Hall, C. R.; Munroe-Chandler, K. J.; Fishburne, G. J.; Hall, N. D.
Athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. The Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall, Mack, Paivio, & Hausenblas, 1998) was developed to assess cognitive and motivational imagery used by adult athletes. No such instrument currently exists to measure the use of imagery by young athletes. The aim of the…
Perception of cohesion and imagery use among 45 elite team sport players in Botswana were assessed with the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron et al., 1985) and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire (Hall et al., 1998) to determine whether a relationship exists between the variables, and whether imagery use will ...
Kizildag, Esen; Tiryaki, M Sefik
This study compared use of imagery in elite male and female athletes in open and closed and individual or team sports. A total of 151 elite Turkish athletes ages 15 to 29 years old (males' M age=20.7 yr., SD=3.3; females' M age=20.0 yr., SD=3.5) from open-team sports (n=66), open-individual sports (n=26), and closed-individual sports (n=59) completed the sport imagery questionnaire. A significant multivariate effect of sport type was found. Univariate analyses indicated that male and female athletes in team open-skill sports and individual closed-skill sports used more motivational general-mastery imagery than did athletes in individual open-skill sports.
Anuar, Nurwina; Williams, Sarah E; Cumming, Jennifer
The present study aimed to examine whether physical and environment elements of PETTLEP imagery relate to the ability to image five types of sport imagery (i.e. skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery). Two hundred and ninety participants (152 males, 148 females; M age = 20.24 years, SD = 4.36) from various sports completed the Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire (SIAQ), and a set of items designed specifically for the study to assess how frequently participants incorporate physical (e.g. 'I make small movements or gestures during the imagery') and environment (e.g. 'I image in the real training/competition environment') elements of PETTLEP imagery. Structural equation modelling tested a hypothesised model in which imagery priming (i.e. the best fitting physical and environment elements) significantly and positively predicted imagery ability of the different imagery types (skill, β = 0.38; strategy, β = 0.23; goal, β = 0.21; affect, β = 0.25; mastery, β = 0.22). The model was a good fit to the data: χ 2 (174) = 263.87, p environment elements is associated with better skill, strategy, goal, affect and mastery imagery ability. The findings extend models of imagery use by indicating that how athletes images may influence their imagery ability.
Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd
The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…
Full Text Available Background Imagery is often beneficial not only in gaining a psychological advantage when competing but also in building self-esteem and self-confidence. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Polish adaptation of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3 (MIQ-3, consisting of 12 questions measuring 3 dimensions: visual internal imagery, visual external imagery and kinesthetic imagery. Participants and procedure A sample of athletes (N = 276 – 102 women, 174 men (M = 21.25, SD = 6.35 of various disciplines (football, volleyball, karate, swimming, etc. with different sport experience (from recreation to the national team filled in the MIQ-3 questionnaire in the Polish language. Results The results of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA with maximum likelihood confirmed that the established three-factor model reflects well the relationships observed in the respondents’ answers (satisfactory value of RMSEA below the recommended value of .05 (RMSEA = .04 and a high value of the index above .90 CFI (CFI = .93. Reliability indicators (composite reliability – CR observed for individual factors indicated a very high internal consistency (external visual imagery = .75, internal visual imagery = .79 and kinesthetic imagery = .82. The results indicated that good stability and internal consistency were maintained over a 3-week period. In addition, analyses were examined across age, level of experience and gender. Conclusions The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of the Polish adaptation of the MIQ-3.
Full Text Available Background Imagery is an effective performance enhancement technique. Imagery has been described previously in a range of psychological domains. Measuring imagery is critical in research and practice in sport. Self-report questionnaires are the most regularly used method. The aim of the present study was to examine reliability and validity characteristics of the Imagination in Sport Questionnaire (Kwestionariusz Wyobraźni w Sporcie – KWS. Participants and procedure Five and hundred eight (N = 326 – study I; N = 182 – study II Polish athletes completed questionnaires (169 male, 156 female – study I; 139 male, 43 female – study II, aged between 12 and 57 years (M = 22.08, SD = 8.18 – study I; age 19-24, M = 20.46, SD = 1.1 – study II, at different competitive levels and recruited from various sports disciplines. Results Results indicated the maintained good stability and internal consistency over a 3-week period. Results of confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor structure of the KWS resulted in acceptable model fit indices (NC = 2416.63, df = 1203, GFI = 0.944, AGFI = 0.944, CFI = 0.786, RMSEA = 0.056, p (RMSEA < 0.05 = 0.002 – first study; NC = 2234.39, df = 1203, GFI = 0.673, AGFI = = 0.640, CFI = 0.691, RMSEA = 0.069, p (RMSEA < 0.05 = = 0.000 – second study. Concurrent validity was supported by examination of the relationships between the KWS subscales and the SIAM (Sport Imagery Ability Measure in Polish adaptation. In addition, differences in athletes’ imagery ability were examined across competitive levels, and in relation to both gender and age. Conclusions Overall, the results supported the reliability and construct validity of the KWS.
Levy, A R; Perry, J; Nicholls, A R; Larkin, D; Davies, J
This study explored the mediating role of sport confidence upon (1) sources of sport confidence-performance relationship and (2) imagery-performance relationship. Participants were 157 competitive athletes who completed state measures of confidence level/sources, imagery type and performance within one hour after competition. Among the current sample, confirmatory factor analysis revealed appropriate support for the nine-factor SSCQ and the five-factor SIQ. Mediational analysis revealed that sport confidence had a mediating influence upon the achievement source of confidence-performance relationship. In addition, both cognitive and motivational imagery types were found to be important sources of confidence, as sport confidence mediated imagery type- performance relationship. Findings indicated that athletes who construed confidence from their own achievements and report multiple images on a more frequent basis are likely to benefit from enhanced levels of state sport confidence and subsequent performance.
Zhu, Hua; Shen, Cheng; Zhang, Jian
The present study tested whether sport-specific implements facilitate motor imagery, whereas nonspecific implements disrupt motor imagery. We asked a group of basketball players (experts) and a group of healthy controls (novices) to physically perform (motor execution) and mentally simulate (motor imagery) basketball throws. Subjects produced motor imagery when they were holding a basketball, a volleyball, or nothing. Motor imagery performance was measured by temporal congruence, which is the correspondence between imagery and execution times estimated as (imagery time minus execution time) divided by (imagery time plus execution time), as well as the vividness of motor imagery. Results showed that experts produced greater temporal congruence and vividness of kinesthetic imagery while holding a basketball compared to when they were holding nothing, suggesting a facilitation effect from sport-specific implements. In contrast, experts produced lower temporal congruence and vividness of kinesthetic imagery while holding a volleyball compared to when they were holding nothing, suggesting the interference effect of nonspecific implements. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between temporal congruence and the vividness of kinesthetic imagery in experts while holding a basketball. On the contrary, the implement manipulation did not modulate the temporal congruence of novices. Our findings suggest that motor representation in experts is built on motor experience associated with specific-implement use and thus was subjected to modulation of the implement held. We conclude that sport-specific implements facilitate motor imagery, whereas nonspecific implements could disrupt motor representation in experts. PMID:29719738
Fuell, Kevin K.; Molthan, Andrew L.
MODIS Snow/Cloud and True Color RGB imagery has been used by SPoRT partners since 2004 to examine changes in surface features such as snow cover, vegetation, ocean color, fires, smoke plumes, and oil spills.
Rocchi, Meredith; Pelletier, Luc; Desmarais, Philippe
According to Self-Determination Theory (SDT), basic psychological needs will be influenced by other individuals' interpersonal behaviors. The objective of the present research is to extend the validity of the Interpersonal Behaviors Questionnaire (IBQ and IBQ-Self) to the sport context. The measure was designed to assess perceptions of…
Filgueiras, Alberto; Quintas Conde, Erick Francisco; Hall, Craig R
Imagery is a widely spread technique in the sport sciences that entails the mental rehearsal of a given situation to improve an athlete's learning, performance and motivation. Two modalities of imagery are reported to tap into distinct brain structures, but sharing common components: kinesthetic and visual imagery. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of those types of imagery with Activation Likelihood Estimation algorithm to perform a meta - analysis. A systematic search was used to retrieve only experimental studies with athletes or sportspersons. Altogether, nine studies were selected and an ALE meta - analysis was performed. Results indicated significant activation of the premotor, somatosensory cortex, supplementary motor areas, inferior and superior parietal lobule, caudate, cingulate and cerebellum in both imagery tasks. It was concluded that visual and kinesthetic imagery share similar neural networks which suggests that combined interventions are beneficial to athletes whereas separate use of those two modalities of imagery may seem less efficient from a neuropsychological approach.
Kleb, Cerise; Welding, Kevin; Cohen, Joanna E; Smith, Katherine C
Tobacco companies have historically associated their products with sports through event sponsorship and sports-themed advertising campaigns. Such linkages serve to enhance brand image by connecting cigarette brands to ideals associated with sports such as strength, individual accomplishment, and a healthy body. Public health policy progress has created restrictions for tobacco sponsorship and restricted traditional advertising avenues for tobacco products. Nonetheless, the pack itself remains as a mechanism by which to link cigarettes to sports and sporting prowess. Thus, we analyze depictions of sport and references to sports terminology on cigarette packs. To describe the sports-related marketing appeals on cigarette packages purchased in 14 low and middle income countries. In 2013, we collected and coded cigarette packs from 14 low and middle income countries and we returned to four of these countries for further data collection in 2015. Packs from both years were assessed for sports-related appeals (text and imagery) and sports-related brand names to identify sports appeals on cigarette packs. The analysis yielded 36 brands with distinct depictions of sport or sporting terminology on the pack. Text-based appeals were found on 24 of the 36 distinct "sports appeal" packs (e.g., "Polo," "Olympic," "Win," "iScore"). Sporting imagery was present on 22 packs (e.g., soccer ball, race car, wrestling match, trophy). The pack is a powerful medium through which tobacco companies continue to associate their products with idealized concepts associated with sports. These are potentially problematic associations that could be restricted through plain and standardized packaging policy initiatives.
Holmes , Paul; Calmels , Claire
International audience; Imagery and observation are multicomponential, involving individual difference characteristics that modify the processes. The authors propose that both imagery and observation function by offering effective routes to access and reinforce neural networks for skilled performance. The neural isomor-phism with overt behaviors offers a tempting mechanism to explain the beneficial outcomes of the 2 processes. However, several limitations related to imagery indicate the possi...
Martindale, Russell J J; Collins, Dave; Wang, John C K; McNeill, Michael; Lee, Kok Sonk; Sproule, John; Westbury, Tony
As sporting challenge at the elite level becomes ever harder, maximizing effectiveness of the talent development pathway is crucial. Reflecting this need, this paper describes the development of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire, which has been designed to facilitate the development of sporting potential to world-class standard. The questionnaire measures the experiences of developing athletes in relation to empirically identified "key features" of effective talent development environments. The first phase involved the generation of questionnaire items with clear content and face validity. The second phase explored the factor structure and reliability. This was carried out with 590 developing athletes through application of exploratory factor analysis with oblique rotation, principal axis factoring extraction and cronbach alpha tests. This yielded a 59-item, seven-factor structure with good internal consistency (0.616-0.978). The Talent Development Environment Questionnaire appears to be a promising psychometric instrument that can potentially be useful for education and formative review in applied settings, and as a measurement tool in talent development research.
Fuell, Kevin; LeRoy, Anita; Smith, Matt; Miller, Steve; Kann, Diedre; Bernhardt, David; Reydell, Nezette; Cox, Robert
The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program and NOAA/Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) work within the NOAA/Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Ground to demonstrate the unique capabilities of the VIIRS instrument. Very similar to MODIS, the VIIRS instrument provides many high-resolution visible and infrared channels in a broad spectrum. In addition, VIIRS is equipped with a low-light sensor that is able to detect light emissions from the land and atmosphere as well as reflected sunlight by the lunar surface. This band is referred to as the Day-Night Band due to the sunlight being used at night to see cloud and topographic features just as one would typically see in day-time visible imagery. NWS forecast offices that collaborate with SPoRT and CIRA have utilized MODIS imagery in operations, but have longed for more frequent passes of polar-orbiting data. The VIIRS instrument enhances SPoRT collaborations with WFOs by providing another day and night-time pass, and at times two additional passes due to its large swath width. This means that multi-spectral, RGB imagery composites are more readily available to prepare users for their use in GOES-R era and high-resolution imagery for use in high-latitudes is more frequently able to supplement standard GOES imagery within the SPoRT Hybrid GEO-LEO product. The transition of VIIRS also introduces the new Day-Night Band capability to forecast operations. An Intensive Evaluation Period (IEP) was conducted in Summer 2013 with a group of "Front Range" NWS offices related to VIIRS night-time imagery. VIIRS single-channel imagery is able to better analyze the specific location of fire hotspots and other land features, as well as provide a more true measurement of various cloud and aerosol properties than geostationary measurements, especially at night. Viewed within the SPoRT Hybrid imagery, the VIIRS data allows forecasters to better interpret the more frequent, but
Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina
Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…
Eys, Mark; Loughead, Todd; Bray, Steven R; Carron, Albert V
The purpose of the current study was to initiate the development of a psychometrically sound measure of cohesion for youth sport groups. A series of projects were undertaken in a four-phase research program. The initial phase was designed to garner an understanding of how youth sport group members perceived the concept of cohesion through focus groups (n = 56), open-ended questionnaires (n = 280), and a literature review. In Phase 2, information from the initial projects was used in the development of 142 potential items and content validity was assessed. In Phase 3, 227 participants completed a revised 87-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses further reduced the number of items to 17 and suggested a two-factor structure (i.e., task and social cohesion dimensions). Finally, support for the factorial validity of the resultant questionnaire was provided through confirmatory factor analyses with an independent sample (n = 352) in Phase 4. The final version of the questionnaire contains 16 items that assess task and social cohesion in addition to 2 negatively worded spurious items. Specific issues related to assessing youth perceptions of cohesion are discussed and future research directions are suggested.
Dey, Abhishikta; Barnsley, Nadia; Mohan, Rahul; McCormick, Marianne; McAuley, James H; Moseley, G Lorimer
Playing a sport or a musical instrument is presumed to improve motor ability. One would therefore predict that children who play a sport or music are better at motor imagery tasks, which rely on an intact cortical proprioceptive representation and precise motor planning, than children who do not. The authors tested this prediction. This study involved an online questionnaire and then a motor imagery task. The task measured the reaction time (RT) and the accuracy for left/right-hand judgements in children aged 5 to 17 years. Forty pictured hands (20 left), held in various positions and rotated zero, 90°, 180° or 270°, were displayed on a screen. Participants indicated whether the displayed hands were left or right by pressing keys on a keyboard. Fifty-seven children (30 boys; mean±SD age=10±3.3 years) participated. The mean±SD RT was 3015.4±1330.0 ms and the accuracy was 73.9±16.6%. There was no difference in RT between children who played sport, music, neither or both (four-level one-way analysis of variance, p=0.85). There was no difference in accuracy between groups either (Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.46). In a secondary analysis, participants whose parents rated them as being 'clumsy' were no slower (n.s.) but were about 25% less accurate than those rated coordinated or very coordinated (pmusic is associated with better cortical proprioceptive representation and motor planning. Secondary analyses suggest that parent-rated clumsiness is negatively related to motor imagery performance.
Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Chee Keng John; Pyun, Do Young; Martindale, Russell
Given the significance of monitoring the critical environmental factors that facilitate athlete performance, this two-phase research aimed to validate and refine the revised talent development environment questionnaire (TDEQ). The TDEQ is a multidimensional self-report scale that assesses talented athletes' environmental experiences. Study 1 (the first phase) involved the examination of the revised TDEQ through an exploratory factor analysis (n = 363). This exploratory investigation identified a 28-item five-factor structure (i.e., TDEQ-5) with adequate internal consistency. Study 2 (the second phase) examined the factorial structure of the TDEQ-5, including convergent validity, discriminant validity, and group invariance (i.e., gender and sports type). The second phase was carried out with 496 talented athletes through the application of confirmatory factor analyses and multigroup invariance tests. The results supported the convergent validity, discriminant validity, and group invariance of the TDEQ-5. In conclusion, the TDEQ-5 with 25 items appears to be a reliable and valid scale for use in talent development environments.
Demanboro, Alan; Sterr, Annette; Anjos, Sarah Monteiro Dos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos
Motor imagery has emerged as a potential rehabilitation tool in stroke. The goals of this study were: 1) to develop a translated and culturally-adapted Brazilian-Portugese version of the Kinesthetic and Visual Motor Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ20-P); 2) to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the scale in a group of patients with stroke and in an age-matched control group; 3) to compare the KVIQ20 performance between the two groups. Test-retest, inter-rater reliabilities, and internal consistencies were evaluated in 40 patients with stroke and 31 healthy participants. In the stroke group, ICC confidence intervals showed excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities. Cronbach's alpha also indicated excellent internal consistency. Results for controls were comparable to those obtained in persons with stroke. The excellent psychometric properties of the KVIQ20-P should be considered during the design of studies of motor imagery interventions for stroke rehabilitation.
Nakano, Hideki; Kodama, Takayuki; Ukai, Kazumasa; Kawahara, Satoru; Horikawa, Shiori; Murata, Shin
In this study, we aimed to (1) translate the English version of the Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ), which assesses motor imagery ability, into Japanese, and (2) investigate the reliability and validity of the Japanese KVIQ. We enrolled 28 healthy adults in this study. We used Cronbach’s alpha coefficients to assess reliability reflected by the internal consistency. Additionally, we assessed validity reflected by the criterion-related validity between the Japanese KVIQ and the Japanese version of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R) with Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the KVIQ-20 were 0.88 (Visual) and 0.91 (Kinesthetic), which indicates high reliability. There was a significant positive correlation between the Japanese KVIQ-20 (Total) and the Japanese MIQ-R (Total) (r = 0.86, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that the Japanese KVIQ is an assessment that is a reliable and valid index of motor imagery ability.
Andrew J. Butler
Full Text Available Mental imagery can improve motor performance in stroke populations when combined with physical therapy. Valid and reliable instruments to evaluate the imagery ability of stroke survivors are needed to maximize the benefits of mental imagery therapy. The purposes of this study were to: examine and compare the test-retest intra-rate reliability of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised, Second Edition (MIQ-RS in stroke survivors and able-bodied controls, examine internal consistency of the visual and kinesthetic items of the MIQ-RS, determine if the MIQ-RS includes both the visual and kinesthetic dimensions of mental imagery, correlate impairment and motor imagery scores, and investigate the criterion validity of the MIQ-RS in stroke survivors by comparing the results to the KVIQ-10. Test-retest analysis indicated good levels of reliability (ICC range: .83–.99 and internal consistency (Cronbach α: .95–.98 of the visual and kinesthetic subscales in both groups. The two-factor structure of the MIQ-RS was supported by factor analysis, with the visual and kinesthetic components accounting for 88.6% and 83.4% of the total variance in the able-bodied and stroke groups, respectively. The MIQ-RS is a valid and reliable instrument in the stroke population examined and able-bodied populations and therefore useful as an outcome measure for motor imagery ability.
María del Pilar Vílchez, Cristina De Francisco
Full Text Available Understanding the motives that influence physical activity participation is important in order to orientate physical activity promotion and increase physical activity levels of practice of the population. Although many instruments been created and validated to measure motives to perform physical activity, one of the most frequently used scales during years is the Participation of Motives Questionnaire (PMQ by Gill et al. (1983. Unfortunately, despite being so used and translated into many languages, there is no psychometric support for some factors about due to a low internal consistency. The purpose of this research was to present a reduced model of the Spanish version of the PMQ and to analyze the motives for sports participation. The Spanish version of PMQ was applied to participants of both sexes with ages between 12 and 60 years (M = 19.20; SD = 6.37. Factorial validity of the questionnaire was checked using exploratory and confirmatory analyses. Analysis of items and internal consistency of the factors were carried out. Reduced version measures seven dimensions (competition, status, teamwork, energy release, family/peers, skill development and health/fitness with good values of validity and reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha were between 0.713 and 0.879. Different reasons for exercise and sport by sociodemographic variables were found. For example, females practice for exercise and sports for competition and teamwork than males Elite athletes practice more exercise and sport also for teamwork, skills development and health/fitness than amateurs. Finally those who have more experience, practice more physical activity and sport for competition, status and health/fitness.
Lonsdale, Chris; Hodge, Ken; Rose, Elaine A
The purpose of the four studies described in this article was to develop and test a new measure of competitive sport participants' intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation (self-determination theory; Deci & Ryan, 1985). The items for the new measure, named the Behavioral Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), were constructed using interviews, expert review, and pilot testing. Analyses supported the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and factorial validity of the BRSQ scores. Nomological validity evidence was also supportive, as BRSQ subscale scores were correlated in the expected pattern with scores derived from measures of motivational consequences. When directly compared with scores derived from the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS; Pelletier, Fortier, Vallerand, Tuson, & Blais, 1995) and a revised version of that questionnaire (SMS-6; Mallett, Kawabata, Newcombe, Otero-Forero, & Jackson, 2007), BRSQ scores demonstrated equal or superior reliability and factorial validity as well as better nomological validity.
Arnold, Rachel; Fletcher, David
The Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) (Jones, M. V., Lane, A. M., Bray, S. R., Uphill, M., & Catlin, J. (2005). Development and validation of the SEQ. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 27, 407-431) was developed and initially validated to assess sport performers' pre-competitive emotions. The purpose of this study was to test the factor structure of the SEQ in a different environment (viz. organisational) and at a different time point (viz. the past month). A further aim was to examine if the SEQ was invariant across different groups of sport performers. A diverse sample of athletes (n = 1277) completed the questionnaire. Fit indices from confirmatory factor analyses provided partial support for the hypothesised measurement model, with equal or better fit demonstrated than evident in initial validation. The comparative fit index values were above acceptable guidelines for all factors at subscale level. Evidence was also found for the invariance of the SEQ across different groups. Overall, the findings support the reliability and validity of the SEQ as a measure of the emotions experienced by sport performers in an organisational environment during the past month.
Román Martínez, Julio; Guillén, Félix; Feltz, Deborah
The present study analyses the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Collective Efficacy Questionnaire in Sports (CEQS). The sample comprises 312 athletes (167 males and 145 females), with a mean age of 24.09 (SD= 6.67), with diverse performance levels (professional, semiprofessional and university level), all practitioners of team sports. The factor structure of the questionnaire was analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The results confirm the 5-factor internal structure of the CESQ (Effort, Ability, Unity, Perseverance and Preparation), made up of four items each. We also found acceptable values of the alpha coefficient, which confirms that the CESQ is a reliable instrument. Lastly, we found preliminary support for the validity of the construct of the CESQ, which is sufficient evidence to justify its use to measure the collective efficacy in Spanish athletes.
Eshghi, Mohammad Ali; Kordi, Ramin; Memari, Amir Hossein; Ghaziasgar, Ahmad; Mansournia, Mohammad-Ali; Zamani Sani, Seyed Hojjat
The Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire (YSEQ) had been developed from Group Environment Questionnaire, a well-known measure of team cohesion. The aim of this study was to adapt and examine the reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the YSEQ. This version was completed by 455 athletes aged 13-17 years. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that two-factor solution showed a good fit to the data. The results also revealed that the Farsi YSEQ showed high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and good concurrent validity. This study indicated that the Farsi version of the YSEQ is a valid and reliable measure to assess team cohesion in sport setting.
Mohammad Ali Eshghi
Full Text Available The Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire (YSEQ had been developed from Group Environment Questionnaire, a well-known measure of team cohesion. The aim of this study was to adapt and examine the reliability and validity of the Farsi version of the YSEQ. This version was completed by 455 athletes aged 13–17 years. Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that two-factor solution showed a good fit to the data. The results also revealed that the Farsi YSEQ showed high internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and good concurrent validity. This study indicated that the Farsi version of the YSEQ is a valid and reliable measure to assess team cohesion in sport setting.
Kassam, H; Tzortziou Brown, V; O'Halloran, P; Wheeler, P; Fairclough, J; Maffulli, N; Morrissey, D
Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) aims to manage sporting injuries and promote physical activity. This study explores general practitioners' (GPs) awareness, understanding and utilisation of their local SEM services. A questionnaire survey, including patient case scenarios, was administered between February and May 2011. 693 GPs working in Cardiff and Vale, Leicester and Tower Hamlets were invited to participate. 244 GPs responded to the questionnaire (35.2% response rate). Less than half (46%; 112/244) were aware of their nearest SEM service and only 38% (92/244) had a clear understanding on referral indications. The majority (82%; 199/244) felt confident advising less active patients about exercise. There were divergent management opinions about the case scenarios of patients who were SEM referral candidates. Overall, GPs were significantly more likely to refer younger patients and patients with sport-related problems rather than patients who would benefit from increasing their activity levels in order to prevent or manage chronic conditions (pHealth Service which may be resulting in suboptimal utilisation especially for patients who could benefit from increasing their activity levels. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Benson, Alex J; Eys, Mark
The ways in which newcomers are integrated into sport teams may have broad consequences for the athletes entering the group, as well as for the existing team members. Drawing from organizational socialization theory, the current research developed a questionnaire to assess athletes' perceptions of how newcomers are socialized into their group. Across four studies, think-aloud interviews (N = 8), an expert panel review (N = 6), cross-sectional tests of the factor structure (N Study 2 = 197; N Study 3 = 460), and a two-wave correlational design (N Study 4 = 194) were used to evaluate the construct validity and the internal consistency of the Sport Team Socialization Tactics Questionnaire (STSTQ). Collectively, these efforts identified a three-factor structure underlying the STSTQ and provided preliminary evidence for its validity. The STSTQ enables researchers to systematically examine the individual- and group-level consequences associated with the socialization tactics implemented in sport teams.
Trakman, Gina Louise; Forsyth, Adrienne; Hoye, Russell; Belski, Regina
Appropriate dietary intake can have a significant influence on athletic performance. There is a growing consensus on sports nutrition and professionals working with athletes often provide dietary education. However, due to the limitations of existing sports nutrition knowledge questionnaires, previous reports of athletes' nutrition knowledge may be inaccurate. An updated questionnaire has been developed based on a recent review of sports nutrition guidelines. The tool has been validated using a robust methodology that incorporates relevant techniques from classical test theory (CTT) and Item response theory (IRT), namely, Rasch analysis. The final questionnaire has 89 questions and six sub-sections (weight management, macronutrients, micronutrients, sports nutrition, supplements, and alcohol). The content and face validity of the tool have been confirmed based on feedback from expert sports dietitians and university sports students, respectively. The internal reliability of the questionnaire as a whole is high (KR = 0.88), and most sub-sections achieved an acceptable internal reliability. Construct validity has been confirmed, with an independent T-test revealing a significant ( p < 0.001) difference in knowledge scores of nutrition (64 ± 16%) and non-nutrition students (51 ± 19%). Test-retest reliability has been assured, with a strong correlation ( r = 0.92, p < 0.001) between individuals' scores on two attempts of the test, 10 days to 2 weeks apart. Three of the sub-sections fit the Rasch Unidimensional Model. The final version of the questionnaire represents a significant improvement over previous tools. Each nutrition sub-section is unidimensional, and therefore researchers and practitioners can use these individually, as required. Use of the questionnaire will allow researchers to draw conclusions about the effectiveness of nutrition education programs, and differences in knowledge across athletes of varying ages, genders, and athletic
Koehn, S; Stavrou, N A M; Young, J A; Morris, T
The applied model of mental imagery use proposed an interaction effect between imagery type and imagery ability. This study had two aims: (a) the examination of imagery ability as a moderating variable between imagery type and dispositional flow, and (b) the testing of alternative mediation models. The sample consisted of 367 athletes from Scotland and Australia, who completed the Sport Imagery Questionnaire, Sport Imagery Ability Questionnaire, and Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Hierarchical regression analysis showed direct effects of imagery use and imagery ability on flow, but no significant interaction. Mediation analysis revealed a significant indirect path, indicating a partially mediated relationship (P = 0.002) between imagery use, imagery ability, and flow. Partial mediation was confirmed when the effect of cognitive imagery use and cognitive imagery ability was tested, and a full mediation model was found between motivational imagery use, motivational imagery ability, and flow. The results are discussed in conjunction with potential future research directions on advancing theory and applications. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Park, Sunghee; Hong, Seungbun; Lee, Miyoung
The current study had three aims: (1) to validate a Korean version of the Student Athletes' Motivation toward Sports and Academics Questionnaire (SAMSAQ-Kr), (2) to examine South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement, and (3) to identify the relationship between athletic identity and their athletic and academic achievement. A total of 126 South Korean university student-athletes (41.4% males and 58.6% females; mean age 20.5, SD = 2.74) completed the SAMSAQ-Kr. To investigate the validity evidence of the SAMSAQ-Kr a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch model were employed. To examine the relationship between Athletic Identity Measurement Scale (AIMS) and SAMSAQ for Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated. Findings indicated that the SAMSAQ-Kr showed a different model from other versions and revealed positive correlations between AIMS scores and athletic motivations. The current study highlighted that importance of considering socio-cultural context in developing questionnaire and contributed to help understand South Korean university student-athletes' motivation towards athletic and academic achievement.
Ridderinkhof, K Richard; Brass, Marcel
Kinesthetic Motor Imagery (KMI) is an important technique to acquire and refine motor skills. KMI is widely used by professional athletes as an effective way to improve motor performance without overt motor output. Despite this obvious relevance, the functional mechanisms and neural circuits involved in KMI in sports are still poorly understood. In the present article, which aims at bridging the sport sciences and cognitive neurophysiology literatures, we give a brief overview of relevant research in the field of KMI. Furthermore, we develop a theoretical account that relates KMI to predictive motor control theories assuming that it is based on internal activation of anticipatory images of action effects. This mechanism allows improving motor performance solely based on internal emulation of action. In accordance with previous literature, we propose that this emulation mechanism is implemented in brain regions that partially overlap with brain areas involved in overt motor performance including the posterior parietal cortex, the cerebellum, the basal ganglia and the premotor cortex. Finally, we outline one way to test the heuristic value of our theoretical framework for KMI; we suggest that experience with motor performance improves the ability to correctly infer the goals of others, in particular in penalty blocking in soccer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Bartels, Else Marie; Langberg, Henning
Achilles tendinopathy (AT) is a common pathology and the aetiology is unknown. For valid and reliable assessment The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment has designed a self-administered Achilles questionnaire, the VISA-A. The aim of the present study was to evaluate VISA-A as an outcome...
Martínez Rodríguez, Alejandro; Vicente Salar, Néstor; Montero Carretero, Carlos; Cervelló Gimeno, Eduardo; Roche Collado, Enrique
there is a growing concern in the appearance of eating disorders in athletes, especially those that practice sports grouped into weight categories. This affects the way athletes eat, using frequently unhealthy strategies to control weight, especially during the pre-competition period. this study analyses the prevalence of contact sports athletes in developing eating disorders, and how a controlled diet plan can reduce this risk. At the same time, it evaluates the use of the EAT-26 questionnaire to detect such disorders. a randomized frequency study was performed on 244 athletes (158 men, 86 women), who were separated into two groups: those that followed a diet plan given by a nutritionist, and a control group on a free diet. The athletes completed an EAT-26 questionnaire while participating in the University-level National Championships. the free diet group scored significantly higher on the questionnaire. Also, the female athletes controlled diet group scored significantly higher than their male counterparts. the results of the questionnaire indicate that an adequate nutritional program circumvents the use of unhealthy habits to control body weight and therefore avoids developing particular eating disorders. EAT-26 questionnaire does not seem the most appropriate tool to detect these disorders. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Yousef Moghadas Tabrizi
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Motor imagery (MI has been recently considered as an adjunct to physical rehabilitation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. It is necessary to assess MI abilities and benefits in patients with MS by using a reliable tool. The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ was recently developed to assess MI ability in patients with stroke and other disabilities. Considering the different underlying pathologies, the present study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the KVIQ in MS patients. METHOD: Fifteen MS patients were assessed using the KVIQ in 2 sessions (5-14days apart by the same examiner. In the second session, the participants also completed a revised MI questionnaire (MIQ-R as the gold standard. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs were measured to determine test-retest reliability. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to assess concurrent validity with the MIQ-R. Furthermore, the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha and factorial structure of the KVIQ were studied. RESULTS: The test-retest reliability for the KVIQ was good (ICCs: total KVIQ=0.89, visual KVIQ=0.85, and kinesthetic KVIQ=0.93, and the concurrent validity between the KVIQ and MIQ-R was good (r=0.79. The KVIQ had good internal consistency, with high Cronbach's alpha (alpha=0.84. Factorial analysis showed the bi-factorial structure of the KVIQ, which was explained by visual=57.6% and kinesthetic=32.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study revealed that the KVIQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing MI in MS patients.
Tabrizi, Yousef Moghadas; Zangiabadi, Nasser; Mazhari, Shahrzad; Zolala, Farzaneh
Motor imagery (MI) has been recently considered as an adjunct to physical rehabilitation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). It is necessary to assess MI abilities and benefits in patients with MS by using a reliable tool. The Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ) was recently developed to assess MI ability in patients with stroke and other disabilities. Considering the different underlying pathologies, the present study aimed to examine the validity and reliability of the KVIQ in MS patients. Fifteen MS patients were assessed using the KVIQ in 2 sessions (5-14 days apart) by the same examiner. In the second session, the participants also completed a revised MI questionnaire (MIQ-R) as the gold standard. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were measured to determine test-retest reliability. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed to assess concurrent validity with the MIQ-R. Furthermore, the internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and factorial structure of the KVIQ were studied. The test-retest reliability for the KVIQ was good (ICCs: total KVIQ=0.89, visual KVIQ=0.85, and kinesthetic KVIQ=0.93), and the concurrent validity between the KVIQ and MIQ-R was good (r=0.79). The KVIQ had good internal consistency, with high Cronbach's alpha (alpha=0.84). Factorial analysis showed the bi-factorial structure of the KVIQ, which was explained by visual=57.6% and kinesthetic=32.4%. The results of the present study revealed that the KVIQ is a valid and reliable tool for assessing MI in MS patients.
Full Text Available Several self-report questionnaires have been used to evaluate various determiners of sports practice in young people, but very few have been applied to Mexicans. In this analysis, the questionnaire was administered to 222 subjects (13-25 years. We determined its internal consistency (Cronbach , content validity (document analysis, construct (Exploratory Factor Analysis, EFA as well as that of the criterion. The latter, by its correlation (Spearman with anthropometric variables: body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC* and physiological (VO2max. The results showed that the internal consistency is acceptable (Cronbach’s = 0.68 to 0.85. Moreover, this questionnaire similarly responds to queries posed in surveys already reported (to find out the physical, educational, psychological and socio-demographic characteristics of physical/sports practice. The EFA showed 1, 2 and 3 factor structures with adequate Cronbach´s (~0,70 and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (~0,72 values. The practice of physical activity was associated with a lower BMI and higher VO2max. The questionnaire proved to be a valid instrument for investigating physical/sports habits and behavior in young people from northern Mexico.
Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Dourian, Tara; Raynault, Marie-France
We assessed the potential for harmful messages in online advertisements targeted to youth, using the example of the Canadian "Light It Up" marketing campaign from a large sports corporation. We undertook a cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 secondary school classes in Montreal, Canada. Classes were randomly allocated to view a "Light It Up" advertisement (n = 205) or a neutral comparison advertisement (n = 192). The main outcome measures were self-reports of illicit drug messages in the advertisements. Of the students, 22.9% reported that the "Light It Up" advertisement contained illicit drug messages compared with 1.0% for the comparison advertisement (relative risk, 22.0; 95% confidence interval, 6.5-74.9). Although meant to promote sports, youth in this study believed that the "Light It Up" advertisement was related to illicit drugs. The campaign illustrates how advertisements may inadvertently market unwanted behaviors to children. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sasaki, Ryohei; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki; Nishio, Teiji; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Ashino, Yasuo; Onishi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nagata, Yasushi
Questionnaire for the contents of cancer professional training plan by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology Japan were widely assessed and introduced in the 4th Japanese Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology (JASTRO) Future Planning Seminar held on March 8, 2008 in Tokyo, Japan. From the assessment, small number of instructors for medical physicists was elucidated as the most important problem for the future of fields of radiation oncology in Japan. (author)
Full Text Available Good knowledge of nutrition is widely thought to be an important aspect to maintaining a balanced and healthy diet. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new reliable tool to measure the general and the sport nutrition knowledge (GeSNK in people who used to practice sports at different levels. The development of (GeSNK was carried out in six phases as follows: (1 item development and selection by a panel of experts; (2 pilot study in order to assess item difficulty and item discrimination; (3 measurement of the internal consistency; (4 reliability assessment with a 2-week test-retest analysis; (5 concurrent validity was tested by administering the questionnaire along with other two similar tools; (6 construct validity by administering the questionnaire to three groups of young adults with different general nutrition and sport nutrition knowledge. The final questionnaire, consisted of 62 items of the original 183 questions. It is a consistent, valid, and suitable instrument that can be applied over time, making it a promising tool to look at the relationship between nutrition knowledge, demographic characteristics, and dietary behavior in adolescents and young adults.
Jorgensen, J E; Rathleff, C R; Rathleff, M S; Andreasen, J
The Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre Overuse Injury Questionnaire (OSTRC-O) and the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre questionnaire on Health Problems (The OSTRC-H) make it possible to monitor illness and injury at regular intervals capturing prevalence and incidence of acute injury, overuse injury, and illnesses. The aim of this study was to translate, culturally adapt, and establish the face validity of the OSTRC-O and the OSTRC-H into a Danish context (DK) through cognitive interviews and the assessment of test-retest reliability. The OSTRC-O.DK was distributed to 57 heterogenous respondents; response rate was 89%. The OSTRC-H was distributed to 58 heterogenous respondents; response rate was 86%. No major disagreements were observed between the original and translated versions of the questionnaires. The OSTRC-O had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.80-0.93). The primary reliability analyses including all participants, showed reliability ICC: 0.62 (95% CI: 0.42-0.77. The secondary reliability analyses that only included subjects who did not change injury region from the test to the retest showed an ICC of 0.86 (95% CI: 0.77-0.92).The questionnaires were found to be valid, reliable, and acceptable for use in a Danish population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schmid, Julia; Gut, Vanessa; Conzelmann, Achim; Sudeck, Gorden
Target group-specific intervention strategies are often called for in order to effectively promote exercise and sport. Currently, motives and goals are rarely included systematically in the design of interventions, despite the key role they play in well-being and adherence to exercise. The Bernese motive and goal inventory (BMZI) allows an individual diagnosis of motives and goals in exercise and sport in people in middle adulthood. The purpose of the present study was to elaborate on the original BMZI and to modify the questionnaire in order to improve its psychometric properties. The study is based on data from two samples (sample A: 448 employees of companies and authorities; sample B: 853 patients of a medical rehabilitation programme). We applied confirmatory factor analysis and exploratory structural equation modelling. Overall, both the original and the updated BMZI had an acceptable to good validity and a good reliability. However, the revised questionnaire had slightly better reliability. The updated BMZI consists of 23 items and covers the following motives and goals: Body/Appearance, Contact, Competition/Performance, Aesthetics, Distraction/Catharsis, Fitness and Health. It is recommended as an economical inventory for the individual diagnosis of important psychological conditions for exercise and sport.
André Luiz Felix Rodacki
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in motor imagery ability in response to a specific dart throwing training. Twelve subjects (17-22 years with no previous experience in dart throwing or imagery agreed to participate. Changes in imagery ability were assessed using the Sports Imagery Questionnaire before (pretreatment and after (post-treatment an imagery training program consisting of 10 sessions. Retention (RET was assessed 2 weeks after training. The program included mental exercises designed to develop vivid images, to control one’s own images, and to increase perception about performance. Comparison of the imagery training conditions (training alone, training accompanied, observing a colleague, and during assessment showed no differences between the pretreatment, post-treatment and RET evaluations. Although imagery ability did not respond to training, significant differences between imagery domains (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and animic were found (p<0.05, except between the visual and animic domains (p=0.58. These differences might be related to subject’s domain preference subject during the imagery process and to the nature of the task in which the skill technique used seems to be a relevant aspect.
Olivares, Pedro R.; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J. J.
This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1–5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings. PMID:28582387
Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J
This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.
Franck Di Rienzo
Full Text Available While the use of motor imagery (the mental representation of an action without overt execution during actual training sessions is usually recommended, experimental studies examining the effect of physical fatigue on subsequent motor imagery performance are sparse and yielded divergent findings. Here, we investigated whether physical fatigue occurring during an intense sport training session affected motor imagery ability. Twelve swimmers (nine males, mean age 15.5 years conducted a 45 min physically-fatiguing protocol where they swam from 70% to 100% of their maximal aerobic speed. We tested motor imagery ability immediately before and after fatigue state. Participants randomly imagined performing a swim turn using internal and external visual imagery. Self-reports ratings, imagery times and electrodermal responses, an index of alertness from the autonomic nervous system, were the dependent variables. Self-reports ratings indicated that participants did not encounter difficulty when performing motor imagery after fatigue. However, motor imagery times were significantly shortened during posttest compared to both pretest and actual turn times, thus indicating reduced timing accuracy. Looking at the selective effect of physical fatigue on external visual imagery did not reveal any difference before and after fatigue, whereas significantly shorter imagined times and electrodermal responses (respectively 15% and 48% decrease, p<0.001 were observed during the posttest for internal visual imagery. A significant correlation (r=0.64; p<0.05 was observed between motor imagery vividness (estimated through imagery questionnaire and autonomic responses during motor imagery after fatigue. These data support that unlike local muscle fatigue, physical fatigue occurring during intense sport training sessions is likely to affect motor imagery accuracy. These results might be explained by the updating of the internal representation of the motor sequence, due to
Full Text Available This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305 = 499.64, p<0.01, CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.045, SRMR = 0.055. It also demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. While the internal reliability was lower than in previous studies, it revealed acceptable levels. Specifically the overall 27 item Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.
Dietrich, Hanno; Ehrlenspiel, Felix
Cognitive models postulate that respondents to a questionnaire follow a four-stage process when answering a question: comprehension, memory retrieval, decision, and response. Cognitive interviewing is a qualitative tool to gain insight into this process by means of letting respondents think aloud or asking them specific questions (Willis, 2005).…
Newton, M; Duda, J L; Yin, Z
We undertook two studies to determine the validity and reliability of the revised Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ-2). In Study 1, 201 female athletes (mean age 16.4 years) were administered the initial version of the PMCSQ-2 and a measure of reported tension and pressure experienced in sport. Exploratory principal component analysis suggested that the PMCSQ-2 contained two higher-order scales (Task-Involving and Ego-Involving climates), each with three subscales (Task: Cooperative Learning, Effort/ Improvement, Important Role; Ego: Intra-Team Member Rivalry, Unequal Recognition, Punishment for Mistakes). In Study 2, 385 female volleyball players (mean age 15.2 years) completed the PMCSQ-2, the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and a measure of Team Satisfaction. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to six competing models. The oblique six-factor model and oblique hierarchical model provided comparable fit to the data. Acceptable fit was reached based on model respecification. Across Studies 1 and 2, internal consistency was found to be acceptable for the higher-order scales and subscales (with the exception of the Intra-Team Member Rivalry subscale). We found evidence for the concurrent validity of the instrument.
Iturbide, Luis María; Elosua, Paula; Yanes, Félix
The aim of this work was to adapt the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) to Spanish. Judgmental procedures were used to assess the linguistic and cultural equivalence of the versions. Psychometric procedures were used in the operational phase of the study. The normative sample comprised 924 sportsmen/sportswomen from 75 teams. The GEQ scale showed suitable indexes of internal consistency and a bidimensional structure based on two factors of the cohesion model, the Task component and the Social component. In addition, a positive relation between team-performance and the Task component of team cohesion was observed. Overall, the results supported the Spanish version of the GEQ.
The risk of children getting dental injuries during sport can be minimised by using a mouthguard. Within Ireland, information on mouthguard use and policy is limited. The extent of dental trauma experienced by children during sport is also unclear.
Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Brass, M.
Kinesthetic Motor Imagery (KMI) is an important technique to acquire and refine motor skills. KMI is widely used by professional athletes as an effective way to improve motor performance without overt motor output. Despite this obvious relevance, the functional mechanisms and neural circuits
Alberto Blázquez Manzano
Full Text Available Abstract This article describes the design and validation of a specific questionnaire to know the views of managers and sports facilitators on the elements and purposes should focus quality activities of associations of municipalities in Extremadura in the area of dynamic sports and the degree of usefulness, and difficulty beneficiaries in the development and implementation of service charters in place. The results showed an adaptation of the content and wording of questions and items as appropriate in both the average (> .81 and the value of V Aiken (> .88.
Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults.
de Moraes, Suzana Alves; Suzuki, Cláudio Shigueki; de Freitas, Isabel Cristina Martins
the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.
D. Pecher (Diane); S. van Dantzig (Saskia); H.N.J. Schifferstien (Hendrik)
textabstractAccording to theories of grounded cognition, conceptual representation and perception share processing mechanisms. We investigated whether this overlap is due to conscious perceptual imagery. Participants filled out questionnaires to assess the vividness of their imagery (Questionnaire
de Mesquita, Gabriel Nunes; de Oliveira, Marcela Nicácio Medeiros; Matoso, Amanda Ellen Rodrigues; Filho, Alberto Galvão de Moura; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ribeiro
Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background Achilles tendon disorders are very common among athletes and it is important to objectively measure symptoms and functional limitations related to Achilles tendinopathy using outcome measures that have been validated in the language of the target population. Objectives To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and to evaluate the measurement properties of the Brazilian version of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) questionnaire. Methods We adapted the VISA-A questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese (VISA-A-Br). The questionnaire was applied on 2 occasions with an interval of 5 to 14 days. We evaluated the following measurement properties: internal consistency, test-retest reliability, measurement error, construct validity, and ceiling and floor effects. Results The VISA-A-Br showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.79; after excluding 1 item at a time, Cronbach's α = 0.73 to 0.84), good test-retest reliability (ICC agreement2,1 = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.71-0.91), an acceptable measurement error (standard error of measurement = 3.25 points and Smallest Detectable Change= 9.02 points), good construct validity (Spearman's coefficient with LEFS= 0.73 and FAOS in its 5 subscales; Pain= 0.66, other Symptoms=0.48, Function in daily living (ADL)= 0.59, Function in sport and recreation=0.67, and foot and ankle-related Quality of Life = 0.7), and no ceiling and floor effects. Conclusion The VISA-A-Br is equivalent to the original version; it has been validated and confirmed as reliable to measure pain and function among the Brazilian population with Achilles tendinopathy, and it can be used in clinical and scientific settings. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 24 Apr 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7897.
Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Oppong-Kyei, Julian; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Bruyère, Olivier
Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Patella (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. To date, no French version of the questionnaire exists. Objectives The aim of our study was to translate the VISA-P into French and verify its psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation were performed according to international recommendations in 6 steps: initial translation, translation merging, back translation to the original language, use of an expert committee to reach a prefinal version, test of the prefinal version, and expert committee appraisal of a final version. Afterward, the psychometric properties of the final French version (VISA-PF) were assessed in 92 subjects, divided into 3 groups: pathological subjects (n = 28), asymptomatic subjects (n = 22), and sports-risk subjects (n = 42). Results All members of the expert committee agreed with the final version. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, with 100 representing an asymptomatic subject, the average ± SD scores on the VISA-PF were 53 ± 17 for the pathological group, 99 ± 2 for the healthy group, and 86 ± 14 for the sports-risk group. The test-retest reliability of the VISA-PF was excellent, with good internal consistency. Correlations between the VISA-PF and divergent validity of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were low, and the correlation coefficient values measured between the VISA-PF scores and converged items of the SF-36 were higher. Conclusion The VISA-PF is understandable, valid, and suitable for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):384-390. Epub 21 Mar 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.5937.
Wang, Z; Wang, S; Shi, F-Y; Guan, Y; Wu, Y; Zhang, L-L; Shen, C; Zeng, Y-W; Wang, D-H; Zhang, J
Motor skill can be improved with mental simulation. Implements are widely used in daily life and in various sports. However, it is unclear whether the utilization of implements enhances the effect of mental simulation. The present study was designed to investigate the different effects of motor imagery in athletes and novices when they handled a specific implement. We hypothesize that athletes have better motor imagery ability than novices when they hold a specific implement for the sport. This is manifested as higher motor cortical excitability in athletes than novices during motor imagery with the specific implement. Sixteen expert badminton players and 16 novices were compared when they held a specific implement such as a badminton racket and a non-specific implement such as a a plastic bar. Motor imagery ability was measured with a self-evaluation questionnaire. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to test the motor cortical excitability during motor imagery. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor carpi radialis muscles were recorded. Athletes reported better motor imagery than novices when they held a specific implement. Athletes exhibited more MEP facilitation than novices in the FDI muscle with the specific implement applied during motor imagery. The MEP facilitation is correlated with motor imagery ability in athletes. We conclude that the effects of motor imagery with a specific implement are enhanced in athletes compared to novices and the difference between two groups is caused by long-term physical training of athletes with the specific implement. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Physicals KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Physicals What's in ... beginning of your sports season. What Is a Sports Physical? In the sports medicine field, the sports ...
Longitudinal microvascularity in achilles tendinopathy (power doppler ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging time-intensity curves and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles questionnaire): a pilot study
Richards, Paula J.; McCall, Iain W.; Day, Christopher; Belcher, John; Maffulli, Nicola
To evaluate the imaging of the natural history of Achilles tendinopathy microvascularisation in comparison with symptoms, using a validated disease-specific questionnaire [the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A)]. A longitudinal prospective pilot study of nine patients with post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), time-intensity curve (TIC) enhancement, ultrasound (US) and power Doppler (PD) evaluation of tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon undergoing conservative management (eccentric exercise) over 1 year. There were five men and four women [mean age 47 (range 30-62) years]. Six asymptomatic tendons with normal US and MRI appearance showed less enhancement than the tibial metaphysis did and showed a flat, constant, but very low rate of enhancement in the bone and Achilles tendon (9-73 arbitrary TIC units). These normal Achilles tendons on imaging showed a constant size throughout the year (mean 4.9 mm). At baseline the TIC enhancement in those with tendinopathy ranged from 90 arbitrary units to 509 arbitrary units. Over time, 11 abnormal Achilles tendons, whose symptoms settled, were associated with a reduction in MRI enhancement mirrored by a reduction in the number of vessels on power Doppler (8.0 to 2.7), with an improvement in morphology and a reduction in tendon size (mean 15-10.6 mm). One tendon did not change its abnormal imaging features, despite improving symptoms. Two patients developed contralateral symptoms and tendinopathy, and one had more abnormal vascularity on power Doppler and higher MRI TIC peaks in the asymptomatic side. In patient with conservatively managed tendinopathy of the mid-Achilles tendon over 1 year there was a reduction of MRI enhancement and number of vessels on power Doppler, followed by morphological improvements and a reduction in size. Vessels per se related to the abnormal morphology and size of the tendon rather than symptoms. Symptoms improve before the Achilles size reduces and the
Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu
We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Nauck, Tanja; Lohrer, Heinz; Padhiar, Nat; King, John B
Currently, there is no generally agreed measure available to quantify a subject's perceived severity of exercise-induced leg pain symptoms. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire that measures the severity of symptoms that impact on function and sports ability in patients with exercise-induced leg pain. The exercise-induced leg pain questionnaire for German-speaking patients (EILP-G) was developed in five steps: (1) initial item generation, (2) item reduction, (3) pretesting, (4) expert meeting and (5) validation. The resulting EILP-G was tested for reliability, validity and internal consistency in 20 patients with exercise-induced leg pain, 20 asymptomatic track and field athletes serving as a population at risk and 33 asymptomatic sport students. The patient group scored the EILP-G questionnaire significantly lower than both control groups (each psports ability in patients with exercise-induced leg pain. It can be recommended as a robust tool for measuring the subjectively perceived severity in German-speaking patients with exercise-induced leg pain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Existing evidence for olfactory imagery is mixed and mainly based on reports from hallucinations and volitional imagery. Using a questionnaire, Stevenson and Case (2005) showed that olfactory dreams provided a good source for olfactory imagery studies. This study applied an extended version of the same questionnaire and examined olfactory dreams and their relation to real-life experienced odors, volitional imagery, and olfactory interest. Results showed that olfactory dreams were similar to r...
The subjective dimension of decision making in sport development and validity of the cetd questionnaire of sport decision style Dimensión subjetiva de la toma de decisiones en el deporte: desarrollo y validación del cuestionario cetd de estilo de decision en el deporte
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One of the main objectives of sport psychological research is knowing how sportsmen and women understand, perceive, interpret and decide in sport situations. This study presents the results of the development and validation of a questionnaire for analysing the personal dimension of decision making in sport. This instrument permits to explore different aspects of this process such as commitment with the decision training, perceived decisional competence and anxiety with decisional situations. Its psychometric properties permits to say that is an adequate tool for sport psychologists and coaches in order to improve psychological process implied in sport decisions.
KEY WORDS: Decision making, questionnaire, psychological processes, assessment
Una de los retos de la investigación sobre los procesos psicológicos en el ámbito deportivo es acercarse a la comprensión de lo que percibe, interpreta y decide el deportista ante las situaciones que su deporte le presenta. En el presente estudio se presenta el desarrollo y validación de un instrumento para analizar la dimensión subjetiva de la toma de decisiones en el deporte. Este instrumento permite explorar aspectos relacionados con la toma de decisiones tales como el compromiso al decidir, la competencia decisional percibida así como la ansiedad y el agobio al decidir.
Sus características psicométricas permite que se puede considerar adecuados para poder ser empleado por los profesionales del Deporte y la Psicología con intenciones de mejorar los aspectos psicológicos y emocionales de los deportistas participantes en deportes en los que la decisión es fundamental.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Toma de decisiones, Cuestionario, procesos psicológicos, evaluación
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Imagery Data Base Facility supports AFRL and other government organizations by providing imagery interpretation and analysis to users for data selection, imagery...
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports Supplements KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports Supplements What's in ... really work? And are they safe? What Are Sports Supplements? Sports supplements (also called ergogenic aids ) are ...
Tradução e validação da adaptação para o exercício do Perceived Motivational Climate Sport Questionnaire Translation and validation of the exercise adaptation of the Perceived Motivational Climate Sport Questionnaire
Full Text Available O objetivo principal do estudo é a tradução e validação da versão portuguesa da adaptação ao exercício do Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ, com recurso à análise fatorial exploratória (AFE e confirmatória (AFC, realizadas com dois grupos independentes de praticantes de exercício em ginásios, de ambos os géneros e com idades compreendidas entre os 14 e os 64 anos. Na AFE os resultados revelam uma estrutura que explica 52% da variância dos resultados, pesos fatoriais entre 0.63 e 0.80, e uma boa consistência interna (αMestria=0.78; αPerformance=0.74. Na AFC os resultados indicam um excelente ajustamento do modelo: S-Bχ²=40.6; df=34; p=0.20; S-Bχ²/df=1.19; SRMR=0.03; NNFI=0.98; CFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.02; 90% IC RMSEA=0.00-0.05, uma consistência interna razoável (αMestria=0.74; αPerformance=0.75, e pesos fatoriais entre 0.50 e 0.79, o que nos leva a concluir que a versão Portuguesa da adaptação do PMCSQ ao exercício pode ser utilizada na avaliação do clima motivacional no exercício.The main purpose of this study is to present the results of translation and validation of the Portuguese version of Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire (PMCSQ adaptation to exercise, through exploratory (EFA and confirmatory (CFA factor analysis, performed with two independent groups of participants, all exercisers in private fitness clubs, of both sexes, and aged between 14 and 64 years old. The EFA results reveal a structure explaining 52% of total variance, with factor loadings ranged from 0.63 to 0.80, and reasonable reliability (αMastery=0.78; αPerformance=0.74. The AFC results showed an excellent model fit to data: S-Bχ²=40.6; df=34; p=0.20; S-Bχ²/df=1.19; SRMR=0.03; NNFI=0.98; CFI=0.99; RMSEA=0.02; 90% IC RMSEA=0.00-0.05, an acceptable reliability (αMastery=0.74; αPerformance=0.75, and factor loadings ranged from 0.50 to 0.79, which leads us to conclude that Portuguese version of
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000673.htm Sports physical To use the sharing features on this page, ... routine checkups. Why do you Need a Sports Physical? The sports physical is done to: Find out ...
Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.
Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter
Abstract Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...
Peters, Chris; Allan, Stuart
the gradual disappearance of media from personal consciousness in a digital age. If ceaselessness is a defining characteristic of the current era, our analysis reveals that the use of smartphone cameras is indicative of people affectively and self-consciously deploying the technology to try to arrest......User-based research into the lived experiences associated with smartphone camera practices – in particular, the taking, storing, curating, and sharing of personal imagery in the digital media sphere – remains scarce, especially in contrast to their increasing ubiquity. Accordingly, this article...... social bonds, and encompass a future-oriented perspective. Relatedly, in terms of photographic composition, visual content tends to circulate around the social presence of others, boundedness of event, perceived aesthetic value, and intended shareability. Our findings question certain formulations about...
Background: Sport tourism plays an important role in the tourism industry and consequently in the economy. Sport tourism centres as providers of sport services need to be familiar with the basic needs of their customers and tailor their services accordingly. Objectives: The aim of the paper is to determine the models for customizing sport tourism services to address the needs specific for an individual sport. Methods/Approach: A questionnaire has been created and sent electronically or physic...
Schwab, Keri A.; Dustin, Daniel; Legg, Eric; Timmerman, Danielle; Wells, Mary Sara; Arthur-Banning, Skye G.
The purpose of this study was to better understand sport management students within departments of parks, recreation, and tourism, and to address the often uneasy fit faculty experience when trying to educate sport and recreation students in the same classes. Researchers sent a 16-item online questionnaire to 1,337 undergraduate sport management…
Playing sports can be fun, but it can also be dangerous if you are not careful. You can help ... you are healthy before you start playing your sport Wearing the right shoes, gear, and equipment Drinking ...
... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...
Dana, Amir; Gozalzadeh, Elmira
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of internal and external visual imagery perspectives on performance accuracy of open and closed tennis skills (i.e., serve, forehand, and backhand) among novices. Thirty-six young male novices, aged 15-18 years, from a summer tennis program participated. Following initial skill acquisition (12 sessions), baseline assessments of imagery ability and imagery perspective preference were used to assign participants to one of three groups: internal imagery ( n = 12), external imagery ( n = 12), or a no-imagery (mental math exercise) control group ( n = 12). The experimental interventions of 15 minutes of mental imagery (internal or external) or mental math exercises followed by 15 minutes of physical practice were held three times a week for six weeks. The performance accuracy of the groups on the serve, forehand, and backhand strokes was measured at pre- and post-test using videotaping. Results showed significant increases in the performance accuracy of all three tennis strokes in all three groups, but serve accuracy in the internal imagery group and forehand accuracy in the external imagery group showed greater improvements, while backhand accuracy was similarly improved in all three groups. These findings highlight differential efficacy of internal and external visual imagery for performance improvement on complex sport skills in early stage motor learning.
Sport supplementation is essential for athletes performance and achievements. The well balanced and structured supplementation is a challenge for sport medicine because must be done a balance between potential benefits and potential risks (anti-doping rule violations and others). In this review are structured the most used categories sport supplementations. Nutritional supplements used in sport could be divided in some main categories like: amino acids, vitamins, proteins and antioxidants. Fo...
Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović
Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...
Post, Eric G; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Schaefer, Daniel A; Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A; Watson, Andrew M; McGuine, Timothy A; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R
Overuse injuries in youth athletes are becoming increasingly common which may be a result of the prevalence of year-round specialized sport participation. Previous research has identified sport volume recommendations related to months per year, hours per week, and simultaneous participation in multiple sports leagues. Coaches are a primary influence on a youth athlete's decision to specialize in a single sport. Therefore, identifying coaches' baseline beliefs and perceptions is important for developing strategies to educate coaches about safe sport participation. A total of 253 youth sport coaches (207 males) completed an anonymous online questionnaire regarding knowledge of sport volume recommendations and attitudes and beliefs regarding sport specialization. Eligible participants were required to serve as a head or assistant coach of a youth sport team in the past 12 months whose members were between the ages of 12 and 18. Most coaches were unaware of recommendations regarding the maximum number of months per year (79.4%), hours per week in one sport (79.3%), or number of simultaneous leagues for an athlete to participate in to reduce injury (77.6%). Fewer than half (43.2%) of all coaches were "very" or "extremely" concerned about the risk of injury in youth sports. A majority (60.1%) believed that sport specialization was either "quite a bit" or "a great deal" of a problem. Two-thirds (67.2%) responded that year-round participation in a single sport was either "very" or "extremely" likely to increase an athlete's risk of injury. Although the responses to this survey were predominantly from coaches from one state, our results suggest that coaches are unaware of sport volume recommendations but are concerned about specialization. Future efforts are needed to communicate these recommendations to coaches in order to reduce the risk of overuse injury in youth sports.
Sports play a very important and diverse role in the present-day global culture. On the occasion of the 105th anniversary of Coubertin’s Ode we would like to wish sports to return to the main words of the Ode and to correspond with them: “Oh sport, you are the peace”.
There are different motor sets, which a human subject can be in or act from: he or she can be in a self-initiated voluntary movement set (action) or in a response set (re-action). Also, imagery sets are available that are necessary for the acquisition and practice of skill. Most important are such imagery sets for rehearsal in theatre, dance, music, sports, combat, etc.
Full Text Available Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.
Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter
Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.
Full Text Available Moral behavior in sports is one of the most important issues that concern sportspersons. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ethical work climate that prevails in non profit sport teams is related to moral behaviours (sports personship. Two hundred and fourteen students of three sport schools (n=126males, n=88females, aged between 12-18 years, from ten different sports (both individual and team have been used in this study. The students filled in the Ethical Climate Questionnaire (ECQ; Victor &Cullen, 1987, 1988 and the Multidimensional Sportsperson-ship Orientation Scale (Vallerand, Briere, Blanchard, & Provencher, 1997. The results revealed the presence of a caring climate in non profit sport teams. Moreover, it was found that the individual climate is positively related to the four dimensions of sportsperson ship, while the machiavelianism climate is negatively related to the dimension respect for rules and officials.
Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian
evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...
Botswana team sport players' perception of cohesion and imagery use in sport · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Oa Adegbesan, 1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/sajrs.v32i1.54086 ...
Replies to a mail questionnaire by 825 sport parachutists affiliated with 103 parachute clubs are the data of this study. Questionnaires were...parachutists, attitudes relevant to sport parachuting, and included the Ma and Hy scales from the MMP1, a Draw-A-Person Test, and four story stimulus pictures
Full Text Available Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondents from 30 million Malaysian population. Respondents were selected from urban (50% and rural areas (50%. Ethnically 56% were Malays, Sarawak and Sabah natives were 11%, Chinese 25% and finally Indians 7%. The respondents age categories were 12 to 19 years (30%, 20 to 25 years (50%, 56 and above (20%. A questionnaire developed by the research team was used to collect data. The quantitative data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 21.0 for windows. Results: The findings indicate that from 5864 respondents who answered the questionnaire in full, a total of 4553 people or 77.6% watch sporting events, while a total of 1311 people or 22.4% have stated not watching any sports activities. Comparison by gender showed that 85.2% of the 2482 males watch sports events while among the female 70.2% of the 2071 watch sports events. In the category of those who do not watch, the female are higher at 29.8% than the males at 14.8%. In terms of ethnicity the Malays 80.2%. Chinese 64.6%, Indians 81.9%, natives of Sabah 94.0%, natives of Sarawak 77.6% like to watch sports events. Residential locations showed no significant differences as 78.7% of urban respondents watch sports events compared to 76.8% of rural communities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that majority of Malaysians having fun in watching sports activities. Gender still plays a role in the involvement and enjoyment of sports events either as a player or supporter. Ethnicity
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback web application allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program...
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Map showing coverage of current Resource imagery projects. High resolution/large scale Resource imagery is typically acquired for the U.S. Forest Service and other...
Pérez-Fabello, Maria José; Campos, Alfredo; Gómez-Juncal, Rocío
This study investigated relationships between visual imaging abilities (imaging capacity and imagery control) and academic performance in 146 Fine Arts students (31 men, 115 women). Mean age was 22.3 yr. (SD= 1.9; range 20-26 yr.). All of the participants who volunteered for the experiment regularly attended classes and were first, second, or third year students. For evaluation of imaging abilities, the Spanish versions of the Gordon Test of Visual Imagery Control, the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire, the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire, and Betts' Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery were used. Academic performance was assessed in four areas, Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, and Complementary Subjects, over a three-year period. The results indicate that imagery control was associated with academic performance in Fine Arts. These findings are discussed in the context of previous studies, and new lines of research are proposed.
Braun, Susy M.; Wade, Derick T.; Beurskens, Anna J. H. M.
Since the beginning of the new millennium, the use of mental practice and movement imagery within several medical professions in rehabilitation and therapy has received an increased attention. Before this introduction in healthcare, the use of movement imagery was mainly researched in sports science. Mental practice is a complex intervention. When…
Kim, Hongsuk H.; Elman, Gregory C.
Sets of Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery taken over the Washington, DC metropolitan area during the months of November, March and May were converted into a form of ground reflectance imagery. This conversion was accomplished by adjusting the incident sunlight and view angles and by applying a pixel-by-pixel correction for atmospheric effects. Seasonal color changes of the area can be better observed when such normalization is applied to space imagery taken in time series. In normalized imagery, the grey scale depicts variations in surface reflectance and tonal signature of multi-band color imagery can be directly interpreted for quantitative information of the target.
N. V. Tikhonova
Purpose: determine the social significance and especially the development of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine. Material : a questionnaire survey of 50 experts in the sphere of physical culture and sports. Results : notes that children and youth and sports reserve three tasks: training of sports reserve, rehabilitation of children and youth, education of children and youth. Structure of youth and sports reserve in Ukraine in 1455 has youth sports schools, 184 specialized youth sports school...
Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the frequency of participation in sport activity of Slovenes. The sample consisted of 1286 persons, 54% were women and 46% were men. To obtain the necessary data a questionnaire method was used. We focused on two groups of questions. The first group reffered to participation in sport activity in general (frequency of any sport activity and the second group reffered to participation in a particular sport. The results show that 33% of Slovenes were regularly active, 31% occasionally active and 36% non-active. They were the most active in the following sport activities: walking, swimming, cycling, alpine skiing and mountaineering.
Parkhouse, Bonnie L., Ed.; And Others
Traditional teaching and coaching positions have become scarce but the expanding field of sport management has created its own job market, demanding new skills and preparation. Three articles are offered that explore different aspects and possibilities for a sport management career. (DF)
Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.
This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the…
Marieke van Bakel; Ine Pulles; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst; Frank den Hertog; Robert Vonk; Casper Schoemaker
Deze publicatie verschijnt enkel digitaal op www.sporttoekomstverkenning.nl. Welke maatschappelijke veranderingen beïnvloeden de sport in Nederland? Waar gaat het heen met de sport tussen nu en 2040? Welke kansen, maar ook keuzes biedt dit voor de sportsector en het sportbeleid? Deze vragen
Full Text Available Research in sports, dance and rehabilitation has shown that Basic Action Concepts (BACs are fundamental building blocks of mental action representations. BACs are based on chunked body postures related to common functions for realizing action goals. In this paper, we outline issues in research methodology and an experimental method, SDA-M (structural dimensional analysis of mental representation, to assess action-relevant representational structures that reflect the organization of BACs. The SDA-M reveals a strong relationship between cognitive representation and performance if complex actions are performed. We show how the SDA-M can improve motor imagery training and how it contributes to our understanding of coaching processes. The SDA-M capitalizes on the objective measurement of individual mental movement representations before training and the integration of these results into the motor imagery training. Such motor imagery training based on mental representations has been applied successfully in professional sports such as golf, volleyball, gymnastics, windsurfing, and recently in the rehabilitation of patients who have suffered a stroke.
Fitness has become one of the most popular kinds of the mass sport and has completely replaced the traditional “physical culture”. Dozens of variations of fitness and millions of participants pose a great challenge to contemporary architecture. The articles of our issue show the present and the future of architecture for fitness. We present a topical collection with a wide geographical range, including the Irkutsk Agglomeration, Tomsk, Krasnodar, sports in the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers, and the anthology of the top foreign sports venues.
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Sport boeit. Sport bindt. Sport bevordert de gezondheid. En sport betaalt. Sport is anno 2008 ongekend populair. Tweederde van de Nederlanders doet aan sport. Na zwemmen en fietsen is fitness de meest populaire sport geworden. Daarnaast zetten anderhalf miljoen Nederlanders zich als vrijwilliger
Recreational or regular physical and sport activities may be responsible for a wide range of cutaneous complications. Among them, "sports purpura" is a peculiar symptom that can occur during a large number of sports. "Effort purpura" defines any purpura occurring within the context of physical exercise irrespective of its cause. Therefore this clinical diagnosis includes various aetiologies. Diagnosis of traumatic purpura is often easy if the sport is mentioned in the anamnesis; cutaneous exercise - induced vasculitis must be also noted. Purpura can reveal systemic diseases or internal haemorrhage, such as spleen rupture, thrombopathies or systemic vasculitis, and other effort purpuras must be taken into account, including those related to the environment (cold, sun exposure...). Knowledge of a physical activity before the occurrence of purpura should be known by practitioner to avoid unnecessary and costly explorations in most of the cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Technology is transforming the games themselves and at times with dire consequences. Tony Kirkbride, Head: CSIR Technology Centre said there are a variety of sports technologies and there have been advances in material sciences and advances...
Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.
Zeri, F; Livi, S; Maffioletti, S
To evaluate sport professionals' attitudes towards visual correction in sport. A questionnaire was handed out in schools, gyms, sports centres and universities, to coaches, physical education teachers and final year students of motor science. The questionnaire was given to one group of sport physicians prior to a 1-day scientific update course on the benefits of contact lenses (CLs) in sport. At the end of the course, certain questions from the questionnaire were given out again in order to evaluate the effect of the update on their opinions. A total of 245 questionnaires were collected. The interviewees stated that correcting a vision defect during sports practice was important, but their propensity to suggest CLs for sport, though still rather high in value, showed a statistically significant drop. This drop did not occur if the CLs were recommended for competitive sports. This trend remained unchanged if a specific judgement was requested for the adolescent category. The tendency to suggest CLs was higher in CL wearers as compared to non-wearers. The sport with the lowest recommendation of CLs was swimming. In the sample of sports physicians, a specific education on the subject of CLs increased the propensity to adopt CLs in sports. The main "actors" in the sports sector regard correcting a vision defect during sport to be important. Nevertheless, their tendency to suggest CLs is significantly lower. Works that make these categories aware of the benefits of CLs in sport can certainly help to fill this gap. Copyright © 2010 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Le Docteur Kiebel, chirurgien à Genève, est aussi un grand ami de sport et de temps en temps médecin des classes genevoises de ski et également médecin de l'équipe de hockey sur glace de Genève Servette. Il est bien qualifié pour nous parler d'accidents de sport et surtout d'accidents de ski.
Background Extracurricular school-based sports are considered to be an ideal means of reaching children who are not active in community sports. The purposes of this study were to examine the extent to which pupils not engaging in community sports do participate in extracurricular school-based sports, and to assess whether extracurricular school-based sports participants are more physically active and/or more autonomously motivated towards sports in daily life than children who do not participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Methods One thousand forty-nine children (53.7% boys; M age = 11.02 years, SD = 0.02) out of 60 classes from 30 Flemish elementary schools, with an extracurricular school-based sports offer, completed validated questionnaires to assess physical activity (Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire) and motivation (Behavioral Regulations in Physical Education Questionnaire). Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the data generated from these questionnaires. Results More than three quarters of the children (76%) reported participating in extracurricular school-based sports during the current school year and 73% reported engaging in organized community sports. Almost two third of the children (65%) not participating in community sports stated that they did participate in extracurricular school-based sports. Extracurricular school-based sports participants were significantly more physically active than children not participating in extracurricular school-based sports (β = 157.62, p sports participation × community sports participation) were found for autonomous motivation, with boys engaging in extracurricular school-based sports but not in community sports being significantly more autonomously motivated towards sports than boys not engaging in community or extracurricular school-based sports (β = 0.58, p = 0.003). Such differences were not noted among girls. Conclusions If extracurricular school-based sports are offered
Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of knee pain in active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. MEASUREMENTS: 339 athletes gave information about occupation, sports activity and different features of knee pain, based...... on a self-filled questionnaire. MAIN RESULTS: The prevalence of knee pain within the preceding 12 months, constant or recurrent knee pain, absence from sport and absence from work due to knee pain, was 54%, 34%, 19% and 4%, respectively. Knee pain was positively associated with years of jogging...... and with weekly hours of participation in competitive gymnastics but negatively with weekly hours of tennis. Constant or recurrent knee pain was positively associated with years of swimming. Absence from sport due to knee pain was positively associated with weekly hours of soccer participation. CONCLUSIONS: Knee...
... Running - back pain; Weightlifting - back pain; Lumbar pain - sports; Sciatica - sports; Low back pain - sports ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...
... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John
Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John
Background Exposure to alcohol consumption and product imagery in films is associated with increased alcohol consumption among young people, but the extent to which exposure also occurs through television is not clear. We have measured the occurrence of alcohol imagery in prime-time broadcasting on UK free-to-air television channels. Methods Occurrence of alcohol imagery (actual use, implied use, brand appearances or other reference to alcohol) was measured in all broadcasting on the five most popular UK television stations between 6 and 10 p.m. during 3 weeks in 2010, by 1-min interval coding. Results Alcohol imagery occurred in over 40% of broadcasts, most commonly soap operas, feature films, sport and comedies, and was equally frequent before and after the 9 p.m. watershed. Brand appearances occurred in 21% of programmes, and over half of all sports programmes, a third of soap operas and comedies and a fifth of advertising/trailers. Three brands, Heineken, Budweiser and Carlsberg together accounted for ∼40% of all brand depictions. Conclusions Young people are exposed to frequent alcohol imagery, including branding, in UK prime-time television. It is likely that this exposure has an important effect on alcohol consumption in young people. PMID:23929886
A questionnaire based on the Expectancy Disconfirmation Theory of Qu and Ping (1999) was administered to a convenience sample (n=123) from the universum of 893 international sport tourists attending the 2002 Tug-of-War World Championships in South Africa. Data was analysed through the Cronbach Alpha Method, ...
Anne K Reimers
Full Text Available To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany.A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11-17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS. Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities.The logistic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively.Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas.
Reimers, Anne K.; Wagner, Matthias; Alvanides, Seraphim; Steinmayr, Andreas; Reiner, Miriam; Schmidt, Steffen; Woll, Alexander
Objectives To assess the relationship between proximity to specific sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities for adolescents in Germany. Methods A sample of 1,768 adolescents aged 11–17 years old and living in 161 German communities was examined. Distances to the nearest sports facilities were calculated as an indicator of proximity to sports facilities using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Participation in specific leisure-time sports activities in sports clubs was assessed using a self-report questionnaire and individual-level socio-demographic variables were derived from a parent questionnaire. Community-level socio-demographics as covariates were selected from the INKAR database, in particular from indicators and maps on land development. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between proximity to the nearest sports facilities and participation in the corresponding sports activities. Results The logisitic regression analyses showed that girls residing longer distances from the nearest gym were less likely to engage in indoor sports activities; a significant interaction between distances to gyms and level of urbanization was identified. Decomposition of the interaction term showed that for adolescent girls living in rural areas participation in indoor sports activities was positively associated with gym proximity. Proximity to tennis courts and indoor pools was not associated with participation in tennis or water sports, respectively. Conclusions Improved proximity to gyms is likely to be more important for female adolescents living in rural areas. PMID:24675689
Tomlin, Dona L; Clarke, Shannon K; Day, Meghan; McKay, Heather A; Naylor, Patti-Jean
Organized sport provides one option for children to be physically active. However, there is a paucity of information about the relationship between children's participation in organized sport and their diet, and specifically their sports drink consumption. Therefore, the relationship between sports participation in children and the consumption of sports drinks, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and other components of diet was examined. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using baseline data from the Action Schools! BC Dissemination study cohort (n = 1421; 9.90 (0.58) y; 736 girls, 685 boys). The differences between the dietary behaviours of children participating in organized sport (sport) versus those that did not participate (non-sport) was examined. A modified Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) was used to measure physical activity levels and participation in organized sport. A Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and 24-hour dietary recall were used to assess eating behaviour and macronutrient intake (including protein, fat, and carbohydrate as well as sugar, fibre and total calories). Fruit, vegetable and beverage quantities were hand-tallied from the dietary recall. Fruit, vegetable and beverage frequency was assessed using the FFQ. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to analyse differences between groups and a chi-square test of association was use to determine if participation in sport was significantly associated with the proportion of children consuming sports drinks and SSBs, and with gender. Children involved in sport had a lower body mass index (BMI) and were more physically active than children in the non-sport group (p sports drinks and no difference in consumption of sports drink between sport and non-sport participants (p > .05) was observed. However, children involved in organized sport consumed more total calories, fat, fibre, fruit, vegetables and non-flavoured milk (p sport children. Children
Calhoun, Tracy; Melendrez, Dave
The Human Exploration Science Office (KX) provides leadership for NASA's Imagery Integration (Integration 2) Team, an affiliation of experts in the use of engineering-class imagery intended to monitor the performance of launch vehicles and crewed spacecraft in flight. Typical engineering imagery assessments include studying and characterizing the liftoff and ascent debris environments; launch vehicle and propulsion element performance; in-flight activities; and entry, landing, and recovery operations. Integration 2 support has been provided not only for U.S. Government spaceflight (e.g., Space Shuttle, Ares I-X) but also for commercial launch providers, such as Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) and Orbital Sciences Corporation, servicing the International Space Station. The NASA Integration 2 Team is composed of imagery integration specialists from JSC, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), who have access to a vast pool of experience and capabilities related to program integration, deployment and management of imagery assets, imagery data management, and photogrammetric analysis. The Integration 2 team is currently providing integration services to commercial demonstration flights, Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1), and the Space Launch System (SLS)-based Exploration Missions (EM)-1 and EM-2. EM-2 will be the first attempt to fly a piloted mission with the Orion spacecraft. The Integration 2 Team provides the customer (both commercial and Government) with access to a wide array of imagery options - ground-based, airborne, seaborne, or vehicle-based - that are available through the Government and commercial vendors. The team guides the customer in assembling the appropriate complement of imagery acquisition assets at the customer's facilities, minimizing costs associated with market research and the risk of purchasing inadequate assets. The NASA Integration 2 capability simplifies the process of securing one
Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsi...
Andersen, Tem Frank
This study tries to map out the possible interplay between interactive digital media (including mobile and wearable technologies) and sport as performance and participation. The ambition is to create a model providing the analytical framework for understanding questions like "are we running...
Jayanthi, Neeru; Esser, Stephen
Tennis may be considered a static and dynamic form of exercise with many well-demonstrated health benefits. Tennis has similar rates of injury to other individual recreational sports and junior competitive sports, without the catastrophic risk of contact/collision sports. Classifying tennis players into junior and elite categories versus adult recreational players may help in outlining volume of play recommendations, exposure risk, and types of injuries. Junior and elite players tend to tolerate higher volumes, have more acute and lower extremity injuries, and have more serious overuse stress injuries. Adult recreational players tend to tolerate lower volumes, have more overuse and upper extremity injuries, and more conditions that are degenerative. Many tennis players also develop asymmetric musculoskeletal adaptations, which may increase risk of specific injury. Tennis-specific evaluations may identify these at-risk segments, help guide preventive strategies including technical errors, and assist in developing return-to-play recommendations. Other racket sports such as squash, badminton, and racquetball have less data available but report both acute and traumatic injuries less commonly seen in tennis.
Clumpner, Roy A.
This book, which is primarily for secondary physical education teachers, presents a sequential approach to teaching skills that are essential to eight sports. The activities and lead-up games included in the book put beginning students directly into game-like situations where they can practice skills. Each chapter begins with a background of the…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is in response to natural disasters. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The majority...
Gürkan, Alper Cenk
The purpose of this study is to determine visually disabled athletes' reasons of starting sport, and their expectations from sport in Turkey. Totally 100 athletes with visual disability in Turkey (26 individual sport, 74 team sports) participated in the research. Athletes with visual disability answered the questionnaire which was prepared by…
Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.
López-Vicente, Mónica; Tiemeier, Henning; Wildeboer, Andrea; Muetzel, Ryan L; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Sunyer, Jordi; White, Tonya
We studied cortical morphology in relation to sports participation and type of sport using a large sample of healthy children (n = 911). Sports participation data was collected through a parent-reported questionnaire. Magnetic resonance scans were acquired, and different morphological brain features were quantified. Global volumetric measures were not associated with sports participation. We observed thicker cortex in motor and premotor areas associated with sports participation. In boys, team sports participation, relative to individual sports, was related to thinner cortex in prefrontal brain areas involved in the regulation of behaviors. This study showed a relationship between sports participation and brain maturation.
A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes) whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that fig...
Full Text Available Introduction: Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sport performance. Nutrition is one of the most important factors in achieving top performance athletes. According to most studies conducted in the world's top athletes receive information from their coaches when it comes to sports nutrition, especially of the coaches involved in fitness training. (Burns, Schiller, Merrick & Wolf, 2004.The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge of sports nutrition in sports coaching. Mthods: The sample was composed of 30 licensed coaches from Montenegro (football, handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics and tennis. Knowledge of sports nutrition was tested by means of a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to determine the knowledge manager on sports nutrition, the ingredients that are necessary in order to provide a sufficient amount of energy to training and competition, the dietary supplements, meal prior to the competition as well as dehydration and rehydration during training and competition. The survey was anonymous. The data were analyzed by statistical methods, using the statistical software STATISTICA for WINDOWS. Results: According to the results as a whole, it can be concluded that the trainer's knowledge of sports nutrition at a satisfactory level. Out of 600 responses was achieved 469 correct answers, or 78.1%. However, when looking at individual responses then satisfaction with the relative high percentage loss since the observed large gaps on very important issues related to sports nutrition. Discussion: By analyzing and comparing research results (Matkovic, Prince & Cigrovski, 2006 that in a sample of 56 coaches basketball and skiing, received 77.8% of correct answers and insight into the results of our study, it is clear that the results of the approximate value of both work, which is an indicator of quality
Rovere, Gabriel Alejandro
The general goal of this thesis was to provide information useful for the breeding programme of the Royal Dutch Warmblood Studbook (KWPN) in relation with the ongoing specialisation of the population. Data provided by KWPN consisted of records from studbook-first inspection, competition performan....... Constructing separate selection indexes would allow for optimal weighting of information sources such as studbook-entry inspection traits in accordance to the breeding goal of each sports discipline....
Clancy, Rachel B; Herring, Matthew P; Campbell, Mark J
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided.
Clancy, Rachel B.; Herring, Matthew P.; Campbell, Mark J.
Motivation is widely-researched, in both sport psychology and other fields. As rigorous measurement is essential to understanding this latent construct, a critical appraisal of measurement instruments is needed. Thus, the purpose of this review was to evaluate the six most highly cited motivation measures in sport. Peer-reviewed articles published prior to August 2016 were searched to identify the six most highly cited motivation questionnaires in sport: Sport Motivation Scale (SMS), Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI), Situational Motivational Scale (SIMS), Perceptions of Success Questionnaire (POSQ), Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ). The questionnaires were then evaluated and discussed in four sections: Development, Reliability, Correlates, and Summary. Bibliometric data were also calculated (average weighted impact factor) and assessed (e.g., citations per year) to evaluate the impact of the use of each questionnaire. Despite some variance in their psychometric properties, conceptualization, structure, and utility, the six questionnaires are psychometrically strong instruments for quantifying motivation that are widely supported in the literature. Bibliometric analyses suggested that the IMI ranks first and the SMS ranks sixth according to the average weighted impact factors of their original publications. Consideration of each questionnaire's psychometric strengths/limitations, and conceptualization of motivation in the context of specific research questions should guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate instrument to measure motivation in sport. The average weighted impact factor of each questionnaire is a useful value to consider as well. With these points in mind, recommendations are provided. PMID:28337165
Full Text Available Introduction: Young people who continue their education at universities do not have to give up their physical activity. The existence of Academic Sports Unions allows you to continue and develop your sporting career. A significant number of students regularly participating in AZS classes have a chance to develop their sporting career. The possibility of obtaining a sports scholarship is an additional motivation for students to pursue their own scientific and sporting goals. Sport through the process of self-improvement introduces a specific discipline to everyday life, teaches regularity, diligence and good organization of time.The aim of the study: 1 Did you start your education at a university by limiting or giving up sports?, 2 Do universities and AZS help develop a sports career? 3 Did the students of AZS influence the development of their sports career? Material and methods: 204 students participated in the study, an original questionnaire consisting of 26 questions was used. The questions concerned, among others: forms of physical activity and training experience, the impact of undertaking education at a university on the development of a sports career. Results and conclusions: Over 80% of respondents did not give up their sport before starting their studies. Over 50% of respondents believe that AZS and universities support the development of young athletes, giving the opportunity to get better and better results.
Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M
Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not
Dorota M. Jankowska
Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.
Bragaru, Mihai; Dekker, Rienk; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; van der Sluis, Corry K
The aim of this study was to analyse sports participation of individuals with upper limb deficiency (ULD) and associated factors. Individuals with ULD originating from the Netherlands were invited, via their attending physiatrist or prosthetist, to answer a digital or paper questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 34 items related to personal characteristics, type of deficiency and participation in sports. Of the 175 respondents, 57% participated in sports for at least 60 min/week (athletes). Results of logistic regression analyses indicated that the presence of an additional health problem hindering sports participation (β=-1.31, psports participation. For individuals with an acquired ULD, a medium education level (β=0 0.77, p=0.108) and participation in sports before their amputation (β=1.11, p=0.007) had a positive influence on sports participation. The desire to stay healthy and the pleasure derived from sports participation represented the main reasons for participation in sports according to athletes. The presence of an additional medical problem and a lack of motivation were reasons for non-athletes to not participate in sports. The majority of individuals with ULD participate in sports regularly. The presence of an additional medical problem, as well as the level of ULD, educational level and participation in sports before amputation, was related to participation in sports. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2015 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2015 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The NAIP 2017 Imagery Feedback map allows users to make comments and observations about the quality of the 2017 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...
Sports creams are creams or ointments used to treat aches and pains. Sports cream overdose can occur if someone uses this ... Two ingredients in sports creams that can be poisonous are: Menthol Methyl salicylate
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sports and Concussions KidsHealth / For Teens / Sports and Concussions ... skiers or snowboarders How Can I Prevent a Sports Concussion? Start With the Right Equipment Everyone should ...
Ingram, Anne G.
An aesthetic dimension of sport appreciation is found in the paintings and sculptures of great masters who were intrigued by the subject of sports. This article presents specifics on bringing sports art into the classroom. (Authors/JA)
Wesp, R; Hesse, J; Keutmann, D; Wheaton, K
Recent theories suggest alternatives to the commonly held belief that the sole role of gestures is to communicate meaning directly to listeners. Evidence suggests that gestures may serve a cognitive function for speakers, possibly acting as lexical primes. We observed that participants gestured more often when describing a picture from memory than when the picture was present and that gestures were not influenced by manipulating eye contact of a listener. We argue that spatial imagery serves a short-term memory function during lexical search and that gestures may help maintain spatial images. When spatial imagery is not necessary, as in conditions of direct visual stimulation, reliance on gestures is reduced or eliminated.
Full Text Available Nowadays, contextual dynamics of society require new understandings of leisure available to the individual. The manner in which he intends to spend his free time may affect the quality of life, beneficial or not. We intend to identify the preferences of the population over 25 years in Iași city, for leisure practicing sport and physical activities in specialized institutions. The sample survey included 150 citizens of Iasi (75 male, 75 female, distributed by age ranges: 25-34; 35-44; 45-54; 55-64 years. They answered a questionnaire with 14 questions that focused customer profile (demographics: age, sex, the behavior of consumption (frequency of practicing sport and physical leisure activities, frequency of practicing sport and physical activities in sports clubs, preferences for various sport and physical activities. The results suggest that sport and physical activities play an important place in free time, preferences turning to programs and services offered by sports clubs and associations in the city. There are gender differences regarding: leisure sports (men devote more time to, but also include several sports activities in their free time than women; also, young people pay more attention to sports activities compared to subjects other intervals age; in sports (even if there are a number of common sports, the reasons underlying their practice (women prevail desire to lose weight and men wish to keep fit. The understanding that free time is becoming shorter and shorter and precious determines behavior directed towards ensuring the individual benefits: better health condition, relaxation and satisfaction.
Schulte-Hostedde, Albrecht I; Eys, Mark A; Emond, Michael; Buzdon, Michael
Sport provides a context in which mate choice can be facilitated by the display of athletic prowess. Previous work has shown that, for females, team sport athletes are more desirable as mates than individual sport athletes and non-participants. In the present study, the perceptions of males and females were examined regarding potential mates based on sport participation. It was predicted that team sport athletes would be more positively perceived than individual sport athletes and non-participants by both males and females. A questionnaire, a photograph, and manipulated descriptions were used to gauge perceptual differences with respect to team sport athletes, individual sport athletes, and extra-curricular club participants for 125 females and 119 males from a Canadian university. Both team and individual sport athletes were perceived as being less lazy, more competitive, and healthier than non-participants by both males and females. Interestingly, females perceived male athletes as more promiscuous than non-athletes, which upholds predictions based on previous research indicating (a) athletes have more sexual partners than non-athletes, and (b) females find athletes more desirable as partners than non-participants. Surprisingly, only males perceived female team sport athletes as more dependable than non-participants, and both team and individual sport athletes as more ambitious. This raises questions regarding the initial hypothesis that male team athletes would be perceived positively by females because of qualities such as the ability to cooperate, likeability, and the acceptance of responsibilities necessary for group functioning. Future studies should examine similar questions with a larger sample size that encompasses multiple contexts, taking into account the role of the social profile of sport in relation to mate choice and perception.
Hayashi, M; Katoh, K; Hori, T
The relationships between hypnagogic imagery and EEG activity were studied. 7 subjects (4 women and 3 men) reported the content of hypnagogic imagery every minute and the hypnagogic EEGs were classified into 5 stages according to Hori's modified criteria. The content of the hypnagogic imagery changed as a function of the hypnagogic EEG stages.
Full Text Available Background: Sport tourism plays an important role in the tourism industry and consequently in the economy. Sport tourism centres as providers of sport services need to be familiar with the basic needs of their customers and tailor their services accordingly. Objectives: The aim of the paper is to determine the models for customizing sport tourism services to address the needs specific for an individual sport. Methods/Approach: A questionnaire has been created and sent electronically or physically to top athletes from Slovenia, Central and Eastern Europe. Respondents were mainly from Slovenia and mostly representatives of national sports federations. The Mann Whitney and the Kruskall-Wallis tests were applied in order to test differences among sport groups. Results: The conducted Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests show that representatives of different sport groups have different perspectives on sport tourism services. Conclusions: The results of the study can be used by sport tourism centres in the process of tailoring their services, planning marketing activities or developing strategic projects.
Ay, Khitam Mousa; Halaweh, Rami Saleh; Al-Taieb, Mohammad Abu
This study investigates the effect of movement imagery on learning the forearm pass in volleyball. Twenty four mail students from Physical Education Factuly at Jordan University (19 ± 0.5) years of age. After Completed the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R; Hall & Martin, 1997) the subjects randomly divided into two groups,…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset consists of full-disk images of the sun in Calcium (Ca) II K wavelength (393.4 nm). Ca II K imagery reveal magnetic structures of the sun from about 500...
Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M
Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.
van der Roest, Jan Willem; Vermeulen, Jeroen; van Bottenburg, Maarten; LS Sportontw. & Managing Social Issues; UU LEG Research USG Public Matters Managing Social Issues; LS Management van Cultuur en Zingeving
This article deals with the tension between the association logic and the market logic that appears in the domain of voluntary sport clubs (VSCs). We present a qualitative analysis of sport policy texts of fifteen Dutch national sport organizations (NSOs) and the national umbrella organization to
The contemporary science of sport and exercise psychology requires the standardisation of mental skills questionnaires to facilitate accurate assessment of and intervention for individuals and groups in various health and sport related contexts. The study presents international research findings regarding the ...
GEBRIL MOHAMED R.
Full Text Available Abstract:Purposes of this Study are evaluating the efficiency of sports marketing in the organizations of some Arab countries through the following sub-goals:1-Identify the philosophy of sports organizations towards sports marketing.2- Identify the extent and existence of an organizational unit to perform specialized functions for sports marketing activity.3- Determine the extent of the use effective marketing methods in sporting organizations in order to get the material and technical support required to implement the plans and programs.Research sample consisted of officials, members of boards of directors, and managers of sports bodies' in some Arab countries (Egypt, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, and Qatar. Two hundred forty Seven board members from Egypt (N 101, United Arab Emirates (N 76, Bahrain (N 40, and Qatar (N30 were involved in the investigation. The Subjects were administered a Questionnaire developed by the researchers.The most important results are Research sample differed (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar in philosophy toward sport marketing. Sample search (clubs -sporting associations - the Olympic Committee Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar agree on the sport marketing methods used sporting organizations. There are a difference among sample search sports organizations (clubs - Olympic Committee in Arab countries (Egypt - Emirates - Bahrain - Qatar and there are agreement by the sports federations in marketing efficiency. The most importance Recommendations are :1.Need to add sports fields of investment to create the appropriate field to become sports areas for attracting investment.2.Guarantee the right of return sporting bodies in competitions organized through the radio and television.3.Establishment channels of sports economic. 4.Exempt contributions businessmen and sponsor and the players from taxes.5.Use the name and logo and flag
Rosanne Lynn Rademaker
Full Text Available Visual imagery has been closely linked to brain mechanisms involved in perception. Can visual imagery, like visual perception, improve by means of training? Previous research has demonstrated that people can reliably evaluate the vividness of single episodes of sensory imagination – might the metacognition of imagery also improve over the course of training? We had participants imagine colored Gabor patterns for an hour a day, over the course of five consecutive days, and again two weeks after training. Participants rated the subjective vividness and effort of their mental imagery on each trial. The influence of imagery on subsequent binocular rivalry dominance was taken as our measure of imagery strength. We found no overall effect of training on imagery strength. Training did, however, improve participant’s metacognition of imagery. Trial-by-trial ratings of vividness gained predictive power on subsequent rivalry dominance as a function of training. These data suggest that, while imagery strength might be immune to training in the current context, people’s metacognitive understanding of mental imagery can improve with practice.
Nelson, Toben F; Wechsler, Henry
While studies have addressed alcohol use and related problems among college athletes, little is known about the drinking patterns of non-athletes who are sports fans. This study examines the relationship between alcohol use and interest in collegiate sports on two levels. First, do sports fans in college binge drink more and exhibit more negative alcohol-related outcomes than other students? Second, do colleges with large numbers of sports fans have higher rates of heavy drinking and accompanying secondhand effects affecting other students? The study analyzed the responses of a nationally representative sample of students who completed questionnaires in the spring of 1999 regarding their extracurricular activities and substance use. The responses of 3445 student sports fans were compared to those of 8405 students who were not sports fans. More sports fans drank alcohol, engaged in binge drinking, had a heavy drinking style and reported alcohol-related problems than nonfans. The percentage of sports fans at a school was associated with binge drinking rates and the secondhand effects. The implications for those working with college athletics and for alcohol prevention personnel are discussed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Fuell, Kevin; Jedlovec, Gary; Leroy, Anita; Schultz, Lori
The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program works closely with NOAA/NWS weather forecasters to transition unique satellite data and capabilities into operations in order to assist with nowcasting and short-term forecasting issues. Several multispectral composite imagery (i.e. RGB) products were introduced to users in the early 2000s to support hydrometeorology and aviation challenges as well as incident support. These activities lead to SPoRT collaboration with the GOES-R Proving Ground efforts where instruments such as MODIS (Aqua, Terra) and S-NPP/VIIRS imagers began to be used as near-realtime proxies to future capabilities of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). One of the composite imagery products introduced to users was the Night-time Microphysics RGB, originally developed by EUMETSAT. SPoRT worked to transition this imagery to NWS users, provide region-specific training, and assess the impact of the imagery to aviation forecast needs. This presentation discusses the method used to interact with users to address specific aviation forecast challenges, including training activities undertaken to prepare for a product assessment. Users who assessed the multispectral imagery ranged from southern U.S. inland and coastal NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs), to those in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region and West Coast, as well as highlatitude forecasters of Alaska. These user-based assessments were documented and shared with the satellite community to support product developers and the broad users of new generation satellite data.
Yiannakis, Andrew, Ed.; And Others
Intended for beginning and intermediate level students of sport and society, this anthology of 43 articles is organized into twelve, self-contained teaching units with unit introductions and study questions. Topics addressed include: (1) the sociological study of sport; (2) sport and American society; (3) the interdependence of sport, politics,…
Sports are a focus of millions of Americans as they attend, view, and participate in sports. The World Series, Final Four, and Super Bowl often bring back memories of fun-filled parties and celebrations, but there may be several reasons why sports are so popular in the United States. The popularity of sports, however, does not necessarily mean it…
Koen Breedveld; Carlijn Kamphuis; Annet Tiessen-Raaphorst
Original title: Rapportage sport 2008. Sport: it appeals to people; it brings people together; it promotes health; and it is profitable. Today, in 2008, sport is enjoying popularity as never before. Two-thirds of the Dutch population take part in some form of sport. After swimming and cycling,
Full Text Available The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1 analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values and 2 examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy, it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.
Koen Breedveld; Rob Goossens; Maarten van Bottenburg; Wil Ooijendijk; Vincent Hildebrandt; Maarten Stiggelbout; Jo Lucassen; Hugo van der Poel
Original title: Rapportage Sport 2003. There has been a huge increase in the interest in sport in recent decades. The number of people taking part in sport has grown strongly and more sport is broadcast on television than ever before. The government has invested a great deal in sport, not least because of the growing awareness of the positive effect that sport can have on health, social cohesion and the economy. Sport is now an integral part of society and has developed into the biggest infor...
Schultz, L. A.; Molthan, A.; Nicoll, J. B.; Bell, J. R.; Gens, R.; Meyer, F. J.
Disaster response efforts leveraging imagery from NASA, USGS, NOAA, and the European Space Agency (ESA) have continued to expand as satellite imagery and derived products offer an enhanced overview of the affected areas, especially in remote areas where terrain and the scale of the damage can inhibit response efforts. NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been supporting the NASA Earth Science Disaster Response Program by providing both optical and SAR imagery products to the NWS and FEMA to assist during domestic response efforts. Although optical imagery has dominated, the availability of ESA's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from the Sentinel 1-A/B satellites offers a unique perspective to the damage response community as SAR imagery can be collected regardless of the time of day or the presence of clouds, two major hindrances to the use of satellite optical imagery. Through a partnership with the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) and the collocated Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF), NASA's SAR Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), SPoRT has been investigating the use of SAR imagery products to support storm damage surveys conducted by the National Weather Service after any severe weather event. Additionally, products are also being developed and tested for FEMA and the National Guard Bureau. This presentation will describe how SAR data from the Sentinel 1A/B satellites are processed and developed into products. Examples from multiple tornado and hail events will be presented highlighting both the strengths and weaknesses of SAR imagery and how it integrates and compliments more traditional optical imagery collected post-event. Specific case study information from a large hail event in South Dakota and a long track tornado near Clear Lake, Wisconsin will be discussed as well as an overview of the work being done to support FEMA and the National Guard.
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports sp...
Sport is becoming an activity of increasing importance: over time more people participate in sport (active sport consumption), more time is spent watching sport (passive sport consumption). An important part of sport consumption is passive sport consumption where production and consumption are
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, f...
Williams, J. M.; Wright, P.; Currie, C. E.; Beattie, T. F.
OBJECTIVES: To measure the age and sex distribution of self reported sports and leisure injuries in a 12 month retrospective recall period among a representative national sample of Scottish adolescents, and to examine the characteristics (gender, age, handedness, and level of sports participation) of sports related injuries in relation to injuries sustained during other activities. DESIGN/SETTING: Self completion questionnaire survey administered in schools during April- June 1994. SUBJ...
McVeigh, Sonja A; Hitzig, Sander L; Craven, B Cathy
To determine whether community integration and/or quality of life (QoL) among people living with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) are superior among sport participants vs non-sport participants. Cross-sectional study. Persons (n=90) living in the community with SCI (ASIA Impairment Scale A-D), level C5 or below, > 15 years of age, >12 months postinjury, and requiring a wheelchair for >1 hours/day were divided into 2 groups based on their self-reported sport participation at interview: sport participants (n=45) and non-sport participants (n 5). Independent-sample t tests revealed that both Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) and Reintegration to Normal Living Index (RNL) total mean scores were higher among sport participants vs nonsport participants (P sport participants. Similarly, the unadjusted odds ratio of a high RNL score was 7.00 (95% CI 2.3, 21.0) among current sport participants. Regression-adjusted odds ratios of high CIQ and high RNL scores were 1.36 (95% CI 0.09, 1.45) and 0.15 (95% CI 0.04, 0.55), respectively. The odds ratio for pre-SCI sport participation predicting post-SCI sport participation was 3.06 (95% CI 1.23, 7.65). CIQ and QoL scores were higher among sport participants compared to non-sport participants. There was an association between mean CIQ and RNL scores for both groups. Sport participants were 4.75 and 7.00 times as likely to have high CIQ and QoL scores. Both groups had a similar likelihood of high CIQ and RNL scores after adjusting for important confounders. Individuals who participated in sports prior to SCI were more likely to participate in sports post-SCI.
Kavussanu, Maria; Boardley, Ian D
This research aimed to (a) develop a measure of prosocial and antisocial behavior in sport, (b) examine its invariance across sex and sport, and (c) provide evidence for its discriminant and concurrent validity. We conducted two studies. In study 1, team sport athletes (N=1,213) recruited from 103 teams completed questionnaires assessing demographics and prosocial and antisocial behaviors in sport. Factor analyses revealed two factors representing prosocial behavior and two factors representing antisocial behavior. The model had a very good fit to the data and showed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across sex and sport. The final scale consisted of 20 items. In Study 2, team-sport athletes (N=106) completed the scale and measures of empathy and goal orientation. Analyses provided support for the discriminant and concurrent validity of the scale. In conclusion, the new scale can be used to measure prosocial and antisocial behaviors in team sport.
Having defined the distinction between hypnagogic imagery and dreams, a preliminary study on the individual differences in the experience of visual hypnagogic imagery was conducted. (1) A questionnaire on visual hypnagogic experience was administered to 796 students. The results suggested that previous researches on the incidence of this experience might have suffered from ambiguous definitions. (2) The Scale of Mental Imagery (Hasegawa, 1992) was administered to 330 of the same students, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to 305 students, and S-A Creativity Test (Sozosei-shinri-kenkyukai, 1969) to 221 students. The frequency of hypnagogic experiences was significantly associated with the scores of "the vividness of mental imagery", "neuroticism", and "creativity". (3) Based on these results, a proposed research problem on hypnagogic imagery was discussed.
Mizuguchi, N; Nakata, H; Kanosue, K
To elucidate the neural substrate associated with capabilities for kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements, we measured brain activity during a trial involving both kinesthetic motor imagery and action observation as well as during a trial with action observation alone. Brain activity was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen participants imagined three types of whole-body movements with the horizontal bar: the giant swing, kip, and chin-up during action observation. No participant had previously tried to perform the giant swing. The vividness of kinesthetic motor imagery as assessed by questionnaire was highest for the chin-up, less for the kip and lowest for the giant swing. Activity in the primary visual cortex (V1) during kinesthetic motor imagery with action observation minus that during action observation alone was significantly greater in the giant swing condition than in the chin-up condition within participants. Across participants, V1 activity of kinesthetic motor imagery of the kip during action observation minus that during action observation alone was negatively correlated with vividness of the kip imagery. These results suggest that activity in V1 is dependent upon the capability of kinesthetic motor imagery for difficult whole-body movements. Since V1 activity is likely related to the creation of a visual image, we speculate that visual motor imagery is recruited unintentionally for the less vivid kinesthetic motor imagery of difficult whole-body movements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Al-Arfaj, Ibrahim; Al-Shammari, Ahmad; Al-Subai, Turki; Al-Absi, Ghanim; AlJaffari, Mohammad; Al-Kadi, Ahmad; El Tantawi, Maha; Al-Ansari, Asim
The risk of dental trauma may increase during sports participation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices of sports participants concerning sports-related dental trauma and associated emergency/preventive practices. The study included 124 male subjects over 18 years of age participating in contact and non-contact sports in three clubs in the Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was used to assess past experience of dental trauma related to...
Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in motivation to participate in sport activities among sports students from three different countries. On a sample of 390 sports students from Slovenia, Croatia and Germany we studied what motivates an interest in being sports active. The sample was stratified across the choice to attend table tennis lessons at all three institutions and all students have completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ. The results revealed that the latent structure of the types of sports students' motives consisted of six factors (sport action with friend, popularity, fitness & health, social status, sports events, relaxation through sports. We also found significant sex differences in motivation to participate in sport activities for all sports students from the three different countries. We did not find relevant age-based differences among the students, and this is the only initial hypothesis that we can reject.
This study aimed to determine whether "black gold" leisure and sport participation during a previous holiday influenced their satisfaction with life. Questionnaires were used and 288 were completed. An Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on attitude towards and viewpoint on leisure and sport activities, as well as leisure and ...
The purpose of this investigation was to establish what techniques or strategies are used by sports coaches in South Africa to motivate their athletes/players. Altogether 780 questionnaires were distributed to sports coaches, of which 274 were used for the interpretation of the data collected. A factor analysis showed that ...
The aims of this study were to investigate the Japanese university athletes' dilemma of managing both study and sport performance effectively, and to try to find answers to how they can effectively manage both their study and sport club activities. Questionnaires were used in order to collect the data (1st year, 2nd year, and 3rd year students). A…
Full Text Available Management applied in sport contributes to achieving full functionality of sports structures, the large masses of people, a plurality of means and skills, objectives and intentions. Through the efforts of management in sport individuals or groups of people are coordinated towards achieving a common goal, complicated and difficult process due to concerns divergent which always, through his, they are converted into cutting issues ensuring mobility objectives. Sports management helps to master and control both situations and complex systems ensuring permanent and continuous management of a multitude of sporting activities generating efficiency. Particularities of management in sport resides in that it applies to all forms of sports, all sports disciplines, which provides an organized leading to superior results in sporting competitions.
Christensen, Mette Krogh
dealing with anonymous individuals, whose anonymity results from the confidentiality requirements of a social scientific research methodology, to those leaning more towards the literary-historical traditions of 'conventional' biographical writing. However, these examples are polar extremes and none...... in the academis world of sport studies. It does not set out to be a methodological treatise but through the writing of lives in sports does raise questions of method. Each essay in this collection deals with problems of writing sports-people's lives. These essays could be said to fall along a spectrum from those......Writing lives in sport is a book of stories about sports-persons. The people concerned include sports stars, sports people who are not quite so famous, and relatively unknown physical education teachers and sports scientists.Writing lives in sport raises questions about writing biographies...
Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are traveling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory, or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.
Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F
Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.
There is a dearth of empirical data about cheating in sport. This study attempts to help fill this void by investigating perceptions regarding cheating in sport. The sample consisted of 233 final-year university sport science male (n=137) and female (n=96) students. The responses to a self-designed questionnaire revealed that ...
Tiggelman, Dana; van de Ven, Monique O M; van Schayck, Onno C P; Kleinjan, Marloes; Engels, Rutger C M E
Sport participation is especially important for patients with asthma in that it decreases psychosocial and physiological problems associated with inactivity. However, adolescents with asthma seem to participate less in sports compared to their non-asthmatic peers. The current study tested the direct associations between maternal sport-specific factors and sport club participation of early adolescents with asthma and the indirect effect through adolescent's sport-specific cognitions. During home visits, 261 adolescents (aged 10-15) completed questionnaires about self-efficacy, beliefs regarding sport participation, and their actual sport club participation. Their mothers reported their sport-specific support, beliefs about offspring's and own sport participation, their own levels of physical activity, and their self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports. Path analyses were used to examine the direct and indirect associations of maternal sport-specific factors with adolescents sport club participation via adolescent sport-specific cognitions. Analyses showed that maternal sport-specific support (β = 0.20, P = 0.007) and self-efficacy to stimulate offspring to participate in sports (β = 0.20, P = 0.027) related positively to adolescents' sport club participation. Adolescents' self-efficacy (indirect effect = 0.09, SE = 3.01, P adolescents' participation in sport clubs. Maternal sport-specific factors related to adolescents' sport club participation directly and indirectly through adolescents' sport-specific cognitions. Intervention programs should focus on maternal sport-specific support and self-efficacy and adolescents' self-efficacy to increase sport participation of adolescents with asthma. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...
Kondric, Miran; Sindik, Joško; Furjan-Mandic, Gordana; Schiefler, Bernd
The main aim of this study was to examine the differences in motivation to participate in sport activities among sports students from three different countries. On a sample of 390 sports students from Slovenia, Croatia and Germany we studied what motivates an interest in being sports active. The sample was stratified across the choice to attend table tennis lessons at all three institutions and all students have completed the Participation Motivation Questionnaire (PMQ). The results revealed that the latent structure of the types of sports students' motives consisted of six factors (sport action with friend, popularity, fitness & health, social status, sports events, relaxation through sports). We also found significant sex differences in motivation to participate in sport activities for all sports students from the three different countries. We did not find relevant age-based differences among the students, and this is the only initial hypothesis that we can reject. Key pointsThe potential implications of the result can be in better understanding the relationship between different motivational orientations - in particular, extrinsic motivation - and sport motivation among school-aged individuals.In the context of Self Determination Theory, students can be encouraged in developing more autonomous orientations for sport activity, rather than controlled and impersonal, especially in certain countries.Significant factors of differences have been found in motivation to participate in sport activities among sports students from three different countries and also some significant sex differences have been found in motivation to participate in sport activities for all sports students.
Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M
Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.
Describes an exhibition (originating at the Smithsonian Institution) which celebrates athletes and sports-related figures who became legends in their own time. Information is presented on art works, sports memorabilia, advertising posters, and photographs. (AM)
... re important for sports such as football , hockey, baseball, softball, biking, skateboarding, inline skating, skiing , and snowboarding — to ... in sports such as football, ice hockey , and softball and baseball when batting. Goggles are often worn ...
In spring 2013, the regional directorate for youth, sports and social cohesion and the regional healthcare agency in Franche-Comté presented and signed the first regional health, sports and well-being plan.
chapters on the benefits of exercise, sports for older persons and those with disabilities, sports physiotherapy, exercise psychology and medical coverage for major events. The stated ... practice will be aware of an increasing reluctance on the.
Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...
Roberts, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pope, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
This report details the work performed in FY11 under project LL11-GS-PD06, “Benchmark Imagery for Assessing Geospatial Semantic Extraction Algorithms.” The original LCP for the Benchmark Imagery project called for creating a set of benchmark imagery for verifying and validating algorithms that extract semantic content from imagery. More specifically, the first year was slated to deliver real imagery that had been annotated, the second year to deliver real imagery that had composited features, and the final year was to deliver synthetic imagery modeled after the real imagery.
Gavriel-Fried, Belle; Bronstein, Israel; Sherpsky, Idit
This study examines the association between physical activities and gambling, making a distinction between two characteristics of the former: intensity level and type (competitive/non-competitive). 316 adolescents from four high schools in Israel completed questionnaires. For males, participation in competitive athletic sports was associated with gambling frequency and problem gambling. For females, participation in competitive athletic sports was associated only with gambling frequency. Both types of physical activity and gender are important when analyzing the association between gambling and sporting activities. Youths involved in competitive sports are at greater risk for gambling involvement. (Am J Addict 2015;24:200-202). © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
from the depths of human evolution. Conclusions: We understand current sport as a cultural phenomenon in two dimensions. The first dimension is sport from 19th to 21st century, as an integral part of universal human culture, as a general cultural artefact. In connection with the civilization, there are all compatible features of today existing civilizations showed in sport. The second dimension of viewing the sport shifts to the forefront its aesthetic aspects, its imagery and ability to experience as domains of fine arts and sports aesthetics. The problem of current relationship between civilizations and sport also includes the sports aspect of migration. Migrating athletes bring to the new homeland (and often to another civilization excellent sport values and they are largely pragmatically assimilated into the culture of a new home and are seeking a new form of identity. In a historically short period of time when this phenomenon appeared in the sports scene, it cannot be exactly confirmed that the identity of migrating athletes who left their own civilization or original national culture, is actually changing. The problem of sports migration has to be seen in terms of coexistence of civilizations along the lines of tolerance and multiculturalism today. However, on the basis of previo
David R. Mottram
Full Text Available This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i actions of drugs and hormones, ii medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v an assessment of the prevalence of drug taking in sport. FEATURES A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. This textbook is composed of twelve parts with sub-sections in all of them. The topics of the parts are: i An introduction to drugs and their use in sport, ii Drug use and abuse in sport, iii Central nervous system stimulants, iv WADA regulations in relation to drugs used in the treatment of respiratory tract disorders, v Androgenic anabolic steroids, vi Peptide and glycoprotein hormones and sport, vii Blood boosting and sport, viii Drug treatment of inflammation in sports injuries, ix Alcohol, anti-anxiety drugs and sport, x Creatine, xi Doping control and sport, xii Prevalence of drug misuse in sport. Each specific chapter has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective, retrospective, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables and figures are numerous, helpful and very useful. AUDIENCE The book provides a very useful resource for students on sports related courses, coaches and trainers, researchers, nutritionists, exercise physiologists, pharmacologists, healthcare professionals in the fields of sports medicine and those involved in the management and administration side of sport. The readers are going to discover that this is an excellent reference book. Extensively revised new edition of this book is also a first-rate resource for
Imagery rescripting is a powerful technique that can be successfully applied in the treatment of personality disorders. For personality disorders, imagery rescripting is not used to address intrusive images but to change the implicational meaning of schemas and childhood experiences that underlie the patient's problems. Various mechanisms that may…
Full Text Available A standing debate in philosophy of sport concerns whether sport can count as art in some sense. But the debate is often conducted at cross purposes. Naysayers insist that no sport is an artform while proponents insist that certain sport performances count as artworks – but these are entirely consistent claims. Both sides make unwarranted assumptions: naysayers are purists about sport and art (no transaesthetic purposes whereas proponents are tokenists about artforms. Naysayers admit that figure skating may count as art yet only in non-competitive contexts. Their burden is thus to explain why a routine (e.g., Torvill and Dean’s ‘Bolero’ may count as art in a showcase but not at the Olympics. The debate is also inevitably framed in terms of whether sport counts as art, neglecting the equally viable question of whether art in some form (e.g., competitive dance may also count as sport. I conclude in favour of an appropriately qualified sport-as-art thesis.
This new edition includes fresh information regarding drugs use and abuse in sport and the updated worldwide anti-doping laws, and changes to the prohibited and therapeutic use exemption lists. The objectives of the book are to review/discuss the latest information on drugs in sport by considering i) actions of drugs and hormones, ii) medication and nutritional supplements in sport, iii) the latest doping control regulations of the WADA, iv) the use of banned therapeutic drugs in sport, v) an...
Heo, Jimmoo; King, Carina
Stebbins (1992) defined serious leisure as the systematic pursuit of amateur, hobbyist, or volunteer activity that is substantial and interesting for the participants involved. This study investigated associations between serious leisure and sport tourism using Indiana Senior Games participants. This study used a self-report questionnaire to…
Full Text Available This work offers a short review of sports marketing and management. It presents different ways of advertising some products either in sports events or throng electronic mediums. In addition, it reviles different aspects of the influence that politics and discrimination has on sport as well as the way of solving eventual arguments of any kind.
... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth / For Teens / Cold-Weather Sports What's in this article? What to Do? Classes ... weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports can help you burn calories, increase your cardiovascular ...
The author argues that the fundamental values associated with sports seem to have changed. Accordingly spaces for sports are also undergoing change.The essay gives a number of examples of these new sports spaces. Their common denominator lies in their urban proximity, the combination of previously...
More than half the Dutch population participated in sport on a weekly basis in 2014. Fitness training and running are the most popular sports among adults. Government interventions at the level of neighbourhoods, primary schools, secondary schools and sports clubs are intended to persuade more
Pill, Shane; Hastie, Peter
In order to plan and enact appropriate learning environments in physical education (PE) teachers are increasingly directed to models based practice. The Sport Education model is one of these models for PE curriculum and teaching design that informs the content and pedagogical direction of sport teaching in PE. Despite Sport Education being well…
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; Difiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: There is increased growth in sports participation across the globe. Sports specialization patterns, which include year-round training, participation on multiple teams of the same sport, and focused participation in a single sport at a young age, are at high levels. The need for this type of early specialized training in young athletes is currently under debate. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Sports specialization is defined as year-round training (greater than 8 months per year), choosing a single main sport, and/or quitting all other sports to focus on 1 sport. Specialized training in young athletes has risks of injury and burnout, while the degree of specialization is positively correlated with increased serious overuse injury risk. Risk factors for injury in young athletes who specialize in a single sport include year-round single-sport training, participation in more competition, decreased age-appropriate play, and involvement in individual sports that require the early development of technical skills. Adults involved in instruction of youth sports may also put young athletes at risk for injury by encouraging increased intensity in organized practices and competition rather than self-directed unstructured free play. Strength-of-Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): C. PMID:26502420
Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France).
The following papers were prepared for a seminar on sport for older people: (1) "Gerontological Aspects of Physical Exercise" (Eino Heikkinen); (2) "Sporting Activities in the Individual Life from the View of Older Persons" (Henning Allmer); (3) "Reasons Why Decision-Makers Should Urge Old People to Practise Physical and Sporting Activities"…
The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana in the importance of sport in their lives and the frequency of sport participation. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N = 1390); a questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013). In this study, two variables were analysed: the importance of sport in students’ lives and the frequency of sport participati...
Cunningham, G.; Fairley, S.; Ferkins, L.; Lock, Daniel; Kerwin, S.; Shaw, S.; Wicker, P.
The purpose of this article is to add to the conceptual discussion on eSport, analyze the role of\\ud eSport within sport management, and suggest avenues for future eSport research. The authors\\ud suggest that debates surround the degree to which eSport represents formal sport, and\\ud disagreements likely stem from conceptualizations of sport and context. Irrespective of one’s\\ud notion of eSport as formal sport, the authors suggest the topic has a place in sport management\\ud scholarship and ...
Norberta Elisa Fernandes
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between sport commitment and three types of sport consumer behaviors: participation frequency, sporting goods and media consumption. A survey was conducted among sport participants of both individual and team sports, fitness and outdoor activities (n= 900. The survey included questions related to demographic information, measures of sport commitment and sport consumption behavior. The results analyzed trough structural equation modeling showed that the sport commitment influences positively the participation frequency, sporting goods consumption and media consumption. Implications of these results are discussed and suggestions for future research on sport consumers are provided.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare the sport orientation of adolescents based on their perceived patterning styles. Through a two-stage sampling method, 350 junior high school students were selected. A battery of questionnaires was applied to collect the data including parenting style questionnaire, sport orientation questionnaire, and participation motivation questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Findings indicated that parenting styles affect children’s sport orientation. In addition, this study shows a signifycant difference between boys and girls in sport orientation, suggesting that boys are more competitive, winning and goal oriented. Consequently, according to the results, children of authoritative parents might be more sport and success oriented than those of permissive parents. In general, the present study reveals that parenting style is a fundamental important process influencing the improvement of adolescents' sport orientation.
Fuell, Kevin; Guyer, Brian
The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program has been providing unique Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composite imagery to its operational partners since 2005. In the early years of activity these RGB products were related to a True Color RGB, showing what one's own eyes would see if looking down at earth from space, as well as a Snow-Cloud RGB (i.e. False Color), separating clouds from snow on the ground. More recently SPoRT has used the EUMETSAT Best Practices standards for RGB composites to transition a wide array of imagery for multiple uses. A "Dust" RGB product has had particular use at the Albuquerque, New Mexico WFO. Several cases have occurred where users were able to isolate dust plume locations for mesoscale and microscale events during day and night time conditions. In addition the "Dust" RGB can be used for more than just detection of dust as it is sensitive to the changes in density due to atmospheric moisture content. Hence low-level dry boundaries can often be discriminated. This type of imagery is a large change from the single channel imagery typically used by operational forecast staff and hence, can be a challenge to interpret. This presentation aims to discuss the integration of such new imagery into operational use as well as the benefits assessed by the Albuquerque WFO over several documented events.
Fuell, Kevin; Guyer, Brian
The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program has been providing unique Red-Green-Blue (RGB) composite imagery to its operational partners since 2005. In the early years of activity these RGB products were related to a True Color RGB, showing what one's own eyes would see if looking down at earth from space, as well as a Snow-Cloud RGB (i.e. False Color), separating clouds from snow on the ground. More recently SPoRT has used the EUMETSAT Best Practices standards for RGB composites to transition a wide array of imagery for multiple uses. A "Dust" RGB product has had particular use at the Albuquerque, New Mexico WFO. Several cases have occurred where users were able to isolate dust plume locations for mesoscale and microscale events during day and night time conditions. In addition the "Dust" RGB can be used for more than just detection of dust as it is sensitive to the changes in density due to atmospheric moisture content. Hence low-level dry boundaries can often be discriminated. This type of imagery is a large change from the single channel imagery typically used by operational forecast staff and hence, can be a challenge to interpret. This presentation aims to discuss the integration of such new imagery into operational use as well as the benefits assessed by the Albuquerque WFO over several documented events.
Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin
Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A.S. Teletov; V.I. Karpets
The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to clarify the concept of «sport tourism marketing», to examine the state of its objects and to determine prospects for development of sport tourism in Ukraine. The paper singles out the role of sport in life; compares different types of cities in terms of provision the infrastructure for tourism development in the field of sports. Authors show the example of the campaign. The results of the analysis. The article deals with sport tourism as...
Danilo Aćimović; Omer Špirtović
Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing, belongs to the newer type of the marketing. It appeared in time of increasing activity and significance of sport in the world. Huge human potential, with which sport as an activity disposes, implied the need to organize more properly and use it purposefully. “Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represen...
Dain, Stephen J
Eye injuries sustained during sport comprise up to 20 per cent of all injuries to the eye serious enough for medical attention to be sought. The prevalence of eye injuries in sport is not easily assessed due to lack of authoritative participation rates, so most studies report total numbers in a time period. The evidence on the proportion of all ocular injuries that are from sport is reviewed. The relative frequencies in different sports are compared in a qualitative manner and the sports with greater numbers of ocular injuries are detailed. In common with occupational injuries to the eye, most sports eye injuries are considered preventable. The hierarchy of action for occupational risk is detailed and adapted to use in a sports scenario. All the available international, regional and national standards on sports eye protection are detailed and their provisions compared. The major function of the standards is to provide adequate protection against the hazard of the sport concerned. These are detailed and compared as a function of energy transfer. Eye protection must not introduce additional or secondary hazards (for instance, fracturing into sharp fragments on impact) and not introduce features that would deter the wearing of eye protection (for instance, restricting field of view to impede playing the sport). The provisions of the standards intended to limit secondary hazards are detailed and compared. The need for future work in standards writing and the activities of the International Standardization Organization in sports eye protection are detailed. © 2016 Optometry Australia.
The study examined developmental participation patterns of international top athletes. Pairs of 83 international medallists (including 38 Olympic/World Champions) and 83 non-medallists were matched by sport, age and gender. A questionnaire recorded their volume of organised (coach-led) practice/training in their respective main sport and in other sports through childhood, adolescence and adulthood, and also involvement in non-organised (peer-led) sport activity. Analyses revealed that the medallists started practice/training in their main sport at an older age than non-medallists and accumulated slightly, but significantly less main-sport practice/training through childhood/adolescence. But they participated in more practice/training in other sports, particularly before entering their main sport. The medallists also maintained engagement in other sports over more years and specialised later than the non-medallists. Other sports engaged in were mostly unrelated to an athlete's main sport. The results were robust across different types of sports. The observations are reflected against tenets of the "deliberate practice" and "Developmental Model of Sport Participation" frameworks. Early diversified practice and learning experiences are discussed relative to the expansion of youngsters' potential for future long-term learning. In elite athletes, interaction of sport-specific practice/training with early other-sports participation mostly facilitates long-term attainment of international senior medals.
Møller, Rasmus Bysted; Møller, Verner
The relationship between sport and technology is close and can be both fruitful and destructive. Technology has a constitutive function in sport as it makes the activity possible and it can enhance performance as well as the sporting experience. The use of football boots is clearly more comfortable...... and effective than playing in bare feet in a game of football. However, sport challenges its athletes by demanding the employment of less efficient means rather than more efficient means in pursuit of sport specific goals. Therefore technology can potentially subtract from the sporting experience and even...... threaten the internal logic of sport. If as an example very efficient hail cartridges were allowed for use in double trap shooting it would reduce the skills required to excel at that discipline reducing its value for participants and spectators alike. The use of forbidden performance enhancing substances...
Li-Shiue Gau; Jeffrey D. James
This study examined relationships between personal life values and spectator sport consumption. From Kahle (1983), Rokeach (1973), and Schwartz (1992, 1996) value systems, twenty-eight personal values were identified probably relevant to spectator sport consumption for inclusion in a survey. A questionnaire was designed to assess the importance of each value and the frequency of spectator sport consumption. The questionnaires were administered through which 384 participants rated the importan...
Full Text Available In the sport management coordination represents the basic deposit of management, and terms through numerous activities. Brother-in-law activity in sport has the specific management so speak about the management of sport event, management of sports facilities, management of management to the human activities, financial management in sport etc. The sportively management has presumed the specific management related to sports activities whose basic task of coordinations of sports activities. Management of sport organisations have been confided sport managers of special profile which differs towards the type of sport, rank of contest etc. The sport managers could utter survived the statement that in sport have not been educated special diameters manager, besides sport coaches. Specifically, in the role of manager in sport prevails almost all diameters of professional in professional or the volunteer relationship.
Full Text Available Musicians use different kinds of imagery. This review focuses on kinesthetic imagery, which has been shown to be an effective complement to actively playing an instrument. However, experience in actual movement performance seems to be a requirement for a recruitment of those brain areas representing movement ideation during imagery. An internal model of movement performance might be more differentiated when training has been more intense or simply performed more often. Therefore, with respect to kinesthetic imagery, these strategies are predominantly found in professional musicians. There are a few possible reasons as to why kinesthetic imagery is used in addition to active training; one example is the need for mental rehearsal of the technically most difficult passages. Training difficult passages repeatedly has the potential to induce fatigue in tendons and muscles and can ultimately result in the development of dystonia. Another reason for mental practice is that mental rehearsal of the piece helps to improve performance if the instrument is not available for actual training as is the case for professional musicians when they are travelling to various appearances. Overall, mental imagery in musicians is not necessarily specific to motor, somatosensory, auditory or visual aspects of imagery, but integrates them all. In particular, the audiomotor loop is highly important, since auditory aspects are crucial for guiding motor performance. Furthermore, slight co-movement, for instance of the fingers, usually occurs when imagining musical performance, a situation different to the laboratory condition where movement execution is strictly controlled. All these aspects result in a distinctive representation map for the mental imagery of musical performance. This review summarizes behavioral data, and findings from functional brain imaging studies of mental imagery of musical performance.
Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo
The present study investigated musical imagery in musicians and nonmusicians by means of magnetoencephalography (MEG). We used a new paradigm in which subjects had to continue familiar melodies in their mind and then judged if a further presented tone was a correct continuation of the melody. Incorrect tones elicited an imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN) in musicians but not in nonmusicians. This finding suggests that the MMN component can be based on an imagined instead of a sensory memory trace and that imagery of music is modulated by musical expertise.
Lee, Donghun; Schoenstedt, Linda J.
With recognition of the need for studying eSports in this interactive digital communication era, this study explored 14 motivational factors affecting the time spent on eSports gaming. Using a sample of 515 college students and athletic event attendees, we further compared eSports game patterns to their non-eSport or traditional sport involvements…
Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…
Williams, Vernon B
Sports neurology is an emerging area of subspecialty. Neurologists and non-neurologists evaluating and managing individuals participating in sports will encounter emergencies that directly or indirectly involve the nervous system. Since the primary specialty of sports medicine physicians and other practitioners involved in the delivery of medical care to athletes in emergency situations varies significantly, experience in recognition and management of neurologic emergencies in sports will vary as well. This article provides a review of information and elements essential to neurologic emergencies in sports for the practicing neurologist, although content may be of benefit to readers of varying background and expertise. Both common neurologic emergencies and less common but noteworthy neurologic emergencies are reviewed in this article. Issues that are fairly unique to sports participation are highlighted in this review. General concepts and principles related to treatment of neurologic emergencies that are often encountered unrelated to sports (eg, recognition and treatment of status epilepticus, increased intracranial pressure) are discussed but are not the focus of this article. Neurologic emergencies can involve any region of the nervous system (eg, brain, spine/spinal cord, peripheral nerves, muscles). In addition to neurologic emergencies that represent direct sports-related neurologic complications, indirect (systemic and generalized) sports-related emergencies with significant neurologic consequences can occur and are also discussed in this article. Neurologists and others involved in the care of athletes should consider neurologic emergencies in sports when planning and providing medical care.
Validación de la Escala de “Satisfacción de las Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas” y del Cuestionario de la “Regulación Conductual en el Deporte” al contexto español. (Validation of Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale and the Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire to the Spanish context.
Full Text Available ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue adaptar y validar al contexto deportivo español la Escala de Satisfacción de Necesidades Psicológicas Básicas (PNSE y el Cuestionario de la Regulación Conductual (BRSQ. Para ello se utilizó una muestra de 298 deportistas españoles, con una media de edad de 14 años. Se llevaron a cabo diferentes análisis factoriales confirmatorios, análisis de consistencia interna y de correlación. Tras los respectivos análisis factoriales confirmatorios, tanto la PNSE (2 = 222.62, p = .00, 2/g.l. = 129, CFI = .91, IFI = .92, TLI = .91, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .08 como la BRSQ (2 = 824.56, p = .00, 2/g.l. = 558, CFI = .92, IFI = .91, TLI = .92, RMSEA = .04, SRMR = .06 presentaron valores adecuados. De igual forma, la consistencia interna obtenida de las respectivas dimensiones estuvo por encima de .70. Se observó una correlación positiva y significativa entre las tres necesidades psicológicas básicas, así como de éstas con la motivación intrínseca (hacia el conocimiento, consecución y estimulación, la regulación integrada y la regulación identificada. Por su parte, la necesidad de competencia correlacionó de forma negativa y significativa con la desmotivación, mientras que la necesidad de relación con los demás lo hizo con la desmotivación, la regulación introyectada y la regulación externa. Este estudio ha permitido proporcionar dos escalas válidas y fiables para evaluar la satisfacción de las necesidades psicológicas básicas y la motivación de los practicantes de actividad física y deportiva.AbstractThe objective of this paper was to adapt and to validate to the Spanish sport context the Psychological Need Satisfaction in Exercise Scale (PNSE and the Behavioural Regulation in Sport Questionnaire (BRSQ. The sample was 298 Spanish sportspersons, with a mean of 14 years old. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA, internal consistency and correlation analysis were made. The respective CFAs showed
The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book enc...
According to cognitive theories, verbal processing attenuates emotional processing, whereas visual imagery enhances emotional processing and contributes to the maintenance of social anxiety. Individuals with social anxiety report negative mental images in social situations. However, the general ability of visual mental imagery of neutral scenes in individuals with social anxiety is still unclear. The present study investigated the general ability of non-emotional mental imagery (vividness, preferences for imagery vs. verbal processing, and object or spatial imagery) and the moderating role of effortful control in attenuating social anxiety. The participants ( N = 231) completed five questionnaires. The results showed that social anxiety was not necessarily associated with all aspects of mental imagery. As suggested by theories, social anxiety was not associated with a preference for verbal processing. However, social anxiety was positively correlated with the visual imagery scale, especially the object imagery scale, which concerns the ability to construct pictorial images of individual objects. Further, it was negatively correlated with the spatial imagery scale, which concerns the ability to process information about spatial relations between objects. Although object imagery and spatial imagery positively and negatively predicted the degree of social anxiety, respectively, these effects were attenuated when socially anxious individuals had high effortful control. Specifically, in individuals with high effortful control, both object and spatial imagery were not associated with social anxiety. Socially anxious individuals might prefer to construct pictorial images of individual objects in natural scenes through object imagery. However, even in individuals who exhibit these features of mental imagery, effortful control could inhibit the increase in social anxiety.
Full Text Available According to cognitive theories, verbal processing attenuates emotional processing, whereas visual imagery enhances emotional processing and contributes to the maintenance of social anxiety. Individuals with social anxiety report negative mental images in social situations. However, the general ability of visual mental imagery of neutral scenes in individuals with social anxiety is still unclear. The present study investigated the general ability of non-emotional mental imagery (vividness, preferences for imagery vs. verbal processing, and object or spatial imagery and the moderating role of effortful control in attenuating social anxiety. The participants (N = 231 completed five questionnaires. The results showed that social anxiety was not necessarily associated with all aspects of mental imagery. As suggested by theories, social anxiety was not associated with a preference for verbal processing. However, social anxiety was positively correlated with the visual imagery scale, especially the object imagery scale, which concerns the ability to construct pictorial images of individual objects. Further, it was negatively correlated with the spatial imagery scale, which concerns the ability to process information about spatial relations between objects. Although object imagery and spatial imagery positively and negatively predicted the degree of social anxiety, respectively, these effects were attenuated when socially anxious individuals had high effortful control. Specifically, in individuals with high effortful control, both object and spatial imagery were not associated with social anxiety. Socially anxious individuals might prefer to construct pictorial images of individual objects in natural scenes through object imagery. However, even in individuals who exhibit these features of mental imagery, effortful control could inhibit the increase in social anxiety.
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The APFO Historical Availability ArcGIS Online web map provides an easy to use reference of what historical imagery is available by county from the Aerial...
Fred Walter Mast
Full Text Available We are able to extract detailed information from mental images that we were not explicitly aware of during encoding. For example, we can discover a new figure when we rotate a previously seen image in our mind. However, such discoveries are not really new but just new interpretations. In two recent publications, we have shown that mental imagery can lead to perceptual learning (Tartaglia et al., 2009, 2012. Observers imagined the central line of a bisection stimulus for thousands of trials. This training enabled observers to perceive bisection offsets that were invisible before training. Hence, it seems that perceptual learning via mental imagery leads to new percepts. We will argue, however, that these new percepts can occur only within known models. In this sense, perceptual learning via mental imagery exceeds new discoveries in mental images. Still, the effects of mental imagery on perceptual learning are limited. Only perception can lead to really new perceptual experience.
.... Army tactical applications. An important tactical application of infrared (IR) hyperspectral imagery is the detection of low-contrast targets, including those targets that may employ camouflage, concealment, and deception (CCD) techniques 1, 2...
Plinta, Ryszard; Sobiecka, Joanna
The aim of the study was to answer the following questions: What factors determine that disabled people take up systematic sport activity or should make such a decision? What reasons are able to eliminate the handicapped from process of regular going in for sport? Three groups of men participated. The group of disabled sportsmen included 39 subjects, the group of non-active disabled people 36 subjects and the group of able-bodied students 45 subjects. All the involved people answered the questions of the questionnaire, which concerned factors associated with sport activity of the handicapped and their socio-demographic characteristics, among other things. The opportunity of improvement of the health status is the main advantage of the sport for disabled people (53%). The chance of self-testing and sport competition was pointed out by 47% of subjects. The most common reason for taking up sport activity was sport passion (over 50%). The others were: possibility of creating new contacts with people, improvement of the physical condition, chance of self-testing and passing free time (23%). The lack of free time was the factor eliminating from sport activity in the second group (28%). The other problem was the shortage of appropriate clubs, equipment, infrastructure etc. (almost 25%). Students concluded that sport for disabled people aims to improve the mental condition mainly (42%). Quite similar percentage of the group (38%) didn't see any reason that was able to exclude the handicapped from goingin for sport. (1) Not only does active going in for sport improve the physical condition of the handicapped but strengthen them psychically as well. (2) The lack of sport activity in disabled people is to a high degree a result of low number of sport clubs, organisations, buildings as well as presence of architectural barriers.
Theisen, Daniel; Frisch, Anne; Malisoux, Laurent; Urhausen, Axel; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Seil, Romain
This study compared sports injury incidence in young high-level athletes from various team and individual sports and investigated if sport participation patterns are linked to injuries. Prospective cohort follow-up. Pupils from a public sports school (12-19 years) were recruited over two separate school years (2008-2009: 42 weeks, n=199 athletes; 2009-2010: 40 weeks, n=89 athletes). Training and competition volume and intensity were recorded via a personal sports diary. Sports injuries (time-loss definition) were registered by medical staff members using a standardized questionnaire. Injury incidence was significantly higher in team compared with individual sports (6.16 versus 2.88 injuries/1000h, respectively), as a result of a higher incidence of both traumatic (RR=2.17; CI95%=1.75-2.70; pteam sports participation had a hazard ratio of 2.00 (CI95%=1.49-2.68; psports, with additionally previous injury being a risk and age a protective factor. The number of competitions per 100 days was significantly higher in team sports, whereas the number of intense training sessions per 100 days was significantly lower. In team sports, the number of competitions per 100 days was positively associated with injuries (HR=1.072; CI95% [1.033; 1.113]; psports the number of competitions per 100 days had a protective effect (HR=0.940; CI95% [0.893; 0.989]; p=0.017). Team sports participation entailed a higher injury risk, whatever the injury category. Further research should elucidate the role of characteristics related to sport participation in injury causation. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew
For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.
DURBĂCEA - BOLOVAN MARIAN
Full Text Available Sports and economy have discovered each other, hoping to serve common interests. In view of transferring in a more efficient way the information about their products or services to consumers, the business operator finances sports activities for advertising purposes. A company involved in sports sponsorship can instantly transmit the message about its products to millions of potential buyers, thus increasing the market share and hence the profit that it generates. By sponsoring sport it is meant any agreement / convention, under which one party the sponsor makes available to the beneficiary the material resources, financial and / or other benefits in exchange for its association with a sport or sportsman and especially the promise to use this association with sport or sportsman for the purpose of advertising, especially TV advertising. The growing use of athletes as spokespersons for a product is largely due to the ability of athletes to attract public attention and the credibility they enjoy.
Jéssica Natuline Ianof
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of lifelong disability and death worldwide. Sport-related traumatic brain injury is an important public health concern. The purpose of this review was to highlight the importance of sport-related concussions. Concussion refers to a transient alteration in consciousness induced by external biomechanical forces transmitted directly or indirectly to the brain. It is a common, although most likely underreported, condition. Contact sports such as American football, rugby, soccer, boxing, basketball and hockey are associated with a relatively high prevalence of concussion. Various factors may be associated with a greater risk of sport-related concussion, such as age, sex, sport played, level of sport played and equipment used. Physical complaints (headache, fatigue, dizziness, behavioral changes (depression, anxiety, irritability and cognitive impairment are very common after a concussion. The risk of premature return to activities includes the prolongation of post-concussive symptoms and increased risk of concussion recurrence.
Sports management and its development is closely linked to the development of modern society and modern rationality. This article applies sociological theories and practical management philosophy to shed light on how sports management and its rationality in Denmark (Europe) and the United States...... have changed and undergone different phases for more than a century, and to show that, in late modernity, they are entering a new phase in which they seem to be more reflexive and communicative. This trend is evident in American sports management and will also soon be reflected in Danish sports...... management. My analysis of this development will also be based on a specific case study from the American world of sports, namely the story of Oakland Athletics baseball club’s reorganisation in the 1990s, because it both provides a rare insight into a modern sports organisation and demonstrates...
Full Text Available We can say that sports are continuously evolving. To improve the quality of this work, changes are being made in all of these segments: development and selection of athletes, the improvement of technology for preparation and performance tactics, training methods for relaxation. On the other hand these are followed by rule changes, modern sports facilities, as well as legal regulations. One direction in the improvement of sports results is an attempt at rational spending of existing resources for athletes, regardless of whether in team or individual sports. Nanotechnology is also contributioning toward this direction. This paper points out the appearance of nanotechnology, its essence, i.e., the way it may effect the development of sports. Of course, it also points to the potential risk of applying nanotechnology to sports.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are importa...
Myer, Gregory D.; Jayanthi, Neeru; DiFiori, John P.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Logerstedt, David; Micheli, Lyle J.
Context: Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance. Evidence Acquisition: Nonsystematic review with critical appraisal of existing literature. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Conclusion: Based on the current evidence, parents and educators should help provide opportunities for free unstructured play to improve motor skill development and youth should be encouraged to participate in a variety of sports during their growing years to influence the development of diverse motor skills. For those children who do choose to specialize in a single sport, periods of intense training and specialized sport activities should be closely monitored for indicators of burnout, overuse injury, or potential decrements in performance due to overtraining. Last, the evidence indicates that all youth should be involved in periodized strength and conditioning (eg, integrative neuromuscular training) to help them prepare for the demands of competitive sport participation, and youth who specialize in a single sport should plan periods of isolated and focused integrative neuromuscular training to enhance diverse motor skill development and reduce injury risk factors. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT): B. PMID
Gabus, Vincent; Monney, Pierre
Physical activity is beneficial for health and the cardiovascular risk profile. However, it can be dangerous in people with cardiac disease that might be asymptomatic. Individuals of all ages and all levels engage in sporting activities. The medical approach is different whether one evaluates a young competitive athlete, a sedentary adult who wants to start a recreational sport or a patient with heart disease who wishes to engage in sport. This article summarizes the various recommendations on the subject.
Full Text Available The combination of sport and physics oﬀers several attractive ingredients for teaching physics, at primary, secondary, as well as university level. These cover topics like interdisciplinary teaching, sports activities as physics experiments, video analysis or modeling. A variety of examples are presented that should act as stimulus, accompanied by a list of references that should support the implementation of sport topics into physics teaching.
Full Text Available One of the characteristics of contemporary sport is certainly a wide array of sports and sport discliplines young people can choose among. This is particularly obvious through establishment of numerous schools of sport as places where people can acquire fundamental sport knoweldge and skills. The point of selection for such an engagement is the school, or, in other words, primary school children. The development of young athletes starts at a very early stage. They are faced with high demands and exposed to training sessions of different scope and intensity. In order to direct complex processes in sport efficiently and well, various factors need to be considered that affect it to a lesser or higher degree. One of those factors is indisputably the family, i.e. the influence parents have on meeting the children’s need for physical (sport activity. In the process of children’s socialization that factor is given the greatest prominence. Therefore, parents are a crucial factor in young people’s sport engagement and, thus, cannot be taken as a constituent part of a sports organization’s surroundings, but as a partner in their development.
Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.
Kobierecki Michał Marcin
Full Text Available Norway is perceived as a country with a clear international identity. The aim of the article is to investigate the sports diplomacy of Norway and to examine its influence on the international brand of this country. The author will define the term “sports diplomacy” and attempt to outline the strategy of Norway’s public diplomacy; an analysis of the methods used in Norwegian sports diplomacy will follow. The main hypothesis of this paper is that sports diplomacy only plays a subsidiary role in Norwegian nation branding.
Gems, Gerald R.; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula
The authors describe, analyze and evaluate sport related globalization processes with a focus on transnationalism, colonialism, imperialism, and, more generally, geopolitical developments. They provide a variety of theoretical frameworks as they explore the emergence of modern sport and its...... dissemination around the world. In spite of resistance by the adherents of gymnastics or traditional movement cultures, sport with its focus on competition and records became popular all over the world. Both Great Britain and the United States induced their political and cultural hegemony via the soft power...... of modern sport which caused reactions, e.g. resistances or adaptations of indigenous, colonized, and other affected populations....
Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo
Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding
SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines
Hanrahan, Stephanie J; Cerin, Ester
Findings regarding gender differences in achievement goal orientations and attributional style have been somewhat inconsistent. One possible explanation for varied findings is that potentially confounding variables such as level of participation and type of sport have not been considered. Athletes (108 males and 164 females) from team and individual sports, competing at recreational and competitive levels, completed the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire, the Sport Attributional Style Scale, and a demographic questionnaire. Athletes competing in individual sports had a higher ego orientation than those from team sports, and females scored higher in task orientation than males. Individual sport athletes made more internal, stable, and global, and less externally controllable attributions for positive events, and more internal attributions for negative events than team sport athletes. Competitive female athletes made less global attributions for positive events than did recreational female athletes. This difference was not observed in male athletes. Competitive individual, but not team, athletes made less global attributions than recreational individual athletes. The significant interactions regarding globality suggest that the tradition in sport psychology attribution research to focus solely on internality, stability, and controllability may be inadequate. From an applied perspective, sport psychologists and coaches may find it beneficial to target individual sport athletes and males for interventions designed to enhance task orientation. Similarly, team sport athletes may be appropriate as a focus for attribution retraining programs.
Kusunoki, Takashi; Takeuchi, Jiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Sakuma, Mio; Mukaida, Kumiko; Yasumi, Takahiro; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio
To evaluate the association between sports activities and allergic symptoms, especially rhinitis, among schoolchildren. This longitudinal survey of schoolchildren collected data from questionnaires regarding allergic symptoms based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) program and sports participation that were distributed to the parents of children at all 12 public primary schools in Ohmi-Hachiman City, Shiga Prefecture, Japan. Data were collected annually from 2011 until 2014, when the children reached 10 years of age. Blood samples were obtained in 2014, and the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E specific to four inhalant allergens were measured. Data from 558 children were analyzed. At 10 years of age, prevalence of asthma and eczema did not differ significantly, while rhinitis was significantly higher (p = 0.009) among children who participated in sports. Prevalence of rhinitis increased as the frequency or duration of sports participation increased (p sports (p = 0.03). Among those who participated in continuous sports activities, the prevalence of rhinitis was significantly higher with prolonged eczema (p = 0.006). Sports activities did not increase sensitization to inhalant allergens. Sports activities enhance the prevalence of rhinitis in schoolchildren. Prolonged eczema, together with sports participation, further promotes the symptoms. The mechanisms of these novel findings warrant further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Athletes are usually skilled in physical aspects of sports; they are widely involved in physical conditioning, technical and tactical training. However they usually ignore the psychological and cognitive skills linked to their performance. Sport imagery is a well known fundamental skill that has a critical role in how a player performs and shows his/her competency during a real world game. On the other hand football as a complex team sport includes several skills linked to physical and psychological properties. We aimed to study the effect of cognitive imagery on elite football players through league competitions in two separate studies.Methods: Twenty two youth players and Twenty two adult players randomly assigned to imagery and control groups. Players in intervention group received 12 weeks training program for specific cognitive imagery and general cognitive imagery. Imagery training program focused on an important component of football performance as “successful passing”. Players in control group were assigned to a waiting list with no intervention. In order to evaluate outcome variable we assessed successful passing in real compete-tions as player performance in both pre and post test occasions.Results: Findings of study in youth participants showed that young players in interven-tion group improved the performance of passing compared to control players (OR=1.41, P0.05, CI 95%: 0.82, 1.4(.Conclusion: These results showed that cognitive imagery intervention can affect elite soccer players’ performance. This effect is more prominent in youth age football players.
Full Text Available ... Guide to Eating for Sports What's in this article? Eat Extra for ... more to eating for sports than chowing down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ...
... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or ... for the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse ...
Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L
The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before ad...
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana in the importance of sport in their lives and the frequency of sport participation. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N = 1390; a questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013. In this study, two variables were analysed: the importance of sport in students’ lives and the frequency of sport participation; the data were analysed with SPSS for Windows. The basic statistical parameters for both variables were calculated. To calculate the gender differences, a t-test for independent samples and the Mann-Whitney U test were run. For the variable ‘importance of sport in students’ lives’, 61.95% of male and 53.20% of female respondents reported that sport is important and very important in their lives. The gender differences were small but statistically significant (p=0.013. For the variable ‘frequency of participation in sport activity’, 79.61% of male and 77.10% of female respondents reported that they were sport active every day, 4 to 6 times a week or 2 to 3 times a week. The gender differences in this variable were also statistically significant (p=0.000. Our findings and conclusions provide useful guidance to the closer and wider professional public who organize sport programmes for students.
Browne, B A; Francis, S K
Sports are believed to contribute to physical well-being, social adjustment, and self-esteem. In this study, perceptions of social competence and family dynamics were examined among adolescent participants in school-sponsored and independent sports (baseball and skateboarding). Subjects, aged 12 to 19 years, completed a questionnaire consisting of FACES III, a social competence scale, and miscellaneous items concerning school performance, sports commitment, and perceptions of adult attitudes. Perceptions of social competence were differentially related to degree of sports involvement and perceived skill but were not related to the social acceptability of the sport. Adolescents in both groups depicted their families as demonstrating low levels of cohesion but high adaptability.
Cieśla, E; Dutkiewicz, R; Mgłosiek, M; Nowak-Starz, G; Markowska, M; Jasiński, P; Dudek, J
Although physical activity brings a range of lifelong health benefits, it may also lead to injuries that pose a significant threat to health. It is particularly noticeable in people involved in professional sports where sport-related injuries commonly occur and are associated with intense exercise which aims to improve physical fitness. The article attempts to determine incidence of sports injuries reported by Plus League volleyball players, as well as to identify their most common types and causes. The research project involved 90 Plus League volleyball players aged 18-37 with the average age of 25.11 (SD±5.378). A method of diagnostic survey was applied to collect empirical data by means of questionnaire developed by the authors (researchers). The results were statistically analysed and verified with the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test at the significance level (or critical P-value) of P≤0.05. Over 87% of the respondents suffered from at least one sport-related injury. In total, 362 injuries occurred, on average 4.02 injuries per one volleyball player. The most common sports injuries involved ankle or talocrural joint (46 injuries), knee and lower leg muscles (30), interphalangeal articulations of fingers (30) as well as shoulder joint. More than half of the injuries (57%) occurred twice or three times. Volleyball players commonly sustain injuries through contact with an opposing player in competition. Sport-specific injuries may also occur due to exhaustion, lack of rest and undertreated injuries. The most common volleyball-related injuries are primarily talocrural joint, hand and shoulder injuries. Common types of injuries that can affect volleyball players include muscles, joints and ligaments injuries, sprains and strains as well as bruises. Most of these injuries are caused by exhaustion, contact with an opposing player during competition and fatigue. The incidence of sport-related injuries seems to be influenced by such factors as somatic
IJsselsteijn, W.A.; de Kort, Y.A.W.; Poels, K.
This document contains the English version of the Game Experience Questionnaire. The development and testing of the Game Experience Questionnaire is described in project Deliverable 3.3. The Game Experience Questionnaire has a modular structure and consists of : 1. The core questionnaire 2. The
Full Text Available The purpose of present study was exploring of relationship between goal-orientations and sport commitment among athletes and comparison of goal-orientations and sport commitment and their constructs based on gender and type of sports. Participants were 108 Iranian athlete (40 female and 68 male, who responded to Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (T.E.O.S.Q and Sport Commitment Model (SCM questionnaire. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, Independent-Samples t-test, and One-way ANOVA at P=0.05. The findings indicated that there were positively and significantly association between constructs, including sport enjoyment, personal investment, social constraints, involvement opportunities, and social support, whereas, involvement alternatives and task-orientation had negatively and significantly association with sport commitment. Also, team and open-skilled sport athletes had sport commitment and ego-orientation more than individual and closed-skilled sport athletes. As well as, female's athletes had sport enjoyment and social support more than male's athletes. It is possible that task-oriented players are elite and expert athletes, because extend and develop their fundamental skills in one's sport by their task-orientate characteristic, and probably these players with these characteristics tendency to turnover until experience more situations. Thus, these players had a less sport commitment than amateur athletes. Also, gender and type of sport differences can be results of individual differences and nature of sports skills. Implications for goal-orientations and sport commitment and their impacts on athletes as well as future research directions are further discussed.
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.
Tsai, Liang-Ting; Lo, Feng-En; Yang, Chih-Chien; Keller, Joseph Jordan; Lyu, Shu-Yu
This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies. PMID:25599374
Full Text Available This study examines the gender differences in the enjoyment of recreational sports participation among Taiwanese adults. Data were obtained using the 2007 Taiwan Social Change Survey. The questionnaire included a topical module of the International Social Survey Program regarding leisure time and sports. Results showed that male subjects were more likely to participate in recreational sports to improve their appearance and on account of their personal interest. In addition to these factors, female subjects also experienced greater motivation to participate when Taiwanese athletes performed well in international sporting competitions. This study confirmed that the factors influencing enjoyment of recreational sports participation differ among men and women. These results can be used to better inform public health professionals and other regulatory organizations formulating physical activity intervention strategies.
Full Text Available In this paper we will demonstrate, relying on theology, that Christianity, i.e. ascetic experience of the Church and sport are two sides of the same coin which is reflected in community or, rather, communion (When Christianity is concerned, or team work towards the goal when it comes to sport.
Since the end of the Second World War, the popularity of modern elite sport has grown immensely and so has the economical interests in sport. Athletes have become attractive advertising partners. Much money is at stake so it is understandable that companies are alarmed when their poster boys or g...
van Dalfsen, Gerco; van Hoecke, Jo; Westerbeek, Hans
This research is part of a comprehensive PhD research project that focuses on the existence and development of leadership in sport management practices. The underpinning factors that are associated with successfully leading top teams in sport are often used as an example in regard to being
Infrastructure of the country in which the sports event will be held ... You have to consider the type of sport and type of injury you will most likely be .... temperature (4 - 25°C). ... Fluorescein eye strips and eye anaesthetic ... drops/min set.
Sports Dehydration Safety Tips Everything you need to know to keep your kids safe from dehydration when playing sports. To keep kids in top ... to stay hydrated by drinking plenty of fluids. Dehydration occurs when a body loses more water than ...
Full Text Available The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for selected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components - endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy - are presented as well as a description of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable position where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated - basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selection of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding. Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.
Wirkus, Tom; Bohlken, Bob
In the book, "Talking from 9 to 5," Deborah Tannen suggests that females have difficulty listening to males in the workplace because of the masculine inclination to talk sports the majority of the time. Men use sports idioms, metaphors, and cliches, making business a "peculiar language" which excludes "naive"…
Sousa Nanji, Liliana; Melo, Teresa P; Canhão, Patrícia; Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José Manuel
Some cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) have been associated with vigorous physical activity, including sports. Our research aimed to describe the association between SAH and sports and to identify the types of sports that were more frequently found as precipitating factors in a tertiary single-centre SAH register. We retrieved information from a prospectively collected SAH registry and reviewed discharge notes of acute SAH patients admitted to the Stroke Unit of Hospital de Santa Maria, Lisbon, between 1995 and 2014. Out of 738 patients included in the analysis, 424 (57.5%) cases of SAH were preceded by physical activity. Nine cases (1.2%) were associated with sports, namely running (2 cases), aerobics (2 cases), cycling, body balance, dance, surf and windsurf. Patients with SAH while practicing sports were younger than controls (average age 43.1 vs. 57.0 years; p = 0.007). In 1 patient, there was a report of trauma to the neck. Patients in the sports group only had Hunt and Hess scale grades 1 (11.1%) or 2 (88.9%) at admission, while patients in the control group had a wider distribution in severity. Our findings indicate that SAH precipitated by sports is not very frequent and is uncommonly related to trauma. Patients who suffered SAH associated with sports were younger and apparently had a milder clinical presentation.
Toma, J. Douglas
Doug Lederman's article, "Sports Subsidies Soar," discusses the issue on institutional subsidies for sports program. His article invites an obvious question: why are so many universities willing to subsidize athletics through either a direct transfer of institutional funds, assessing a dedicated student fee, or a combination of these? This…
Moriarty, Dick; Moriarty, Mary
Since sports can sometimes lend themselves to eating disorders, coaches and sports administrators must get involved in the detection and treatment of this problem. While no reliable studies or statistics exist on the incidence of anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia among athletes, some research suggests that such disorders occur frequently among…
Ian M. Franks; Mike Hughes
This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
Ian M. Franks
Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition
Full Text Available Sport organizations exist to perform tasks that can only be executed through cooperative effort, and sport management is responsible for the performance and success of these organizations. The main of the paper is to analyze several issues of management sports organizations in order to asses their quality management. In this respect a questionnaire has been desingned for performing a survey analysis through a statistical approach. Investigation was conducted over a period of 3 months, and have been questioned a number of managers and coaches of football, all while pursuing an activity in football clubs in the counties of Timis and Arad, the level of training for children and juniors. The results suggest that there is a significant interest for the improvement of management across teams of children and under 21 clubs, emphasis on players' participation and rewarding performance. Furthermore, we can state that in the sports clubs there is established a vision and a mission as well as the objectives of the club's general refers to both sporting performance, and financial performance.
Full Text Available There are many reasons for students of Sport Science to use English. Yet, knowing the importance of learning English is sometimes not enough to encourage them to learn English well. Based on the experience in teaching them, erroneous belief seems to be held by many of them. It arouses curiosity about the beliefs which might be revealed to help the students to be successful in language learning. By investigating sport science students‘ beliefs about language learning, it is expected that types of the beliefs which they hold can be revealed. Understanding students‘ beliefs about language learning is essential because these beliefs can have possible consequences for second language learning and instruction. This study is expected to provide empirical evidence. The subjects of this study were 1st semester students majoring in Sport Science of Sport Science Faculty. There were 4 classes with 38 students in each class. There were approximately 152 students as the population of the study. The sample was taken by using random sampling. All members of the population received the questionnaire. The questionnaire which was later handed back to the researcher is considered as the sample. The instrument in this study is the newest version of Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI, version 2.0, developed by Horwitz to asses the beliefs about learning a foreign language.
Dennis J. Caine
Full Text Available The objective of the book is to review comprehensively what is known about the distribution and determinants of injury rates in a variety of individual sports, and to suggest injury prevention measures and guidelines for further research. This book provides comprehensive compilation and critical analysis of epidemiological data over children's individual sports: including equestrian, gymnastics, martial arts, skiing and snowboarding, tennis, track and field, and wrestling. This book encourages coaches and sports administrators to discuss rules, equipment standards, techniques, and athlete conditioning programs. In turn, they can inform parents about the risks and how they can help their children avoid or limit injury in sports. A common, uniform strategy and evidence-based approach to organizing and interpreting the literature is used in all chapters. All the sports-specific chapters are laid out with the same basic headings, so that it is easy for the reader to find common information across chapters. Chapter headings are: 1 Epidemiology of children's individual sports injuries, 2 Equestrian injuries, 2 Gymnastics injuries, 3 Martial arts injuries, 4 Skiing and snowboard injuries, 5 Tennis injuries, 6 Track and field injuries, 7 Wrestling injuries, 8 Injury prevention and future research. Chapter headings include: i Incidence of injury, ii Injury characteristics, iii Injury severity, iv njury risk factors, v Suggestions for injury prevention, vi Suggestions for further research. In each sports-specific chapter, an epidemiological picture has been systematically developed from the data available in prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. The tables are numerous, helpful and very useful. The book provides a very useful resource for sport scientist, pediatricians, family practitioners and healthcare professionals in the field of child and adolescent injury and prevention The readers are going to
Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr
Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...
Brooks, M. Alison; Post, Eric G.; Trigsted, Stephanie M.; Schaefer, Daniel A.; Wichman, Daniel M.; Watson, Andrew M.; McGuine, Timothy A.; Bell, David R.
Background: There are a variety of proposed motivations for sport specialization, such as improving sport skills to an elite level, making all-star or travel teams, or receiving a scholarship or professional contract. However, there has not been a quantitative examination of the attitudes and beliefs that may be contributing to the trend of sport specialization and year-round sport participation. Purpose: The primary aim was to describe the attitudes and beliefs of youth club sport athletes regarding sport specialization and sport participation. A secondary objective was to investigate whether an association exists between the level of sport specialization and the belief in receiving a college scholarship. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 974 youth athletes (578 female; mean age, 14.2 ± 1.6 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire that focused on attitudes and beliefs toward sport specialization and sport participation. Questions were developed utilizing the feedback of a panel of content area experts and the University of Wisconsin Survey Center. Data were summarized using frequencies, proportions (%), and means ± SDs. Results: Fewer than half of all athletes (45.8%) believed that specialization increased their chances of getting injured either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” However, 91% of athletes believed that specialization increased their chances of getting better at their sport either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” Similarly, the majority of athletes believed that specialization increased their chances of making their high school team (80.9%) or a college team (66.9%) either “quite a bit” or “a great deal.” Overall, 15.7% of athletes believed that they were either “very” or “extremely” likely to receive a college scholarship based on athletic performance. Highly specialized athletes were nearly twice as likely to have a high belief in receiving a college scholarship
Grassi, Alberto; Vascellari, Alberto; Combi, Alberto; Tomaello, Luca; Canata, Gian Luigi; Zaffagnini, Stefano
A worldwide consensus for timing and criteria for return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is lacking. The aim of the study was to survey among the Italian Society of Knee, Arthroscopy, Sport, Cartilage and Orthopaedic Technologies (SIGASCOT) members in order to evaluate their approaches to the return to sport after ACL reconstruction regarding timing and criteria. A web survey among the SIGASCOT members was performed, including 14 questions regarding technical and graft preferences, timing for return to training and competitive activity for contact and non-contact sports and criteria to allow return to sport. Totally, 123 members completed the questionnaire. Return to training sports was allowed within 6 month by 87 % for non-contact sports and by 53 % for contact sports. Return to competitive activity was allowed within 6 months by 48 % for non-contact sports and by 13 % for contact sports. Full ROM (77 %), Lachman test (65 %) and Pivot-Shift test (65 %) were the most used criteria to allow return to sport. The 90 % used at least one clinical score. The SIGASCOT members showed various approaches in the return to sport after ACL reconstruction, with differences between return to training or competitive activity, and between contact and non-contact sports. Six months was generally considered adequate by most of the members for the most demanding activities. The most used criteria to allow return to sport were manual testing. A clear definition of sport activities and more objective criteria for the return to sport are needed. Level V, expert opinion.
Gioia, M C; Cerasa, A; Di Lucente, L; Brunelli, S; Castellano, V; Traballesi, M
To investigate whether sports activity is associated with better psychological profiles in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to evaluate the effect of demographic factors on psychological benefits. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Form X2 (STAI-X2), the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire for extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and the questionnaire for depression (QD) were administered in a cross-sectional study of 137 males with spinal cord injury including 52 tetraplegics and 85 paraplegics. The subjects were divided into two groups according to sports activity participation (high frequency vs no sports participation). Moreover, multiple regression analysis was adopted to investigate the influence of demographic variables, such as age, educational level, occupational status and marital status, on psychological variables. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the groups for anxiety (STAI-X2), extraversion (EPQ-R (E)) and depression (QD). In particular, SCI patients who did not practice sports showed higher anxiety and depression scores and lower extraversion scores than sports participants. In addition, with respect to the paraplegics, the tetraplegic group showed the lowest depression scores. Following multiple regression analysis, only the sports activity factor remained as an independent factor of anxiety scores. These findings demonstrate that sports activity is associated with better psychological status in SCI patients, irrespective of tetraplegia and paraplegia, and that psychological benefits are not emphasized by demographic factors.
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Imagery Collection Footprints map shows the imagery footprints which have been collected under the USDA satellite blanket purchase agreement. Click on a...
Balci, Velittin; Erdeveciler, Övünç
The indirect aim of this study is to ensure that sports and participation in sports are seen as new tools for values education. From this indirect goal, it was aimed to analyse the views of some Amateur Sports Club managers and supporters who were supposed to directly contribute to sports and the athletes about values education. The study was…
The paper took a look at some factors such as administration and funding that bedevil Nigeria‟s Sports development efforts and saw grass root sports as a veritable vehicle for the realization of our sports development objective. Grass root sport was seen as the exposure of young and old, male and female all over the ...
Facilities are very central to meaningful sports participation whether in School sports, amateur, recreational or competitive status. They are as important to the athletes as the laboratories are to the scientists. Without facilities sports cannot take place. This does not however imply that sports facility is the only variable that is ...
This article explores the initial steps in developing and presenting Sport Psychology in a leadership and sport curriculum at Stellenbosch University's (SU) Centre for Human Performance Sciences' (CHPS) Academy for Girls' Leadership and Sport Development. Sport Psychology does not feature within the South African school curriculum specifically,…
Pène, Pierre; Touitou, Yvan
The report of the National Academy of Medicine named "Sport and Health" underlines the medical, social and educational dimensions of sporting activities. Various kinds of sporting practices are described: they concern the approximately 7,000 high level athletes, around 8,000 professional (licensed) sportsmen, and sporting club members (approximately 15 millions people). A large number of amateurs do not practice in any structure and therefore are neither managed in their activities nor medically followed. Some characteristics of sporting practice at various stages of life have been documented. Around 50% of the teenagers from 12 to 17 years have a sporting practice out-of-school besides the weekly three hours applied at school or college; however, the withdrawal of sporting practice by a high number of teenagers results in a sedentary lifestyle with overweight and obesity, major risks factors for health. Elderly people take a profit from a regular and medically controlled physical activity. Functional capacities are thus improved, cardiovascular risks factors among other, which results in better quality of life of the aged and delays their dependence. The benefit upon public health of sporting practice has been pointed out in the primary prevention of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, osteoporosis, obesity, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and mood disturbances. It is currently well acknowledged that sporting practice is an important component of public health in both primary and secondary prevention of many diseases. Deleterious effects of which the most serious is the sudden death related to a cardiovascular anomaly, which generally occurs during an important physical effort. An important sport drift is the practice of doping to improve performances through the use of hormones, anabolics, EPO, transfusions, ... When a person exceeds his/her capacities of adaptation, because of a badly adapted or a too intense drive, this overtraining results in a
Garnham-Lee, Katy; Trigwell, Joanne; McGee, Ciara E.; Knowles, Zoe; Foweather, Lawrence
This study evaluated the impact and acceptability of a three-hour bespoke training workshop for sports coaches and teachers to subsequently deliver a sport-for-health smoking prevention intervention in primary schools. Questionnaires were completed pre- and post-training by both teachers (N = 24) and coaches (N = 8), and post-intervention by…
Martin, Matthew R.; Zimmerman, Ryan; Ciotto, Carol
Considering the challenges associated with adolescent obesity and the need for innovative and meaningful physical education curricula, the authors of this article decided to create a new sport education role to help students learn about the fundamental nutritional concepts and practices that contribute to a healthy and active lifestyle. The new…
Hambrick, Marion E; Hums, Mary A; Bower, Glenna G; Wolff, Eli A
Elite athletes require the most advanced sports equipment to maintain their competitive edge, but manufacturers cannot always satisfy these athletes' specific equipment needs. Sport involvement can influence sports-equipment selections and is described as the process by which individuals rely on attitudes and belief systems to make sports-related consumption decisions. This study involved semistructured interviews with 5 elite Parasport athletes to identify and analyze the role of sport involvement in their selection of sports equipment. The results revealed that the athletes identified product limitations, created a collaborative environment, and promoted a culture of innovation to develop new sports products and address existing limitations. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Benítez-Porres, Javier; López-Fernández, Iván; Raya, Juan Francisco; Álvarez Carnero, Sabrina; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Álvarez Carnero, Elvis
Background: Physical activity (PA) assessment by questionnaire is a cornerstone in the field of sport epidemiology studies. The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children (PAQ-C) has been used widely to assess PA in healthy school populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PAQ-C questionnaire in…
Full Text Available The actuality of the investigated theme. Nowadays, human evolution, including his intellectual development, proves the fact that especially the creation manpower and the employment was the solution of all life’s ambitions in society. So, the fact is that in reality, man is the most important capital of the society. Also, in an individual’s life, the practice of sport plays a significant role and that’s why the initiation, the launch and the management of sports complexes activity reveal the existence of specific management features that we will identify and explain in the current study. The aim of the research refers to the elaboration of a theoretical base of the management of the sport complexes, to the pointing of the factors that influence the efficient existence and function of a sport complex in our country and to the determination of the responsibilities that have a manager who directs successfully the activity of the sport complexes. The investigation is based on theoretical methods, such as: scientific documentation, analysis, synthesis, comparison and on empirical research methods, like: study of researched literature and observation. The results of the research indicate the fact that the profitability of a sport complex must assure a particular structure to avoid the bankruptcy risk and also, that the administration of the sport complexes activity must keep in view the reliable functions of the contemporaneous management.
This paper provides an overview of the ethical issues pertaining to the use of genetic insights and techniques in sport. Initially, it considers a range of scientific findings that have stimulated debate about the ethical issues associated with genetics applied to sport. It also outlines some of the early policy responses to these discoveries from world leading sports organizations, along with knowledge about actual use of gene technologies in sport. Subsequently, it considers the challenges with distinguishing between therapeutic use and human enhancement within genetic science, which is a particularly important issue for the world of sport. Next, particular attention is given to the use of genetic information, which raises questions about the legitimacy and reliability of genetic tests, along with the potential public value of having DNA databanks to economize in health care. Finally, the ethics of gene transfer are considered, inviting questions into the values of sport and humanity. It argues that, while gene modification may seem conceptually similar to other forms of doping, the requirements upon athletes are such that new forms of enhancement become increasingly necessary to discover. Insofar as genetic science is able to create safer, more effective techniques of human modification, then it may be an appealing route through which to modify athletes to safeguard the future of elite sports as enterprises of human excellence.
Israel, C W
Sport activity is an important issue in many patients with a pacemaker either because they performed sport activities before pacemaker implantation to reduce the cardiovascular risk or to improve the course of an underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. coronary artery disease, heart failure) by sports. Compared to patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) the risks from underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. ischemia, heart failure), arrhythmia, lead dysfunction or inappropriate therapy are less important or absent. Sport is contraindicated in dyspnea at rest, acute heart failure, new complex arrhythmia, acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction, valvular disease with indications for intervention and surgery and comorbidities which prevent physical activity. Patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (including hypertension) should preferably perform types and levels of physical activity that are aerobic (with dynamic exercise) such as running, swimming, cycling instead of sport with high anaerobic demands and high muscular workload. In heart failure, studies demonstrated advantages of isometric sport that increases the amount of muscle, thereby preventing cardiac cachexia. Sport with a risk of blows to the chest or physical contact (e.g. boxing, rugby, martial arts) should be avoided. Implantation, programming and follow-up should respect specific precautions to allow optimal physical activity with a pacemaker including implantation of bipolar leads on the side contralateral to the dominant hand, individual programming of the upper sensor and tracking rate and regular exercise testing.
Porschke, Felix; Schnetzke, Marc; Aytac, Sara; Studier-Fischer, Stefan; Gruetzner, Paul Alfred; Guehring, Thorsten
Sports activity after surgical AC joint stabilisation has not been comprehensively evaluated to date. The aim of this study was to determine rate, level and time to return to sports after AC joint stabilisation and to identify the influence of overhead sports on post-operative sports activity. In this retrospective case series, a total of 68 patients with a high-grade AC joint dislocation (Rockwood type V) were stabilised using a single TightRope technique. Fifty-five patients (80.9 %) with median age of 42.0 (range, 18-65) years completed questionnaires regarding sports activity before and after surgery. Clinical outcome and complications were also evaluated. Forty-three patients participated in sports regularly before injury. Their sports activity was rated according to Allain, and non-overhead and overhead sports were differentiated. At median follow-up of 24 (18-45) months, 41 of 43 patients (95.3 %) had returned to sports. 63 % returned to the same sports activity as before injury. 16.3 % needed to adapt the type of sports to reduce demanding activities. 11.6 % reduced the frequency and 32.5 % the intensity of sports. The median time to return to sports was 9.5 (3-18) months. Overhead athletes (Allain Type III and IV) had to reduce their sports activity significantly more often (11.8 vs. 53.8 %; p = 0.011) and needed more time to return to sports (9.5 vs. 4.5 months; p = 0.009). After stabilisation of AC joint dislocation, the majority of patients returned to sports after a substantial period of time. Overhead athletes, in particular, required more time and had to considerably reduce their sports activity. The findings impact therapeutic decision-making after AC joint injury and help with the prognosis and assessment of rehabilitation progress. IV.
The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.
Title: Motivation for risk sports Objectives: The aim of our thesis is to find out primary and secondary motives of athletes for the operation of high-risk sports and coming back to it. We also want to find out what is the starter for doing risk sports. Other questions are why athletes keep doing it and how perceive the potential risk. Methods: In our study, we chose qualitative investigation method and semistructured interview with eight respondents. For the interview, we drew up a list of q...
Sports- and exercise-related headaches are not unusual. Despite their frequent occurrence in this context, there are little epidemiologic data concerning sports-related headache. The recent attention of concussive injuries and associated post-traumatic headache has renewed interest in the study of those headaches occurring after head trauma; however, any primary headache type can also occur in the setting of contact and/or collision sports. The nonspecific nature of headaches provides unique challenges to clinicians encountering this complaint. It is, therefore, imperative that physicians treating athletes are able to distinguish the various headache types and presentations often seen in this population.
Litwin, Demetrius E M; Sneider, Erica B; McEnaney, Patrick M; Busconi, Brian D
Athletic pubalgia or sports hernia is a syndrome of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain that may occur in athletes and nonathletes. Because the differential diagnosis of chronic lower abdomen and groin pain is so broad, only a small number of patients with chronic lower abdomen and groin pain fulfill the diagnostic criteria of athletic pubalgia (sports hernia). The literature published to date regarding the cause, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of sports hernias is confusing. This article summarizes the current information and our present approach to this chronic lower abdomen and groin pain syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lochmüller, E M; Friese, K
Today, mothers-to-be with an uncomplicated pregnancy are advised to practice sports on a regular basis. If they follow this advice, they put on less weight and recover more quickly from the stresses and strains of parturition, thanks to their higher level of general fitness. In addition, practicing sports helps to prevent postural damage, back pain, varices and thrombosis. The most suitable forms of sport are those of the aerobic type, such as jogging, swimming, cycling or aerobic calisthenics. However, exercises in the fitness studio and moderate strength training are also admissible provided that consideration is given to contraindications and warning signals.
Full Text Available A sporting spectacle is an important cultural event, essentially influencing social and individual lives. In spite of this, there does not yet exist a monograph that analyzes, describes, and explains sporting performance from the point of view of aleatorism as part of the theory of sport and physical culture. Unfortunately, no monograph has developed this issue in a multi-aspectual, holistic, culturological, and philosophical way, dealing with its axiological values (aesthetic and praxeological. This applies to the relations between this phenomenon and the mechanisms that bring about the development and growth of interest in the social dimension.
Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book introduces the undergraduate psychology student to both academic and professional aspects of Sport and Exercise Psychology. It uses up to date research evidence, established theory and a variety of activities that help the student consider and understand academic and professional aspects of this particular academic discipline. PURPOSE The book aims to provide the undergraduate psychology student with a structured introduction to the subject area and an insight into the theoretical evidence and practical suggestions that underpin what a Sport and Exercise psychologist does. The book also aims to support one term or one semester courses in Sport and Exercise Psychology. It is also appropriate for Masters level courses. FEATURES The book begins with a chapter on applied sports psychology to give the reader an insight into the domain of sport psychology, providing an overview of the techniques that could be used. The next three chapters focus on mood, anxiety and self confidence, which influence performance. This leads on to four chapters that focus on managing psychological states. There is also a chapter on leadership which interestingly includes leadership development in coaches and in athletes. Two chapters focus on the effects of exercise on psychological states, providing a balance between the benefits and potential drawbacks. The final chapter examines the issue of placebo effects. Throughout each chapter there are useful activities than can help the reader's understanding of practical and theoretical issues. These also have practical implications for the work of a Sport and Exercise Psychologist. Key ethical issues are raised on a regular basis throughout the text. The book offers an excellent blend of theory and practical suggestions which are critically discussed thus giving valuable insights regarding the research process and applied practice which is often lacking in the more well known standard textbooks for Sport
Glazer, Daniel A; Mason, Oliver; King, John A; Brewin, Chris R
This study tested the hypothesis that the presence and characteristics of naturally occurring involuntary imagery would be related to poorer context-dependent spatial memory and higher levels of proneness to psychotic experiences. Poorer contextual memory was also predicted to be associated with a greater sense of "nowness". Participants completed a virtual environment task that assessed contextual memory through responses that required allocentric and egocentric processing of virtual stimuli. Two questionnaires assessing predisposition to psychotic experiences were employed. Finally, participants completed an interview that required details of recent, naturally occurring involuntary images. Reports of involuntary imagery were associated with greater proneness to psychotic experiences but not with memory. In those participants who reported imagery, however, poorer memory performance was associated with more vivid and detailed intrusive imagery. Poorer contextual memory was specifically associated with a greater sense of "nowness". Possible links between contextual memory and proneness to psychosis are discussed.
Full Text Available Harmonious development of sports deals with the development of sports centres, buildings and training grounds in the built environment. Their basic objective is to provide to needs of professional and top quality sports, sports recreation and sports education in space. The methodological basis for establishing a spatial sports scheme was the Steinitz-Rogers model of planning sports-recreation centres, buildings and training grounds. One of the results of the scheme is a cartographically and digitally supported data base that can be complemented.
Wilson, C. Chrisman
This is a general discussion of the validity, reliability, function, and format of questionnaires designed to measure problem behavior, noncompliance, anxiety, social interaction, hyperactivity, drug use, and sexual behavior. Commonly used questionnaires are cited. (CP)
Salvatore, S; Serati, M; Laterza, R; Uccella, S; Torella, M; Bolis, P-F
To evaluate the prevalence of urinary stress incontinence (USI) in menstruating women practising recreational sports activity, to detect specific sports with a stronger association with urinary incontinence (UI) and to evaluate risk factors possibly related to this condition. Epidemiological study. Non-competitive sports organisations in the province of Varese, Italy. 679 women of fertile age, practising recreational sports activity. Anonymous questionnaire on UI. The questionnaire included questions about patients' general characteristics, occurrence of UI in relation to sport or daily general activities, time of onset of this condition, frequency of leakage episodes, correlation of incontinence with types of movements or sports, subjective impression of being limited on such occasions and/or necessity to modify the type of sport. UI was reported by 101 women (14.9%). Of these, 32 (31.7%) complained of UI only during sports activity, 48 (47.5%) only during daily life and 21 (20.8%) in both circumstances. Body mass index and parity were significantly associated with the risk of UI. Looking at the different sports activities, a higher rate of incontinence was found in women participating in basketball (16.6%), athletics (15%), and tennis or squash (11%). 10.4% of women abandoned their favourite sport, because of USI, and a further 20% limited the way they practised their favourite sport to reduce leakage episodes. Female UI affects a significant proportion of young women practising non-competitive sports activity; it can cause abandonment of the sport or limitation of its practice.
Clark, Robert L.
Thirty-two students at the University of Oregon were tested to determine the effects of media on mental imagery and memory. The model incorporates a dual coding hypothesis, and five single and multiple channel treatments were used. (Author/JEG)
Eisenmann, Jonathan; Parent, Rick
In this paper we present experiments and results pertaining to the perception of depth in stereoscopic viewing of synthetic imagery. In computer animation, typical synthetic imagery is highly textured and uses stylized illumination of abstracted material models by abstracted light source models. While there have been numerous studies concerning stereoscopic capabilities, conventions for staging and cinematography in stereoscopic movies have not yet been well-established. Our long-term goal is to measure the effectiveness of various cinematography techniques on the human visual system in a theatrical viewing environment. We would like to identify the elements of stereoscopic cinema that are important in terms of enhancing the viewer's understanding of a scene as well as providing guidelines for the cinematographer relating to storytelling. In these experiments we isolated stereoscopic effects by eliminating as many other visual cues as is reasonable. In particular, we aim to empirically determine what types of movement in synthetic imagery affect the perceptual depth sensing capabilities of our viewers. Using synthetic imagery, we created several viewing scenarios in which the viewer is asked to locate a target object's depth in a simple environment. The scenarios were specifically designed to compare the effectiveness of stereo viewing, camera movement, and object motion in aiding depth perception. Data were collected showing the error between the choice of the user and the actual depth value, and patterns were identified that relate the test variables to the viewer's perceptual depth accuracy in our theatrical viewing environment.
Davison, Kevin G.
This article suggests utilizing dialectical imagery, as understood by German social philosopher Walter Benjamin, as an additional qualitative data analysis strategy for research into the postmodern condition. The use of images mined from research data may offer epistemological transformative possibilities that will assist in the demystification of…
Selected verses from Abdullah Yusuf Ali's English language translation of the meaning of the Quran have been used as a literary text to teach both descriptive and figurative imagery (including similes, metaphors and symbols) to students at the undergraduate level in an Islamic institution. The technique--Illustrating and Designing for teaching…
Kong, Peiling; Harris, Lynne M
Female athletes experience pressure to conform to social and sporting norms concerning body weight. This study compared general and sporting body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptomatology among 320 elite, recreational, and noncompetitive female athletes aged 17 to 30 years competing in leanness focused sports and nonleanness focused sports. Participants completed an online questionnaire including demographic questions, the Eating Attitudes Test, and the Figure Rating Scale. Athletes from leanness focused sports reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of participation level. Elite athletes reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction and greater disordered eating symptomatology regardless of sport type, and differences between recreational and noncompetitive athletes were not found. More than 60% of elite athletes from leanness focused and nonleanness focused sports reported pressure from coaches concerning body shape. The findings have important implications for identifying risk factors for eating disorders among female athletes, where athletes who compete at elite level and those who compete in leanness focused sports at any level may be at higher risk for developing eating disorders.
Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...
Gunathevan Elumalai; Mohd Salleh Aman; Cassendra Gilbert; Muhammad Mat Yusof; Ahmad Tajuddin Othman; Lim Khong Chiu; Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee; Hamdan Mohd Ali
Background: Ardent sports watching will lead an individual to engage in sports and recreational activities continuously, while it also creates a sports culture among Malaysians. Sports watching culture is actually an intellectual activity. It is capable of evaluating behaviour, moral values and the level of appreciation of every spectator. Methods: This survey was conducted to identify the sports viewing culture among Malaysians. A cluster sampling method was used to select 6000 respondent...
Nicos Kartakoullis; Evan Webb; George Karlis; Stavros Pouloukas; Christina Loizou
This study contributes to the limited existing research on the participation patterns of Cypriots in leisure and sports. Leisure and sport are viewed collectively while adapting the notion put forth by The Council of Europe (2007) defining leisure sports as sports activities aimed at the preservation and improvement of physical condition, health and fun. The purpose of this paper is to examine the leisure sport participation patterns of Cypriots, specifically: (1) participation patterns in le...
... the patient has HIV or hepatitis. Facial Fractures Sports injuries can cause potentially serious broken bones or fractures of the face. Common symptoms of facial fractures include: swelling and bruising, ...
This article explores the arguments surrounding the use of human enhancement technologies in sport, arguing for a reconceptualization of the doping debate. First, it develops an overview and critique of the legislative structures on enhancement. Subsequently, a conceptual framework for understanding the role of technological effects in sport is advanced. Finally, two case studies (hypoxic chambers and gene transfer) receive specific attention, through which it is argued that human enhancement technologies can enrich the practice of elite sports rather than diminish them. In conclusion, it is argued that elite sports are at a pivotal moment in their history as an increasing range of enhancements makes less relevant the protection of the natural human through anti-doping.
Full Text Available With regard to the organization of professional clubs, two models can be applied. According to the first model, clubs have the freedom to choose the organizational form (association or commercial company in which sports activities will be carried out. Second model imposes the requirement for the clubs to be organized in the form of commercial company, in one of the corporation forms, provided that it can be also specialized sports form. To the establishment and operation of sports associations, as sui generis commercial companies, apply more specific rules concerning: the conditions for the establishment of clubs; conditions for participation in professional and management bodies; prohibiting multiple ownership of sports clubs, i.e., prohibition of membership; allocation of net profit; control over the work of clubs; state aid (subsidies for the clubs.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available This paper presents a brief overview of a significant element of the sport marketing management model called the marketing mix. The marketing mix is crucial because it defines the sport business, and much of the sport marketer’s time is spent on various functions within the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the strategic combination of the product, price, place and promotion elements. These elements are typically called the four Ps of marketing. Decisions and strategies for each are important for the marketer. Information for making educated decisions involving the four Ps comes from the marketing research involving primarily the four Cs - consumer, competitor, company and climate. A critical decision and one of the greatest challenges for the sport business is how to strategically combine the four Ps to best satisfy the consumer, meet company objectives, enhance market position, and enhance competitive advantages.
strategies. Methods. This was a ... Soccer. Cricket. Swimming. Hockey. Athletics. Golf. Rugby. Netball. Tennis. Squash ... Q5: I currently use a legal substance or method, e.g. nutritional supplement to improve my sports performance. Strongly ...
... but kids can play sports like gymnastics or football without going to extremes to lose or gain ... that you'd need to go to the emergency department for treatment. Drinking before, during, and after ...
... well. For example, they should wear helmets for baseball , softball, bicycle riding , and hockey . They also should wear ... padding. For racquet sports, field hockey, lacrosse, basketball , softball, and baseball, ask about any protective eyewear, like ...
particularly to the mathematics decision viz., that of how to optimally combine making, otherwise known as operations evaluations of several experts on nonquan-. --------~-------- ... a short account of how the ratings of sports- persons are arrived ...
... supplements, steroids, changed eating, exercising, other muscle enhancing tactics, etc. was more than twice as high among boys who participated in sports vs. nonparticipants. 36 The occurrence of energy drink- ...
Ying, Wu Lan
With economic development, urban residents' in levels rises gradually and their daily consumption structure tends to be demands of development and enjoyment. Sport consumption, as a social and cultural consumption, with a high level of enjoyment and development of consumer properties, has been gradually recognized by the general population and an important reference for the measure of quality of residents' life. In this paper, questionnaire survey, literature, expert interviews and mathematical statistics methods are used to analyze the awareness, motivation, level of consumption, survey structure and constraints of sports consumption of urban residents of Henan Province. The results are: the proportion of sports participants of urban residents' of Henan Province is small, there is a large space for sports consumption development; sports consumer awareness is relatively backward, sports consumption values are gradually formed; the overall level of sports consumption is low and the consumption structure is single. Therefore, the advocacy of sports consumption should be strengthened, attention should be paid to physical infrastructure, strengthening the sports industry structure optimization, put emphasis on the introduction and training of sports talents, target to develop sports tourism and minority sports resources, and create a good environment of csports consumption.
Full Text Available In spite of the wide range of injuries in adolescents during sports activities, there are only a few studies investigating the type and frequency of sport injuries in puberty. However, this information may help to prevent, diagnose and treat sports injuries among teens. 4468 injuries in adolescent patients were treated over a ten year period of time: 66,97% were boys and 32.88% girls. The most frequent sports injuries were football (31.13% followed by handball (8.89% and sports during school (8.77%. The lower extremity was involved in 68.71% of the cases. Knee problems were seen in 29.79% of the patients; 2.57% spine and 1.99% head injuries. Injuries consisted primarily of distortions (35.34% and ligament tears (18.76%; 9,00% of all injuries were fractures. We found more skin wounds (6:1 and fractures (7:2 in male patients compared to females. The risk of ligament tears was highest during skiing. Three of four ski injuries led to knee problems. Spine injuries were observed most often during horse riding (1:6. Head injuries were seen in bicycle accidents (1:3. Head injuries were seen in male patients much more often then in female patients (21:1. Fractures were noted during football (1:9, skiing (1:9, inline (2:3, and during school sports (1:11. Many adolescents participate in various sports. Notwithstanding the methodological problems with epidemiological data, there is no doubt about the large number of athletes sustain musculoskeletal injuries, sometimes serious. In most instances, the accident does not happened during professional sports and training. Therefore, school teachers and low league trainer play an important role preventing further accidence based on knowledge of individual risk patterns of different sports. It is imperative to provide preventive medical check-ups, to monitor the sport-specific needs for each individual sports, to observe the training skills as well as physical fitness needed and to evaluation coaches education.
Manore, Melinda M.; Patton-Lopez, Megan M.; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun
For adolescent athletes (14–18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players (n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos (p <...
The main purpose of this research was to analyse the gender differences among students at the University of Ljubljana concerning the popularity of sports and participation in different types and modes of sport activities. The research was done in the 2013 academic year on a random sample of 3% of the students (N=1390). A questionnaire about students’ lifestyles was used (Majerič, 2013). In this study, two variables were analysed: the popularity of different sport activities, and different typ...
Gnanendran, Abbyrhamy; Pyne, David B.; Fallon, Kieran E.; Fricker, Peter A.
We compared the amount of exercise undertaken by medical students, clinicians, and sport scientists with the National Australian Physical Activity (NAPA) Guidelines. A second aim was to compare attitudes to exercise counselling as preventive medicine between university- and clinic-based professionals. The research setting was a university medical school and a sports science sports medicine centre. A 20-item questionnaire was completed by 216 individuals (131 medical students, 43 clinicians an...
Hassan, Abdul-Rahman; Lam, Michael Huen Sum; Ku, Susanna; Li, William Ho Cheung; Lee, Ka Yiu; Ho, Eva; Flint, Stuart W.; Wong, Anthony Siu Wo
Dropout of sport is an issue in sport and public health domains. The aim of this study was to identify the potential dropout reasons of school athletes and to examine if their perception of dropout was affected by the previous dropout experience. There were 50 subjects who were divided into two groups based on their previous dropout experience (Dropout Group=22, No Dropout Group=28). They filled a questionnaire about potential dropout reasons of the current sport. Coach and teammates were two...
Full Text Available Sport and politic are two big appearance and human activities which have as difference so the same segments. New society, democratic society necessity cultivate realization of sport-politic.We could say they are dominates phenomens of modern society. Like this they are manifestationed on the different necessity ways and have different roles. They are sa different as same. Everybody who take part in one or other sphere know from society from sociolog aspect how are two society components connected and reservationed beetwen. Why I am telling it: because the future of sportsmen depend from the future of politics will. Its needed to show how politic manage or give s the hope for development and animate possibility that young people during their evolution can do sport. Politic also depend from sports instutitions on creation mood of young people that their cadres got general and society dope. These two concepts can be near define. Sport as activity and as a appeal represent specific sights orientation of young people in aim curing knight games and evervthing in aim of health formation and effort of results, but they are not only meanings, through the sport can progress and big number acquaintance, friendship and intimacy, through sport ali cultural heredity can be keeping and the lands vvhich belong. Sport sociological looking is important element society life people. Second concept-politic, according to the famous politicians we can definite as a action that direct with another activities and business. Politic is substance, process of manifestation, manner, and it mean that politic has its subject activities vvhich is consist on behavour other social groups.
Burke, Louise M
Athletes are among the groups of people who are interested in the effects of caffeine on endurance and exercise capacity. Although many studies have investigated the effect of caffeine ingestion on exercise, not all are suited to draw conclusions regarding caffeine and sports performance. Characteristics of studies that can better explore the issues of athletes include the use of well-trained subjects, conditions that reflect actual practices in sport, and exercise protocols that simulate real-life events. There is a scarcity of field-based studies and investigations involving elite performers. Researchers are encouraged to use statistical analyses that consider the magnitude of changes, and to establish whether these are meaningful to the outcome of sport. The available literature that follows such guidelines suggests that performance benefits can be seen with moderate amounts (~3 mg.kg-1 body mass) of caffeine. Furthermore, these benefits are likely to occur across a range of sports, including endurance events, stop-and-go events (e.g., team and racquet sports), and sports involving sustained high-intensity activity lasting from 1-60 min (e.g., swimming, rowing, and middle and distance running races). The direct effects on single events involving strength and power, such as lifts, throws, and sprints, are unclear. Further studies are needed to better elucidate the range of protocols (timing and amount of doses) that produce benefits and the range of sports to which these may apply. Individual responses, the politics of sport, and the effects of caffeine on other goals, such as sleep, hydration, and refuelling, also need to be considered.
MONICA DELIA BÎCĂ
Full Text Available “Using applied science in sport management as creates opportunities for rationalization and systematization of sports activity, relying on the knowledge and application of the laws that control the dynamics and phenomena. Management is on the border between art and science. Arts management is manifested by "science" as opposed to use and harness the creative compromise that can produce increased efficiency and effectiveness.”
Wagner, Anne Margrethe
Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010......Præsentation af det digitale værktøj "Idrætsrum for alle" ved konferencen Sport-Architektur-Form i Dresden den 29-30. oktober 2010...
Szpilman, David; Orlowski, James P
Aquatic sports are included in the top list of risky practices as the environment per se carries a possibility of death by drowning if not rescued in time. Not only are aquatic sports related to a high risk of death, but also all sports practiced on the water, over the water and on ice. Whatever the reason a person is in the water, drowning carries a higher possibility of death if the individual is unable to cope with the water situation, which may simply be caused by an inability to stay afloat and get out of the water or by an injury or disease that may lead to physical inability or unconsciousness. The competitive nature of sports is a common pathway that leads the sports person to exceed their ability to cope with the environment or simply misjudge their physical capability. Drowning involves some principles and medical interventions that are rarely found in other medical situations as it occurs in a deceptively hostile environment that may not seem dangerous. Therefore, it is essential that health professionals are aware of the complete sequence of action in drowning. This article focuses on the pulmonary injury in sports and recreational activities where drowning plays the major role. Copyright ©ERS 2016.
McGrath, J C; Cowan, D A
This themed issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology has been compiled and edited by Ian McGrath, Regius Professor of Physiology at University of Glasgow and David Cowan, Director of the Drug Control Centre at King's College London. It contains 11 articles covering the mechanisms of action of the major groups of drugs used illicitly in sport. The articles, written by experts in how drugs work, set out where drugs can or cannot affect sporting performance, how this relates to their legitimate medicinal use, their other detrimental effects and how they can be detected. Publication coincides with Olympic year, when sport is highlighted in the public mind and much speculation is made concerning the use of drugs. The articles provide a framework of expert, accurate knowledge to inform and facilitate these debates and to help to overcome the ill-informed and dangerous anecdotal information by which sports men and women are persuaded to misuse drugs in the mistaken belief that this will improve their performance without present or future ill effects. A unique article is included by the Spedding brothers, Mike with a long career in drug discovery and Charlie, the 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Marathon Bronze Medallist and still the English National Marathon record holder. From their unique experience, they describe the insidious and unfair way that drug-assisted performance undermines the ethos of sport and endangers the vital place of sport in maintaining the health of the population.
Full Text Available Further development of an EEG based communication device for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC could benefit from addressing the following gaps in knowledge – first, an evaluation of different types of motor imagery; second, an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup; and third, rapid delivery of biased feedback. To that end we investigated whether complex and / or familiar mental imagery, passive, and attempted feet movement can be reliably detected in patients with DoC using EEG recordings, aiming to provide them with a means of communication. Six patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS took part in this study. The patients were verbally instructed to perform different mental imagery tasks (sport, navigation, as well as attempted feet movements, to induce distinctive event-related (desynchronization (ERD/S patterns in the EEG. Offline classification accuracies above chance level were reached in all three tasks (i.e. attempted feet, sport, and navigation, with motor tasks yielding significant (p<0.05 results more often than navigation (sport: 10 out of 18 sessions; attempted feet: 7 out of 14 sessions; navigation: 4 out of 12 sessions. The passive feet movements, evaluated in one patient, yielded mixed results: whereas time-frequency analysis revealed task-related EEG changes over neurophysiological plausible cortical areas, the classification results were not significant enough (p<0.05 to setup an initial classifier for the detection of attempted movements. Concluding, the results presented in this study are consistent with the current state of the art in similar studies, to which we contributed by comparing different types of mental tasks, notably complex motor imagery and attempted feet movements, within patients. Furthermore, we explored new venues, such as an evaluation of passive feet movement as a mean of an initial classifier setup, and rapid delivery of biased feedback.
Ahn, Minkyu; Cho, Hohyun; Ahn, Sangtae; Jun, Sung C
Performance variation is a critical issue in motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI), and various neurophysiological, psychological, and anatomical correlates have been reported in the literature. Although the main aim of such studies is to predict MI-BCI performance for the prescreening of poor performers, studies which focus on the user's sense of the motor imagery process and directly estimate MI-BCI performance through the user's self-prediction are lacking. In this study, we first test each user's self-prediction idea regarding motor imagery experimental datasets. Fifty-two subjects participated in a classical, two-class motor imagery experiment and were asked to evaluate their easiness with motor imagery and to predict their own MI-BCI performance. During the motor imagery experiment, an electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded; however, no feedback on motor imagery was given to subjects. From EEG recordings, the offline classification accuracy was estimated and compared with several questionnaire scores of subjects, as well as with each subject's self-prediction of MI-BCI performance. The subjects' performance predictions during motor imagery task showed a high positive correlation ( r = 0.64, p performance even without feedback information. This implies that the human brain is an active learning system and, by self-experiencing the endogenous motor imagery process, it can sense and adopt the quality of the process. Thus, it is believed that users may be able to predict MI-BCI performance and results may contribute to a better understanding of low performance and advancing BCI.
Holmes, Emily A; Blackwell, Simon E; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Renner, Fritz; Raes, Filip
Mental imagery is an experience like perception in the absence of a percept. It is a ubiquitous feature of human cognition, yet it has been relatively neglected in the etiology, maintenance, and treatment of depression. Imagery abnormalities in depression include an excess of intrusive negative mental imagery; impoverished positive imagery; bias for observer perspective imagery; and overgeneral memory, in which specific imagery is lacking. We consider the contribution of imagery dysfunctions to depressive psychopathology and implications for cognitive behavioral interventions. Treatment advances capitalizing on the representational format of imagery (as opposed to its content) are reviewed, including imagery rescripting, positive imagery generation, and memory specificity training. Consideration of mental imagery can contribute to clinical assessment and imagery-focused psychological therapeutic techniques and promote investigation of underlying mechanisms for treatment innovation. Research into mental imagery in depression is at an early stage. Work that bridges clinical psychology and neuroscience in the investigation of imagery-related mechanisms is recommended.
Emily G. Deans
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2008, Australia has seen the rapid emergence of marketing for online and mobile sports wagering. Previous research from other areas of public health, such as tobacco and alcohol, has identified the range of appeal strategies these industries used to align their products with culturally valued symbols. However, there is very limited research that has investigated the tactics the sports wagering industry uses within marketing to influence the consumption of its products and services. Method This study consisted of a mixed method interpretive content analysis of 85 sports wagering advertisements from 11 Australian and multinational wagering companies. Advertisements were identified via internet searches and industry websites. A coding framework was applied to investigate the extent and nature of symbolic appeal strategies within advertisements. Results Ten major appeal strategies emerged from this analysis. These included sports fan rituals and behaviours; mateship; gender stereotypes; winning; social status; adventure, thrill and risk; happiness; sexualised imagery; power and control; and patriotism. Symbols relating to sports fan rituals and behaviours, and mateship, were the most common strategies used within the advertisements. Discussion/Conclusions This research suggests that the appeal strategies used by the sports wagering industry are similar to those strategies adopted by other unhealthy commodity industries. With respect to gambling, analysis revealed that strategies are clearly targeted to young male sports fans. Researchers and public health practitioners should seek to better understand the impact of marketing on the normalisation of sports wagering for this audience segment, and implement strategies to prevent gambling harm.
Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Daube, Mike; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Gordon, Ross
Since 2008, Australia has seen the rapid emergence of marketing for online and mobile sports wagering. Previous research from other areas of public health, such as tobacco and alcohol, has identified the range of appeal strategies these industries used to align their products with culturally valued symbols. However, there is very limited research that has investigated the tactics the sports wagering industry uses within marketing to influence the consumption of its products and services. This study consisted of a mixed method interpretive content analysis of 85 sports wagering advertisements from 11 Australian and multinational wagering companies. Advertisements were identified via internet searches and industry websites. A coding framework was applied to investigate the extent and nature of symbolic appeal strategies within advertisements. Ten major appeal strategies emerged from this analysis. These included sports fan rituals and behaviours; mateship; gender stereotypes; winning; social status; adventure, thrill and risk; happiness; sexualised imagery; power and control; and patriotism. Symbols relating to sports fan rituals and behaviours, and mateship, were the most common strategies used within the advertisements. This research suggests that the appeal strategies used by the sports wagering industry are similar to those strategies adopted by other unhealthy commodity industries. With respect to gambling, analysis revealed that strategies are clearly targeted to young male sports fans. Researchers and public health practitioners should seek to better understand the impact of marketing on the normalisation of sports wagering for this audience segment, and implement strategies to prevent gambling harm.
Full Text Available Purpose : the study of the development of sport and technical and applied sports in the sports organizations of Ukraine. Material : the results of analysis of scientific and methodical literature, statistical reports of the Ministry of Youth and Sports, controls for Physical Culture and Sport, the governing bodies of education and science, society websites promoting Defence of Ukraine, the Sports Committee of Ukraine. Results : technical sports solve complex health and educational problems, promote patriotic education of children. In Ukraine today gaining popularity of sports-technical and applied sports. According to statistics the number of students enrolled in 2013 increased by 6% (1720 people in relation to 2012. Total 30484 person. The most popular among children and adolescents are: military-sport all-around (amount involved is 23.9% of the total number of pupils, fire-applied sports (8.8%, parachute (8.7%, automotive (8.1 %, model aircraft (7.8%, underwater (5.8%, radio sport (7.1%. The most abundant component in the number of sports clubs have engaged in occupations which covered 18264 children and adolescents. Conclusions : Implementation of measures for further development of sports engineering, aviation and military applied sports will foster a versatile development, hardened physically, technically trained people. As the formation of the younger generation of sustained interest and needs in the classroom technical creativity, provide training for young people for military service and active labor.
Zhou, Jin; Heim, Derek; Levy, Andrew
Studies indicate that those participating in sports are a high-risk population for hazardous alcohol use. Previous research identifies psychosocial drivers underpinning this link between sports participation and risky drinking behavior; however, the evidence is restricted to cross-sectional prevalence studies. Theoretical evaluations suggest that psychologically constructed identities are a defining factor for behaviors in this context. Therefore, the present study sought to examine longitudinally the relationships among sports-related identities, well-being, and alcohol behaviors in those participating in sports. Respondents completed self-report questionnaires on their alcohol consumption, drinking motives, athlete identity (personal identity), sports group identification (social identity), and general well-being. A sample of 475 participants (male = 55.6%; mean age = 20.2 years) provided data at Time 1 for cross-sectional analysis. Longitudinal associations were conducted with 92 participants (male = 42.4%; mean age = 20.8 years) who provided follow-up data (Time 1 and 6 months later). Cross-sectional results revealed an association between social identity and alcohol consumption, which was fully mediated by positive reinforcement drinking motives. Correlation analysis found a significant positive relationship between Time 1 alcohol consumption and social identity 6 months later. Furthermore, social identity was positively associated with consumption, whereas athlete identity was negatively associated therewith. Finally, well-being was positively associated only with sports group identification over time. Our findings suggest that sport-related drinking may be an avenue for building group identification, and this identification is linked to well-being.
Vertommen, Tine; Schipper-van Veldhoven, Nicolette; Wouters, Kristien; Kampen, J.K.; Brackenridge, Celia H.; Rhind, Daniel J.A.; Neels, Karel; Eede, Van Den Filip
The current article reports on the first large-scale prevalence study on interpersonal violence against children in sport in the Netherlands and Belgium. Using a dedicated online questionnaire, over 4,000 adults prescreened on having participated in organized sport before the age of 18 were surveyed
The aim of this study was to determine the current state of teacher coaches' sport specific training, playing- and coaching experience regarding sport coaching. Fifty five (55) schools from the Kenneth Kaunda district in the Northwest province of South Africa were selected. Vosloo and Trudel and Camiré's questionnaires ...
The study examined the place of leadership quality and role of coaches in sports performance by Nigerian university students. Participants were made up of 153 sports officials and 270 students from nine universities in Southern Nigeria. A validated self – structured questionnaire with a test – retest reliability co – efficient of ...
Bowers, Matthew T.; Green, B. Christine; Hemme, Florian; Chalip, Laurence
This article presents an assessment of the relative influences of time spent participating in organized sports and informal sports during childhood with respect to the development of general creativity. In this study, 99 upper-division undergraduate and graduate students completed a comprehensive childhood leisure activities questionnaire and the…
Full Text Available Events industry plays an important role in nowadays economy and can have a substantial impact for a successful business; in addition, sustainability-oriented tourism is becoming an important component of development and planning of a tourist destination. Thus, organizing sustainability-oriented events is crucial and should focus on the zero waste event management and consider as many elements of sustainable development as possible. The same stands for organizing sports events. The aim of this paper was to find out to which level the organizers of existing sports events in Slovenia are taking into account different domains of sustainable development. Answering to a common questionnaire the organizers gave us a feedback considering four main areas: environmental, social, cultural, and economic criteria. The plan was to determine the level of sustainability of three sports events and compare them to each other according to the outstanding areas as well as to draw the attention to the importance of organizing sustainability-oriented sports events and minimizing negative effects of those. Since the field of research is complex, dynamic, and has an interdisciplinary character the results were attained using the DEX software which supports a qualitative approach and allows the modelling of complex decision-making processes with a large number of parameters and alternatives. Such methodology enables the input of a preliminary set of sustainability criteria and can be used as a support when deciding on the evaluation of sustainability of events in general.
Rodríguez-Roiz, Juan M; Caballero, Miguel; Ares, Oscar; Sastre, Sergi; Lozano, Luis; Popescu, Dragos
The aim of this study was to evaluate mid-term return to recreational sport in general population and identify factors related with sports return. Retrospective evaluation of 99 recreational sports players (Tegner score of 6) with ACL arthroscopic reconstructions with hamstring autograft, between 2006-2011. 74 male and 25 female with middle age of 30 years (14-52). We made a questionnaire focused on sports level before injury and after surgery, and different scales: Lysholm, Tegner Activity Level, IKDC and a Likert scale for quantify their motivation for return to sports. With a medium follow-up of 36 months, 90 patients (91.9 %) had returned to recreational sport. 51 (51.52 %) had returned to sports at the same level, and these are those with lower BMI (average 23), higher IKDC and Lysholm scores (p sport is an important activity. Only 9 % of patients left sports. They were principally male athletes (88 %), with higher medium age (32), lesser time between injury and surgery (22 months), higher BMI (26), in comparison with athletes that return to sports. The results suggest good mid-term return to recreational sports in general population. The following factors had a statistically significant influence on the return to sports activity: type of sport, sex and functional state of the operated knee (IKDC-Lysholm). Psychological and social factors may have a fundamental influence on return to sports activity.
Post, Eric G; Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill M; Stiffler, Mikel R; Brooks, M Alison; Bell, David R; Sanfilippo, Jennifer L; Trigsted, Stephanie M; Heiderscheit, Bryan C; McGuine, Timothy A
Sport specialization is a strategy to acquire superior sport performance in 1 sport but is associated with increased injury risk. Currently, the degree of high school specialization among Division I athletes is unknown. College athletes will display increased rates of specialization as they progress through their high school careers. Descriptive epidemiological study. Level 4. Three hundred forty-three athletes (115 female) representing 9 sports from a Midwest Division I University completed a previously utilized sport specialization questionnaire regarding sport participation patterns for each grade of high school. McNemar and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations of grade, sport, and sex with prevalence of sport specialization category (low, moderate, high) (a priori P ≤ 0.05). Specialization increased throughout high school, with 16.9% (n = 58) and 41.1% (n = 141) of athletes highly specialized in 9th and 12th grades, respectively. Football athletes were less likely to be highly specialized than nonfootball athletes for each year of high school ( P 0.23). The majority of Division I athletes were not classified as highly specialized throughout high school, but the prevalence of high specialization increased as athletes progressed through high school. Nonfootball athletes were more likely to be highly specialized than football athletes at each grade level. Most athletes who are recruited to participate in collegiate athletics will eventually specialize in their sport, but it does not appear that early specialization is necessary to become a Division I athlete. Athletes should be counseled regarding safe participation in sport during high school to minimize injury and maximize performance.
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important functions of a sport business. This is because the sport marketing activities will define the business. The growth of the sport industry is phenomenal and shows no signs of slowing. Also, sport marketing is a process. A process is a continuous cycle. Therefore, marketing is a function that never ends. The sport marketing management model is an illustration of the elements and process of sport marketing. It should serve as a guide for managing the company’s marketing functions. The model illustrates the elements of marketing, the succession of elements and functions, the process of managing, and the interdependence of the elements This paper presents an overview of the model, sport marketing management, each element and the process.
Jayanthi, Neeru; Pinkham, Courtney; Dugas, Lara; Patrick, Brittany; LaBella, Cynthia
Context: Sports specialization is intense training in 1 sport while excluding others. Sports specialization in early to middle childhood has become increasingly common. While most experts agree that some degree of sports specialization is necessary to achieve elite levels, there is some debate as to whether such intense practice time must begin during early childhood and to the exclusion of other sports to maximize potential for success. There is a concern that sports specialization before adolescence may be deleterious to a young athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed and OVID were searched for English-language articles from 1990 to 2011 discussing sports specialization, expert athletes, or elite versus novice athletes, including original research articles, consensus opinions, and position statements. Results: For most sports, there is no evidence that intense training and specialization before puberty are necessary to achieve elite status. Risks of early sports specialization include higher rates of injury, increased psychological stress, and quitting sports at a young age. Sports specialization occurs along a continuum. Survey tools are being developed to identify where athletes fall along the spectrum of specialization. Conclusion: Some degree of sports specialization is necessary to develop elite-level skill development. However, for most sports, such intense training in a single sport to the exclusion of others should be delayed until late adolescence to optimize success while minimizing injury, psychological stress, and burnout. PMID:24427397
Goniewicz Krzysztof; Goniewicz Mariusz; Misztal Okońska Patrycja; Witold Pawłowski; Czerski Robert
Goniewicz Krzysztof, Goniewicz Mariusz, Misztal Okońska Patrycja, Witold Pawłowski, Czerski Robert. The european emergency number 112 - the questionnaire. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(7):1165-1174. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1117736 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/5134 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01....
Chien, Kuo-Liong; Chen, Ming-Fong; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Su, Ta-Chen; Lee, Yuan-Teh
An association between physical inactivity and obesity risk has been established. However, the relationship between sports activity and the risk of diabetes among Chinese populations is still unclear. We prospectively investigated the association between sports activity and incidence of type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population. Habitual physical activity in the presumed last year was obtained from a questionnaire developed by Baecke and colleagues. During a median 9.02-year follow-up period among the 1936 participants with complete questionnaire data, 312 participants developed diabetes. After adjusting for age, gender and body mass index, the relative risk (RR) of diabetes according to quartiles of sports activity were 0.86, 0.71 and 0.72 (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.52-0.99, P for trend, 0.048). Participants with the highest quartiles of sports activity had a significantly lower risk than the participants with the lowest quartiles among the obese group (multivariate RR, 0.61, 95% CI, 0.41-0.92, P for trend=0.018). Furthermore, the RRs of diabetes were 2.24 (95% CI, 1.58-3.19) for participants who were obese and sedentary, compared with those who were of a healthy weight and participated actively in sports. The findings suggest a significant inverse association between sports activity and incidence of type 2 diabetes in middle to older-aged Chinese individuals.
Concussions are common incidences in sports. However, game-specific characteristics such as tactics, field positions, etc. might positively/negatively contribute to the occurrence of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) in various sports such as soccer, volleyball, handball, or basketball. Thus, the intention of this study was to analyze game-specific characteristics of concussive incidents in active players from the perspective of different sportive disciplines. Four sport-specific questionnaires for soccer, handball, volleyball and basketball were established using an online survey tool. A total of 3001 participants completed the questionnaires. 18% of the participants answered that they had experienced a concussion which significantly differed depending on the sport practiced (χ2(3)=56.868, Pconcussions on the amateur level, volleyball players experienced most on the professional level and basketball players during leisure play (χ2(9)=112.667, Pconcussions by a collision with another player, volleyball players instead experienced most concussions by hits from the ball (χ2(6)=211.260, Pconcussive incidences (χ2(7)=19.638, Pconcussions (χ2(6)=13.617, Pconcussions are sport-specific and particularly concern amateurs. This indicates that most concussions in ball games appear in situations, where medical care units are not necessarily present. Preventive measures should therefore especially address amateurs in ball sports.
Miller, Kathleen E
Sport occupies a prominent space in the public lives and private identities of US adolescents. Using the retrospective reflections of college students, this analysis explores two questions about sport-related identities during high school: Are 'athletes' and 'jocks' distinctly separate identities? Are these identities explicitly gendered? In four gender-segregated focus groups conducted in early 2005, 32 student-athletes from two upstate New York colleges discussed their high school experiences of sport, status, gender, and identity. Three primary themes developed with regard to differences between the 'jock' and 'athlete' archetypes: academic focus, teamwork, and cockiness/aggression. Examining the intersection of gender, high-status/high-profile sport, and identity in both popular cultural imagery and the personal experiences of the focus group discussants provided support for the thesis of a 'toxic jock' phenomenon.
This review includes the latest findings based on experimental studies addressing sport-specific balance, an area of research that has grown dramatically in recent years. The main objectives of this work were to investigate the postural sway response to different forms of exercise under laboratory and sport-specific conditions, to examine how this effect can vary with expertise, and to provide examples of the association of impaired balance with sport performance and/or increasing risk of injury. In doing so, sports where body balance is one of the limiting factors of performance were analyzed. While there are no significant differences in postural stability between athletes of different specializations and physically active individuals during standing in a standard upright position (e.g., bipedal stance), they have a better ability to maintain balance in specific conditions (e.g., while standing on a narrow area of support). Differences in magnitude of balance impairment after specific exercises (rebound jumps, repeated rotations, etc.) and mainly in speed of its readjustment to baseline are also observed. Besides some evidence on an association of greater postural sway with the increasing risk of injuries, there are many myths related to the negative influence of impaired balance on sport performance. Though this may be true for shooting or archery, findings have shown that in many other sports, highly skilled athletes are able to perform successfully in spite of increased postural sway. These findings may contribute to better understanding of the postural control system under various performance requirements. It may provide useful knowledge for designing training programs for specific sports.
Yocky, David A.; Wahl, Daniel E.; Jakowatz, Charles V,
While typical SAR imaging employs a co-located (monostatic) RADAR transmitter and receiver, bistatic SAR imaging separates the transmitter and receiver locations. The transmitter and receiver geometry determines if the scattered signal is back scatter, forward scatter, or side scatter. The monostatic SAR image is backscatter. Therefore, depending on the transmitter/receiver collection geometry, the captured imagery may be quite different that that sensed at the monostatic SAR. This document presents imagery and image products formed from captured signals during the validation stage of the bistatic SAR research. Image quality and image characteristics are discussed first. Then image products such as two-color multi-view (2CMV) and coherent change detection (CCD) are presented.
Galbraith, Amy E. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
This dissertation studies the feasibility of enhancing the spatial resolution of multi-look remotely-sensed imagery using an iterative resolution enhancement algorithm known as Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS). A multi-angle satellite image modeling tool is implemented, and simulated multi-look imagery is formed to test the resolution enhancement algorithm. Experiments are done to determine the optimal con guration and number of multi-angle low-resolution images needed for a quantitative improvement in the spatial resolution of the high-resolution estimate. The important topic of aliasing is examined in the context of the POCS resolution enhancement algorithm performance. In addition, the extension of the method to multispectral sensor images is discussed and an example is shown using multispectral confocal fluorescence imaging microscope data. Finally, the remote sensing issues of atmospheric path radiance and directional reflectance variations are explored to determine their effect on the resolution enhancement performance.
Matthews, Natasha L; Collins, Kathleen P; Thakkar, Katharine N; Park, Sohee
The ability to form mental images that reconstruct former perceptual experiences is closely related to working memory (WM) ability. However, whereas WM deficits are established as a core feature of schizophrenia, an independent body of work suggests that mental imagery ability is enhanced in the disorder. Across two experiments we investigated mental imagery in schizophrenia and its relationship with WM. In Experiment 1, individuals with schizophrenia (SZ: n=15) and matched controls (CO: n=14) completed a mental imagery generation and inspection task and a spatial delayed-response WM task. In Experiment 2, SZ (n=16) and CO (n=16) completed a novel version of the mental imagery task modified to increase WM maintenance demand. In Experiment 1, SZ demonstrated enhanced mental imagery performance, as evidenced by faster response times relative to CO, with preserved accuracy. However, enhanced mental imagery in SZ was accompanied by impaired WM as assessed by the delayed-response task. In Experiment 2, when WM maintenance load was increased, SZ no longer showed superior imagery performance. We found evidence for enhanced imagery manipulation in SZ despite their WM maintenance deficit. However, this imagery enhancement was abolished when WM maintenance demands were increased. This profile of enhanced imagery manipulation but impaired maintenance could be used to implement novel remediation strategies in the disorder.
Full Text Available Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Imagery from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellite is the finest spatial resolution (375 m multi-spectral imagery of any operational meteorological satellite to date. The Imagery environmental data record (EDR has been designated as a Key Performance Parameter (KPP for VIIRS, meaning that its performance is vital to the success of a series of Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS satellites that will carry this instrument. Because VIIRS covers the high-latitude and Polar Regions especially well via overlapping swaths from adjacent orbits, the Alaska theatre in particular benefits from VIIRS more than lower-latitude regions. While there are no requirements that specifically address the quality of the EDR Imagery aside from the VIIRS SDR performance requirements, the value of VIIRS Imagery to operational users is an important consideration in the Cal/Val process. As such, engaging a wide diversity of users constitutes a vital part of the Imagery validation strategy. The best possible image quality is of utmost importance. This paper summarizes the Imagery Cal/Val Team’s quality assessment in this context. Since users are a vital component to the validation of VIIRS Imagery, specific examples of VIIRS imagery applied to operational needs are presented as an integral part of the post-checkout Imagery validation.
Jaarsma, Eva A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk
Purpose: This study explored barriers and facilitators of sports participation of children with physical disabilities from the perspective of the children, their parents and their health professionals. Method: Thirty children and 38 parents completed a questionnaire, and 17 professionals were
Miller, H.; Sexton, N.; Koontz, L.
Landsat satellites provide high-quality, multi-spectral imagery of the surface of the Earth. These moderate-resolution, remotely sensed images are not just pictures, but contain many layers of data collected at different points along the visible and invisible light spectrum. These data can be manipulated to reveal what the Earth’s surface looks like, including what types of vegetation are present or how a natural disaster has impacted an area (Fig. 1).
Jerónimo García Fernández
Full Text Available The actual context has enhanced job opportunities in the field of sport in order to respond to the current market demand. Thus, Physical Education and Sport Science graduates who begin to do differents jobs to the traditional ones but relate to their study field. The aim of this study was to guess which are the job preferences of the students of Physical Education and Sport Science of Seville University by gender and age doing the second cycle of their college degree and determine if there are significant differences. A descriptive analysis was carried out, using a questionnaire based on several researches, it was related to professional opportunities in sport sciences. The sample was of 118 students which represented 40.7% of the overall registered students. Results shown that sport management is the most preferable professional opportunity for women and men of the total sample, following in second place by teaching in secondary school for people older than 25 years of both sexes and teaching in primary school for the younger than 25 years. These findings announce changes in occupational trends in sports, to be taken into account in the framework of the European higher education (Degree of Science in Sport and Physical Activity, own US Masters and Official, lifelong learning programs....
The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center located at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting testbed activities aimed at transitioning satellite products to National Weather Service operational end users for the last 10 years. SPoRT is a NASA/NOAA funded project that has set the bar for transition of products to operational end users through a paradigm of understanding forecast challenges and forecaster needs, displaying products in end users decision support systems, actively assessing the operational impact of these products, and improving products based on forecaster feedback. Aiming for quality partnerships rather than a large quantity of data users, SPoRT has become a community leader in training operational forecasters on the use of up-and-coming satellite data through the use of legacy instruments and proxy data. Traditionally, SPoRT has supplied satellite imagery and products from NASA instruments such as the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). However, recently, SPoRT has been funded by the GOES-R and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Proving Grounds to accelerate the transition of selected imagery and products to help improve forecaster awareness of upcoming operational data from the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), and Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM). This presentation provides background on the SPoRT Center, the SPoRT paradigm, and some example products that SPoRT is excited to work with forecasters to evaluate.
Full Text Available Purpose: identify the role sports volunteering in the life of university students. Material and Methods: 256 students of the Kharkov state academy of physical culture took part in research. The analysis of literary sources and documents was utillized; questioning (questionnaire, methods of the mathematical processing of data. Conclusions: sports volunteering is inalienable part of life of modern students and the 35% polled already were in a position to prove as helpers of organizers of sporting competitions of different level. In opinion of students, volunteering enables them to purchase experience of public activity, so the 25% polled consider, to find new friends – 20,8%, realized themselves – 18,3%. 34,5% respondents consider it-volunteering perspective direction the volunteers activity, the here 32,4% polled would like to prove as counsels of all of sporting volunteers work assignments
Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann
to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount......The objective was to estimate the prevalence of knee instability among active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. Based on a questionnaire, 339 athletes provided information about different features of occupation, sports activity...... and knee instability. The 12-month period prevalence of knee instability and constant or recurrent knee instability, and absence from sport and absence from work due to knee instability, was 22%, 14%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Knee instability as such, and constant or recurrent knee instability were found...
Dartagnan Pinto Guedes
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young judo athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 392 subjects aged 12 to 18 years old participated in the study. Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sports participation. Boys reported giving significantly more importance to sports participation in terms of Competition and Skill Development, whereas girls presented significantly higher ratings for Teamwork and Friendship. Motivational factors related to Achievement/Status and Fun presented significantly higher average ratings in younger judo athletes, whereas average ratings of Competition significantly increased with increasing age. Average ratings related to Fitness, Competition and Skill Development were proportionally and significantly higher according to training experience and training volume. These results will contribute to establishing intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young judo athletes.
... assessment and management • Care of sports-related and general medical needs of athletes • Special populations (geriatric, disabled, women, youth, etc.) • Sports psychology issues • Substance use issues • Education and counseling on ...
Full Text Available The present study tries to make a resume from a socio-cultural point of view of the sportiv peisage analized in the evolutionof society trying to answer some questions such as: What is the place of sports in our modern society? How does sportinfluence social and cultural evolutions? What are the cultural tendencies which can be distinguished in the sports practice?These are a few questions which could lead to establishing raports between sports, culture and society. Sport is more andmore amrked by the charactersitics of postmoderinsm. New social values are being vehiclated by current generations whichinfluence sportive behaviours. The popularity of sports has a big influence in the process of globalisation of politics,economics and culture. In our days we observe the fact that some contradictions are being manifested: globalisation andindividualisation, „sportivisation” and „desportivisation”, a culture of health and a culture of amusement and finally,spontaneity and fragmentation compared to the security and autentification of the individual.
Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier
Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the risk it poses to the athlete’s health and its violation of the spirit of sport. Although these compounds are prohibited in-competition only, we explain why the pharmacokinetics of their main psychoactive compound, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, may complicate the results management of adverse analytical findings. Passive inhalation does not appear to be a plausible explanation for a positive test. Although the prohibition of cannabinoids in sports is one of the most controversial issues in anti-doping, in this review we stress the reasons behind this prohibition, with strong emphasis on the evolving knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology. PMID:21985215
Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M
Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kraus, Shane; Rosenberg, Harold
Despite the prevalence of pornography use, and recent conceptualization of problematic use as an addiction, we could find no published scale to measure craving for pornography. Therefore, we conducted three studies employing young male pornography users to develop and evaluate such a questionnaire. In Study 1, we had participants rate their agreement with 20 potential craving items after reading a control script or a script designed to induce craving to watch pornography. We dropped eight items because of low endorsement. In Study 2, we revised both the questionnaire and cue exposure stimuli and then evaluated several psychometric properties of the modified questionnaire. Item loadings from a principal components analysis, a high internal consistency reliability coefficient, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation supported interpreting the 12 revised items as a single scale. Correlations of craving scores with preoccupation with pornography, sexual history, compulsive internet use, and sensation seeking provided support for convergent validity, criterion validity, and discriminant validity, respectively. The enhanced imagery script did not impact reported craving; however, more frequent users of pornography reported higher craving than less frequent users regardless of script condition. In Study 3, craving scores demonstrated good one-week test-retest reliability and predicted the number of times participants used pornography during the following week. This questionnaire could be applied in clinical settings to plan and evaluate therapy for problematic users of pornography and as a research tool to assess the prevalence and contextual triggers of craving among different types of pornography users.
Timpka, Toomas; Jacobsson, Jenny; Bickenbach, Jerome; Finch, Caroline F; Ekberg, Joakim; Nordenfelt, Lennart
Current sports injury reporting systems lack a common conceptual basis. We propose a conceptual foundation as a basis for the recording of health problems associated with participation in sports, based on the notion of impairment used by the World Health Organization. We provide definitions of sports impairment concepts to represent the perspectives of health services, the participants in sports and physical exercise themselves, and sports institutions. For each perspective, the duration of the causative event is used as the norm for separating concepts into those denoting impairment conditions sustained instantly and those developing gradually over time. Regarding sports impairment sustained in isolated events, 'sports injury' denotes the loss of bodily function or structure that is the object of observations in clinical examinations; 'sports trauma' is defined as an immediate sensation of pain, discomfort or loss of functioning that is the object of athlete self-evaluations; and 'sports incapacity' is the sidelining of an athlete because of a health evaluation made by a legitimate sports authority that is the object of time loss observations. Correspondingly, sports impairment caused by excessive bouts of physical exercise is denoted as 'sports disease' (overuse syndrome) when observed by health service professionals during clinical examinations, 'sports illness' when observed by the athlete in self-evaluations, and 'sports sickness' when recorded as time loss from sports participation by a sports body representative. We propose a concerted development effort in this area that takes advantage of concurrent ontology management resources and involves the international sporting community in building terminology systems that have broad relevance.
Thirty-one journals pertinent to the physical educator and to the professional in the areas of motor learning, sport philosophy, sport sociology, sport psychology, and sport medicine are listed with a general note on the scope of each. (JMF)
Full Text Available Taking logical postulate that a product is all what can be offered on the market in order to satisfy needs, demands or wants of customer, regarding the core of sport's offer (product, marketing experts must give answers to three key questions: What can sports companies, teams or individuals offer to consumer? What needs can sports companies, teams or individuals satisfy? What instruments (techniques and methods should use marketing experts in sports organizations in order to satisfy identified customer needs? .
Kelly, Bridget; Baur, Louise A; Bauman, Adrian E; King, Lesley; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J
Australian data indicate that 63% of children participated in sport in 2009, a 4% increase since 2000. Children's high participation in sport, and the association between sport and health, means that these settings provide an opportunity to promote other aspects of health, such as healthy eating, to children. This study aimed to determine healthy eating practices and policies at children's sports clubs. Sports clubs (n=108) for the nine most popular sports for children aged 5 to 14 were randomly sampled from three large geographical areas across one state and one territory in Australia. A purpose-designed telephone questionnaire for sports club officials was developed to determine the food and beverages sold, provided and promoted at sports clubs and the availability of healthy-eating policies. The most frequently sold item at canteens was water, followed by sports drinks, chocolate/confectionery and soft drink. Only 20% of canteens promoted healthy food. Thirty-nine per cent of clubs made recommendations on the food and beverages to be consumed during sport, mostly relating to water consumption. The majority (76%) engaged in fundraising; many in collaboration with chocolate/confectionery companies. Only three clubs had a written policy on healthy eating. Addressing the low uptake of healthy eating policies would be a useful strategy to improve the healthiness of sports clubs. Policies could seek to reduce the availability and promotion of unhealthy food and beverages through canteens, vending machines and fundraising. © 2010 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.
Van Hoye, Aurélie; Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Sarrazin, Philippe
As major actors in sports activities, sports coaches can play a significant role in health education and contribute to the psychological well-being of young people. However, not all participants in sports activities experience sports positively, which reduces the potential benefits for health. The present study investigates if coaches' efforts to promote health increase young athletes' enjoyment, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life and decrease sport dropout. To control for the variability between teams and between clubs, multilevel modeling was applied. A sample of 342 young football players completed questionnaires assessing their perceptions of coaches' Health Promotion (HP) activities, enjoyment of sports, dropout intentions, self-esteem and perceived health in daily life. HP general score was positively related to enjoyment and perceived health as well as negatively dropout intentions. Players perceiving their coaches as promoting fair and play (Respect for oneself and others) scored higher on their perceptions of enjoyment in sport, self-esteem and self-reported health, and lower on dropout intentions. Moreover, players recognizing their coaches as encouraging their healthy lifestyle also reported higher perceptions of sport enjoyment, whereas player's perceived coaches' activities on substance use were associated with lower participants' enjoyment. These results support the importance of developing HP in sports clubs. Especially, promoting respect of oneself and others seems to be the more beneficial to sport participants. Copyright Â© 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Donohue, B; Dickens, Y; Lancer, K; Covassin, T; Hash, A; Miller, A; Genet, J
Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes' Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of the two semistructured interview formats. One interview focused on discussing the athlete's experiences in sports, and the other focused on delineating sport psychology and its potential benefits to the athlete. Upon being interviewed, athletes were readministered the ATSSPCQ. Discussing sport psychology and its personal benefits was more effective in enhancing athletes' perception of need for sport psychology than discussing sport experiences. However, neither interview format enhanced athletes' perceptions of openness to discuss personal issues with a sport psychology consultant and tolerance of stigma associated with sport psychology consultation. Indeed, participants who received the discussion of sports intervention reported a significant decrease in personal openness to discuss personal issues relevant to sports psychology from pre- to postintervention. Intervention effects were similar for male and female athletes. Study implications and future directions are discussed in light of these results.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An effort to promote participation in any type of PA is more effective when it is aimed at needs, interests and preferences of particular target group. Current evidence emphasizes the insufficiency of PA in all age groups. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to analyze and describe the structure of sport activity preferences of high school students and to contribute to prospective improvement of sports and physical activity programs. METHODS: Two standardized questionnaires were used – 1. sport preferences questionnaire, 2. international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ. The research sample (N = 333 consisted of high school students from the Czech Republic. RESULTS: Our results confirm that the differences between girls and boys are not as great as they were few decades ago. There is a visible dynamic in the development of sport preferences structure. Despite this fact there is a spectrum of sports that are constantly preferred – soccer, volleyball, aerobics and swimming. Acquired results indicate that the range of PA amount in girls varies from 2,372 MET-min/week (15 year old girls to 4,467 MET-min/week (17 year old girls, while acquired results in boys varies from 2,535 MET-min/week (16 year old boys to 4,973 MET-min/week (17 year old boys. The results, if properly applied, could increase the total amount of PA in high school students and improve the effectiveness of school PE.
Full Text Available The purpose of research was to define the eventual differences between personal and motivational structure among extreme sports athletes and non-athletes. Beside personal and motivational structure of both mentioned groups, we also examined state and trait anxiety as significant factors of success. We used a medium lengthy version of FPI inventory, Costell's questionnaire of achievement motivation and Spielberg's questionnaire STAI – X1 and STAI – X2. The pattern included 66 extreme sports athletes. We concluded that extreme sports athletes are significantly less suppressed and sincere, whereas they are more extrovert and masculine in comparison with the group of non-athletes. A trend that individuals, who reach for extreme sports, are more sociable, and less neurotic is pointed out, but it is not of significant importance. We found out that there is also a tendency that extreme sports athletes express more positive achievement motivation than non-athletes, who on the other hand express significantly higher negative achievement motivation. The analysis of anxiety differences on the other hand showed that extreme sports athletes have significantly lower state of anxiety and the anxiety itself as atrait is far less visible, but the difference did not appear as significant. The results however did not confirme previous studies' findings. Nevertheless they serve as a contribution to some earlier findings and suggest that extreme sports athletes are a special group, which differs from non-athlete population in both personal and motivational structure and relatively well suits to the profile of a top athlete. At the same time, the present research offers a possibility of shaping an extreme sports athlete's profile.
Full Text Available Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic, reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93 from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V, auditory (A, reading/writing (R, kinesthetic (K/(VARK Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1 very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2 there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003; (3 and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025; (4 there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265. Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal.
A theoretical framework for the study of sport sociology is provided in this text. It is intended for students of sport, arts and humanities, sociology, and social psychology. Sport and social organization are discussed first. Three models of societies and six theories of social organization are presented which form the basis of the eclectic…
... in sport, the effect of motivation in sport on academic performance, the fundamental cause of anxiety in sport, the fact that female athletes are likely to be relatively more comfortable with male authority figures as coaches, etcetera. The empirical research revealed that discrepancies exist between the perceptions of teacher ...
From a sport and exercise psychology viewpoint, this article describes the increasing professionalization of youth sport and how many well-intentioned people are using misconceptions or myths to organize and administer youth sport programs. For example, professionalization has led to specialization and year-round training, while playing multiple…
Hofstee, W.K.B.; Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Hendriks, A.A.J.
The standard practice in scoring questionnaires consists of adding item scores and standardizing these sums. We present a set of alternative procedures, consisting of (a) correcting for the acquiescence variance that disturbs the structure of the questionnaire; (b) establishing item weights through
The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.
The uniqueness of this article is that it deals with long-distance bike commuting in pro-cycling Copenhagen and its environs. Informed by practice theory and sensuous studies of urban and sport practices, I discuss the ‘things and environments’, ‘meanings’ and ‘competences and biological bodies......’ that typify long-distance commuter cycling. This article develops cycling literature and the ‘mobilities paradigm’ in the following ways: by outlining a practice approach to cycling; challenging the idea that commuter cycling is only for short distances; undermining the distinction between utility and sport...... cycling; and lastly by connecting the ‘mobilities paradigm’ with literature on active travel and sport studies....
Alexandru Lucian MIHAI
Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.
For a long time, badminton was considered to be only a slow and light game for children, a game that is played outdoors and is structurally undemanding.Today, it is not an unknown and unrecognised sport, especially after it was included into the Olympics Games in 1992. Badminton is one of the oldest sports in the world. It is suitable for all ages (for children and elderly equally), women and men and even handicapped persons. Beginners can start playing badminton matches early because the basics are learned quickly. As a recreational activity, badminton is very popular in Zagreb. In the last 10 years, a number of halls specialized for badminton or offering badminton as one of available sports activities have been opened in Zagreb. At present, there are over 70 professional playgrounds for training of top contestants but also for the citizens who can play recreational badminton.
Overbye, Marie Birch
Doping testing is a key component enforced by anti-doping authorities to detect and deter doping in sport. Policy is developed to protect athletes' right to participate in doping-free sport; and testing is a key tool to secure this right. Accordingly, athletes' responses to anti-doping efforts...... are important. This article explores how the International Standards for Testing, which face different interpretations and challenges when policy is implemented, are perceived by elite athletes. Particularly, this article aims to investigate how elite athletes perceive the functioning of the testing system (i.......e., the efforts of stakeholders involved in testing) in their own sport both nationally and worldwide. Moreover, it seeks to identify whether specific factors such as previous experience of testing and perceived proximity of doping have an impact on athletes' perceptions of the testing system. The study comprises...
Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto; Lee, Sunghan
We examined the question-is the intention of completing a simulated motor action the same as the intention used in processing overt actions? Participants used motor imagery to estimate distance reachability in two conditions: Imagery-Only (IO) and Imagery-Execution (IE). With IO (red target) only a verbal estimate using imagery was given. With IE (green target) participants knew that they would actually reach after giving a verbal estimate and be judged on accuracy. After measuring actual maximum reach, used for the comparison, imagery targets were randomly presented across peripersonal- (within reach) and extrapersonal (beyond reach) space. Results indicated no difference in overall accuracy by condition, however, there was a significant distinction by space; participants were more accurate in peripersonal space. Although more research is needed, these findings support an increasing body of evidence suggesting that the neurocognitive processes (in this case, intention) driving motor imagery and overt actions are similar.
Dietz, P E; Evans, B
The authors classified 1,760 heterosexual pornographic magazines according to the imagery of the cover photographs. Covers depicting only a woman posed alone predominated in 1970 but constituted only 10.7% of the covers in 1981. Bondage and domination imagery was the most prevalent nonormative imagery and was featured in 17.2% of the magazines. Smaller proportions of material were devoted to group sexual activity (9.8%), tranvestism and transsexualism (4.4%), and other nonnormative imagery. The authors suggest that pornographic imagery is an unobtrusive measure of the relative prevalence of those paraphilias associated with preferences for specific types of visual imagery and for which better data are lacking.
Full Text Available The Very High Resolution (VHR satellite imageries such us Pleiades, WorldView-2, GeoEye-1 used for precise mapping purpose must be corrected from any distortion to achieve the expected accuracy. Orthorectification is performed to eliminate geometric errors of the VHR satellite imageries. Orthorectification requires main input data such as Digital Elevation Model (DEM and Ground Control Point (GCP. The VHR systematic-ortho imageries were generated using SRTM 30m DEM without using any GCP data. The accuracy value differences of VHR systematic-ortho imageries and VHR orthorectified imageries using GCP currently is not exactly defined. This study aimed to identified the accuracy comparison of VHR systematic-ortho imageries against orthorectified imageries using GCP. Orthorectified imageries using GCP created by using Rigorous model. Accuracy evaluation is calculated by using several independent check points.
Full Text Available ... down on carbs or chugging sports drinks. The good news is that eating to reach your peak ... should provide the vitamins and minerals needed for good health and sports performance. Protein Power Athletes may ...
Feddersen, Arne; Ahlfeldt, Gabriel M.
This study analyses the sports infrastructure of Hamburg, Germany, from the residents’ perspective. Empirical evidence is provided for the Sports Place Theory developed by BALE (2003) using a micro-level dataset of 1,319 sports facilities, which is merged with highly disaggregated data......, locations’ endowment of sports infrastructure is captured by potentiality variables, while accounting for natural and unnatural barriers. Given potential demand, central areas are found to be relatively underprovided with a sports infrastructure compared to peripheral areas where opportunity cost...... in the form of price of land is lower. The determinants of spatial distribution vary systematically across types of sports facilities. Publicly provided open sports fields and sport halls tend to be concentrated in areas of relatively low income which is in line with their social infrastructure character...
Quain, Richard J.; Parks, Janet B.
A survey of sport management positions was designed to determine projected vacancy rates in six sport management career areas. Respondents to the survey were also questioned regarding their awareness of college professional preparation programs. Results are presented. (MT)
Full Text Available ... Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying ... around in your stomach! If you like the taste of sports drinks better than regular water, then ...
Manore, Melinda M; Patton-Lopez, Megan M; Meng, Yu; Wong, Siew Sun
For adolescent athletes (14-18 years), data on sport nutrition knowledge, behaviors and beliefs are limited, especially based on sex, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. High school soccer players ( n = 535; 55% female; 51% White, 41% Latino; 41% National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participants (80% Latino)) completed two questionnaires (demographic/health history and sport nutrition). The sport nutrition knowledge score was 45.6% with higher scores in NSLP-Whites vs. NSLP-Latinos ( p nutritional requirements, but more than twice as likely to report that nutritional supplements were necessary for training ( p nutrition education that enhances food selection skills for health and sport performance.
The role of curricular activities for the formation of education, health and behavioural outcomes has been widely studied. Yet, the role of extra-curricular activities has received little attention. This study analyzes the effect of participation in sports clubs—one of the most popular extra-curricular activities among children. We use alternative datasets and flexible semi-parametric estimation methods with a specific way to use the panel dimension of the data to address selection into sports. We find positive and robust effects on children’s school performance and peer relations. Crowding out of passive leisure activities can partially explain the effects. PMID:27144474
Sharma, Anshu Rajnish
Nuclear medicine can synergistically contribute to the sports medicine field, in the management of sports-related stress injures. Bone scintigraphy is commonly requested for evaluation of athletes with pain. Three-Phase 99m Tc MDP Bone Scan has emerged as the imaging reference standard for diagnosing such injuries. The inherently high-contrast resolution of the bone scan allows early detection of bone trauma and becomes positive within six to seventy-two hours after the onset of symptoms. The bone scan is able to demonstrate stress injuries days to weeks before the radiograph
Sebastian Madalin MUNTEANU
This paper tries to capture the importance it holds the project management in socio-cultural sector which stands out when we refer to the sport. So when we talk about project management in sport, to consider a much larger vision, a new project management perspective, they involve a responsibility for the implementation of an event with global impact on very long term. Sports projects, as history shows us, played a significant role in developing societies. Also, all major sports industry proje...
Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y
Full Text Available Sponsorship, as a very successful form of marketing, is quite common in sports. Thanks to the financial means which come from sponsorship, sports teams and individuals achieve top results. In return for that, sponsors take advantage by enhancing their brand and image for longer period. An extensive influence of sponsorship over sports development has been achieved through properly selected elements of sports strateg.y
Full Text Available Being a significant area of human activity, sport has multiple functions. One of the more important functions of sport, especially top sport, is the inventive heuristic function. Creative work, being a process of creating new values, represents a significant possibility for advancement of sport. This paper aims at pointing at the various dimensions of human creative work, at the creative work which can be seen in sport (in a narrow sense and at the scientific and practical areas which borderline sport. The method of theoretical analysis of different approaches to the phenomenon of creative work , both in general and in sport, was applied in this paper. This area can be systematized according to various criterion : the level of creative work, different fields where it appears, the subjects of creative work - creators etc. Case analysis shows that the field of creative work in sport is widening and deepening constantly. There are different levels of creativity not only in the system of training and competition, but in a wider social context of sport as well. As a process of human spirit and mind the creative work belongs not just to athletes and coaches, but also to all the people and social groups who's creative power manifests itself in sport. The classification of creative work in sport according to various criterion allows for heuristic function of sport to be explained comprehensively and to create an image how do the sparks of human spirit improve the micro cosmos of sport. A thorough classification of creative work in sport allows for a detailed analysis of all the elements of creative work and each of it’s area in sport. In this way the progress in sport , as a consequence of innovations in both competitions and athletes’ training and of everything that goes with those activities, can be guided into the needed direction more easily as well as studied and applied.
Kovács, Karolina-Eszter; Nagy, Beáta-Erika
The aim of the study was to examine coping and motivation of adolescent handball players in Debrecen. Forty-six male and thirty-one female handball players completed the questionnaires, furthermore eighteen males and eighteen females participated in focus groups. The purpose of this study was to measure gender differences in sport motivation,…
The participation figures of sixteen universities obtained through two questionnaires, six interviews and nineteen focus groups reveal high success rates in league competitions, ranging between 62.1 per ... Issues of inclusion and gender equality should be addressed, as the majority of sports uphold the ethos of masculinity.
In order to determine perceived barriers to sport and recreation participation in Botswana the modified Crawford, Jackson and Godbey\\'s (1991) constraint assessment questionnaire which focused on five barrier categories, i.e. aptitude, socio-economic, socio-cultural, facility-awareness and facility constraint, was used.
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Boshuizen, H.C.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Blatter, B.M.; Ariëns, G.A.; Bongers, P.M.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of sporting activity on absenteeism in a working population. METHODS: Data were used from a prospective cohort study in a working population with a follow up period of 3 years and were collected with yearly questionnaires or collected from company records.
Lewis, Benjamin A.; Quarterman, Jerome
The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of choice factors that were most important to students who decided to matriculate in the field of sport management for a master's degree. A survey questionnaire was mailed to the program or department chairs of 12 randomly selected universities listed on the NASSM web site during…
South African TuksSport academy athletes at the High Performance Centre, University of Pretoria, and competitive high-school athletes at four private high schools in Gauteng completed the survey. A selfdetermined, structured questionnaire was used to establish the attitudes, beliefs and knowledge of the athletes. Results.
This study was carried out to establish whether students' involvement in sports activities affected their involvement in academic activities. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and analysed using percentages and means. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses that guided ...
A study was conducted among football players and team doctors in the football super league in Malawi to determine the level of knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine. One hundred football players and thirteen team doctors were involved in the study. Standardised questionnaires were used to collect data in an ...
To prevent the voluntary turnover of their employees, municipalities have the obligation to ensure that the needs and expectations of these employees are satisfied. The purpose of this study was to examine factors influencing the job satisfaction of municipal sport officers. Using a quantitative approach, a questionnaire was ...
Study aim: To assess the engagement of students of Warsaw university schools in sports and in recreational motor activities. Material and methods: A cohort (n = 1100) of students attending B.S. or M.S. courses at 6 university schools in Warsaw were studied by applying questionnaire techniques. The questions pertained to participation in…
Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata
Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical…
Gadzic, Aleksandar; Vuckovic, Igor
Study aim: To examine the relationships between sport participation and sociometric status of adolescent youths. Material and methods: A group of 359 secondary school students from central Serbia (143 male and 216 female) aged 16-19 years participated in the study. The subjects were given questionnaires pertaining to their participation in sports…
Full Text Available Traditionally, philosophers have appealed to the phenomenological similarity between visual experience and visual imagery to support the hypothesis that there is significant overlap between the perceptual and imaginative domains. The current evidence, however, is inconclusive: while evidence from transcranial brain stimulation seems to support this conclusion, neurophysiological evidence from brain lesion studies (e.g., from patients with brain lesions resulting in a loss of mental imagery but not a corresponding loss of perception and vice versa indicates that there are functional and anatomical dissociations between mental imagery and perception. Assuming that the mental imagery and perception do not overlap, at least, to the extent traditionally assumed, then the question arises as to what exactly mental imagery is and whether it parallels perception by proceeding via several functionally distinct mechanisms. In this review, we argue that even though there may not be a shared mechanism underlying vision for perception and conscious imagery, there is an overlap between the mechanisms underlying vision for action and unconscious visual imagery. On the basis of these findings, we propose a modification of Kosslyn’s model of imagery that accommodates unconscious imagination and explore possible explanations of the quasi-pictorial phenomenology of conscious visual imagery in light of the fact that its underlying neural substrates and mechanisms typically are distinct from those of visual experience.
Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."
Rodrigues, E C; Lemos, T; Gouvea, B; Volchan, E; Imbiriba, L A; Vargas, C D
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of imagining an action implicating the body axis in the kinesthetic and visual motor imagery modalities upon the balance control system. Body sway analysis (measurement of center of pressure, CoP) together with electromyography (EMG) recording and verbal evaluation of imagery abilities were obtained from subjects during four tasks, performed in the upright position: to execute bilateral plantar flexions; to imagine themselves executing bilateral plantar flexions (kinesthetic modality); to imagine someone else executing the same movement (visual modality), and to imagine themselves singing a song (as a control imagery task). Body sway analysis revealed that kinesthetic imagery leads to a general increase in CoP oscillation, as reflected by an enhanced area of displacement. This effect was also verified for the CoP standard deviation in the medial-lateral direction. An increase in the trembling displacement (equivalent to center of pressure minus center of gravity) restricted to the anterior-posterior direction was also observed to occur during kinesthetic imagery. The visual imagery task did not differ from the control (sing) task for any of the analyzed parameters. No difference in the subjects' ability to perform the imagery tasks was found. No modulation of EMG data were observed across imagery tasks, indicating that there was no actual execution during motor imagination. These results suggest that motor imagery performed in the kinesthetic modality evokes motor representations involved in balance control. Copyright (c)10 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Studer, Ginny L., Ed.; And Others
The chief objective of sport art is to capture that actual fleeting moment of excellent performance in a sporting event. In a series of articles, the significance of sport art is shown in its importance in recording historic contests and games, emphasizing social achievement and personal performance goals, and attempting to symbolize the depth of…
This article explains how and why stress mechanisms operate in students who participate in sports. Students respond to different sport situations with various physical, psychological, and social reactions. When developing and supervising sports, school personnel should take into consideration the physical and psychological development of…
Turrin, M.; Yang, D.; D'Aquilio, A.; Šileryte, R.; Sun, Y
The design of sport buildings has great impact on top-sport as well as on recreational sport-activities. It implies challenging tasks in meeting the performance-requirements. This includes the control of factors like daylight/lighting, air flow, thermal conditions, just to name a few. Such factors
Buri, J R
A questionnaire was developed for the purpose of measuring Baumrind's (1971) permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental authority prototypes. It consists of 30 items per parent and yields permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative scores for both the mother and the father; each of these scores is derived from the phenomenological appraisals of the parents' authority by their son or daughter. The results of several studies have supported the Parental Authority Questionnaire as a psychometrically sound and valid measure of Baumrind's parental authority prototypes, and they have suggested that this questionnaire has considerable potential as a valuable tool in the investigation of correlates of parental permissiveness, authoritarianism, and authoritativeness.
Couture, Steven; Lamarche, Benoit; Morissette, Eliane; Provencher, Veronique; Valois, Pierre; Goulet, Claude; Drapeau, Vicky
The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches' knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. "Leanness sports" were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and "non-leanness sports" were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from "leanness" and "non-leanness" sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.
Fernandez-Jaén, Tomas; Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Angulo, Francisco; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Ayala, Juan; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Del Pilar Doñoro Cuevas, M; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; García Cota, Juan José; Garrido González, Jose Ignacio; de Vega, Carlos Gonzalez; Santander, Manuela González; Herrador Munilla, Miguel Ángel; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Muñoz Benito, Juan José; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Pedret, Carles; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Grifell, Jordi Puigdellivoll; San Roque, Juan Pérez; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Rodas, Gil; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Perez, Lluis Til; Durán, Rosario Ureña; Del Valle Soto, Miguel; Villalón Alonso, José María; García, Pedro Guillen
On October 15, 2016, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of the Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), the Spanish Society of Sports Medicine (SEMED), the Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), the Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB), F.C. Barcelona, and Clínica CEMTRO. The purpose was to consider the most appropriate clinical management and treatment of tendinopathies in sports, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature as well as on each expert's experience. Prior to the meeting, each expert received a questionnaire regarding clinical management and treatment of tendinopathies in sports. The present consensus document summarizes the answers to the questionnaire and the resulting discussion and consensus regarding current concepts on tendinopathies in sports.
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains 1-meter resolution imagery derived from the 2005 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) statewide aerial imagery acquisition. Data have...
Full Text Available Background: Regular physical activity is the crucial factor in treating lifestyle diseases. The age of adolescence is considered as the important period of person's life for creation and further maintaining healthy lifestyle habits. We assume that the level of physical activities of young people could be influenced by the possibilities to perform the preferred sporting activities. Objective: The aim of the presented study was to estimate the total amount of performed physical activity and the structure of sport preferences in West Bohemian adolescents. Further to find out the existence of relationships between preferred sport branches and composition of weekly physical activities of girls and boys. Methods: The research was conducted at five selected secondary schools of the Pilsen region, under the total participation of 382 boys and 529 girls. The level of physical activity (PA and sporting preferences was assessed by means of the IPAQ questionnaire and questionnaire of sports preferences, with the use of the internet system INDARES. For the statistical processing of the gained data, the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test, crosstabulation tables, and Spearman correlation analysis were used. Results: The results showed that the preference of fitness activities is associated with a higher level of PA in spare time of boys (p = .006, and with intensive PA of boys (p = .014 and girls (p = .044, compared to those, who do not prefer these activities. In addition, in case of boys, we have found statistically significant correlations (p = .022 between the preference of team sports and PA at school. 51.8% of boys and 37.7% of girls, who prefer fitness activities, comply with the recommendation of at least 3 × 20 minutes of intensive PA during one week (out of those, who do not prefer, only 30.5% of boys and 18.1% of girls. Individual sports (swimming, cycling, and downhill skiing are the main physical activities preferred by
Greendorfer, Susan L.
The author describes the issues which created the schism between physical education and sociology. If the subdiscipline of sports sociology is to survive, these misunderstandings must be erased. Current investigations of relevant topics are of interest to both physical educators and coaches and could begin to bridge the gap. (MT)
Full Text Available Marketing mix'' along the term of life cycle has robbed the trademark for the conception of marketing and the market direction of company, corporations and institutions. Essence marketing-mixa is in the simultaneous determining of the target market group of consumer (the buyer or stays the public and specially prepared and the coordinated impact of elements mixa, and this is the product, price, distributions and graduation ceremonies. Given that is mix combinations of verified variables, companies he use in order to would achieve are wished the scope sales on the target market. In the wider context significant influence of environment on the chosen structure marketing-mixa have not only technological, economic and competitive services already and socially-owned, legislative, legal and political services. From those reasons chant the marketing -mixa occasionally replaces expression are coordinated term acts on the market. Elements marketing-mix-and at sport marketings same are as well as at marketings every other activity. They contain the sportively product and the service, appreciate the sport product and services, distribution of sport product and services and the promotion of sport product and services.
Drayer, Joris; Rascher, Dan
Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low risk environment. The OAKLAND A'S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry, in which sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of experiences provided…
Saugy, M; Avois, L; Saudan, C; Robinson, N; Giroud, C; Mangin, P; Dvorak, J
Cannabis is on the list of prohibited substances in the practice of sport, although its performance enhancing effect has not yet been proved. Its popularity among the younger generations as a social drug puts cannabis at the top of the list of compounds detected by the anti-doping laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency worldwide. The management of the results of urine analysis is quite difficult for the medical and disciplinary committees not only because of the social use of the substance, but also because of the interpretation of the analytical data from urine samples. This paper gives an overview of what is presently known about cannabis in relation with the practice of sport. Review of literature on the cannabis and exercise, its effect in the body, and the problems with interpretation of results when it is detected in urine. The paper outlines the major effects of cannabis in the context of its social use and its use for sport activities. The difficulties in the interpretation of urine sample analysis results because of the protracted excretion time of the main metabolite, long after the intake, are described. There is an urgent need for sport authorities to take measures necessary to avoid players misusing cannabis.
Full Text Available Fundrising is the kind of marketing strategy, which the main gool is to provide the money and the other resources. It is the moust important tasks of nonprofit organizacio( sport organiyation and the other organiyation which need money for development project. Fundraising is independent and sistematical way of compilation the financial resource and anather keind of help in nonprofit organization from the private persone, the enterprice, the associate ect.Fundraising enable the activity and realization projects. Aim of this working paper is to givs contibution these important problem of menagement, to explain it and apply it in sport. Today it we haven`t enought the financial resourceies, without activity to provide it, we will very quickly loss sympathy and support who could help as. Financial problems are present not only in the sport organization , but in the culture, social, eco, education and other organizations. Todey there is strong competition at the fundraising market. Sport has advantages in the mass actions frequently and in his places in the psyche and body development people in all of growth, rather then the another nonprofit organization. Fundraising provide a lot of many and create pozitive image in public environment
Thomas, Graham; Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.
fixed to players or equipment is generally not possible. This provides a rich set of opportunities for the application of computer vision techniques to help the competitors, coaches and audience. This paper discusses a selection of current commercial applications that use computer vision for sports...
Full Text Available The research is done in order to describe student’s attitudes on volunteering in sport. The sample consists of 231 students from Serbia, average age 21,06±3,12years. They were from eight colleges and faculties. For nominal and ordinal variables, frequencies were determined. Many of examined students have volunteering experiences. The results confirm that students believe that we live in a society which his generally thought only to its own benefit; they think that volunteering can not solve the problems in society; that people do not have enough experience with volunteering and people do not have time to volunteering; volunteering is for young people; in their family and among friends, there are no volunteers; everyone could be volunteer only if that wishes; do not believe that volunteering is a waste of time and it helps in future career. The prevalent number of students, regardless of the Faculty which they belong, rarely volunteered in areas outside of sport. Results also shows that students from sport faculties have less experience in volunteering in sport than students from other faculties, but this difference is not dramatic.
Smith, Nathan J.
Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…
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Sport und soziale Integration : Chancen, Probleme und Perspektiven für Städte und Kommunen ; Tagungsband der gleichnamigen Tagung am 28. und 29. Juni 2011 in Augsburg / Helmut Altenberger ... (Hrsg.). - Hamburg : Feldhaus, Ed. Czwalina, 2012. - 104 S. - (Sportwissenschaft und Sportpraxis ; 161)
Møller, Rasmus Bysted
Sportsidealismens grundsyn på forholdet mellem sport og moral har længe domineret sportsetikken. Opfattelsen, der går ud på, at sporten udgør frugtbar jord for dyrkelse af et moralsk sindelag, fordi sporten indeholder en moralsk dimension i kraft af sin egen-natur, understøttes ikke af den...... forholdet mellem sport og moral kom således til at bekræfte og delvist forklare empirien på området. Endeligt kunne sportsidealismens hovedtese tilbagevises, for så vidt at den omhandler forholdet mellem sport og moral i dette sidste ords moderne betydning. Dette skete i artiklens afsluttende fjerde afsnit......, hvor forskellen mellem antik og moderne etik blev tydeliggjort. På baggrund af den præsenterede undersøgelse af forholdet mellem sport og moral kan vi konkludere, at sporten isoleret set ikke egner sig som arnested for udviklingen af et moralsk sindelag, idet sporten ikke indeholder den af...
Brady, Don; Brady, Flo
Sport-related concussions (SRC) are not limited to specific age ranges, professional athletes, or gender. The primary focus of much of SRC research pertains to the assessment, management, and return to play (RTP) of the concussed athlete. This article highlights some major issues of SRC along with some controversies that presently exist within the…
Kiyomi Cerezo Takahash
Full Text Available This article aims to explain the development of an application whose function is to predict the results of different sporting encounters. To do this an analysis of the influential factors, algorithms and technology implemented, will be carried out.
Bria, S; Zeppilli, P
A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.
Full Text Available Managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports are part of decision making processes in sports and play a significant role in the development of Professional Sports in the country; as such it seems the analysis of their decision making styles would have a significant importance in the better guidance of the country’s sports toward professionalism. The main objective of this research is to study and inspect the decision making styles of the managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd Province in relation to the development of Professional Sports in that area. Population and respondents of this research were all the managers and vice managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd province the total number of whom was 39. The research method was descriptive and in purpose an applicable one. Instrument for data gathering was the standard survey questionnaire of Scott and Bruce containing 25 questions in order to measure the 5 decision making styles (Rational, Intuitive, Dependent, Spontaneous and Avoidant. The gathered data were analysed using descriptive statistical methods (Mean, Standard Deviation, Charts/Figures and deductive (non-parametric methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Friedman, Spearman and Pearson. The results showed that the Avoidant style of decision making has a greater significance and importance among managers and vice managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd province while the Rational style has the least significance among them. It was also found out that there is a significant direct relationship between decision making styles of Rational and Spontaneous; Intuitive and Dependent and the decision making styles of Spontaneous and Avoidant of the managers and vice managers of the Offices of Youth and Sports in Yazd.
Gender inequality in all areas of life remains a global problem despite efforts over the past twenty years in particular to address the situation. In physical activity and sport the inequality between women and men is particularly pronounced in almost all countries, although it differs in degree. Two of the main reasons why inequality between women and men physical activity and sport is more extreme than in many other areas of social life are the result of the close association between the attributes required for sport and those associated with traditional concepts of stereotypical, hegemonic masculinity, and a lack of understanding of the difference between sex and gender. In sport and physical activity physical differences between men and women have been confused with socially constructed differences i.e. physical differences have been confused with gender differences, and this confusion has been used to justify women's lesser and limited participation at all levels. To achieve equality between women and men in physical activity and sport it will be essential that gender is identified and understood as a socially constructed and fluid concept which is a product of the relations between women and men. The fact that women bear children or are generally less physically powerful than men is not sufficient to justify why it is not considered appropriate for women to participate in certain forms of physical activity or why their participation is less valued than the participation of men. An understanding of gender and of the construction of gender relations is an important pre-requisite to addressing the inequality between women and men in physical activity and sport and in developing policies and programs which include, and are of equal benefit to both sexes. While more research on the benefits of participation in physical activity is needed, there is currently sufficient information available to identify the health related and social value of participation to both
Kubayi Ntwanano Alliance
Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine constraints to sport participation among female secondary school students in Hlanganani rural area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 101 female students aged 17–24 years from four secondary schools were recruited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results indicated that the dress code, lack of energy, lack of family support and family commitment were identified as major constraints to sport participation among female students. The results of this study provide practical implications for promoting and developing female sports programmes in rural schools. This study suggests that stakeholders such as parents, peers, and teachers should motivate and encourage female students to participate in school sport. Additionally, the study recommended that in order to promote sport participation in rural areas, the values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and customs that restrict females from participating in sport and physical activity should be dissented.
Li, Hai; Zhang, James J; Mao, Luke Lunhua; Min, Sophia D
The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China's sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China's sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration.
Holgado Tello, Francisco Pablo; Navas Martínez, Leandro; López Núñez, Manuela; García Calvo, Tomás
The following paper first introduces, and then goes on to test a structural model for goal orientation in sports that involves both personal and contextual variables. 511 subjects participated in this study, male and female athletes who play a variety of sports (352 men and 159 women). They ranged in age from 16 to 45-years old and completed the TEOSQ (Balaguer, Tomás & Castillo's version, 1995), the POSQ (Treasure & Roberts, 1994), the PMCSQ-II (Newton & Duda, 1993), the Beliefs about the Causes of Success in Sports Questionnaire, and the Participation Motivation Inventory (Gill, Goss & Huddleston, 1983). The results of this sample show that success attribution and motivational climate are involved in determining goal orientation in sports. However, the model does present certain differences according to the type of sport practiced (individual versus team sport).
Henchoz, Yves; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Baggio, Stéphanie; Gmel, Gerhard
Among the negative consequences of video gaming disorder, decreased participation in sport and exercise has received little attention. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise in emerging adult men. A questionnaire was completed at baseline and 15-month follow-up by a representative national sample of 4,933 respondents. The seven items of the Game Addiction Scale were used to construct a latent variable representing video gaming disorder. Level of sport and exercise was also self-reported. Cross-lagged path modeling indicated a reciprocal causality between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise, even after adjusting for a large set of confounders. These findings support the need for better promotion of sport and exercise among emerging adults in order to contribute to the prevention of video gaming disorder, and to raise the level of sport and exercise activity in addicted gamers.
Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet
Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.
Vella, Stewart A; Cliff, Dylan P; Magee, Christopher A; Okely, Anthony D
This paper assessed the associations between sports participation and the development of psychological strengths and difficulties during childhood. Two-year follow up study of a sample of 4042 Australian children who were followed from age 8 years to 10 years. Parents reported children's participation in organised sports, and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Univariate general linear models were used to examine the association between changes in sports participation and psychological strengths and difficulties at 10 years, adjusting for psychological strengths and difficulties at age 8. Children who maintained participation in sport had lower rates of parent-reported psychological difficulties at 10 years compared with children who dropped out of sport. Less internalising problems were also reported for children who participated in organised sports compared to children who dropped out of sports and children who did not participate in sports. These relationships did not differ by BMI, socioeconomic status, or parental education. Greater psychological difficulties are experienced by children who drop out of sports, and greater social and emotional problems are experienced by children who drop out of sports and who do not participate in organised sports. Due consideration should be given to the quality and implementation of sporting programs to ensure that they provide benefits to mental health. Due consideration should also be given to the potential psychological difficulties being experienced by children who drop out of organised sports as a higher level of psychological difficulties may be experienced prior to or subsequent to dropout. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thematic Mapping from Satellite Imagery: A Guidebook discusses methods in producing maps using satellite images. The book is comprised of five chapters; each chapter covers one stage of the process. Chapter 1 tackles the satellite remote sensing imaging and its cartographic significance. Chapter 2 discusses the production processes for extracting information from satellite data. The next chapter covers the methods for combining satellite-derived information with that obtained from conventional sources. Chapter 4 deals with design and semiology for cartographic representation, and Chapter 5 pre
Vanhoenacker, F.M.; Gielen, J.L.; Maas, M.
This volume provides an updated review of imaging abnormalities in orthopedic sports injuries. The first part of the book contains background information on relevant basic science and general imaging principles in sports traumatology. The second part comprises a topographic discussion of sports injuries. Each chapter highlights the merit of different imaging techniques, focused on a specific clinical problem. In the third part, natural history, monitoring and follow-up by imaging are discussed. This well-illustrated book will be of value for musculoskeletal radiologists, orthopedic surgeons, sports physicians and everyone else involved in sports medicine. (orig.)
Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna
The current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sports, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record the monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. To assess the reliability, content validity and concurrent validity of the survey and to evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. 145 consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed 2 days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients was included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the 12th postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was a substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ=0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire.
Grindem, Hege; Eitzen, Ingrid; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Risberg, May Arna
Background Current methods measuring sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are commonly restricted to the most knee-demanding sport, and do not consider participation in multiple sports. We therefore developed an online activity survey to prospectively record monthly participation in all major sports relevant to our patient-group. Objective To assess the reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity of the survey, and evaluate if it provided more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. Methods One hundred and forty-five consecutively included ACL-injured patients were eligible for the reliability study. The retest of the online activity survey was performed two days after the test response had been recorded. A subsample of 88 ACL-reconstructed patients were included in the validity study. The ACL-reconstructed patients completed the online activity survey from the first to the twelfth postoperative month, and a routine activity questionnaire 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Results The online activity survey was highly reliable (κ ranging from 0.81 to 1). It contained all the common sports reported on the routine activity questionnaire. There was substantial agreement between the two methods on return to preinjury main sport (κ = 0.71 and 0.74 at 6 and 12 months postoperatively). The online activity survey revealed that a significantly higher number of patients reported to participate in running, cycling and strength training, and patients reported to participate in a greater number of sports. Conclusion The online activity survey is a highly reliable way of recording detailed changes in sports participation after ACL injury. The findings of this study support the content and concurrent validity of the survey, and suggest that the online activity survey can provide more complete data on sports participation than a routine activity questionnaire. PMID:23645830
Downhill skiing is associated with recreation, youth, speed, aerials and crowded courses which carry increased risk of injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate downhill sport injuries in a Swedish ski resort. Material and methodsIn a case-control study ongoing 1989/90–2006/07, 3,696 injured skiers were registered. After informed consent the injured were assessed by a physician and asked to answer a questionnaire concerning skier, skiing and injury. ResultsAfter three years 481 injured ...
Boden, Barry P
Catastrophic sports injuries are rare but tragic events. Direct (traumatic) catastrophic injury results from participating in the skills of a sport, such as a collision in football. Football is associated with the greatest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all major team sports in the United States. Pole vaulting, gymnastics, ice hockey, and football have the highest incidence of direct catastrophic injuries for sports in which males participate. In most sports, the rate of catastrophic injury is higher at the collegiate than at the high school level. Cheerleading is associated with the highest number of direct catastrophic injuries for all sports in which females participate. Indirect (nontraumatic) injury is caused by systemic failure as a result of exertion while participating in a sport. Cardiovascular conditions, heat illness, exertional hyponatremia, and dehydration can cause indirect catastrophic injury. Understanding the common mechanisms of injury and prevention strategies for direct catastrophic injuries is critical in caring for athletes.
Fernandez-Jaén, Tomas F; Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel Del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez
On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms-without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period-all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain.
Laborde, Sylvain; Guillén, Félix; Dosseville, Fabrice; Allen, Mark S
Chronotype and sport participation have been found to relate to positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID). To date, research has focused exclusively on the morningness-eveningness dimension of chronotype, and little is known about the relationship between chronotype and various characteristics of sport participation (e.g. training time). This investigation had three primary objectives: (1) to extend the current evidence base by exploring how sport participation and PTLID relate to chronotype amplitude, (2) to explore how chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) relates to various characteristics of sport training and competition, and (3) to explore the independent and interrelated contribution of sport participation and chronotype to PTLID. The sample included 976 non-athletes (493 women and 483 men) and 974 athletes (478 women and 496 men). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires targeting sport participation characteristics, six positive PTLID (hope, optimism, perseverance, resilience, self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence) and chronotype dimensions. Results showed that morningness-eveningness was negatively related to positive PTLID but was unrelated to sport participation. Greater diurnal fluctuations (amplitude dimension) were associated with lower positive PTLID values, lower sport participation, and shorter training durations. Positive PTLID were also associated with better sleep quality and a shorter sleep duration. Chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) and sport participation had independent associations with PTLID. These findings suggest that changes in sport participation and activity times might be a useful approach to developing positive PTLID.
Frideres, Jillian E; Mottinger, Sue G; Palao, José M
The purpose of this study was to determine what coaches of female athletes know about the three components of the female athlete triad with regard to type of sport coached and the characteristics of the coach. The sample consisted of 309 NCAA Division I coaches of female athletes in the sports of: sports with subjective scoring of performance (gymnastics and diving), low body weight sports (cross country and rowing), revealing or fitted clothing (volleyball and swimming), and other (soccer and basketball). An original, self-report questionnaire, and a 4-point Likert scale to measure confidence in answer was used. The variables were: knowledge, confidence, and coach's characteristics (coach's gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the triad and triad components, and type of sport coached). Coaches of low body weight sports scored significantly higher than both coaches of sports requiring fitted clothing and "other" sports in the overall score. They further had significantly more confidence in their answers than coaches of "other" sports. No significant differences in the overall score in any of the types of sport or total values were found regarding gender, experience, and degree. Coaches who had received training about the triad or its components scored significantly higher than coaches who did not receive training. The results demonstrated a lack of information among coaches and that participating in formative training can help to reduce this problem. The results found can help in the design of continuing education for coaches.
Reeder Anthony I
Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the extent and nature of alcohol imagery on New Zealand (NZ television, a content analysis of 98 hours of prime-time television programs and advertising was carried out over 7 consecutive days' viewing in June/July 2004. The main outcome measures were number of scenes in programs, trailers and advertisements depicting alcohol imagery; the extent of critical versus neutral and promotional imagery; and the mean number of scenes with alcohol per hour, and characteristics of scenes in which alcohol featured. Results There were 648 separate depictions of alcohol imagery across the week, with an average of one scene every nine minutes. Scenes depicting uncritical imagery outnumbered scenes showing possible adverse health consequences of drinking by 12 to 1. Conclusion The evidence points to a large amount of alcohol imagery incidental to storylines in programming on NZ television. Alcohol is also used in many advertisements to market non-alcohol goods and services. More attention needs to be paid to the extent of alcohol imagery on television from the industry, the government and public health practitioners. Health education with young people could raise critical awareness of the way alcohol imagery is presented on television.
Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette
Paired associate memory was tested with imagery and repetition instructions, with and without background music. Subjects were 64 students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. Music was found to have no effect with imagery instructions, but significantly improved performance with the repetition instructions. Music had different effects on…
Polland, Mark J.
In order to investigate the relationship between mental imagery and creative problem solving, a study of 44 separate accounts reporting mental imagery experiences associated with creative discoveries were examined. The data included 29 different scientists, among them Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking, and 9 artists, musicians, and writers,…
Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel
Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory - but not iconic visual memory - can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage. PMID:22195024
Full Text Available Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory--but not iconic visual memory--can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage.
Keogh, Rebecca; Pearson, Joel
Visual working memory provides an essential link between past and future events. Despite recent efforts, capacity limits, their genesis and the underlying neural structures of visual working memory remain unclear. Here we show that performance in visual working memory--but not iconic visual memory--can be predicted by the strength of mental imagery as assessed with binocular rivalry in a given individual. In addition, for individuals with strong imagery, modulating the background luminance diminished performance on visual working memory and imagery tasks, but not working memory for number strings. This suggests that luminance signals were disrupting sensory-based imagery mechanisms and not a general working memory system. Individuals with poor imagery still performed above chance in the visual working memory task, but their performance was not affected by the background luminance, suggesting a dichotomy in strategies for visual working memory: individuals with strong mental imagery rely on sensory-based imagery to support mnemonic performance, while those with poor imagery rely on different strategies. These findings could help reconcile current controversy regarding the mechanism and location of visual mnemonic storage.
Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Together with the increase of importance of sport as a social phenomenon importance of optimizing the system of sports training of talented athletes is growing. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to obtain information on the activities of coaches, training process, and conditions under which they are realized in volleyball youth sports centers in the Czech Republic (SpS. METHODS: We have created a survey focused on six topical areas of sports training in volleyball. This paper deals with the analysis of areas "Coaches and their activities" and "training process". The questionnaire was sent to 18 coaches of male teams incorporated to SpS, 18 coaches responded (response rate 100%. RESULTS: We found a statistically significant relationship (rpb = 0.41; p < 0.05 between long-term performance and competences of coaches. The research shows that activity in particular SpS in most areas is consistent with current knowledge and trends in youth training. Reserves exist primarily in the number of coaches working with individual teams (in 13 cases only 1 coach and in regeneration. In some SpS a unified training strategy is missing and training process is not properly structured. CONCLUSIONS: The study allowed partial evaluation of conditions, quality and content of the training process in the SPS. The acquired knowledge can contribute to the improvement of SpS functioning.
van Wilgen, Cornelis P; Keizer, Doeke
The pathophysiology of chronic sports injuries such as overuse or tendinopathy remains largely unknown. With this exploratory study, we aim to detect signs of sensitization of the nervous system. Sensitization is an indication of the involvement of neuropathic mechanisms in patients with chronic sports injuries. Sensory descriptors were assessed by means of a neuropathic pain questionnaire (DN4-interview) and by three methods of sensory testing. The test results were integrated in a scoring system. Patients were recruited from an outpatient clinic of a University Medical Centre and at primary care physical therapy practices. Fifteen athletes with a unilateral chronic sports injury were included. All subjects filled out the seven-items of the DN4-interview to assess sensory descriptors. Next, the presence of brush-evoked allodynia was assessed and pain thresholds with Von Frey monofilaments and a pressure algometer were measured in all patients to determine signs of sensitization. Based on the scoring system, in 4 out of 15 patients (27%) the presence of sensitization could be detected. In two other patients, signs of hypoalgesia were observed. The involvement of sensitization as an explanation for the pain in chronic sports injuries is credible in a considerable proportion of patients. With respect to treatment, the establishment of such neuropathic pain mechanisms is of clinical significance. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lowe, Robyn; Menzies, Ross; Packman, Ann; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark
Adults who stutter are at risk of developing a range of psychological conditions. Social anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder associated with stuttering. Observer perspective imagery is one cognitive process involved in the maintenance of some anxiety disorders. This involves viewing images as if looking at the self from the perspective of another. In contrast, the field perspective involves looking out from the self at the surrounding environment. The purpose of this study was to assess the presence of observer perspective imagery with stuttering. The authors administered the Hackmann, Surawy and Clark (1998) semi-structured interview to 30 adults who stutter and 30 controls. Group images and impressions were compared for frequency, perspective recalled and emotional valence. The stuttering group was significantly more likely than controls to recall images and impressions from an observer rather than a field perspective for anxious situations. It is possible the present results could reflect the same attentional processing bias that occurs with anxiety disorders in the non-stuttering population. These preliminary results provide an explanation for the persistence of conditions such as social anxiety disorder with stuttering. Clinical implications are discussed.
Reverdito, Riller S; Galatti, Larissa R; Carvalho, Humberto M; Scaglia, Alcides J; Côté, Jean; Gonçalves, Carlos E; Paes, Roberto R
Youth sporting activities have been explored as a way to impact positive personal transformation and development, glaringly demonstrated by world-wide investments in public policies, programs, and projects. We studied positive effects of participation in sports on the developmental assets of 614 adolescents (13.1 ± 1.7 years) actively engaged in extracurricular sport programs targeted at socially disadvantaged youths, from five municipalities across five states of the southern, south-eastern and north-eastern regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a developmental assets questionnaire designed to capture sociodemographic and human development data. Multilevel logistic regression was used to explore associations between years of participation in sport and human development indicators, controlling for age and sex. Our results showed that the quality of the young people's support network and duration of program participation positively influenced sport participation, which, in turn, was associated with willingness to learn. A strong association was also observed between sport participation and developmental assets. Thus, we offer new evidence of a relationship between positive development and environmental factors in which individual and contextual forces can be aligned, and we provide new reference data for developing countries.
Flynn, Theresa A; Jones, Brittney A; Ausderau, Karla K
We examined the effects of a guided imagery intervention on perceived stress in pregnant adolescents. Thirty-five pregnant adolescents recruited from a local alternative education program participated in a guided imagery intervention. Participants listened to a pregnancy-specific guided imagery recording on four separate occasions during their pregnancies. Perceived stress was measured immediately before and after each session using the Perceived Stress Measure-9 (PSM-9). Participants' pre- and postsession PSM-9 scores for three of the four sessions demonstrated a significant reduction in stress. Participants' baseline stress levels also decreased significantly across the four listening sessions. The greatest reductions in stress within and between sessions occurred in the early sessions, with effects diminishing over time. Pregnant teens experienced initial short- and long-term stress reduction during a guided imagery intervention, supporting the use of guided imagery to reduce stress in pregnant adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Bieger, Thomas; Beritelli, Pietro
Marketing Management of sport and tourism does not just mean marketing of touristic sport products. Marketing management of sport and tourism can be divided into marketing of sport activities, events or infrastructure for people outside the location and marketing of tourism through sport activities, events and sport infrastructure. A system approach is introduced to serve as a model for explaining interrelations between the different elements in the sport and tourism context. As such destinat...
Vasilyev, Anatoly; Liburkina, Sofya; Yakovlev, Lev; Perepelkina, Olga; Kaplan, Alexander
Motor imagery (MI) is considered to be a promising cognitive tool for improving motor skills as well as for rehabilitation therapy of movement disorders. It is believed that MI training efficiency could be improved by using the brain-computer interface (BCI) technology providing real-time feedback on person's mental attempts. While BCI is indeed a convenient and motivating tool for practicing MI, it is not clear whether it could be used for predicting or measuring potential positive impact of the training. In this study, we are trying to establish whether the proficiency in BCI control is associated with any of the neurophysiological or psychological correlates of motor imagery, as well as to determine possible interrelations among them. For that purpose, we studied motor imagery in a group of 19 healthy BCI-trained volunteers and performed a correlation analysis across various quantitative assessment metrics. We examined subjects' sensorimotor event-related EEG events, corticospinal excitability changes estimated with single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), BCI accuracy and self-assessment reports obtained with specially designed questionnaires and interview routine. Our results showed, expectedly, that BCI performance is dependent on the subject's capability to suppress EEG sensorimotor rhythms, which in turn is correlated with the idle state amplitude of those oscillations. Neither BCI accuracy nor the EEG features associated with MI were found to correlate with the level of corticospinal excitability increase during motor imagery, and with assessed imagery vividness. Finally, a significant correlation was found between the level of corticospinal excitability increase and kinesthetic vividness of imagery (KVIQ-20 questionnaire). Our results suggest that two distinct neurophysiological mechanisms might mediate possible effects of motor imagery: the non-specific cortical sensorimotor disinhibition and the focal corticospinal excitability increase
Full Text Available Ethics, as a practical philosophy, is found in essential relationships and relations with other relevant practical disciplines (economics, law, politics, sport, etc.. Every human activity is ethically grounded. Therefore, human ethics, which includes sport ethics, is one of the fundamental criteria for establishing moral relations in different are as of sport life. Sport morale stems from a universally accepted ethics legal principles that aim at maintaining sport spirit based on the Olympics codex and humanity principles, among which are: consciousness and honesty, righteousness, cultural-behavior principle, openness, and the like. Changes in sport (organizational, structural, competition, etc. need to be adequately adjusted to universal, and generally accepted, values. Avoiding deontological ethics inevitably leads to increased sports immorality (referees_ fixing match results, spectators_ aggressive behavior, cheating using for bidden doping, etc.. Thus, projecting and introducing innovations in the field of sport, which, after all, are necessary and unavoidable in all areas of life, including sport, will eventually show its positive results only if the aforementioned aspects of sport ethics are taken into consideration.
Isabel Cristina Gallego Ching
Full Text Available El estrés generado por la práctica deportiva ha originado una mayor probabilidad de que los atletas presenten lesiones agudas y crónicas. En el ámbito mundial existen diferentes investigaciones acerca de la incidencia de lesiones deportivas. La comparación de sus resultados es difícil por las diferencias en las características de la población y en la forma de reportar los datos, que varía ampliamente entre los estudios (proporciones o tasas de incidencia o tasas por cada 100 ó 1.000 participantes o tasas por horas de juego o por número de partidos jugados. Las tasas varían entre 1,7 y 53 lesiones por 1.000 horas de práctica deportiva, entre 0,8 y 90,9 por 1.000 horas de entrenamiento, entre 3,1 y 54,8 por 1.000 horas de competición y de 6,1 a 10,9 por 100 juegos. La gran variación entre las tasas de incidencia se explica por las diferencias existentes entre los deportes, los países, el nivel competitivo, las edades y la metodología empleada en los estudios. Se ha definido la lesión deportiva como la que ocurre cuando los atletas están expuestos a la práctica del deporte y se produce alteración o daño de un tejido, afectando el funcionamiento de la estructura. Los deportes de contacto generan mayor riesgo de presentar lesiones; se destacan al respecto los siguientes: fútbol, rugby, baloncesto, balonmano, artes marciales y jockey. Las lesiones ocurren con mayor probabilidad en las competencias que en el entrenamiento. Stress generated by sports practice has increased the probability that athletes suffer from acute and chronic injuries. Worldwide, there have been many different investigations concerning the incidence of sport injuries. The different ways in which results have been presented makes it difficult to compare among them. Rates of sports injuries vary between 1.7 and 53 per 1.000 hours of sports practice; 0.8 and 90.9 per 1.000 hours of training; 3.1 and 54.8 per 1.000 hours of competition, and 6.1 and 10.9 per 100
. Furthermore, an empowering motivational environment characterized by a mastery climate, supportive of the needs of autonomy, competence, and relatedness, was positively linked to attitudes favoring migrants' maintenance of their culture and development of interaction with the host culture, whereas......In the era of globalization, multicultural societies are common-place in most developed countries. Therefore, new challenges at both national and international level have come to the fore, and successful acculturation appears to be the key for maintaining social cohesion and promoting...... the acculturation process and to identify factors that may regulate the acculturation process through sport participation. The second study focuses on adolescent migrants and aimed at identifying differences in acculturation attitudes and acculturative stress among young migrants who participate in sports and those...
Full Text Available Given the importance of sport for international integration, affirmation, a sense of belonging and other values of general interest, in order to maintain and open new prospects of development, it is necessary to form the private security system along with state security system, with a view to creating conditions for development sports athletes to achieve better results both in domestic and international competitions. Private security is only one element of an integrated security system which, with its efficient organization with the use of adequate means and measures should provide answers to new challenges, risks and threats. Private security in line with the new understanding of the concept of security has an important role in providing athletes.
Mulligan, Edward P; DeVahl, Julie
The specialty niche of sports physical therapy has grown at a significant rate over the past 40 years. Despite this growth there is little information or direction from the physical therapy education accreditation body or professional association to guide academic programs on the interest or necessity of this type of practice content in physical therapy professional degree programs. The purpose of this survey study is to report on the prevalence, attitudes, barriers, resources, and faculty expertise in providing required or elective sports physical therapy course work. Cross-sectional descriptive survey. A 57-item questionnaire with branching logic was distributed via a web-based electronic data capture tool to survey all Commission on Accreditation for Physical Therapy Education (CAPTE) accredited and candidate schools in the United States. Response data was analyzed to describe typical educational program profiles, faculty demographics, and correlational factors consistent with the presence or absence of specific sports physical therapy curricular content. Thirty one percent of the schools responded to the survey and the program demographics were consistent with all currently accredited schools in regards to their geography, Carnegie classification, and faculty and student size. Forty three percent of programs offered a required or elective course distinct to the practice of sports physical therapy. Descriptive information regarding the sequencing, curricular make-up, resources, and assessment of content competence is reported. The odds of providing this content nearly doubles for programs that have faculty with sports clinical specialist credentials, accredited sports residency curriculums, or state practice acts that allow sports venue coverage. This survey provides an initial overview of sports physical therapy educational efforts in professional physical therapy degree programs. The data can used to spur further discussion on the necessity, structure, and
Stache, Stephen; Howell, David; Meehan, William P
The primary purpose of this study was to examine concussion management practice patterns among sports medicine physicians in the United States. Cross-sectional study using a web-based survey. Members of the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM). We distributed a questionnaire to physician members of the AMSSM assessing the current practices for evaluating and managing concussions sustained during sports. Specifically, we asked respondents about their use of management guidelines, medications, balance assessments, neuropsychological tests, and return-to-play strategies. Of the 3591 members emailed, 425 (11.8%) respondents responded. Ninety-seven percent of respondents reported basing current management of sport-related concussion on a published set of criteria, with a majority (91.9%) following the guidelines provided by the Fourth International Conference on Concussion in Sport. Seventy-six percent of respondents reported using medication beyond 48 hours postinjury. Acetaminophen was reported as the most commonly administered medication, although tricyclic antidepressants and amantadine were also commonly administered. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements were also reported as commonly administered. Most respondents reported using a form of neuropsychological testing (87.1%). A majority of respondents (88.6%) reported allowing athletes to return to competition after concussion only once the athlete becomes symptom free and completes a return-to-play protocol. Most sports medicine physicians seem to use recently developed guidelines for concussion management, regularly use medications and neuropsychological testing in management strategies, and follow established return-to-play guidelines. Sports medicine physicians seem to have clinical expertise in the management of sport-related concussion.
Joris, Drayer; Daniel, Rascher
Simulations have long been used in business schools to give students experience making real-world decisions in a relatively low-risk environment. The OAKLAND A’S BASEBALL BUSINESS SIMULATOR takes a traditional business simulation and applies it to the sport industry where sales of tangible products are replaced by sales of an experience provided to fans. The simulator asks students to make decisions about prices for concessions, parking, and merchandise, player payroll expenses, funding for...
Le Docteur Guenin, lui-même un grand sportif, qui exerce entre beaucoup d'autres activités la course à pieds et le ski de fond, est aussi sécrétaire médical du journal "Vie et Santé. Il nous parle de l'exercice du sport, gym aérobic, jogging etc. avec présention de quelques dias et d'un film du Dr.Kupper.
Storm, Rasmus K.
Professional football in Europe is characterized by persistent deficits, growing debts and additional financial problems among the majority of the top league clubs. Despite these problems, these clubs have an abnormally high survival rate. This paper focuses on this apparent paradox and poses the...... in Europe, this paper argues that professional team sports clubs (PTSCs) are cases of an economic phenomenon normally found in socialist or post-socialist economies....
Володимир Миколайович Зюзь
Full Text Available Aquatic sports or boating, has become a mass sport and recreation. It is as delightful a holiday as one might wish for, gaining strength around the world and especially in Ukraine. More and more people are eager to see the beauty of the underwater world, enjoy exciting sailing races, long journeys along beautiful rivers and unexplored areas, as well as smooth sailing at the height of the season. The article analyzes the modern aquatic (water tourism hazards that can lie in wait for a person in the water during camping trips and various boating competitions. This kind of sports is dangerous in principle, as aqueous medium is always perilous whether water is rough or calm. Accidents are always possible and tourists may find themselves in water, hypothermia, impossibility to breathe, impactions against different objects in the water resulting. Ships, food and equipment may also be damaged or lost, that is the consequences may be extremely negative. This article includes description of boating types, extreme forms of boating, the design features of the swimming facilities used in boating, practical skills and the ability to apply the facilities; characteristics of waves and currents; types of rivers; forms and methods of transportation and rescue of the drowning people; rendering assistance and first aid to the victims; promotion of safety rules on the water during the boating. The main goals and objectives in preparing aquatic tourism professionals whose main duty is safety, training topics, theoretical and practical materials for training the basics of safety that makes it possible to get acquainted with all the requirements have been discussed. The first attempt to develop general educational standards in training professionals in water sports and safety basing on the new priorities and the principles of modern vocational education has been made in the articles
McKee, Ann C; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Alvarez, Victor E; Stein, Thor D
The benefits of regular exercise, physical fitness and sports participation on cardiovascular and brain health are undeniable. Physical activity reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and stroke, and produces beneficial effects on cholesterol levels, antioxidant systems, inflammation, and vascular function. Exercise also enhances psychological health, reduces age-related loss of brain volume, improves cognition, reduces the risk of developing dementia, and impedes neurodegeneration. Nonetheless, the play of sports is associated with risks, including a risk for mild TBI (mTBI) and, rarely, catastrophic traumatic injury and death. There is also growing awareness that repetitive mTBIs, such as concussion and subconcussion, can occasionally produce persistent cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric problems as well as lead to the development of a neurodegeneration, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). In this review, we summarize the beneficial aspects of sports participation on psychological, emotional, physical and cognitive health, and specifically analyze some of the less common adverse neuropathological outcomes, including concussion, second-impact syndrome, juvenile head trauma syndrome, catastrophic sudden death, and CTE. CTE is a latent neurodegeneration clinically associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction and cognitive impairments, and pathologically characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy, neuronal and axonal loss, and abnormal deposits of paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and 43 kDa TAR deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-binding protein (TDP-43). CTE often occurs as a sole diagnosis, but may be associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, including motor neuron disease (CTE-MND). Although the incidence and prevalence of CTE are not known, CTE has been reported most frequently in American football players and boxers. Other sports associated with CTE include ice hockey, professional
36 children in Grade 5 and 59 university students, all native speakers of Japanese, studied three types of priming stimuli in a mixed list: words written in hiragana (Japanese syllabary used in writing), words written in kanji (Chinese characters also used in writing), and pictures. They were then given a task involving completion of hiragana-word fragments: the task involved studied and nonstudied items. For both children and university students, words in hiragana produced the largest priming effects, that is, the words that had appeared in hiragana in the preceding study phase were generated more often in the test phase of word completion than the other two types of priming stimuli. This confirms that the perceptual priming effect depends much on data-driven processing. For both age groups, words in kanji produced nearly half the priming effects seen for hiragana-words. On the other hand, pictures had no priming effect for children but they had a similar effect to kanji-words for students. The discrepancy between kanji-words and pictures for children suggests that the former force the subject to read the words, which, possibly, activates the hiragana-words, while the latter do not necessarily force labelling the pictures. Among three kinds of imagery tests, the Verbalizer-Visualizer Questionnaire predicted priming scores for children and the Questionnaire upon Mental Imagery did so for students, but the Test of Visual Imagery Control did not predict the scores for either age group. This shows that children reporting habitual use of imagery and adults reporting vivid imagery have more pronounced perceptual priming effects. We conclude that the imagery ability based on self-judgments reflects real characteristics of the perceptual representation system of Tulving and Schacter (1990).
Loffing, Florian; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen
Anticipation has become an increasingly important research area within sport psychology since its infancy in the late 1970s. Early work has increased our fundamental understanding of skilled anticipation in sports and how this skill is developed. With increasing theoretical and practical insights and concurrent technological advancements, researchers are now able to tackle more detailed questions with sophisticated methods. Despite this welcomed progress, some fundamental questions and challenges remain to be addressed, including the (relative) contributions of visual and motor experience to anticipation, intraindividual and interindividual variation in gaze behaviour, and the impact of non-kinematic (contextual or situational) information on performance and its interaction with advanced kinematic cues during the planning and execution of (re)actions in sport. The aim of this opinion paper is to shortly sketch the state of the art, and then to discuss recent work that has started to systematically address open challenges thereby inspiring promising future routes for research on anticipation and its application in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Pamela E; Clayton, Gerald H
Participation in recreational and competitive sports at an early age has long been touted as a positive influence on growth and development, and for fostering lifelong healthy lifestyles. The benefits of an active lifestyle include not only fitness, but the promotion of a sense of inclusion and improved self-esteem. These benefits are well documented in all populations, and their importance has been summarized in the recent Healthy People 2010 guidelines. The American Academy of Pediatrics has recently produced a summary statement on the benefits of activity for disabled children. They note that children with disabilities tend to have an overall lower level of fitness and an increased level of obesity. For this population, developing a lifelong desire to be active can be a simple means for limiting illness and much of the morbidity associated with sedentary lifestyles often associated with disability. For disabled youth, participation in disabled sports programs available nationally and internationally can be an effective means to promote such precepts. The goal of this focused review is to improve the learner's knowledge of the positive impact that active lifestyles can have on overall health in the disabled youth population and, as a result, modify their practice by incorporating recreational and competitive sport activities as part of improving overall patient care. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bonnin, Michel P.; Rollier, Jean-Charles; Chatelet, Jean-Christophe; Ait-Si-Selmi, Tarik; Chouteau, Julien; Jacquot, Laurent; Hannink, Gerjon; Saffarini, Mo; Fessy, Michel-Henri
Background: Patients are often concerned about returning to sports after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Purpose: To (1) evaluate sports participation and motivation rates in a large cohort of patients who underwent uncemented THA with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings and (2) determine whether patients’ participation was associated with their motivation for each sport, preoperative demographics, or patient-reported outcomes. Study Design: Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: We surveyed 1310 patients (aged sports as well as patient-reported outcome measure scores. A total of 1042 patients (1206 hips) returned questionnaires; the mean age at index surgery was 60.6 ± 8.8 years. Results: At least 51% of patients participated regularly or frequently in at least 1 light sport, 73% in at least 1 moderate sport, and 20% in at least 1 strenuous sport. Sports participation was strongly correlated with motivation (r = 0.97, P sports was significantly associated with age, body mass index, and sex. There were significant differences among patients who practiced various categories of sports as determined using the Oxford Hip Score (P = .008), but not with regard to the Forgotten Joint Score (P = .054). Conclusion: Only 20% of patients practiced strenuous sports regularly or frequently after THA, regardless of pain or discomfort. Participation in sports after THA is strongly correlated with motivation but not with level of discomfort. Longer term studies with a greater focus on complications and survival are necessary to determine whether high-impact sports compromise patient safety or implant longevity. PMID:29707594
Dean, Peter N; Gillespie, Catherine W; Greene, Elizabeth Anne; Pearson, Gail D; Robb, Adelaide S; Berul, Charles I; Kaltman, Jonathan R
Adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) are often restricted from physical activity and sports participation, which may have adverse effects. To determine the amount of physical activity, type of sports participation, and reasons for sports restrictions, and to evaluate the effect of sports participation on quality of life (QoL) in a cohort of patients with CHD. Individuals with CHD aged 13-30 years were recruited at outpatient visits or via mailings. They completed a questionnaire addressing physical activity, sports participation, sports restrictions, and QoL (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory). We also reviewed the patient's medical record. Of the 177 patients who responded (mean age 20 years), 31% have mild CHD, 40% have moderate CHD, and 29% have severe CHD. In the cohort, 52% participate in competitive sports, 25% recreational sports, and 23% no sports. Among patients with severe CHD, 29% participate in competitive sports that would be restricted by published guidelines (36th Bethesda Conference). After controlling for age, sex, CHD severity, residual hemodynamic disease, and comorbidities, participation in competitive sports and increased frequency of physical activity are independently associated with a higher QoL (P = .003 and P = .001, respectively). In an identical model, competitive sports participation and frequency of physical activity are associated with higher maximum predicted oxygen consumption (VO2 ) (n = 40; P = .002 and .02) and slightly lower body mass index (BMI) (P = .02 and .01). All findings were similar when analyses were stratified by recruitment method. Patients with CHD commonly participate in competitive sports, and such participation is associated with higher QoL, improved exercise capacity, and lower BMI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Auvinen, Juha P; Tammelin, Tuija H; Taimela, Simo P; Zitting, Paavo J; Mutanen, Pertti O A; Karppinen, Jaro I
We examined the associations between participation in different sports and exercise activities and neck, shoulder, and low back pains in adolescents. This population-based study included the members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, who, at the age of 15 to 16 yr, completed a questionnaire including items about their musculoskeletal pains and participation in various sport and exercise activities (N = 6945). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate how musculoskeletal pains are associated a) with participation in a certain type of sport or exercise activity and b) with the clusters formed by latent class analysis (LCA) according to the adolescents' profiles of participation in different sport and exercise activities. Participation in certain sports showed some direct and inverse associations with musculoskeletal pains when adjusted for participation in other sports and for the amount of physical activity. However, after grouping the individuals into clusters by their participation in different sports, these associations vanished. Only the cluster characterized by boys' active participation in several sports (i.e., ice hockey, cycling, ice-skating, soccer, floorball, rinkball/bandy, swimming, roller-skating/skateboarding, Finnish baseball) had lower prevalence of neck pain compared with the physically inactive group. Physically active adolescents usually engage in several different sport and exercise activities, which make associations between single sports and musculoskeletal pains inconsequential in the general population of adolescents. Participation in several sports seemed to protect from harmful effects of a single risk sport. However, this finding cannot be generalized to adolescent elite athletes who are often involved in intense training for a single sport.
Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of four different imagery techniques: pleasant imagery versus imaginative transformations, and response versus stimulus imagery. One may expect imaginative transformations to be more effective than pleasant imagery. Response imaginative transformations should be more effective than stimulus imaginative transformations, while the pleasant imagery conditions are not expected to have different effects. In a 2x2 design, treatment conditions were compared. Forty patients (33 females, seven males with different types of chronic headache were referred by their physicians and took part in the study. Pain diaries and questionnaires of pain experience and pain behaviour were used as outcome measures. Imaginative transformations - irrespective of response or stimulus orientation - were found to be more effective than pleasant imagery in reducing headache frequency. Reductions remained stable over an eight-month follow-up. There are no significant differences between response and stimulus imagery. Treatment effects were manifested in a reduction of headache frequency, while headache duration and headache intensity did not change. Suffering and avoidance behaviours were reduced in all treatment groups, while the use of distraction strategies was increased. The reductions in suffering were significantly greater in the groups treated with imaginative transformations. In the eight-month follow-up, group differences in reductions in suffering were no longer significant, which is probably due to the reduced sample size. The results support the hypothesis that a cognitive redefinition is responsible for the beneficial treatment effects because only instructions to imagine a change in pain sensations and/or pain responses led to significant improvements.
Zvan, Milan; Zenic, Natasa; Sekulic, Damir; Cubela, Mladen; Lesnik, Blaz
Religiousness is known to be specifically associated with substance abuse, but there is an evident lack of studies investigating the association between religiousness and doping behavior as a specific type of substance abuse in athletes. This study aimed to provide evidence for possible gender- and sport-specific associations between religiousness and doping behavior among team-sport athletes of both genders. The participants were 886 athletes (21.9 ± 3.8 years of age; 352 females) involved in four sports: volleyball (n = 154; 78 females), handball (n = 206; 68 females), soccer (n = 316; 110 females) and basketball (n = 230; 96 females) from Croatia and Slovenia (all traditionally Roman Catholics). The data were collected using a previously validated structured questionnaire that examined sociodemographic, sport- and doping-related factors. In addition, religiousness was captured by the Santa Clara Strength of Religious Faith questionnaire (SCSRF). Gender-stratified simple logistic regressions were applied to determine associations between covariates and doping behavior (criterion). There was no significant difference in potential doping behavior between males and females (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.76-1.46), while females reported higher religiousness (SCSRF: 23.11 ± 3.23 and 25.46 ± 7.2 for males and females, respectively; t test = 1.82, p sport and age, the SCSRF remained a significant predictor of potential doping behavior (OR 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.99). For males, the belief that doping was present in sport was strongly associated with a higher likelihood of doping. Our results suggest that highly religious females involved in three of the studies sports (i.e., volleyball, handball and basketball) show a weaker tendency toward doping. Meanwhile, there is no evidence that religiousness influences doping behavior among male team-sport athletes. Therefore, sport-specific and gender-specific approach in studying possible relationships that exist
This article describes the typographic principles and practice which provide the basis of good design and print, the relevant printing processes which can be used, and the graphic designer's function in questionnaire production. As they impose constraints on design decisions to be discussed later in the text, the various methods of printing and production are discussed first.
Kleinke, Chris L.
College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…
Questionnaire giving basic information for the public on nuclear wastes and radioactive waste management. Risk and regulations to reduce the risk to permissible limits are more particularly developed. A survey of radioactive wastes is made along the fuel cycle: production, processing, transport, disposal to end on effect of waste management on the cost of nuclear kWh [fr
fwiW ........ ..., „.,. , r-m-lili^fa^BMiai igMiit VI-C Page 3 1 Jul 76 (2) All questionnaire items should be gramatically correct. (3) All...kept in mind: a. All response alternatives should follow the stem both gramatically and logically, and if possible, be parallel in structure. b
A questionnaire has been prepared to evaluate the impact of training of a nuclear power plant. Items covered are the degree to which training is systematic, the influence that should be exerted by INPO, and the costs of an effective training program