' pre-purchase attitudes. These cues ...
Sport is themost effective and common social institute of modern societies. The mostimportant element of societies is individual. Societies in which individualshealthy, well educated, social and cultured could be thought as modern basicaim of sport is to support the development of human in terms of physical mentaland social. And also sport is very effective phenomenon to create a modernsociety. In addition personel benefits and missions sport has very importantsocial effects. In this age, it ...
This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld
Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 5,000 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. These clubs and commercial providers
Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.
Nixon, Howard L., II
Sport is examined in relation to a number of basic aspects of social organization. Each of the seven sections includes a brief clarification of the key sociological concepts used for analysis, a consideration of various applications of those concepts to sport, and a review and discussion of what is known about specific aspects of sport in relation…
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...... irreconcilable functions, high adaptability and the fact that they often make use of urban residual areas....
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...
... Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Sports and Your Eyes Gear up! If you play sports, you know they can be a lot of ... the right safety gear. Think about your favorite sport. Do you wear anything to protect your eyes, ...
International audience; A typology of sport corruption differentiates petty corruption, barter corruption, corruption at the level of sport governing bodies, betting scandals and point-shaving. A deeper analysis goes further as regards match fixing-related bets and global online fraudulent sport betting networks and suggests new tools for combatting match fixing.
Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter
In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…
More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more
Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.
The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...
Norberta Elisa Fernandes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.
Engelman, Glenn; Koutures, Chris; Provance, Aaron
Pediatric sports medicine is an evolving pediatric subspecialty. No workforce data currently exists describing the current state of pediatric sports medicine. The goal of this survey is to contribute information to the practicing pediatric sports medicine specialist, employers and other stakeholders regarding the current state of pediatric sports medicine. The Workforce Survey was conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Division of Workforce and Medical Education Policy (WMEP) and included a 44-item standard questionnaire online addressing training, clinical practice and demographic characteristics as well as the 24-item AAP Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness (COSMF) questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize all survey responses. Bivariate relationships were tested for statistical significance using Chi square. 145 surveys were returned, which represented a 52.7% response rate for eligible COSMF members and board certified non-council responders. The most common site of employment among respondents was university-based clinics. The respondents board certified in sports medicine were significantly more likely to perform fracture management, casting and splinting, neuropsychological testing and injections compared to those not board certified in sports medicine. A large proportion of respondents held an academic/medical school appointment. Increases were noted in both patient volume and the complexity of the injuries the specialists were treating. This pediatric sports medicine workforce study provides previously unappreciated insight into practice arrangements, weekly duties, procedures, number of patients seen, referral patterns, and potential future trends of the pediatric sports medicine specialist.
畑, 攻; 柴田, 雅貴; 塚本, 正仁; 杉山, 歌奈子
Leadership is one of the most important elements for team sports management, and concerning to members morale, team morale, maturity, and performance. In sports science area, it is expected that sports leadership would be defined and clarified to attain their objective. The purpose of the study was to identify sports leaders' behavior and function concerning with members' satisfaction. This study employed a specially designed questionnaire which were consisted of general demographics, academi...
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare the sport orientation of adolescents based on their perceived patterning styles. Through a two-stage sampling method, 350 junior high school students were selected. A battery of questionnaires was applied to collect the data including parenting style questionnaire, sport orientation questionnaire, and participation motivation questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Findings indicated that parenting styles affect children’s sport orientation. In addition, this study shows a signifycant difference between boys and girls in sport orientation, suggesting that boys are more competitive, winning and goal oriented. Consequently, according to the results, children of authoritative parents might be more sport and success oriented than those of permissive parents. In general, the present study reveals that parenting style is a fundamental important process influencing the improvement of adolescents' sport orientation.
Full Text Available Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Training difficult passages repeatedly has the potential to induce fatigue in tendons and muscles and can ultimately result in the development of dystonia. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are travelling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. Furthermore, slight co-movement, for instance of the fingers, usually occurs when imagining musical performance, a situation different to the laboratory condition where movement execution is strictly controlled. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović
Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...
Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo
The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.
Li-Shiue Gau; Jeffrey D. James
This study examined relationships between personal life values and spectator sport consumption. From Kahle (1983), Rokeach (1973), and Schwartz (1992, 1996) value systems, twenty-eight personal values were identified probably relevant to spectator sport consumption for inclusion in a survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the importance of each value and the frequency of spectator sport consumption. The questionnaires were administered through which 384 participants rated the importan...
Dain, Stephen J
Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...... who do not.Furthermore, it investigates the role of the coach-created sporting environment in the acculturation process within those participating in sport. The results revealed significant differences regarding the level of acculturative stress with migrant participants engaging in sports scoring...... multiculturalism. Sport is considered to be a vehicle for bringing people together, and recently there has been an increasing policy interest in the use of sport as a venue for promoting social integration and intercultural dialogue. Regardless of its political significance, research on the integrative role...
José Luis Pérez Triviño
Full Text Available The article aims to clarify the deep relationships established between sport and nationalism by considering, among other factors, the instrumentalisation of sport by political elites, political apathy of citizens, economic resources for sport, the question of violence or identitarian matters. In order to define if the combination of sport and nationalism is admissible, the paper defines sport nationalism and distinguishes the political use of sport for purposes of domestic and foreign policy. In the first section the analysis focuses on whether a causal link with respect to the contribution to violence can be established and with respect to its use in the internal politics of a state, the paper differentiates between normal political circumstances and political crises in order to properly address the question of whether there are grounds to assert that sport can distract citizens from asserting their genuine interests.
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... has long been a heated topic and with gene technology waiting around the corner the relationship between sport and technology has become strained and is more and more often viewed as problematic rather than benign. In this chapter we follow up on this trend by exposing what we consider a tendency...
The study examined developmental participation patterns of international top athletes. Pairs of 83 international medallists (including 38 Olympic/World Champions) and 83 non-medallists were matched by sport, age and gender. A questionnaire recorded their volume of organised (coach-led) practice/training in their respective main sport and in other sports through childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and also involvement in non-organised (peer-led) sport activity. Analyses revealed that the medallists started practice/training in their main sport at an older age than non-medallists and accumulated slightly, but significantly less main-sport practice/training through childhood/adolescence. But they participated in more practice/training in other sports, particularly before entering their main sport. The medallists also maintained engagement in other sports over more years and specialised later than the non-medallists. Other sports engaged in were mostly unrelated to an athlete's main sport. The results were robust across different types of sports. The observations are reflected against tenets of the "deliberate practice" and "Developmental Model of Sport Participation" frameworks. Early diversified practice and learning experiences are discussed relative to the expansion of youngsters' potential for future long-term learning. In elite athletes, interaction of sport-specific practice/training with early other-sports participation mostly facilitates long-term attainment of international senior medals.
Fromme, A; Dreeskamp, K; Pollmann, H; Thorwesten, L; Mooren, F C; Völker, K
Modern therapy options offer haemophiliacs more and more possibilities for an active participation in sports. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the attitude of these patients towards sports, their participation in school and leisure time sports activities, and differences between juveniles and adults. We investigated 44 children and adolescents (aged from 4 to 16 years) and 27 adults (aged from 18 to 72 years) with haemophilia by means of a questionnaire. 79.6% of the juvenile patients participated always or almost always in school sports, while this percentage was significantly (P Sports play an important or very important role in leisure time activities for 75% of the adolescent and 55.5% of the adult haemophiliacs (P sports. There were only slight differences between both groups, regarding their motivation to participate in sports activities. The main reasons involved social aspects and having fun. The results show that the modern therapy of haemophilia probably leads to a more positive attitude towards sports and to a wider spectrum of practised sports. This, however, may be associated with an increasing potential of health risks, which require a high level of sports medical care.
Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.
Validación de la Escala de “Satisfacción de las Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas” y del Cuestionario de la “Regulación Conductual en el Deporte” al contexto español. (Validation of Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale and the Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire to the Spanish context.
Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar y validar al contexto deportivo español la Escala de Satisfacción de Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas (PNSE y el Cuestionario de la Regulación Conductual (BRSQ. Para ello se utilizó una muestra de 298 deportistas españoles, con una media de edad de 14 años. Se llevaron a cabo diferentes análisis factoriales confirmatorios, análisis de consistencia interna y de correlación. Tras los respectivos análisis factoriales confirmatorios, tanto la PNSE (2 = 222.62, p = .00, 2/g.l. = 129, CFI = .91, IFI = .92, TLI = .91, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .08 como la BRSQ (2 = 824.56, p = .00, 2/g.l. = 558, CFI = .92, IFI = .91, TLI = .92, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .06 presentaron valores adecuados. De igual forma, la consistencia interna obtenida de las respectivas dimensiones estuvo por encima de .70. Se observó una correlación positiva y significativa entre las tres necesidades psicológicas básicas, así como de éstas con la motivación intrínseca (hacia el conocimiento, consecución y estimulación, la regulación integrada y la regulación identificada. Por su parte, la necesidad de competencia correlacionó de forma negativa y significativa con la desmotivación, mientras que la necesidad de relación con los demás lo hizo con la desmotivación, la regulación introyectada y la regulación externa. Este estudio ha permitido proporcionar dos escalas válidas y fiables para evaluar la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas y la motivación de los practicantes de actividad física y deportiva.AbstractThe objective of this paper was to adapt and to validate to the Spanish sport context the Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale (PNSE and the Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ. The sample was 298 Spanish sportspersons, with a mean of 14 years old. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA, internal consistency and correlation analysis were made. The respective CFAs showed
Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, scientists consider the world as a combination of some systems that work in a self -organizing way and the result of such a way is unpredictable and accidential states. Compulsory Natural rules are affective in such circumstances. Also it is known that systems work in a circular form in which order ends in disorder and vice versa. The idea of world as something simple has already replaced by a complicated and contradictory world. The study aim is to survey chaordic organizations characters of sport organizations. Materials and methods : For this purpose we used a standard questionnaire with appropriate reliability and validity. The statistical population of the study are whole staff of sport and youth head-quarter of west Azarbaijan province that are 89 (sample number is equal to the population's. We used Kolmogrov- Smirnov test to study data normal distribution, and in respect of normal distribution of data to test hypothesis we used sample t test and also descriptive statistical methods like mean and standard deviation, through SPSS 18. Questionnaires were filled out by whole staff of sport and youth head-quarters of west Azarbaijan province. Results: Results of this study, which have got through a single-sample t-test, show that sport organizations have six characteristics of welcoming to innovation, coherence, uncertainty, non-linearity, unpredictability, and ugly structure. It’s just the grade of the characteristic of recruiting competent staffs that is low in sport organizations; in fact they don’t enjoy it. But, within assessing the main hypothesis of the research that was around the feature of chaos-order, it was resulted that sport organizations have characteristics of a chaos-order organization and they can be considered as a chaos-order organization. Conclusions: According to the results of this study and t-table we can deduce that sport organizations are chaordic organization.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important function...
Post, Eric G; Bell, David R; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Pfaller, Adam Y; Hetzel, Scott J; Brooks, M Alison; McGuine, Timothy A
High school athletes are increasingly encouraged to participate in 1 sport year-round to increase their sport skills. However, no study has examined the association of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with sex and lower extremity injury (LEI) in a large sample of high school athletes. Increased competition volume, participating on a club team outside of school sports, and high levels of specialization will all be associated with a history of LEI. Girls will be more likely to engage in higher competition volume, participate on a club team, and be classified as highly specialized. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. High school athletes completed a questionnaire prior to the start of their competitive season regarding their sport participation and previous injury history. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate associations of competition volume, club sport participation, and sport specialization with history of LEI, adjusting for sex. A cohort of 1544 high school athletes (780 girls; grades 9-12) from 29 high schools completed the questionnaire. Girls were more likely to participate at high competition volume (23.2% vs 11.0%, χ 2 = 84.7, P sport, or who were highly specialized had greater odds of reporting a previous LEI than those with low competition volume (odds ratio [OR], 2.08; 95% CI, 1.55-2.80; P sport participation (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.20-1.88; P sport volume, on a club team, or being highly specialized was associated with history of LEI. Girls were more likely to participate at high volumes, be active on club teams, or be highly specialized, potentially placing them at increased risk of injury. Youth athletes, parents, and clinicians should be aware of the potential risks of intense, year-round participation in organized sports.
Robin , Nicolas
This work deals with mental imagery and motor performance; Ce présent travail examine la similarité fonctionnelle entre pratique en imagerie et pratique réelle en ce qui concerne le traitement privilégié des modalités sensorielles spécifiques (visuelles et/ou proprioceptives). Les expériences réalisées s’intéressent aux effets de la pratique mentale sur la performance motrice, et plus particulièrement à l’influence des modalités d’imagerie (expériences 1, 3, 4 et 5) et des capacités d’imageri...
Fontana, A E; Heumann, G A
This paper studies the different types of imagery likely to occur during the sleep/wake cycle in experiment subjects under part sensory deprivation conditions, where they are administered a sound-stimulus- namely an electronically recorded heart-beat which acts as propioceptive inductor. Meanwhile, a polysmonographic register in recorded so that a correlation between the time the imagery appears, and the states of consciousness likely to arouse the images is duly established. The study allows a fresh re-elaboration to be raised as regards imagery matureness and formation in the mind, a semiologic re-statement of imagery types, and a better understanding how the self works during sleep stage, dream state, and hypnagogic-hypnopompic phases as well. Finally, the authors stress up the importance of interpersonal relationship between the subjects and the research team, altogether with the frame of reference the professionals work in since their focusing could modify the sleep recording characteristics.
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...
Full Text Available Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primarily an economical process of connecting production (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. It can be seen in the fact besides promoting sport it conducts certain (limited productive activity (exchange of sport equipment, exchange of sport requisites and material goods that create sport clubs through competitions.
Finnoff, Jonathan T; Berkoff, David; Brennan, Fred; DiFiori, John; Hall, Mederic M; Harmon, Kimberly; Lavallee, Mark; Martin, Sean; Smith, Jay; Stovak, Mark
The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM) developed a musculoskeletal ultrasound curriculum for sports medicine fellowships in 2010. As the use of diagnostic and interventional ultrasound in sports medicine has evolved, it became clear that the curriculum needed to be updated. Furthermore, the name 'musculoskeletal ultrasound' was changed to 'sports ultrasound' (SPORTS US) to reflect the broad range of diagnostic and interventional applications of ultrasound in sports medicine. This document was created to outline the core competencies of SPORTS US and to provide sports medicine fellowship directors and others interested in SPORTS US education with a guide to create a SPORTS US curriculum. By completing this SPORTS US curriculum, sports medicine fellows and physicians can attain proficiency in the core competencies of SPORTS US required for the practice of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport psychology. Introduction. The Academy for Girls' Leadership and ..... context by means of age-appropriate stories and metaphors according to the Sport. Psychology principle of visualisation (cf.
Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…
Proschek, D; Rehart, S
Sport is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Due to the changing age spectrum with a greater number of elderly and substantially more active people, an increasing number of people with underlying orthopedic diseases are becoming interested in participating in sport. This article deals with the possibilities and effects of sporting activities for people with rheumatoid arthritis within the framework of a conservative therapy. A literature search was carried out using medical search engines, in particular PubMed, and also via the recommendations of specialist societies and patient help groups. The quality of life of patients with rheumatoid arthritis consists of physical, mental and social components. Sport as a means of rehabilitation influences all of these components. Sport should be comprehended as a form of therapy and be adapted to the needs of the individual patient. The willingness to actively participate in sport should always be highly rated and encouraged. Sport is therefore an important pillar of therapy in a conservative total concept. The main aspects of sport therapeutic activities are functional, pedagogical and experience-oriented aspects. The clinical symptoms, extent of damage and physical impairment must, however, be evaluated and taken into consideration for the therapeutic concept. The amount of data on the complex topic of sport and rheumatoid arthritis is low and is mainly dealt with as retrospective reviews. A prospective randomized study basis is lacking. The aim must therefore be to confirm the currently available recommendations for various types of sport in controlled studies.
Williams, Vernon B
Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.
Chen Marcus Y
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common notifiable disease in Australia, mainly affecting those aged 15 to 29 years. Testing rates are low in Australia and considerably lower in rural areas, with access and confidentiality of sexual health services being problematic in rural and regional areas. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of establishing a pilot chlamydia testing outreach program among 16–25 year old males and females in rural Victoria (Australia undertaken at local sporting clubs and to determine the prevalence of chlamydia and acceptability of the program in this population. Methods We aimed to recruit young people from the Loddon Mallee region of Victoria, Australia between May and September 2007. After a night of sporting practice, participants provided a first pass urine sample, completed a brief questionnaire regarding risk taking behaviour and were then provided with condoms and health promotion materials about sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Those positive for chlamydia were managed by telephone consultation with a practitioner from Melbourne Sexual Health Centre. Results A total of 709 young people participated (77% male, 23% female, 77% being sexually active. All provided a urine sample and completed the questionnaire. Participation rate on recruitment nights was over 95%. Overall chlamydia prevalence in those sexually active was 5.1% (95%CI: 3.4–7.3, 7.4% in females (95%CI: 3.5–13.6 and 4.5% in males (95%CI: 2.7–6.9. Conclusion Sporting clubs represent a feasible, acceptable and innovative community based setting to screen, treat and educate young people in a rural and regional setting, especially for males.
Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew
For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.
Full Text Available Within rehabilitation settings, mental imagery helps to promote long-term recovery and facilitates compliance to rehabilitation exercises. Individuals who are able to effectively engage in imagery practice are likely to gain the most benefit from imagery training. Thus, a suitable imagery ability measurement tool for individuals with movement limitations is needed. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the Movement Imagery Questionnaire—Revised second version (MIQ-RS, and compare the results of this new version with Hall and Martin's (1997 MIQ-R. Three-hundred and twenty participants from a variety of sports and performance levels agreed to take part. Results showed the internal consistency and test–retest reliability of the MIQ-RS were satisfactory, the two-factor structure of the MIQ-RS was supported by confirmatory factor analysis, and Pearson correlations indicated a strong relationship between the MIQ-R and MIQ-RS. It appears the MIQ-RS is a suitable option for examining movement imagery ability primarily aimed at the upper extremity.
Vella, Stewart A; Swann, Christian; Allen, Mark S; Schweickle, Matthew J; Magee, Christopher A
This study aimed to investigate potential bidirectional relationships between sport participation and mental health during early adolescence. Data were taken from wave 5 (2012) and wave 6 (2014) of the K cohort of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. In total, there were 4023 participants (mean age = 12.41 yr, SD = 0.49 yr, at baseline), and this sample was followed up 24 months later. Cross-lagged panel models were used to examine bidirectional relationships between sport participation (hours per week for team, individual, and total sport participation) and mental health (total psychological difficulties, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems) as measured by the parent-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Bidirectional relationships were evident between time involved in sport and overall mental health (Sport12→SDQ14: β = -0.048; SDQ12→Sport14: β = -0.062). Bidirectional relationships were also evident between time involved in sport participation and internalizing (social and emotional) problems (Sport12→SDQ14: β = -0.068; SDQ12→Sport14: β = -0.067). The relationship between time in organized sport and externalizing problems (conduct problems and inattention/hyperactivity problems) was not bidirectional. Externalizing problems predicted later sports participation (β = -0.039), but not vice versa. Findings demonstrate bidirectional relationships between sport participation and adolescent mental health. The design and implementation of youth sport programs should maximize mental health benefits, and programs should be designed, implemented, and marketed to be attractive to participants with poor psychosocial health.
Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P
Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.
DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN
Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.
Injuries among children during sporting activities are common. This study is a one year study including children between five and fourteen years of age who sustained their injuries during sporting activities and were treated at Trondheim Regional and University Hospital. Sport accidents account for 27 per cent of all childhood accidents in this age group. Fifty-three per cent of the injured were boys, and 47 per cent were girls. The boys sustained more severe injuries than the girls. Soccer c...
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...
Lynghøj, Jesper Ebbesen; Holm, Emil Broo
Abstract More than ever, it is possible for individuals to create or get involved in some kind of public debate on digital platforms. Whether it involves politics or sport events, people have the opportunity to comment on these events via social media platforms. Our thesis focus on creating a concept, where both journalists and users of sports journalistic can participate online, and share the sports stories they are passionated about. We look at the possibilities of making a sportssite, w...
Ianof, Jéssica Natuline; Freire, Fabio Rios; Calado, Vanessa Tomé Gonçalves; Lacerda, Juliana Rhein; Coelho, Fernanda; Veitzman, Silvia; Schmidt, Magali Taino; Machado, Sergio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Basile, Luis Fernando Hindi; Paiva, Wellingson Silva; Amorim, Robson; Anghinah, Renato
ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such...
SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines
Full Text Available Background: Athletes are usually skilled in physical aspects of sports; they are widely involved in physical conditioning, technical and tactical training. However they usually ignore the psychological and cognitive skills linked to their performance. Sport imagery is a well known fundamental skill that has a critical role in how a player performs and shows his/her competency during a real world game. On the other hand football as a complex team sport includes several skills linked to physical and psychological properties. We aimed to study the effect of cognitive imagery on elite football players through league competitions in two separate studies.Methods: Twenty two youth players and Twenty two adult players randomly assigned to imagery and control groups. Players in intervention group received 12 weeks training program for specific cognitive imagery and general cognitive imagery. Imagery training program focused on an important component of football performance as “successful passing”. Players in control group were assigned to a waiting list with no intervention. In order to evaluate outcome variable we assessed successful passing in real compete-tions as player performance in both pre and post test occasions.Results: Findings of study in youth participants showed that young players in interven-tion group improved the performance of passing compared to control players (OR=1.41, P0.05, CI 95%: 0.82, 1.4(.Conclusion: These results showed that cognitive imagery intervention can affect elite soccer players’ performance. This effect is more prominent in youth age football players.
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: email@example.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
Kobierecki Michał Marcin
Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
Kanthack, Thiago Ferreira Dias; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Vieira, Lenamar Fiorese; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo
It is becoming ever more common for the difference between winning and losing in sport to be decided by the smallest details. In basketball, free throws can be a differentiating factor between teams and motor imagery (IMA) has been studied as a potential ergogenic agent to improve free throw performance, but little attention as been given to its acute effects, particularly among athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a single mental training session on the free...
Albrecht I. Schulte-Hostedde
Full Text Available Sexual selection theory argues that females invest more heavily in reproduction than males and thus tend to be choosier in terms of mate choice. Sport may provide a context within which females can gain information about male quality to inform this choice. Males may be able to display attractive traits such as athleticism, strength, and physique to females while participating in sport. We predicted that females would favor males that participated in team sports over individual sports and non-athletes because team sport athletes may be more likely to display qualities such as the ability to work well with others and role acceptance. We used a questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions to gauge the effects of sport involvement, attractiveness, and status on 282 females' willingness to participate in various types of relationships. Team sport athletes were perceived as being more desirable as potential mates than individual sport athletes and non-athletes. It is suggested that team sport athletes may have traits associated with good parenting such as cooperation, likeability, and role acceptance, and/or these athletes may be better able to assert dominance in a team setting. Results are discussed in terms of further implications and future research.
Evans, Blair; Adler, Ashley; Macdonald, Dany; Côté, Jean
Bullying is a specific pattern of repeated victimization explored with great frequency in school-based literature, but receiving little attention within sport. The current study explored the prevalence of bullying in sport, and examined whether bullying experiences were associated with perceptions about relationships with peers and coaches. Adolescent sport team members (n = 359, 64% female) with an average age of 14.47 years (SD = 1.34) completed a pen-and-paper or online questionnaire assessing how frequently they perpetrated or were victimized by bullying during school and sport generally, as well as recent experiences with 16 bullying behaviors on their sport team. Participants also reported on relationships with their coach and teammates. Bullying was less prevalent in sport compared with school, and occurred at a relatively low frequency overall. However, by identifying participants who reported experiencing one or more act of bullying on their team recently, results revealed that those victimized through bullying reported weaker connections with peers, whereas those perpetrating bullying only reported weaker coach relationships. With the underlying message that bullying may occur in adolescent sport through negative teammate interactions, sport researchers should build upon these findings to develop approaches to mitigate peer victimization in sport.
Kusunoki, Takashi; Takeuchi, Jiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Sakuma, Mio; Mukaida, Kumiko; Yasumi, Takahiro; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio
To evaluate the association between sports activities and allergic symptoms, especially rhinitis, among schoolchildren. This longitudinal survey of schoolchildren collected data from questionnaires regarding allergic symptoms based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) program and sports participation that were distributed to the parents of children at all 12 public primary schools in Ohmi-Hachiman City, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Data were collected annually from 2011 until 2014, when the children reached 10 years of age. Blood samples were obtained in 2014, and the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E specific to four inhalant allergens were measured. Data from 558 children were analyzed. At 10 years of age, prevalence of asthma and eczema did not differ significantly, while rhinitis was significantly higher (p = 0.009) among children who participated in sports. Prevalence of rhinitis increased as the frequency or duration of sports participation increased (p sports (p = 0.03). Among those who participated in continuous sports activities, the prevalence of rhinitis was significantly higher with prolonged eczema (p = 0.006). Sports activities did not increase sensitization to inhalant allergens. Sports activities enhance the prevalence of rhinitis in schoolchildren. Prolonged eczema, together with sports participation, further promotes the symptoms. The mechanisms of these novel findings warrant further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baeck, Jong-Su; Kim, Yang-Tae; Seo, Jee-Hye; Ryeom, Hun-Kyu; Lee, Jongmin; Choi, Sung-Mook; Woo, Minjung; Kim, Woojong; Kim, Jin Gu; Chang, Yongmin
Evidence from previous studies has suggested that motor imagery and motor action engage overlapping brain systems. As a result of this observation that motor imagery can activate brain regions associated with actual motor movement, motor imagery is expected to enhance motor skill performance and become an underlying principle for physical training in sports and physical rehabilitation. However, few studies have examined the effects of physical training on motor imagery in beginners. Also, differences in neural networks related to motor imagery before and after training have seldom been studied. In the current study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the question of whether motor imagery can reflect plastic changes of neural correlates associated with intensive training. In fact, motor imagery was used in this study as a tool to assess the brain areas involved in shooting and involved in learning of shooting. We discovered that use of motor imagery resulted in recruitment of widely distributed common cortical areas, which were suggested to play a role in generation and maintenance of mental images before and after 90 h of shooting training. In addition to these common areas, brain activation before and after 90 h of shooting practice showed regionally distinct patterns of activity change in subcortical motor areas. That is, basal ganglia showed increased activity after 90 h of shooting practice, suggesting the occurrence of plastic change in association with gains in performance and reinforcement learning. Therefore, our results suggest that, in order to reach a level of expertise, the brain would change through initial reinforcement of preexistent connections during the training period and then use more focused neural correlates through formation of new connections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ... sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ... in sweat can usually be made up with sports drinks or food eaten after exercise. Ditch Dehydration Speaking ...
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Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Milne, C J
Sports medicine in New Zealand is characterized by a team approach. Experienced professionals work together to the benefit of athletes, be they elite performers or those in sport for purely recreational purposes. A no-fault accident compensation scheme is used to provide speedy access to treatment services for those injured in sport and also for advice on accident prevention. Recent initiatives include a task force on drugs in sport and the creation of regional sports foundations. Sports medi...
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...
Chatterji, Urjit; Ashworth, Mark J; Lewis, Peter L; Dobson, Peter J
Common concerns of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty are whether they can continue with certain recreational and sporting activities or even commence new ones after the procedure. The present paper describes preoperative and postoperative activities, the numbers participating and the time to resume these activities. Between 1 and 2 years after total hip arthroplasty, 216 patients, who had undergone a total of 235 arthroplasties, were surveyed by postal questionnaire to ascertain how the arthroplasty had affected their recreational and sporting ability. Their preoperative and postoperative activity along with the time to resume was recorded. A general hip score and estimate of physical activity was also collected. The number of patients participating in sport increased from 188 preoperatively to 196 postoperatively. Patients stated that the surgery had a beneficial effect on their performance of sporting activities although the number of sporting events decreased. By multiplying individuals by the number of sports they participated in, there were 434 occurrences of sport preoperatively giving a mean for the group of 1.9 sports per patient. Postoperatively this had reduced to 382, giving a mean of 1.7. Five sports showed a significant change for individual patients from pre to postoperation. Those which showed an increase were exercise walking, where 38 patients (16.8%) who did not walk before surgery took up walking afterwards (P aqua aerobics, where 15 took up this activity postoperatively for the first time (P = 0.002). There were three sports which decreased significantly from pre to postoperation. They were, golf where 13 out of 39 (P = 0.005), tennis 13 out of 14 (P = 0.01) and jogging where six out of seven (P = 0.01) patients stopped participating. This study has shown that patients are adopting lower impact activities to participate in after total hip arthroplasty. The total number of patients performing a sport increases postoperatively but the
Belna, Alison M.; And Others
Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individual sports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…
Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J
Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic
Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.
... Hemecourt P, Collins C, Comstock RD. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools. Am ... KE, Xu L, McGuire LC, Coronado VG. Nonfatal sports and recreation related traumatic brain injuries ... NT. Diagnosis and management of exercise-induced asthma. Physician Sportsmed. 1996;24( ...
Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel
Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.
The lesson plan for grades six through nine demonstrates an innovative way of analyzing student ideas and attitudes about sports activity. It includes readings, photographs, and teacher suggestions designed to generate ideas and reactions to personal and social aspects of sports. (Author/DB)
Micheli, Lyle J.
Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)
... and a sense of well-being. Almost any sport places some stress on your spine. That is why it's important to keep the muscles and ligaments that support your spine flexible ... many sports injuries. Getting these muscles to the point where ...
Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob
In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…
Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys or g...
ACSM Information On… Concussion in Sports A concussion is an injury to the brain where force causes the brain to move within the skull. A person does ... deceleration force, and concussions occur in many different sports. While an athlete does not need to hit ...
Spaaij, R.; Farquharson, K.; Marjoribanks, T.
This article reviews recent research on the relationship between sport and social inequalities, focusing on gender, race, nation and social mobility. Through an engagement with these areas of research, we highlight how sport reflects and reinforces broader hierarchical structures; how it serves as a
Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...
Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.
Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.
The world of sports intrinsically involves fast and accurate motion that is not only challenging for competitors to master, but can be difficult for coaches and trainers to analyze, and for audiences to follow. The nature of most sports means that monitoring by the use of sensors or other devices...
Toma, J. Douglas
Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Jan de Leeuw
Binnenkort gaat in Nederland een Academie voor Mindfulness in Sport (AMS) van start. Dat is een techniek die ingezet wordt voor bewustwording van eigen gevoelens en gedachten van het moment, zonder daar op te reageren. Een beroemdheid uit de wereld van de sport die zweert bij mindfulness is Phil
Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.
nal stereotype of a mathematician is a highly nonathletic, myopic individual with his head buried in books. Reality, of course, is other- wise. One finds many who are proficient in both mathematics and sports, but even so, rarely there's someone who combines the two. Mathematics in sports? Certainly. Tendulkar does not ...
Conder, Robert L; Conder, Alanna A
Concussions are an inherent part of collision sports such as football and soccer. As a subset of traumatic brain injury, concussions are neurometabolic events that cause transient neurologic dysfunction. Following a concussion, some athletes require longer neurologic recovery than others. Education and intervention aimed at prevention and management can minimize the long-term sequelae of sports-related concussions.
Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Gougoulias, Nikolaos; Caine, Dennis; Denaro, Vincenzo
Injuries can counter the beneficial aspects related to sports activities if an athlete is unable to continue to participate because of residual effects of injury. We provide an updated synthesis of existing clinical evidence of long-term follow-up outcome of sports injuries. A systematic computerized literature search was conducted on following databases were accessed: PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL and Embase databases. At a young age, injury to the physis can result in limb deformities and leg-length discrepancy. Weight-bearing joints including the hip, knee and ankle are at risk of developing osteoarthritis (OA) in former athletes, after injury or in the presence of malalignment, especially in association with high impact sport. Knee injury is a risk factor for OA. Ankle ligament injuries in athletes result in incomplete recovery (up to 40% at 6 months), and OA in the long term (latency period more than 25 years). Spine pathologies are associated more commonly with certain sports (e.g. wrestling, heavy-weight lifting, gymnastics, tennis, soccer). Evolution in arthroscopy allows more accurate assessment of hip, ankle, shoulder, elbow and wrist intra-articular post-traumatic pathologies, and possibly more successful management. Few well-conducted studies are available to establish the long-term follow-up of former athletes. To assess whether benefits from sports participation outweigh the risks, future research should involve questionnaires regarding the health-related quality of life in former athletes, to be compared with the general population.
Full Text Available Sport organizations exist to perform tasks that can only be executed through cooperative effort, and sport management is responsible for the performance and success of these organizations. The main of the paper is to analyze several issues of management sports organizations in order to asses their quality management. In this respect a questionnaire has been desingned for performing a survey analysis through a statistical approach. Investigation was conducted over a period of 3 months, and have been questioned a number of managers and coaches of football, all while pursuing an activity in football clubs in the counties of Timis and Arad, the level of training for children and juniors. The results suggest that there is a significant interest for the improvement of management across teams of children and under 21 clubs, emphasis on players' participation and rewarding performance. Furthermore, we can state that in the sports clubs there is established a vision and a mission as well as the objectives of the club's general refers to both sporting performance, and financial performance.
Full Text Available The purpose of present study was exploring of relationship between goal-orientations and sport commitment among athletes and comparison of goal-orientations and sport commitment and their constructs based on gender and type of sports. Participants were 108 Iranian athlete (40 female and 68 male, who responded to Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q and Sport Commitment Model (SCM questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, Independent-Samples t-test, and One-way ANOVA at P=0.05. The findings indicated that there were positively and significantly association between constructs, including sport enjoyment, personal investment, social constraints, involvement opportunities, and social support, whereas, involvement alternatives and task-orientation had negatively and significantly association with sport commitment. Also, team and open-skilled sport athletes had sport commitment and ego-orientation more than individual and closed-skilled sport athletes. As well as, female's athletes had sport enjoyment and social support more than male's athletes. It is possible that task-oriented players are elite and expert athletes, because extend and develop their fundamental skills in one's sport by their task-orientate characteristic, and probably these players with these characteristics tendency to turnover until experience more situations. Thus, these players had a less sport commitment than amateur athletes. Also, gender and type of sport differences can be results of individual differences and nature of sports skills. Implications for goal-orientations and sport commitment and their impacts on athletes as well as future research directions are further discussed.
LaMonica, Gary L.
The evolution of an interactive automated multisensor soft copy imagery exploitation work-station is described. A brief history of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) and predecessor equipment/systems is presented along with performance achieved during field training exercises in Central Europe to illustrate the comparative effectiveness of this generic software reconfigurable workstation. The workstation was designed to increase the rate of imagery exploitation while minimizing the personnel skill level and training required for proficiency. Characteristics include real-time screening of scrolling sensor imagery, superpositioning of cue symbols, rapid accessing of collateral data base information, and near real-time computer-assisted reporting. Frame processing enables real-time rotation, warp/dewarp, and roam. Convolution filtering permits edge enhancement and haze reduction.
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Moore, Linda A.; Ferreira, Jannie T.
Sports vision encompasses the visual assessment and provision of sports-specific visual performance enhancement and ocular protection for athletes of all ages, genders and levels of participation. In recent years, sports vision has been identified as one of the key performance indicators in sport. It is built on four main cornerstones: corrective eyewear, protective eyewear, visual skills enhancement and performance enhancement. Although clinically well established in the US, it is still a relatively new area of optometric specialisation elsewhere in the world and is gaining increasing popularity with eyecare practitioners and researchers. This research is often multi-disciplinary and involves input from a variety of subject disciplines, mainly those of optometry, medicine, physiology, psychology, physics, chemistry, computer science and engineering. Collaborative research projects are currently underway between staff of the Schools of Physics and Computing (DIT) and the Academy of Sports Vision (RAU).
Minooee, Arezou; Wang, Jeff; Gupta, Geeta K
Although the medical complications of sports are usually traumatic in nature, infectious hazards also arise. While blood-borne pathogens such as HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cause significant illness, the risk of acquiring these agents during sporting activities is minimal. Skin infections are more commonplace, arising from a variety of microbial agents including bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens. Sports involving water contact can lead to enteric infections, eye infections, or disseminated infections such as leptospirosis. Mumps, measles, and influenza are vaccine-preventable diseases that have been transmitted during sporting events, both in players and in spectators. Prevention is the key to many of these infections. Players should be vaccinated and should not participate in sports if their infection can be spread by contact, airborne, or droplet transmission.
Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr
in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance......Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...
Benítez-Porres, Javier; López-Fernández, Iván; Raya, Juan Francisco; Álvarez Carnero, Sabrina; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Álvarez Carnero, Elvis
Background: Physical activity (PA) assessment by questionnaire is a cornerstone in the field of sport epidemiology studies. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) has been used widely to assess PA in healthy school populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PAQ-C questionnaire in…
Mashreghi, Sepandarmaz; Dankers, Silke; Bunke, Sofia
This study explored the association of ethnic-cultural identity salience with perceived motivational climate and achievement goals in multicultural sport classes. Questionnaires evaluating ethnic-cultural identity salience, perceived motivational climate and achievement goals were completed by high...... climate was inversely associated with these subscales. The present findings provide more support for the integrative role of sport in presence of mastery-oriented motivational climates and endorse future intervention studies that highlight mastery environments and task orientation achievement goals...
Noshin Benar; Mina Emami; Ozra Eftekhari; Far Nastaran Yeganeh; Mohammadi Ali Mohammad Khan
Purpose: Main objective of this research was factorial analysis of mass media influence on academic sports development. Material: Methodology of the research was descriptive- correlation. Population of the research was composed of all referees, coaches and athletes participating in students' sports Olympiad of Iran Payam e Noor Universities in year 2014. Statistical sample of research was chosen randomly and consisted of 176 persons. Data gathering tool was a researcher made questionnaire; it...
Wu, S K; Williams, T
This exploratory study examined the relationships between pre- and post-injury sport participation among active individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United Kingdom. In particular, factors that influence individuals with SCI into sport were identified. A total of 143 British individuals with SCI currently participating in wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby, wheelchair tennis, and wheelchair athletics were recruited. A total of 112 subjects were active prelesion, and 31 subjects were inactive preinjury. A Disability Sport Participation questionnaire developed by the authors was used for data collection. The questionnaire was distributed through the British Wheelchair Sport Associations. Personal, impairment, health and fitness, socialization, and participation data of athletes with SCI were collected. Groups of active preinjury and inactive preinjury were compared. For athletes who had been active pre-SCI, the in-hospital rehabilitation program and specialized sport club for people with disabilities were more important contexts for introducing the sport after injury to individuals. Friends and peers with disabilities were much more influential as initial and continuing socialization agents than rehabilitation therapists. The main reasons for athletes with SCI who participated in sports after injury were for fitness, fun, health, and competition, although many athletes noted that social aspects and rehabilitation also influenced their sport participation. This study identified social contexts, social agents, difficulties, sources of information, and reasons for sport participation of athletes with SCI. The results may offer some directions for the improvement of rehabilitation programs for people with SCI and also help the development of appropriate strategies to encourage people with SCI to participate in sports and leisure activities.
Bonnin, Michel P.; Rollier, Jean-Charles; Chatelet, Jean-Christophe; Ait-Si-Selmi, Tarik; Chouteau, Julien; Jacquot, Laurent; Hannink, Gerjon; Saffarini, Mo; Fessy, Michel-Henri
Background: Patients are often concerned about returning to sports after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Purpose: To (1) evaluate sports participation and motivation rates in a large cohort of patients who underwent uncemented THA with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings and (2) determine whether patients’ participation was associated with their motivation for each sport, preoperative demographics, or patient-reported outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We surveyed 1310 patients (aged sports as well as patient-reported outcome measure scores. A total of 1042 patients (1206 hips) returned questionnaires; the mean age at index surgery was 60.6 ± 8.8 years. Results: At least 51% of patients participated regularly or frequently in at least 1 light sport, 73% in at least 1 moderate sport, and 20% in at least 1 strenuous sport. Sports participation was strongly correlated with motivation (r = 0.97, P sports was significantly associated with age, body mass index, and sex. There were significant differences among patients who practiced various categories of sports as determined using the Oxford Hip Score (P = .008), but not with regard to the Forgotten Joint Score (P = .054). Conclusion: Only 20% of patients practiced strenuous sports regularly or frequently after THA, regardless of pain or discomfort. Participation in sports after THA is strongly correlated with motivation but not with level of discomfort. Longer term studies with a greater focus on complications and survival are necessary to determine whether high-impact sports compromise patient safety or implant longevity.
Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Pot, Niek; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein
Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. We analyzed data from 4726 ethnically diverse 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R Study. Variables were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires when the child was 6 years old. Low level of outdoor play was defined as outdoor play p p p p p research, including qualitative studies, is needed to explore more in detail the pathways relating family SEP and ethnic background to children's sports participation and outdoor play.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes’ dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year students. A total of 216 responses were collected. All participants of this study belonged to university sport clubs and they majored in sport and health science at a private university in Japan. The data were both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The results of questionnaires found university athletes in this study showed two dilemmas. They were busy with their sport club activities and felt pressure to seriously participate in their club activities because they came to their university with a sport recommendation. In order to support university athletes, this study discusses three suggestions such as ensuring enough financial support for university athletes, promoting peer learning to university athletes, and collaborative work between university lecturers and sport club team coaches.
The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.
review of the neuropsychological literature on imagery, Erlichman & Barrett (1983) discovered that in general imagery is not systematically correlated...Arteriography showed a left occipital hematoma, caused by an arteriovenous malformation (AYM). A I Imagery dissociations 5 craniotomy was performed to
Toet, A.; Jong, M.J. de; Hogervorst, M.A.; Hooge, I.T.C.
Color remapping can give multispectral imagery a realistic appearance. We assessed the practical value of this technique in two observer experiments using monochrome intensified (II) and long-wave infrared (IR) imagery, and color daylight (REF) and fused multispectral (CF) imagery. First, we
Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence
This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…
Sport tourists have preconceived expectations of the type and quality of services to be offered at a particular event. The extent to which these expectations are met will determine sport tourism satisfaction. For the purpose of this study the definition of a sport tourist was taken as any individual that facilitates or organise a sport ...
This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…
Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...
What was gained during this process, as well as the associated challenges encountered, suggest possible areas for research as well as changes and adjustments which could be made in similar Sport Psychology curricula. Keywords: adolescent girls; curriculum; Life Orientation; life skills; sport; sport academy; sport ...
Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç
The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…
Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol
Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…
Full Text Available Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the¬re is also the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sports per¬for¬man¬ce. Optimal diet can reduce fatigue, and allow athletes who train longer and compete to recovering faster (Lin and Lee, 2005. Nutritional status has a direct impact on the level of physical effect. In other words, the physical condition of pre¬paration much depends on the nutritional status of persons engaged in sport (Beals and Manore, 1998. Methods: The sample was composed of 60 professional athletes from Montenegro (football, basketball and judo. Knowledge of reduced sports nu¬tri¬tion was tested by means of a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to determine the knowledge of sports nutrition, the ingredients that are nece¬ssa¬ry in order to provide a sufficient amount of energy for training and compe¬tition, the dietary supplements, a meal prior to the competition as well as dehydration and re¬hy¬dration during training and competition. Results: According to the results as a who¬le, it can be concluded that the professional athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition is at a satisfactory level. Out of 1200 responses 787 correct answers were achieved, or 65.5%. However, when looking at the individual responses then the satisfaction with the relative high percentage is not equal since we observed large gaps on very import¬ant issues related to sports nutrition. Discussion: By analyzing and comparing re¬se¬arch results (Matkovic, Prince & Cigrovski, 2006,in a sample of 56 basketball and ski¬ing coaches, 77.8% of correct answers were received. From a survey (Vasiljevic, Bo¬ja¬nic, Petkovic & Muratovic, 2014 of 30 licensed coaches from Mon¬tenegro (foot¬ball, handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics and tennis 78.,1% of correct answers were received. By looking into the results of our study, it is clear that the results indicate that
Laver, Lior; Pengas, Ioannis P; Mei-Dan, Omer
Extreme sports (ES) are usually pursued in remote locations with little or no access to medical care with the athlete competing against oneself or the forces of nature. They involve high speed, height, real or perceived danger, a high level of physical exertion, spectacular stunts, and heightened risk element or death.Popularity for such sports has increased exponentially over the past two decades with dedicated TV channels, Internet sites, high-rating competitions, and high-profile sponsors drawing more participants.Recent data suggest that the risk and severity of injury in some ES is unexpectedly high. Medical personnel treating the ES athlete need to be aware there are numerous differences which must be appreciated between the common traditional sports and this newly developing area. These relate to the temperament of the athletes themselves, the particular epidemiology of injury, the initial management following injury, treatment decisions, and rehabilitation.The management of the injured extreme sports athlete is a challenge to surgeons and sports physicians. Appropriate safety gear is essential for protection from severe or fatal injuries as the margins for error in these sports are small.The purpose of this review is to provide an epidemiologic overview of common injuries affecting the extreme athletes through a focus on a few of the most popular and exciting extreme sports.
This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.
Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.
Porschke, Felix; Schnetzke, Marc; Aytac, Sara; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Gruetzner, Paul Alfred; Guehring, Thorsten
Sports activity after surgical AC joint stabilisation has not been comprehensively evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to determine rate, level and time to return to sports after AC joint stabilisation and to identify the influence of overhead sports on post-operative sports activity. In this retrospective case series, a total of 68 patients with a high-grade AC joint dislocation (Rockwood type V) were stabilised using a single TightRope technique. Fifty-five patients (80.9 %) with median age of 42.0 (range, 18-65) years completed questionnaires regarding sports activity before and after surgery. Clinical outcome and complications were also evaluated. Forty-three patients participated in sports regularly before injury. Their sports activity was rated according to Allain, and non-overhead and overhead sports were differentiated. At median follow-up of 24 (18-45) months, 41 of 43 patients (95.3 %) had returned to sports. 63 % returned to the same sports activity as before injury. 16.3 % needed to adapt the type of sports to reduce demanding activities. 11.6 % reduced the frequency and 32.5 % the intensity of sports. The median time to return to sports was 9.5 (3-18) months. Overhead athletes (Allain Type III and IV) had to reduce their sports activity significantly more often (11.8 vs. 53.8 %; p = 0.011) and needed more time to return to sports (9.5 vs. 4.5 months; p = 0.009). After stabilisation of AC joint dislocation, the majority of patients returned to sports after a substantial period of time. Overhead athletes, in particular, required more time and had to considerably reduce their sports activity. The findings impact therapeutic decision-making after AC joint injury and help with the prognosis and assessment of rehabilitation progress. IV.
Davison, Kevin G.
This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…
Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.
Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to test…
Broughton, D; Fairchild, R M; Morgan, M Z
Background Sports drinks intended to improve performance and hydrate athletes taking part in endurance sport are being marketed to children, for whom these products are not intended. Popularity among children has grown exponentially. Worryingly they consume them socially, as well as during physical activity. Sports drinks are high in sugar and are acidic. Product marketing ignores the potential harmful effects of dental caries and erosion.Objective To investigate the use of sports drinks by children.Method One hundred and eighty-three self-complete questionnaires were distributed to four schools in South Wales. Children in high school years 8 and 9 (aged 12-14) were recruited to take part. Questions focused on use of sports drinks, type consumed, frequency of and reason for consumption and where drinks were purchased.Results One hundred and sixty children responded (87% response rate): 89.4% (143) claimed to drink sports drinks, half drinking them at least twice a week. Lucozade Sport(™) was the most popular brand. The main reason for consuming the drinks was attributed to the 'nice taste' (90%, 129/143). Most respondents purchased the drinks from local shops (80.4%, 115) or supermarkets (54.5%, 78). More boys claimed to drink sports drinks during physical activity (77.9% versus 48.6% girls, P drink them socially (51.4% versus 48.5% boys, NS).Conclusion A high proportion of children consumed sports drinks regularly and outside of sporting activity. Dental health professionals should be aware of the popularity of sports drinks with children when giving health education advice or designing health promotion initiatives.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The economic situation and other characteristic of sport clubs are quite unrevealed in the Czech Republic. The sport is traditionally one of activities supported by the public sector; however we know surprisingly little about sport clubs as recipients of this support. We emphasize the municipality level because public authorities are the most typical partners for sport clubs. AIMS: The aim of this research was to reveal the economic situation of sport clubs and gather data about their cooperation with municipalities. METHODOLOGY: We present results of a questionnaire which was completed during spring 2011. We address 1,567 sport clubs and received 430 question-form filled. RESULTS: We found that the economic situation of sport clubs is quite poor, but it cannot be proved as a result of insufficient support from public resources. As the key variable for the quality of relationship between sport clubs and municipalities as well as the grants strategy were proved by the number of inhabitants. We set a necessity of future research especially at the field of analysis of impact grants policy. CONCLUSION: We proved that most municipalities prefer an allocation of a lower sum of funds than it was asked. Short term impacts can be positive - more applicants are satisfied but there is a risk of "inflation" of a grant request in the long term view. Applicants will anticipate the cut, and they will ask for more money. It could cause the pressure on public budgets and the illusion of the lack of funds.
Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D
Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The development of sports medicine was influenced by medicalization and increasing competitiveness in modern sport, with sports physicians helping to develop performance enhancing drugs and techniques. This paper discusses sports medicine and drug use in Eastern European countries, early development of anabolic steroids in the United States, and…
Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Koen Breedveld
Sport is a popular pastime in the Netherlands; More than 10 million people take part in at least one sport. To do this, they can choose from more than 27,000 non-profit sports clubs, or more than 7,200 commercial providers such as fitness centres or riding stables. Among the most popular sports
Lawrence, Gavin; Callow, Nichola; Roberts, Ross
Recent research has revealed similarities in brain activity during observational learning and motor execution. However, whilst action develops visual, motor and afferent representations during acquisition, action-observation has been proposed to only develop visual-spatial learning via visual representation. In addition, it has been suggested that the vividness of visual representations are determined by imagery ability. Thus, the purpose of the current investigation was to explore the possible moderating role of imagery ability in the effectiveness of observational learning. Participants (n = 40) were assessed on their imagery ability via the Vividness of Movement Imagery Questionnaire-2 (VMIQ-2) and then assigned to one of four groups; high imagery ability and observational learning (HIA-OL), low imagery ability and observational learning (LIA-OL), high imagery ability control (HIA-C) and low imagery ability control (LIA-C). Following group allocation all participants performed a pre-test consisting of five actual practice trials of a novel gymnastics routine. The HIA-OL and LIA-OL groups then participated in a 14 day observational learning intervention whilst the HIA-C and LIA-C groups acted as controls. Following this, participants performed a post test, which was identical in nature to the pre-test, before finally completing the VMIQ-2 again. Performance on both the pre-test and post test was evaluated by two qualified gymnastics judges. Results revealed that gymnastics performance increased from pre-test to post test for both the HIA-OL and LIA-OL groups. However, this effect was greater in the HIA-OL group suggesting that the relationship between observational learning and successful imitation performance is moderated by imagery ability.
Ahn, Minkyu; Cho, Hohyun; Ahn, Sangtae; Jun, Sung C
Performance variation is a critical issue in motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI), and various neurophysiological, psychological, and anatomical correlates have been reported in the literature. Although the main aim of such studies is to predict MI-BCI performance for the prescreening of poor performers, studies which focus on the user's sense of the motor imagery process and directly estimate MI-BCI performance through the user's self-prediction are lacking. In this study, we first test each user's self-prediction idea regarding motor imagery experimental datasets. Fifty-two subjects participated in a classical, two-class motor imagery experiment and were asked to evaluate their easiness with motor imagery and to predict their own MI-BCI performance. During the motor imagery experiment, an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded; however, no feedback on motor imagery was given to subjects. From EEG recordings, the offline classification accuracy was estimated and compared with several questionnaire scores of subjects, as well as with each subject's self-prediction of MI-BCI performance. The subjects' performance predictions during motor imagery task showed a high positive correlation ( r = 0.64, p performance even without feedback information. This implies that the human brain is an active learning system and, by self-experiencing the endogenous motor imagery process, it can sense and adopt the quality of the process. Thus, it is believed that users may be able to predict MI-BCI performance and results may contribute to a better understanding of low performance and advancing BCI.
Peterson, Daniel S.; Pickett, Kristen A.; Earhart, Gammon M.
Introduction Motor imagery during functional magnetic resonance imaging is commonly used to understand the neural underpinnings of complex movements. This approach has recently been applied to individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) to better understand how brain function may relate to movement dysfunction. However, the ability of individuals with PD to imagine movements when “Off” dopamine replacement medication is poorly understood. Therefore, the primary purpose of the current study is to test the ability of people with PD to imagine movements while “On” and “Off” anti-Parkinson medication. Methods Vividness of imagery was assessed in 28 individuals with mild to moderate PD (Hoehn and Yahr stages 1–3) via the Kinesthetic Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ-20) both “On” and “Off” anti-Parkinson medication. Vividness of imagery of 32 age-matched older adults was also assessed. Results No differences in vividness of imagery were observed between “Off” and “On” medication states (p=0.15). Imagery was similar between controls and PD both “Off” (p=0.25) and “On” (p=0.46) anti-Parkinson medication. A significant correlation was observed between imagery and disease severity while “On” anti-Parkinson medication (r= −0.49; p=0.008). Discussion and Conclusions Vividness of movement imagery was not different between “Off” and “On” anti-Parkinson medications or between PD and controls. These results suggest that people with PD are able to imagine similarly to older adults both when “On” and “Off” anti-Parkinson medication, and supports the use of motor imagery in the “Off” medication state. PMID:23939437
Salvatore, S; Serati, M; Laterza, R; Uccella, S; Torella, M; Bolis, P-F
To evaluate the prevalence of urinary stress incontinence (USI) in menstruating women practising recreational sports activity, to detect specific sports with a stronger association with urinary incontinence (UI) and to evaluate risk factors possibly related to this condition. Epidemiological study. Non-competitive sports organisations in the province of Varese, Italy. 679 women of fertile age, practising recreational sports activity. Anonymous questionnaire on UI. The questionnaire included questions about patients' general characteristics, occurrence of UI in relation to sport or daily general activities, time of onset of this condition, frequency of leakage episodes, correlation of incontinence with types of movements or sports, subjective impression of being limited on such occasions and/or necessity to modify the type of sport. UI was reported by 101 women (14.9%). Of these, 32 (31.7%) complained of UI only during sports activity, 48 (47.5%) only during daily life and 21 (20.8%) in both circumstances. Body mass index and parity were significantly associated with the risk of UI. Looking at the different sports activities, a higher rate of incontinence was found in women participating in basketball (16.6%), athletics (15%), and tennis or squash (11%). 10.4% of women abandoned their favourite sport, because of USI, and a further 20% limited the way they practised their favourite sport to reduce leakage episodes. Female UI affects a significant proportion of young women practising non-competitive sports activity; it can cause abandonment of the sport or limitation of its practice.
Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...
Goniewicz Krzysztof; Goniewicz Mariusz; Misztal Okońska Patrycja; Witold Pawłowski; Czerski Robert
Goniewicz Krzysztof, Goniewicz Mariusz, Misztal Okońska Patrycja, Witold Pawłowski, Czerski Robert. The european emergency number 112 - the questionnaire. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(7):1165-1174. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1117736 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5134 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01....
Liu, Xiao-Guang; Liu, Timon C.; Jiao, Jian-Ling; Li, Cheng-Zhang; Xu, Xiao-Yang
Sports injuries healing has long been an important field in sports medicine. The stimulatory effects of Low intensity laser (LIL) irradiation have been investigated in several medical fields, such as cultured cell response, wound healing, hormonal or neural stimulation, pain relief and others. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LIL irradiation can accelerate sports injuries healing. Some experimental and clinical studies have shown the laser stimulation effects on soft tissues and cartilage, however, controversy still exists regarding the role of LIL when used as a therapeutic device. Summarizing the data of cell studies and animal experiments and clinic trials by using the biological information model of photobiomodulation, we conclude that LIL irradiation is a valuable treatment for superficial and localized sports injuries and that the injuries healing effects of the therapy depend on the dosage of LIL irradiation.
Knight, Camilla J; Berrow, Steffan R; Harwood, Chris G
This paper provides a brief summary and commentary on the growing literature on parenting in sport, with a particular emphasis on literature from the last 2-3 years. Following a brief introduction overviewing the topic area, we firstly focus on the influence of parental involvement on children. Specifically, we examine the range of factors that influence children's perceptions of parental involvement and the consequences of different behaviors. Next we discuss the factors influencing parental involvement, such as the challenges and stressors associated with parenting children in sport and the culture within different sports. Finally, our review focuses upon the strategies developed by parents to facilitate their involvement in their children's sport, as well as the few papers focused upon parent education and support. We conclude by examining the need for further research and examination of support strategies for parents. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sports related ocular injury is one of the most important reasons of morbidity, blindness and labor loss. Especially children and those who play paintball, basketball and ice hockey are at high risk. Sports can be classified as high risk group, moderate risk group and low risk group according to the risk of these injuries. The extent of the trauma to the eye depends on the shape, velocity and rigidity of the trauma object. Physician can have an opinion about the severity of the trauma by having a carefully taken anamnesis and physical examination. In this manner, sports physicians should do the first aid procedures to the injury and should know in which cases decide not to continue the game. The most important feature of sports-related ocular injury is 90% of these injuries can be preventable in nature. Protective eyeglasses usage and taking simple precautions substantially protects player from serious ocular injuries.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.
This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.
Full Text Available Further development of an EEG based communication device for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC could benefit from addressing the following gaps in knowledge – first, an evaluation of different types of motor imagery; second, an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup; and third, rapid delivery of biased feedback. To that end we investigated whether complex and / or familiar mental imagery, passive, and attempted feet movement can be reliably detected in patients with DoC using EEG recordings, aiming to provide them with a means of communication. Six patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS took part in this study. The patients were verbally instructed to perform different mental imagery tasks (sport, navigation, as well as attempted feet movements, to induce distinctive event-related (desynchronization (ERD/S patterns in the EEG. Offline classification accuracies above chance level were reached in all three tasks (i.e. attempted feet, sport, and navigation, with motor tasks yielding significant (p<0.05 results more often than navigation (sport: 10 out of 18 sessions; attempted feet: 7 out of 14 sessions; navigation: 4 out of 12 sessions. The passive feet movements, evaluated in one patient, yielded mixed results: whereas time-frequency analysis revealed task-related EEG changes over neurophysiological plausible cortical areas, the classification results were not significant enough (p<0.05 to setup an initial classifier for the detection of attempted movements. Concluding, the results presented in this study are consistent with the current state of the art in similar studies, to which we contributed by comparing different types of mental tasks, notably complex motor imagery and attempted feet movements, within patients. Furthermore, we explored new venues, such as an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup, and rapid delivery of biased feedback.
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Habelt, Susanne; Hasler, Carol Claudius; Steinbrück, Klaus; Majewski, Martin
In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13%) followed by handball (8.89%) and sports during school (8.77%). The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34%) and ligament tears (18.76%); 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1) and fractures (7:2) in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6). Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3). Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1). Fractures were noted during football (1:9), skiing (1:9), inline (2:3), and during school sports (1:11). Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education. PMID
The aim of this study was investigation of green marketing and its impacts on consumer behavior in sports shops in East Azerbaijan province of Iran. The present study is functionalized by objectives and done by field. The study statistical society was sports shops in East Azerbaijan and 210 samples were chosen randomly according to Morgan sampling method and 196 questionnaires were collected finally. The author-prepared questionnaire’s validity was approved by some experts in sport management...
Ying, Wu Lan
With economic development, urban residents' in levels rises gradually and their daily consumption structure tends to be demands of development and enjoyment. Sport consumption, as a social and cultural consumption, with a high level of enjoyment and development of consumer properties, has been gradually recognized by the general population and an important reference for the measure of quality of residents' life. In this paper, questionnaire survey, literature, expert interviews and mathematical statistics methods are used to analyze the awareness, motivation, level of consumption, survey structure and constraints of sports consumption of urban residents of Henan Province. The results are: the proportion of sports participants of urban residents' of Henan Province is small, there is a large space for sports consumption development; sports consumer awareness is relatively backward, sports consumption values are gradually formed; the overall level of sports consumption is low and the consumption structure is single. Therefore, the advocacy of sports consumption should be strengthened, attention should be paid to physical infrastructure, strengthening the sports industry structure optimization, put emphasis on the introduction and training of sports talents, target to develop sports tourism and minority sports resources, and create a good environment of csports consumption.
VON Mackensen, S
Quality of life (QoL) is a multidimensional construct pertaining to an individual's physical, emotional, mental, social and behavioural components of well-being and functioning. QoL can be assessed using both generic and disease-specific instruments. QoL assessment in haemophilia is a relatively new area of study; the first data were published in 1990 using generic QoL questionnaires. Only recently have haemophilia-specific questionnaires been developed, first for children and then for adults. Because sports activities include not only physical and functional aspects, but also have an impact on an individual's self-esteem and social interactions, they should play an essential role in QoL assessment. Until the 1970s, persons with haemophilia were advised to avoid any kind of physical activity because of the risk of bleeds. Nowadays, however, the attitude towards sports for patients with haemophilia has changed, and the World Federation of Haemophilia has formulated recommendations concerning physical activities for patients with haemophilia. Although sports activities are recommended, their importance as an integral element in haemophilia management has not yet been widely recognized. Awareness of the importance of sports activities for this patient group has increased, and several sports projects are ongoing. For example, a twice-annual sports camp for adult patients has been held in Germany for the past 2 years; and physical improvements, QoL and subjective training effects are being measured. Another study is investigating the prevalence of sports activities in Italian children with haemophilia and their attitudes towards sports and is also assessing QoL. In Israel, a study is planned in which haemophilic children will participate in a karate training programme, and a QoL evaluation will be added to the physical assessment. In conclusion, sports activities can improve not only physical well-being, but also the emotional and social well-being of persons with
In 2013 the systematic degradation of Belarusian sports continued, which was most vivid in the mass and most popular kinds of sports – soccer, hockey, track and field athletics, and also in the traditional Olympic disciplines – cycling, boxing, weight-lifting. The national ice hockey team lost the qualification tournament and failed to get to the Olympic Games in Sochi. The football national team took the last place in the qualifying group tournament at the 2014 World Cup. At the World Forum ...
Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character) is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria). It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional) recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it c...
Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.
MONICA DELIA BÎCĂ
Full Text Available “Using applied science in sport management as creates opportunities for rationalization and systematization of sports activity, relying on the knowledge and application of the laws that control the dynamics and phenomena. Management is on the border between art and science. Arts management is manifested by "science" as opposed to use and harness the creative compromise that can produce increased efficiency and effectiveness.”
Wagner, Anne Margrethe
Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010......Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010...
Vladmila Bojanić; Jelena Radović; Zoran Bojanić; Marko Lazović
Vitamins are organic substances needed for normal cell functioning in the human body, and therefore human health. People who train sports require an optimal psychophysical performance in order to achieve the best sports results. Athletes’ needs for vitamins may be higher than in general population, also they are taking vitamin supplements more often than other people. Thus, it is very important for them to be familiar with the vitamins’ roles and recommended intake levels.Hydrosoluble vitamin...
The crisis in the economy immediately affected the sports industry, one of the largest expense items of the Belarusian budget. Investments in youth and mass sports, as well as in football declined significantly. The situation is aggravated by corruption, doping and other scandals and managerial confusion. The most positive outcomes are associated with the global leadership of Belarusian rowing and canoeing and a recovering athletics sector. Trends: • Organizational changes in athletics; • Deg...
Burke, Louise M
Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.
Rauter, Samo; Doupona Topić, Mojca
The study analysed the experiences of participants on mass sport events, and explained the influence of such sport events on the lifestyle of runners. The study sample consisted of 664 participants of the 15th Ljubljana Marathon. The TRPS questionnaire was adjusted to establish the tourist roles. The role of sport tourists was assumed by 29.8% of all participants. Sport tourists who take various trips mainly for sport purposes (66.7%) participate more often in mass sport events at home and abroad and are more physically active in their leisure time. Moreover, 13 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected marathon participants. It was established that different travel behaviour and experiences from earlier sport events have influenced on their lifestyles.
Froböse, I; Schüle, K
A six-months sports programme had been implemented to analyze the impact of movement, play and sports on the physical situation of persons having rheumatism, their mental well-being and attitudes towards sporting activities. 41 patients participated in the programme, attending training sessions in a fitness studio once a week. The sports programme contained general endurance training, functional and strengthening exercises, elements of gymnastics and play, as well as relaxation techniques. The following assessment tools were used: Measurement of Patient Outcome (MOPO) scales, sports questionnaire, and the STEP test. It was found that participants' health status, both physical and mental, had been influenced in a positive manner, with proof being provided of reduced levels of anxiety, depression, and pain. Moreover, attitudinal changes toward sports appear to have resulted, suggesting persistent motivation to engage in sporting activity.
Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P
Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.
Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold
Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.
Emily G. Deans
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2008, Australia has seen the rapid emergence of marketing for online and mobile sports wagering. Previous research from other areas of public health, such as tobacco and alcohol, has identified the range of appeal strategies these industries used to align their products with culturally valued symbols. However, there is very limited research that has investigated the tactics the sports wagering industry uses within marketing to influence the consumption of its products and services. Method This study consisted of a mixed method interpretive content analysis of 85 sports wagering advertisements from 11 Australian and multinational wagering companies. Advertisements were identified via internet searches and industry websites. A coding framework was applied to investigate the extent and nature of symbolic appeal strategies within advertisements. Results Ten major appeal strategies emerged from this analysis. These included sports fan rituals and behaviours; mateship; gender stereotypes; winning; social status; adventure, thrill and risk; happiness; sexualised imagery; power and control; and patriotism. Symbols relating to sports fan rituals and behaviours, and mateship, were the most common strategies used within the advertisements. Discussion/Conclusions This research suggests that the appeal strategies used by the sports wagering industry are similar to those strategies adopted by other unhealthy commodity industries. With respect to gambling, analysis revealed that strategies are clearly targeted to young male sports fans. Researchers and public health practitioners should seek to better understand the impact of marketing on the normalisation of sports wagering for this audience segment, and implement strategies to prevent gambling harm.
Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Daube, Mike; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Gordon, Ross
Since 2008, Australia has seen the rapid emergence of marketing for online and mobile sports wagering. Previous research from other areas of public health, such as tobacco and alcohol, has identified the range of appeal strategies these industries used to align their products with culturally valued symbols. However, there is very limited research that has investigated the tactics the sports wagering industry uses within marketing to influence the consumption of its products and services. This study consisted of a mixed method interpretive content analysis of 85 sports wagering advertisements from 11 Australian and multinational wagering companies. Advertisements were identified via internet searches and industry websites. A coding framework was applied to investigate the extent and nature of symbolic appeal strategies within advertisements. Ten major appeal strategies emerged from this analysis. These included sports fan rituals and behaviours; mateship; gender stereotypes; winning; social status; adventure, thrill and risk; happiness; sexualised imagery; power and control; and patriotism. Symbols relating to sports fan rituals and behaviours, and mateship, were the most common strategies used within the advertisements. This research suggests that the appeal strategies used by the sports wagering industry are similar to those strategies adopted by other unhealthy commodity industries. With respect to gambling, analysis revealed that strategies are clearly targeted to young male sports fans. Researchers and public health practitioners should seek to better understand the impact of marketing on the normalisation of sports wagering for this audience segment, and implement strategies to prevent gambling harm.
Haagen, C. Hess
This questionnaire assesses marijuana use practices in college students. The 30 items (multiple choice or free response) are concerned with personal and demographic data, marijuana smoking practices, use history, effects from smoking marijuana, present attitude toward the substance, and use of other drugs. The Questionnaire is untimed and…
Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.
Donohue, B.; Dickens, Y.; Lancer, K.; Covassin, T.; Hash, A.; Miller, A.; Genet, J.
Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of…
The study examined the place of leadership quality and role of coaches in sports performance by Nigerian university students. Participants were made up of 153 sports officials and 270 students from nine universities in Southern Nigeria. A validated self – structured questionnaire with a test – retest reliability co – efficient of ...
Koiter, J.; Genderen, F.R. van; Brons, P.P.T.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.
The aim of this study was to investigate participation in sports activities and risk-taking behaviour in children with haemophilia and the relationship to personal and health related factors. Ninety-nine children (mean age 12.6 years) completed questionnaires regarding participation in sports and
Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, J.K.; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Rhind, Daniel J.A.; Neels, Karel; Eede, Van Den Filip
The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed
The aim of this study was to determine the current state of teacher coaches' sport specific training, playing- and coaching experience regarding sport coaching. Fifty five (55) schools from the Kenneth Kaunda district in the Northwest province of South Africa were selected. Vosloo and Trudel and Camiré's questionnaires ...
Bowers, Matthew T.; Green, B. Christine; Hemme, Florian; Chalip, Laurence
This article presents an assessment of the relative influences of time spent participating in organized sports and informal sports during childhood with respect to the development of general creativity. In this study, 99 upper-division undergraduate and graduate students completed a comprehensive childhood leisure activities questionnaire and the…
Zhou, Jin; Heim, Derek; Levy, Andrew
Studies indicate that those participating in sports are a high-risk population for hazardous alcohol use. Previous research identifies psychosocial drivers underpinning this link between sports participation and risky drinking behavior; however, the evidence is restricted to cross-sectional prevalence studies. Theoretical evaluations suggest that psychologically constructed identities are a defining factor for behaviors in this context. Therefore, the present study sought to examine longitudinally the relationships among sports-related identities, well-being, and alcohol behaviors in those participating in sports. Respondents completed self-report questionnaires on their alcohol consumption, drinking motives, athlete identity (personal identity), sports group identification (social identity), and general well-being. A sample of 475 participants (male = 55.6%; mean age = 20.2 years) provided data at Time 1 for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal associations were conducted with 92 participants (male = 42.4%; mean age = 20.8 years) who provided follow-up data (Time 1 and 6 months later). Cross-sectional results revealed an association between social identity and alcohol consumption, which was fully mediated by positive reinforcement drinking motives. Correlation analysis found a significant positive relationship between Time 1 alcohol consumption and social identity 6 months later. Furthermore, social identity was positively associated with consumption, whereas athlete identity was negatively associated therewith. Finally, well-being was positively associated only with sports group identification over time. Our findings suggest that sport-related drinking may be an avenue for building group identification, and this identification is linked to well-being.
Full Text Available Events industry plays an important role in nowadays economy and can have a substantial impact for a successful business; in addition, sustainability-oriented tourism is becoming an important component of development and planning of a tourist destination. Thus, organizing sustainability-oriented events is crucial and should focus on the zero waste event management and consider as many elements of sustainable development as possible. The same stands for organizing sports events. The aim of this paper was to find out to which level the organizers of existing sports events in Slovenia are taking into account different domains of sustainable development. Answering to a common questionnaire the organizers gave us a feedback considering four main areas: environmental, social, cultural, and economic criteria. The plan was to determine the level of sustainability of three sports events and compare them to each other according to the outstanding areas as well as to draw the attention to the importance of organizing sustainability-oriented sports events and minimizing negative effects of those. Since the field of research is complex, dynamic, and has an interdisciplinary character the results were attained using the DEX software which supports a qualitative approach and allows the modelling of complex decision-making processes with a large number of parameters and alternatives. Such methodology enables the input of a preliminary set of sustainability criteria and can be used as a support when deciding on the evaluation of sustainability of events in general.
Palmiero, Massimiliano; Nori, Raffaella; Aloisi, Vincenzo; Ferrara, Martina; Piccardi, Laura
Creativity refers to the capability to catch original and valuable ideas and solutions. It involves different processes. In this study the extent to which visual creativity is related to cognitive processes underlying visual mental imagery was investigated. Fifty college students (25 women) carried out: the Creative Synthesis Task, which measures the ability to produce creative objects belonging to a given category (originality, synthesis and transformation scores of pre-inventive forms, and originality and practicality scores of inventions were computed); an adaptation of Clark's Drawing Ability Test, which measures the ability to produce actual creative artworks (graphic ability, esthetic, and creativity scores of drawings were assessed) and three mental imagery tasks that investigate the three main cognitive processes involved in visual mental imagery: generation, inspection and transformation. Vividness of imagery and verbalizer-visualizer cognitive style were also measured using questionnaires. Correlation analysis revealed that all measures of the creativity tasks positively correlated with the image transformation imagery ability; practicality of inventions negatively correlated with vividness of imagery; originality of inventions positively correlated with the visualization cognitive style. However, regression analysis confirmed the predictive role of the transformation imagery ability only for the originality score of inventions and for the graphic ability and esthetic scores of artistic drawings; on the other hand, the visualization cognitive style predicted the originality of inventions, whereas the vividness of imagery predicted practicality of inventions. These results are consistent with the notion that visual creativity is domain- and task-specific.
Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,
While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.
Galbraith, Amy E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.
Höllerer, Markus A.; Jancsary, Dennis; Meyer, Renate E.
In this paper, we explore how corporations use visual artifacts to translate and recontextualize a globally theorized managerial concept (CSR) into a local setting (Austria). In our analysis of the field-level visual discourse, we analyze over 1,600 images in stand-alone CSR reports of publicly...... traded corporations. We borrow from framing analysis and structural linguistics to show how the meaning structure underlying a multifaceted construct like CSR is constituted by no more than a relatively small number of fundamental dimensions and rhetorical standpoints (topoi). We introduce the concept...... of imageries-of-practice to embrace the critical role that shared visual language plays in the construction of meaning and the emergence of field-level logics. In particular, we argue that imageries-of-practice, compared to verbal vocabularies, are just as well equipped to link locally resonating symbolic...
Chatterji, Urjit; Ashworth, Mark J; Lewis, Peter L; Dobson, Peter J
Common concerns of patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are whether they can continue with certain recreational and sporting activities or even commence new ones after the procedure. The present study was designed to determine preoperative and postoperative activities, the numbers participating and the time to resume these activities. Between 1 and 2 years after TKA, patients who had undergone 144 arthroplasties, were surveyed by postal questionnaire to ascertain how the arthroplasty had affected their recreational and sporting ability. Their preoperative and postoperative activity along with the time to resume was recorded. The Oxford knee score and estimate of physical activity was also collected. Out of the 144 TKA performed, 122 participated in sport and recreational activity preoperatively and 108 participated postoperatively. Patients stated that the surgery had a beneficial effect on their performance of sporting and recreational activities although the number of sporting events decreased. By multiplying individuals by the number of activities they participated in, there were 254 occurrences of sport and recreational activities preoperatively giving a mean for the group of 1.76 sports/patient. Postoperatively this had reduced to 204, giving a mean of 1.41. Three activities showed a significant change for individual patients from pre- to postoperation. Those which showed an increase were exercise walking, where 19 patients (13.2%) who did not walk before surgery took up walking afterwards (P aqua aerobics, where five took up aqua aerobics postoperatively for the first time (P < 0.025). Golf was the only sport which had a significant fall in participation from pre- to postoperation, with 10 out of 19 golfers giving up (P < 0.025). The present study has shown that patients are adopting lower impact activities to participate in after TKA. The total number of patients performing a sport decreases postoperatively and the total amount of sport played
Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A
Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P grade level ( P > 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.
Post, Eric G.; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M.; Stiffler, Mikel R.; Brooks, M. Alison; Bell, David R.; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L.; Trigsted, Stephanie M.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; McGuine, Timothy A.
Background: Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. Hypothesis: College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Results: Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school (P 0.23). Conclusion: The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Clinical Relevance: Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance. PMID:27807260
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Hestbæk, Lise
Title Development of the Young Spine Questionnaire Authors & Affiliations Henrik Hein Lauridsen1, Lise Hestbæk1,2 1. Research Unit for Clinical Biomechanics, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Clinical Locomotion Network, Campusvej 55, DK-5230...... and adolescents are absent. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument for children aged 9-12 years which could fill this gap in the literature. Methods The Young Spine Questionnaire (YSQ) was developed in three phases – the conceptualisation, development and testing phase. We used the conceptual...... model of Wilson and Cleary (1995) and divided the YSQ into two parts: part one included spinal prevalence estimates (including pictures of spinal area) and part two questions regarding pain, activity restrictions, care seeking behaviour and influence of parental back trouble. During the developing phase...
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Howard, Gregory M; Radloff, Monika; Sevier, Thomas L
Epilepsy is a common disease found in 2% of the population, affecting both young and old. Unfortunately, epileptics have previously been discouraged from participation in physical activity and sports for fear of inducing seizures or increasing seizure frequency. Despite a shift in medical recommendations toward encouraging rather than restricting participation, the stigma remains and epileptics continue to be less active than the general population. This results in increased body mass index, decreased aerobic endurance, poorer self-esteem, and higher levels of anxiety and depression. Although there are rare cases of exercise-induced seizures, studies have shown that physical activity can decrease seizure frequency, as well as lead to improved cardiovascular and psychologic health. The majority of sports are safe for epileptics to participate in with special attention to adequate seizure control, close monitoring of medications, and preparation of family, coaches, or trainers. Contact sports including football, hockey, and soccer have not been shown to induce seizures, and epileptics should not be precluded from participation. Water sports and swimming are felt to be safe if seizures are well controlled and direct supervision is present. Additional care must be taken in sports involving heights such as gymnastics, harnessed rock climbing, or horseback riding. Sports such as hang-gliding, scuba diving, or free climbing are not recommended, given the risk of severe injury or death, if a seizure were to occur during the activity. This article reviews the risks and benefits of physical activity in epileptics, discusses sports in which epileptics may participate, and addresses how to decrease possible risks for injury.
Richardson, J T
This paper evaluates the claim that imagery mnemonic techniques are useful in remediation of memory disorders in brain-damaged patients. Clinical research has confirmed that such techniques can lead to improved performance on formal testing in a number of neurologic disease populations and following lesions of either the left or right hemisphere. However, those patients with more severe forms of amnesia and those with medial or bilateral damage do not improve unless the learning task is highly structured. Even among patients who show improvement on formal testing, there is little evidence that they maintain the use of these techniques in similar learning tasks or generalize the use to new learning situations. Imagery mnemonics also appear to be of little practical value in the daily activities that are of most concern to brain-damaged patients themselves. The effectiveness of imagery mnemonics appears to depend upon the patients' motivation and insight rather than upon their intelligence or educational level. Instead of training patients in specific mnemonic techniques, clinicians should promote the development of "meta-cognitive" skills and the acquisition of knowledge about domains of practical significance.
The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.
Castro Cuervo, Coral; Cuartas Álvarez, Tatiana; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro
A study was conducted to determine the level of knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillation (AED) in sport instructors working in public sport centers in Asturias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on sports instructors in May 2014, by completing a self-administered questionnaire on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and use of AED, with 25 items and four possible answers, only one valid, divided into five categories (emergency medical system in Asturias, initial assessment, circulation,airway and use of AED). Age, gender, work experience as sports instructor, previous training courses, education and training and employment contract were studied as epidemiological variables. A total 26 questionnaires (52%) were collected in public sports centers, and 84% of total responses were correct. It should be emphasized that among the wrong answers, 42.30% did not know what was the first action in a cardiac arrest, and 36.62% did not know how to perform a complete cardiopulmonary resuscitation if the person affected had a perioral injury, with 46.15% not knowing how to respond to a cardiac arrest due to drowning. It is recommended to include the management of cardiac arrest in their workplace in the training plans and the continuing education of sports instructors, at least every two years, according to national laws and laws from Asturias, including also training on the use and management of AED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present school system in the most countries of the World contains as planned and systematic students and learners activity among others subjects also the physical education (in some countries it is called sport, physical activity etc. University education cannot be imagined without sport activities of the students and almost every modern University of the world has organized and evaluated sport stu- dent activities. Today in the most countries of ex Yugoslavia there isn’t regulated proble- matics concerning sport activities of Universities (both state and private, and it is held on it (except in some student competitions. The main goal of the authors of this study is that in the year of Univesity Games (Belgrade 2009, they initiate the resolution of problematics concerning sport activities i.e. student sport, beginings from the needs of the students and community, and healthy life in general. The further aim of this study is presentation and observation of arguments for invloving sport student activities in regular student duties with posssibility of their eva- luation (Declaration of Bologna, on the example of a research at a private University in Banja Luka, and on the basis of examining the student opinions. Sample of examined people will be the students of 5 Faculties of Paneuropean University ’’APEIRON’’ Banja Luka and the data will be achieved by questionnaire.
Toselli, Stefania; Spiga, Federico
The aim of this study was to estimate body image perception in undergraduate students, and to investigate its associations with weight status, abdominal obesity, muscularity, gender and sport. The sample consisted of 231 Italian students (174 males and 57 females); anthropometric measurements, taken by trained technicians, were: height, weight, arm-circumference, waist and hip circumferences. BMI, WHR and Δ arm-circumference were calculated. Body image was assessed using body silhouette charts. Information about sport (currently practiced sport, starting age, and weekly hours of sport) was acquired with questionnaires. Females perceived themselves as slightly overweight, while males identified themselves as normal weight. Females had a tendency to desire to be thinner in all weight status categories; in males, normal weight subjects had a tendency to desire to be larger, while overweight wished to be thinner. Sport practice was significantly higher in males. Individuals who were overweight and did less sport were significantly more likely to have higher body dissatisfaction. The present study highlights a positive relationship between sport practice, corpulence and body image perception.
Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann
The objective was to estimate the prevalence of knee instability among active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. Based on a questionnaire, 339 athletes provided information about different features of occupation, sports activity...... and knee instability. The 12-month period prevalence of knee instability and constant or recurrent knee instability, and absence from sport and absence from work due to knee instability, was 22%, 14%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Knee instability as such, and constant or recurrent knee instability were found...... to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount...
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young judo athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 392 subjects aged 12 to 18 years old participated in the study. Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sports participation. Boys reported giving significantly more importance to sports participation in terms of Competition and Skill Development, whereas girls presented significantly higher ratings for Teamwork and Friendship. Motivational factors related to Achievement/Status and Fun presented significantly higher average ratings in younger judo athletes, whereas average ratings of Competition significantly increased with increasing age. Average ratings related to Fitness, Competition and Skill Development were proportionally and significantly higher according to training experience and training volume. These results will contribute to establishing intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young judo athletes.
Lesyk, J J; Kornspan, A S
Although many have investigated why children participate in sport, little is known about what adults expect children to gain from participation. The present purpose was to examine coaches' expectations of what children should gain from participation in sport and the extent to which coaches believe that these expectations are actually fulfilled. Participants included 109 youth sport coaches who completed a survey packet consisting of a demographic information questionnaire and the Ohio Sport Satisfaction Index. Analysis indicated coaches ranked the variables of having fun, learning life skills, being part of a team, developing confidence, and the excitement of competition as the most important outcomes for the youth they coach. Generally, coaches believe that their expectations are being fulfilled. Coaches' sex and years of coaching were not significantly related to any of the criterion variables in the present study.
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available The present study tries to make a resume from a socio-cultural point of view of the sportiv peisage analized in the evolutionof society trying to answer some questions such as: What is the place of sports in our modern society? How does sportinfluence social and cultural evolutions? What are the cultural tendencies which can be distinguished in the sports practice?These are a few questions which could lead to establishing raports between sports, culture and society. Sport is more andmore amrked by the charactersitics of postmoderinsm. New social values are being vehiclated by current generations whichinfluence sportive behaviours. The popularity of sports has a big influence in the process of globalisation of politics,economics and culture. In our days we observe the fact that some contradictions are being manifested: globalisation andindividualisation, „sportivisation” and „desportivisation”, a culture of health and a culture of amusement and finally,spontaneity and fragmentation compared to the security and autentification of the individual.
What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ...
Bradley, John; Keane, Francis; Crawford, Susan
Physical Education and School Sport (PESS) is an integral part of the school curriculum in Ireland. Historically the "Healthy Body, Healthy Mind" philosophy has promoted the inclusion of PESS alongside more cognitive school subjects. Research suggests that PESS can promote cognitive function and provide educational benefits. However, there is little research on how the choice of school sport influences academic achievement. This study investigated how participation in school sport influences the Leaving Certificate points score in an Irish secondary school. In particular, the study will investigate how the particular sport chosen by students participating in school sport during their Leaving Certificate years influences their Leaving Certificate results. We recorded the Leaving Certificate scores and sports participation from 402 boys graduating from a secondary school in the Ireland during 2008-2011. Sports participation was assigned 1 of 4 categories: rugby, rowing, soccer, and no sport. Participation in sports during the Leaving Certificate years conferred a 25.4-point benefit to the final Leaving Certificate score. However, participation in rowing, the only individual sport available in the study, resulted in significantly higher Leaving Certificate scores than rugby, soccer and no sport (p benefit over the next highest group, rugby. Promoting participation in school sport and providing access to a range of team and individual sports throughout the secondary school years may be a beneficial way to improve students' Leaving Certificate results. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An effort to promote participation in any type of PA is more effective when it is aimed at needs, interests and preferences of particular target group. Current evidence emphasizes the insufficiency of PA in all age groups. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to analyze and describe the structure of sport activity preferences of high school students and to contribute to prospective improvement of sports and physical activity programs. METHODS: Two standardized questionnaires were used – 1. sport preferences questionnaire, 2. international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. The research sample (N = 333 consisted of high school students from the Czech Republic. RESULTS: Our results confirm that the differences between girls and boys are not as great as they were few decades ago. There is a visible dynamic in the development of sport preferences structure. Despite this fact there is a spectrum of sports that are constantly preferred – soccer, volleyball, aerobics and swimming. Acquired results indicate that the range of PA amount in girls varies from 2,372 MET-min/week (15 year old girls to 4,467 MET-min/week (17 year old girls, while acquired results in boys varies from 2,535 MET-min/week (16 year old boys to 4,973 MET-min/week (17 year old boys. The results, if properly applied, could increase the total amount of PA in high school students and improve the effectiveness of school PE.
Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .
Whilst in recent years sports studies have addressed the calls ‘to bring the body back in’ to theorisations of sport and physical activity, the ‘promise of phenomenology’ remains largely under-realised with regard to sporting embodiment. Relatively few accounts are grounded in the ‘flesh’ of the lived sporting body, and phenomenology offers a powerful framework for such analysis. A wide-ranging, multi-stranded, and interpretatively contested perspective, phenomenology in general has been take...
Occelli, Valeria; Lin, Jonathan B.; Lacey, Simon; Sathian, K.
Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (“cognitive style”) on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery ta...
Valeria eOccelli; Jonathan B. Lin; Simon A Lacey; Krish eSathian; Krish eSathian
Previous studies have reported inconsistent results when comparing spatial imagery performance in the blind and the sighted, with some, but not all, studies demonstrating deficits in the blind. Here, we investigated the effect of visual status and individual preferences (cognitive style) on performance of a spatial imagery task. Participants with blindness resulting in the loss of form vision at or after age 6, and age- and gender-matched sighted participants, performed a spatial imagery task...
Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.
Van Hoye, Aurélie; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Sarrazin, Philippe
As major actors in sports activities, sports coaches can play a significant role in health education and contribute to the psychological well-being of young people. However, not all participants in sports activities experience sports positively, which reduces the potential benefits for health. The present study investigates if coaches' efforts to promote health increase young athletes' enjoyment, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life and decrease sport dropout. To control for the variability between teams and between clubs, multilevel modeling was applied. A sample of 342 young football players completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of coaches' Health Promotion (HP) activities, enjoyment of sports, dropout intentions, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life. HP general score was positively related to enjoyment and perceived health as well as negatively dropout intentions. Players perceiving their coaches as promoting fair and play (Respect for oneself and others) scored higher on their perceptions of enjoyment in sport, self-esteem and self-reported health, and lower on dropout intentions. Moreover, players recognizing their coaches as encouraging their healthy lifestyle also reported higher perceptions of sport enjoyment, whereas player's perceived coaches' activities on substance use were associated with lower participants' enjoyment. These results support the importance of developing HP in sports clubs. Especially, promoting respect of oneself and others seems to be the more beneficial to sport participants. Copyright Â© 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Australian data indicate that 63% of children participated in sport in 2009, a 4% increase since 2000. Children's high participation in sport, and the association between sport and health, means that these settings provide an opportunity to promote other aspects of health, such as healthy eating, to children. This study aimed to determine healthy eating practices and policies at children's sports clubs. Sports clubs (n=108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5 to 14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas across one state and one territory in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire for sports club officials was developed to determine the food and beverages sold, provided and promoted at sports clubs and the availability of healthy-eating policies. The most frequently sold item at canteens was water, followed by sports drinks, chocolate/confectionery and soft drink. Only 20% of canteens promoted healthy food. Thirty-nine per cent of clubs made recommendations on the food and beverages to be consumed during sport, mostly relating to water consumption. The majority (76%) engaged in fundraising; many in collaboration with chocolate/confectionery companies. Only three clubs had a written policy on healthy eating. Addressing the low uptake of healthy eating policies would be a useful strategy to improve the healthiness of sports clubs. Policies could seek to reduce the availability and promotion of unhealthy food and beverages through canteens, vending machines and fundraising. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.
Full Text Available The purpose of research was to define the eventual differences between personal and motivational structure among extreme sports athletes and non-athletes. Beside personal and motivational structure of both mentioned groups, we also examined state and trait anxiety as significant factors of success. We used a medium lengthy version of FPI inventory, Costell's questionnaire of achievement motivation and Spielberg's questionnaire STAI – X1 and STAI – X2. The pattern included 66 extreme sports athletes. We concluded that extreme sports athletes are significantly less suppressed and sincere, whereas they are more extrovert and masculine in comparison with the group of non-athletes. A trend that individuals, who reach for extreme sports, are more sociable, and less neurotic is pointed out, but it is not of significant importance. We found out that there is also a tendency that extreme sports athletes express more positive achievement motivation than non-athletes, who on the other hand express significantly higher negative achievement motivation. The analysis of anxiety differences on the other hand showed that extreme sports athletes have significantly lower state of anxiety and the anxiety itself as atrait is far less visible, but the difference did not appear as significant. The results however did not confirme previous studies' findings. Nevertheless they serve as a contribution to some earlier findings and suggest that extreme sports athletes are a special group, which differs from non-athlete population in both personal and motivational structure and relatively well suits to the profile of a top athlete. At the same time, the present research offers a possibility of shaping an extreme sports athlete's profile.
Full Text Available Sport activity of achievement-oriented (professional, Olympic, spectacular character is first of all exposition of rivalry and striving for variously understood sports success (resulting from measurable or discretionary criteria. It refers to winning a competition or taking another expected place as well as to other forms of satisfaction, such as financial gratification or social (political, ethnic, professional recognition. Spirituality is here neither an aim, nor an expected value - it constitutes rather an additional or redundant quality. A competitor focuses his/her attention first of all on the main aim assumed in planned or current rivalry. Emotional sensations which are experienced by athletes before, during or after competitions testify to mental and emotional stress which accompanies sports combat.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.
Full Text Available It was the purpose of this preliminary project to measure how individuals perceive the impacts of sport in such areas as the economy, the environment, culture, community image and the quality of life, among other areas. The instrument was initially field tested in 1999 with a sample of 702 residents in the North eastern part of the United States. Their views suggest that they perceive sports to make a generally positive contribution to their communities and the local region. Some negative impacts were also identified, mostly of an environmental nature. However, the findings suggest that sports for the most part are perceived to play a major role in the lives of people and contribute in significant ways to the economy, and community pride.
The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....
The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether the application of Sport Psychology in the coaching of school sport is a necessity or a luxury. The study revealed that school athletes desire further information about Sport Psychology and want the services to be more available. Teacher coaches need some ...
... on the economic and psychic income potential of the event. Sport event organisers should pursue multiple goals when designing the product and service parameters of a particular event. Keywords: Sport tourist, Expectations, Service experience, Satisfaction South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education ...
From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…
Woodell, Glenn; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur; Hines, Glenn
Aerial imagery of the Earth is an invaluable tool for the assessment of ground features, especially during times of disaster. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center have developed techniques which have proven to be useful for such imagery. Aerial imagery from various sources, including Langley's Boeing 757 Aries aircraft, has been studied extensively. This paper discusses these studies and demonstrates that better-than-observer imagery can be obtained even when visibility is severely compromised. A real-time, multi-spectral experimental system will be described and numerous examples will be shown.
Rodrigues, E C; Lemos, T; Gouvea, B; Volchan, E; Imbiriba, L A; Vargas, C D
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of imagining an action implicating the body axis in the kinesthetic and visual motor imagery modalities upon the balance control system. Body sway analysis (measurement of center of pressure, CoP) together with electromyography (EMG) recording and verbal evaluation of imagery abilities were obtained from subjects during four tasks, performed in the upright position: to execute bilateral plantar flexions; to imagine themselves executing bilateral plantar flexions (kinesthetic modality); to imagine someone else executing the same movement (visual modality), and to imagine themselves singing a song (as a control imagery task). Body sway analysis revealed that kinesthetic imagery leads to a general increase in CoP oscillation, as reflected by an enhanced area of displacement. This effect was also verified for the CoP standard deviation in the medial-lateral direction. An increase in the trembling displacement (equivalent to center of pressure minus center of gravity) restricted to the anterior-posterior direction was also observed to occur during kinesthetic imagery. The visual imagery task did not differ from the control (sing) task for any of the analyzed parameters. No difference in the subjects' ability to perform the imagery tasks was found. No modulation of EMG data were observed across imagery tasks, indicating that there was no actual execution during motor imagination. These results suggest that motor imagery performed in the kinesthetic modality evokes motor representations involved in balance control. Copyright (c)10 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Children and adolescents today, all before starting with regular sports activities and involvement in semi-professional and top professional sport, so it increases the num- ber of discovered stress fractures in this age. This type of injury can occur as a consequence of action one strong force, or the many repeated small force strength, to be exact, when the load (stress transcend ability reparations bones. Stress fractures are recorded and described up to the lower limbs. Research has been confirmed that the bones of lower leg are mostly made in injury, and with the el- derly and with the population of children and young adolescents. Occur in many sports, something to them is greater when the frequency of running and often are present in the female population. According to the results of numerous investigations, mistakes in the training are the most common cause of the emergence of stress fracture. In a direct comparison with complemented these injuries is the condition of muscles, so it is important that at the sa- me time carry out exercises strengthen muscles and stretching. Typical clinical signs of stress fractures are localized painful sensitivity to palpa- tion and runoff in a small number of cases. The basic diagnostic procedure is a medical check, it is the small, radiology and scintigraphyc diagnostics (most accurate and mag- netic resonance imaging. Treatment is usually without surgery and conservative, with rest and reducing stress, and its activity athlete breaks mainly between four and eight weeks. Only the very need surgical treatment The most important thing is that attention is focused on the proper prevention and to take all that it ever occurred to stress fractures that athletes ramble of the courts and the competition (better education of sports workers, separation of groups with increa- sed risk of the formation of an injury, adaptation activities age and abilities of athletes, adequate sports equipment, high-quality sports
Sports medicine represents a specific body of knowledge which can be practiced as a subspecialty by numerous members of medical society. Professional and sandlot athletes are equally deserving of competent and expedient sports medical care. (JN)
Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.
A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)
Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...
Full Text Available ... Out Fat and Calories Sports Center Vitamins and Minerals Sports Supplements Female ... Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for educational purposes only. ...
Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.
This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...
Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach ...
Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español A Guide to Eating for Sports KidsHealth / ...
Andersen, Tem Frank
I sommeren 1936 blev de Olympiske Lege gennemført i Tyskland. Mediehistorisk var det en begivenhed, fordi det var de første tv-transmitterede Olympiske Lege. Selvom transmissionen kun nåede ud til små biografteatre i de tyske storbyer, så var det noget af en præstation. Over 70 timers sport med de...... fleste af de discipliner, vi kender fra Legene. (...) Uanset hvornår vi daterer sportens begyndelse, så har den haft en dobbelthed. Sport er ikke kun for dem på banen, men også dem på sidelinjerne....
Sharma, Anshu Rajnish
Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99m Tc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph
The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs—one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children’s school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects. PMID:27144474
Lewis, Benjamin A.; Quarterman, Jerome
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of choice factors that were most important to students who decided to matriculate in the field of sport management for a master's degree. A survey questionnaire was mailed to the program or department chairs of 12 randomly selected universities listed on the NASSM web site during…
South African TuksSport academy athletes at the High Performance Centre, University of Pretoria, and competitive high-school athletes at four private high schools in Gauteng completed the survey. A selfdetermined, structured questionnaire was used to establish the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of the athletes. Results.
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ariëns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records.
Kovács, Karolina-Eszter; Nagy, Beáta-Erika
The aim of the study was to examine coping and motivation of adolescent handball players in Debrecen. Forty-six male and thirty-one female handball players completed the questionnaires, furthermore eighteen males and eighteen females participated in focus groups. The purpose of this study was to measure gender differences in sport motivation,…
In order to determine perceived barriers to sport and recreation participation in Botswana the modified Crawford, Jackson and Godbey\\'s (1991) constraint assessment questionnaire which focused on five barrier categories, i.e. aptitude, socio-economic, socio-cultural, facility-awareness and facility constraint, was used.
A questionnaire was used to assess barriers to sports and recreation participation among men and women of the three communities in five barrier categories: aptitude, socio-economic, socio-cultural, awareness of facilities and facility constraints. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. T-test was used to ...
The primary aim of this study was to determine factors affecting sport participation among 197 (103 females and 94 males) students aged 15–18 years (mean age: 16.5 years; s = 0.8 years) who were drawn from three secondary schools in Pretoria, South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data.
To prevent the voluntary turnover of their employees, municipalities have the obligation to ensure that the needs and expectations of these employees are satisfied. The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the job satisfaction of municipal sport officers. Using a quantitative approach, a questionnaire was ...
Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y
Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains 1-meter resolution imagery derived from the 2005 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) statewide aerial imagery acquisition. Data have...
Naal, Florian D; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Loibl, Markus; Huber, Martin; Rippstein, Pascal F
There is a lack of detailed information about habitual physical activity levels and the sports participation of patients after total ankle arthroplasty. The proportion of sports active patients increases after total ankle arthroplasty, and the majority of patients will meet current recommendations for health-enhancing physical activity. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The authors assessed the pre- and postoperative participation in sports and recreational activities of 101 patients at a mean of 3.7 years after total ankle arthroplasty. Activity levels were determined with use of the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) activity scale. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to quantify habitual physical activity levels and to calculate the proportion of patients meeting current guidelines for health-enhancing physical activity. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) hindfoot score was used as the clinical outcome measure. Radiographs were studied for tibial and talar radiolucencies, and any association between radiolucencies, activity levels, and sports participation was determined. Preoperatively, 62.4% of the patients were active in sports; 66.3% were active after surgery (P=.56). The patients were active in 3.0 +/- 1.8 different sports and recreational activities preoperatively and in 3.0 +/- 1.6 activities after surgery (P =1.0). The sports frequency remained unchanged, with 2.0 +/- 1.6 sessions per week before total ankle arthroplasty and 2.3 +/- 1.7 sessions per week postoperatively (P=.19). Overall, the patients were active in sports and recreation for 3.9 +/- 3.8 hours per week pre-operatively, and for 4.7 +/- 3.9 hours per week after surgery (P=.14). The most common disciplines after total ankle arthroplasty were swimming, cycling, and fitness/weight training. Sixty-five percent of the patients stated that surgery had improved their sports ability. The UCLA activity levels increased significantly from
Full Text Available Communicology theoreticians, sociologists, and sports experts strive to explain significance of sport, power and influence of media (TV in particular and sports journalism through analysis of media and viewers. Phenomena observed on number of football (soccer and Olympic games through a prism of media research of the Television of Montenegro.
Murray, Steven R.; Udermann, Brian E.; Reineke, David M.; Battista, Rebecca A.
Sport stacking is an activity taught in many physical education programs. The activity, although very popular, has been studied minimally, and the energy expenditure for sport stacking is unknown. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to determine the energy expenditure of sport stacking in elementary school children and to compare that value…
This article explains how and why stress mechanisms operate in students who participate in sports. Students respond to different sport situations with various physical, psychological, and social reactions. When developing and supervising sports, school personnel should take into consideration the physical and psychological development of…
Ruslin, M.; Boffano, P.; ten Brincke, Y.J.D.; Forouzanfar, T.; Brand, H.S.
Sports and exercise are important causes of maxillofacial injuries. Different types of sports might differ in frequency and type of fractures. The aim of the present study was to explore the possible relation between the types of sport practiced and the frequency and nature of the facial bone
2004 is the European Year of Education through Sport. The European Commission believes that sport is a valuable instrument in creating more open and tolerant societies. Therefore it is necessary that sport and its values play a greater part in education. This article examines the relationship
Full Text Available Purpose: Main objective of this research was factorial analysis of mass media influence on academic sports development. Material: Methodology of the research was descriptive- correlation. Population of the research was composed of all referees, coaches and athletes participating in students' sports Olympiad of Iran Payam e Noor Universities in year 2014. Statistical sample of research was chosen randomly and consisted of 176 persons. Data gathering tool was a researcher made questionnaire; its superficial and content validity was approved by academic professors and media experts; also the stability of research tool was reported to be at an acceptable level. SPSS 23 software was used to analyze research data and also AMOS 24 software was used to analyze structure validity. Results: Findings showed there is a significant difference between current situation and desirable situation in all research dimensions. Also, factorial analysis of all research variables showed improvement of coaches' technical performance (0.86, improvement of referees' technical performance (0.85, and promotion of academic sport managers' awareness (0.83 respectively are mostly influenced by mass media. Conclusion: It should be kept in mind that academic sports development is one of the factors of the entire country sports development. Hence, it is crucial to attend to different dimensions of student sport's aspects such as human, financial, planning and etc., especially in championship area to be able to further macro objectives of country's sports development. Considering current conditions, mass media should have a new perspective on academic sports in order to be able to attend to their responsibilities to further the excellence of country's sports.
The issue of recognition of a sports journalism as a quality component of social life that can positively influence the sports and its perception by the population is omnipresent in contemporary society in Romania.
Couture, Steven; Lamarche, Benoit; Morissette, Eliane; Provencher, Veronique; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky
The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches' knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. "Leanness sports" were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and "non-leanness sports" were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p nutrition used by coaches was the Internet at 55%. The two most popular nutrition practices that coaches recommended to improve athlete performance were hydration and consumption of protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.
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Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre
Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.
Brady, Don; Brady, Flo
Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…
Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.
Full Text Available Fundrising is the kind of marketing strategy, which the main gool is to provide the money and the other resources. It is the moust important tasks of nonprofit organizacio( sport organiyation and the other organiyation which need money for development project. Fundraising is independent and sistematical way of compilation the financial resource and anather keind of help in nonprofit organization from the private persone, the enterprice, the associate ect.Fundraising enable the activity and realization projects. Aim of this working paper is to givs contibution these important problem of menagement, to explain it and apply it in sport. Today it we haven`t enought the financial resourceies, without activity to provide it, we will very quickly loss sympathy and support who could help as. Financial problems are present not only in the sport organization , but in the culture, social, eco, education and other organizations. Todey there is strong competition at the fundraising market. Sport has advantages in the mass actions frequently and in his places in the psyche and body development people in all of growth, rather then the another nonprofit organization. Fundraising provide a lot of many and create pozitive image in public environment
Rotella, Robert J.; And Others
Burnout is a condition of withdrawal from participation in sports as a result of stress. The most significant advance in the study of burnout has been a cognitive-affective model that contains situational, cognitive appraisal, physiological, and behavioral components. Suggestions for preventing and treating burnout are presented. (BC)
Kern, William S., Ed.
This collection of papers presents a picture of economic principles at work in the dynamic world of big-time sports. Papers were given at the 35th Annual Lecture-Seminar Series presented by the Department of Economics at Western Michigan University during the 1998-99 school year. After an "Introduction" (William S. Kern), the six papers…
Taft, Timothy N.
A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…
Unlike traditional high school athletic teams, Unified Sports teams are designed to immerse students with intellectual disabilities in a facet of school culture that has largely eluded them. Nationwide, more than 2,000 schools in 42 states have the teams, where the ideal is for about half the athletes on each team to be students with intellectual…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 12. Mathematics and Sports. Vivek S Borkar. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 12 December 1999 pp 107-108. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/12/0107-0108. Author Affiliations.
Smith, Nathan J.
Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…
overuse injuries, osteoporosis and exercise, infections, the overtraining syndrome, sudden death, assessment of physical performance, nutritional aids, drug use, and team medical care. Included in the section on general topics are chapters on the benefits of exercise, sports for older persons and those with disabilities, ...
Objective. To determine the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of talented young athletes residing in Gauteng regarding prohibited performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) and anti-doping rules and regulations. Methods. This was a survey study using a quantitative research approach. South African TuksSport academy ...
Blum, Debra E.
A philosophy professor who supports college athletics battles to maintain credibility among his academic peers. His interest is in adding balance to criticism of college sports and calling attention to positive aspects such as teamwork and discipline. The professor also teaches a seminar in ethics for first-year athletes. (MSE)
Møller, Rasmus Bysted
Sportsidealismens grundsyn på forholdet mellem sport og moral har længe domineret sportsetikken. Opfattelsen, der går ud på, at sporten udgør frugtbar jord for dyrkelse af et moralsk sindelag, fordi sporten indeholder en moralsk dimension i kraft af sin egen-natur, understøttes ikke af den...... forholdet mellem sport og moral kom således til at bekræfte og delvist forklare empirien på området. Endeligt kunne sportsidealismens hovedtese tilbagevises, for så vidt at den omhandler forholdet mellem sport og moral i dette sidste ords moderne betydning. Dette skete i artiklens afsluttende fjerde afsnit......, hvor forskellen mellem antik og moderne etik blev tydeliggjort. På baggrund af den præsenterede undersøgelse af forholdet mellem sport og moral kan vi konkludere, at sporten isoleret set ikke egner sig som arnested for udviklingen af et moralsk sindelag, idet sporten ikke indeholder den af...
Drayer, Joris; Rascher, Dan
Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low risk environment. The OAKLAND A'S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry, in which sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of experiences provided…
Knuttgen, Howard G., Ed.; And Others
Part 1 of this book, "Evoluation and Organization of Physical Culture," examines the history and current organization of physical education and sport in the People's Republic of China. This part includes chapters on: the evolution and organization of physical culture; physical culture in China today; the organizational structure of…
Breedveld, K.; Meulen, R. van der; Hildebrandt, V.; Harms, L.; Goossens, R.; Lucassen, J.; Ooijendijk, W.; Stiggelbout, M.; Poel, H. van der; Bottenburg, M. van
De Rapportage Sport is een coproductie van het Sociaal Cultureel Planbureau, het Centraal Bureau voor Statistiek, NOC-NSF, TNO, de Universiteit van Tilburg en het W.J.H. Mulier Instituut. Het bestaat uit twee delen. In het eerste deel worden de ontwikkelingen beschreven op het terrein van het
Dowling, William C.
Discusses the problem of college sports corruption and the debate over "the plight of the black athlete," suggesting that this debate is actually not about race or athletics but a code for examining contradictions between education and mass democracy. Calls this the problem of "ressentiment." Examines how athletes have used the "plight of the…
Mottram, D. R. (David R.)
...-Doping Agency (WADA) Methods and advances in doping control, and the sanctions for testing positive The use of therapeutic drugs banned in sport Evaluation of the status of creatine as a legitimate nutritional supplement Ethical, political and administrative issues in monitoring drug use An assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sp...
Kiyomi Cerezo Takahash
Full Text Available This article aims to explain the development of an application whose function is to predict the results of different sporting encounters. To do this an analysis of the influential factors, algorithms and technology implemented, will be carried out.
Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity is the crucial factor in treating lifestyle diseases. The age of adolescence is considered as the important period of person's life for creation and further maintaining healthy lifestyle habits. We assume that the level of physical activities of young people could be influenced by the possibilities to perform the preferred sporting activities. Objective: The aim of the presented study was to estimate the total amount of performed physical activity and the structure of sport preferences in West Bohemian adolescents. Further to find out the existence of relationships between preferred sport branches and composition of weekly physical activities of girls and boys. Methods: The research was conducted at five selected secondary schools of the Pilsen region, under the total participation of 382 boys and 529 girls. The level of physical activity (PA and sporting preferences was assessed by means of the IPAQ questionnaire and questionnaire of sports preferences, with the use of the internet system INDARES. For the statistical processing of the gained data, the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test, crosstabulation tables, and Spearman correlation analysis were used. Results: The results showed that the preference of fitness activities is associated with a higher level of PA in spare time of boys (p = .006, and with intensive PA of boys (p = .014 and girls (p = .044, compared to those, who do not prefer these activities. In addition, in case of boys, we have found statistically significant correlations (p = .022 between the preference of team sports and PA at school. 51.8% of boys and 37.7% of girls, who prefer fitness activities, comply with the recommendation of at least 3 × 20 minutes of intensive PA during one week (out of those, who do not prefer, only 30.5% of boys and 18.1% of girls. Individual sports (swimming, cycling, and downhill skiing are the main physical activities preferred by
Full Text Available AbstractIn this study we investigate to what extent the effects of motor imagery on postural sway are constrained by movement features and the subject’s imagery ability. Twenty-three subjects were asked to imagine three movements using the kinesthetic modality: rising on tiptoes, whole-body forward reaching, and whole-body lateral reaching. After each task, subjects reported the level of imagery vividness and were subsequently grouped into a HIGH group (scores ≥3, moderately intense imagery or a LOW group (scores ≤2, mildly intense imagery. An eyes closed trial was used as a control task. Center of gravity (COG coordinates were collected, along with surface EMG of the deltoid (medial and anterior portion and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. COG variability was quantified as the amount of fluctuations in position and velocity in the forward-backward and lateral directions. Changes in COG variability during motor imagery were observed only for the HIGH group. COG variability in the forward-backward direction was increased during the rising on tiptoes imagery, compared with the control task (p=0.01 and the lateral reaching imagery (p=0.02. Conversely, COG variability in the lateral direction was higher in rising on tiptoes and lateral reaching imagery than during the control task (p0.08 or task (p>0.46 for any of the tested muscles. In summary, motor imagery influences body sway dynamics in a task-dependent manner, and relies on the subject’ imagery ability.
Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D
The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration.
Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Navas Martínez, Leandro; López Núñez, Manuela; García Calvo, Tomás
The following paper first introduces, and then goes on to test a structural model for goal orientation in sports that involves both personal and contextual variables. 511 subjects participated in this study, male and female athletes who play a variety of sports (352 men and 159 women). They ranged in age from 16 to 45-years old and completed the TEOSQ (Balaguer, Tomás & Castillo's version, 1995), the POSQ (Treasure & Roberts, 1994), the PMCSQ-II (Newton & Duda, 1993), the Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sports Questionnaire, and the Participation Motivation Inventory (Gill, Goss & Huddleston, 1983). The results of this sample show that success attribution and motivational climate are involved in determining goal orientation in sports. However, the model does present certain differences according to the type of sport practiced (individual versus team sport).
Henchoz, Yves; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Baggio, Stéphanie; Gmel, Gerhard
Among the negative consequences of video gaming disorder, decreased participation in sport and exercise has received little attention. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise in emerging adult men. A questionnaire was completed at baseline and 15-month follow-up by a representative national sample of 4,933 respondents. The seven items of the Game Addiction Scale were used to construct a latent variable representing video gaming disorder. Level of sport and exercise was also self-reported. Cross-lagged path modeling indicated a reciprocal causality between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise, even after adjusting for a large set of confounders. These findings support the need for better promotion of sport and exercise among emerging adults in order to contribute to the prevention of video gaming disorder, and to raise the level of sport and exercise activity in addicted gamers.
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Reeder Anthony I
Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.
Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette
Paired associate memory was tested with imagery and repetition instructions, with and without background music. Subjects were 64 students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. Music was found to have no effect with imagery instructions, but significantly improved performance with the repetition instructions. Music had different effects on…
Caeyenberghs, K.; Tsoupas, J.; Wilson, P.H.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.
Motor imagery provides a unique window on the integrity of movement representation. How this ability unfolds during development remains unknown, however. It was the aim of this cross-sectional study to chart the development of movement imagery over childhood using validated measures, and to examine
van Staalduine - Sulman, E.
To explore the question of whether Tg Jon might function as background to NT texts I compare Tg Jon and the gospel according to Matthew. I restrict this research to agricultural imagery, because the Targum is famous for its explanation of metaphors and similes, and because much imagery in Matthew
Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel
Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage. PMID:22195024
Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Magee, Christopher A; Okely, Anthony D
This paper assessed the associations between sports participation and the development of psychological strengths and difficulties during childhood. Two-year follow up study of a sample of 4042 Australian children who were followed from age 8 years to 10 years. Parents reported children's participation in organised sports, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Univariate general linear models were used to examine the association between changes in sports participation and psychological strengths and difficulties at 10 years, adjusting for psychological strengths and difficulties at age 8. Children who maintained participation in sport had lower rates of parent-reported psychological difficulties at 10 years compared with children who dropped out of sport. Less internalising problems were also reported for children who participated in organised sports compared to children who dropped out of sports and children who did not participate in sports. These relationships did not differ by BMI, socioeconomic status, or parental education. Greater psychological difficulties are experienced by children who drop out of sports, and greater social and emotional problems are experienced by children who drop out of sports and who do not participate in organised sports. Due consideration should be given to the quality and implementation of sporting programs to ensure that they provide benefits to mental health. Due consideration should also be given to the potential psychological difficulties being experienced by children who drop out of organised sports as a higher level of psychological difficulties may be experienced prior to or subsequent to dropout. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.