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Sample records for spore dna photochemistry

  1. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yun-bo

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yun-bo.

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs

  3. Synthesis of a Bacillus subtilis small, acid-soluble spore protein in Escherichia coli causes cell DNA to assume some characteristics of spore DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, B.; Hand, A.R.; Setlow, P.

    1991-01-01

    Small, acid-soluble proteins (SASP) of the alpha/beta-type are associated with DNA in spores of Bacillus subtilis. Induction of synthesis of alpha/beta-type SASP in Escherichia coli resulted in rapid cessation of DNA synthesis, followed by a halt in RNA and then protein accumulation, although significant mRNA and protein synthesis continued. There was a significant loss in viability associated with SASP synthesis in E. coli: recA+ cells became extremely long filaments, whereas recA mutant cells became less filamentous. The nucleoids of cells with alpha/beta-type SASP were extremely condensed, as viewed in both light and electron microscopes, and immunoelectron microscopy showed that the alpha/beta-type SASP were associated with the cell DNA. Induction of alpha/beta-type SASP synthesis in E. coli increased the negative superhelical density of plasmid DNA by approximately 20%; UV irradiation of E. coli with alpha/beta-type SASP gave reduced yields of thymine dimers but significant amounts of the spore photoproduct. These changes in E. coli DNA topology and photochemistry due to alpha/beta-type SASP are similar to the effects of alpha/beta-type SASP on the DNA in Bacillus spores, further suggesting that alpha/beta-type SASP are a major factor determining DNA properties in bacterial spores

  4. Photochemistry of DNA containing iodinated cytosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahn, R O; Stafford, R S [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1979-10-01

    Irradiation at 313 nm of compounds containing iodinated cytosine moieties results in the photolysis of iodine. Photolysis occurs with a quantum yield of 0.022-0.024 for 5-iododeoxycytidine and 5-iododeoxycytidine monophosphate, and 0.004-0.008 for iodinated DNA as well as for iodinated polycytidylate. Photodegradation of the cytosine moiety occurs when air is present during irradiation, presumably due to the reaction of oxygen with the cytosyl radical formed when iodine is lost. This oxygen promoted photodegradation destroys the cytosine chromophore and is complete in the monomers but occurs to only a limited extent in the polymers. In the absence of oxygen or in the presence of ethanol, photodegradation is prevented and the loss of iodine leads exclusively to the formation of the cytosine chromophore. In DNA, the loss of iodine is accompanied by the formation of sugar damage and/or chain breaks. As measured by sedimentation in alkaline sucrose gradients, approximately one break is made for every six iodines lost in denatured DNA. The frequency of chain breakage per iodine photolyzed is reduced 2-fold in renatured DNA. Analysis in neutral gradients suggests that half of the breaks observed in alkali are alkali-labile bonds. Both ethanol and cysteamine reduce the number of chain breaks in alkali by approximately 3-fold.

  5. DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated spores of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.C.V.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown previously by others that at least two independent repair mechanisms are present in Bacillus subtilis for removing ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of ultraviolet (254 nm)-irradiated spores after germination. One of these, designated as ''spore repair,'' is shown in this study to restore ''spore photoproduct'' to two thymine residues, leaving the DNA backbone intact at the end of the process in vivo. The circumstances under which this repair can occur and some characteristics of its energy requirements have been clarified. The second repair process is identified as excision repair, which can excise both ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of irradiated spores and cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers from DNA of irradiated vegetative cells. In this study it is shown that the gene hcr 1 affects an enzyme activity for the incision step initiating this repair, while the gene hcr 42 affects a step subsequent to incision in the mechanism. In addition a third, independent repair system, termed ''germinative excision repair,'' is discovered and shown to be specific for excising only cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers but not ''spore photoproduct.'' This repair system is responsible for the observed high ultraviolet-resistance and temporary capacity for host cell reactivation on recently germinated spores of Bacillus subtilis HCR - strains

  6. A method for the determination of bacterial spore DNA content based on isotopic labelling, spore germination and diphenylamine assay; ploidy of spores of several Bacillus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, P.M.; Karamata, D.

    1992-01-01

    A reliable method for measuring the spore DNA content, based on radioactive DNA labelling, spore germination in absence of DNA replication and diphenylamine assay, was developed. The accuracy of the method, within 10 - 15%, is adequate for determining the number of chromosomes per spore, provided that the genome size is known. B subtilis spores were shown to be invariably monogenomic, while those of larger bacilli Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, often, if not invariably, contain two genomes. Attempts to modify the spore DNA content of B subtilis by altering the richness of the sporulation medium, the sporulation conditions (liquid or solid medium), or by mutation, were apparently unsuccessful. An increase of spore size with medium richness, not accompanied by an increase in DNA content, was observed. The implication of the apparently species-specific spore ploidy and the influence of the sporulation conditions on spore size and shape are discussed

  7. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bc-repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Bc-Rep PCR) analysis was conducted on seven Bacillus thuringiensis isolates accessed from the Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen (DSMZ) culture collection and on five local isolates of entomopathogenic spore-forming bacteria.

  8. Heat, hydrogen peroxide, and UV resistance of Bacillus subtilis spores with increased core water content and with or without major DNA-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popham, D.L.; Sengupta, S.; Setlow, P.

    1995-01-01

    Spores of a Bacillus subtilis strain with an insertion mutation in the dacB gene, which codes for an enzyme involved in spore cortex biosynthesis, have a higher core water content than wild-type spores. Spores lacking the two major α/β-type small, acid-soluble proteins (SASP) (termed a α - β - spores) have the same core water content as do wild-type spores, but α - β - dacB spores had more core water than did dacB spores. The resistance of α - β - , α - β - dacB, dacB, and wild-type spores to dry and moist heat, hydrogen peroxide, and UV radiation has been determined, as has the role of DNA damage in spore killing by moist heat and hydrogen peroxide. These data (1) suggest that core water content has little if any role in spore UV resistance and are consistent with binding of α/β-type SASP to DNA being the major mechanism providing protection to spores from UV radiation; (2) suggest that binding of αβ-type SASP to DNA is the major mechanism unique to spores providing protection from dry heat; (3) suggest that spore resistance to moist heat and hydrogen peroxide is affected to a large degree by the core water content, as increased core water resulted in large decreases in spore resistance to these agents; and (4) indicate that since this decreased resistance (i.e., in dacB spores) is not associated with increased spore killing by DNA damage, spore DNA must normally be extremely well protected against such damage, presumably by the saturation of spore DNA by α/β-type SASP. 19 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Extraction of High Molecular Weight DNA from Fungal Rust Spores for Long Read Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwessinger, Benjamin; Rathjen, John P

    2017-01-01

    Wheat rust fungi are complex organisms with a complete life cycle that involves two different host plants and five different spore types. During the asexual infection cycle on wheat, rusts produce massive amounts of dikaryotic urediniospores. These spores are dikaryotic (two nuclei) with each nucleus containing one haploid genome. This dikaryotic state is likely to contribute to their evolutionary success, making them some of the major wheat pathogens globally. Despite this, most published wheat rust genomes are highly fragmented and contain very little haplotype-specific sequence information. Current long-read sequencing technologies hold great promise to provide more contiguous and haplotype-phased genome assemblies. Long reads are able to span repetitive regions and phase structural differences between the haplomes. This increased genome resolution enables the identification of complex loci and the study of genome evolution beyond simple nucleotide polymorphisms. Long-read technologies require pure high molecular weight DNA as an input for sequencing. Here, we describe a DNA extraction protocol for rust spores that yields pure double-stranded DNA molecules with molecular weight of >50 kilo-base pairs (kbp). The isolated DNA is of sufficient purity for PacBio long-read sequencing, but may require additional purification for other sequencing technologies such as Nanopore and 10× Genomics.

  10. DNA fingerprinting of spore-forming bacterial isolates, using Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Full Length Research Paper ... resulted in a search for better techniques for classifying ... only a few laboratories worldwide are able to perform a ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Bacterial ... s with distilled water and blotted dry with tissue paper (Kimberly- ... A test on the quality and quantity of DNA extracted was conducted.

  11. Nitrogen gas plasma treatment of bacterial spores induces oxidative stress that damages the genomic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Toyokawa, Yoichi; Nakamura, Tetsuji; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2017-01-01

    Gas plasma, produced by a short high‑voltage pulse generated from a static induction thyristor power supply [1.5 kilo pulse/sec (kpps)], was demonstrated to inactivate Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores (decimal reduction time at 15 min, 2.48 min). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assays further indicated that nitrogen gas plasma treatment for 15 min decreased the level of intact genomic DNA and increased the level of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a major product of DNA oxidation. Three potential inactivation factors were generated during operation of the gas plasma instrument: Heat, longwave ultraviolet-A and oxidative stress (production of hydrogen peroxide, nitrite and nitrate). Treatment of the spores with hydrogen peroxide (3x2‑4%) effectively inactivated the bacteria, whereas heat treatment (100˚C), exposure to UV-A (75‑142 mJ/cm2) and 4.92 mM peroxynitrite (•ONOO‑), which is decomposed into nitrite and nitrate, did not. The results of the present study suggest the gas plasma treatment inactivates bacterial spores primarily by generating hydrogen peroxide, which contributes to the oxidation of the host genomic DNA.

  12. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  13. Comparison of eight methods for the extraction of Bacillus atrophaeus spore DNA from eleven common interferents and a common swab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Rose

    Full Text Available Eight DNA extraction products or methods (Applied Biosystems PrepFiler Forensic DNA Extraction Kit; Bio-Rad Instagene Only, Bio-Rad Instagene & Spin Column Purification; EpiCentre MasterPure DNA & RNA Kit; FujiFilm QuickGene Mini80; Idaho Technologies 1-2-3 Q-Flow Kit; MoBio UltraClean Microbial DNA Isolation Kit; Sigma Extract-N-Amp Plant and Seed Kit were adapted to facilitate extraction of DNA under BSL3 containment conditions. DNA was extracted from 12 common interferents or sample types, spiked with spores of Bacillus atropheaus. Resulting extracts were tested by real-time PCR. No one method was the best, in terms of DNA extraction, across all sample types. Statistical analysis indicated that the PrepFiler method was the best method from six dry powders (baking, biological washing, milk, plain flour, filler and talcum and one solid (Underarm deodorant, the UltraClean method was the best from four liquids (aftershave, cola, nutrient broth, vinegar, and the MasterPure method was the best from the swab sample type. The best overall method, in terms of DNA extraction, across all sample types evaluated was the UltraClean method.

  14. Assessment of DNA damages caused by exposure of bacterial cells and spores to the Mars surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Cavazos, Patricia; Schuerger, Andrew; Robles-Martinez, Jose; Douki, Thierry; Nicholson, Wayne

    Joint NASA and ESA missions are planned for the next decade to investigate the possibility of present or past life on Mars [1]. Evidence of extraterrestrial life will likely rely on the de-tection of biomarkers, highlighting the importance of preventing forward contamination not only with viable microorganisms, but also with biomolecules that could compromise the valid-ity of life-detection experiments [2-4]. The designation of DNA as a high-priority biomarker makes it necessary to evaluate its persistence in extraterrestrial environments, and the effects of exposure on its biological activity. To accomplish this, we deposited naked DNA, cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 or B. pumilus SAFR-032, or cells of Acinetobacter radioresistens 50v1 onto spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons. Samples were exposed to a simulated Mars surface environment as described in detail previously [4, 5] for various periods of time, and DNA damage was assessed by a number of measurements. Double-and single-strand breaks were measured by neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis, and DNA bipyrimidine pho-toproducts were measured by HPLC-mass spectrometry, as described previously [6, 7]. Loss of functionality of DNA to serve as a template for replication by DNA polymerase was measured using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay [8]. In all cases, DNA damage was directly correlated with time of exposure to simulated martian solar radiation (UV, visible, and infrared wavelengths). Exposure of samples to Mars surface conditions, but shielded from solar radiation, did not result in appreciable damage over the time periods tested, relative to controls. DNA contained within cells or spores was much less susceptible to damage than was naked DNA. Using the qPCR assay, we found that inactivation of naked DNA or DNA extracted from exposed spores of B. subtilis followed a multiphasic dose-response, and that a fraction of DNA molecules retained functionality after

  15. Measurements of DNA Damage and Repair in Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores by UV Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-18

    tightly into chromosomal structure, which serves to protect the DNA. The DNA is coiled several times and wrapped tightly around proteins. The wrapping...helps the DNA keep its chromatin structure. When DNA is to be replicated, enzymes unwind the chromosomal DNA. Therefore, DNA is not specifically used...2 See Appendix for Plasmid Information sheet. 30 the ice crystals disappeared . The tube was gently mixed by hand

  16. A ketoreductase gene from Streptomyces mycarofaciens 1748 DNA involved in biosynthesis of a spore pigment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏焕章; 王以光

    1997-01-01

    An efficient plasmid transformation system for S. mycarofaciens 1748 has been established. In order to determine the function of MKR gene in S. mycarofaciens 1748, the gene disruption experiment was carried out. For this purpose the plasmid pKC1139 was used. A recombinant strain with white spore appeared, in contrast to the grey-colour spore of S. mycarofaciens 1748. This suggested that homologous recombination between plasmid-borne MKR gene sequence and the chromosome of S. mycarofaciens 1748 had occurred. A Southern hybridization experiment using α- P-labelled MKR gene as probe indicated that the desired integration event had occurred in the re-combinant. The result of gene disruption showed that the alteration of this gene in the chromosome of S. mycarofa-ciens 1748 made sporulating colonies remain white instead of taking on the typical grey colour of sporulating wild type colonies, suggesting that MKR gene is involved in the biosynthesis of a spore pigment. The recombinant strain was in-cubated wit

  17. Food sensing: selection and characterization of DNA aptamers to Alicyclobacillus spores for trapping and detection from orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünniger, Tim; Fischer, Christin; Wessels, Hauke; Hoffmann, Antonia; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika; Haase, Ilka; Fischer, Markus

    2015-03-04

    The quality of the beverage industry's products has to be constantly monitored to fulfill consumers' high expectations. The thermo-acidophilic Gram-positive Alicyclobacillus spp. are not pathogenic, but their heat-resistant endospores can survive juice-processing conditions and have become a major economic concern for the fruit juice industry. Current detection methods rely on cultivation, isolation, and organism identification, which can take up to a week, resulting in economic loss. This work presents the selection and identification of DNA aptamers targeting Alicyclobacillus spores by spore-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) in orange-juice-simulating buffer. The selection process was verified by various techniques, including flow cytometric binding assays, radioactive binding assays, and agarose gel electrophoresis. The subsequent aptamer characterization included the determination of dissociations constants and selectivity by different techniques, such as surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. In summary, 10 different aptamers with an affinity to Alicyclobacillus spp. have been developed, analyzed, and characterized in terms of affinity and specificity.

  18. Efficiency of boiling and four other methods for genomic DNA extraction of deteriorating spore-forming bacteria from milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Ribeiro Junior

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The spore-forming microbiota is mainly responsible for the deterioration of pasteurized milk with long shelf life in the United States. The identification of these microorganisms, using molecular tools, is of particular importance for the maintenance of the quality of milk. However, these molecular techniques are not only costly but also labor-intensive and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of boiling in conjunction with four other methods for the genomic DNA extraction of sporulated bacteria with proteolytic and lipolytic potential isolated from raw milk in the states of Paraná and Maranhão, Brazil. Protocols based on cellular lysis by enzymatic digestion, phenolic extraction, microwave-heating, as well as the use of guanidine isothiocyanate were used. This study proposes a method involving simple boiling for the extraction of genomic DNA from these microorganisms. Variations in the quality and yield of the extracted DNA among these methods were observed. However, both the cell lysis protocol by enzymatic digestion (commercial kit and the simple boiling method proposed in this study yielded sufficient DNA for successfully carrying out the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR of the rpoB and 16S rRNA genes for all 11 strains of microorganisms tested. Other protocols failed to yield sufficient quantity and quality of DNA from all microorganisms tested, since only a few strains have showed positive results by PCR, thereby hindering the search for new microorganisms. Thus, the simple boiling method for DNA extraction from sporulated bacteria in spoiled milk showed the same efficacy as that of the commercial kit. Moreover, the method is inexpensive, easy to perform, and much less time-consuming.

  19. Azide photochemistry for facile modification of graphitic surfaces: preparation of DNA-coated carbon nanotubes for biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghaddam, Minoo J; Yang Wenrong; Bojarski, Barbara; Gengenbach, Thomas R; Gao Mei; Zareie, Hadi; McCall, Maxine J

    2012-01-01

    A facile, two-step method for chemically attaching single-stranded DNA to graphitic surfaces, represented here by carbon nanotubes, is reported. In the first step, an azide-containing compound, N-5-azido-nitrobenzoyloxy succinimide (ANB-NOS), is used to form photo-adducts on the graphitic surfaces in a solid-state photochemical reaction, resulting in active ester groups being oriented for the subsequent reactions. In the second step, pre-synthesized DNA strands bearing a terminal amine group are coupled in an aqueous solution with the active esters on the photo-adducts. The versatility of the method is demonstrated by attaching pre-synthesized DNA to surfaces of carbon nanotubes in two platforms—as vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a solid support and as tangled single-walled carbon nanotubes in mats. The reaction products at various stages were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Two different assays were used to check that the DNA strands attached to the carbon nanotubes were able to bind their partner strands with complementary base sequences. The first assay, using partner DNA strands tethered to gold nanoparticles, enabled the sites of DNA attachment to the carbon nanotubes to be identified in TEM images. The second assay, using radioactively labelled partner DNA strands, quantified the density of functional DNA strands attached to the carbon nanotubes. The diversity of potential applications for these DNA-modified carbon-nanotube platforms is exemplified here by the successful use of a DNA-modified single-walled carbon-nanotube mat as an electrode for the specific detection of metal ions. (paper)

  20. [Nanometer scale exciton spectroscopy and photochemistry: Dynamic imaging of DNA structure-activity relations and radiation signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Our aim is to investigate, on the molecular level at a spatially resolved mode of operation, structure-activity relations of DNA and their sensitivity to ionizing radiation. This entails in-vitro (and later in-vivo) ultra-resolved microscopy, spectroscopy and chemical sensing, with non-destructive probing

  1. Photochemistry on solid surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, T

    1989-01-01

    The latest developments in photochemistry on solid surfaces, i.e. photochemistry in heterogeneous systems, including liquid crystallines, are brought together for the first time in a single volume. Distinguished photochemists from various fields have contributed to the book which covers a number of important applications: molecular photo-devices for super-memory, photochemical vapor deposition to produce thin-layered electronic semiconducting materials, sensitive optical media, the control of photochemical reactions pathways, etc. Photochemistry on solid surfaces is now a major field and this

  2. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Age started half a century ago. Today, with the completion of a fairly detailed study of the planets of the Solar System, we have begun studying exoplanets (or extrasolar planets). The overriding question in is to ask whether an exoplanet is habitable and harbors life, and if so, what the biosignatures ought to be. This forces us to confront the fundamental question of what controls the composition of an atmosphere. The composition of a planetary atmosphere reflects a balance between thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry (as in the interior of giant planets) and photochemistry (as in the atmosphere of Mars). The terrestrial atmosphere has additional influence from life (biochemistry). The bulk of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres is driven by UV radiation. Photosynthesis may be considered an extension of photochemistry by inventing a molecule (chlorophyll) that can harvest visible light. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of photochemistry is catalytic chemistry, the ability of trace amounts of gases to profoundly affect the composition of the atmosphere. Notable examples include HOx (H, OH and HO2) chemistry on Mars and chlorine chemistry on Earth and Venus. Another remarkable feature of photochemistry is organic synthesis in the outer solar system. The best example is the atmosphere of Titan. Photolysis of methane results in the synthesis of more complex hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon chemistry inevitably leads to the formation of high molecular weight products, giving rise to aerosols when the ambient atmosphere is cool enough for them to condense. These results are supported by the findings of the recent Cassini mission. Lastly, photochemistry leaves a distinctive isotopic signature that can be used to trace back the evolutionary history of the atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen isotopes on Mars and sulfur isotopes on Earth. Returning to the question of biosignatures on an exoplanet, our Solar System experience tells us to look for speciation

  3. COMPARISON OF UV INACTIVATION OF SPORES OF THREE ENCEPHALITOZOON SPECIES WITH THAT OF SPORES OF TWO DNA REPAIR-DEFICIENT BACILLUS SUBTILIS BIODOSIMETRY STRAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensitivity of three Encephalitozoon spp. to ultraviolet (UV) inactivation was determined. Encephalitozoon intestinalis is a contaminant listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). Also, use of DNA repair deficient strains of Bacillus subtilis were evaluat...

  4. Aspergillus fumigatus spore proteomics and genetics reveal that VeA represses DefA-mediated DNA damage response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Park, Hee-Soo; Kim, Young; Heo, In-Beom; Kim, Young Hwan; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2016-10-04

    Aspergillus fumigatus reproduces and infects host by forming a high number of small asexual spores (conidia). The velvet proteins are global transcriptional regulators governing the complex process of conidiogenesis in this fungus. Here, to further understand the velvet-mediated regulation, we carried out comparative proteomic analyses of conidia of wild type (WT) and three velvet mutants (ΔveA, ΔvelB and ΔvosA). Cluster analysis of 184 protein spots showing at least 1.5-fold differential accumulation between WT and mutants reveal the clustering of WT- ΔveA and ΔvelB-ΔvosA. Among 43 proteins identified by Nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS, 23 including several heat shock proteins showed more than two-fold reduction in both the ∆velB and ∆vosA conidia. On the contrary, three proteins exhibited more than five-fold increase in ∆veA only, including the putative RNA polymerase II degradation factor DefA. The deletion of defA resulted in a reduced number of conidia and restricted colony growth. In addition, the defA deletion mutant conidia showed hypersensitivity against the DNA damaging agents NQO and MMS, while the ΔveA mutant conidia were more resistant against to NQO. Taken together, we propose that VeA controls protein level of DefA in conidia, which are dormant and equipped with multiple layers of protection against environmental cues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Photochemistry research at NREL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, C.E.; Carlson, C.E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Photochemistry research team at NREL conducts research and development work in all R&D areas, basic, applied, demonstration and transfer to commercialization. Basic research includes core PCO R&D and catalysts work as well as conducting research into new photochemistry areas such as photoinduced adsorption and high temperature solar PCO. Applied research work consists of remediation of chloroethylenes in gas phase, gas phase solar photoreactor development, and application research including indoor air quality, hybrid biological/PCO processes and more. We are demonstrating the PCO treatment technology in the gas phase with SEMATECH through CRADA work and remediation of organics in aqueous phase through the Solarchem Environmental Systems. We are working with IT through a CRADA to transfer the PCO gas phase remediation technology to IT to commercialize this promising -technology. Photochemistry research conducted at NREL spans the R&D spectrum from basic research through technology demonstration with the goal of technology commercialization.

  6. The mechanism of DNA ejection in the Bacillus anthracis spore-binding phage 8a revealed by cryo-electron tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaofeng [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Walter, Michael H. [Department of Biology, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50614 (United States); Paredes, Angel [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Morais, Marc C., E-mail: mcmorais@utmb.edu [Sealy Center for Structural Biology and Molecular Biophysics, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States); Liu, Jun, E-mail: Jun.Liu.1@uth.tmc.edu [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX 77030 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    The structure of the Bacillus anthracis spore-binding phage 8a was determined by cryo-electron tomography. The phage capsid forms a T = 16 icosahedron attached to a contractile tail via a head-tail connector protein. The tail consists of a six-start helical sheath surrounding a central tail tube, and a structurally novel baseplate at the distal end of the tail that recognizes and attaches to host cells. The parameters of the icosahedral capsid lattice and the helical tail sheath suggest protein folds for the capsid and tail-sheath proteins, respectively, and indicate evolutionary relationships to other dsDNA viruses. Analysis of 2518 intact phage particles show four distinct conformations that likely correspond to four sequential states of the DNA ejection process during infection. Comparison of the four observed conformations suggests a mechanism for DNA ejection, including the molecular basis underlying coordination of tail sheath contraction and genome release from the capsid.

  7. DNA Damage and DNA Damage Responses in THP-1 Monocytes after Exposure to Spores of either Stachybotrys chartarum or Aspergillus versicolor or to T-2 toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Rakkestad, Kirsten E.; Skaar, Ida; Ansteinsson, Vibeke E.; Solhaug, Anita; Holme, Jørn A.; Pestka, James J.; Samuelsen, Jan T.; Dahlman, Hans J.; Hongslo, Jan K.; Becher, Rune

    2010-01-01

    We have characterized cell death in THP-1 cells after exposure to heat-treated spores from satratoxin G–producing Stachybotrys chartarum isolate IBT 9631, atranone-producing S. chartarum isolate IBT 9634, and sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergillus versicolor isolate IBT 3781, as well as the trichothecenes T-2 and satratoxin G. Spores induced cell death within 3–6 h, with Stachybotrys appearing most potent. IBT 9631 induced both apoptosis and necrosis, while IBT 9634 and IBT 3781 induced mostl...

  8. Photochemistry of the actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, L.M.; Bell, J.T.; Friedman, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    It has been found that all three major actinides have a useful variety of photochemical reactions which could be used to achieve a separations process that requires fewer reagents. Several features merit enumerating: (1) Laser photochemistry is not now as uniquely important in fuel reprocessing as it is in isotopic enrichment. The photochemistry can be successfully accomplished with conventional light sources. (2) The easiest place to apply photo-reprocessing is on the three actinides U, Pu, and Np. The solutions are potentially cleaner and more amenable to photoreactions. (3) Organic-phase photoreactions are probably not worth much attention because of the troublesome solvent redox chemistry associated with the photochemical reaction. (4) Upstream process treatment on the raffinate (dissolver solution) may never be too attractive since the radiation intensity precludes the usage of many optical materials and the nature of the solution is such that light transmission into it might be totally impossible

  9. Oxygen effect on mutagenic ionizing radiation damage in Bacillus subtilis spores of DNA polymerase I-proficient and -deficient strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of mutagenic ionizing radiation damage modified by the presence of oxygen or water was examined by comparing mutagenic with lethal expression of the damage in Bacillus subtilis spores irradiated with 6-MeV electrons. No specific difference was recognized between oxygen-dependent and -independent damages or between polA + -dependent and -independent damages with this system. The induced mutation frequency for His + mutation per lethal hit was 4.7 x 10 -5 for all tested cases

  10. Modeling Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    information is preserved and replicated by the Watson - Crick base pairing in which 4-3 complementary bases recognize each other. One incorrect amino acid can...hydrolysis reactions to take place with the spore’s DNA and other proteins. These chemical reactions degrade the DNA and proteins to such an extent that the... DNA cannot be repaired or replicated, thus causing spore death. We further assert that damage to a spore is based on a certain initial DNA information

  11. Electron Beam Irradiation Dose Dependently Damages the Bacillus Spore Coat and Spore Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Fiester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective control of spore-forming bacilli begs suitable physical or chemical methods. While many spore inactivation techniques have been proven effective, electron beam (EB irradiation has been frequently chosen to eradicate Bacillus spores. Despite its widespread use, there are limited data evaluating the effects of EB irradiation on Bacillus spores. To study this, B. atrophaeus spores were purified, suspended in sterile, distilled water, and irradiated with EB (up to 20 kGy. Irradiated spores were found (1 to contain structural damage as observed by electron microscopy, (2 to have spilled cytoplasmic contents as measured by spectroscopy, (3 to have reduced membrane integrity as determined by fluorescence cytometry, and (4 to have fragmented genomic DNA as measured by gel electrophoresis, all in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cytometry data reveal decreased spore size, increased surface alterations, and increased uptake of propidium iodide, with increasing EB dose, suggesting spore coat alterations with membrane damage, prior to loss of spore viability. The present study suggests that EB irradiation of spores in water results in substantial structural damage of the spore coat and inner membrane, and that, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent spore inactivation.

  12. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore propagation using single spore as starter inoculum and a plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, G; Shagol, C C; Kang, Y; Chung, B N; Han, S G; Sa, T M

    2018-06-01

    The propagation of pure cultures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) is an essential requirement for their large-scale agricultural application and commercialization as biofertilizers. The present study aimed to propagate AMF using the single-spore inoculation technique and compare their propagation ability with the known reference spores. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores were collected from salt-affected Saemangeum reclaimed soil in South Korea. The technique involved inoculation of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings with single, healthy spores on filter paper followed by the transfer of successfully colonized seedlings to 1-kg capacity pots containing sterilized soil. After the first plant cycle, the contents were transferred to 2·5-kg capacity pots containing sterilized soil. Among the 150 inoculated seedlings, only 27 seedlings were colonized by AMF spores. After 240 days, among the 27 seedlings, five inoculants resulted in the production of over 500 spores. The 18S rDNA sequencing of spores revealed that the spores produced through single-spore inoculation method belonged to Gigaspora margarita, Claroideoglomus lamellosum and Funneliformis mosseae. Furthermore, indigenous spore F. mosseae M-1 reported a higher spore count than the reference spores. The AMF spores produced using the single-spore inoculation technique may serve as potential bio-inoculants with an advantage of being more readily adopted by farmers due to the lack of requirement of a skilled technique in spore propagation. The results of the current study describe the feasible and cost-effective method to mass produce AMF spores for large-scale application. The AMF spores obtained from this method can effectively colonize plant roots and may be easily introduced to the new environment. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Radiation and photochemistry section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The highlights of this past year in the Radiation and Photochemistry Section at Argonne include: (1) picosecond optical studies of radical cations and excited states produced in hydrocarbon radiolysis provided the first kinetic measurements of ion transformation and production of triplet and singlet excited states by ion recombination. (2) studies of radical cations of alkyl-substituted amines and sulfides provided insights into ion-molecule reactions of radical cations in the condensed phase. (3) studies of the behavior of strained alkane radical cations, such as cubane + ·, revealed new rearrangements and remarkable, medium-dependent differences in their structures. (4) H·atom reactions yielding e aq - provided the first reliable measurements of hydrated-electron enthalpy and entropy and forced the revision of some previous thinking about the driving force in aq - reactions

  14. On-chip Detection of Rolling Circle Amplified DNA Molecules from Bacillus Globigii spores and Vibrio Cholerae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Donolato, Marco

    2014-01-01

    For the first time DNA coils formed by rolling circle amplification are quantified on-chip by Brownian relaxation measurements on magnetic nanobeads using a magnetoresistive sensor. No external magnetic fields are required besides the magnetic field arising from the current through the sensor...

  15. Fine-tuning alkyne cycloadditions: Insights into photochemistry responsible for the double-strand DNA cleavage via structural perturbations in diaryl alkyne conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Alabugin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid molecules combining photoactivated aryl acetylenes and a dicationic lysine moiety cause the most efficient double-strand (ds DNA cleavage known to date for a small molecule. In order to test the connection between the alkylating ability and the DNA-damaging properties of these compounds, we investigated the photoreactivity of three isomeric aryl–tetrafluoropyridinyl (TFP alkynes with amide substituents in different positions (o-, m-, and p- toward a model π-system. Reactions with 1,4-cyclohexadiene (1,4-CHD were used to probe the alkylating properties of the triplet excited states in these three isomers whilst Stern–Volmer quenching experiments were used to investigate the kinetics of photoinduced electron transfer (PET. The three analogous isomeric lysine conjugates cleaved DNA with different efficiencies (34, 15, and 0% of ds DNA cleavage for p-, m-, and o-substituted lysine conjugates, respectively consistent with the alkylating ability of the respective acetamides. The significant protecting effect of the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen scavengers to DNA cleavage was shown only with m-lysine conjugate. All three isomeric lysine conjugates inhibited human melanoma cell growth under photoactivation: The p-conjugate had the lowest CC50 (50% cell cytotoxicity value of 1.49 × 10−7 M.

  16. Microwave Photochemistry II. Photochemistry of 2-tert-butylphenol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Církva, Vladimír; Kurfürstová, Jana; Karban, Jindřich; Hájek, Milan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 168, č. 3 (2004), s. 197-204 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : microwave photochemistry * electrodeless discharge lamp * 2-tert-Butylphenol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2004

  17. Mechanism of Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation by and resistance to supercritical CO2 plus peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B; Korza, G; Blatt, K M S; Fey, J P; Setlow, P

    2016-01-01

    Determine how supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) plus peracetic acid (PAA) inactivates Bacillus subtilis spores, factors important in spore resistance to scCO2 -PAA, and if spores inactivated by scCO2 -PAA are truly dead. Spores of wild-type B. subtilis and isogenic mutants lacking spore protective proteins were treated with scCO2 -PAA in liquid or dry at 35°C. Wild-type wet spores (aqueous suspension) were more susceptible than dry spores. Treated spores were examined for viability (and were truly dead), dipicolinic acid (DPA), mutations, permeability to nucleic acid stains, germination under different conditions, energy metabolism and outgrowth. ScCO2 -PAA-inactivated spores retained DPA, and survivors had no notable DNA damage. However, DPA was released from inactivated spores at a normally innocuous temperature (85°C), and colony formation from treated spores was salt sensitive. The inactivated spores germinated but did not outgrow, and these germinated spores had altered plasma membrane permeability and defective energy metabolism. Wet or dry coat-defective spores had increased scCO2 -PAA sensitivity, and dry spores but not wet spores lacking DNA protective proteins were more scCO2 -PAA sensitive. These findings suggest that scCO2 -PAA inactivates spores by damaging spores' inner membrane. The spore coat provided scCO2 -PAA resistance for both wet and dry spores. DNA protective proteins provided scCO2 -PAA resistance only for dry spores. These results provide information on mechanisms of spore inactivation of and resistance to scCO2 -PAA, an agent with increasing use in sterilization applications. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Absence of transient elevated uv resistance during germination of Bacillus subtilis spores lacking small, acid-soluble spore proteins α and β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, B.; Setlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    Dormant spores of various Bacillus species are much more resistant to UV irradiation than are the corresponding vegetative cells. This elevated spore UV resistance appears to have two causes. First, UV irradiation of spores does not produce the pyrimidine dimers formed in vegetative-cell DNA, but rather produces several other photoproducts, the most predominant of which is termed the spore photoproduct, a 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine adduct (1, 10). Second, spores have at least two mechanisms which efficiently repair this spore photoproduct during spore germination, including one which monomerizes the adduct back to two thymines. This study shows that germinating spores of bacillus subtilis mutants which lack small, acid-soluble spore proteins α and β did not exhibit the transient elevated UV resistance seen during germination of wild-type spores

  19. Microwave Photochemistry III. Photochemistry of 4-tert-Butylphenol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Církva, Vladimír; Kurfürstová, J.; Karban, Jindřich; Hájek, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 1 (2005), s. 38-44 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/02/0879; GA AV ČR(CZ) KSK4040110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : microwave photochemistry * electrodeless discharge lamp * 4-tert-Butylphenol Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.286, year: 2005

  20. Flow photochemistry: Old light through new windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Knowles

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic photochemistry carried out in classic batch reactors has, for over half a century, proved to be a powerful but under-utilised technique in general organic synthesis. Recent developments in flow photochemistry have the potential to allow this technique to be applied in a more mainstream setting. This review highlights the use of flow reactors in organic photochemistry, allowing a comparison of the various reactor types to be made.

  1. Vacuum ultraviolet photochemistry of polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skurat, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of vacuum UV radiation (wavelength range from 1 to 200 nm) with polymers is interesting for fundamental and applied sciences. This interest is stimulated by various reasons: - Wide applications of polymeric materials in semiconductor technology, where they are used as photoresist materials in combination with VUV light sources (lasers, excimer lamps, synchrotron radiation and others). - Polymers are widely used as spacecraft materials in the last 20 years. On near-Earth orbits, the polymeric materials of spacecraft surfaces are destroyed by solar radiation. - VUV radiation is one of the components of gas discharge plasmas, which are used for treatment of polymer, with the aim of modifying their surface properties. The main features of interaction of VUV radiation with polymers are discussed. The spectra of intrinsic absorption of saturated polymers (polyethylene, polypropylene, polytetrafluoroethylene and others) are situated mainly in the VUV region. The photochemistry of polymers in the VUV region is very different from their photochemistry at wavelengths longer than 200 nm, where the absorption spectra belong to impurities and polymer defects. The polymer photochemistry in the VUV region is wavelength-dependent. At wavelengths longer than about 140 nm, the main role is played by transformations of primary-formed singlet excited molecules. At shorter wavelengths the role of photoionization increases progressively and the main features of VUV photolysis become similar to the picture of radiolysis, with significant contributions of charge pairs and triplet excited molecules. Very important features of VUV light absorption in polymers are high absorption coefficients. Because of this, the surface layers absorb large doses of energy. This leads to very profound transformation of material on the polymer surface. In particular for polymers which are considered destroyed by radiation (for example, perfluoropolymers), this leads to VUV-induced erosion

  2. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    with chromosomal DNA was as described [32]. Table 1. 8. subtifis strains used in this study. Stra in Genotype Phenotype• PS832 wild type PS3394...of the morphology of fully hydrated and air dried spores demonstrate that surface ridges on dehydrated spores mostly disappear or decrease in size

  3. Induction of prophages in spores of Bacillus subtilis by ultraviolet irradiation from synchrotron orbital radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaie, Y.; Kada, T.; Ohta, Y. (National Inst. of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka (Japan)); Kobayashi, K.; Hieda, K.; Ito, T.

    1984-06-01

    Prophages were induced from Bacillus subtilis spores lysogenic with SP02 by ultraviolet (160 nm to 240 nm) irradiation from synchrotron orbital radiation (SR UV). SR UV at around 220 nm was most effective in the inactivation of spores and prophage induction from lysogenic spores, suggesting that the lesions are produced on the DNA molecule which eventually induces signals to inactivate the phage repressor.

  4. Phosphorescence In Bacillus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinisch, Lou; Swartz, Barry A; Bronk, Burt V

    2003-01-01

    .... Our present work attempts to build on this approach for environmental applications. We have measured a change in the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of Bacillus bacteria between the vegetative bacteria and their spores at room temperature...

  5. Spore coat protein of Bacillus subtilis. Structure and precursor synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, L; Sadaie, Y; Doi, R H

    1978-10-10

    The coat protein of Bacillus subtilis spores comprises about 10% of the total dry weight of spores and 25% of the total spore protein. One protein with a molecular weight of 13,000 to 15,000 comprises a major portion of the spore coat. This mature spore coat protein has histidine at its NH2 terminus and is relatively rich in hydrophobic amino acids. Netropsin, and antibiotic which binds to A-T-rich regions of DNA and inhibits sporulation, but not growth, decreased the synthesis of this spore coat protein by 75%. A precursor spore coat protein with a molecular weight of 25,000 is made initially at t1 of sporulation and is converted to the mature spore coat protein with a molecular weight of 13,500 at t2 - t3. These data indicate that the spore coat protein gene is expressed very early in sporulation prior to the modifications of RNA polymerase which have been noted.

  6. The photochemistry of the paleoatmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of the chemistry and photochemistry of the paleoatmosphere is reviewed with emphasis on the application of photochemical models to the investigation of the evolution of the atmosphere. Photochemical calculations are presented which show that a primordial highly reducing atmosphere composed of methane and ammonia, if it formed at all, would be short-lived in the presence of solar ultraviolet radiation, giving way rapidly to a more mildly reducing atmosphere of carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Estimations of O2 produced from the photolysis of water vapor prior to the emergence of photosynthesis range from less than 10 to the -14th to 0.1 times the present atmospheric level, indicating the need for further research. A series of photochemical models of increasing complexity has been developed to study the evolution of atmospheric ozone taking into account reactions with O atoms, hydrogen oxides, nitrogen oxides, and chlorine as well as vertical transport, temperature and tropospheric chemistry so that the total content and vertical distribution of O3 may be determined for a specified level of paleoatmospheric O2.

  7. Enhanced photochemistry on metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncher, G.M.; Parsons, C.A.; Harris, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Due to the fast relaxation of molecular excited states in the vicinity of a metal or semiconductor surface, few observations of surface photochemistry have been reported. The following work concerns the surface-enhanced photo-reactions of a variety of physisorbed molecules on roughened Ag surfaces. In summary, photodecomposition leads to a graphitic surface carbon product which is monitored via surface-enhanced Raman scattering. In most cases an initial two-photon molecular absorption step followed by further absorption and fragmentation is thought to occur. Enhancement of the incident fields occurs through roughness-mediated surface plasmon resonances. This mechanism provides the amplified electromagnetic surface fields responsible for the observed photodecomposition. The photodecomposition experiments are performed under ultra-high vacuum. Surface characterization of the roughened surfaces was done by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and electron-stimulated emission. The SEM revealed morphology on the order of 300-400 A. This size of roughness feature, when modelled as isolated spheres should exhibit the well-known Mie resonances for light of the correct wavelengths. For protrusions existing on a surface these Mie resonances can be thought of as a coupling of the light with the surface plasmon. Experimental verification of these resonances was provided by the electron-stimulated light emission results. These showed that a polished Ag surface emitted only the expected transition radiation at the frequency of the Ag bulk plasmon. Upon roughening, however, a broad range of lower frequencies extending well into the visible are seen from electron irradiation of the surface. Large enhancements are expected for those frequencies which are able to couple into the surface modes

  8. Fifth international fungus spore conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  9. Surface-Plasmon-Driven Hot Electron Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; He, Shuai; Guo, Wenxiao; Hu, Yue; Huang, Jiawei; Mulcahy, Justin R; Wei, Wei David

    2017-11-30

    Visible-light-driven photochemistry has continued to attract heightened interest due to its capacity to efficiently harvest solar energy and its potential to solve the global energy crisis. Plasmonic nanostructures boast broadly tunable optical properties coupled with catalytically active surfaces that offer a unique opportunity for solar photochemistry. Resonant optical excitation of surface plasmons produces energetic hot electrons that can be collected to facilitate chemical reactions. This review sums up recent theoretical and experimental approaches for understanding the underlying photophysical processes in hot electron generation and discusses various electron-transfer models on both plasmonic metal nanostructures and plasmonic metal/semiconductor heterostructures. Following that are highlights of recent examples of plasmon-driven hot electron photochemical reactions within the context of both cases. The review concludes with a discussion about the remaining challenges in the field and future opportunities for addressing the low reaction efficiencies in hot-electron-induced photochemistry.

  10. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

  11. Spore formation and toxin production in Clostridium difficile biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina G Semenyuk

    Full Text Available The ability to grow as a biofilm can facilitate survival of bacteria in the environment and promote infection. To better characterize biofilm formation in the pathogen Clostridium difficile, we established a colony biofilm culture method for this organism on a polycarbonate filter, and analyzed the matrix and the cells in biofilms from a variety of clinical isolates over several days of biofilm culture. We found that biofilms readily formed in all strains analyzed, and that spores were abundant within about 6 days. We also found that extracellular DNA (eDNA, polysaccharide and protein was readily detected in the matrix of all strains, including the major toxins A and/or B, in toxigenic strains. All the strains we analyzed formed spores. Apart from strains 630 and VPI10463, which sporulated in the biofilm at relatively low frequencies, the frequencies of biofilm sporulation varied between 46 and 65%, suggesting that variations in sporulation levels among strains is unlikely to be a major factor in variation in the severity of disease. Spores in biofilms also had reduced germination efficiency compared to spores obtained by a conventional sporulation protocol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that in 3 day-old biofilms, the outermost structure of the spore is a lightly staining coat. However, after 6 days, material that resembles cell debris in the matrix surrounds the spore, and darkly staining granules are closely associated with the spores surface. In 14 day-old biofilms, relatively few spores are surrounded by the apparent cell debris, and the surface-associated granules are present at higher density at the coat surface. Finally, we showed that biofilm cells possess 100-fold greater resistance to the antibiotic metronidazole then do cells cultured in liquid media. Taken together, our data suggest that C. difficile cells and spores in biofilms have specialized properties that may facilitate infection.

  12. Spore formation and toxin production in Clostridium difficile biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyuk, Ekaterina G; Laning, Michelle L; Foley, Jennifer; Johnston, Pehga F; Knight, Katherine L; Gerding, Dale N; Driks, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to grow as a biofilm can facilitate survival of bacteria in the environment and promote infection. To better characterize biofilm formation in the pathogen Clostridium difficile, we established a colony biofilm culture method for this organism on a polycarbonate filter, and analyzed the matrix and the cells in biofilms from a variety of clinical isolates over several days of biofilm culture. We found that biofilms readily formed in all strains analyzed, and that spores were abundant within about 6 days. We also found that extracellular DNA (eDNA), polysaccharide and protein was readily detected in the matrix of all strains, including the major toxins A and/or B, in toxigenic strains. All the strains we analyzed formed spores. Apart from strains 630 and VPI10463, which sporulated in the biofilm at relatively low frequencies, the frequencies of biofilm sporulation varied between 46 and 65%, suggesting that variations in sporulation levels among strains is unlikely to be a major factor in variation in the severity of disease. Spores in biofilms also had reduced germination efficiency compared to spores obtained by a conventional sporulation protocol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that in 3 day-old biofilms, the outermost structure of the spore is a lightly staining coat. However, after 6 days, material that resembles cell debris in the matrix surrounds the spore, and darkly staining granules are closely associated with the spores surface. In 14 day-old biofilms, relatively few spores are surrounded by the apparent cell debris, and the surface-associated granules are present at higher density at the coat surface. Finally, we showed that biofilm cells possess 100-fold greater resistance to the antibiotic metronidazole then do cells cultured in liquid media. Taken together, our data suggest that C. difficile cells and spores in biofilms have specialized properties that may facilitate infection.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and photochemistry of a new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesis, crystal structure, redox characteristics and photochemistry of a new heptamolyb- ... The ability of [Mo7O24]−6 to function as a pure “inor- .... Abbreviations used: bpp = 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane; 2-amp = 2-aminopyridine; DMSO ...

  14. Fifteenth DOE solar photochemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This is a compilation of abstracts from the Fifteenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference hosted by the Solar Energy Research Institute which took place June 2--6, 1991. A large variety of topics pertinent to solar energy conversion are covered, including photoinduced electron transfer, photochemical energy conversion, and photosynthetic energy conversion. (GHH)

  15. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  16. Preferential inclusion of extrachromosomal genetic elements in yeast meiotic spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1980-09-01

    During meiosis and sporulation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, extrachromosomal traits are efficiently transmitted to haploid spores. Although the pattern of inheritance of chromosomal traits reflects the mechanism of regular chromosomal segregation in meiosis, it is not known what processes are reflected by the efficient inheritance of extrachromosomal traits. Because extrachromosomal genetic elements in yeast are present in multiple copies, perpetuation of an extrachromosomal trait could occur by the passive envelopment of a subset of copies or by an active sequestering of all or a subset of copies within the four spores. We show that only subsets of the four extrachromosomal nucleic acids commonly found in yeast are transmitted through meiosis--55% of mitochondrial DNA copies, 82% of the 2-micron DNA plasmids, and about 70% of the L and M double-stranded RNAs. However, electron micrographs of serial sections through yeast asci indicate that the four spore enclose only 30% of the total ascus material. Thus these extrachromosomal elements are preferentially included within the spores, indicating that their inheritance is not a random process. Transmission of mitochondrial DNA can be accounted for by the observed enclosure of 52% of the mitochondrial volume within the spores. The high transmission frequencies of the double-stranded RNAs (which exist as virus-like particles in the cytoplasm) and 2-micron DNA must indicate that either these nucleic acids are actively recruited from the cytoplasm by some mechanism or they are associated in some way with the nucleus during meiosis.

  17. 3D printing of natural organic materials by photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Gonçalves, Joyce Laura; Valandro, Silvano Rodrigo; Wu, Hsiu-Fen; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Mettra, Bastien; Monnereau, Cyrille; Schmitt Cavalheiro, Carla Cristina; Pawlicka, Agnieszka; Focsan, Monica; Lin, Chih-Lang; Baldeck, Patrice L.

    2016-03-01

    In previous works, we have used two-photon induced photochemistry to fabricate 3D microstructures based on proteins, anti-bodies, and enzymes for different types of bio-applications. Among them, we can cite collagen lines to guide the movement of living cells, peptide modified GFP biosensing pads to detect Gram positive bacteria, anti-body pads to determine the type of red blood cells, and trypsin columns in a microfluidic channel to obtain a real time biochemical micro-reactor. In this paper, we report for the first time on two-photon 3D microfabrication of DNA material. We also present our preliminary results on using a commercial 3D printer based on a video projector to polymerize slicing layers of gelatine-objects.

  18. Induction of prophages in spores of Bacillus subtilis by ultraviolet irradiation from synchrotron orbital radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaie, Y.; Kada, T.; Ohta, Y.; Kobayashi, K.; Hieda, K.; Ito, T.

    1984-01-01

    Prophages were induced from Bacillus subtilis spores lysogenic with SP02 by ultraviolet (160 nm to 240 nm) irradiation from synchrotron orbital radiation (SR UV). SR UV at around 220 nm was most effective in the inactivation of spores and prophage induction from lysogenic spores, suggesting that the lesions are produced on the DNA molecule which eventually induces signals to inactivate the phage repressor. (author)

  19. Mutation Induction with UV- and X-radiations in spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.; Munakata, N.; Kitahara, S.

    1978-01-01

    Spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis strains with various defects in DNA-repair capacities (hcr - , ssp - , hcr - ssp - ) were irradiated with UV radiation or X-rays. Induced mutation frequency was determined from the observed frequency of prototrophic reversion of a suppressible auxotropic mutation. At equal physical dose, after either UV- or X-irradiation, spores were more resistant to mutations as well as to killing than were vegetative cells. However, quantitative comparison revealed that, at equally lethal doses, spores and vegetative cells were almost equally mutable by X-rays whereas spores were considerably less mutable by UV than were vegetative cells. Thus, as judged from their mutagenic efficiency relative to the lethality, X-ray-induced damage in the spore DNA and the vegetative DNA were equally mutagenic, while UV-induced DNA photoproducts in the spore were less mutagenic than those in vegetative cells. Post-treatment of UV-irradiated cells with caffeine decreased the survival and the induced mutation frequency for either spores or vegetative cells for all the strains. In X-irradiated spores however, a similar suppressing effect of caffeine was observed only for mutability of a strain lacking DNA polymerase I activity

  20. Gene expression at each stage of the life cycle of spore-forming bacteria: different sensitivity of transcription to antibiotics which act on DNA gyrase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, M; Kameyama, T

    1985-01-01

    Effects of antibiotics acting on DNA gyrase, novobiocin and nalidixic acid on RNA synthesis during germination, vegetative growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis were examined. These drugs were relatively ineffective in inhibiting RNA synthesis of phase Gm 1 (5-15 min) during germination but effective in those of Gm 2 (15-40 min) and Gm 3 (40-60 min) during germination (Matsuda and Kameyama 1980). No distinguishable inhibitory effects of RNA synthesis in B. subtilis NOVr1TT mutant could be detected by novobiocin. RNA synthesis of Gm 2 and Gm 3 of this mutant was inhibited by nalidixic acid. When novobiocin was added to exponential vegetative cell or sporulating cell culture at T0 and T1 stage, the rate of RNA synthesis was inhibited by 80% for 5 min following addition of the drug. However, RNA synthesis after T2 of sporulation became resistant toward novobiocin, as was the case at an early stage of germination. RNA profiles from transcripts synthesized on administration of NOV suggested that the suppression of the synthesis of 23S and 16S rRNA is relatively greater than 4 to 5S RNA at the middle stage of germination and at vegetative growth stage in the presence of NOV. Our present data suggest that DNA gyrase is involved in the regulation of gene transcription during middle and late phases of germination, vegetative growth and T0 and T1 of sporulation. The transcription during early phase of germination and sporulation after T2 may proceed independently of this enzyme.

  1. Optical and structural properties of plasma-treated Cordyceps bassiana spores as studied by circular dichroism, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Geon Joon, E-mail: gjlee@kw.ac.kr; Sim, Geon Bo; Choi, Eun Ha [Plasma Bioscience Research Center/Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young-Wan [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Young; Jang, Siun; Kim, Seong Hwan, E-mail: piceae@naver.com [Department of Microbiology and Institute of Basic Sciences, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-14

    To understand the killing mechanism of fungal spores by plasma treatment, the optical, structural, and biological properties of the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana spores were studied. A nonthermal atmospheric-pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used to treat the spores in aqueous solution. Optical emission spectra of the APPJ acquired in air indicated emission peaks corresponding to hydroxyl radicals and atomic oxygen. When the APPJ entered the aqueous solution, additional reactive species were derived from the interaction of plasma radicals with the aqueous solution. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the plasma-activated water (PAW). Spore counting showed that plasma treatment significantly reduced spore viability. Absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis of the DNA extracted from plasma-treated spores showed a reduction in spore DNA content. The magnitude of the dip in the CD spectrum was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, indicating that plasma treatment causes structural modifications and/or damage to cellular components. Tryptophan fluorescence intensity was lower in the plasma-treated spores than in the control, suggesting that plasma treatment modified cell wall proteins. Changes in spore viability and DNA content were attributed to structural modification of the cell wall by reactive species coming from the APPJ and the PAW. Our results provided evidence that the plasma radicals and the derived reactive species play critical roles in fungal spore inactivation.

  2. Spectroscopy and viability of Bacillus subtilis spores after ultraviolet irradiation: implications for the detection of potential bacterial life on Europa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Ely, Tucker; Bolser, Diana K; Darrach, Halley; Hodyss, Robert; Johnson, Paul V; Hein, Jeffrey D; Ponce, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    One of the most habitable environments in the Solar System outside of Earth may exist underneath the ice on Europa. In the near future, our best chance to look for chemical signatures of a habitable environment (or life itself) will likely be at the inhospitable icy surface. Therefore, it is important to understand the ability of organic signatures of life and life itself to persist under simulated europan surface conditions. Toward that end, this work examined the UV photolysis of Bacillus subtilis spores and their chemical marker dipicolinic acid (DPA) at temperatures and pressures relevant to Europa. In addition, inactivation curves for the spores at 100 K, 100 K covered in one micron of ice, and 298 K were measured to determine the probability for spore survival at the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectra of irradiated DPA showed a loss of carboxyl groups to CO2 as expected but unexpectedly showed significant opening of the heterocyclic ring, even for wavelengths>200 nm. Both DPA and B. subtilis spores showed identical unknown spectral bands of photoproducts after irradiation, further highlighting the importance of DPA in the photochemistry of spores. Spore survival was enhanced at 100 K by ∼5× relative to 298 K, but 99.9% of spores were still inactivated after the equivalent of ∼25 h of exposure on the europan surface.

  3. Vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommereau, J. P.

    The use of vertical sounding balloons for stratospheric photochemistry studies is illustrated by the use of a vertical piloted gas balloon for the search of NO2 diurnal variations. It is shown that the use of montgolfieres (hot air balloons) can enhance the vertical sounding technique. Particular attention is given to a sun-heated montgolfiere and to the more sophisticated infrared montgolfiere that is able to perform three to four vertical excursions per day and to remain aloft for weeks or months.

  4. Nanoscale Structural and Mechanical Analysis of Bacillus anthracis Spores Inactivated with Rapid Dry Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Daniel L.; Burggraf, Larry W.

    2014-01-01

    Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results revealed significant changes in spore morphology and nanomechanical properties after heat inactivation. In addition, we also found that these changes were different under different heating conditions that produced similar inactivation probabilities (high temperature for short exposure time versus low temperature for long exposure time). We attributed the differences to the differential thermal and mechanical stresses in the spore. The buildup of internal thermal and mechanical stresses may become prominent only in ultrafast, high-temperature heat inactivation when the experimental timescale is too short for heat-generated vapor to efficiently escape from the spore. Our results thus provide direct, visual evidences of the importance of thermal stresses and heat and mass transfer to spore inactivation by very rapid dry heating. PMID:24375142

  5. Heat and UV light resistance of vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus subtilis rec-mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlin, J.H.; Lombardi, S.J.; Slepecky, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The heat and UV light resistance of spores and vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis BD170 (rec+) were greater than those of B. subtilis BD224 (recE4). Strain BD170 can repair DNA whereas BD224 is repair deficient due to the presence of the recE4 allele. Spores of a GSY Rec+ strain were more heat resistant than spores of GSY Rec- and Uvr- mutants. The overall level of heat and UV light resistance attained by spores may in part be determined by their ability to repair deoxyribonucleic acid after exposure to these two physical mutagens

  6. Photophysics and photochemistry of photoreactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) monomerizes cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers formed in DNA by UV light (lambda < 300 nm). The enzyme requires near UV and visible wavelengths (300 < lambda < 600 nm) for activity. Possible mechanisms of action of the PRE are suggested by non-enzymatic processes in which pyrimidine dimers are monomerized by UV and visible light. Two such non-enzymatic processes are (a) photolysis of dimers resulting from direct absorption of UV, and (b) sensitized monomerization involving charge transfer complexes. Several lines of evidence suggest that the mechanism of action of the PRE more closely resembles (b) than (a). Recent experiments on the PRE from E.coli revealed the presence of new long wavelength absorption which may indicate the presence of a ground state complex. The known ability of PRE to monomerize dimers of thymine, cytosine and uracil suggests that the carbonyl groups at 2 position of the pyrimidine ring may be important in the interaction between enzyme and dimer. (author)

  7. Photophysics and photochemistry of photoreactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, J C [California Univ., Irvine (USA)

    1977-05-01

    Photoreactivating enzyme (PRE) monomerizes cyclobutyl pyrimidine dimers formed in DNA by uv light (lambda < 300 nm). The enzyme requires near UV and visible wavelengths (300 < lambda < 600 nm) for activity. Possible mechanisms of action of the PRE are suggested by non-enzymatic processes in which pyrimidine dimers are monomerized by UV and visible light. Two such non-enzymatic processes are (a) photolysis of dimers resulting from direct absorption of UV, and (b) sensitized monomerization involving charge transfer complexes. Several lines of evidence suggest that the mechanism of action of the PRE more closely resembles (b) than (a). Recent experiments on the PRE from E.coli revealed the presence of new long wavelength absorption which may indicate the presence of a ground state complex. The known ability of PRE to monomerize dimers of thymine, cytosine and uracil suggests that the carbonyl groups at 2 position of the pyrimidine ring may be important in the interaction between enzyme and dimer.

  8. Detection of Bacillus spores using PCR and FTA filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Keith A; Dyer, Deanne; Kornegay, Leroy; Orlandi, Palmer A

    2004-05-01

    Emphasis has been placed on developing and implementing rapid detection systems for microbial pathogens. We have explored the utility of expanding FTA filter technology for the preparation of template DNA for PCR from bacterial spores. Isolated spores from several Bacillus spp., B. subtilis, B. cereus, and B. megaterium, were applied to FTA filters, and specific DNA products were amplified by PCR. Spore preparations were examined microscopically to ensure that the presence of vegetative cells, if any, did not yield misleading results. PCR primers SRM86 and SRM87 targeted a conserved region of bacterial rRNA genes, whereas primers Bsub5F and Bsub3R amplified a product from a conserved sequence of the B. subtilis rRNA gene. With the use of the latter set of primers for nested PCR, the sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was increased. Overall, 53 spores could be detected after the first round of PCR, and the sensitivity was increased to five spores by nested PCR. FTA filters are an excellent platform to remove PCR inhibitors and have universal applications for environmental, clinical, and food samples.

  9. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.J.; Gunasekera, T.S. [Macquarie Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Sydney (Australia); Williams, K.L. [Proteome Systems Ltd., Sydney (Australia); Nevalainen, K.M.H. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)

    2002-10-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. (author)

  10. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.J.; Gunasekera, T.S.; Williams, K.L.; Nevalainen, K.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. (author)

  11. Solid state photochemistry. Subpanel A-2(c): Challenges and opportunities in photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czanderna, A.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-09-01

    In contrast with the prior two subsections, the topics in solid state photochemistry range from photo(thermal)-induced degradation to synthesizing new compounds with desirable functions or properties. We will therefore discuss the importance of each relative to existing technological barriers, recent progress, potential applications, and the advantages expected from new information from basic science, especially, as it relates to the DOE mission.

  12. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamp: A Prospective Tool for Photochemistry Part 3. The Microwave Photochemistry Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klán, P.; Hájek, Milan; Církva, Vladimír

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 3 (2001), s. 185-189 ISSN 1010-6030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : photochemistry * electrodeless discharge lamp * microwave Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 1.038, year: 2001

  13. New insights in the bacterial spore resistance to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda; Reitz, Guenther

    Based on their unique resistance to various space parameters, Bacillus endospores are one of the model systems used for astrobiological studies. The extremely high resistance of bacterial endospores to environmental stress factors has intrigued researchers since long time and many characteristic spore features, especially those involved in the protection of spore DNA, have already been uncovered. The disclosure of the complete genomic sequence of Bacillus subtilis 168, one of the often used astrobiological model system, and the rapid development of tran-scriptional microarray techniques have opened new opportunities of gaining further insights in the enigma of spore resistance. Spores of B. subtilis were exposed to various extreme ter-restrial and extraterrestrial stressors to reach a better understanding of the DNA protection and repair strategies, which them to cope with the induced DNA damage. Following physical stress factors of environmental importance -either on Earth or in space -were selected for this thesis: (i) mono-and polychromatic UV radiation, (ii) ionizing radiation, (iii) exposure to ultrahigh vacuum; and (iv) high shock pressures simulating meteorite impacts. To reach a most comprehensive understanding of spore resistance to those harsh terrestrial or simulated extraterrestrial conditions, a standardized experimental protocol of the preparation and ana-lyzing methods was established including the determination of the following spore responses: (i) survival, (ii) induced mutations, (iii) DNA damage, (iv) role of different repair pathways by use of a set of repair deficient mutants, and (v) transcriptional responses during spore germi-nation by use of genome-wide transcriptome analyses and confirmation by RT-PCR. From this comprehensive set of data on spore resistance to a variety of environmental stress parameters a model of a "built-in" transcriptional program of bacterial spores in response to DNA damaging treatments to ensure DNA restoration

  14. A personal perspective on the future of flow photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noël, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Photochemistry and photoredox catalysis have witnessed a remarkable comeback in the last decade. Flow chemistry has been of pivotal importance to alleviate some of the classical obstacles associated with photochemistry. Herein, we analyze some of the most exciting features provided by photo flow

  15. Proceedings of the Nineteenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This document is a compilation of reports presented at the Nineteenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference. Sessions included photophysical properties of transition metal complexes, cage effects on photochemistry, charge transfer, photo-induced charge separation in biomimetic molecules, photosynthesis, and electron transfer.

  16. Tunable lasers for waste management photochemistry applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, F.T.

    1978-09-01

    A review of lasers with potential photochemical applications in waste management indicates that dye lasers, as a class, can provide tunable laser output through the visible and near-uv regions of the spectrum of most interest to photochemistry. Many variables can affect the performance of a specific dye laser, and the interactions of these variables, at the current state of the art, are complex. The recent literature on dye-laser characteristics has been reviewed and summarized, with emphasis on those parameters that most likely will affect the scaling of dye lasers in photochemical applications. Current costs are reviewed and correlated with output power. A new class of efficient uv lasers that appear to be scalable in both energy output and pulse rate, based on rare-gas halide excimers and similar molecules, is certain to find major applications in photochemistry. Because the most important developments are too recent to be adequately described in the literature or are the likely outcome of current experiments, the basic physics underlying the class of excimer lasers is described. Specific cost data are unavailable, but these new gas lasers should reflect costs similar to those of existing gas lasers, in particular, the pulsed CO 2 lasers. To complete the survey of tunable-laser characteristics, the technical characteristics of the various classes of lasers in the ir are summarized. Important developments in ir laser technology are being accelerated by isotope-separation research, but, initially at least, this portion of the spectrum is least likely to receive emphasis in waste-management-oriented photochemistry

  17. Photochemistry and photophysics concepts, research, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Balzani , Vincenzo; Juris, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    This textbook covers the spectrum from basic concepts of photochemistry and photophysics to selected examples of current applications and research.Clearly structured, the first part of the text discusses the formation, properties and reactivity of excited states of inorganic and organic molecules and supramolecular species, as well as experimental techniques. The second part focuses on the photochemical and photophysical processes in nature and artificial systems, using a wealth of examples taken from applications in nature, industry and current research fields, ranging from natural photosynth

  18. Photochemistry of materials in the stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, H.S. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This research is concerned with global change in the atmosphere, including photochemical modeling and, in the past, experimental gas-phase photochemistry involving molecular dynamics and laboratory study of atmospheric chemical reactions. The experimental work on this project concluded in August 1991, but there is a back-log of several journal articles to be written and submitted for publication. The theoretical work involves photochemical modeling in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and advising the Upper Atmosphere Research Program on Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  19. Spore Coat Architecture of Clostridium novyi-NT spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; McCafferey, J; Cheong, I; Huang, X; Bettegowda, C; Kinzler, K; Zhou, S; Vogelstein, B; Malkin, A

    2007-05-07

    Spores of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium novyi-NT are able to germinate in and destroy hypoxic regions of tumors in experimental animals. Future progress in this area will benefit from a better understanding of the germination and outgrowth processes that are essential for the tumorilytic properties of these spores. Towards this end, we have used both transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to determine the structure of dormant as well as germinating spores. We found that the spores are surrounded by an amorphous layer intertwined with honeycomb parasporal layers. Moreover, the spore coat layers had apparently self-assembled and this assembly was likely to be governed by crystal growth principles. During germination and outgrowth, the honeycomb layers as well as the underlying spore coat and undercoat layers sequentially dissolved until the vegetative cell was released. In addition to their implications for understanding the biology of C. novyi-NT, these studies document the presence of proteinaceous growth spirals in a biological organism.

  20. Changes in ultraviolet resistance and photoproduct formation as early events in spore germination of Bacillus cereus T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, R.

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine the timing of the change in the state of DNA in bacterial spores during the course of germination, L-alanine-induced germination of Bacillus cereus spores was interrupted by 0.3M CaCl 2 as an inhibitor, and the resulting semi-refractive spores (spores at the end of the first phase of germination) were examined for UV-resistance and photoproduct formation. Upon UV-irradiation, these spores, still having a semi-refractile core as observed under a phase-contrast microscope, gave rise to mainly the cyclobutane-type thymine dimer. It was concluded that change in the stats of the spore DNA occurs early in the process of germination, i.e. before the refractility of the core is lost. It was also found that CaCl 2 markedly prolonged the duration of the transient UV-resistant stage. (author)

  1. Phylogenetic placement of two species known only from resting spores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Ann E; Gryganskyi, Andrii; Bittner, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    resting spores, Zoophthora independentia, infecting Tipula (Lunatipula) submaculata in New York State, is now described as a new species and Tarichium porteri, described in 1942, which infects Tipula (Triplicitipula) colei in Tennessee, is transferred to the genus Zoophthora. We have shown that use......Molecular methods were used to determine the generic placement of two species of Entomophthorales known only from resting spores. Historically, these species would belong in the form-genus Tarichium, but this classification provides no information about phylogenetic relationships. Using DNA from...... of molecular methods can assist with determination of the phylogenetic relations of specimens within the form-genus Tarichium for an already described species and a new species for which only resting spores are available....

  2. The role of water radicals in thermorestoration of bacterial spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Y S; Grecz, N [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (USA). Dept. of Biology

    1974-01-01

    Fully hydrated bacterial spores exposed to 0.45 Mrad showed a characteristic pattern of survival associated with thermorestoration. When temperature during radiation was controlled at -15/sup 0/ to +120/sup 0/C, the lowest viable cell counts were at 0/sup 0/C. Above 0/sup 0/C radiosurvival gradually increased by 2 to 3 log cycles reaching peak at 75/sup 0/C (Bacillus cereus T heat sensitive spores) and at 95/sup 0/C (B.stearothermophilus, heat resistant spores). Simultaneously high survival was observed in the solidly frozen state at -15/sup 0/C to -5/sup 0/C since harmful radicals produced by radiation were trapped in ice. Radiation modifying effects, i.e., protection by 2M ethanol (a scavenger of OH radicals) and sensitization by 1M sodium nitrate (a scavenger of H radicals and hydrated electrons), were studied. The results with ethanol and nitrate confirm the idea that in aqueous sytems below 50/sup 0/C the lethal action is due to oxidizing OH radicals known to attack cell DNA. However, the reversal of scavenger actions above 50/sup 0/C indicates that at those high temperatures lethal effects may also involve the reducing H and esub(aq), which at lower temperatures appear not to affect spore survival though they are known to attack proteins. In this case, it is proposed that radiation inactivation of spores at temperatures below 50/sup 0/C is due to DNA damage inflicted by OH radicals whereas spore death above 50/sup 0/C seems to involve protein /enzyme/ inactivation due to a combined action of heat plus reducing (H, esub(aq)) as well as oxidizing (OH) radical species. From the practical point of view it is important that normally radioprotective effects of such substances as ethanol or ground beef are progressively lost when radiation is carried out at temperatures above 50/sup 0/C.

  3. The role of water radicals in thermorestoration of bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Y.S.; Grecz, N.

    1974-01-01

    Fully hydrated bacterial spores exposed to 0.45 Mrad showed a characteristic pattern of survival associated with thermorestoration. When temperature during radiation was controlled at -15 0 to +120 0 C, the lowest viable cell counts were at 0 0 C. Above 0 0 C radiosurvival gradually increased by 2 to 3 log cycles reaching peak at 75 0 C (Bacillus cereus T heat sensitive spores) and at 95 0 C (B.stearothermophilus, heat resistant spores). Simultaneously high survival was observed in the solidly frozen state at -15 0 C to -5 0 C since harmful radicals produced by radiation were trapped in ice. Radiation modifying effects, i.e., protection by 2M ethanol (a scavenger of OH radicals) and sensitization by 1M sodium nitrate (a scavenger of H radicals and hydrated electrons), were studied. The results with ethanol and nitrate confirm the idea that in aqueous sytems below 50 0 C the lethal action is due to oxidizing OH radicals known to attack cell DNA. However, the reversal of scavenger actions above 50 0 C indicates that at those high temperatures lethal effects may also involve the reducing H and esub(aq), which at lower temperatures appear not to affect spore survival though they are known to attack proteins. In this case, it is proposed that radiation inactivation of spores at temperatures below 50 0 C is due to DNA damage inflicted by OH radicals whereas spore death above 50 0 C seems to involve protein /enzyme/ inactivation due to a combined action of heat plus reducing (H, esub(aq)) as well as oxidizing (OH) radical species. From the practical point of view it is important that normally radioprotective effects of such substances as ethanol or ground beef are progressively lost when radiation is carried out at temperatures above 50 0 C. (F.J.)

  4. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 1. Preparation of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with a handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. An explanation is given under three sections: (1) life cycle of spore-forming bacteria, medium to form bacterial spores, and colony and purification methods of bacterial spores; (2) methods for measuring the number of bacterial spores and resistance against gamma radiation (D values); and (3) a test method for identifying spore-forming bacteria and a simple identification method. (N.K.)

  5. Microwave Photochemistry. Applications in Organic Synthesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Církva, Vladimír; Relich, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2011), s. 282-293 ISSN 1570-193X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : microwave * photochemistry * electrodeless discharge lamp Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 2.406, year: 2011 http://www.scopus.com/record/display.url?eid=2-s2.0-79960013317&origin=resultslist&sort=plf-f&src=s&st1=cirkva%2cv&sid=95rFucNho6qr5iGwVeMnh_W%3a150&sot=b&sdt=b&sl=21&s=AUTHOR-NAME%28cirkva%2cv%29&relpos=0&relpos=0&searchTerm=AUTHOR-NAME(cirkva,v)

  6. Discrimination of Spore-Forming Bacilli Using spoIVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; LaDuc, Myron; Stuecker, Tara

    2009-01-01

    A method of discriminating between spore-forming and non-spore-forming bacteria is based on a combination of simultaneous sporulation-specific and non-sporulation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs). The method was invented partly in response to the observation that for the purposes of preventing or reducing biological contamination affecting many human endeavors, ultimately, only the spore-forming portions of bacterial populations are the ones that are problematic (or, at least, more problematic than are the non-spore-forming portions). In some environments, spore-forming bacteria constitute small fractions of the total bacterial populations. The use of sporulation-specific primers in Q-PCR affords the ability to assess the spore-forming fraction of a bacterial population present in an environment of interest. This assessment can provide a more thorough and accurate understanding of the bacterial contamination in the environment, thereby making it possible to focus contamination- testing, contamination-prevention, sterilization, and decontamination resources more economically and efficiently. The method includes the use of sporulation-specific primers in the form of designed, optimized deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) oligonucleotides specific for the bacterial spoIVA gene (see table). [In "spoIVA," "IV" signifies Roman numeral four and the entire quoted name refers to gene A for the fourth stage of sporulation.] These primers are mixed into a PCR cocktail with a given sample of bacterial cells. A control PCR cocktail into which are mixed universal 16S rRNA primers is also prepared. ["16S rRNA" denotes a ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence that is common to all organisms.] Following several cycles of heating and cooling according to the PCR protocol to amplify amounts of DNA molecules, the amplification products can be analyzed to determine the types of bacterial cells present within the samples. If the amplification product is strong

  7. Novel Sample Preparation Method for Safe and Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores in Environmental Powders and Nasal Swabs

    OpenAIRE

    Luna, Vicki A.; King, Debra; Davis, Carisa; Rycerz, Tony; Ewert, Matthew; Cannons, Andrew; Amuso, Philip; Cattani, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores have been used as a biological weapon in the United States. We wanted to develop a safe, rapid method of sample preparation that provided safe DNA for the detection of spores in environmental and clinical specimens. Our method reproducibly detects B. anthracis in samples containing

  8. Proceedings of the Fourteenth DOE solar photochemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The central themes of this year's Solar Photochemistry Research Conference encompassed initial charge separation in photosynthesis, photoinduced charge separation in other organized assemblies, electron transfer, organic and inorganic photochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry. This volume contains a copy of the program the abstracts of 29 formal presentations and 47 posters, a record of the discussion following each presentation, and an address list for the 96 attendees. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. .

  9. Proceedings of the Fourteenth DOE solar photochemistry research conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The central themes of this year's Solar Photochemistry Research Conference encompassed initial charge separation in photosynthesis, photoinduced charge separation in other organized assemblies, electron transfer, organic and inorganic photochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry. This volume contains a copy of the program the abstracts of 29 formal presentations and 47 posters, a record of the discussion following each presentation, and an address list for the 96 attendees. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases

  10. Modeling Radiation Effectiveness for Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    radiation . 3.6.1 Ionizing Radiation Damage. Some of the ROS’ discussed in Section 3.3 cause indirect damage to the spore’s DNA. They can produce... ionizing radiation damage has focused on the effects of charged particles in their tracks. The charged particles create radiation - induced products and...3.8.1 Reaction-Diffusion of ROS Within the Spore. A demonstrative scenario will be explored in order to simulate the indirect effects of ionizing

  11. Molecular beam studies of stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Teresa Anne

    1998-12-01

    Photochemistry of chlorine oxide containing species plays a major role in stratospheric ozone depletion. This thesis discusses two photodissociation studies of the key molecules ClONO2 and ClOOCl which were previously thought to only produce Cl-atom (ozone depleting) products at wavelengths relevant to the stratosphere. The development of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl and the photodissociation dynamics of the model system Cl2O are also discussed. In the first chapter, the photochemistry of ClONO2 is examined at 308 nm using the technique of photofragment translational spectroscopy. Two primary decomposition pathways, leading to Cl + NO3 and ClO + NO2, were observed, with a lower limit of 0.33 for the relative yield of ClO. The angular distributions for both channels were anisotropic, indicating that the dissociation occurs within a rotational period. Chapter two revisits the photodissociation dynamics of Cl2O at 248 and 308 nm, on which we had previously reported preliminary findings. At 248 nm, three distinct dissociation pathways leading to Cl + ClO products were resolved. At 308 nm, the angular distribution was slightly more isotropic that previously reported, leaving open the possibility that Cl2O excited at 308 nm lives longer than a rotational period. Chapter three describes the development and optimization of a molecular beam source of ClOOCl. We utilized pulsed laser photolysis of ClA2O to generate ClO radicals, and cooled the cell to promote three body recombination to form ClOOCl. The principal components in the beam were Cl2, Cl2O, and ClOOCl. In the fourth chapter, the photodissociation dynamics of ClOOCl are investigated at 248 and 308 nm. We observed multiple dissociation pathways which produced ClO + ClO and 2Cl + O2 products. The relative Cl:ClO product yields are 1.0:0.13 and 1.0:0.20 for ClOOCl photolysis at 248 and 308 nm, respectively. The upper limit for the relative yield of the ClO + ClO channel was 0.19 at 248 nm and 0.31 at 308 nm

  12. Assessing the cleanliness of surfaces: Innovative molecular approaches vs. standard spore assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Duc, M.T. La; Probst, A.; Vaishampayan, P.; Stam, C.; Benardini, J.N.; Piceno, Y.M.; Andersen, G.L.; Venkateswaran, K.

    2011-04-01

    A bacterial spore assay and a molecular DNA microarray method were compared for their ability to assess relative cleanliness in the context of bacterial abundance and diversity on spacecraft surfaces. Colony counts derived from the NASA standard spore assay were extremely low for spacecraft surfaces. However, the PhyloChip generation 3 (G3) DNA microarray resolved the genetic signatures of a highly diverse suite of microorganisms in the very same sample set. Samples completely devoid of cultivable spores were shown to harbor the DNA of more than 100 distinct microbial phylotypes. Furthermore, samples with higher numbers of cultivable spores did not necessarily give rise to a greater microbial diversity upon analysis with the DNA microarray. The findings of this study clearly demonstrated that there is not a statistically significant correlation between the cultivable spore counts obtained from a sample and the degree of bacterial diversity present. Based on these results, it can be stated that validated state-of-the-art molecular techniques, such as DNA microarrays, can be utilized in parallel with classical culture-based methods to further describe the cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces.

  13. Mousse photochemistry formation; Formacao fotoquimica de mousse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, George W.M.; Nicodem, David E. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: gwallace_iq@yahoo.com.br; nicodem@iq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    The petroleum, when spilled in the sea it forms an emulsion of water in oil could contain up to 90% of water. This emulsion, called Mousse of Chocolate, it can be very stable, taking to the increase of the environmental impact and impeding the microbiological degradation. It was observed that the petroleum, when irradiated with solar light, it forms Mousse more easily. However, same being known about the importance of the action of the light in the formation of Mousse, little it is known regarding the processes and conditions involved in the formation of Mousse. This project proposes the study of the process of formation of Mousse, in function of the suffered transformations for petroleum after solar irradiation. We will study the relationship between the stability and formation of Mousse and the present amount of asphaltenes in the petroleum as a result of the irradiation. We will develop a methodology for analysis of emulsions of water in petroleum, in way we know her/it the stability of the emulsion in function of the time and the amount of water in the same. We will study the behavior of a sample of Brazilian petroleum of Campos' Basin, already used in other photochemistry studies. We will analyze the effect of the time of irradiation in the asphaltenes formation and Mousse. We will also analyze other types of petroleum, for us to compare results with obtained them in the Brazilian petroleum. (author)

  14. Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry of Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wishart, J.F.; Takahaski, K.

    2010-01-01

    As our understanding of ionic liquids and their tunable properties has grown, it is possible to see many opportunities for ionic liquids to contribute to the sustainable use of energy. The potential safety and environmental benefits of ionic liquids, as compared to conventional solvents, have attracted interest in their use as processing media for the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, an understanding of the interactions of ionizing radiation and photons with ionic liquids is strongly needed. However, the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is still a relatively unexplored topic although there has been a significant increase in the number of researchers in the field recently. This article provides a brief introduction to ionic liquids and their interesting properties, and recent advances in the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of ionic liquids. In this article, we will mainly focus on excess electron dynamics and radical reaction dynamics. Because solvation dynamics processes in ionic liquids are much slower than in molecular solvents, one of the distinguishing characteristics is that pre-solvated electrons play an important role in ionic liquid radiolysis. It will be also shown that the reaction dynamics of radical ions is significantly different from that observed in molecular solvents because of the Coulombic screening effects and electrostatic interactions in ionic liquids.

  15. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Angela R W; Custard, Kyle D; May, Nathaniel W; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matt K; Walker, Lawrence; Moore, Ronald J; Huey, L G; Alexander, Liz; Shepson, Paul B; Pratt, Kerri A

    2017-09-19

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I 2 ) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I 2 and snowpack iodide (I - ) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiaġvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I 2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3-1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I - measurements showed enrichments of up to ∼1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I - /Na + , consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I 2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I 2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  16. Photometric immersion refractometry of bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, P; Beaman, T C; Corner, T R; Greenamyre, J T; Tisa, L S

    1982-01-01

    Photometric immersion refractometry was used to determine the average apparent refractive index (n) of five types of dormant Bacillus spores representing a 600-fold range in moist-heat resistance determined as a D100 value. The n of a spore type increased as the molecular size of various immersion solutes decreased. For comparison of the spore types, the n of the entire spore and of the isolated integument was determined by use of bovine serum albumin, which is excluded from permeating into them. The n of the sporoplast (the structures bounded by the outer pericortex membrane) was determined by use of glucose, which was shown to permeate into the spore only as deeply as the pericortex membrane. Among the various spore types, an exponential increase in the heat resistance correlated with the n of the entire spore and of the sporoplast, but not of the isolated perisporoplast integument. Correlation of the n with the solids content of the entire spore provided a method of experimentally obtaining the refractive index increment (dn/dc), which was constant for the various spore types and enables the calculation of solids and water content from an n. Altogether, the results showed that the total water content is distributed unequally within the dormant spore, with less water in the sporoplast than in the perisporoplast integument, and that the sporoplast becomes more refractile and therefore more dehydrated as the heat resistance becomes greater among the various spore types. PMID:6802796

  17. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4–0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest. PMID:27185928

  18. Active molecular iodine photochemistry in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raso, Angela R.; Custard, Kyle D.; May, Nathaniel W.; Tanner, David; Newburn, Matthew K.; Walker, Lawrence R.; Moore, Ronald J.; Huey, L. G.; Alexander, Lizabeth; Shepson, Paul B.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-09-05

    During springtime, the Arctic atmospheric boundary layer undergoes frequent rapid depletions in ozone and gaseous elemental mercury due to reactions with halogen atoms, influencing atmospheric composition and pollutant fate. Although bromine chemistry has been shown to initiate ozone depletion events, and it has long been hypothesized that iodine chemistry may contribute, no previous measurements of molecular iodine (I2) have been reported in the Arctic. Iodine chemistry also contributes to atmospheric new particle formation and therefore cloud properties and radiative forcing. Here we present Arctic atmospheric I2 and snowpack iodide (I-) measurements, which were conducted near Utqiagvik, AK, in February 2014. Using chemical ionization mass spectrometry, I2 was observed in the atmosphere at mole ratios of 0.3–1.0 ppt, and in the snowpack interstitial air at mole ratios up to 22 ppt under natural sunlit conditions and up to 35 ppt when the snowpack surface was artificially irradiated, suggesting a photochemical production mechanism. Further, snow meltwater I-measurements showed enrichments of up to ~1,900 times above the seawater ratio of I-/Na+, consistent with iodine activation and recycling. Modeling shows that observed I2 levels are able to significantly increase ozone depletion rates, while also producing iodine monoxide (IO) at levels recently observed in the Arctic. These results emphasize the significance of iodine chemistry and the role of snowpack photochemistry in Arctic atmospheric composition, and imply that I2 is likely a dominant source of iodine atoms in the Arctic.

  19. LOW POWER UPCONVERSION FOR SOLAR FUELS PHOTOCHEMISTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, Felix N. [Bowling Green State University

    2013-08-05

    chromophores poised for upconversion photochemistry are also presented.

  20. Effects of steam autoclave treatment on Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca-Espitia, L C; Suvira, M; Rosenbeck, K; Korza, G; Setlow, B; Li, W; Wang, S; Li, Y-Q; Setlow, P

    2016-11-01

    To determine the mechanism of autoclave killing of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores used in biological indicators (BIs) for steam autoclave sterilization, and rates of loss of spore viability and a spore enzyme used in BIs. Spore viability, dipicolinic acid (DPA) release, nucleic acid staining, α-glucosidase activity, protein structure and mutagenesis were measured during autoclaving of G. stearothermophilus spores. Loss of DPA and increases in spore core nucleic acid staining were slower than loss of spore viability. Spore core α-glucosidase was also lost more slowly than spore viability, although soluble α-glucosidase in spore preparations was lost more rapidly. However, spores exposed to an effective autoclave sterilization lost all viability and α-glucosidase activity. Apparently killed autoclaved spores were not recovered by artificial germination in supportive media, much spore protein was denatured during autoclaving, and partially killed autoclave-treated spore preparations did not acquire mutations. These results indicate that autoclave-killed spores cannot be revived, spore killing by autoclaving is likely by protein damage, and spore core α-glucosidase activity is lost more slowly than spore viability. This work provides insight into the mechanism of autoclave killing of spores of an organism used in BIs, and that a spore enzyme in a BI is more stable to autoclaving than spore viability. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Photochemistry of modified proteins benzophenone-containing bovine serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano, P.S.; Glover, G.I.; Wilkinson, T.J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of exploratory and mechanistic studies of the photochemistry of poly-p-benzoyl-acetimido-bovine serum albumin, a modified protein containing photoreactive and photosensitizing groups, are reported. Specifically described are recent findings concerning (1) the synthesis and characterization of a modified bovine serum albumin that contains benzophenone-like moieties, (2) the photochemistry of this modified protein which appeared to involve photoreductive coupling of the benzophenone chromophores to the protein backbone, and (3) triplet energy transfer from modified bovine serum albumin to small molecule acceptors resulting in quenching of the photoreaction. (author)

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Bacillus cereus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwandt, Kerrie

    2002-01-01

    .... All of the identified proteins were plausible spore components, and included chaperonins, sporulation regulators, ribosomal proteins, proteases, and metabolic enzymes involved in energy production...

  3. Spore-to-spore agar culture of the myxomycete Physarum globuliferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Wang, Qi; Li, Yu

    2010-02-01

    The ontogeny of the myxomycete Physarum globuliferum was observed on corn meal agar and hanging drop cultures without adding sterile oat flakes, bacteria or other microorganisms. Its complete life cycle including spore germination, myxamoebae, swarm cells, plasmodial development, and maturity of fructifications was demonstrated. Details of spore-to-spore development are described and illustrated.

  4. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm-1. For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification.

  5. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm(-1). For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  7. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. I. PHOTOCHEMISTRY MODEL AND BENCHMARK CASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William, E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all types of terrestrial planet atmospheres, ranging from oxidizing through reducing, which makes the code suitable for applications for the wide range of anticipated terrestrial exoplanet compositions. The one-dimensional chemical transport model treats up to 800 chemical reactions, photochemical processes, dry and wet deposition, surface emission, and thermal escape of O, H, C, N, and S bearing species, as well as formation and deposition of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid aerosols. We validate the model by computing the atmospheric composition of current Earth and Mars and find agreement with observations of major trace gases in Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. We simulate several plausible atmospheric scenarios of terrestrial exoplanets and choose three benchmark cases for atmospheres from reducing to oxidizing. The most interesting finding is that atomic hydrogen is always a more abundant reactive radical than the hydroxyl radical in anoxic atmospheres. Whether atomic hydrogen is the most important removal path for a molecule of interest also depends on the relevant reaction rates. We also find that volcanic carbon compounds (i.e., CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) are chemically long-lived and tend to be well mixed in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and their dry deposition velocities to the surface control the atmospheric oxidation states. Furthermore, we revisit whether photochemically produced oxygen can cause false positives for detecting oxygenic photosynthesis, and find that in 1 bar CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres oxygen and ozone may build up to levels that have conventionally been accepted as signatures of life, if there is no surface emission of reducing gases. The atmospheric scenarios presented in this paper can serve as the

  8. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  9. Supramolecular photochemistry of drugs in biomolecular environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Sandra; Manet, Ilse

    2014-06-21

    In this tutorial review we illustrate how the interaction of photoactive drugs/potential drugs with proteins or DNA in supramolecular complexes can determine the course of the reactions initiated by the drug absorbed photons, evidencing the mechanistic differences with respect to the solution conditions. We focus on photoprocesses, independent of oxygen, that lead to chemical modification of the biomolecules, with formation of new covalent bonds or cleavage of existing bonds. Representative systems are mainly selected from the literature of the last decade. The photoreactivity of some aryl propionic acids, (fluoro)quinolones, furocoumarins, metal coordination complexes, quinine-like compounds, naphthaleneimides and pyrenyl-peptides with proteins or DNA is discussed. The use of light for biomolecule photomodification, historically relevant to biological photosensitization processes and some forms of photochemotherapy, is nowadays becoming more and more important in the development of innovative methods in nanomedicine and biotechnology.

  10. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.

  11. Radiation and Photochemistry Section annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of reactive intermediates in the condensed phase. The section on the chemistry of ions treats condensed-phase reactions of radical cations, radical cations in zeolite matrices, high energy chemistry, ions and excited states in radiolysis, and photochemistry of the polymer imaging systems. The section on the role of solvent in chemical reactivity describes a study of atomic hydrogen and deuterium in water radiolysis, solvated electron thermodynamics and transport properties, solvent relaxation dynamics, and solvation of an excess electron in an aqueous solution of LiCl. A separate section outlines activities at the 20-MeV linac and the 3-MeV Van de Graaff accelerator

  12. Ptaquiloside in bracken spores from Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Schmidt, Bjørn; Sheffield, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) are suspected of causing cancer in humans. The main carcinogen is the highly water-soluble norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside, which may be ingested by humans through food, e.g. via contaminated water, meat or milk. It has...... been postulated that carcinogens could also be ingested through breathing air containing bracken spores. Ptaquiloside has not previously been identified in bracken spores. The aim of the study was to determine whether ptaquiloside is present in bracken spores, and if so, to estimate its content...

  13. The nature of light. A brief introduction to photochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Font, Josep

    2017-01-01

    The first lecture of the seminar on Light, Darkness and Living Beings, held in Mataró in March 2015, was devoted to explaining the dual nature of light and the interaction of this electromagnetic radiation with matter, considering mainly the photochemical aspects. This article summarizes the lecture, offering a brief description of the basis of photochemistry and giving some examples of reactions that need light in order to occur. Examples related to biological systems (e.g. plant photosynthe...

  14. The regulated synthesis of a Bacillus anthracis spore coat protein that affects spore surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, A; Goodman, B; Smith, Z

    2014-05-01

    Examine the regulation of a spore coat protein and the effects on spore properties. A c. 23 kDa band in coat/exosporial extracts of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores varied in amount depending upon the conditions of sporulation. It was identified by MALDI as a likely orthologue of ExsB of Bacillus cereus. Little if any was present in an exosporial preparation with a location to the inner coat/cortex region established by spore fractionation and immunogold labelling of electron micrograph sections. Because of its predominant location in the inner coat, it has been renamed Cotγ. It was relatively deficient in spores produced at 37°C and when acidic fermentation products were produced a difference attributable to transcriptional regulation. The deficiency or absence of Cotγ resulted in a less robust exosporium positioned more closely to the coat. These spores were less hydrophobic and germinated somewhat more rapidly. Hydrophobicity and appearance were rescued in the deletion strain by introduction of the cotγ gene. The deficiency or lack of a protein largely found in the inner coat altered spore hydrophobicity and surface appearance. The regulated synthesis of Cotγ may be a paradigm for other spore coat proteins with unknown functions that modulate spore properties in response to environmental conditions. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Sensitivity of thermally treated Bacillus subtilis spores to subsequent irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, S.A.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    B. subtilis spores exposed to thermal treatment at 70 or 80 0 C for 1 hr were more sensitive to subsequent radiation exposure than non-heated spores. Deactivation of previously heated spores by increasing dose of 0-radiation followed an exponential function while, for non-heated spores a shoulder followed by exponential deactivation was noticed. Combined heat-radiation treatment exhibited a synergistic effect on spore deactivation at low irradiation doses, while at high irradiation doses, the effect was more or less additive. Added values of spore injury was higher for B. subtilis spores that received heat and radiation separately than the observed injury for spores that received combined treatment (heat followed by radiation). Results of spore deactivation and injury due to heat followed by radiation treatment are discussed in comparison to those of spores that received radiation-heat sequence

  16. Enzyme-driven Bacillus spore coat degradation leading to spore killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Ruchir V; Mehta, Krunal K; Wu, Xia; Paskaleva, Elena E; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2014-04-01

    The bacillus spore coat confers chemical and biological resistance, thereby protecting the core from harsh environments. The primarily protein-based coat consists of recalcitrant protein crosslinks that endow the coat with such functional protection. Proteases are present in the spore coat, which play a putative role in coat degradation in the environment. However these enzymes are poorly characterized. Nonetheless given the potential for proteases to catalyze coat degradation, we screened 10 commercially available proteases for their ability to degrade the spore coats of B. cereus and B. anthracis. Proteinase K and subtilisin Carlsberg, for B. cereus and B. anthracis spore coats, respectively, led to a morphological change in the otherwise impregnable coat structure, increasing coat permeability towards cortex lytic enzymes such as lysozyme and SleB, thereby initiating germination. Specifically in the presence of lysozyme, proteinase K resulted in 14-fold faster enzyme induced germination and exhibited significantly shorter lag times, than spores without protease pretreatment. Furthermore, the germinated spores were shown to be vulnerable to a lytic enzyme (PlyPH) resulting in effective spore killing. The spore surface in response to proteolytic degradation was probed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which provided key insights regarding coat degradation. The extent of coat degradation and spore killing using this enzyme-based pretreatment approach is similar to traditional, yet far harsher, chemical decoating methods that employ detergents and strong denaturants. Thus the enzymatic route reduces the environmental burden of chemically mediated spore killing, and demonstrates that a mild and environmentally benign biocatalytic spore killing is achievable. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Photochemistry in Saturn’s Ring-Shadowed Atmosphere: Photochemistry and Haze Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgington, Scott G.; Atreya, Sushil K.; Baines, Kevin H.; West, Robert A.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Fletcher, Leigh; Momary, Thomas W.; Wilson, Eric; CIRS, ISS, UVIS, VIMS

    2017-10-01

    After 13 years of observing Saturn, Cassini would have ended nearly a half Saturnian year. During this epoch, the ring shadow has moved from covering much of the northern hemisphere to covering a large swath southern hemisphere. The net effect is that the intensity of both ultraviolet and visible sunlight penetrating through the rings to any particular latitude will vary depending on both Saturn’s axis relative to the Sun and the optical thickness of each ring system. In essence, the rings act like semi-transparent venetian blinds. This effect magnifies the effect due to axial tilt alone and acts to turn off photochemistry and haze generation. This effect is seen in both the presence of a bluish Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere in 2004 in the northern hemisphere and color change to blue in the northern hemisphere.Previous work examined the variation of the solar flux as a function of solar inclination, i.e. for each 7.25-year season at Saturn. We report on the impact of the oscillating ring shadow, in addition to variation due to axial tilt, on photolysis and production rates of hydrocarbons and phosphine in Saturn’s stratosphere and upper troposphere. The impact of these production and loss rates on the abundance of long-lived photochemical products leading to haze formation are explored. We assess their impact on a disequilibrium species whose presence in the upper troposphere can be used as a tracer of convective processes in the deeper atmosphere.We will also present our ongoing analysis of Cassini’s CIRS, UVIS, and VIMS datasets that provide an estimate of the evolving haze content. In particular, we will examine how the region inside Saturn’s famous hexagonal jet stream changes over time from a relatively clear atmosphere to a hazy one. We also explore how the hexagon acts like a barrier to transport, isolating Saturn’s north polar region from outside influences of photochemically-generated molecules and haze.The research described in this paper was

  18. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND AUTECOLOGY OF SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladka, G V; Romanovskaya, V A; Tashyreva, H O; Tashyrev, O B

    2015-01-01

    Multi-resistant to extreme factors spore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus are isolated from hypersaline environments of the Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel). Phylogenetic analysis showed distinction of dominating extremophilic culturable species in studied regions. In Crimean environments they are B. mojavensis and B. simplex, in the Dead Sea ecosystem--B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. simplex. Isolates are simultaneously halotolerant and resistant to UV radiation. Strains isolated from the Dead Sea and the Crimea environments were resistant to UV: LD90 and LD99.99 made 100-170 J/m2 and 750-1500 J/m2 respectively. Spores showed higher UV-resistance (LD99.99-2500 J/m2) than the vegetative cells. However the number of spores made 0.02-0.007% of the whole cell population, and should not significantly affect the UV LD99.99 value. Isolates of both environments were halotolerant in the range of 0.1-10% NaCl and thermotolerant in the range of 20-50 °C, and didn't grow at 15 °C. Survival strategy of spore-forming bacteria from hypersaline environments under high UV radiation level can be performed by spore formation which minimize cell damage as well as efficient DNA-repair systems that remove damages.

  19. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R.; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N.; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has

  20. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G; de Koning, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14 N spores prepared on solid Schaeffer's-glucose (SG) agar plates and 15 N metabolically labeled spores prepared in shake flasks containing 3-( N -morpholino) propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14 N: 15 N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the

  1. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R.; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N.; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14N spores prepared on solid Schaeffer’s-glucose (SG) agar plates and 15N metabolically labeled spores prepared in shake flasks containing 3-(N-morpholino) propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14N:15N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the

  2. The influence of sporulation conditions on the spore coat protein composition of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishwas R. Abhyankar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14N spores prepared on solid SG agar plates and 15N metabolically labelled spores prepared in shake flasks containing MOPS buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14N: 15N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the differences in the coat protein composition and

  3. Dothistroma septosporum: spore production and weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, M.; Drapela, K.; Kankovsky, L.

    2012-11-01

    Dartmouth's septosporum, the causal agent of Dothistroma needle blight is a widespread fungus which infects more than 80 species of coniferous trees through the entire world. Spreading of the infection is strongly affected by climatic factors of each locality where it is recorded. We attempt to describe the concrete limiting climatic factors necessary for the releasing of conidia of D. septosporum and to find out the timing of its spore production within the year. For this purpose we used an automatic volumetric spore trap and an automatic meteorological station. We found that a minimum daily average temperature of 10 degree centigrade was necessary for any spore production, as well as a long period of high air humidity. The values obtained in the present study were a little bit higher than those previously published, which may arise questions about a possible changing trend of the behaviour in the development of the Dothistroma needle blight causal agent. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict the spore counts on the base of previous values of spore counts and dew point. For a locality from Hackerovka, the best ARIMA model was 1,0,0; and for a locality from Lanzhot, the best was 3,1,0. (Author) 19 refs.

  4. [Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in various tannery baths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrycka, M; Mierzejewski, J

    2000-01-01

    The influence of tannery baths: liming, deliming, bating, pickling, tanning, retannage on the survival and on the germination dynamism of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) was investigated. The periods and the conditions of this influence were established according to technological process of cow hide tannage. Practically after every bath some part of the spores remained vital. The most effective killing of spores occurred after pickling, liming and deliming. Inversely, the most viable spores remained after bating and retannage process. The lack of correlation that was observed between survival and germination of spores after retannage bath can be explained by different mechanism of spores germination inhibition and their killing.

  5. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    1994-01-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.)

  6. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko [Japan Radioisotope Association, Shiga (Japan). Koka Laboratory

    1994-12-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.).

  7. High-Resolution Spore Coat Architecture and Assembly of Bacillus Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Elhadj, S; Plomp, M

    2011-03-14

    Elucidating the molecular architecture of bacterial and cellular surfaces and its structural dynamics is essential to understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis, immune response, physicochemical interactions, environmental resistance, and provide the means for identifying spore formulation and processing attributes. I will discuss the application of in vitro atomic force microscopy (AFM) for studies of high-resolution coat architecture and assembly of several Bacillus spore species. We have demonstrated that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. We have proposed that strikingly different species-dependent coat structures of bacterial spore species are a consequence of sporulation media-dependent nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the assembly of the outer spore coat. Spore coat layers were found to exhibit screw dislocations and two-dimensional nuclei typically observed on inorganic and macromolecular crystals. This presents the first case of non-mineral crystal growth patterns being revealed for a biological organism, which provides an unexpected example of nature exploiting fundamental materials science mechanisms for the morphogenetic control of biological ultrastructures. We have discovered and validated, distinctive formulation-specific high-resolution structural spore coat and dimensional signatures of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) grown in different formulation condition. We further demonstrated that measurement of the dimensional characteristics of B. anthracis spores provides formulation classification and sample matching with high sensitivity and specificity. I will present data on the development of an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures on the B. anthracis surfaces. These studies demonstrate that AFM can probe microbial surface architecture, environmental dynamics and the life cycle of bacterial and cellular systems at near

  8. The influence of sporulation conditions on the spore coat protein composition of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    OpenAIRE

    Wishwas R. Abhyankar; Wishwas R. Abhyankar; Kiki Kamphorst; Bhagyashree N. Swarge; Bhagyashree N. Swarge; Henk van Veen; Nicole N. van der Wel; Stanley Brul; Chris G. de Koster; Leo J. de Koning

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for t...

  9. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R.; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N.; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for t...

  10. Spore analysis and tetrad dissection of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe the processing of Schizosaccharomyces pombe spores in batches (random spore analysis) or through tetrad dissections. Spores are usually prepared from matings between haploid strains (producing zygotic asci) or from sporulating diploids (producing azygotic asci). In random spore...

  11. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  12. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  13. Fifth international fungus spore conference. [Abstracts]: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  14. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Judge, J.

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark

  15. Use of yeast spores for microencapsulation of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Libing; Li, Zijie; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Here, we report a novel method to produce microencapsulated enzymes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae spores. In sporulating cells, soluble secreted proteins are transported to the spore wall. Previous work has shown that the spore wall is capable of retaining soluble proteins because its outer layers work as a diffusion barrier. Accordingly, a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion of the α-galactosidase, Mel1, expressed in spores was observed in the spore wall even after spores were subjected to a high-salt wash in the presence of detergent. In vegetative cells, however, the cell wall cannot retain the RFP fusion. Although the spore wall prevents diffusion of proteins, it is likely that smaller molecules, such as sugars, pass through it. In fact, spores can contain much higher α-galactosidase activity to digest melibiose than vegetative cells. When present in the spore wall, the enzyme acquires resistance to environmental stresses including enzymatic digestion and high temperatures. The outer layers of the spore wall are required to retain enzymes but also decrease accessibility of the substrates. However, mutants with mild spore wall defects can retain and stabilize the enzyme while still permitting access to the substrate. In addition to Mel1, we also show that spores can retain the invertase. Interestingly the encapsulated invertase has significantly lower activity toward raffinose than toward sucrose.This suggests that substrate selectivity could be altered by the encapsulation.

  16. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W. [Univ. of London, Surrey (United Kingdom); Judge, J. [Unilever plc, Sharnbrook (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark.

  17. Expression and characterization of a novel spore wall protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic, spore-forming parasites. The environmentally resistant spores, which harbor a rigid cell wall, are critical for their survival outside their host cells and host-to-host transmission. The spore wall comprises two major layers: the exospore and the endospore. In Nosema ...

  18. DISTRIBUTION ET ABONDANCE DE SPORES DE CHAMPIGNONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    (PCR) des racines échantillonnées et le comptage directe des spores des sols échantillonnés ont permis ... cowpea, sing the PCR technique, reveal that this plant was an efficient host for ..... genes from vesicular-arbuscular endomy- ...

  19. Pollen and spores of terrestrial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.; Shennan, Ian; Long, Antony J.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen and spores are valuable tools in reconstructing past sea level and climate because of their ubiquity, abundance, and durability as well as their reciprocity with source vegetation to environmental change (Cronin, 1999; Traverse, 2007; Willard and Bernhardt, 2011). Pollan is found in many sedimentary environments, from freshwater to saltwater, terrestrial to marine. It can be abundant in a minimal amount of sample material, for example half a gram, as concentrations can be as high as four million grains per gram (Traverse, 2007). The abundance of pollen in a sample lends it to robust statistical analysis for the quantitative reconstruction of environments. The outer cell wall is resistant to decay in sediments and allows palynomorphs (pollen and spores) to record changes in plant communities and sea level over millions of years. These characteristics make pollen and spores a powerful tool to use in sea-level research.This chapter describes the biology of pollen and spores and how they are transported and preserved in sediments. We present a methodology for isolating pollen from sediments and a general language and framework to identify pollen as well as light micrographs of a selection of common pollen grains, We then discuss their utility in sea-level research.

  20. Detecting bacterial spores in soup manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijlen, A.C.M.; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Vos, P.; Brul, S.

    2009-01-01

    Spores from mesophilic aerobic sporeforming bacteria (Bacillus) are sometimes able to survive the thermal process of commercial sterile products and sporadically cause spoilage or food poisoning. Because of an increasing demand for more fresh products, ideally the processing temperatures should be

  1. Paleozoic in situ spores and pollen. Lycopsida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 296, 1/6 (2017), s. 1-111 ISSN 0375-0299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : in situ spores * reproductive organs * Lycopsida * Paleozoic Sub ject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  2. Can spores survive in interstellar space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.; Greenberg, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    Inactivation of spores (Bacillus subtilis) has been investigated in the laboratory by vacuum ultraviolet radiation in simulated interstellar conditions. Damage produced at the normal interstellar particle temperature of 10 K is less than at higher temperatures: the major damage being produced by radiation in the 2,000-3,000 A range. The results place constraints on the panspermia hypothesis. (author).

  3. Modeling to control spores in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling approach was used to identify measures at the farm that reduce transmission of microorganisms to raw milk. Butyric acid bacteria (BAB) and Bacillus cereus were used as case-studies. Minimizing the concentration of BAB spores in raw milk is important to prevent late-blowing of Gouda-type

  4. Phospholipase Cδ regulates germination of Dictyostelium spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, Peter van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Background: Many eukaryotes, including plants and fungi make spores that resist severe environmental stress. The micro-organism Dictyostelium contains a single phospholipase C gene (PLC); deletion of the gene has no effect on growth, cell movement and differentiation. In this report we show that PLC

  5. The Conserved Spore Coat Protein SpoVM Is Largely Dispensable in Clostridium difficile Spore Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribis, John W; Ravichandran, Priyanka; Putnam, Emily E; Pishdadian, Keyan; Shen, Aimee

    2017-01-01

    The spore-forming bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of health care-associated infections in the United States. In order for this obligate anaerobe to transmit infection, it must form metabolically dormant spores prior to exiting the host. A key step during this process is the assembly of a protective, multilayered proteinaceous coat around the spore. Coat assembly depends on coat morphogenetic proteins recruiting distinct subsets of coat proteins to the developing spore. While 10 coat morphogenetic proteins have been identified in Bacillus subtilis , only two of these morphogenetic proteins have homologs in the Clostridia : SpoIVA and SpoVM. C. difficile SpoIVA is critical for proper coat assembly and functional spore formation, but the requirement for SpoVM during this process was unknown. Here, we show that SpoVM is largely dispensable for C. difficile spore formation, in contrast with B. subtilis . Loss of C. difficile SpoVM resulted in modest decreases (~3-fold) in heat- and chloroform-resistant spore formation, while morphological defects such as coat detachment from the forespore and abnormal cortex thickness were observed in ~30% of spoVM mutant cells. Biochemical analyses revealed that C. difficile SpoIVA and SpoVM directly interact, similarly to their B. subtilis counterparts. However, in contrast with B. subtilis , C. difficile SpoVM was not essential for SpoIVA to encase the forespore. Since C. difficile coat morphogenesis requires SpoIVA-interacting protein L (SipL), which is conserved exclusively in the Clostridia , but not the more broadly conserved SpoVM, our results reveal another key difference between C. difficile and B. subtilis spore assembly pathways. IMPORTANCE The spore-forming obligate anaerobe Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrheal disease in the United States. When C. difficile spores are ingested by susceptible individuals, they germinate within the gut and

  6. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölz, K; Lietard, J; Somoza, M M

    2017-01-03

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition and p -type doping of gallium nitride have recently permitted the manufacture of UV LEDs capable of replacing mercury arc lamps also in these applications. These UV LEDs exceed the spectral radiance of mercury lamps even at the intense I-line at 365 nm. Here we present the successful exchange of a high-pressure mercury arc lamp for a new generation UV LED as a light source in photolithographic chemistry and its use in the fabrication of high-density DNA microarrays. We show that the improved light radiance and efficiency of these LEDs offer substantial practical, economic and ecological advantages, including faster synthesis, lower hardware costs, very long lifetime, an >85-fold reduction in electricity consumption and the elimination of mercury waste and contamination.

  7. The photochemistry of pyrimidine in realistic astrophysical ices and the production of nucleobases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Materese, Christopher K.; Sandford, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleobases, together with deoxyribose/ribose and phosphoric acid, are the building blocks of DNA and RNA for all known life. The presence of nucleobase-like compounds in carbonaceous chondrites delivered to the Earth raises the question of an extraterrestrial origin for the molecules that triggered life on our planet. Whether these molecules are formed in interstellar/protostellar environments, in small parent bodies in the solar system, or both, is currently unclear. Recent experiments show that the UV irradiation of pyrimidine (C 4 H 4 N 2 ) in H 2 O-rich ice mixtures that contain NH 3 , CH 3 OH, or CH 4 leads to the formation of the pyrimidine-based nucleobases uracil, cytosine, and thymine. In this work, we discuss the low-temperature UV irradiation of pyrimidine in realistic astrophysical ice mixtures containing H 2 O, CH 3 OH, and NH 3 , with or without CH 4 , to search for the production of nucleobases and other prebiotic compounds. These experiments show the presence of uracil, urea, glycerol, hexamethylenetetramine, small amino acids, and small carboxylic acids in all samples. Cytosine was only found in one sample produced from ices irradiated with a higher UV dose, while thymine was not found in any sample, even after irradiation with a higher UV dose. Results are discussed to evaluate the role of the photochemistry of pyrimidine in the inventory of organic molecules detected in meteorites and their astrophysical/astrobiological implications.

  8. Formation of reactive nitrogen oxides from urban grime photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baergen, Alyson M.; Donaldson, D. James

    2016-05-01

    Impervious surfaces are ubiquitous in urban environments and constitute a substrate onto which atmospheric constituents can deposit and undergo photochemical and oxidative processing, giving rise to "urban grime" films. HNO3 and N2O5 are important sinks for NOx in the lower atmosphere and may be deposited onto these films, forming nitrate through surface hydrolysis. Although such deposition has been considered as a net loss of NOx from the atmosphere, there is increasing evidence that surface-associated nitrate undergoes further reaction. Here, we examine the gas phase products of the photochemistry of real, field-collected urban grime using incoherent broadband cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (IBBCEAS). Gas phase nitrogen oxides are emitted upon illumination of grime samples and their production increases with ambient relative humidity (RH) up to 35 % after which the production becomes independent of RH. These results are discussed in the context of water uptake onto and evaporation from grime films.

  9. Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Exciton Dynamics and Photochemistry of Single Allophycocyanin Trimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, Liming; Xie, Xiaoliang

    1998-01-01

    We report a study of the spectroscopy and exciton dynamics of the allophycocyanin trimer (APC), a light harvesting protein complex from cyanobacteria, by room-temperature single-molecule measurements of fluorescence spectra, lifetimes, intensity trajectories and polarization modulation. Emission spectra of individual APC trimers are found to be homogeneous on the time scale of seconds. In contrast, their emission lifetimes are found to be widely distributed, because of generation of exciton traps during the course of measurements. The intensity trajectories and polarization modulation experiments indicate reversible ixciton trap formation within the three quasi-independent pairs of strong interacting a84 and B84 chromophores in APC, as well a photobleaching of individual chromophores. Comparison experiments under continuous wave and pulsed excitation reveal a two-photon mechanism for generating exciton traps and/or photobleaching, which involves exciton-exciton annihilation. These single-molecule experiments provide new insights into exciton dynamics and photochemistry of light-harvesting complexes

  10. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaïtilingom, M.; Charbouillot, T.; Deguillaume, L.; Maisonobe, R.; Parazols, M.; Amato, P.; Sancelme, M.; Delort, A.-M.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this work was to compare experimentally the contribution of photochemistry vs. microbial activity to the degradation of carboxylic acids present in cloud water. For this, we selected 17 strains representative of the microflora existing in real clouds and worked on two distinct artificial cloud media that reproduce marine and continental cloud chemical composition. Photodegradation experiments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of hydroxyl radicals were performed under the same microcosm conditions using two irradiation systems. Biodegradation and photodegradation rates of acetate, formate, oxalate and succinate were measured on both media at 5 °C and 17 °C and were shown to be on the same order of magnitude (around 10-10-10-11 M s-1). The chemical composition (marine or continental origin) had little influence on photodegradation and biodegradation rates while the temperature shift from 17 °C to 5 °C decreased biodegradation rates of a factor 2 to 5. In order to test other photochemical scenarios, theoretical photodegradation rates were calculated considering hydroxyl (OH) radical concentration values in cloud water estimated by cloud chemistry modelling studies and available reaction rate constants of carboxylic compounds with both hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. Considering high OH concentration ([OH] = 1 × 10-12 M) led to no significant contribution of microbial activity in the destruction of carboxylic acids. On the contrary, for lower OH concentration (at noon, [OH] = 1 × 10-14 M), microorganisms could efficiently compete with photochemistry and in similar contributions than the ones estimated by our experimental approach. Combining these two approaches (experimental and theoretical), our results led to the following conclusions: oxalate was only photodegraded; the photodegradation of formate was usually more efficient than its biodegradation; the biodegradation of acetate and succinate seemed to exceed their photodegradation.

  11. Dust ablation on the giant planets: Consequences for stratospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Poppe, Andrew R.

    2017-11-01

    Ablation of interplanetary dust supplies oxygen to the upper atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Using recent dynamical model predictions for the dust influx rates to the giant planets (Poppe et al., 2016), we calculate the ablation profiles and investigate the subsequent coupled oxygen-hydrocarbon neutral photochemistry in the stratospheres of these planets. We find that dust grains from the Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt, Jupiter-family comets, and Oort-cloud comets supply an effective oxygen influx rate of 1.0-0.7+2.2 ×107 O atoms cm-2 s-1 to Jupiter, 7.4-5.1+16 ×104 cm-2 s-1 to Saturn, 8.9-6.1+19 ×104 cm-2 s-1 to Uranus, and 7.5-5.1+16 ×105 cm-2 s-1 to Neptune. The fate of the ablated oxygen depends in part on the molecular/atomic form of the initially delivered products, and on the altitude at which it was deposited. The dominant stratospheric products are CO, H2O, and CO2, which are relatively stable photochemically. Model-data comparisons suggest that interplanetary dust grains deliver an important component of the external oxygen to Jupiter and Uranus but fall far short of the amount needed to explain the CO abundance currently seen in the middle stratospheres of Saturn and Neptune. Our results are consistent with the theory that all of the giant planets have experienced large cometary impacts within the last few hundred years. Our results also suggest that the low background H2O abundance in Jupiter's stratosphere is indicative of effective conversion of meteoric oxygen to CO during or immediately after the ablation process - photochemistry alone cannot efficiently convert the H2O into CO on the giant planets.

  12. Proceedings of the Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, is being held June 6--10, 1993, at Cragun`s Lodge and Conference Center, Brainerd, Minnesota The meeting is hosted this year by the Ames Laboratory of Iowa State University. The purpose of the meeting is to foster cooperation, collaboration, and exchange of current research ideas among grantees and contractors of the DOE Division of Chemical Sciences engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion. This conference provides a special opportunity for interaction among investigators from diverse traditional chemistry disciplines who share the common good of providing the knowledge and concepts needed for production of low cost fuels and chemicals or electricity by photochemical conversion of solar energy. Our special guest plenary lecturer is Professor Graham Fleming, of the University of Chicago, who will speak on ultrafast spectroscopic studies of molecular dynamics in the condensed phase. The remaining presentations on Monday will feature further investigations of ultrafast phenomena in solvation, electron transfer, and charge separation at interfaces. These will lead into the topical sessions which follow on photosynthesis, molecular models, photoinduced charge transfer in homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions, inorganic photochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry. As an added feature, the photoelectrochemistry session will include six short introductory lectures for the benefit of nonspecialists on outstanding issues and problems in that field. In this volume may be found a copy of the program, the abstracts of 28 formal presentations and 59 posters, as well as an address listing of the 114 participants.

  13. Limit for the Survivability from Potassium Decay of Bacterial Spores in Halite Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kminek, G.; Bada, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    Vreeland et al.1 recently claimed to have isolated and cultured a viable spore forming halotolerant bacterium from a 250 million year old brine inclusion present in a salt crystal from the Salado formation. An earlier report suggested that viable bacterial spores could be revived from samples obtained from insects entombed in 25-40 million year old Dominican amber2. On the bases of these reports, Parkes3 raised the question of whether bacterial spores under some conditions might be effectively immortal. Sporulation, induced by an adverse change in the environmental conditions, is able to stabilize the DNA primarily against hydrolytic depurination for extended periods of time4. However, the organism is still exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment. Dormant spores have a reduced sensitivity to ionizing radiation per se, but unlike active organisms are unable to repair DNA damage encountered during long-term exposure to ionizing radiation. The accumulated damage may overwhelm any repair mechanism that starts in the early stage of spore germination5. The main radionuclide in a halite fluid inclusion is 40K, which accounts for 0.0117% of natural potassium. 40K decays via beta decay to 40Ca and via electron capture to 40Ar, releasing a primary gamma-ray. About 83.3 % of the beta's emitted are in the energy range of 0.3-1.3 MeV. We assume 7 g/l for an average concentration of natural potassium in a halite fluid inclusion, which means that the amount of 40K in a 10 μ l fluid inclusion is 8.19 ng. We have chosen a 10 μ l because this volume is typical of that used to obtain chemical data and in the attempts to extract bacteria. Less than a percent of the gamma decay energy is absorbed in a fluid inclusion of 10 μ l. Thus, we will not take the gamma decay energy into account for the further discussion. Almost all the beta energy is absorbed in the fluid inclusion. The total decay energy absorbed in a time period of 250 million years is about 87 kGy. The most

  14. Pollen and spore monitoring in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buters, J T M; Antunes, C; Galveias, A; Bergmann, K C; Thibaudon, M; Galán, C; Schmidt-Weber, C; Oteros, J

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air quality monitoring is a governmental duty that is widely carried out in order to detect non-biological ("chemical") components in ambient air, such as particles of monitoring networks are publicly funded and air quality data are open to the public. The situation for biological particles that have detrimental effects on health, as is the case of pollen and fungal spores, is however very different. Most pollen and spore monitoring networks are not publicly funded and data are not freely available. The information regarding which biological particle is being monitored, where and by whom, is consequently often not known, even by aerobiologists themselves. This is a considerable problem, as local pollen data are an important tool for the prevention of allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to review pollen monitoring stations throughout the world and to create an interactive visualization of their distribution. The method employed to collect information was based on: (a) a review of the recent and historical bibliography related to pollen and fungal spore monitoring, and (b) personal surveys of the managers of national and regional monitoring networks. The interactive application was developed using the R programming language. We have created an inventory of the active pollen and spore monitoring stations in the world. There are at least 879 active pollen monitoring stations in the world, most of which are in Europe (> 500). The prevalent monitoring method is based on the Hirst principle (> 600 stations). The inventory is visualised as an interactive and on-line map. It can be searched, its appearance can be adjusted to the users' needs and it is updated regularly, as new stations or changes to those that already exist can be submitted online. The map shows the current situation of pollen and spore monitoring and facilitates collaboration among those individuals who are interested in pollen and spore counts. It might also help to improve the

  15. Clonal diversity and population genetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus spp.) studied by multilocus genotyping of single spores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    A nested multiplex PCR (polymerase chain reaction) approach was used for multilocus genotyping of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal populations. This method allowed us to amplify multiple loci from Glomus single spores in a single PCR amplification. Variable introns in the two protein coding genes Gm......FOX2 and GmTOR2 were applied as codominant genetic markers together with the LSU rDNA.   Genetic structure of Glomus spp. populations from an organically and a conventionally cultured field were compared by hierarchical sampling of spores from four plots in each field. Multilocus genotypes were...

  16. Adaptation of the spore discharge mechanism in the basidiomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Stolze-Rybczynski

    Full Text Available Spore discharge in the majority of the 30,000 described species of Basidiomycota is powered by the rapid motion of a fluid droplet, called Buller's drop, over the spore surface. In basidiomycete yeasts, and phytopathogenic rusts and smuts, spores are discharged directly into the airflow around the fungal colony. Maximum discharge distances of 1-2 mm have been reported for these fungi. In mushroom-forming species, however, spores are propelled over much shorter ranges. In gilled mushrooms, for example, discharge distances of <0.1 mm ensure that spores do not collide with opposing gill surfaces. The way in which the range of the mechanism is controlled has not been studied previously.In this study, we report high-speed video analysis of spore discharge in selected basidiomycetes ranging from yeasts to wood-decay fungi with poroid fruiting bodies. Analysis of these video data and mathematical modeling show that discharge distance is determined by both spore size and the size of the Buller's drop. Furthermore, because the size of Buller's drop is controlled by spore shape, these experiments suggest that seemingly minor changes in spore morphology exert major effects upon discharge distance.This biomechanical analysis of spore discharge mechanisms in mushroom-forming fungi and their relatives is the first of its kind and provides a novel view of the incredible variety of spore morphology that has been catalogued by traditional taxonomists for more than 200 years. Rather than representing non-selected variations in micromorphology, the new experiments show that changes in spore architecture have adaptive significance because they control the distance that the spores are shot through air. For this reason, evolutionary modifications to fruiting body architecture, including changes in gill separation and tube diameter in mushrooms, must be tightly linked to alterations in spore morphology.

  17. Applications of continuous-flow photochemistry in organic synthesis, material science, and water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambié, D.; Bottecchia, C.; Straathof, N.J.W.; Hessel, V.; Noël, T.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous-flow photochemistry in microreactors receives a lot of attention from researchers in academia and industry as this technology provides reduced reaction times, higher selectivities, straightforward scalability, and the possibility to safely use hazardous intermediates and gaseous

  18. Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases

    OpenAIRE

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains teste...

  19. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  20. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, Nazly

    1982-01-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans. (author)

  1. Spore membrane(s) as the site of damage within heated Clostridium perfringens spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R S; Adams, D M

    1976-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens spores were injured by ultrahigh-temperature treatment at 105 C for 5 min. Injury was manifested as an increased sensitivity to polymyxin and neomycin. Since many of the survivors could not germinate normally the ultrahigh-temperature-treated spores were sensitized to and germinated by lysozyme. Polymyxin reportedly acts upon the cell membrane. Neomycin may inhibit protein synthesis and has surface-active properties. Injured spores were increasingly sensitive to known surface-active agents, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium deoxycholate, and Roccal, a quaternary ammonium compound. Injured spores sensitive to polymyxin and neomycin also were osmotically fragile and died during outgrowth in a liquid medium unless the medium was supplemented with 20% sucrose, 10% dextran, or 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone. The results suggested that a spore structure destined to become cell membrane or cell wall was the site of injury. Repair of injury during outgrowth in the presence of protein, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and cell wall synthesis inhibitors was consistent with this hypothesis.

  2. Effect of individual or combined treatment by γ-irradiation or temperature (high or low) on bacillus subtilis spores and its application for sterilization of ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Mostafa, S.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The combination of two lethal agents such as irradiation and temperature (high or sub zero) resulted in synergistic death or B. subtilis spores (as indicated by decrease in the thermal D-value). The extent of this synergism in killing a spore population depended mainly on the sequence on application of the two physical agents. Irradiation-temperature (high or sub zero) sequence killed more but injured less B. subtilis spores than temperature irradiation sequence or irradiation and temperature applied separately. Storage at -20 0 C killed more spores than storage at -2 0 C if carried after irradiation, while the reverse was true of storage was prior irradiation. An irradiation dose of 8 KGY followed by thermal exposure to 70 0 C for 1 hr is suggested for the sterilization of ground beef. Irradiation induced certain quantitative changes on the amino-N, protein-N, RNA and DNA of the first subcultures of irradiated spores with stimulatory effect at low irradiation doses and inhibitory effect at the high irradiation doses. This might explain the increased sensitivity of irradiated spores to subsequent exposure to unfavourable temperature (high or sub zero). Exposure of B. subtilis spore to 70 0 C induced a stimulation in the amino- and protein-N of the resulting cells while exposure to 80 0 C resulted in a significant decrease in the amino-N. The protein-N remained more or less the same

  3. Evidence for the monomerization of spore photoproduct to two thymines by the light-independent 'spore repair' process in Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wang, T.-C.; Rupert, C.S.

    1977-01-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation of bacterial spores induces a unique DNA photoproduct, which yields mostly 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine (Thy(α-5)hThy, or TDHT) on acid hydrolysis. One of the possible mechanisms for the observed removal of the photoproduct on spore germination ivolves its direct conversion back to two adjacent thymine residues, and additional evidence is presented in support of this theory. Studies were made of the fate of the TDHT radioactivity in irradiated, germinated B. subtilis spores labelled with 3 H-thymine or 14 C-thymine, and of the homogeneity of the thymine-peak radioactivity. The radioactivity disappearing from the TDHT peak on germination seemed to be stoichiometrically recovered in the thymine peak, and no new materials were detected under the thymine-peak radioactivity. No intermediates were detected in B. subtilis mutant 25D4 (hcr 42 - recA 1 - ), a strain which had given some promise of accumulating intermediates from an incomplete repair process. (U.K.)

  4. Dynamics of Spore Coat Morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Peter T.; Eichenberger, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Spores of Bacillus subtilis are encased in a protective coat made up of at least 70 proteins. The structure of the spore coat has been examined using a variety of genetic, imaging and biochemical techniques, however, the majority of these studies have focused on mature spores. In this study we use a library of 41 spore coat proteins fused to the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) to examine spore coat morphogenesis over the time-course of sporulation. We found considerable diversity in the localization dynamics of coat proteins and were able to establish 6 classes based on localization kinetics. Localization dynamics correlate well with the known transcriptional regulators of coat gene expression. Previously, we described the existence of multiple layers in the mature spore coat. Here, we find that the spore coat initially assembles a scaffold that is organized into multiple layers on one pole of the spore. The coat then encases the spore in multiple coordinated waves. Encasement is driven, at least partially, by transcription of coat genes and deletion of sporulation transcription factors arrests encasement. We also identify the trans-compartment SpoIIIAH-SpoIIQ channel as necessary for encasement. This is the first demonstration of a forespore contribution to spore coat morphogenesis. PMID:22171814

  5. Asynchronous spore germination in isogenic natural isolates of Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelkens, Rike B; Miller, Eric L; Greig, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Spores from wild yeast isolates often show great variation in the size of colonies they produce, for largely unknown reasons. Here we measure the colonies produced from single spores from six different wild Saccharomyces paradoxus strains. We found remarkable variation in spore colony sizes, even among spores that were genetically identical. Different strains had different amounts of variation in spore colony sizes, and variation was not affected by the number of preceding meioses, or by spore maturation time. We used time-lapse photography to show that wild strains also have high variation in spore germination timing, providing a likely mechanism for the variation in spore colony sizes. When some spores from a laboratory strain make small colonies, or no colonies, it usually indicates a genetic or meiotic fault. Here, we demonstrate that in wild strains spore colony size variation is normal. We discuss and assess potential adaptive and non-adaptive explanations for this variation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Inactivation of bacterial spores by combination processes: ultraviolet plus gamma radiation. [Streptococcus faecium, micrococcus radiodurans, clostridium botulinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecz, N; Durban, E

    1973-01-01

    Bacterial spores, viruses and some vegetative bacteria such as Streptococcus faecium and Micrococcus radiodurans are distinguished by high radiation resistance. In order to lay a theoretical basis for biomedical sterilization applications, we have investigated the combined action of uv and gamma rays. Spores of two strains of C. botulinum were selected, a highly radiation resistant strain, 33A having a D/sub 10/-value of 0.32 Mrad, and a relatively radiation sensitive strain, 51B having a D/sub 10/-value of 0.12 Mrad. Strain 33A exhibits an extensive initial ''shoulder'' in its uv as well as gamma ray survival curves; strain 51B shows only a slight shoulder. The shoulder in the gamma ray survival curve of spores of strain 33A could be reduced or completely eliminated by preirradiation with uv. Simultaneously the D/sub 10/-value for gamma inactivation of spores of 33A was reduced substantially. For example, the gamma resistance was reduced almost to half of its original D/sub 10/-value by uv-preirradiation for only one minute under an 8 watt GE germicidal lamp. The effect of uv-preirradiation on the radiation sensitive strain 51B was less pronounced. In fact, there was about seven fold higher positive interaction (synergism) between uv and gamma radiation in 33A spores than in 51B spores. The experiments suggest that interference with DNA repair enzymes in the radiation resistant strain are responsible for lethal synergism between uv and gamma radiation. A hypothesis is developed attempting to explain the combined effect of these two radiations in terms of a special summation of known DNA lesions in the cell. These observations emphasize the potential practical advantages of combining uv and gamma rays for effective sterilization of certain biomedical devices, drugs and biologicals.

  7. Atmospheric chemistry of carboxylic acids: microbial implication versus photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vaïtilingom

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare experimentally the contribution of photochemistry vs. microbial activity to the degradation of carboxylic acids present in cloud water. For this, we selected 17 strains representative of the microflora existing in real clouds and worked on two distinct artificial cloud media that reproduce marine and continental cloud chemical composition. Photodegradation experiments with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a source of hydroxyl radicals were performed under the same microcosm conditions using two irradiation systems. Biodegradation and photodegradation rates of acetate, formate, oxalate and succinate were measured on both media at 5 °C and 17 °C and were shown to be on the same order of magnitude (around 10−10–10−11 M s−1. The chemical composition (marine or continental origin had little influence on photodegradation and biodegradation rates while the temperature shift from 17 °C to 5 °C decreased biodegradation rates of a factor 2 to 5.

    In order to test other photochemical scenarios, theoretical photodegradation rates were calculated considering hydroxyl (OH radical concentration values in cloud water estimated by cloud chemistry modelling studies and available reaction rate constants of carboxylic compounds with both hydroxyl and nitrate radicals. Considering high OH concentration ([OH] = 1 × 10−12 M led to no significant contribution of microbial activity in the destruction of carboxylic acids. On the contrary, for lower OH concentration (at noon, [OH] = 1 × 10−14 M, microorganisms could efficiently compete with photochemistry and in similar contributions than the ones estimated by our experimental approach.

    Combining these two approaches (experimental and theoretical, our results led to the following conclusions: oxalate was only photodegraded; the photodegradation of formate was usually more

  8. Bacillus nealsonii sp. nov., isolated from a spacecraft-assembly facility, whose spores are gamma-radiation resistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Kempf, Michael; Chen, Fei; Satomi, Masataka; Nicholson, Wayne; Kern, Roger

    2003-01-01

    One of the spore-formers isolated from a spacecraft-assembly facility, belonging to the genus Bacillus, is described on the basis of phenotypic characterization, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies. It is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped eubacterium that produces endospores. The spores of this novel bacterial species exhibited resistance to UV, gamma-radiation, H2O2 and desiccation. The 18S rDNA sequence analysis revealed a clear affiliation between this strain and members of the low G+C Firmicutes. High 16S rDNA sequence similarity values were found with members of the genus Bacillus and this was supported by fatty acid profiles. The 16S rDNA sequence similarity between strain FO-92T and Bacillus benzoevorans DSM 5391T was very high. However, molecular characterizations employing small-subunit 16S rDNA sequences were at the limits of resolution for the differentiation of species in this genus, but DNA-DNA hybridization data support the proposal of FO-92T as Bacillus nealsonii sp. nov. (type strain is FO-92T =ATCC BAAM-519T =DSM 15077T).

  9. Atmospheric mold spore counts in relation to meteorological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katial, R. K.; Zhang, Yiming; Jones, Richard H.; Dyer, Philip D.

    Fungal spore counts of Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum were studied during 8 years in Denver, Colorado. Fungal spore counts were obtained daily during the pollinating season by a Rotorod sampler. Weather data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Daily averages of temperature, relative humidity, daily precipitation, barometric pressure, and wind speed were studied. A time series analysis was performed on the data to mathematically model the spore counts in relation to weather parameters. Using SAS PROC ARIMA software, a regression analysis was performed, regressing the spore counts on the weather variables assuming an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) error structure. Cladosporium was found to be positively correlated (Pmodel was derived for Cladosporium spore counts using the annual seasonal cycle and significant weather variables. The model for Alternaria and Epicoccum incorporated the annual seasonal cycle. Fungal spore counts can be modeled by time series analysis and related to meteorological parameters controlling for seasonallity; this modeling can provide estimates of exposure to fungal aeroallergens.

  10. A study of Ganoderma lucidum spores by FTIR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Xianliang; Qi, Zeming; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Shengyi

    2012-06-01

    In order to obtain unique information of Ganoderma lucidum spores, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to study G. lucidum spores from Anhui Province (A), Liaoning Province (B) and Shangdong Province (C) of China. IR micro-spectra were acquired with high-resolution and well-reproducibility. The IR spectra of G. lucidum spores from different areas were similar and mainly made up of the absorption bands of polysaccharide, sterols, proteins, fatty acids, etc. The results of curve fitting indicated the protein secondary structures were dissimilar among the above G. lucidum spores. To identify G. lucidum spores from different areas, the H1078/H1640 value might be a potentially useful factor, furthermore FTIR microspectroscopy could realize this identification efficiently with the help of hierarchical cluster analysis. The result indicates FTIR microspectroscopy is an efficient tool for identification of G. lucidum spores from different areas. The result also suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is a potentially useful tool for the study of TCM.

  11. Photodynamic Efficiency: From Molecular Photochemistry to Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel O. L. Bacellar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a clinical modality used to treat cancer and infectious diseases. The main agent is the photosensitizer (PS, which is excited by light and converted to a triplet excited state. This latter species leads to the formation of singlet oxygen and radicals that oxidize biomolecules. The main motivation for this review is to suggest alternatives for achieving high-efficiency PDT protocols, by taking advantage of knowledge on the chemical and biological processes taking place during and after photosensitization. We defend that in order to obtain specific mechanisms of cell death and maximize PDT efficiency, PSes should oxidize specific molecular targets. We consider the role of subcellular localization, how PS photochemistry and photophysics can change according to its nanoenvironment, and how can all these trigger specific cell death mechanisms. We propose that in order to develop PSes that will cause a breakthrough enhancement in the efficiency of PDT, researchers should first consider tissue and intracellular localization, instead of trying to maximize singlet oxygen quantum yields in in vitro tests. In addition to this, we also indicate many open questions and challenges remaining in this field, hoping to encourage future research.

  12. On the photophysics and photochemistry of the water dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segarra-Marti, Javier; Merchan, Manuela [Instituto de Ciencia Molecular, Universitat de Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Roca-Sanjuan, Daniel; Lindh, Roland [Department of Chemistry - Angstroem, Theoretical Chemistry Program, Uppsala University, Box 518, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-12-28

    The photochemistry of the water dimer irradiated by UV light is studied by means of the complete active space perturbation theory//complete active space self-consistent field (CASPT2//CASSCF) method and accurate computational approaches like as minimum energy paths. Both electronic structure computations and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations are carried out. The results obtained show small shifts relative to a single water molecule on the vertical excitation energies of the dimer due to the hydrogen bond placed between the water donor (W{sub D}) and the water acceptor (W{sub A}). A red-shift and a blue-shift are predicted for the W{sub D} and W{sub A}, respectively, supporting previous theoretical and experimental results. The photoinduced chemistry of the water dimer is described as a process occurring between two single water molecules in which the effect of the hydrogen bond plays a minor role. Thus, the photoinduced decay routes correspond to two photodissociation processes, one for each water molecule. The proposed mechanism for the decay channels of the lowest-lying excited states of the system is established as the photochemical production of a hydrogen-bonded H{sub 2}O Horizontal-Ellipsis HO species plus a hydrogen H atom.

  13. The photochemistry of ring-substituted cinnamyl acetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.A.; Renault, L.; Grundy, E.C.; Pincock, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    The photochemistry of the (E)-cinnamyl acetates ((E)-1-aryl-3-propenyl acetates, 8a-8e) with substituents H, 4-CH 3 O, 3-CH 3 O, 4-CF 3 , and 3-CF 3 , respectively, was examined in both cyclohexane and methanol solvents. Alkene isomerization (E to Z) occurred more efficiently than other reactions and evidence is presented that this process occurs from the excited triplet state. In a slower process, 1,3-migration of the acetoxy group led to the rearranged 3-aryl-3-propenyl acetate isomers (9a-9e) as the major pathway, particularly in cylohexane. In methanol, the isomeric ethers 3-aryl-3-methoxypropene (14) and 1-aryl-3-methoxypropene (15) were formed by reaction of methanol with the photochemically generated cation. The combined yield of 14 and 15 (95% and 5%, respectively) was quantitative for the 4-methoxyphenyl compound (8b). Independent irradiations of the isomers 9a-9c demonstrated that the ethers 14 and 15 were primary photoproducts from 8 and not secondary photoproducts from 9. Fluorescence quantum yields and excited singlet state lifetimes indicated that the reactions, other than the E to Z isomerization, are from the excited singlet state. (author)

  14. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM, furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN, and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI. Compared with the conventional flooding (CF treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN, lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII. And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC. Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation.

  15. The photochemistry of neptunium in aqueous perchloric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, H.A.; Toth, L.M.; Osborne, M.M.

    1979-01-01

    The photochemistry of neptunium ions in aqueous perchloric acid has been investigated using 254 and 300 nm UV radiation. In the absence of other reagents, Np(IV) and (V) oxidized to Np(VI), in a stepwise fashion, with individual quantum efficiencies for each step that vary from 0.02 to 0.004. Decreasing acid concentration favors the Np(IV) → Np(V) reaction whereas it hinders the Np(V) → Np(VI) photo-oxidation. When ethanol, acetaldehyde and other mild reducing agents are added to neptunium-perchloric acid solutions which are then photolyzed, the Np species are reduced to Np(III) in a stepwise fashion with individual quantum efficiencies that vary from 0.07 to 0.006. The overall photoredox reactions of neptunium are subject to competing secondary product reactions that become significant as the photolysis products accumulate. Absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the changes in Np oxidation states and reference spectra of the various Np oxidation states are given for 1.0 N HClO 4 . The Np species have absorption bands in the 300 to 1320 nm region that obey Beer's law only when they were properly resolved. (author)

  16. Soft x-ray photochemistry in solid surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Tetsuhiro; Baba, Yuji

    2000-01-01

    Resent studies on photochemistry using synchrotron soft x-rays in solid surfaces are reviewed. A type of site-selective chemical reaction induced by inner-shell excitation is classified into two model systems that are referred to as 'Element-specific fragmentation' and 'Bonding-site-specific dissociation.' The former system uses difference of core-binding-energies in different elements and the latter is based on the existence of plural unoccupied molecular orbitals with different antibonding character. The selectivity of the reaction in respective systems is discussed in terms of mass-patterns of desorbed fragment-ions and photon-energy dependence of the ion yields. Also discussed are the fragmentation and desorption mechanisms which include intrinsic direct photofragmentation and indirect channels induced by secondary electrons. The latter process reduces the selectivity of the reaction. Furthermore, two experimental approaches, which have recently been performed to estimate the relative magnitude of contribution in the direct and indirect processes to the total yields, are described: (1) the layer-thickness dependence and (2) polarization-angle dependence in the photofragmentation. (author)

  17. Photochemistry in the Atmospheres of Denver and Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The composition of atmospheres in and downwind of urban centers has been the subject of study for decades. While early campaigns involved measurements exclusively from the ground, more recent studies have included airborne-based observations. Improved understanding has hinged critically on the development of instrumentation for better qualitifcation of pollutants, and measurement of previously unobserved species in the gas and particulate phases. Comprehensive, well-planned studies have, over time, led to more detailed understanding of chemical transformations and thus improved model representations and directions for further research. This presentation focuses on findings from two case studies of urban atmospheres, namely the MILAGRO study in the Mexico City metropolitan area and the FRAPPE study in the Denver metropolitan region. Both studies made use of extensive ground-based networks and multiple aircraft platforms. The data collected during these studies have been combined with numerical models to derive assessments of the evolution of atmospheric composition due to photochemistry, mixing, and surface processes. Here, analysis of MILAGRO data focuses on the evolution of outflow downwind of the urban region. In FRAPPE, the focus is the possible role of oil and gas exploration on urban air quality. These findings are used to assess the accuracy of current numerical models to reproduce observations, and to point toward areas possibly needing further study.

  18. Studies in organic and physical photochemistry - an interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelgemöller, Michael; Hoffmann, Norbert

    2016-08-21

    Traditionally, organic photochemistry when applied to synthesis strongly interacts with physical chemistry. The aim of this review is to illustrate this very fruitful interdisciplinary approach and cooperation. A profound understanding of the photochemical reactivity and reaction mechanisms is particularly helpful for optimization and application of these reactions. Some typical reactions and particular aspects are reported such as the Norrish-Type II reaction and the Yang cyclization and related transformations, the [2 + 2] photocycloadditions, particularly the Paternò-Büchi reaction, photochemical electron transfer induced transformations, different kinds of catalytic reactions such as photoredox catalysis for organic synthesis and photooxygenation are discussed. Particular aspects such as the structure and reactivity of aryl cations, photochemical reactions in the crystalline state, chiral memory, different mechanisms of hydrogen transfer in photochemical reactions or fundamental aspects of stereoselectivity are discussed. Photochemical reactions are also investigated in the context of chemical engineering. Particularly, continuous flow reactors are of interest. Novel reactor systems are developed and modeling of photochemical transformations and different reactors play a key role in such studies. This research domain builds a bridge between fundamental studies of organic photochemical reactions and their industrial application.

  19. Surface tension propulsion of fungal spores by use of microdroplets

    OpenAIRE

    Noblin, Xavier; Yang, Sylvia; Dumais, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Many edible mushrooms eject their spores (about 10 microns in size) at high speed (about 1 m/s) using surface tension forces in a few microseconds. Basically the coalescence of a droplet with the spore generates the necessary momentum to eject the spore. We have detailed this mechanism in \\cite{noblin2}. In this article, we give some details about the high speed movies (up to 250000 fps) of mushrooms' spores ejection attached to this submission. This video was submitted as part of the Gallery...

  20. Maternal parentage influences spore production but not spore pigmentation in the anisogamous and hermaphroditic fungus Neurospora crassa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Kolea; Levitis, Daniel; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    . In this fungus, pigmented spores are viable and unpigmented spores are inviable. These results show that while both parents influence all these traits, maternal influence is strongest on both fertility and mortality traits until the spores are physiologically independent of the maternal cytoplasm.......In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal effects on offspring production and quality are greater than paternal effects in both offspring number (fertility) and offspring viability (mortality). We used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. This fungus is anisogamous......, and various ascospore characteristics. Mixed effects models of these data show that the female parent accounts for the majority of variation in perithecial production, number of spores produced, and spore germination. Surprisingly, both sexes equally influence the percentage of spores that are pigmented...

  1. Photochemistry and photobiology of actinic erythema: defensive and reparative cutaneous mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tedesco

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight is part of our everyday life and most people accept it as beneficial to our health. With the advance of our knowledge in cutaneous photochemistry, photobiology and photomedicine over the past four decades, the terrestrial solar radiation has become a concern of dermatologists and is considered to be a major damaging environmental factor for our skin. Most photobiological effects (e.g., sunburn, suntanning, local and systemic immunosuppression, photoaging or dermatoheliosis, skin cancer and precancer, etc. are attributed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR and more particularly to UVB radiation (290-320 nm. UVA radiation (320-400 nm also plays an important role in the induction of erythema by the photosensitized generation of reactive oxygen species (singlet oxygen (1O2, superoxide (O2.- and hydroxyl radicals (.OH that damage DNA and cellular membranes, and promote carcinogenesis and the changes associated with photoaging. Therefore, research efforts have been directed at a better photochemical and photobiological understanding of the so-called sunburn reaction, actinic or solar erythema. To survive the insults of actinic damage, the skin appears to have different intrinsic defensive mechanisms, among which antioxidants (enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems play a pivotal role. In this paper, we will review the basic aspects of the action of UVR on the skin: a photochemical reactions resulting from photon absorption by endogenous chromophores; b the lipid peroxidation phenomenon, and c intrinsic defensive cutaneous mechanisms (antioxidant systems. The last section will cover the inflammatory response including mediator release after cutaneous UVR exposure and adhesion molecule expression

  2. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  3. Elastic and inelastic light scattering from single bacterial spores in an optical trap allows the monitoring of spore germination dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Lixin; Chen, De; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2009-01-01

    Raman scattering spectroscopy and elastic light scattering intensity (ESLI) were used to simultaneously measure levels of Ca-dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) and changes in spore morphology and refractive index during germination of individual B. subtilis spores with and without the two redundant enzymes (CLEs), CwlJ and SleB, that degrade spores’ peptidoglycan cortex. Conclusions from these measurements include: 1) CaDPA release from individual wild-type germinating spores was biphasic; in a first h...

  4. Inhibiting Inosine Hydrolase and Alanine Racemase to Enhance the Germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores: Potential Spore Decontamination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    decontamination strategies>> Maryline DEFEZ 1𔃼, Melissa HUNTER3J Susan WELKOS :~J Christopher COTE3 1 University Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France. 1...inosine hydrolase and alanine racemase to enhance the germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores potential spore decontamination strategies 5a...8217 • Accidentally in Humans • Natural reservoir is soil • Anthrax Disease Cycle: - animals infected by soilborne spores in food and water or bites from certain

  5. Adenine and 2-aminopurine: paradigms of modern theoretical photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Andrés, Luis; Merchán, Manuela; Borin, Antonio C

    2006-06-06

    Distinct photophysical behavior of nucleobase adenine and its constitutional isomer, 2-aminopurine, has been studied by using quantum chemical methods, in particular an accurate ab initio multiconfigurational second-order perturbation theory. After light irradiation, the efficient, ultrafast energy dissipation observed for nonfluorescent 9H-adenine is explained here by the nonradiative internal conversion process taking place along a barrierless reaction path from the initially populated 1(pipi* La) excited state toward a low-lying conical intersection (CI) connected with the ground state. In contrast, the strong fluorescence recorded for 2-aminopurine at 4.0 eV with large decay lifetime is interpreted by the presence of a minimum in the 1(pipi* La) hypersurface lying below the lowest CI and the subsequent potential energy barrier required to reach the funnel to the ground state. Secondary deactivation channels were found in the two systems related to additional CIs involving the 1(pipi* Lb) and 1(npi*) states. Although in 9H-adenine a population switch between both states is proposed, in 7H-adenine this may be perturbed by a relatively larger barrier to access the 1(npi*) state, and, therefore, the 1(pipi* Lb) state becomes responsible for the weak fluorescence measured in aqueous adenine at approximately 4.5 eV. In contrast to previous models that explained fluorescence quenching in adenine, unlike in 2-aminopurine, on the basis of the vibronic coupling of the nearby 1(pipi*) and 1(npi*) states, the present results indicate that the 1(npi*) state does not contribute to the leading photophysical event and establish the prevalence of a model based on the CI concept in modern photochemistry.

  6. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to

  7. Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores Using Rapid Resistive Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    agents. There is motivation for using thermal decontamination of B.a. spores for agent defeat scenarios. Spore-forming microorganisms are much...the top soil on Gruinard Island for over 40 years after the British detonated experimental anthrax bombs on the island during World War II (U.S

  8. Inhibition of spore germination of Alternaria tenuis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.

    1962-08-01

    As a part of a continuing study of SO/sub 2/ fumigation of table grapes, the effect of SO/sub 2/ on spores of an isolate of A. tenuis Auct. causing decay of table grapes was determined. The amount of SO/sub 2/ required to inhibit completely spore germination depended on availability of moisture and the temperature. At 20/sup 0/C, wet spores required 20-min exposure to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ to prevent germination, but spores equilibrated at 90% relative humidity (RH) required 10-min exposure to 1000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Dry spores at 60% RH were unaffected by a 20-min exposure to 4000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Increasing the temperature in the range 5-20/sup 0/C increased effectiveness of the SO/sub 2/ treatment. A comparison of Alternaria with Botrytis cinerea Fr. (studied earlier) showed that wet spores of these organisms were about equally sensitive to SO/sub 2/, but that dry Alternaria spores were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than dry Botrytis spores under comparable conditions.

  9. LEVELS AND TYPES OF AEROBIC SPORE FORMING BACTERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four companies whose packaged product were studied had an average plate total spore counts as follows: Company A=6.2x 103; Company B= 3.1x 104; Company C= 6.0x 104 and Company D= 3.1x102 colony forming units per gram, respectively. Identification tests showed that among the aerobic spore formers were ...

  10. Breaking the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fermentation of G. lucidum with Lactobacillus plantarum was applied to break down the sporoderm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the spores. The broken spores were found on the 3rd day and complete breaking on the 5th day of fermentation. Lactic acid, acetic acid and ...

  11. The Role of the Electrostatic Force in Spore Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic force is investigated as one of the components of the adhesion force between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores and planar surfaces. The surface potentials of a Bt spore and a mica surface are experimentally obtained using a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)-scanning surface potential microscopy technique. On the basis of experimental information, the surface charge density of the spores is estimated at 0.03 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} at 20% relative humidity and decreases with increasing humidity. The Coulombic force is introduced for the spore-mica system (both charged, nonconductive surfaces), and an electrostatic image force is introduced to the spore-gold system because gold is electrically conductive. The Coulombic force for spore-mica is repulsive because the components are similarly charged, while the image force for the spore-gold system is attractive. The magnitude of both forces decreases with increasing humidity. The electrostatic forces are added to other force components, e.g., van der Waals and capillary forces, to obtain the adhesion force for each system. The adhesion forces measured by AFM are compared to the estimated values. It is shown that the electrostatic (Coulombic and image) forces play a significant role in the adhesion force between spores and planar surfaces.

  12. Macroalgal spore dysfunction: ocean acidification delays and weakens adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Rebecca; Miklasz, Kevin; Carrington, Emily; Martone, Patrick T

    2018-04-01

    Early life stages of marine organisms are predicted to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. For macroalgae, reproduction and population persistence rely on spores to settle, adhere and continue the algal life cycle, yet the effect of ocean acidification on this critical life stage has been largely overlooked. We explicitly tested the biomechanical impact of reduced pH on early spore adhesion. We developed a shear flume to examine the effect of reduced pH on spore attachment time and strength in two intertidal rhodophyte macroalgae, one calcified (Corallina vancouveriensis) and one noncalcified (Polyostea robusta). Reduced pH delayed spore attachment of both species by 40%-52% and weakened attachment strength in C. vancouveriensis, causing spores to dislodge at lower flow-induced shear forces, but had no effect on the attachment strength of P. robusta. Results are consistent with our prediction that reduced pH disrupts proper curing and gel formation of spore adhesives (anionic polysaccharides and glycoproteins) via protonation and cation displacement, although experimental verification is needed. Our results demonstrate that ocean acidification negatively, and differentially, impacts spore adhesion in two macroalgae. If results hold in field conditions, reduced ocean pH has the potential to impact macroalgal communities via spore dysfunction, regardless of the physiological tolerance of mature thalli. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Presence survival spores of Bacillus thuringiensis varieties in grain warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genus Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt synthesized spores and crystals toxic to pest-insects in agriculture. Bt is comospolitan then possible to isolate some subspecies or varieties from warehouse. The aims of study were: i to isolate Bt varieties from grain at werehouse ii to evaluate Bt toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda and Shit-ophilus zeamaisese iii to analyze Bt spores persistence in Zea mays grains at werehouse compared to same Bt on grains exposed to sun radiation. Results showed that at werehouse were recovered more than one variety of Bt spores. According to each isolate Bt1 o Bt2 were toxic to S. frugiperda or S. zeamaisese. One those Bt belong to var morrisoni. At werehouse these spores on Z. mays grains surviving more time, while the same spores exposed to boicide sun radiation they died.

  14. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides 85 strontium and 197 cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  15. Revival and Identification of Bacterial Spores in 25- to 40-Million-Year-Old Dominican Amber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Raul J.; Borucki, Monica K.

    1995-05-01

    A bacterial spore was revived, cultured, and identified from the abdominal contents of extinct bees preserved for 25 to 40 million years in buried Dominican amber. Rigorous surface decontamination of the amber and aseptic procedures were used during the recovery of the bacterium. Several lines of evidence indicated that the isolated bacterium was of ancient origin and not an extant contaminant. The characteristic enzymatic, biochemical, and 16S ribosomal DNA profiles indicated that the ancient bacterium is most closely related to extant Bacillus sphaericus.

  16. Function of the SpoVAEa and SpoVAF Proteins of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    outer surface of the spore’s inner membrane, as SpoVAEa was accessible to an external biotinylation agent in spores and SpoVAEa disappeared in parallel...codon was PCR amplified from PS832 chromosomal DNA with primers that inserted BamHI and PstI restriction sites upstream and downstream, respectively... chromosomal structure, and this strain was termed PS4348 (spoVAEa mutant). A B. subtilis strain with a deletion of the spoVF gene was constructed by a two

  17. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  18. Characterizing aeroallergens by infrared spectroscopy of fungal spores and pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Fungal spores and plant pollen cause respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aeroallergen monitoring networks are an important part of treatment strategies, but unfortunately traditional analysis is time consuming and expensive. We have explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen and spores for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of aeroallergens.The study is based on measurement of spore and pollen samples by single reflectance attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-ATR FTIR. The experimental set includes 71 spore (Basidiomycota and 121 pollen (Pinales, Fagales and Poales samples. Along with fresh basidiospores, the study has been conducted on the archived samples collected within the last 50 years.The spectroscopic-based methodology enables clear spectral differentiation between pollen and spores, as well as the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. In addition, the analysis of the scattering signals inherent in the infrared spectra indicates that the FTIR methodology offers indirect estimation of morphology of pollen and spores. The analysis of fresh and archived spores shows that chemical composition of spores is well preserved even after decades of storage, including the characteristic taxonomy-related signals. Therefore, biochemical analysis of fungal spores by FTIR could provide economical, reliable and timely methodologies for improving fungal taxonomy, as well as for fungal identification and monitoring. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using FTIR as a rapid tool in aeroallergen studies. In addition, the presented method is ready to be immediately implemented in biological and ecological studies for direct measurement of pollen and spores from flowers and sporocarps.

  19. Selected topics in photochemistry of nucleic acids. Recent results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeber, G.; Kittler, L.

    1977-01-01

    Recent results on the following photoreactions of nucleic acids are reported: photochemistry of aza-bases and minor bases, formation of photoproducts of the non-cyclobutane type, formations of furocoumarin-pyrimidine photoadducts, fluorescence of dye-nucleic acid complexes and their role in chromosomal fluorescence staining, and mechanisms of the photochemical reaction. Results are discussed with respect to: (i) photobiological relevance of light-induced defects in nucleic acids; (ii) possibilities of achieving higher selectivity of light-induced defects in nucleic acids; (iii) the use of nucleic acid photochemistry to analyze genetic material. An extensive bibliography is included. (author)

  20. Applications of Continuous-Flow Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis, Material Science, and Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambié, Dario; Bottecchia, Cecilia; Straathof, Natan J W; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy

    2016-09-14

    Continuous-flow photochemistry in microreactors receives a lot of attention from researchers in academia and industry as this technology provides reduced reaction times, higher selectivities, straightforward scalability, and the possibility to safely use hazardous intermediates and gaseous reactants. In this review, an up-to-date overview is given of photochemical transformations in continuous-flow reactors, including applications in organic synthesis, material science, and water treatment. In addition, the advantages of continuous-flow photochemistry are pointed out and a thorough comparison with batch processing is presented.

  1. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  2. Strategy to inactivate Clostridium perfringens spores in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J Antonio; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2009-05-01

    The current study aimed to develop an inactivation strategy for Clostridium perfringens spores in meat through a combination of spore activation at low pressure (100-200 MPa, 7 min) and elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min); spore germination at high temperatures (55, 60 or 65 degrees C); and inactivation of germinated spores with elevated temperatures (80 and 90 degrees C, 10 and 20 min) and high pressure (586 MPa, at 23 and 73 degrees C, 10 min). Low pressures (100-200 MPa) were insufficient to efficiently activate C. perfringens spores for germination. However, C. perfringens spores were efficiently activated with elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min), and germinated at temperatures lethal for vegetative cells (>or= 55 degrees C) when incubated for 60 min with a mixture of L-asparagine and KCl (AK) in phosphate buffer (pH 7) and in poultry meat. Inactivation of spores (approximately 4 decimal reduction) in meat by elevated temperatures (80-90 degrees C for 20 min) required a long germination period (55 degrees C for 60 min). However, similar inactivation level was reached with shorter germination period (55 degrees C for 15 min) when spore contaminated-meat was treated with pressure-assisted thermal processing (568 MPa, 73 degrees C, 10 min). Therefore, the most efficient strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in poultry meat containing 50 mM AK consisted: (i) a primary heat treatment (80 degrees C, 10 min) to pasteurize and denature the meat proteins and to activate C. perfringens spores for germination; (ii) cooling of the product to 55 degrees C in about 20 min and further incubation at 55 degrees C for about 15 min for spore germination; and (iii) inactivation of germinated spores by pressure-assisted thermal processing (586 MPa at 73 degrees C for 10 min). Collectively, this study demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative and novel strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in meat products formulated with germinants specific for C

  3. Elastic and inelastic light scattering from single bacterial spores in an optical trap allows the monitoring of spore germination dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lixin; Chen, De; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2009-01-01

    Raman scattering spectroscopy and elastic light scattering intensity (ESLI) were used to simultaneously measure levels of Ca-dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) and changes in spore morphology and refractive index during germination of individual B. subtilis spores with and without the two redundant enzymes (CLEs), CwlJ and SleB, that degrade spores’ peptidoglycan cortex. Conclusions from these measurements include: 1) CaDPA release from individual wild-type germinating spores was biphasic; in a first heterogeneous slow phase, Tlag, CaDPA levels decreased ∼15% and in the second phase ending at Trelease, remaining CaDPA was released rapidly; 2) in L-alanine germination of wild-type spores and spores lacking SleB: a) the ESLI rose ∼2-fold shortly before Tlag at T1; b) following Tlag, the ESLI again rose ∼2-fold at T2 when CaDPA levels had decreased ∼50%; and c) the ESLI reached its maximum value at ∼Trelease and then decreased; 3) in CaDPA germination of wild-type spores: a) Tlag increased and the first increase in ESLI occurred well before Tlag, consistent with different pathways for CaDPA and L-alanine germination; b) at Trelease the ESLI again reached its maximum value; 4) in L-alanine germination of spores lacking both CLEs and unable to degrade their cortex, the time ΔTrelease (Trelease–Tlag) for excretion of ≥75% of CaDPA was ∼15-fold higher than that for wild-type or sleB spores; and 5) spores lacking only CwlJ exhibited a similar, but not identical ESLI pattern during L-alanine germination to that seen with cwlJ sleB spores, and the high value for ΔTrelease. PMID:19374431

  4. Using Spores for Fusarium spp. Classification by MALDI-Based Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Winkler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is a widespread genus of filamentous fungi and a member of the soil microbial community. Certain subspecies are health threatening because of their mycotoxin production that affects the human and animal food chain. Thus, for early and effective pest control, species identification is of particular interest; however, differentiation on the subspecies level is challenging and time-consuming for this fungus. In the present study, we show the possibilities of intact cell mass spectrometry for spore analysis of 22 different Fusarium strains belonging to six Fusarium subspecies. We found that species differentiation is possible if mass spectrometric analyses are performed under well-defined conditions with fixed parameters. A critical point for analysis is a proper sample preparation of spores, which increases the quality of mass spectra with respect to signal intensity and m/z value variations. It was concluded that data acquistion has to be performed automatically; otherwise, user-specific variations are introduced generating data which cannot fit the existing datasets. Data that show clearly that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-based intact cell/intact spore mass spectrometry (IC/ISMS can be applied to differentiate closely related Fusarium spp. are presented. Results show a potential to build a database on Fusarium species for accurate species identification, for fast response in the case of infections in the cornfield. We furthermore demonstrate the high precision of our approach in classification of intact Fusarium species according to the location of their collection.

  5. Photochemistry, mixing and transport in Jupiter's stratosphere constrained by Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, V.; Hersant, F.; Cavalié, T.; Dobrijevic, M.; Sinclair, J. A.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we aim at constraining the diffusive and advective transport processes in Jupiter's stratosphere, using Cassini/CIRS observations published by Nixon et al. (2007,2010). The Cassini-Huygens flyby of Jupiter on December 2000 provided the highest spatially resolved IR observations of Jupiter so far, with the CIRS instrument. The IR spectrum contains the fingerprints of several atmospheric constituents and allows probing the tropospheric and stratospheric composition. In particular, the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6, the main compounds produced by methane photochemistry, can be retrieved as a function of latitude in the pressure range at which CIRS is sensitive to. CIRS observations suggest a very different meridional distribution for these two species. This is difficult to reconcile with their photochemical histories, which are thought to be tightly coupled to the methane photolysis. While the overall abundance of C2H2 decreases with latitude, C2H6 becomes more abundant at high latitudes. In this work, a new 2D (latitude-altitude) seasonal photochemical model of Jupiter is developed. The model is used to investigate whether the addition of stratospheric transport processes, such as meridional diffusion and advection, are able to explain the latitudinal behavior of C2H2 and C2H6. We find that the C2H2 observations are fairly well reproduced without meridional diffusion. Adding meridional diffusion to the model provides an improved agreement with the C2H6 observations by flattening its meridional distribution, at the cost of a degradation of the fit to the C2H2 distribution. However, meridional diffusion alone cannot produce the observed increase with latitude of the C2H6 abundance. When adding 2D advective transport between roughly 30 mbar and 0.01 mbar, with upwelling winds at the equator and downwelling winds at high latitudes, we can, for the first time, reproduce the C2H6 abundance increase with latitude. In parallel, the fit to the C2H2 distribution is

  6. Dynamic phase microscopy, a new method to detect viable and killed spores and to estimate the heterogeneity of spore populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Lisovskii, Vitalii V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Kretushev, Aleksander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatyana V.; Suzina, Nataliya E.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El-Registan, Galina I.

    One of the challenging tasks in monitoring studies is to estimate heterogeneity of microbial populations by the physiological state and potential viability of individual cells, especially with regard of their ability to withstand various environmental assaults. Previously, we described some approaches based on electron microscopy methods to discriminate vegetative, dormant, and dead cells in both aged microbial cultures and environmental samples, including permafrost. We propose to extend the arsenal of microscopy methods for monitoring studies by a new non-invasive and informative method - dynamic phase microscopy (DPM). The substantial advantage of DPM is that it gives quantitative (digitized) data of undestroyed (living) microscopic objects, exemplified in our work by Bacillus licheniformis spores. Using DPM made it possible to record interference images of objects (spores) and to produce picture of their "phase thickness" (PT) that is the optical path difference in nm. Thus, it was demonstrated the remarkable difference in the PT of spores at different physiological states: dormant, germinating, and heat-killed spores had PT values of 80, 40-50, and 20 nm, respectively. The other found criterion to distinguish between spores was the PT fluctuations. In contrast to dormant and killed spores, the PT of germinating spores oscillated with amplitude of up to 7 nm, with typical frequencies of 1.3 and 3.4 Hz. A combination of the recorded PT values and PT fluctuations gave a key to detect viable and dead cells. Under the conditions that did not support germination (the lack of nutrients), we were able to follow the response of a single dormant spore and a spore population to heating from 25 °C to 70 °C. Thus, a very small temperature change (from 40 °C to 42 °C) under conditions non-favorable for germination, caused a drastic decrease in the spores' PT; the second drop in the PT values was observed during heating from 60 °C to 70 °C. These changes were

  7. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEgan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural, approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable

  8. Sterilization Resistance of Bacterial Spores Explained with Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Anthony W; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Middaugh, Amy N; Garimella, Ravindranath; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rice, Charles V

    2015-11-05

    Bacterial spores can survive for long periods without nutrients and in harsh environmental conditions. This survival is influenced by the structure of the spore, the presence of protective compounds, and water retention. These compounds, and the physical state of water in particular, allow some species of bacterial spores to survive sterilization schemes with hydrogen peroxide and UV light. The chemical nature of the spore core and its water has been a subject of some contention and the chemical environment of the water impacts resistance paradigms. Either the spore has a glassy core, where water is immobilized along with other core components, or the core is gel-like with mobile water diffusion. These properties affect the movement of peroxide and radical species, and hence resistance. Deuterium solid-state NMR experiments are useful for examining the nature of the water inside the spore. Previous work in our lab with spores of Bacillus subtilis indicate that, for spores, the core water is in a more immobilized state than expected for the gel-like core theory, suggesting a glassy core environment. Here, we report deuterium solid-state NMR observations of the water within UV- and peroxide-resistant spores from Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. Variable-temperature NMR experiments indicate no change in the line shape after heating to 50 °C, but an overall decrease in signal after heating to 100 °C. These results show glass-like core dynamics within B. pumilus SAFR-032 that may be the potential source of its known UV-resistance properties. The observed NMR traits can be attributed to the presence of an exosporium containing additional labile deuterons that can aid in the deactivation of sterilizing agents.

  9. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC 50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle.

  10. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle. PMID:27900038

  11. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more

  12. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122°C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80°C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa with 37

  13. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, A; Knorr, D [Berlin University of Technology, Department of Food Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 22, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Heinz, V [German Institute of Food Technology, p. o. box 1165, D-49601, Quackenbrueck (Germany)], E-mail: alexander.mathys@tu-berlin.de

    2008-07-15

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122 deg. C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80 deg. C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa

  14. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122 deg. C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80 deg. C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa

  15. Micromotors to capture and destroy anthrax simulant spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Jahir; Pan, Guoqing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Galarnyk, Michael; Wang, Joseph

    2015-03-07

    Towards addressing the need for detecting and eliminating biothreats, we describe a micromotor-based approach for screening, capturing, isolating and destroying anthrax simulant spores in a simple and rapid manner with minimal sample processing. The B. globilli antibody-functionalized micromotors can recognize, capture and transport B. globigii spores in environmental matrices, while showing non-interactions with excess of non-target bacteria. Efficient destruction of the anthrax simulant spores is demonstrated via the micromotor-induced mixing of a mild oxidizing solution. The new micromotor-based approach paves a way to dynamic multifunctional systems that rapidly recognize, isolate, capture and destroy biological threats.

  16. Kinetics and Photochemistry of Ruthenium Bisbipyridine Diacetonitrile Complexes: An Interdisciplinary Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Teresa L.; Phillips, Susan R.; Dmochowski, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of ruthenium polypyridyl complexes can be widely applied across disciplines in the undergraduate curriculum. Ruthenium photochemistry has advanced many fields including dye-sensitized solar cells, photoredox catalysis, lightdriven water oxidation, and biological electron transfer. Equally promising are ruthenium polypyridyl complexes…

  17. Photochemistry of Nitrophenol Molecules and Clusters: Intra- vs Intermolecular Hydrogen Bond Dynamics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygoryeva, Kateřina; Kubečka, J.; Pysanenko, Andriy; Lengyel, Jozef; Slavíček, Petr; Fárník, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 24 (2016), s. 4139-4146 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-12386S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : photochemistry * clusters * laser techniques Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.847, year: 2016

  18. Selected Contributions of the 4th International Conference on Semiconductor Photochemistry (5P4) Introduction.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krýsa, J.; Klusoň, Petr; Malato, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 230, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 1 ISSN 0920-5861 Grant - others:SMEC(ES) CTQ2012-38754-C03-01 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : semiconductor photochemistry * catalysis * scientific applications Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 3.893, year: 2014

  19. On the involvement of single-bond rotation in the primary photochemistry of photoactive yellow protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stahl, A.D.; Hospes, M.; Singhal, K.; van Stokkum, I.; van Grondelle, R.; Groot, M.L.; Hellingwerf, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    Prior experimental observations, as well as theoretical considerations, have led to the proposal that C4-C7 single-bond rotation may play an important role in the primary photochemistry of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). We therefore synthesized an analog of this protein's 4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid

  20. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. II. H{sub 2}S AND SO{sub 2} PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN ANOXIC ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William, E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 {mu}m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S{sub 8}) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation

  1. Properties of spores of Bacillus subtilis strains which lack the major small, acid-soluble protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, R.H.; Setlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis strains containing a deletion in the gene coding for the major small, acid-soluble, spore protein (SASP-gamma) grew and sporulated, and their spores initiated germination normally, but outgrowth of SASP-gamma- spores was significantly slower than that of wild-type spores. The absence of SASP-gamma had no effect on spore protoplast density or spore resistance to heat or radiation. Consequently, SASP-gamma has a different function in spores than do the other major small, acid-soluble proteins

  2. The impact of urban canopy meteorological forcing on summer photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszár, Peter; Karlický, Jan; Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomáš; Pišoft, Petr

    2018-03-01

    The regional climate model RegCM4.4, including the surface model CLM4.5, was offline coupled to the chemistry transport model CAMx version 6.30 in order to investigate the impact of the urban canopy induced meteorological changes on the longterm summer photochemistry over central Europe for the 2001-2005 period. First, the urban canopy impact on the meteorological conditions was calculated performing a reference experiment without urban landsurface considered and an experiment with urban surfaces modeled with the urban parameterization within the CLM4.5 model. In accordance with expectations, strong increases of urban surface temperatures (up to 2-3 K), decreases of wind speed (up to -1 ms-1) and increases of vertical turbulent diffusion coefficient (up to 60-70 m2s-1) were found. For the impact on chemistry, these three components were considered. Additionally, we accounted for the effect of temperature enhanced biogenic emission increase. Several experiments were performed by adding these effects one-by-one to the total impact: i.e., first, only the urban temperature impact was considered driving the chemistry model; secondly, the wind impact was added and so on. We found that the impact on biogenic emission account for minor changes in the concentrations of ozone (O3), oxides of nitrogen NOx = NO + NO2 and nitric acid (HNO3). On the other hand, the dominating component acting is the increased vertical mixing, resulting in up to 5 ppbv increase of urban ozone concentrations while causing -2 to -3 ppbv decreases and around 1 ppbv increases of NOx and HNO3 surface concentrations, respectively. The temperature impact alone results in reduction of ozone, increase in NO, decrease in NO2 and increases of HNO3. The wind impact leads, over urban areas, to ozone decreases, increases of NOx and a slight increase in HNO3. The overall impact is similar to the impact of increased vertical mixing alone. The Process Analysis (PA) technique implemented in CAMx was adopted to

  3. Structural Characterization of Lipopeptides Isolated from Bacillus Globigii Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    .... Bacillus globigil spores, grown in new sporulation media (NSM), were suspended and then analyzed using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer to screen for biomarkers with 4-methoxycinnamic acid as matrix...

  4. Use of bacterial spores in monitoring water quality and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because Clostridium perfringens spores are both specific to sewage contamination and environmentally stable, they are considered as possible conservative indicators of human fecal contamination and possible surrogates for environmentally stable pathogens. This review discusses th...

  5. Analysis of Bacillus Globigii Spores Using the BioDetector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, William

    1999-01-01

    .... An automated immunoassay instrument capable of providing rapid identification of biological agents was used to analyses laboratory and field trial samples containing the field trial simulants Bacillus globigii (BG) spores...

  6. Waterline ATS B. globigii spore water disinfection data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Disinfection of B. globigii spores (a non-pathogenic surrogate for B. anthracis) in clean and dirty water using the ATS-Waterline system, which uses ultraviolet...

  7. Decontamination Of Bacterial Spores by a Peptide-Mimic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nagarajan, R; Muller, Wayne S; Ashley, Rebekah; Mello, Charlene M

    2006-01-01

    .... In this work, we demonstrate that a peptide-mimic (cationic, amphiphilic) chemical agent, dodecylamine is capable of performing the dual functions of germinating the dormant spore as well as deactivating...

  8. Development of a Quantitative PCR Assay for Thermophilic Spore-Forming Geobacillus stearothermophilus in Canned Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Miyo

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic spore forming bacteria Geobacillus stearothermophilus is recognized as a major cause of spoilage in canned food. A quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed to specifically detect and quantify the species G. stearothermophilus in samples from canned food. The selected primer pairs amplified a 163-bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene in a specific PCR assay with a detection limit of 12.5 fg of pure culture DNA, corresponding to DNA extracted from approximately 0.7 CFU/mL of G. stearothermophilus. Analysis showed that the bacterial species G. stearothermophilus was not detected in any canned food sample. Our approach presented here will be useful for tracking or quantifying species G. stearotethermophilus in canned food and ingredients.

  9. Architecture and assembly of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of "nanodot" particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  10. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Marco; Carroll, Alicia Monroe; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus spores are encased in a multilayer, proteinaceous self-assembled coat structure that assists in protecting the bacterial genome from stresses and consists of at least 70 proteins. The elucidation of Bacillus spore coat assembly, architecture, and function is critical to determining mechanisms of spore pathogenesis, environmental resistance, immune response, and physicochemical properties. Recently, genetic, biochemical and microscopy methods have provided new insight into spore coat architecture, assembly, structure and function. However, detailed spore coat architecture and assembly, comprehensive understanding of the proteomic composition of coat layers, and specific roles of coat proteins in coat assembly and their precise localization within the coat remain in question. In this study, atomic force microscopy was used to probe the coat structure of Bacillus subtilis wild type and cotA, cotB, safA, cotH, cotO, cotE, gerE, and cotE gerE spores. This approach provided high-resolution visualization of the various spore coat structures, new insight into the function of specific coat proteins, and enabled the development of a detailed model of spore coat architecture. This model is consistent with a recently reported four-layer coat assembly and further adds several coat layers not reported previously. The coat is organized starting from the outside into an outermost amorphous (crust) layer, a rodlet layer, a honeycomb layer, a fibrous layer, a layer of “nanodot” particles, a multilayer assembly, and finally the undercoat/basement layer. We propose that the assembly of the previously unreported fibrous layer, which we link to the darkly stained outer coat seen by electron microscopy, and the nanodot layer are cotH- and cotE- dependent and cotE-specific respectively. We further propose that the inner coat multilayer structure is crystalline with its apparent two-dimensional (2D) nuclei being the first example of a non-mineral 2D nucleation crystallization

  11. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  12. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  13. Detection of spore coat protein of Bacillus subtilis by immunological method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Aritsune; Kadota, Hajime

    1976-01-01

    The spore coat protein of Bacillus subtilis was separated, and the qualitative assay for the spore coat protein was made by use of the immunological technique. The immunological method was found to be useful for judging the maturation of spore coat in the course of sporulation. The spore coat protein antigen appeared at t 2 stage of sporulation. The addition of rifampicin at the earlier stages of sporulation inhibited the increase in content of the spore coat antigen. (auth.)

  14. Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in fruit juices and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Oriana N; Johnson, Miranda J; Labuza, Theodore P; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    Foods have been identified as a potential target for bioterrorism due to their essential nature and global distribution. Foods produced in bulk have the potential to have large batches of product intentionally contaminated, which could affect hundreds or thousands of individuals. Bacillus anthracis spores are one potential bioterrorism agent that may survive pasteurization and remain viable throughout the shelf life of fruit juices and cause disease if consumed. This project examined B. anthracis spore survival in orange, apple, and grape juices, as well as wine. Samples of beverages were inoculated with spores of two nonpathogenic B. anthracis strains at approximately 10(6) CFU/ml, and the spore count was determined periodically during storage for 30 days at 4°C. After this time, the counts of survival spores never declined more than 1 log CFU/ml in any of the beverage types. These results indicate that spores can survive, with little to no loss in viability, for at least a month in fruit juices and wine.

  15. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.

  16. Small acid soluble proteins for rapid spore identification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branda, Steven S.; Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Jokerst, Amanda S.

    2006-12-01

    This one year LDRD addressed the problem of rapid characterization of bacterial spores such as those from the genus Bacillus, the group that contains pathogenic spores such as B. anthracis. In this effort we addressed the feasibility of using a proteomics based approach to spore characterization using a subset of conserved spore proteins known as the small acid soluble proteins or SASPs. We proposed developing techniques that built on our previous expertise in microseparations to rapidly characterize or identify spores. An alternative SASP extraction method was developed that was amenable to both the subsequent fluorescent labeling required for laser-induced fluorescence detection and the low ionic strength requirements for isoelectric focusing. For the microseparations, both capillary isoelectric focusing and chip gel electrophoresis were employed. A variety of methods were evaluated to improve the molecular weight resolution for the SASPs, which are in a molecular weight range that is not well resolved by the current methods. Isoelectric focusing was optimized and employed to resolve the SASPs using UV absorbance detection. Proteomic signatures of native wild type Bacillus spores and clones genetically engineered to produce altered SASP patterns were assessed by slab gel electrophoresis, capillary isoelectric focusing with absorbance detection as well as microchip based gel electrophoresis employing sensitive laser-induced fluorescence detection.

  17. Quantification of Nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum Spore Loads in Food Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gary C; Malakar, Pradeep K; Plowman, June; Peck, Michael W

    2016-01-04

    We have produced data and developed analysis to build representations for the concentration of spores of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in materials that are used during the manufacture of minimally processed chilled foods in the United Kingdom. Food materials are categorized into homogenous groups which include meat, fish, shellfish, cereals, fresh plant material, dairy liquid, dairy nonliquid, mushroom and fungi, and dried herbs and spices. Models are constructed in a Bayesian framework and represent a combination of information from a literature survey of spore loads from positive-control experiments that establish a detection limit and from dedicated microbiological tests for real food materials. The detection of nonproteolytic C. botulinum employed an optimized protocol that combines selective enrichment culture with multiplex PCR, and the majority of tests on food materials were negative. Posterior beliefs about spore loads center on a concentration range of 1 to 10 spores kg(-1). Posterior beliefs for larger spore loads were most significant for dried herbs and spices and were most sensitive to the detailed results from control experiments. Probability distributions for spore loads are represented in a convenient form that can be used for numerical analysis and risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Barker et al.

  18. Dispersal of spores following a persistent random walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicout, D J; Sache, I

    2003-03-01

    A model of a persistent random walk is used to describe the transport and deposition of the spore dispersal process. In this model, the spore particle flies along straight line trajectories, with constant speed v, which are interrupted by scattering, originating from interaction of spores with the field and wind variations, which randomly change its direction. To characterize the spore dispersal gradients, we have derived analytical expressions of the deposition probability epsilon (r|v) of airborne spores as a function of the distance r from the spore source in an infinite free space and in a disk of radius R with an absorbing edge that mimics an agricultural field surrounded with fields of nonhost plants and bare land. It is found in the free space that epsilon (r|v) approximately e(-alphar/l), with alpha a function of l(d)/l, where l and l(d) are the scattering and deposition mean free paths, respectively. In the disk, however, epsilon (r|v) is an infinite series of Bessel functions and, exhibits three regimes: absorbing (Rl(d)).

  19. Developmentally-Regulated Excision of the SPβ Prophage Reconstitutes a Gene Required for Spore Envelope Maturation in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kimihiro; Kawano, Yuta; Iwamoto, Keito; Arai, Kenji; Maruyama, Yuki; Eichenberger, Patrick; Sato, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Temperate phages infect bacteria by injecting their DNA into bacterial cells, where it becomes incorporated into the host genome as a prophage. In the genome of Bacillus subtilis 168, an active prophage, SPβ, is inserted into a polysaccharide synthesis gene, spsM. Here, we show that a rearrangement occurs during sporulation to reconstitute a functional composite spsM gene by precise excision of SPβ from the chromosome. SPβ excision requires a putative site-specific recombinase, SprA, and an accessory protein, SprB. A minimized SPβ, where all the SPβ genes were deleted, except sprA and sprB, retained the SPβ excision activity during sporulation, demonstrating that sprA and sprB are necessary and sufficient for the excision. While expression of sprA was observed during vegetative growth, sprB was induced during sporulation and upon mitomycin C treatment, which triggers the phage lytic cycle. We also demonstrated that overexpression of sprB (but not of sprA) resulted in SPβ prophage excision without triggering the lytic cycle. These results suggest that sprB is the factor that controls the timing of phage excision. Furthermore, we provide evidence that spsM is essential for the addition of polysaccharides to the spore envelope. The presence of polysaccharides on the spore surface renders the spore hydrophilic in water. This property may be beneficial in allowing spores to disperse in natural environments via water flow. A similar rearrangement occurs in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, where a SPβ-like element is excised during sporulation to reconstitute a polysaccharide synthesis gene, suggesting that this type of gene rearrangement is common in spore-forming bacteria because it can be spread by phage infection. PMID:25299644

  20. Long-term cryopreservation of non-spore-forming fungi in Microbank™ beads for plant pathological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Singh, Vimla; Camacho, Manuel E

    2018-05-01

    Long-term preservation of experimental fungi without genetic, morphological, and pathogenic changes is of paramount importance in mycological and plant pathological investigations. Several cryogenic and non-cryogenic methods are available for the preservation of fungi, but the methods can be cumbersome, hazardous, expensive, and often not suitable for long-term storage of non-spore-forming (sterile) fungi. A method of preservation of spore-forming fungi in commercially available porous beads (Micrbank™) under cryogenic condition was successfully tested for three non-spore-forming basidiomycetes genera: Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) (n = 19), Ceratobasidium species (n = 1), and Waitea circinata (n = 3), and a non-spore forming ascomycetes, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (n = 1). For comparison, spore-forming ascomycetous fungi, Alternaria alternata (n = 1), Bauveria basiana (n = 2), Botrytis cinerea (n = 1), Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladiolii (n = 1), Trichoderma spp. (n = 3), and Thielaviopsis basicola (n = 2) were also cryopreserved in Microbank beads. Viable fungal isolates of all test species were retrieved after five years of storage at -80 °C, which was longer than the viabilities of the corresponding isolates cryopreserved in agar plugs or colonized wheat seeds. Fungi revived from the Microbank beads maintained identical morphology and cultural characteristics of the parent isolates. Randomly selected Rhizoctonia isolates revived from the Microbank beads maintained respective pathological properties of the parent isolates; also, no mutation was detected in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA when compared with respective cultures maintained at ambient temperature. This finding demonstrated the utility of cryopreservation in Microbank beads as a convenient alternative to conventional long-term preservation of a wide group of fungal cultures for plant pathological investigations

  1. Dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Lysinibacillus sphaericus spores in urban catch basins after simultaneous application against mosquito larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Guidi

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti and Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Lsph are extensively used in mosquito control programs. These biocides are the active ingredients of a commercial larvicide. Quantitative data on the fate of both Bti and Lsph applied together for the control of mosquitoes in urban drainage structures such as catch basins are lacking. We evaluated the dynamics and persistence of Bti and Lsph spores released through their concomitant application in urban catch basins in southern Switzerland. Detection and quantification of spores over time in water and sludge samples from catch basins were carried out using quantitative real-time PCR targeting both cry4A and cry4B toxin genes for Bti and the binA gene for Lsph. After treatment, Bti and Lsph spores attained concentrations of 3.76 (± 0.08 and 4.13 (± 0.09 log ml(-1 in water, then decreased progressively over time, reaching baseline values. For both Bti and Lsph, spore levels in the order of 10(5 g(-1 were observed in the bottom sludge two days after the treatment and remained constant for the whole test period (275 days. Indigenous Lsph strains were isolated from previously untreated catch basins. A selection of those was genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA, revealing that a subset of isolates were members of the clonal population of strain 2362. No safety issues related to the use of this biopesticide in the environment have been observed during this study, because no significant increase in the number of spores was seen during the long observation period. The isolation of native Lysinibacillus sphaericus strains belonging to the same clonal population as strain 2362 from catch basins never treated with Lsph-based products indicates that the use of a combination of Bti and Lsph for the control of mosquitoes does not introduce non-indigenous microorganisms in this area.

  2. The Bacillus subtilis yaaH Gene Is Transcribed by SigE RNA Polymerase during Sporulation, and Its Product Is Involved in Germination of Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Takeko; Takamatsu, Hiromu; Asai, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Ogasawara, Naotake; Watabe, Kazuhito

    1999-01-01

    The expression of 21 novel genes located in the region from dnaA to abrB of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome was analyzed. One of the genes, yaaH, had a predicted promoter sequence conserved among SigE-dependent genes. Northern blot analysis revealed that yaaH mRNA was first detected from 2 h after the cessation of logarithmic growth (T2) of sporulation in wild-type cells and in spoIIIG (SigG−) and spoIVCB (SigK−) mutants but not in spoIIAC (SigF−) and spoIIGAB (SigE−) mutants. The transcription start point was determined by primer extension analysis; the −10 and −35 regions are very similar to the consensus sequences recognized by SigE-containing RNA polymerase. A YaaH-His tag fusion encoded by a plasmid with a predicted promoter for the yaaH gene was produced from T2 of sporulation in a B. subtilis transformant and extracted from mature spores, indicating that the yaaH gene product is a spore protein. Inactivation of the yaaH gene by insertion of an erythromycin resistance gene did not affect vegetative growth or spore resistance to heat, chloroform, and lysozyme. The germination of yaaH mutant spores in a mixture of l-asparagine, d-glucose, d-fructose, and potassium chloride was almost the same as that of wild-type spores, but the mutant spores were defective in l-alanine-stimulated germination. These results suggest that yaaH is a novel gene encoding a spore protein produced in the mother cell compartment from T2 of sporulation and that it is required for the l-alanine-stimulated germination pathway. PMID:10419957

  3. Live cell imaging of germination and outgrowth of individual Bacillus subtilis spores; the effect of heat stress quantitatively analyzed with SporeTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.; ter Beek, A.; Vischer, N.O.E.; Smelt, J.P.P.M.; Brul, S.; Manders, E.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are a special problem for the food industry as some of them are able to survive preservation processes. Bacillus spp. spores can remain in a dormant, stress resistant state for a long period of time. Vegetative cells are formed by germination of spores followed by a more

  4. Decreased UV light resistance of spores of Bacillus subtilis strains deficient in pyrimidine dimer repair and small, acid-soluble spore proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, B.; Setlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    Loss of small, acid-soluble spore protein alpha reduced spore UV resistance 30- to 50-fold in Bacillus subtilis strains deficient in pyrimidine dimer repair, but gave only a 5- to 8-fold reduction in UV resistance in repair-proficient strains. However, both repair-proficient and -deficient spores lacking this protein had identical heat and gamma-radiation resistance

  5. Parapiptadenia rigida MYCORRHIZATION WITH SPORES OF Scleroderma citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Pauli Kist Steffen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungal inoculation in forestry seedlings aids plant establishment and growth in the field. The objectives of this study were: to determine the mycorrhizal capacity of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Scleroderma citrinum in Parapiptadenia rigida (red angico seedlings and to evaluate the viability of a mycorrhizal inoculation technique for forest seedlings involving the use of spores. Mature spores were inoculated in the substrate (75% soil and 25% carbonized rice husk, totaling 1.5 grams of fungal spores per liter of substrate. P. rigida seeds were sown in substrates inoculated or not inoculated with fungal spores in presence or absence of Pinus echinata and Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil: not inoculated (T1, inoculated (T2, inoculated more pine essential oil (T3, inoculated more eucalyptus essential oil (T4. Seedlings of Pinus elliottii were used for a positive control of mycorrhizal inoculation (T5 and not inoculated (T6 with fungal spores. At 90 days after sowing, the base stem diameter, height, fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots, percentage of root colonization and Dickson Index were determined. The presence of fungal structures in P. rigida and P. elliottii roots inoculated with S. citrinum spores was observed, demonstrating the occurrence of an ectomycorrhizal association. The application of pine and eucalyptus essential oils in the substrate increased the percentage of ectomycorrhizal colonization in P. rigida seedlings. The addition of S. citrinum mature spores in the substrate used for seedling production is a viable practice for ectomycorrhizal inoculation and it can be used in forest nurseries in controlled mycorrhization programs.

  6. 2009 Gordon Research Conference on Photochemistry: Formal Schedule and Speaker/Poster Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasielewski, Michael [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2009-07-05

    The impact of photochemistry on diverse fields ranging from materials and environmental science to biology and medicine has never been greater. The 2009 Gordon Conference on Photochemistry will highlight recent advances in these key areas while also presenting the latest research on new photochemical reactions and mechanistic studies. Session topics will include: development of new chromophores, light harvesting materials, solar energy conversion, photocontrolled biomolecules, light-triggered amplification reactions, and advanced bioimaging techniques. The Conference will continue its 45 year history of promoting interactions between fundamental and applied scientists, a hallmark of the Gordon Conferences. In addition, oral presentations, poster sessions and informal discussions will provide opportunities for junior scientists and students to present their own work and discuss their results with leaders in the field. Applicants to the Conference are encouraged to submit abstracts for poster presentations in order to gain visibility and feedback on their research. In addition, a number of poster abstracts will be selected for presentation as short talks.

  7. Photochemistry of the ozone-water complex in cryogenic neon, argon, and krypton matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuge, Masashi; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Kawai, Akio; Shibuya, Kazuhiko

    2013-12-12

    The photochemistry of ozone-water complexes and the wavelength dependence of the reactions were studied by matrix isolation FTIR spectrometry in neon, argon, and krypton matrixes. Hydrogen peroxide was formed upon the irradiation of UV light below 355 nm. Quantitative analyses of the reactant and product were performed to evaluate the matrix cage effect of the photoreaction. In argon and krypton matrixes, a bimolecular O((1)D) + H2O → H2O2 reaction was found to occur to form hydrogen peroxide, where the O((1)D) atom generated by the photolysis of ozone diffused in the cryogenic solids to encounter water. In a neon matrix, hydrogen peroxide was generated through intracage photoreaction of the ozone-water complex, indicating that a neon matrix medium is most appropriate to study the photochemistry of the ozone-water complex.

  8. An overview of aquatic photochemistry as it relates to microbial production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, W.L. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    A review of fundamental photochemistry and its potential impact on microbial processes in natural waters was presented. It is a known fact that solar radiation alters chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and results in the production of a complex mixture of reactive oxygen species, inorganic nutrients, and carbon photoproducts. In addition, it results in reduced average molecular weight and changes in water optical properties. The largest carbon product results from the direct photo-mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), thereby bypassing the microbial web. Other studies demonstrated that growth was enhanced for heterotrophic bacteria in natural samples exposed to sunlight, that bacterial growth was absent when stimulated by photochemistry and that there was a marked reduction in the ability of DOC to support bacterial growth after exposure to ultraviolet radiation B (UV-B). 20 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Responses to accelerated heavy ions of spores of Bacillus subtilis of different repair capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltschukat, K.; Horneck, G.

    1991-01-01

    Inactivation, mutagenesis of histidine reversion and the involvement of DNA repair were studied in spores of Bacillus subtilis irradiated with heavy ions at LBL, Berkeley and GSI, Darmstadt. Five groups of ions (from boron to uranium) were used with residual energies from 0.2 MeV/u up to 18.6 MeV/u; in addition, carbon ions were used with a residual energy of 120 MeV/u. Action cross sections of both inactivation and mutagenesis show a similar dependence on ion mass and energy: For lighter ions (Z≤10), the lethal response is nearly energy independent (Z=10) or decreasing with energy (Z≤6); these light ions, up to 18.6 MeV/u, induce hardly any mutations. For heavier ions (Z≥26), the lethal as well as the mutagenic responses increase with ion mass and energy up to a maximum or saturation. The efficiency of DNA repair to improve survival and the mutagenic efficiency per lethal event, both, increase with ion energy up to a saturation value which, depending on strain and endpoint, either roughtly coincides with the X-ray value or is smaller than that after X-ray treatment. For repair based on recombination events, the increase in the survival effects with ion energy is more pronounced than for that based on repair replication. At energies of 1 MeV/u or below, neither DNA repair nor mutation induction appear to be significant. The results support previous suggestions on the importance of the radial distribution of the energy around the ion track in biological action cross section and the evidence that the entire core of the spore represents the sensitive site in responses to heavy ions. (orig.)

  10. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned). The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2) produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC) and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC's novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established non-thermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers, using an array of Bacillus

  11. High-Power 365 nm UV LED Mercury Arc Lamp Replacement for Photochemistry and Chemical Photolithography

    OpenAIRE

    H?lz, K.; Lietard, J.; Somoza, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have become widespread in chemical research as highly efficient light sources for photochemistry and photopolymerization. However, in more complex experimental setups requiring highly concentrated light and highly spatially resolved patterning of the light, high-pressure mercury arc lamps are still widely used because they emit intense UV light from a compact arc volume that can be efficiently coupled into optical systems. Advances in the deposition...

  12. Solar photochemistry - twenty years of progress, what`s been accomplished, and where does it lead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blake, D M

    1995-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the first oil embargo. That event created an awareness of the need for alternative sources of energy and renewed interest in combining sunlight and chemistry to produce the chemicals and materials required by industry. This paper will review approaches that have been taken, progress that has been made, and give some projections for the near and longer term prospects for commercialization of solar photochemistry.

  13. Ultrafast Infrared and UV-vis Studies of the Photochemistry of Methoxycarbonylphenyl Azides in Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Jiadan; Luk, Hoi Ling; Eswaran, S. V.; Hadad, Christopher M.; Platz, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    The photochemistry of 4-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (2a), 2-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (3a) and 2-methoxy-6-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (4a) were studied by ultrafast time-resolved infrared (IR) and UV-vis spectroscopies in solution. Singlet nitrenes and ketenimines were observed and characterized for all three azides. Isoxazole species 3g and 4g are generated after photolysis of 3a and 4a, respectively, in acetonitrile. Triplet nitrene 4e formation correlated with the decay of singlet nitre...

  14. A combined continuous microflow photochemistry and asymmetric organocatalysis approach for the enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erli Sugiono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A continuous-flow asymmetric organocatalytic photocyclization–transfer hydrogenation cascade reaction has been developed. The new protocol allows the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from readily available 2-aminochalcones using a combination of photochemistry and asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis. The photocylization and subsequent reduction was performed with catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derived phosphoric acid diester and Hantzsch dihydropyridine as hydrogen source providing the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivities.

  15. Matrix photochemistry of small molecules: Influencing reaction dynamics on electronically excited hypersurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations of chemical reactions on electronically excited reaction surfaces are presented. The role of excited-surface multiplicity is of particular interest, as are chemical reactivity and energy transfer in systems in which photochemistry is initiated through a metal atom sensitizer.'' Two approaches are employed: A heavy-atom matrix affords access to forbidden triplet reaction surfaces, eliminating the need for a potentially reactive sensitizer. Later, the role of the metal atom in the photosensitization process is examined directly.

  16. Solar eclipse demonstrating the importance of photochemistry in new particle formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jokinen, Tuija; Kontkanen, Jenni; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Aalto, Juho; Porcar-Castell, Albert; Garmash, Olga; Nieminen, Tuomo; Ehn, Mikael; Kangasluoma, Juha; Junninen, Heikki; Levula, Janne; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Rantala, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Solar eclipses provide unique possibilities to investigate atmospheric processes, such as new particle formation (NPF), important to the global aerosol load and radiative balance. The temporary absence of solar radiation gives particular insight into different oxidation and clustering processes leading to NPF. This is crucial because our mechanistic understanding on how NPF is related to photochemistry is still rather limited. During a partial solar eclipse over Finland in 2015, we found that...

  17. Matrix photochemistry of small molecules: Influencing reaction dynamics on electronically excited hypersurfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laursen, S.L.

    1990-01-01

    Investigations of chemical reactions on electronically excited reaction surfaces are presented. The role of excited-surface multiplicity is of particular interest, as are chemical reactivity and energy transfer in systems in which photochemistry is initiated through a metal atom ''sensitizer.'' Two approaches are employed: A heavy-atom matrix affords access to forbidden triplet reaction surfaces, eliminating the need for a potentially reactive sensitizer. Later, the role of the metal atom in the photosensitization process is examined directly

  18. Separation and enrichment of isotopes using laser photochemistry - fundamentals and prospectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guesten, H.

    1978-01-01

    Basic knowledge is summed up on isotope separation by laser photochemistry. The principal prerequisites are explained of the application of atomic and molecular spectroscopy for this purpose. Practical examples are given of isotope separation of uranium, nitrogen, chlorine, carbon, sulfur, and molybdenum showing the application of two basic techniques, i.e., of gradual atom photoionization or gradual molecule photodissociation and of selective photochemical reactions. (L.K.)

  19. Microwave Photochemistry IV: Preparation of the Electrodeless Discharge Lamps for Photochemical Applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Církva, Vladimír; Vlková, Leona; Relich, Stanislav; Hájek, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-2 (2006), s. 229-233 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4040110; GA ČR GA203/02/0879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : microwave photochemistry * electrodeless discharge lamp * uv/vis source Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2006

  20. Scanning Surface Potential Microscopy of Spore Adhesion on Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The adhesion of spores of Bacillus anthracis - the cause of anthrax and a likely biological threat - to solid surfaces is an important consideration in cleanup after an accidental or deliberate release. However, because of safety concerns, directly studying B. anthracis spores with advanced instrumentation is problematic. As a first step, we are examining the electrostatic potential of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which is a closely related species that is often used as a simulant to study B. anthracis. Scanning surface potential microscopy (SSPM), also known as Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), was used to investigate the influence of relative humidity (RH) on the surface electrostatic potential of Bt that had adhered to silica, mica, or gold substrates. AFM/SSPM side-by-side images were obtained separately in air, at various values of RH, after an aqueous droplet with spores was applied on each surface and allowed to dry before measurements. In the SSPM images, a negative potential on the surface of the spores was observed compared with that of the substrates. The surface potential decreased as the humidity increased. Spores were unable to adhere to a surface with an extremely negative potential, such as mica.

  1. Management practices and forage quality affecting the contamination of milk with anaerobic spore-forming bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucali, Maddalena; Bava, Luciana; Colombini, Stefania; Brasca, Milena; Decimo, Marilù; Morandi, Stefano; Tamburini, Alberto; Crovetto, G Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic spore-forming bacteria (ASFB) in milk derive from the farm environment, and the use of silages and management practices are the main responsible of milk ASFB contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between feeding, milking routine and cow hygiene and milk and Grana Padano cheese (produced with and without lysozyme) ASFB contamination. The study involved 23 dairy farms. ASFB in corn silage were on average 2.34 ± 0.87 log10 MPN g(-1). For grass, Italian ryegrass and alfalfa, ASFB (log10 MPN g(-1)) were numerically higher for silages (3.22) than hays (2.85). The use of corn silages of high quality (high lactic and acetic acids concentrations) decreased the milk ASFB contamination, whilst the use of herbage silages did not affect it. The presence (>40%) of cows with dirty udders increased the ASFB contamination of milk, while forestripping had a positive effect (-9% ASFB). Ripened Grana Padano had an ASFB count below the analytical limit; Clostridium tyrobutyricum DNA was found only in wheels produced without lysozyme, which also showed late blowing. The factors increasing milk spore contamination were corn silage quality, cow udder hygiene and inadequate milking routine. Late blowing was present only in cheeses without lysozyme. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Sensitizing Clostridium difficile Spores With Germinants on Skin and Environmental Surfaces Represents a New Strategy for Reducing Spores via Ambient Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Marie Nerandzic

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of healthcare-associated infections worldwide. Prevention of C. difficile transmission is challenging because spores are not killed by alcohol-based hand sanitizers or many commonly used disinfectants. One strategy to control spores is to induce germination, thereby rendering the spores more susceptible to benign disinfection measures and ambient stressors. Methods/Results: C. difficile spores germinated on skin after a single application of cholic acid-class bile salts and co-germinants; for 4 C. difficile strains, recovery of viable spores from skin was reduced by ~0.3 log10CFU to 2 log10CFU after 2 hours and ~1 log10CFU to >2.5 log 10CFU after 24 hours. The addition of taurocholic acid to 70% and 30% ethanol significantly enhanced reduction of viable spores on skin and on surfaces. Desiccation, and to a lesser extent the presence of oxygen, were identified as the stressors responsible for reductions of germinated spores on skin and surfaces. Additionally, germinated spores became susceptible to killing by pH 1.5 hydrochloric acid, suggesting that germinated spores that remain viable on skin and surfaces might be killed by gastric acid after ingestion. Antibiotic-treated mice did not become colonized after exposure to germinated spores, whereas 100% of mice became colonized after exposure to the same quantity of dormant spores. Conclusions: Germination could provide a new approach to reduce C. difficile spores on skin and in the environment and to render surviving spores less capable of causing infection. Our findings suggest that it may be feasible to develop alcohol-based hand sanitizers containing germinants that reduce spores on hands.

  3. Effect of irradiation of bacteria on the formation of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, M.; Tropilo, J.; Olszewski, G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were carried out on bacteria: Bac. subtilis, Bac. cereus, Cl. perfringens, Cl. botulinum which were irradiated in two media (PBS and broth containing 1% of protein) with 100, 1000, 5000 and 10 000 X-radiation doses. The results obtained show that: all bacteria species studied (vegetative forms) are characterized by a high sensitivity to X-radiation, though distinctly lower than the species of Enterobacteriaceae family; the bacteria species studied are characterized by various sporing rate. The highest sporing rate was shown by Bac. cereus, the following: Bac. subtilis, Cl. perfringens and Cl. botulinum; increased X-radiation doses weaken sporing of Bac. subtilis and Bac. cereus. This effect could not be observed in Cl. perfringens and Cl. botulinum. (author)

  4. Effect of irradiation of bacteria on the formation of spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szulc, M.; Tropilo, J.; Olszewski, G.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were carried out on bacteria: Bac. subtilis, Bac. cereus, Cl. perfringens, Cl. botulinum which were irradiated in two media (PBS and broth containing 1% of protein) with 100, 1000, 5000 and 10 000 X-radiation doses. The results obtained show that: all bacteria species studied (vegetative forms) are characterized by a high sensitivity to X-radiation, though distinctly lower than the species of Enterobacteriaceae family; the bacteria species studied are characterized by various sporing rate. The highest sporing rate was shown by Bac. cereus, the following: Bac. subtilis, Cl. perfringens and Cl. botulinum; increased X-radiation doses weaken sporing of Bac. subtilis and Bac. cereus. This effect could not be observed in Cl. perfringens and Cl. botulinum.

  5. Mutagenic effect of tritated water on spores of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.; Munakata, N.

    1978-01-01

    The mutagenic effect of tritiated water was observed with spores of Bacillus subtilis polA strain suspended in 50 mCi/ml of tritiated water for various intervals. Dose rate given by tritium beta particles to spore core was estimated to be 400 rad/hr from some assumptions and E. coli data computed by Bockrath et al. and Sands et al. The initial mutation rate was 4.2 x 10 -9 mutants/rad, as compared with 2.4 x 10 -9 mutants/rad for 60 Co γ rays and 3.3 x 10 -9 mutants/rad for 30-kVp x rays. The mutagenic effect of tritiated water on spores is most likely due to beta particle ionizing radiation damage

  6. Pollen and spores as a passive monitor of ultraviolet radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley Toby Fraser

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sporopollenin is the primary component of the outer walls of pollen and spores. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is responsive to levels of ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure, via a concomitant change in the concentration of phenolic compounds. This relationship offers the possibility of using fossil pollen and spore chemistry as a novel proxy for past UV flux. Phenolic compounds in sporopollenin can be quantified using Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy. The high potential for preservation of pollen and spores in the geologic record, and the conservative nature of sporopollenin chemistry across the land plant phylogeny, means that this new proxy has the potential to reconstruct UV flux over much longer timescales than has previously been possible. This new tool has important implications for understanding the relationship between UV flux, solar insolation and climate in the past, as well as providing a possible means of assessing paleoaltitude, and ozone thickness.

  7. Photochemistry of Fe(Iii)-Carboxylates in Polysaccharide-Based Materials with Tunable Mechanical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammanco, Giuseppe E.

    We present the formulation and study of light-responsive materials based on carboxylate-containing polysaccharides. The functional groups in these natural polymers allow for strong interactions with transition metal ions such as Fe(III). The known photochemistry of hydroxycarboxylic acids in natural waters inspired us in exploring the visible light induced photochemistry of the carboxylates in these polysaccharides when coordinated to Fe(III) ions. Described in this dissertation are the design and characterization of the Fe(III)-polysaccharide materials, specifically the mechanistic aspects of the photochemistry and the effects that these reactions have on the structure of the polymer materials. We present a study of the quantitative photochemistry of different polysaccharide systems, where the presence of uronic acids was important for the photoreaction to take place. Alginate (Alg), pectate (Pec), hyaluronic acid (Hya), xanthan gum (Xan), and a polysaccharide extracted from the Noni fruit (NoniPs), were among the natural uronic acid-containing polysaccharide (UCPS) systems we analyzed. Potato starch, lacking of uronate groups, did not present any photochemistry in the presence of Fe(III); however, we were able to induce a photochemical response in this polysaccharide upon chemical manipulation of its functional groups. Important structure-function relationships were drawn from this study. The uronate moiety present in these polysaccharides is then envisioned as a tool to induce response to light in a variety of materials. Following this approach, we report the formulation of materials for controlled drug release, able to encapsulate and release different drug models only upon illumination with visible light. Furthermore, hybrid hydrogels were prepared from UPCS and non-responsive polymers. Different properties of these materials could be tuned by controlling the irradiation time, intensity and location. These hybrid gels were evaluated as scaffolds for tissue

  8. Sporulation environment influences spore properties in Bacillus: evidence and insights on underlying molecular and physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressuire-Isoard, Christelle; Broussolle, Véronique; Carlin, Frédéric

    2018-05-17

    Bacterial spores are resistant to physical and chemical insults, which make them a major concern for public health and for industry. Spores help bacteria to survive extreme environmental conditions that vegetative cells cannot tolerate. Spore resistance and dormancy are important properties for applications in medicine, veterinary health, food safety, crop protection, and other domains. The resistance of bacterial spores results from a protective multilayered structure and from the unique composition of the spore core. The mechanisms of sporulation and germination, the first stage after breaking of dormancy, and organization of spore structure have been extensively studied in Bacillus species. This review aims to illustrate how far the structure, composition and properties of spores are shaped by the environmental conditions in which spores form. We look at the physiological and molecular mechanisms underpinning how sporulation media and environment deeply affect spore yield, spore properties like resistance to wet heat and physical and chemical agents, germination, and further growth. For example, spore core water content decreases as sporulation temperature increases, and resistance to wet heat increases. Controlling the fate of Bacillus spores is pivotal to controlling bacterial risks and process efficiencies in, for example, the food industry, and better control hinges on better understanding how sporulation conditions influence spore properties.

  9. The Fungal Spores Survival Under the Low-Temperature Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soušková, Hana; Scholtz, V.; Julák, J.; Savická, D.

    This paper presents an experimental apparatus for the decontamination and sterilization of water suspension of fungal spores. The fungicidal effect of stabilized positive and negative corona discharges on four fungal species Aspergillus oryzae, Clacosporium sphaerospermum, Penicillium crustosum and Alternaria sp. was studied. Simultaneously, the slower growing of exposed fungal spores was observed. The obtained results are substantially different in comparison with those of the analogous experiments performed with bacteria. It may be concluded that fungi are more resistant to the low-temperature plasma.

  10. Determination of fungal spore release from wet building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildesø, J.; Wurtz, H.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2003-01-01

    The release and transport of fungal spores from water-damaged building materials is a key factor for understanding the exposure to particles of fungal origin as a possible cause of adverse health effects associated to growth of fungi indoors. In this study, the release of spores from nine species...... of typical indoor fungi has been measured under controlled conditions. The fungi were cultivated for a period of 4-6 weeks on sterilized wet wallpapered gypsum boards at a relative humidity (RH) of approximately 97%. A specially designed small chamber (P-FLEC) was placed on the gypsum board. The release...

  11. Physical determinants of radiation sensitivity in bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Several factors modifying radiation sensitivity in dry bacterial spores are described and discussed. Vacuum inducing the loss of critical structural water, very low dose rates of radiation from which the cell may recover, radiations of high linear energy transfer, and the action of temperature over long periods of time on previously irradiated cells are recognized from extensive laboratory work as important in determining survival of spores exposed to low radiation doses at low temperatures for long periods of time. Some extensions of laboratory work are proposed

  12. Extracellular proteases from Streptomyces phaeopurpureus ExPro138 inhibit spore adhesion, germination and appressorium formation in Colletotrichum coccodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, S A; Yang, S H; Suh, J-W

    2013-07-01

    To study the antifungal mechanism of proteases from Streptomyces phaeopurpureus strain ExPro138 towards Colletotrichum coccodes and to evaluate its utilization as biofungicide. We screened proteolytic Streptomyces strains from the yam rhizosphere with antifungal activity. Forty proteolytic Streptomyces were isolated, among which eleven isolates showed gelatinolytic activity and antagonistic activity on C. coccodes. Of the 11 isolates, protease preparation from an isolate designated ExPro138 showed antifungal activity. 16S rDNA sequence analysis of the strain showed 99% similarity with Streptomyces phaeopurepureus (EU841588.1). Zymography analysis of the ExPro138 culture filtrate revealed that the strain produced several extracellular proteases. The protease preparation inhibited spore germination, spore adhesion to polystyrene surface and appressorium formation. Microscopic study of the interaction between ExPro138 and C. coccodes revealed that ExPro138 was mycoparasitic on C. coccodes. The protease preparation also reduced anthracnose incidence on tomato fruits compared with untreated control. This study demonstrates possibility of utilizing antifungal proteases derived from antagonistic microbes as biofungicide. Microbial proteases having the ability to inhibit spore adhesion and appressorium formation could be used to suppress infection establishment by foliar fungal pathogens at the initial stages of the infection process. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiling of Clostridium perfringens SM101 during Sporulation Extends the Core of Putative Sporulation Genes and Genes Determining Spore Properties and Germination Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yinghua; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Abee, Tjakko; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-01-01

    The formation of bacterial spores is a highly regulated process and the ultimate properties of the spores are determined during sporulation and subsequent maturation. A wide variety of genes that are expressed during sporulation determine spore properties such as resistance to heat and other adverse environmental conditions, dormancy and germination responses. In this study we characterized the sporulation phases of C. perfringens enterotoxic strain SM101 based on morphological characteristics, biomass accumulation (OD600), the total viable counts of cells plus spores, the viable count of heat resistant spores alone, the pH of the supernatant, enterotoxin production and dipicolinic acid accumulation. Subsequently, whole-genome expression profiling during key phases of the sporulation process was performed using DNA microarrays, and genes were clustered based on their time-course expression profiles during sporulation. The majority of previously characterized C. perfringens germination genes showed upregulated expression profiles in time during sporulation and belonged to two main clusters of genes. These clusters with up-regulated genes contained a large number of C. perfringens genes which are homologs of Bacillus genes with roles in sporulation and germination; this study therefore suggests that those homologs are functional in C. perfringens. A comprehensive homology search revealed that approximately half of the upregulated genes in the two clusters are conserved within a broad range of sporeforming Firmicutes. Another 30% of upregulated genes in the two clusters were found only in Clostridium species, while the remaining 20% appeared to be specific for C. perfringens. These newly identified genes may add to the repertoire of genes with roles in sporulation and determining spore properties including germination behavior. Their exact roles remain to be elucidated in future studies.

  14. Effect of gamma irradiation on thermal inactivation and injury of Bacillus subtilis spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Mostafa, S.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores which received preliminary irradiation doses were more sensitive to subsequent heating than non-irradiated spores. The thermal inactivation increased by increasing any of exposure temperature, thermal exposure time or preliminary irradiation dose. The thermal (D T -) value was much higher for non-irradiated spores than the D TR value for the pre-thermal irradiated spores. The radiosensitizing effect was directly proportional to the preliminary irradiation dose. The pre-thermal irradiation treatment of B. subtilis spores resulted in a synergistic effect in spore deactivation. This synergistic effect increased gradually by increasing the preliminary irradiation dose and/or the thermal temperature from 60 to 80 0 C, but decreased for 90 0 C and for the longer exposure periods at any of the examined temperature. Thermal injury of B. subtilis spores was more for the non-irradiated than for the irradiated spores

  15. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  16. Influence of heat and radiation on the germinability and viability of B. cereus BIS-59 spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamat, A.S.; Lewis, N.F.

    1983-01-01

    Spores of Bicillus cereus BIS-59, isolated in this laboratory from shrimps, exhibited an exponential gamma radiation survival curve with a d 10 value of 400 krad as compared with a D 10 value of 30 krad for the vegetative cells. The D 10 value of DPA-depleted spores was also 400 krad indicating that DPA does not influence the radiation response of these spores. Maximum germination monitored with irradiated spores was 60 percent as compared with 80 percent in case of unirradiated spores. Radiation-induced inhibition of the germination processes was not dose dependent. Heat treatment (15 min at 80 C) to spores resulted in activation of the germination process; however, increase in heating time (30 min and 60 min) increased the germination lag period. DPA-depleted spores were less heat resistant than normal spores and exhibited biphasic exponential inactivation. (author)

  17. A Novel Spectroscopic Methodology for the Investigation of Individual Bacillus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alexander, Troy A; Pellegrino, Paul; Gillespie, James B

    2005-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for the investigation of bacterial spores. Specifically, this method has been used to probe the spore coat composition of two different Bacillus stearothermophilus variants...

  18. Chromosome mechanics of fungi under spaceflight conditions--tetrad analysis of two-factor crosses between spore color mutants of Sordaria macrospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A; Hock, B

    1999-01-01

    Spore color mutants of the fungus Sordaria macrospora Auersw. were crossed under spaceflight conditions on the space shuttle to MIR mission S/MM 05 (STS-81). The arrangement of spores of different colors in the asci allowed conclusions on the influence of spaceflight conditions on sexual recombination in fungi. Experiments on a 1-g centrifuge in space and in parallel on the ground were used for controls. The samples were analyzed microscopically on their return to earth. Each fruiting body was assessed separately. Statistical analysis of the data showed a significant increase in gene recombination frequencies caused by the heavy ion particle stream in space radiation. The lack of gravity did not influence crossing-over frequencies. Hyphae of the flown samples were assessed for DNA strand breaks. No increase in damage was found compared with the ground samples. It was shown that S. macrospora is able to repair radiation-induced DNA strand breaks within hours.

  19. Observations on the migration of bacillus spores outside a contaminated facility during a decontamination efficacy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Perkins, Sarah; Lordo, Robert; Kovacik, William; Nichols, Tonya L.; Bowling, Charlena Yoder; Griffin, Dale W.; Schaefer, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for an intentional wide-area or indoor release of Bacillus anthracis spores remains a concern, but the fate and transport of B. anthracis spores in indoor and outdoor environments are not well understood. Some studies have examined the possibility of spore transport within ventilation systems and in buildings and transport into a building following an outdoor release. Little research exists regarding the potential for spores to migrate to the outside of a building following an indoor release.

  20. Meteorological factors associated with abundance of airborne fungal spores over natural vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Sharifa G.; Gilbert, Gregory S.

    2017-08-01

    The abundance of airborne fungal spores in agricultural and urban settings increases with greater air temperature, relative humidity, or precipitation. The same meteorological factors that affect temporal patterns in spore abundance in managed environments also vary spatially across natural habitats in association with differences in vegetation structure. Here we investigated how temporal and spatial variation in aerial spore abundance is affected by abiotic (weather) and biotic (vegetation) factors as a foundation for predicting how fungi may respond to changes in weather and land-use patterns. We measured the phenology of airborne fungal spores across a mosaic of naturally occurring vegetation types at different time scales to describe (1) how spore abundance changes over time, (2) which local meteorological variables are good predictors for airborne spore density, and (3) whether spore abundance differs across vegetation types. Using an air volumetric vacuum sampler, we collected spore samples at 3-h intervals over a 120-h period in a mixed-evergreen forest and coastal prairie to measure diurnal, nocturnal, and total airborne spore abundance across vegetation types. Spore samples were also collected at weekly and monthly intervals in mixed-evergreen forest, redwood forest, and maritime chaparral vegetation types from 12 field sites across two years. We found greater airborne spore densities during the wetter winter months compared to the drier summer months. Mean total spore abundance in the mixed-evergreen forest was twice than in the coastal prairie, but there were no significant differences in total airborne spore abundance among mixed-evergreen forest, redwood forest, and maritime chaparral vegetation types. Weekly and monthly peaks in airborne spore abundance corresponded with rain events and peaks in soil moisture. Overall, temporal patterns in meteorological factors were much more important in determining airborne fungal spore abundance than the

  1. Size matters for violent discharge height and settling speed of Sphagnum spores: important attributes for dispersal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    Initial release height and settling speed of diaspores are biologically controlled components which are key to modelling wind dispersal. Most Sphagnum (peat moss) species have explosive spore liberation. In this study, how capsule and spore sizes affect the height to which spores are propelled were measured, and how spore size and spore number of discharged particles relate to settling speed in the aspherical Sphagnum spores. Spore discharge and spore cloud development were filmed in a closed chamber (nine species). Measurements were taken from snapshots at three stages of cloud development. Settling speed of spores (14 species) and clusters were timed in a glass tube. The maximum discharge speed measured was 3.6 m s(-1). Spores reached a maximum height of 20 cm (average: 15 cm) above the capsule. The cloud dimensions at all stages were related positively to capsule size (R(2) = 0.58-0.65). Thus species with large shoots (because they have large capsules) have a dispersal advantage. Half of the spores were released as singles and the rest as clusters (usually two to four spores). Single spores settled at 0.84-1.86 cm s(-1), about 52 % slower than expected for spherical spores with the same diameters. Settling speed displayed a positive curvilinear relationship with spore size, close to predictions by Stokes' law for spherical spores with 68 % of the actual diameters. Light-coloured spores settled slower than dark spores. Settling speed of spore clusters agrees with earlier studies. Effective spore discharge and small, slowly settling spores appear particularly important for species in forested habitats. The spore discharge heights in Sphagnum are among the greatest for small, wind-dispersed propagules. The discharge heights and the slow settling of spores affect dispersal distances positively and may help to explain the wide distribution of most boreal Sphagnum species.

  2. Influence of food matrix on outgrowth heterogeneity of heat damaged Bacillus cereus spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warda, A.K.; Besten, den H.M.W.; Sha, N.; Abee, T.; Nierop Groot, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Spoilage of heat treated foods can be caused by the presence of surviving spore-formers. It is virtually impossible to prevent contamination at the primary production level as spores are ubiquitous present in the environment and can contaminate raw products. As a result spore inactivation treatments

  3. In vitro spore germination and gametophytic growth development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of sucrose, pH and plant growth hormones on spore germination percentage and gametophyte growths of Pteris tripartita were studied. Various morphological structures of gametophytes were observed namely, filamentous, spatulate and heart stages in the MS culture medium with hormones. After 15 days, the ...

  4. Ascoaphaera osmophila sp.nov. An Australian Spore Cyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; King, , J.

    1984-01-01

    Ascosphaera osmophila sp. nov. is described. Septa occur often close together and remain intact when the mycelium disintegrates. A fairly good production of mature spore cysts occurs only on media containing 10% sugar or more. A. osmophila lives in association with the mason bee, Chalicodoma...

  5. In vitro mutagenesis of commercial fern, Asplenium nidus from spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norazlina Noordin

    2004-01-01

    Asplenium is a largest, most diverse fern genera. One of the common species is Asplenium nidus, well known as Bird's-nest fern, a medium to large fern with erect, stout, unbranched rhizomes. In creating variability of ferns for the benefit of the ornamental plant industry, in vitro mutagenesis is used. In this study, spores of Asplenium nidus were collected from frond bearing mature sporangia. Spores were cultured in modified 1/2 MS basal medium supplemented with various combinations of 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and Naphtalene Acetic Acid (NAA). Spore cultures were incubated in incubation room at 24 degree C with 16 hours photoperiod (3500 lux). It was found that, the most effective combinations were 1 mg/1 BAP + 0. 1 mg/1 NAA and 2mg/1 BAP + 0. 1 mg/1 NAA. Prothallus was formed after 10 days of cultures and gametophytes were formed 1 month later. These gametophytes were irradiated with Gamma ray at doses of 0, 20, 90, 120, 150 and 180 Gy. From the preliminary result obtained from this study, for generating variations and desired phenotypic expression for Asplenium nidus, recommended doses for in vitro mutagenesis using spores are between 90 Gy to 150 Gy. Gametophytes were subcultured at monthly interval to ensure further development and propagation. Frequent monitoring for any changes in the morphology of the irradiated Asplenium nidus plants were carried out. (Author)

  6. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores: Strain typing and protein identification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šulc, Miroslav; Pešlová, Kateřina; Žabka, Martin; Hajdúch, M.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 280, 1-3 (2009), s. 162-168 ISSN 1387-3806 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017; GA ČR GP203/05/P575 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : aspergillus * spore * protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.117, year: 2009

  7. Increased resistance of environmental anaerobic spores to inactivation by UV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijnen, W.A.M.; Veer, A.J. van der; Beerendonk, E.F.; Medema, Gerriet Jan

    2004-01-01

    Water Company Europoort started a pilot plant (MP)UV study to determine the UV-fluence to meet the Dutch drinking water standards. The results of large volume sampling of this pilot plant demonstrated that environmental spores of sulphite-reducing clostridia (SSRC) were highly resistant against UV.

  8. Genotoxic action of sunlight upon Bacillus subtilis spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munakata, Nobuo

    1989-01-01

    Samples of Bacillus subtilis spores dried on membrane filter were exposed to natural sunlight from solar-noon time at Tokyo. The survival and mutation induction of wild-type (UVR) and repair-deficient (UVS) spores were determined on 66 occasions since 1979. Two of the values were considered to be useful in monitoring solar UV intensity; the inverse of the time (in minutes) of exposure to kill 63% of the UVS spores ('sporocidal index') and the induced mutation frequency at 60 minutes of exposure of the UVR spores ('mutagenic index'). Both values were varied greatly due to time of a year, weather and other conditions. Estimates of year-round changes under clear skies were obtained by connecting the maximum values attained in these years. In these curves, there are more than 7-fold differences in the genotoxicity between winter and summer months, with major increases observed in early spring and decreases through autumn. Using a series of UV cut-off filters, the wavelengths most effective for the sporocidal actions were estimated to be in the range of 308 - 325 nm, shorter wavelengths being effective when the genotoxicity was higher. Sunburn meter of Robertson-Berger type seems to respond to slightly longer wavelength components of the solar spectrum. However, a reasonable correlation was obtained between the reading of the meter and the sporocidal index. (author)

  9. Adhesion of Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis on a Planar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion of spores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and spherical silica particles on surfaces was experimentally and theoretically investigated in this study. Topography analysis via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy indicates that Bt spores are rod shaped, {approx}1.3 {mu}m in length and {approx}0.8 {mu}m in diameter. The adhesion force of Bt spores and silica particles on gold-coated glass was measured at various relative humidity (RH) levels by AFM. It was expected that the adhesion force would vary with RH because the individual force components contributing to the adhesion force depend on RH. The adhesion force between a particle and a planar surface in atmospheric environments was modeled as the contribution of three major force components: capillary, van der Waals, and electrostatic interaction forces. Adhesion force measurements for Bt spore (silica particle) and the gold surface system were comparable with calculations. Modeling results show that there is a critical RH value, which depends on the hydrophobicity of the materials involved, below which the water meniscus does not form and the contribution of the capillary force is zero. As RH increases, the van der Waals force decreases while the capillary force increases to a maximum value.

  10. Airway inflammation among compost workers exposed to actinomycetes spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Kulvik Heldal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To study the associations between exposure to bioaerosols and work-related symptoms, lung function and biomarkers of airway inflammation in compost workers. Materials and method. Personal full-shift exposure measurements were performed on 47 workers employed at five windrow plants (n=20 and five reactor plants (n=27. Samples were analyzed for endotoxins, bacteria, fungal and actinomycetes spores. Health examinations were performed on workers and 37 controls before and after work on the day exposure was measured. The examinations included symptoms recorded by questionnaire, lung function by spirometry and nasal dimensions by acoustic rhinometry (AR. The pneumoproteins CC16, SP-D and SP-A were measured in a blood sample drawn at the end of the day. Results. The levels of endotoxins (median 3 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–730 EU/m[sup]3[/sup] and actinomycetes spores (median 0.2 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] , range 0–590 × 10[sup]6[/sup] spores/m[sup]3[/sup] were significantly higher in reactor plants compared to windrow plants. However, windrow composting workers reported more symptoms than reactor composting workers, probably due to use of respiratory protection. Exposure-response relationships between actinomycetes spores exposure and respiratory effects, found as cough and nose irritation during a shift, was significantly increased (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.1–16, OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.5–25, respectively, p<0.05 among workers exposed to 0.02–0.3 × 10[sup]6[/sup] actinomycetes spores/m 3 , and FEV1/FVC% decreased cross shift (b=–3.2, SE=1.5%, p<0.01. Effects were weaker in the highest exposed group, but these workers used respiratory protection, frequently limiting their actual exposure. No relationships were found between exposure and pneumoprotein concentrations. Conclusions. The major agent in the aerosol generated at compost plants was actinomycetes spores which was associated with work related cough symptoms and work

  11. NanoSIMS analysis of Bacillus spores for forensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P K; Davisson, M L; Velsko, S P

    2010-02-23

    The threat associated with the potential use of radiological, nuclear, chemical and biological materials in terrorist acts has resulted in new fields of forensic science requiring the application of state-of-the-science analytical techniques. Since the anthrax letter attacks in the United States in the fall of 2001, there has been increased interest in physical and chemical characterization of bacterial spores. While molecular methods are powerful tools for identifying genetic differences, other methods may be able to differentiate genetically identical samples based on physical and chemical properties, as well as provide complimentary information, such as methods of production and approximate date of production. Microanalysis has the potential to contribute significantly to microbial forensics. Bacillus spores are highly structured, consisting of a core, cortex, coat, and in some species, an exosporium. This structure provides a template for constraining elemental abundance differences at the nanometer scale. The primary controls on the distribution of major elements in spores are likely structural and physiological. For example, P and Ca are known to be abundant in the spore core because that is where P-rich nucleic acids and Cadipicolinic acid are located, respectively. Trace elements are known to bind to the spore coat but the controls on these elements are less well understood. Elemental distributions and abundances may be directly related to spore production, purification and stabilization methodologies, which are of particular interest for forensic investigation. To this end, we are developing a high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry method using a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 to study the distribution and abundance of trace elements in bacterial spores. In this presentation we will review and compare methods for preparing and analyzing samples, as well as review results on the distribution and abundance of elements in bacterial spores. We use NanoSIMS to

  12. Gene activation of heavy ion treated bacillus subtilis 168 endospores during germination involved DNA-repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, R.; Berger, T.; Reitz, G.; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    2006-01-01

    This research project is aimed at correlating radiation effects induced DNA damage in Bacillus subtilis endospores with the linear energy transfer (LET) of the used radiation by investigating survival and gene activation after irradiation with high-LET particles. During the stationary growth phase Bacillus subtilis change their metabolic active state from the vegetative cells to the metabolic inactive but even more resistant endospores. If spores find optimal conditions, they could germinate and switch to the vegetative growth. With these outgrowth spores can and/or must repair the induced formed DNA damage. During germination spores lose their most resistance. In more detail, DNA repair and mutation induction events investigated will include the survivability, behaviour against specific antibiotics and their germination. DNA repair pattern will be detected during germination by using DNA microarrays, which contain the whole genome of Bacillus subtilis 168. (author)

  13. Rapid filtration separation-based sample preparation method for Bacillus spores in powdery and environmental matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabel, Sandra; Boissinot, Maurice; Charlebois, Isabelle; Fauvel, Chantal M; Shi, Lu-E; Lévesque, Julie-Christine; Paquin, Amélie T; Bastien, Martine; Stewart, Gale; Leblanc, Eric; Sato, Sachiko; Bergeron, Michel G

    2012-03-01

    Authorities frequently need to analyze suspicious powders and other samples for biothreat agents in order to assess environmental safety. Numerous nucleic acid detection technologies have been developed to detect and identify biowarfare agents in a timely fashion. The extraction of microbial nucleic acids from a wide variety of powdery and environmental samples to obtain a quality level adequate for these technologies still remains a technical challenge. We aimed to develop a rapid and versatile method of separating bacteria from these samples and then extracting their microbial DNA. Bacillus atrophaeus subsp. globigii was used as a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. We studied the effects of a broad variety of powdery and environmental samples on PCR detection and the steps required to alleviate their interference. With a benchmark DNA extraction procedure, 17 of the 23 samples investigated interfered with bacterial lysis and/or PCR-based detection. Therefore, we developed the dual-filter method for applied recovery of microbial particles from environmental and powdery samples (DARE). The DARE procedure allows the separation of bacteria from contaminating matrices that interfere with PCR detection. This procedure required only 2 min, while the DNA extraction process lasted 7 min, for a total of sample preparation procedure allowed the recovery of cleaned bacterial spores and relieved detection interference caused by a wide variety of samples. Our procedure was easily completed in a laboratory facility and is amenable to field application and automation.

  14. Fighting Ebola through Novel Spore Decontamination Technologies for the Military

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Doona

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRecently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF, the World Health Organization (WHO, Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH, and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs, a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are placed in bags and burned. The basis for effectuating sterilization with FDKs is chlorine dioxide (ClO2 produced from a patented invention developed by researchers at the US Army – Natick Soldier RD&E Center (NSRDEC and commercialized as a dry mixed-chemical for bacterial spore decontamination. In fact, the NSRDEC research scientists developed an ensemble of ClO2 technologies designed for different applications in decontaminating fresh produce; food contact and handling surfaces; personal protective equipment; textiles used in clothing, uniforms, tents, and shelters; graywater recycling; airplanes; surgical instruments; and hard surfaces in latrines, laundries, and deployable medical facilities. These examples demonstrate the far-reaching impact, adaptability, and versatility of these innovative technologies. We present herein the unique attributes of NSRDEC’s novel decontamination technologies and a Case Study of the development of FDKs that were deployed in West Africa by international public health organizations to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical equipment. FDKs use bacterial spores as indicators of sterility. We review the properties and structures of spores and the mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by ClO2. We also review mechanisms of bacterial spore inactivation by novel, emerging, and established nonthermal technologies for food preservation, such as high pressure processing, irradiation, cold plasma, and chemical sanitizers

  15. Radiosensitivity of spores of Paenibacillus larvae ssp. larvae in honey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Wanderley Mendes de [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Inspecao de Produtos de Origem Animal]. E-mail: sipa-rj@agricultura.gov.br; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito CTEx, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear]. E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br; Schuch, Dulce Maria Tocchetto [Ministerio da Agricultura, Pecuaria e Abastecimento, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)]. E-mail: micro-lara-rs@agricultura.gov.br

    2007-07-01

    Irradiation, usually used in combination with other conventional methods of conservation, has been proven to be an efficient tool to ensure the safety of many types of foods by destroying pathogenic microorganisms and extending their shelf-lives. This work has investigated the efficacy of gamma irradiation to inactivate spores of the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae that causes the 'American foulbrood', a highly contagious disease still exotic in Brazil that kills bees and contaminates honey, preventing its commercialization and causing great economical losses. In this study, 60 g samples of two types of honey inoculated with 3.5x10{sup 3} spores/mL of that bacterium were irradiated with doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5 and 15 kGy and counted. The analyses indicated a mean reduction of 97.5{+-}0.7% in the number of viable spores exposed to 5 kGy. The application of doses of 7.5 kGy or higher yielded no viable spores above the detection threshold (10/mL). In addition the value of D{sub 10} (3.1{+-}0.3 kGy) was estimated and the logarithm of the population of viable spores of Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae was determined as linear and quadratic polynomial functions of the radiation dose. The results indicated that the dose of 10 kGy could be insufficient to assure complete sterilization of honey in some cases while suggesting that 25 kGy would perform such task adequately. (author)

  16. Effects of climate change on surface-water photochemistry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Laurentiis, Elisa; Minella, Marco; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2014-10-01

    Information concerning the link between surface-water photochemistry and climate is presently very scarce as only a few studies have been dedicated to the subject. On the basis of the limited knowledge that is currently available, the present inferences can be made as follows: (1) Warming can cause enhanced leaching of ionic solutes from the catchments to surface waters, including cations and more biologically labile anions such as sulphate. Preferential sulphate biodegradation followed by removal as organic sulphides in sediment could increase alkalinity, favouring the generation of the carbonate radical, CO3 (·-). However, this phenomenon would be easily offset by fluctuations of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which is strongly anticorrelated with CO3 (·-). Therefore, obtaining insight into DOC evolution is a key issue in understanding the link between photochemistry and climate. (2) Climate change could exacerbate water scarcity in the dry season in some regions. Fluctuations in the water column could deeply alter photochemistry that is usually favoured in shallower waters. However, the way water is lost would strongly affect the prevailing photoinduced processes. Water outflow without important changes in solute concentration would mostly favour reactions induced by the hydroxyl and carbonate radicals (·OH and CO3 (·-)). In contrast, evaporative concentration would enhance reactions mediated by singlet oxygen ((1)O2) and by the triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter ((3)CDOM*). (3) In a warmer climate, the summer stratification period of lakes would last longer, thereby enhancing photochemical reactions in the epilimnion but at the same time keeping the hypolimnion water in the dark for longer periods.

  17. Evaluation of linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations in a stratosphere-troposphere data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Geer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the performance of various linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations using the stratosphere-troposphere data assimilation system of the Met Office. A set of experiments were run for the period 23 September 2003 to 5 November 2003 using the Cariolle (v1.0 and v2.1, LINOZ and Chem2D-OPP (v0.1 and v2.1 parametrizations. All operational meteorological observations were assimilated, together with ozone retrievals from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. Experiments were validated against independent data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and ozonesondes. Additionally, a simple offline method for comparing the parametrizations is introduced. It is shown that in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere, outside the polar night, ozone analyses are controlled by the photochemistry parametrizations and not by the assimilated observations. The most important factor in getting good results at these levels is to pay attention to the ozone and temperature climatologies in the parametrizations. There should be no discrepancies between the climatologies and the assimilated observations or the model, but there is also a competing demand that the climatologies be objectively accurate in themselves. Conversely, in the lower stratosphere outside regions of heterogeneous ozone depletion, the ozone analyses are dominated by observational increments and the photochemistry parametrizations have little influence. We investigate a number of known problems in LINOZ and Cariolle v1.0 in more detail than previously, and we find discrepancies in Cariolle v2.1 and Chem2D-OPP v2.1, which are demonstrated to have been removed in the latest available versions (v2.8 and v2.6 respectively. In general, however, all the parametrizations work well through much of the stratosphere, helped by the presence of good quality assimilated MIPAS observations.

  18. The cellulose-binding activity of the PsB multiprotein complex is required for proper assembly of the spore coat and spore viability in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S; Griffiths, K R; McGuire, V; Champion, A; Williams, K L; Alexander, S

    2000-08-01

    The terminal event of spore differentiation in the cellular slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum is the assembly of the spore coat, which surrounds the dormant amoeba and allows the organism to survive during extended periods of environmental stress. The spore coat is a polarized extracellular matrix composed of glycoproteins and cellulose. The process of spore coat formation begins by the regulated secretion of spore coat proteins from the prespore vesicles (PSVs). Four of the major spore coat proteins (SP96, PsB/SP85, SP70 and SP60) exist as a preassembled multiprotein complex within the PSVs. This complete complex has an endogenous cellulose-binding activity. Mutant strains lacking either the SP96 or SP70 proteins produce partial complexes that do not have cellulose-binding activity, while mutants lacking SP60 produce a partial complex that retains this activity. Using a combination of immunofluorescence microscopy and biochemical methods we now show that the lack of cellulose-binding activity in the SP96 and SP70 mutants results in abnormally assembled spore coats and spores with greatly reduced viability. In contrast, the SP60 mutant, in which the PsB complex retains its cellulose-binding activity, produces spores with apparently unaltered structure and viability. Thus, it is the loss of the cellulose-binding activity of the PsB complex, rather than the mere loss of individual spore coat proteins, that results in compromised spore coat structure. These results support the idea that the cellulose-binding activity associated with the complete PsB complex plays an active role in the assembly of the spore coat.

  19. Photochemistry of pyrene with water at low temperature: study of atmospherical and astrochemical interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennoun, Zohra; Aupetit, Christian; Mascetti, Joëlle

    2011-03-17

    Photochemistry of a polyaromatic hydrocarbon, pyrene C(16)H(10), with water has been investigated at cryogenic temperatures. Photoprocessing of this species, performed at λ > 235 nm, in argon matrices, adsorbed onto amorphous water surfaces, and trapped in solid water, led to the formation of ketonic isomers, C(16)H(10)O, and possibly quinones. These species have been identified for the first time by infrared spectroscopy with the support of isotopic substitution experiments and DFT calculations. These oxidized pyrene-like species, of atmospherical and astrochemical interest, most likely arise from a tautomeric rearrangement of their analogous hydroxylated molecules, these latter being formed by reaction of water with pyrene cations.

  20. On the relationship between the greenhouse effect, atmospheric photochemistry, and species distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, L. B.; Boughner, R. E.; Natarajan, M.

    1983-01-01

    The coupling that exists between infrared opacity changes and tropospheric (and to a lesser extent stratospheric) chemistry is explored in considerable detail, and the effects arising from various perturbations are examined. The studies are carried out with a fully coupled one-dimensional radiative-convective-photochemical model (RCP) that extends from the surface to 53.5 km and has the capability of calculating surface temperature changes due to both chemical and radiative perturbations. The model encompasses contemporary atmospheric chemistry and photochemistry involving the O(x), HO(x), NO(x), and Cl(x) species.

  1. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  2. Photochemistry of methane and the formation of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in the earth's early atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    1986-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical model is used to analyze the photochemistries of CH4 and HCN in the primitive terrestrial atmosphere. CH4, N2, and HCN photolysis are examined. The background atmosphere and boundary conditions applied in the analysis are described. The formation of HCN as a by-product of N2 and CH4 photolysis is investigated; the effects of photodissociation and rainfall on HCN is discussed. The low and high CH4 mixing ratios and radical densities are studied.

  3. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini feeding on stinkhorn spores (Fungi, Phallales: robbery or dispersal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio L. Oliveira

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Records about stingless bee-fungi interaction are very rare. In Brazilian Amazonia, workers of Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793 and Trigona fulviventris Guérin, 1835 visiting two stinkhorn species, Dictyophora sp. and Phallus sp., respectively, were observed. The workers licked the fungi gleba, a mucilaginous mass of spores covering the pileum. Neither gleba residue nor spores were found on the body surface of these bee workers. These observations indicate that these bee species include spores as a complement in their diet. On the other hand, they also suggest that these stingless bees can, at times, facilitale spore dispersal, in case intact spores are eliminated with the feces.

  4. [Distribution and spatial ordering of biopolymer molecules in resting bacterial spores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, V I; Korolev, Iu N; El'-Registan, G I; Duzha, M V; Telegin, N L

    1978-01-01

    The presence, distribution and spatial arrangement of biopolymers in situ were studied in both a total intact spore and in a certain cellular layer using a spectroscopic technique of attenuated total refraction (ATR-IR) in the IR region. In contrast to vegetative cells, intact spores were characterized by isotropic distribution of protein components. This feature can be regarded as an index of the cryptobiotic state of spores. However, the distribution of protein components among individual layers of a spore was anisotropic. Bonds characterized by amide I and amide II bands were most often ordered in a layer which comprised cellular structures from the exosporium to the inner spore membrane.

  5. Candidate genes that may be responsible for the unusual resistances exhibited by Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhan R Tirumalai

    Full Text Available The spores of several Bacillus species, including Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 and B. safensis FO-36b, which were isolated from the spacecraft assembly facility at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, are unusually resistant to UV radiation and hydrogen peroxide. In order to identify candidate genes that might be associated with these resistances, the whole genome of B. pumilus SAFR-032, and the draft genome of B. safensis FO-36b were compared in detail with the very closely related type strain B. pumilus ATCC7061(T. 170 genes are considered characteristic of SAFR-032, because they are absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T. Forty of these SAFR-032 characteristic genes are entirely unique open reading frames. In addition, four genes are unique to the genomes of the resistant SAFR-032 and FO-36b. Fifty three genes involved in spore coat formation, regulation and germination, DNA repair, and peroxide resistance, are missing from all three genomes. The vast majority of these are cleanly deleted from their usual genomic context without any obvious replacement. Several DNA repair and peroxide resistance genes earlier reported to be unique to SAFR-032 are in fact shared with ATCC7061(T and no longer considered to be promising candidates for association with the elevated resistances. Instead, several SAFR-032 characteristic genes were identified, which along with one or more of the unique SAFR-032 genes may be responsible for the elevated resistances. These new candidates include five genes associated with DNA repair, namely, BPUM_0608 a helicase, BPUM_0652 an ATP binding protein, BPUM_0653 an endonuclease, BPUM_0656 a DNA cytosine-5- methyltransferase, and BPUM_3674 a DNA helicase. Three of these candidate genes are in immediate proximity of two conserved hypothetical proteins, BPUM_0654 and BPUM_0655 that are also absent from both FO-36b and ATCC7061(T. This cluster of five genes is considered to be an especially promising target for future experimental

  6. Genetic Factors and Host Traits Predict Spore Morphology for a Butterfly Pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus C. de Roode

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus throughout the world are commonly infected by the specialist pathogen Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE. This protozoan is transmitted when larvae ingest infectious stages (spores scattered onto host plant leaves by infected adults. Parasites replicate internally during larval and pupal stages, and adult monarchs emerge covered with millions of dormant spores on the outsides of their bodies. Across multiple monarch populations, OE varies in prevalence and virulence. Here, we examined geographic and genetic variation in OE spore morphology using clonal parasite lineages derived from each of four host populations (eastern and western North America, South Florida and Hawaii. Spores were harvested from experimentally inoculated, captive-reared adult monarchs. Using light microscopy and digital image analysis, we measured the size, shape and color of 30 replicate spores per host. Analyses examined predictors of spore morphology, including parasite source population and clone, parasite load, and the following host traits: family line, sex, wing area, and wing color (orange and black pigmentation. Results showed significant differences in spore size and shape among parasite clones, suggesting genetic determinants of morphological variation. Spore size also increased with monarch wing size, and monarchs with larger and darker orange wings tended to have darker colored spores, consistent with the idea that parasite development depends on variation in host quality and resources. We found no evidence for effects of source population on variation in spore morphology. Collectively, these results provide support for heritable variation in spore morphology and a role for host traits in affecting parasite development.

  7. The search and identification of the new immunodiagnostic targets of bacillus anthracis spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biketov, S.; Dunaytsev, I.; Baranova, E.; Marinin, L.; Dyatlov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis have been used as bio warfare agent to bio terrorize purposes. As efficiency of anti-epidemic measures included urgent prevention and treatment is determined by terms within which the bio agent is identified. Direct and rapid spore detection by antibodies based detection system is very attractive alternative to current PCR-based assays or routine phenotyping which are the most accurate but are also complex, time-consumption and expensive. The main difficulty with respect to such kind of anthrax spores detection is a cross-reaction with spores of closely related bacteria. For development of species-specific antibodies to anthrax spores recombinant scFvs or hybridoma technique were used. In both case surface spore antigens contained species-specific epitopes are need. Among exosporium proteins only ExsF(BxpB), ExsK and SoaA are specific to B.cereus group. On the surface of B. anthracis spores, a unique tetrasaccharides containing an novel monosaccharide - anthrose, was discovered. It was shown that anthrose can be serving as species-specific target for B. anthracis spores detection. We have revealed that EA1 isolated from spore of Russians strain STI-1 contain carbohydrate which formed species-specific epitopes and determine immunogenicity of this antigen. Antibodies to this antigen specifically recognized the surface target of B. anthracis spores and do not reacted with others Bacillus spore. Based on these antibodies we developed the test-systems in different formats for rapid direct detection and identification of B. anthracis spores. The results of trial these test-systems with using more than 50 different Bacillus strains were indicated that carbohydrate of EA1 isolated from spore is effective immunodiagnostic target for anthrax spores bio detection.(author)

  8. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 with high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lei; Xu, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yongtao; Zhao, Feng; Hu, Xiaosong; Liao, Xiaojun

    2015-07-16

    The objective of this study was to investigate the inactivation of the Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO2 combined with high temperature (HPCD+HT) and to analyze the clumping effect of the spores on their HPCD+HT resistance. The spores of B. subtilis were subjected to heat at 0.1 MPa and HPCD at 6.5-25 MPa, and 82 °C, 86 °C, and 91 °C for 0-120 min. The spores were effectively inactivated by HPCD+HT, but a protective effect on the spores was also found, which was closely correlated to the pressure, temperature and time. The spores treated by HPCD+HT at 6.5 and 10 MPa exhibited a two-stage inactivation curve of shoulder and log-linear regions whereas the spores at 15-25 MPa exhibited a three-stage inactivation curve of shoulder, log-linear and tailing regions, and these curves were well fitted to the Geeraerd model. Approximately 90% of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (DPA) was released after HPCD+HT and the 90% DPA release time depend on the pressure and temperature. Moreover, the spore clumping in suspensions was examined by dynamic light scattering. The particle size of the spore suspensions increased with the increase of pressure, temperature and time, indicating the spore clumping. 0.1% Tween 80 as a surfactant inhibited the spore clumping and increased the inactivation ratio of the spores by HPCD+HT. These results indicated that the spore clumping enhanced the spores' resistance to HPCD+HT and induced a protective effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  10. HIGH-TEMPERATURE PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF HD 189733b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Line, M. R.; Yung, Y. L.; Liang, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent infrared spectroscopy of hot exoplanets is beginning to reveal their atmospheric composition. Deep within the planetary atmosphere, the composition is controlled by thermochemical equilibrium. Photochemistry becomes important higher in the atmosphere, at levels above ∼1 bar. These two chemistries compete between ∼1 and 10 bars in hot-Jupiter-like atmospheres, depending on the strength of the eddy mixing and temperature. HD 189733b provides an excellent laboratory in which to study the consequences of chemistry of hot atmospheres. The recent spectra of HD 189733b contain signatures of CH 4 , CO 2 , CO, and H 2 O. Here we identify the primary chemical pathways that govern the abundances of CH 4 , CO 2 , CO, and H 2 O in the cases of thermochemical equilibrium chemistry, photochemistry, and their combination. Our results suggest that the disequilibrium mechanisms can significantly enhance the abundances of these species above their thermochemical equilibrium value, so some caution must be taken when assuming that an atmosphere is in strict thermochemical equilibrium.

  11. General patterns in the photochemistry of pregna-1,4-dien-3,20-diones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Andrea; Fasani, Elisa; Mella, Mariella; Albini, Angelo

    2003-05-30

    The photochemistry of six pregna-1,4-dien-3,20-diones has been compared and found to involve both the cyclohexadienone moiety in ring A and the isolated ketone at C-20. The two reactions take place proportionally to the fraction of light absorbed by each chromophore. The cross-conjugated ketone absorbs predominantly or exclusively at both 254 and 366 nm and undergoes the "lumi" rearrangement to bicyclo[3.1.0]hex-3-en-2-one. The quantum yield of the reaction diminished somewhat with increasing lambda(exc), e.g., for prednisolone Phi(254) (nm) = 0.42, Phi(366) (nm) = 0.3. A much stronger lowering is caused by halogen substitution in position 9 (by a factor of 3 for F, >50 for Cl), apparently due to a shortened triplet lifetime caused by heavy atom effect. At 310 nm, both chromophores absorb to a comparable degree and both may react. The reaction at C(20) ketone involves either quite efficient alpha-cleavage (C(17)-C(20)) for compounds bearing an acetal or hydroxyl function at C(17) or less effective (by a factor of ca. 10) hydrogen abstraction from the 18-methyl group in the other cases (finally resulting in Norrish II fragmentation or Yang cyclization). The results allow generalizing how the substitution pattern surrounding each chromophore affects the photoreactivity at that site and the competition between the two modes, allowing predicting the photochemistry of this family of antiinflammatory drugs.

  12. Modeling of synchrotron-based laboratory simulations of Titan's ionospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Peng, Zhe; Pernot, Pascal

    2014-11-01

    The APSIS reactor has been designed to simulate in the laboratory with a VUV synchrotron irradiation the photochemistry occurring in planetary upper atmospheres. A N2-CH4 Titan-like gas mixture has been studied, whose photochemistry in Titan's ionospheric irradiation conditions leads to a coupled chemical network involving both radicals and ions. In the present work, an ion-neutral coupled model is developed to interpret the experimental data, taking into account the uncertainties on the kinetic parameters by Monte Carlo sampling. The model predicts species concentrations in agreement with mass spectrometry measurements of the methane consumption and product blocks intensities. Ion chemistry and in particular dissociative recombination are found to be very important through sensitivity analysis. The model is also applied to complementary environmental conditions, corresponding to Titan's ionospheric average conditions and to another existing synchrotron setup. An innovative study of the correlations between species concentrations identifies two main competitive families, leading respectively to saturated and unsaturated species. We find that the unsaturated growth family, driven by C2H2 , is dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere, as observed by the Cassini INMS. But the saturated species are substantially more intense in the measurements of the two synchrotron experimental setups, and likely originate from catalysis by metallic walls of the reactors.

  13. VUV spectroscopy and photochemistry of five interstellar and putative prebiotic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwell, M.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Bénilan, Y.; Gazeau, M.-C.; Fray, N.; Saul, G.; Champion, N.; Leach, S.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2012-02-01

    For many years, our group has been investigating the VUV spectroscopy and photochemistry of molecules of astrophysical (Jochims et al. 2006a,b; Leach et al. 2008; Schwell et al. 2012) and prebiotic interest (Schwell et al. 2006). Polyynes and cyano-polyynes that are abundant in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in planetary atmospheres, have been investigated too (e.g. Fray et al. 2010). An aerosol source for reactive and thermo-labile compounds has been developed (Gaie-Levrel et al. 2011) to perform gas-phase measurements. These are necessary to measure intrinsic molecular properties and to compare to quantum chemical calculations. Besides measuring absolute absorption and photoionization cross sections, dissociative channels and their involved excited states are identified for a number of molecules of interstellar interest. Branching ratios of the respective elementary photoreactions are determined in order to understand and model the photochemistry occurring in the ISM. Some very recent results on the dissociative photoionization of methylformate (MF), glycolaldehyde (GA), dimethylether (DIM), aminoacetonitrile (AAC) and cyanoacetylene (CA), are presented here.

  14. A quantum dot-spore nanocomposite pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingya; Li, Zheng; Zhou, Tao; Zhou, Qian; Zeng, Zhiming; Xu, Xiangdong; Hu, Yonggang

    2016-04-01

    A new quantum dot (QD)-based pH sensor design is investigated. The sensor is synthesized based on the self-assembly of green QDs onto treated spores to form QD@spore nanocomposites. The nanocomposites are characterized using laser scanning confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscope, and fluorescence spectroscopy, among others. Fluorescence measurements showed that these nanocomposites are sensitive to pH in a broad pH range of 5.0-10.0. The developed pH sensors have been satisfactorily applied for pH estimation of real samples and are comparable with those of the commercial assay method, indicating the potential practical application of the pH sensors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    agent (GA). During a reaction the GA generates nucleation sites that promote the formation of bubbles. As the reaction wave passes, the gas pockets...studies have shown iodine producing reactive materials are effective against spore forming bacteria, but are sensitive to the relative humidity in the...testing environment. Results from tests run in relative high humidity environments show a decreased ability of iodine to effectively neutralize

  16. 14C Analysis of protein extracts from Bacillus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Jenny A; Falso, Miranda J Sarachine; Kashgarian, Michaele; Buchholz, Bruce A

    2014-07-01

    Investigators of bioagent incidents or interdicted materials need validated, independent analytical methods that will allow them to distinguish between recently made bioagent samples versus material drawn from the archives of a historical program. Heterotrophic bacteria convert the carbon in their food sources, growth substrate or culture media, into the biomolecules they need. The F(14)C (fraction modern radiocarbon) of a variety of media, Bacillus spores, and separated proteins from Bacillus spores was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). AMS precisely measures F(14)C values of biological materials and has been used to date the synthesis of biomaterials over the bomb pulse era (1955 to present). The F(14)C of Bacillus spores reflects the radiocarbon content of the media in which they were grown. In a survey of commercial media we found that the F(14)C value indicated that carbon sources for the media were alive within about a year of the date of manufacture and generally of terrestrial origin. Hence, bacteria and their products can be dated using their (14)C signature. Bacillus spore samples were generated onsite with defined media and carbon free purification and also obtained from archived material. Using mechanical lysis and a variety of washes with carbon free acids and bases, contaminant carbon was removed from soluble proteins to enable accurate (14)C bomb-pulse dating. Since media is contemporary, (14)C bomb-pulse dating of isolated soluble proteins can be used to distinguish between historical archives of bioagents and those produced from recent media. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ga...

  18. Bacterial Spores Survive Treatment with Commercial Sterilants and Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Sagripanti, Jose-Luis; Bonifacino, Aylin

    1999-01-01

    This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data ob...

  19. Indole and 3-indolylacetonitrile inhibit spore maturation in Paenibacillus alvei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Moo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria use diverse signaling molecules to ensure the survival of the species in environmental niches. A variety of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce large quantities of indole that functions as an intercellular signal controlling diverse aspects of bacterial physiology. Results In this study, we sought a novel role of indole in a Gram-positive bacteria Paenibacillus alvei that can produce extracellular indole at a concentration of up to 300 μM in the stationary phase in Luria-Bertani medium. Unlike previous studies, our data show that the production of indole in P. alvei is strictly controlled by catabolite repression since the addition of glucose and glycerol completely turns off the indole production. The addition of exogenous indole markedly inhibits the heat resistance of P. alvei without affecting cell growth. Observation of cell morphology with electron microscopy shows that indole inhibits the development of spore coats and cortex in P. alvei. As a result of the immature spore formation of P. alvei, indole also decreases P. alvei survival when exposed to antibiotics, low pH, and ethanol. Additionally, indole derivatives also influence the heat resistance; for example, a plant auxin, 3-indolylacetonitrile dramatically (2900-fold decreased the heat resistance of P. alvei, while another auxin 3-indoleacetic acid had a less significant influence on the heat resistance of P. alvei. Conclusions Together, our results demonstrate that indole and plant auxin 3-indolylacetonitrile inhibit spore maturation of P. alvei and that 3-indolylacetonitrile presents an opportunity for the control of heat and antimicrobial resistant spores of Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. Sorption of 241Am by Aspergillus niger spore and hyphae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuanyou Yang; Ning Liu; Jiali Liao; Jiannan Jin; Shunzhong Luo; Taiming Zhang; Pengji Zhao

    2004-01-01

    Biosorption of 241 Am by a fungus A. niger, including the spore and hyphae, was investigated. The preliminary results showed that the adsorption of 241 Am by the microorganism was efficient. More than 96% of the total 241 Am could be removed from 241 Am solutions of 5.6-111 MBq/l (C 0 ) by spore and hyphae of A. niger, with adsorbed 241 Am metal (Q) of 7.2-142.4 MBq/g biomass, and 5.2-106.5 MBq/g, respectively. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 1 hour and the optimum pH range was pH 1-3. No obvious effects on 241 Am adsorption by the fungus were observed at 10-45 deg C, or in solutions containing Au 3+ or Ag + , even 2000 times above the 241 Am concentration. The 241 Am biosorption by the fungus obeys the Freundlich adsorption equation. There was no significant difference between the adsorption behavior of A. niger spore and hyphae. (author)

  1. Arrhenius reconsidered: astrophysical jets and the spread of spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Malkah I.; Sheldon, Robert B.

    2015-09-01

    In 1871, Lord Kelvin suggested that the fossil record could be an account of bacterial arrivals on comets. In 1903, Svante Arrhenius suggested that spores could be transported on stellar winds without comets. In 1984, Sir Fred Hoyle claimed to see the infrared signature of vast clouds of dried bacteria and diatoms. In 2012, the Polonnaruwa carbonaceous chondrite revealed fossilized diatoms apparently living on a comet. However, Arrhenius' spores were thought to perish in the long transit between stars. Those calculations, however, assume that maximum velocities are limited by solar winds to ~5 km/s. Herbig-Haro objects and T-Tauri stars, however, are young stars with jets of several 100 km/s that might provide the necessary propulsion. The central engine of bipolar astrophysical jets is not presently understood, but we argue it is a kinetic plasma instability of a charged central magnetic body. We show how to make a bipolar jet in a belljar. The instability is non-linear, and thus very robust to scaling laws that map from microquasars to active galactic nuclei. We scale up to stellar sizes and recalculate the viability/transit-time for spores carried by supersonic jets, to show the viability of the Arrhenius mechanism.

  2. Muricholic acids inhibit Clostridium difficile spore germination and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Francis

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Clostridium difficile have increased steadily over the past several years. While studies on C. difficile virulence and physiology have been hindered, in the past, by lack of genetic approaches and suitable animal models, newly developed technologies and animal models allow these processes to be studied in detail. One such advance is the generation of a mouse-model of C. difficile infection. The development of this system is a major step forward in analyzing the genetic requirements for colonization and infection. While important, it is equally as important in understanding what differences exist between mice and humans. One of these differences is the natural bile acid composition. Bile acid-mediated spore germination is an important step in C. difficile colonization. Mice produce several different bile acids that are not found in humans. These muricholic acids have the potential to impact C. difficile spore germination. Here we find that the three muricholic acids (α-muricholic acid, β-muricholic acid and ω-muricholic acid inhibit C. difficile spore germination and can impact the growth of vegetative cells. These results highlight an important difference between humans and mice and may have an impact on C. difficile virulence in the mouse-model of C. difficile infection.

  3. Fungal spores overwhelm biogenic organic aerosols in a midlatitudinal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Both primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs and oxidation products of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs contribute significantly to organic aerosols (OAs in forested regions. However, little is known about their relative importance in diurnal timescales. Here, we report biomarkers of PBAP and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs for their diurnal variability in a temperate coniferous forest in Wakayama, Japan. Tracers of fungal spores, trehalose, arabitol and mannitol, showed significantly higher levels in nighttime than daytime (p < 0.05, resulting from the nocturnal sporulation under near-saturated relative humidity. On the contrary, BVOC oxidation products showed higher levels in daytime than nighttime, indicating substantial photochemical SOA formation. Using tracer-based methods, we estimated that fungal spores account for 45 % of organic carbon (OC in nighttime and 22 % in daytime, whereas BVOC oxidation products account for 15 and 19 %, respectively. To our knowledge, we present for the first time highly time-resolved results that fungal spores overwhelmed BVOC oxidation products in contributing to OA especially in nighttime. This study emphasizes the importance of both PBAPs and SOAs in forming forest organic aerosols.

  4. The interactive effect of phosphorus and nitrogen on "in vitro" spore germination of Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann, root growth and mycorrhizal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bressan Wellington

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of P and N amendment and its interactions on spore germination, root growth and colonized root length by Glomus etunicatum Becker & Gerdemann (INVAM S329 was studied "in vitro" in RiT - DNA transformed roots of Anthylis vulneraria sub sp. Sampaiana (Kidney vetch. Three N media concentrations (5, 10 and 50 mg/l at P constant level (2 mg/l and three P media concentrations (2, 10 and 20 mg/l at N constant level (5 mg/l were utilized as a treatment. Bécard & Fortin medium was used as a basal medium for root growth and colonized root length, and water/agar (0.8% media was the control for spore germination. Spore germination of G. etunicatum at low P level was reduced by N addition in relation to the control media, and at low N level addition of P stimulated spore germination. Total root length was stimulated by N addtion at low P level, but no significant difference (p£0.05 was observed between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. P addition at low N level media also stimulated total root growth, and a significant difference (p£0.05 was observed among P concentrations. Colonized root length by G. etunicatum increased significantly (p£0.05 with P additions at low N levels. Under low P level no significant differences was found between 10 and 50 mg/l of N. These results demonstrate that the interaction between P and N affect differently spore germination, root growth and colonized root lenght.

  5. The role of heat resistance in thermorestoration of hydrated bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Y.S.; Grecz, N.

    1973-01-01

    This study for the first time presents evidence of the distinct role played in thermorestoration by cellular determinants such as the resistance to heat and radiation, and the ionic state of spores. In the past only radiochemical determinants associated with radical annealment have been studied in hydrated systems. The basic heat resistance of spores plays a significant role in the precipitous drop in spore survival due to 0.45 Mrad radiation plus heat above 65-75 0 C for B.cereus and 75-95 0 C for B.stearothermophilus. The effect of the spores radiation resistance was not distinct except in the frozen state and at the saturation plateau of thermorestoration where the radiation resistant B.cereus showed ca. 1 log cycle higher survival than the radiation sensitive B.stearothermophilus. When spores are chemically converted into their H + and Ca ++ ionic forms, the H + spores are distinctly more responsive than Ca ++ spores to processes of radical annealment responsible for thermorestoration in hydrated spore systems. At temperatures of extensive thermorestoration of water radicals, H + spores showed higher survival than Ca ++ spores. (F.J.)

  6. Significance of air humidity and air velocity for fungal spore release into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A.-L.; Pasanen, P.; Jantunen, M. J.; Kalliokoski, P.

    Our previous field studies have shown that the presence of molds in buildings does not necessarily mean elevated airborne spore counts. Therefore, we investigated the release of fungal spores from cultures of Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. at different air velocities and air humidities. Spores of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were released from conidiophores already at air velocity of 0.5 ms -1, whereas Cladosporium spores required at least a velocity of 1.0 ms -1. Airborne spore counts of A. fumigatus and Penicillium sp. were usually higher in dry than moist air, being minimal at relative humidities (r.h.) above 70%, while the effect of r.h. on the release of Cladosporium sp. was ambivalent. The geometric mean diameter of released spores increased when the r.h. exceeded a certain level which depends on fungal genus. Thus, spores of all three fungi were hygroscopic but the hygroscopicity of various spores appeared at different r.h.-ranges. This study indicates that spore release is controlled by external factors and depends on fungal genus which can be one reason for considerable variation of airborne spore counts in buildings with mold problems.

  7. Genome size evolution in Ontario ferns (Polypodiidae): evolutionary correlations with cell size, spore size, and habitat type and an absence of genome downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Thomas A; Bainard, Jillian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2014-10-01

    Genome size is known to correlate with a number of traits in angiosperms, but less is known about the phenotypic correlates of genome size in ferns. We explored genome size variation in relation to a suite of morphological and ecological traits in ferns. Thirty-six fern taxa were collected from wild populations in Ontario, Canada. 2C DNA content was measured using flow cytometry. We tested for genome downsizing following polyploidy using a phylogenetic comparative analysis to explore the correlation between 1Cx DNA content and ploidy. There was no compelling evidence for the occurrence of widespread genome downsizing during the evolution of Ontario ferns. The relationship between genome size and 11 morphological and ecological traits was explored using a phylogenetic principal component regression analysis. Genome size was found to be significantly associated with cell size, spore size, spore type, and habitat type. These results are timely as past and recent studies have found conflicting support for the association between ploidy/genome size and spore size in fern polyploid complexes; this study represents the first comparative analysis of the trend across a broad taxonomic group of ferns.

  8. Toward autonomous measurements of photosynthetic electron transport rates: An evaluation of active fluorescence-based measurements of photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silsbe, G.M.; Oxborough, K.; Suggett, D.J.; Forster, R.M.; Ihnken, S.; Komárek, O.; Lawrenz, E.; Prášil, O.; Röttgers, R.; Šicner, M.; Simis, S.G.H.; Van Dijk, M.A.; Kromkamp, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a methods evaluation and intercalibration of active fluorescence-based measurements of the quantum yield ( inline image) and absorption coefficient ( inline image) of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry. Measurements of inline image, inline image, and irradiance (E) can be

  9. The Electrodeless Discharge Lamp: a Prospective Tool for Photochemistry - Part 4. Temperature- and Envelope Material-Dependent Emission Characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, P.; Klán, P.; Církva, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 158, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-5 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : photochemistry * microwave * electrodeless discharge lamp Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.693, year: 2003

  10. The Elecrodeless Discharge Lamp: A Prospective Tool for Photochemistry Part 5. Fill Material-Dependent Emission Characteristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Müller, P.; Klán, P.; Církva, Vladimír

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 171, Vol.1 (2005), s. 51-57 ISSN 1010-6030 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0879 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : photochemistry * microwave * spectra Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.286, year: 2005

  11. Protein Composition of Infectious Spores Reveals Novel Sexual Development and Germination Factors in Cryptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei Huang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spores are an essential cell type required for long-term survival across diverse organisms in the tree of life and are a hallmark of fungal reproduction, persistence, and dispersal. Among human fungal pathogens, spores are presumed infectious particles, but relatively little is known about this robust cell type. Here we used the meningitis-causing fungus Cryptococcus neoformans to determine the roles of spore-resident proteins in spore biology. Using highly sensitive nanoscale liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we compared the proteomes of spores and vegetative cells (yeast and identified eighteen proteins specifically enriched in spores. The genes encoding these proteins were deleted, and the resulting strains were evaluated for discernable phenotypes. We hypothesized that spore-enriched proteins would be preferentially involved in spore-specific processes such as dormancy, stress resistance, and germination. Surprisingly, however, the majority of the mutants harbored defects in sexual development, the process by which spores are formed. One mutant in the cohort was defective in the spore-specific process of germination, showing a delay specifically in the initiation of vegetative growth. Thus, by using this in-depth proteomics approach as a screening tool for cell type-specific proteins and combining it with molecular genetics, we successfully identified the first germination factor in C. neoformans. We also identified numerous proteins with previously unknown functions in both sexual development and spore composition. Our findings provide the first insights into the basic protein components of infectious spores and reveal unexpected molecular connections between infectious particle production and spore composition in a pathogenic eukaryote.

  12. Carvacrol suppresses high pressure high temperature inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu-Thi, Hue; Corthouts, Jorinde; Passaris, Ioannis; Grauwet, Tara; Aertsen, Abram; Hendrickx, Marc; Michiels, Chris W

    2015-03-16

    The inactivation of bacterial spores generally proceeds faster and at lower temperatures when heat treatments are conducted under high pressure, and high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing is, therefore, receiving an increased interest from food processors. However, the mechanisms of spore inactivation by HPHT treatment are poorly understood, particularly at moderately elevated temperature. In the current work, we studied inactivation of the spores of Bacillus cereus F4430/73 by HPHT treatment for 5 min at 600MPa in the temperature range of 50-100°C, using temperature increments of 5°C. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the natural antimicrobial carvacrol on spore germination and inactivation under these conditions. Spore inactivation by HPHT was less than about 1 log unit at 50 to 70°C, but gradually increased at higher temperatures up to about 5 log units at 100°C. DPA release and loss of spore refractility in the spore population were higher at moderate (≤65°C) than at high (≥70°C) treatment temperatures, and we propose that moderate conditions induced the normal physiological pathway of spore germination resulting in fully hydrated spores, while at higher temperatures this pathway was suppressed and replaced by another mechanism of pressure-induced dipicolinic acid (DPA) release that results only in partial spore rehydration, probably because spore cortex hydrolysis is inhibited. Carvacrol strongly suppressed DPA release and spore rehydration during HPHT treatment at ≤65°C and also partly inhibited DPA release at ≥65°C. Concomitantly, HPHT spore inactivation was reduced by carvacrol at 65-90°C but unaffected at 95-100°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laser Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    inverted by the first, i.e., at the moment of time t = T, such that i = (2n+)lT, where 0 is the Rabi frequency (Oraevski et al., 1976). . classical... anisotropic molecule present. CW HeNe, Ar+ and Kr+ lasers are used, and the filter method is necessary because of time-scales lo8 - 10ll Hz. Some general...e.g., truncated harmonic oscillator, square well, spherically symmetric Morse or Lennard-Jones, anisotropic (angle-dependent) Morse or Lennard-Jones

  14. A newly identified DNA ligase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in RAD52-independent repair of DNA double-strand breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schär, Primo; Herrmann, Gernot; Daly, Graham; Lindahl, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    Eukaryotic DNA ligases are ATP-dependent DNA strand-joining enzymes that participate in DNA replication, repair, and recombination. Whereas mammalian cells contain several different DNA ligases, encoded by at least three distinct genes, only one DNA ligase has been detected previously in either budding yeast or fission yeast. Here, we describe a newly identified nonessential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene that encodes a DNA ligase distinct from the CDC9 gene product. This DNA ligase shares significant amino acid sequence homology with human DNA ligase IV; accordingly, we designate the yeast gene LIG4. Recombinant LIG4 protein forms a covalent enzyme-AMP complex and can join a DNA single-strand break in a DNA/RNA hybrid duplex, the preferred substrate in vitro. Disruption of the LIG4 gene causes only marginally increased cellular sensitivity to several DNA damaging agents, and does not further sensitize cdc9 or rad52 mutant cells. In contrast, lig4 mutant cells have a 1000-fold reduced capacity for correct recircularization of linearized plasmids by illegitimate end-joining after transformation. Moreover, homozygous lig4 mutant diploids sporulate less efficiently than isogenic wild-type cells, and show retarded progression through meiotic prophase I. Spore viability is normal, but lig4 mutants appear to produce a higher proportion of tetrads with only three viable spores. The mutant phenotypes are consistent with functions of LIG4 in an illegitimate DNA end-joining pathway and ensuring efficient meiosis. PMID:9271115

  15. Development and amplification of multiple co-dominant genetic markers from single spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi by nested multiplex PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtgrewe-Stukenbrock, Eva; Rosendahl, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Multiple co-dominant genetic markers from single spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus mosseae, Glomus caledonium, and Glomus geosporum were amplified by nested multiplex PCR using a combination of primers for simultaneous amplification of five loci in one PCR. Subsequently, each...... marker was amplified separately in nested PCR using specific primers. Polymorphic loci within the three putative single copy genes GmFOX2, GmTOR2, and GmGIN1 were characterized by sequencing and single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP). Primers specific for the LSU rDNA D2 region were included...... are homokaryotic. All isolates of G. mosseae had unique genotypes. The amplification of multiple co-dominant genetic markers from single spores by the nested multiplex PCR approach provides an important tool for future studies of AM fungi population genetics and evolution....

  16. EUV-VUV photochemistry in the upper atmospheres of Titan and the early Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanaka, H.; Smith, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Titan, the organic-rich moon of Saturn, possesses a thick atmosphere of nitrogen, globally covered with organic haze layers. The recent Cassini’s INMS and CAPS observations clearly demonstrate the importance of complex organic chemistry in the ionosphere. EUV photon radiation is the major driving energy source there. Our previous laboratory study of the EUV-VUV photolysis of N2/CH4 gas mixtures demonstrates a unique role of nitrogen photoionization in the catalytic formation of complex hydrocarbons in Titan’s upper atmosphere (Imanaka and Smith, 2007, 2009). Such EUV photochemistry could also have played important roles in the formation of complex organic molecules in the ionosphere of the early Earth. It has been suggested that the early Earth atmosphere may have contained significant amount of reduced species (CH4, H2, and CO) (Kasting, 1990, Pavlov et al., 2001, Tian et al., 2005). Recent experimental study, using photon radiation at wavelengths longer than 110 nm, demonstrates that photochemical organic haze could have been generated from N2/CO2 atmospheres with trace amounts of CH4 or H2 (Trainer et al., 2006, Dewitt et al., 2009). However, possible EUV photochemical processes in the ionosphere are not well understood. We have investigated the effect of CO2 in the possible EUV photochemical processes in simulated reduced early Earth atmospheres. The EUV-VUV photochemistry using wavelength-tunable synchrotron light between 50 - 150 nm was investigated for gas mixtures of 13CO2/CH4 (= 96.7/3.3) and N2/13CO2/CH4 (= 90/6.7/3.3). The onsets of unsaturated hydrocarbon formation were observed at wavelengths shorter than the ionization potentials of CO2 and N2, respectively. This correlation indicates that CO2 can play a similar catalytic role to N2 in the formation of heavy organic species, which implies that EUV photochemistry might have significant impact on the photochemical generation of organic haze layers in the upper atmosphere of the early Earth.

  17. Effects of High Pressure on Bacillus licheniformis Spore Germination and Inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borch-Pedersen, Kristina; Mellegård, Hilde; Reineke, Kai; Boysen, Preben; Sevenich, Robert; Lindbäck, Toril; Aspholm, Marina

    2017-07-15

    Bacillus and Clostridium species form spores, which pose a challenge to the food industry due to their ubiquitous nature and extreme resistance. Pressurization at 300 MPa likely triggers germination by opening dipicolinic acid (DPA) channels present in the inner membrane of the spores. In this work, we expose spores of Bacillus licheniformis , a species associated with food spoilage and occasionally with food poisoning, to high pressure (HP) for holding times of up to 2 h. By using mutant spores lacking one or several GRs, we dissect the roles of the GerA, Ynd, and GerK GRs in moderately HP (mHP; 150 MPa)-induced spore germination. We show that Ynd alone is sufficient for efficient mHP-induced spore germination. GerK also triggers germination with mHP, although at a reduced germination rate compared to that of Ynd. GerA stimulates mHP-induced germination but only in the presence of either the intact GerK or Ynd GR. These results suggests that the effectiveness of the individual GRs in mHP-induced germination differs from their effectiveness in nutrient-induced germination, where GerA plays an essential role. In contrast to Bacillus subtilis spores, treatment with very HP (vHP) of 550 MPa at 37°C did not promote effective germination of B. licheniformis spores. However, treatment with vHP in combination with elevated temperatures (60°C) gave a synergistic effect on spore germination and inactivation. Together, these results provide novel insights into how HP affects B. licheniformis spore germination and inactivation and the role of individual GRs in this process. IMPORTANCE Bacterial spores are inherently resistant to food-processing regimes, such as high-temperature short-time pasteurization, and may therefore compromise food durability and safety. The induction of spore germination facilitates subsequent inactivation by gentler processing conditions that maintain the sensory and nutritional qualities of the food. High-pressure (HP) processing is a nonthermal

  18. Cryopreservation of spores of Dicksonia sellowiana: an endangered tree fern indigenous to South and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, G D; Viana, A M; Randi, A M

    2000-01-01

    Spores of Dicksonia sellowiana (Presl.) Hook., an endangered tree fern, were stored in liquid nitrogen. Surface sterilized spores were placed in 1 ml sterile polypropylene cryotubes and were plunged into liquid nitrogen cryo-cans for 15 minutes, 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. In all, of the treatments the percentage of germination was higher than the control (fresh spores). Germination in Dyer and MS media supplement with 10 (-7) M and 5 x 10(-7) M BA was also promoted as comparing to control. There was no difference between the germination of spores thawed rapidly in a water bath at 45 degree C during 5 minutes or slowly at room temperature. Cryopreservation seems to promote germination of some dormant spores of D. sellowiana. The pre-treatment in cryoprotective solution of dimethyl sulphoxide 15%(v/v) in 1 M glycerol inhibited the germination of cryopreserved spores

  19. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenhorst, Marit; Knols, Bart G J

    2010-01-20

    Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers with accurate effective spore concentrations. The mosquito bioassay

  20. A novel method for standardized application of fungal spore coatings for mosquito exposure bioassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knols Bart GJ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in the use of fungal entomopathogens against malaria vectors is growing. Fungal spores infect insects via the cuticle and can be applied directly on the insect to evaluate infectivity. For flying insects such as mosquitoes, however, application of fungal suspensions on resting surfaces is more realistic and representative of field settings. For this type of exposure, it is essential to apply specific amounts of fungal spores homogeneously over a surface for testing the effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Contemporary methods such as spraying or brushing spore suspensions onto substrates do not produce the uniformity and consistency that standardized laboratory assays require. Two novel fungus application methods using equipment developed in the paint industry are presented and compared. Methods Wired, stainless steel K-bars were tested and optimized for coating fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates. Different solvents and substrates were evaluated. Two types of coating techniques were compared, i.e. manual and automated coating. A standardized bioassay set-up was designed for testing coated spores against malaria mosquitoes. Results K-bar coating provided consistent applications of spore layers onto paper substrates. Viscous Ondina oil formulations were not suitable and significantly reduced spore infectivity. Evaporative Shellsol T solvent dried quickly and resulted in high spore infectivity to mosquitoes. Smooth proofing papers were the most effective substrate and showed higher infectivity than cardboard substrates. Manually and mechanically applied spore coatings showed similar and reproducible effects on mosquito survival. The standardized mosquito exposure bioassay was effective and consistent in measuring effects of fungal dose and exposure time. Conclusions K-bar coating is a simple and consistent method for applying fungal spore suspensions onto paper substrates and can produce coating layers

  1. Diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration in the town and rural area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Kasprzyk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne fungal spores were monitored in 2001-2002 in Rzeszów (town and its neighborhood. The aim of investigations was to ascertain if there were differences in diurnal variations of airborne fungal spores concentration between town and rural area. The sampling was carried out using volumetric method. Traps were located at the same heights - app. 12 m. Airborne spores were sampled continuously. Microscopical slides were prepared for each day. Analysis was carried out on one longitudinal band of 48 mm long divided into 24 segments corresponding following hours of day. The results were expressed as mean number of fungal spores per cubic meter per 24 hours. For this survey, five geni of allergenic fungi were selected: Alternaria, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma. The concentrations of their airborne spores were high or very high. It was calculated theoretical day, where the hourly count was the percentage mean of number of spores at that time every chosen day without rainfall from 2001 and 2001 years. The diurnal periodicity of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum and Ganoderma showed one peak, while Botrytis two. Anamorphic spores peaked in the afternoon, while their minima occurred in the morning. The highest concentrations of Ganoderma basidiospores were at down or at night, but minima during the day. There were no clear differences in the peak values between two studied sites. The results indicate that maximum concentrations of all spores generally occurred a few hour earlier in the rural area than in the town. Probably, in the rural area airborne spores came from many local sources and their diurnal periodicity reflected rhythm of spore liberation. Towns are characterized by specific microclimate with higher temperature and wind blowing to the centre. In Rzeszów fungal spores could be transported outside and carried out by wind from distant sources. This study showed, among others, that habitat conditions are an important factors

  2. Evaluation of the Performance of Iodine-Treated Biocide Filters Challenged with Bacterial Spores and Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    the iodine-treated media. D. METHODOLOGY: The iodine-treated filter media were challenged by Bacillus subtilis spores and MS2 bacteriophage...reentrainment into the air [8]. Even though HVAC prevents the contamination of indoor air from environmental bacteria and spores entering from outdoors...of iodine with Bacillus metiens spores showed that the decrease of germicidal activity is due to increased iodine decomposition [39]. Studies on the

  3. Effect of individual or combined treatment of heat or radiation on clostridium perfringens spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zawahry, Y A; El-Fouly, M Z; Aziz, N H

    1986-01-01

    Separate treatments of high temperature had considerable effect on Cl.perfrigens spores suspended in saline solution especially at 90 and 100[sup 0]C, while 70 and 80[sup 0]C had only slight effect on the spores viabilty. The decimal reduction times (D[sub T]) were 33.7, 26, 4, 10.7 and 2.8 at 70, 80, 90 and 100[sup 0]C for NCTC 8798 strain and were 45.1, 27.1, 10.2 and 4.0 for the Egyptian strain at the same degrees of temperature respectively. Heat treatment pre-irradiation at 70 and 80[sup 0]C for 30 and 60 min decreased the viable spore numbers by about 0.5 to 3.0 log cycles, but the treatment had no effect on increasing the sensitivity of the rest spores to radiation. The decimal reduction dose (D[sub 10]-value) for the spores was almost the same as the control but there was a tendency to reduce the shoulder part in the radiation response curve especially when the spores were subjected to 80[sup 0]C for 60 min. On the other hand, irradiation pre-heat treatment with doses from 1-10 KGY was sufficient to decrease the spore numbers from 0.2 to 5.0 log cycles and had a sensitizing effect on subsequently heated spores especially those exposed to 90 and 100[sup 0]C. Meanwhile the rate of inactivation for spores exposed to 70 and 80[sup 0]C after irradiation increased only during the first ten minutes. Thereafter, the rate of inactivation was almost the same for the non-irradiated spores. The D[sub 10]-values for the spores irradiated with 10 KGY were 0.77 and 0.84 minutes for NCTC 8798 strain and Egyptian strain at 100[sup 0]C respectively and the spores were completely destroyed before 5 minutes.

  4. Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on the Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, J.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Sala, F.

    1972-01-01

    Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis spores in quarter-strength Ringer solution decreases markedly after ultrasonic treatments which are unable to kill a significant proportion of the spore population. This effect does not seem to be caused by a loss of Ca2+ or dipicolinic acid. The use of ultrasonics to eliminate vegetative cells or to break aggregates in Bacillus spore suspensions to be used subsequently in heat resistance experiments appears to be unadvisable. PMID:4627969

  5. The development and structure of thick-walled, multicellular, aerial spores in Diheterospora chlamydosporia (=Verticillium chlamydosporium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambell, W P; Griffiths, D A

    1975-07-01

    The aerial, thick-walled spores in Diheterospara chlamydosporia arose as terminal swellings on erect hyphae. Repeated septation of the continuously swelling spore resulted in a multicellular structure. Immediately after the onset of septation secondary wall material was laid down between the two-layered primary wall and the plasmalemma. The presence of secondary wall material indicates that the multicellular spore is a dictyochlamydospore and not an aleuriospore. The relationship between chlamydospores and aleuriospores in other fungi is discussed.

  6. The occurrence of Ganoderma spores in the air and its relationships with meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Grinn-Gofroń

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, Ganoderma may be the third genus, after Alternaria and Cladosporium, whose spores cause symptoms of allergy and whose levels are directly related to meteorological factors. There are only few articles from different parts of the world about the relationships between Ganoderma spore count and meteorological factors. The aim of the study was to review all available publications about airborne Ganoderma spores and to compare the results in a short useful form.

  7. Photochemistry of fluorinated 4-iodophenylnitrenes: matrix isolation and spectroscopic characterization of phenylnitrene-4-yls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Dirk; Sander, Wolfram

    2009-10-02

    The photochemistry of a series of fluorinated p-iodophenyl azides 2 has been investigated using matrix isolation IR and EPR spectroscopy. In all cases, the corresponding phenylnitrenes 1 were formed as primary photoproducts. Further irradiation of the nitrenes 1 resulted in the formation of azirines 3, ketenimines 4, and nitreno radicals 5. The yield of 5 depends on the number of ortho fluorine substituents: with two ortho fluorine atoms the highest yield is observed, whereas without fluorine atoms the yield is too low for IR spectroscopic detection. The interconversion between the isomers 1, 3, and 4 proved to be rather complex. If the fluorine atoms are distributed unsymmetrically, two isomers of azirines 3 and ketenimines 4 can be formed. The yields of these isomers depend critically on the irradiation conditions.

  8. New concepts in therapeutic photomedicine: photochemistry, optical targeting and the therapeutic window

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrish, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Advances in optics technology, synthetic photochemistry, and the science of photobiology make it possible to think beyond phototherapy and photochemotherapy which is dependent on direct photochemical alteration of metabolites or direct phototoxic insult to cells. This report discusses another gender of photomedicine therapy which includes in vivo photoactivation of medicines, photon-dependent drug delivery, and manipulation of host and exposure source to maximize therapeutic index. These therapeutic manipulations are made possible because the skin is highly overperfused and because non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation that enters skin and blood has adequate photon energy to cause electronic excitation. Radiation of 320-800 nm is not very directly phototoxic, is absorbed by a variety of relatively nontoxic photolabile molecules and has an internal dosimetric depth profile. This radiation can therefore be used to activate, deactivate, bind, release or biotransform medications in vivo in skin or other organs. The photochemist, synthetic chemist and photobiologist can collaborate to significantly increase therapeutic possibilities

  9. Combined In Situ Illumination-NMR-UV/Vis Spectroscopy: A New Mechanistic Tool in Photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegerer, Andreas; Nitschke, Philipp; Gschwind, Ruth M

    2018-06-18

    Synthetic applications in photochemistry are booming. Despite great progress in the development of new reactions, mechanistic investigations are still challenging. Therefore, we present a fully automated in situ combination of NMR spectroscopy, UV/Vis spectroscopy, and illumination to allow simultaneous and time-resolved detection of paramagnetic and diamagnetic species. This optical fiber-based setup enables the first acquisition of combined UV/Vis and NMR spectra in photocatalysis, as demonstrated on a conPET process. Furthermore, the broad applicability of combined UVNMR spectroscopy for light-induced processes is demonstrated on a structural and quantitative analysis of a photoswitch, including rate modulation and stabilization of transient species by temperature variation. Owing to the flexibility regarding the NMR hardware, temperature, and light sources, we expect wide-ranging applications of this setup in various research fields. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  10. Photochemistry of the α-Al2O3-PETN Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Tsyshevsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical absorption measurements are combined with electronic structure calculations to explore photochemistry of an α-Al2O3-PETN interface formed by a nitroester (pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN, C5H8N4O12 and a wide band gap aluminum oxide (α-Al2O3 substrate. The first principles modeling is used to deconstruct and interpret the α-Al2O3-PETN absorption spectrum that has distinct peaks attributed to surface F0-centers and surface—PETN transitions. We predict the low energy α-Al2O3 F0-center—PETN transition, producing the excited triplet state, and α-Al2O3 F0-center—PETN charge transfer, generating the PETN anion radical. This implies that irradiation by commonly used lasers can easily initiate photodecomposition of both excited and charged PETN at the interface. The feasible mechanism of the photodecomposition is proposed.

  11. Bond selective photochemistry in CH2BrI through electronic excitation at 210 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, L.J.; Hintsa, E.J.; Lee, Y.T.

    1986-01-01

    To explore the possibility of bond selective photochemistry in an excited electronic state, we have studied the photolysis of CH 2 BrI in a molecular beam at 210 nm. Following the direct local excitation of a repulsive transition on the C--Br bond at 210 nm, the fragments were detected by time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The dominant channel was found to be C--Br fission (60%) releasing an average of 15 kcal/mol into translation with the remainder reacting to form CH 2 +IBr and CH 2 +I+Br. There was no evidence for the primary fission of the C--I bond, making this the first clear example of the selective cleavage of a stronger bond in a molecule over the weakest one

  12. Photochemistry at high temperatures - potential of ZnO as a high temperature photocatalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubnell, M; Beaud, P; Kamber, I [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Direct conversion of solar radiation into useful, storeable and transportable chemical products is the primary goal of solar chemistry. In this paper we discuss some fundamental aspects of photochemistry at elevated temperatures. We show that luminescence can serve as an indicator of the potential use of a system as a photoconverter. As an example we present experimental data on the chemical potential and on the lifetime of the excited states of ZnO. The low luminescence quantum yield together with a lifetime of about 200 ps indicate that an efficient photochemical conversion on ZnO is highly improbable. We believe this to be a general feature of chemical systems based on a semiconductor photocatalyst, in particular of photoreactions at a solid/gas interface. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs

  13. Modification of porous silicon rugate filters through thiol-yne photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeriyadi, Alexander H.; Zhu, Ying; Gooding, J. Justin; Reece, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Porous silicon (PSi) has a considerable potential as biosensor platform. In particular, the ability to modify the surface chemistry of porous silicon is of interest. Here we present a generic method to modify the surface of porous silicon through thiol-yne photochemistry initiated by a radical initiator. Firstly, a freshly etched porous silicon substrate is modified through thermal hydrosilylation with 1,8-nonadiyne to passivate the surface and introduce alkyne functionalities. The alkyne functional surface could then be further reacted with thiol species in the presence of a radical initiator and UV light. Functionalization of the PSi rugate filter is followed with optical reflectivity measurements as well as high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)

  14. Automatic generation of active coordinates for quantum dynamics calculations: Application to the dynamics of benzene photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasorne, Benjamin; Sicilia, Fabrizio; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.; Worth, Graham A.; Blancafort, Lluis

    2008-01-01

    A new practical method to generate a subspace of active coordinates for quantum dynamics calculations is presented. These reduced coordinates are obtained as the normal modes of an analytical quadratic representation of the energy difference between excited and ground states within the complete active space self-consistent field method. At the Franck-Condon point, the largest negative eigenvalues of this Hessian correspond to the photoactive modes: those that reduce the energy difference and lead to the conical intersection; eigenvalues close to 0 correspond to bath modes, while modes with large positive eigenvalues are photoinactive vibrations, which increase the energy difference. The efficacy of quantum dynamics run in the subspace of the photoactive modes is illustrated with the photochemistry of benzene, where theoretical simulations are designed to assist optimal control experiments

  15. Mechanistic reappraisal of early stage photochemistry in the light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derren J Heyes

    Full Text Available The light-driven enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR catalyzes the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide to chlorophyllide (Chlide. This reaction is a key step in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll. Ultrafast photochemical processes within the Pchlide molecule are required for catalysis and previous studies have suggested that a short-lived excited-state species, known as I675*, is the first catalytic intermediate in the reaction and is essential for capturing excitation energy to drive subsequent hydride and proton transfers. The chemical nature of the I675* excited state species and its role in catalysis are not known. Here, we report time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy measurements to study the involvement of the I675* intermediate in POR photochemistry. We show that I675* is not unique to the POR-catalyzed photoreduction of Pchlide as it is also formed in the absence of the POR enzyme. The I675* species is only produced in samples that contain both Pchlide substrate and Chlide product and its formation is dependent on the pump excitation wavelength. The rate of formation and the quantum yield is maximized in 50∶50 mixtures of the two pigments (Pchlide and Chlide and is caused by direct energy transfer between Pchlide and neighboring Chlide molecules, which is inhibited in the polar solvent methanol. Consequently, we have re-evaluated the mechanism for early stage photochemistry in the light-driven reduction of Pchlide and propose that I675* represents an excited state species formed in Pchlide-Chlide dimers, possibly an excimer. Contrary to previous reports, we conclude that this excited state species has no direct mechanistic relevance to the POR-catalyzed reduction of Pchlide.

  16. Proceedings of the twenty-first DOE solar photochemistry research conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Solar Photochemistry Research Conference brings together grantees and contractors of the Division of Chemical Sciences who are engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion. The annual conference provides a focus for the program by allowing for the exchange of new information and ideas, identification of needs and opportunities, and fostering of collaborations among investigators of disparate chemistry backgrounds. The synergy that has been achieved is a major strength of the program. The research provides the foundations for future solar technologies, in which light-induced charge separation processes will be applied to conversion of light energy to chemical energy, e.g., production of alcohols from carbon dioxide, hydrogen from water, ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen, or other needed chemicals at lower cost of by using sunlight as the energy source. The program includes topical sessions on semiconductor nanoparticles, nanocrystalline films, and photoinduced charge separation at the semiconductor/liquid interface; photochemistry and photophysics of transition metal complexes; photoinduced charge separation in zeolites and lamellar assemblies; intramolecular charge separation and electron transfer; dynamics of solvation and solution interfaces; and photoconversion via porphyrins and biomimetic constructs. The special guest plenary lecturer is Professor Moungi Bawendi of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, who spoke on semiconductor nanocrystallites (quantum dots). As an added feature, Tom Surek, the Photovoltaics Technology program manager at NREL, presented a status report on one of the most promising and heavily supported programs in solar energy conversion technology, solid state photovoltaics. This volume contains the agenda for the meeting, abstracts of the 31 formal presentations and 55 posters, as well as an address list for the 111 participants.

  17. Atmospheric photochemistry at a fatty acid coated air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christian; Rossignol, Stéphanie; Passananti, Monica; Tinel, Liselotte; Perrier, Sebastien; Kong, Lingdong; Brigante, Marcello; Bianco, Angelica; Chen, Jianmin; Donaldson, James

    2017-04-01

    Over the past 20 years, interfacial processes have become increasingly of interest in the field of atmospheric chemistry, with many studies showing that environmental surfaces display specific chemistry and photochemistry, enhancing certain reactions and acting as reactive sinks or sources for various atmospherically relevant species. Many molecules display a free energy minimum at the air-water interface, making it a favored venue for compound accumulation and reaction. Indeed, surface active molecules have been shown to undergo specific photochemistry at the air-water interface. This presentation will address some recent surprises. Indeed, while fatty acids are believed to be photochemically inert in the actinic region, complex volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are produced during illumination of an air-water interface coated solely with a monolayer of carboxylic acid. When aqueous solutions containing nonanoic acid (NA) at bulk concentrations that give rise to just over monolayer NA coverage are illuminated with actinic radiation, saturated and unsaturated aldehydes are seen in the gas phase and more highly oxygenated products appear in the aqueous phase. This chemistry is probably initiated by triplet state NA molecules excited by direct absorption of actinic light at the water surface. As fatty acids covered interfaces are ubiquitous in the environment, such photochemical processing will have a significant impact on local ozone and particle formation. In addition, it was shown recently that a heterogeneous reaction between SO2 and oleic acid (OA; an unsaturated fatty acid) takes place and leads efficiently to the formation of organosulfur products. Here, we demonstrate that this reaction proceeds photochemically on various unsaturated fatty acids compounds, and may therefore have a general environmental impact. This is probably due to the chromophoric nature of the SO2 adduct with C=C bonds, and means that the contribution of this direct addition of SO2 could

  18. Effects of microbial loading and sporulation temperature on atmospheric plasma inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X. T.; Shi, J. J.; Shama, G.; Kong, M. G.

    2005-10-01

    Current inactivation studies of Bacillus subtilis spores using atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGD) do not consider two important factors, namely microbial loading at the surface of a substrate and sporulation temperature. Yet these are known to affect significantly microbial resistance to heat and hydrogen peroxide. This letter investigates effects of microbial loading and sporulation temperature on spore resistance to APGD. It is shown that microbial loading can lead to a stacking structure as a protective shield against APGD treatment and that high sporulation temperature increases spore resistance by altering core water content and cross-linked muramic acid content of B. subtilis spores.

  19. Effect of medium components and culture conditions in Bacillus subtilis EA-CB0575 spore production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Uribe, Luisa F; Romero-Tabarez, Magally; Villegas-Escobar, Valeska

    2015-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis spores have important biotechnological applications; however, achieving both, high spore cell densities and sporulation efficiencies in fermentation, is poorly reported. In this study, medium components and culture conditions were optimized with different statistical methods to increase spore production of the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria B. subtilis EA-CB0575. Key medium components were determined with Plackett-Burman (PB) design, and the optimum concentration levels of two components (glucose, MgSO4·7H2O) were optimized with a full factorial and central composite design, achieving 1.37 × 10(9) CFU/mL of spore cell density and 93.5 % of sporulation efficiency in shake flask. The optimized medium was used to determine the effect of culture conditions on spore production at bioreactor level, finding that maintaining pH control did not affect significantly spore production, while the interaction of agitation and aeration rates had a significant effect on spore cell density. The overall optimization generated a 17.2-fold increase in spore cell density (8.78 × 10(9) CFU/mL) and 1.9-fold increase in sporulation efficiency (94.2 %) compared to that of PB design. These results indicate the potential of B. subtilis EA-CB0575 to produce both, high spore cell densities and sporulation efficiencies, with very low nutrient requirements and short incubation period which can represent savings of process production.

  20. Decontamination of B. globigii spores from drinking water infrastructure using disinfectants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and...

  1. Non-Seasonal Variation of Airborne Aspergillus Spore Concentration in a Hospital Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial fungal infections are gaining increased attention from infectiologists. An adequate investigation into the levels of airborne Aspergillus and other fungal spores in hospital settings, under normal conditions, is largely unknown. We monitored airborne spore contamination in a Swiss hospital building in order to establish a seasonally-dependent base-line level. Air was sampled using an impaction technique, twice weekly, at six different locations over one year. Specimens were seeded in duplicate on Sabouraud agar plates. Grown colonies were identified to genus levels. The airborne Aspergillus spore concentration was constantly low throughout the whole year, at a median level of 2 spores/m3 (inter-quartile range = IQR 1–4, and displayed no seasonal dependency. The median concentration of other fungal spores was higher and showed a distinct seasonal variability with the ambient temperature change during the different seasons: 82 spores/m3 (IQR 26–126 in summer and 9 spores/m3 (IQR 6–15 in winter. The spore concentration varied considerably between the six sampling sites in the building (10 to 26 spores/m3. This variability may explain the variability of study results in the literature.

  2. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacillus subtilis spores PROTECT experiment Space-exposed and Mars-exposed vs. Earth-control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Because of their ubiquity and resistance to spacecraft decontamination bacterial spores are considered likely potential forward contaminants on robotic missions to...

  4. Characteristics and determinants of ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Man; Rao, Carol Y.; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Liu, Chi-Ming; Chao, H. Jasmine

    Characteristics and determinants of ambient aeroallergens are of much concern in recent years because of the apparent health impacts of allergens. Yet relatively little is known about the complex behaviors of ambient aeroallergens. To address this issue, we monitored ambient fungal spores in Hualien, Taiwan from 1993-1996 to examine the compositions and temporal variations of fungi, and to evaluate possible determinants. We used a Burkard seven-day volumetric spore trap to collect daily fungal spores. Air pollutants, meteorological factors, and Asian dust events were included in the statistical analyses to predict fungal levels. We found that the most dominant fungal categories were ascospores, followed by Cladosporium and Aspergillus/Penicillium. The majority of the fungal categories had significant diurnal and seasonal variations. Total fungi, Cladosporium, Ganoderma, Arthrinium/Papularia, Cercospora, Periconia, Alternaria, Botrytis, and PM 10 had significantly higher concentrations ( p<0.05) during the period affected by Asian dust events. In multiple regression models, we found that temperature was consistently and positively associated with fungal concentrations. Other factors correlated with fungal concentrations included ozone, particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM 10), relative humidity, rainfall, atmospheric pressure, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide. Most of the fungal categories had higher levels in 1994 than in 1995-96, probably due to urbanization of the study area. In this study, we demonstrated complicated interrelationships between fungi and air pollution/meteorological factors. In addition, long-range transport of air pollutants contributed significantly to local aeroallergen levels. Future studies should examine the health impacts of aeroallergens, as well as the synergistic/antagonistic effects of weather, and local and global-scale air pollutions.

  5. Synthesis of acid-soluble spore proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, J M; Chambliss, G H

    1982-01-01

    The major acid-soluble spore proteins (ASSPs) of Bacillus subtilis were detected by immunoprecipitation of radioactively labeled in vitro- and in vivo-synthesized proteins. ASSP synthesis in vivo began 2 h after the initiation of sporulation (t2) and reached its maximum rate at t7. This corresponded to the time of synthesis of mRNA that stimulated the maximum rate of ASSP synthesis in vitro. Under the set of conditions used in these experiments, protease synthesis began near t0, alkaline phos...

  6. Genetic barcoding of dark-spored myxomycetes (Amoebozoa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mathilde Borg; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Unterseher, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Unicellular, eukaryotic organisms (protists) play a key role in soil food webs as major predators of microorganisms. However, due to the polyphyletic nature of protists, no single universal barcode can be established for this group, and the structure of many protistean communities remains...... unresolved. Plasmodial slime moulds (Myxogastria or Myxomycetes) stand out among protists by their formation of fruit bodies, which allow for a morphological species concept. By Sanger sequencing of a large collection of morphospecies, this study presents the largest database to date of dark...... match, thus thought to represent undiscovered diversity of dark-spored myxomycetes....

  7. Bacterial spores survive treatment with commercial sterilants and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagripanti, J L; Bonifacino, A

    1999-09-01

    This study compared the activity of commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants on Bacillus subtilis spores deposited on three types of devices made of noncorrodible, corrodible, or polymeric material. Products like Renalin, Exspor, Wavicide-01, Cidexplus, and cupric ascorbate were tested under conditions specified for liquid sterilization. These products, at the shorter times indicated for disinfection, and popular disinfectants, like Clorox, Cavicide, and Lysol were also studied. Data obtained with a sensitive and quantitative test suggest that commercial liquid sterilants and disinfectants are less effective on contaminated surfaces than generally acknowledged.

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of wheat bunt spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y G; Schmitt, R A [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Dept. of Chemistry; Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Radiation Center); Trione, E J [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). Dept. of Botany; Laul, J C [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)

    1982-01-01

    The concentrations of seventeen elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, La, Sm) in two species of fungus which cause wheat bunt disease, Tilletia caries (DC.) Tul. and Tilletia controversa Kuehn, were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. A standard sequential INAA procedure was used. Differences in the K and Cl concentrations between these two species of spores are large and therefore can be used as a criterion of distinguishing between the two species of fungus.

  9. Influence of food matrix on outgrowth heterogeneity of heat damaged Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Alicja K; den Besten, Heidy M W; Sha, Na; Abee, Tjakko; Nierop Groot, Masja N

    2015-05-18

    Spoilage of heat treated foods can be caused by the presence of surviving spore-formers. It is virtually impossible to prevent contamination at the primary production level as spores are ubiquitous present in the environment and can contaminate raw products. As a result spore inactivation treatments are widely used by food producing industries to reduce the microbial spore loads. However consumers prefer mildly processed products that have less impact on its quality and this trend steers industry towards milder preservation treatments. Such treatments may result in damaged instead of inactivated spores, and these spores may germinate, repair, and grow out, possibly leading to quality and safety issues. The ability to repair and grow out is influenced by the properties of the food matrix. In the current communication we studied the outgrowth from heat damaged Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 spores on Anopore membrane, which allowed following outgrowth heterogeneity of individual spores on broccoli and rice-based media as well as standard and mildly acidified (pH 5.5) meat-based BHI. Rice, broccoli and BHI pH 5.5 media resulted in delayed outgrowth from untreated spores, and increased heterogeneity compared to BHI pH 7.4, with the most pronounced effect in rice media. Exposure to wet heat for 1 min at 95 °C caused 2 log inactivation and approximately 95% of the spores in the surviving fraction were damaged resulting in substantial delay in outgrowth based on the time required to reach a maximum microcolony size of 256 cells. The delay was most pronounced for heat-treated spores on broccoli medium followed by spores on rice media (both untreated and treated). Interestingly, the increase in outgrowth heterogeneity of heat treated spores on BHI pH 7.4 was more pronounced than on rice, broccoli and BHI pH 5.5 conceivably reflecting that conditions in BHI pH 7.4 better support spore damage repair. This study compares the effects of three main factors, namely heat treatment, p

  10. A Clostridium difficile alanine racemase affects spore germination and accommodates serine as a substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Ritu; Lockless, Steve W; Sorg, Joseph A

    2017-06-23

    Clostridium difficile has become one of the most common bacterial pathogens in hospital-acquired infections in the United States. Although C. difficile is strictly anaerobic, it survives in aerobic environments and transmits between hosts via spores. C. difficile spore germination is triggered in response to certain bile acids and glycine. Although glycine is the most effective co-germinant, other amino acids can substitute with varying efficiencies. Of these, l-alanine is an effective co-germinant and is also a germinant for most bacterial spores. Many endospore-forming bacteria embed alanine racemases into their spore coats, and these enzymes are thought to convert the l-alanine germinant into d-alanine, a spore germination inhibitor. Although the C. difficile Alr2 racemase is the sixth most highly expressed gene during C. difficile spore formation, a previous study reported that Alr2 has little to no role in germination of C. difficile spores in rich medium. Here, we hypothesized that Alr2 could affect C. difficile l-alanine-induced spore germination in a defined medium. We found that alr2 mutant spores more readily germinate in response to l-alanine as a co-germinant. Surprisingly, d-alanine also functioned as a co-germinant. Moreover, we found that Alr2 could interconvert l- and d-serine and that Alr2 bound to l- and d-serine with ∼2-fold weaker affinity to that of l- and d-alanine. Finally, we demonstrate that l- and d-serine are also co-germinants for C. difficile spores. These results suggest that C. difficile spores can respond to a diverse set of amino acid co-germinants and reveal that Alr2 can accommodate serine as a substrate. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Role of visible light-activated photocatalyst on the reduction of anthrax spore-induced mortality in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Hwa Kau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photocatalysis of titanium dioxide (TiO(2 substrates is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Anion-doped TiO(2 substrates were shown to exhibit photocatalytic activities under visible-light illumination, relative environmentally-friendly materials. Their anti-spore activity against Bacillus anthracis, however, remains to be investigated. We evaluated these visible-light activated photocatalysts on the reduction of anthrax spore-induced pathogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Standard plating method was used to determine the inactivation of anthrax spore by visible light-induced photocatalysis. Mouse models were further employed to investigate the suppressive effects of the photocatalysis on anthrax toxin- and spore-mediated mortality. We found that anti-spore activities of visible light illuminated nitrogen- or carbon-doped titania thin films significantly reduced viability of anthrax spores. Even though the spore-killing efficiency is only approximately 25%, our data indicate that spores from photocatalyzed groups but not untreated groups have a less survival rate after macrophage clearance. In addition, the photocatalysis could directly inactivate lethal toxin, the major virulence factor of B. anthracis. In agreement with these results, we found that the photocatalyzed spores have tenfold less potency to induce mortality in mice. These data suggest that the photocatalysis might injury the spores through inactivating spore components. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Photocatalysis induced injuries of the spores might be more important than direct killing of spores to reduce pathogenicity in the host.

  12. Synthesis of acid-soluble spore proteins by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, J M; Chambliss, G H

    1982-12-01

    The major acid-soluble spore proteins (ASSPs) of Bacillus subtilis were detected by immunoprecipitation of radioactively labeled in vitro- and in vivo-synthesized proteins. ASSP synthesis in vivo began 2 h after the initiation of sporulation (t2) and reached its maximum rate at t7. This corresponded to the time of synthesis of mRNA that stimulated the maximum rate of ASSP synthesis in vitro. Under the set of conditions used in these experiments, protease synthesis began near t0, alkaline phosphatase synthesis began at about t2, and refractile spores were first observed between t7 and t8. In vivo- and in vitro-synthesized ASSPs comigrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels. Their molecular weights were 4,600 (alpha and beta) and 11,000 (gamma). The average half-life of the ASSP messages was 11 min when either rifampin (10 micrograms/ml) or actinomycin D (1 microgram/ml) was used to inhibit RNA synthesis.

  13. Self-healing concrete by use of microencapsulated bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Y.; Soens, H.; Verstraete, W.; De Belie, N.

    2014-01-01

    Microcapsules were applied to encapsulate bacterial spores for self-healing concrete. The viability of encapsulated spores and the influence of microcapsules on mortar specimens were investigated first. Breakage of the microcapsules upon cracking was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Self-healing capacity was evaluated by crack healing ratio and the water permeability. The results indicated that the healing ratio in the specimens with bio-microcapsules was higher (48%–80%) than in those without bacteria (18%–50%). The maximum crack width healed in the specimens of the bacteria series was 970 μm, about 4 times that of the non-bacteria series (max 250 μm). The overall water permeability in the bacteria series was about 10 times lower than that in non-bacteria series. Wet–dry cycles were found to stimulate self-healing in mortar specimens with encapsulated bacteria. No self-healing was observed in all specimens stored at 95%RH, indicating that the presence of liquid water is an essential component for self-healing

  14. Self-healing concrete by use of microencapsulated bacterial spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.Y. [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, TechnologieparkZwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Soens, H. [Devan Chemicals NV, Klein Frankrijk 18, 9600 Ronse (Belgium); Verstraete, W. [Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); De Belie, N., E-mail: nele.debelie@ugent.be [Magnel Laboratory for Concrete Research, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, TechnologieparkZwijnaarde 904, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-02-15

    Microcapsules were applied to encapsulate bacterial spores for self-healing concrete. The viability of encapsulated spores and the influence of microcapsules on mortar specimens were investigated first. Breakage of the microcapsules upon cracking was verified by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Self-healing capacity was evaluated by crack healing ratio and the water permeability. The results indicated that the healing ratio in the specimens with bio-microcapsules was higher (48%–80%) than in those without bacteria (18%–50%). The maximum crack width healed in the specimens of the bacteria series was 970 μm, about 4 times that of the non-bacteria series (max 250 μm). The overall water permeability in the bacteria series was about 10 times lower than that in non-bacteria series. Wet–dry cycles were found to stimulate self-healing in mortar specimens with encapsulated bacteria. No self-healing was observed in all specimens stored at 95%RH, indicating that the presence of liquid water is an essential component for self-healing.

  15. Solid-State Photochemistry as a Formation Mechanism for Titan's Stratospheric C4N2 Ice Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. M.; Samuelson, R. E.; Yung, Y. L.; McLain, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose that C4N2 ice clouds observed in Titan's springtime polar stratosphere arise due to solid-state photochemistry occurring within extant ice cloud particles of HCN-HC3N mixtures. This formation process resembles the halogen-induced ice particle surface chemistry that leads to condensed nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles and ozone depletion in Earth's polar stratosphere. As our analysis of the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer 478 per centimeter ice emission feature demonstrates, this solid-state photochemistry mechanism eliminates the need for the relatively high C4N2 saturation vapor pressures required (even though they are not observed) when the ice is produced through the usual procedure of direct condensation from the vapor.

  16. Reinforcement of Bacillus subtilis spores by cross-linking of outer coat proteins during maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas; Pandey, Rachna; Ter Beek, Alexander; Brul, Stanley; de Koning, Leo J; de Koster, Chris G

    2015-02-01

    Resistance characteristics of bacterial endospores towards various environmental stresses such as chemicals and heat are in part attributed to their coat proteins. Heat resistance is developed in a late stage of sporulation and during maturation of released spores. Using our gel-free proteomic approach and LC-FT-ICR-MS/MS analysis we have monitored the efficiency of the tryptic digestion of proteins in the coat during spore maturation over a period of eight days, using metabolically (15)N labeled mature spores as reference. The results showed that during spore maturation the loss of digestion efficiency of outer coat and crust proteins synchronized with the increase in heat resistance. This implicates that spore maturation involves chemical cross-linking of outer coat and crust layer proteins leaving the inner coat layer proteins unmodified. It appears that digestion efficiencies of spore surface proteins can be linked to their location within the coat and crust layers. We also attempted to study a possible link between spore maturation and the observed heterogeneity in spore germination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Combination treatment of clostridium perfringens spores to freezing and/or gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Aziz, N.H.

    1985-01-01

    Freezing process alone caused relatively low decrease in viable count of suspended spores in minced meat while it decreased the spore numbers suspended in saline solution by more than one log cycle especially in case of the Egyptian strain. An abrupt decrease in viable counts of clostridium spores was observed by application dose of 1KGY either before or after freezing followed by gradual decrease of viable counts up to 15 KGY. The synergestic effect of combined treatment was clearly obvious for spores suspended in minced meat, which usually contains protective agents which increase the resistance of microorganisms against the separate treatment of radiation of freezing especially with spores of NCTC 8798 strain. Freezing the saline suspending medium before or after irradiation after the sensitivity of clostridium spores by only small extent and gave negative synergestic effect in some treatment. The percentages of injured spores due to the combined treatment were ranged between 15-100% of the viable counts. The percentage of injured spores tended to increase as the radiation dose levels increased

  18. Evaluating the transport of bacillus subtilis spores as a potential surrogate for Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has recommended the use of aerobic spores as an indicator for Cryptosporidium oocysts when determining groundwater under the direct influence of surface water. Surface properties, interaction energies, transport, retention, and release behavior of B. subtilis spores were measured over a r...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... characteristics of the parent strain or contamination by other microorganisms. (3) Each lot of spore preparation... production is a Bacillus thuringiensis strain which does not produce β-exotoxin under standard manufacturing...

  20. The characterisation of Bacillus spores occurring in the manufacturing of (low acid) canned products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Zuijlen, A.C.M. van; Hehenkamp, J.O.; Witsenboer, H.; Vossen, J.M.B.M. van der; Brul, S.

    2007-01-01

    Spore-forming bacteria can be a problem in the food industry, especially in the canning industry. Spores present in ingredients or present in the processing environment severely challenge the preservation process since their thermal resistance may be very high. We therefore asked the question which

  1. Bringing Evolution to a Technological Generation: A Case Study with the Video Game SPORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, DorothyBelle; Berenotto, Christopher; Blankenship, Sara; Piatkowski, Bryan; Bader, Geoffrey A.; Poore, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The video game SPORE was found to hold characteristics that stimulate higher-order thinking even though it rated poorly for accurate science. Interested in evaluating whether a scientifically inaccurate video game could be used effectively, we exposed students to SPORE during an evolution course. Students that played the game reported that they…

  2. Bacillus subtilis spores as vaccine adjuvants: further insights into the mechanisms of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Damásio de Souza

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis spores have received growing attention regarding potential biotechnological applications, including the use as probiotics and in vaccine formulations. B. subtilis spores have also been shown to behave as particulate vaccine adjuvants, promoting the increase of antibody responses after co-administration with antigens either admixed or adsorbed on the spore surface. In this study, we further evaluated the immune modulatory properties of B. subtilis spores using a recombinant HIV gag p24 protein as a model antigen. The adjuvant effects of B. subtilis spores were not affected by the genetic background of the mouse lineage and did not induce significant inflammatory or deleterious effects after parenteral administration. Our results demonstrated that co-administration, but not adsorption to the spore surface, enhanced the immunogenicity of that target antigen after subcutaneous administration to BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Spores promoted activation of antigen presenting cells as demonstrated by the upregulation of MHC and CD40 molecules and enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by murine dendritic cells. In addition, in vivo studies indicated a direct role of the innate immunity on the immunomodulatory properties of B. subtilis spores, as demonstrated by the lack of adjuvant effects on MyD88 and TLR2 knockout mouse strains.

  3. Use of aerobic spores as a surrogate for cryptosporidium oocysts in drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headd, Brendan; Bradford, Scott A

    2016-03-01

    Waterborne illnesses are a growing concern among health and regulatory agencies worldwide. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established several rules to combat the contamination of water supplies by cryptosporidium oocysts, however, the detection and study of cryptosporidium oocysts is hampered by methodological and financial constraints. As a result, numerous surrogates for cryptosporidium oocysts have been proposed by the scientific community and efforts are underway to evaluate many of the proposed surrogates. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the suitability of aerobic bacterial spores to serve as a surrogate for cryptosporidium oocysts in identifying contaminated drinking waters. To accomplish this we present a comparison of the biology and life cycles of aerobic spores and oocysts and compare their physical properties. An analysis of their surface properties is presented along with a review of the literature in regards to the transport, survival, and prevalence of aerobic spores and oocysts in the saturated subsurface environment. Aerobic spores and oocysts share many commonalities with regard to biology and survivability, and the environmental prevalence and ease of detection make aerobic spores a promising surrogate for cryptosporidium oocysts in surface and groundwater. However, the long-term transport and release of aerobic spores still needs to be further studied, and compared with available oocyst information. In addition, the surface properties and environmental interactions of spores are known to be highly dependent on the spore taxa and purification procedures, and additional research is needed to address these issues in the context of transport. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Dynamic predictive model for growth of Bacillus cereus from spores in cooked beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinetic growth data of Bacillus cereus from spores in cooked beans at several isothermal conditions (between 10 to 49C) were collected. Samples were inoculated with approximately 2 log CFU/g of heat-shocked (80C/10 min) spores and stored at isothermal temperatures. B. cereus populations were deter...

  5. First insight into dead wood protistan diversity: a molecular sampling of bright-spored Myxomycetes (Amoebozoa, slime-moulds) in decaying beech logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clissmann, Fionn; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Hoppe, Björn; Krüger, Dirk; Kahl, Tiemo; Unterseher, Martin; Schnittler, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Decaying wood hosts a large diversity of seldom investigated protists. Environmental sequencing offers novel insights into communities, but has rarely been applied to saproxylic protists. We investigated the diversity of bright-spored wood-inhabiting Myxomycetes by environmental sequencing. Myxomycetes have a complex life cycle culminating in the formation of mainly macroscopic fruiting bodies, highly variable in shape and colour that are often found on decaying logs. Our hypothesis was that diversity of bright-spored Myxomycetes would increase with decay. DNA was extracted from wood chips collected from 17 beech logs of varying decay stages from the Hainich-Dün region in Central Germany. We obtained 260 partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of bright-spored Myxomycetes that were assembled into 29 OTUs, of which 65% were less than 98% similar to those in the existing database. The OTU richness revealed by molecular analysis surpassed that of a parallel inventory of fruiting bodies. We tested several environmental variables and identified pH, rather than decay stage, as the main structuring factor of myxomycete distribution. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Differentiation between spore-forming and asporogenic bacteria using a PCR and southern hybridization based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brill, J.A.; Wiegel, J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of molecular probes was devised to develop a method for screening for the presence of sequences homologous to three representative genes exclusively involved in endosporulation. Based on known gene sequences, degenerate PCR primers were designed against spo0A and ssp. Experimental conditions were devised under which homologs of both genes were consistently detected in endospore-forming bacteria, but not in asporogenic bacteria. The PCR amplification products and dpaA/B from Bacillus subtilis were used as hybridization probes for Southern blots. Identical conditions were used with the genomic DNA from endospore-forming and asporogenic bacteria. We therefore concluded that the probes specifically detect the targeted sporulation genes and we obtained no indication that genes homologous to ssp, spo0A and dpaA/B are present in asporogenic bacteria. Thus, this assay can potentially be used to detect spore-forming bacteria in various kinds of samples and to distinguish between bacteria containing sporulation genes and those who do not regardless of whether sporulation is observed or not. 43 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Photochemistry and Gas-Phase FTIR Spectroscopy of Formic Acid Interaction with Anatase Ti18O2 Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Ferus, Martin; Zukalová, Markéta; Kubát, Pavel; Kavan, Ladislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 20 (2012), s. 11200-11205 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00100903; GA AV ČR IAA400400804; GA AV ČR KAN200100801; GA ČR GAP208/10/1678; GA MŠk OC09044 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : photochemistry * FTIR spectroscopy * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.814, year: 2012

  8. DECONTAMINATION ASSESSMENT OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS, AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACTS USING A HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE GAS GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To evaluate the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface materials using hydrogen peroxide gas. Methods and Results: B. anthracis, B. subtilis, and G. Stearothermophilus spores were dried on seven...

  9. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  10. Esterase activity as a novel parameter of spore germination in Bacillus anthracis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferencko, Linda; Cote, Mindy A.; Rotman, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis were shown to produce esterase activity about 4 min after exposure to conventional germinants such as combinations of amino acids and purine ribosides. Neither amino acids nor ribosides alone induce germination and esterase activity. Expression of esterase activity was chloramphenicol resistant, and correlated with loss of spore refractivity, a traditional parameter of early germination. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that esterase activity could be used as a novel parameter for quantifying early events during spore germination. To test this hypothesis, we measured expression of esterase activity under a variety of germinating conditions. Using diacetyl fluorescein as fluorogenic substrate of esterases, we demonstrated that esterase activity was invariably induced whenever spores were triggered by known germinants. Moreover, D-alanine, an inhibitor of L-alanine-mediated germination, was found to significantly inhibit expression of esterase activity. In terms of molecular mechanisms, esterase expression could represent activation of proteases at the onset of spore germination

  11. Recent progress in Bacillus subtilis spore-surface display: concept, progress, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Wang, Yunxiang; Yang, Ruijin

    2017-02-01

    With the increased knowledge on spore structure and advances in biotechnology engineering, the newly developed spore-surface display system confers several inherent advantages over other microbial cell-surface display systems including enhanced stability and high safety. Bacillus subtilis is the most commonly used Bacillus species for spore-surface display. The expression of heterologous antigen or protein on the surface of B. subtilis spores has now been practiced for over a decade with noteworthy success. As an update and supplement to other previous reviews, we comprehensively summarize recent studies in the B. subtilis spore-surface display technique. We focus on its benefits as well as the critical factors affecting its display efficiency and offer suggestions for the future success of this field.

  12. Spore inactivation and DPA release in Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris under different stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Ciuffreda, Emanuela; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports on the inactivation of spores of 5 strains of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris under different stress conditions (acidic and alkaline pH, high temperature, addition of lysozyme, hydrogen peroxide and p-coumaric acid). The research was divided into two different steps; first, each stress was studied alone, thus pointing out a partial uncoupling between spore inactivation and DPA release, as H2O2 reduced spore level below the detection but it did not cause the release of DPA. A partial correlation was found only for acidic and alkaline pH. 2nd step was focused on the combination of pH, temperature and H2O2 through a factorial design; experiments were performed on both fresh and 4 month-old spores and pinpointed a different trend for DPA release as a function of spore age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Triplet state photochemistry and the three-state crossing of acetophenone within time-dependent density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huix-Rotllant, Miquel, E-mail: miquel.huix@gmail.com; Ferré, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.ferre@univ-amu.fr [Institut de Chimie Radicalaire (UMR-7273), Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2014-04-07

    Even though time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) works generally well for describing excited states energies and properties in the Franck-Condon region, it can dramatically fail in predicting photochemistry, notably when electronic state crossings occur. Here, we assess the ability of TDDFT to describe the photochemistry of an important class of triplet sensitizers, namely, aromatic ketones. We take acetophenone as a test molecule, for which accurate ab initio results exist in the literature. Triplet acetophenone is generated thanks to an exotic three-state crossing involving one singlet and two triplets states (i.e., a simultaneous intersystem crossing and triplet conical intersection), thus being a stringent test for approximate TDDFT. We show that most exchange-correlation functionals can only give a semi-qualitative picture of the overall photochemistry, in which the three-state crossing is rather represented as a triplet conical intersection separated from the intersystem crossing. The best result overall is given by the double hybrid functional mPW2PLYP, which is even able to reproduce quantitatively the three-state crossing region. We rationalize this results by noting that double hybrid functionals include a larger portion of double excitation character to the excited states.

  14. Biweekly list of papers on radiation chemistry and photochemistry. Annual cumulation with keyword and author indexes. Volume 16. 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, I.C.; Helman, W.P.; Hug, G.L.; Ross, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Biweekly List of Papers on Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry is a current-awareness service published by the Radiation Chemistry Data Center (RCDC), with special emphasis on the kinetics and other properties of transient ions, radicals, and excited species. Papers are included on the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of organic and inorganic systems, biological molecules and polymers, with references to ESR and luminescence studies. Complete coverage is attempted only for those studies which are initiated by light or ionizing radiation, and which provide quantitative physical chemical data such as quantum yields, specific rates, G values, etc. No attempt is made to cover topics such as mechanistic and preparative photochemistry, photosynthesis, photography, and irradiation of metals. The references listed herein are obtained from scanning about 60 current journals as well as Chemical Abstracts, INIS Atomindex and several other publications listing current references. The reference lists, which are issued biweekly, are cumulated annually with the addition of keyword and author indexes. Indexed cumulations were published semiannually for Vol. 4-6 (1971-73) and are published annually for Vol. 7+ (1974+); back copies are available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

  15. The distribution of Paenibacillus larvae spores in adult bees and honey and larval mortality, following the addition of American foulbrood diseased brood or spore-contaminated honey in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Anders; Korpela, Seppo; Fries, Ingemar

    2008-09-01

    Within colony transmission of Paenibacillus larvae spores was studied by giving spore-contaminated honey comb or comb containing 100 larvae killed by American foulbrood to five experimental colonies respectively. We registered the impact of the two treatments on P. larvae spore loads in adult bees and honey and on larval mortality by culturing for spores in samples of adult bees and honey, respectively, and by measuring larval survival. The results demonstrate a direct effect of treatment on spore levels in adult bees and honey as well as on larval mortality. Colonies treated with dead larvae showed immediate high spore levels in adult bee samples, while the colonies treated with contaminated honey showed a comparable spore load but the effect was delayed until the bees started to utilize the honey at the end of the flight season. During the winter there was a build up of spores in the adult bees, which may increase the risk for infection in spring. The results confirm that contaminated honey can act as an environmental reservoir of P. larvae spores and suggest that less spores may be needed in honey, compared to in diseased brood, to produce clinically diseased colonies. The spore load in adult bee samples was significantly related to larval mortality but the spore load of honey samples was not.

  16. Using the Flipchem Photochemistry Model When Fitting Incoherent Scatter Radar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A. S.; Varney, R. H.

    2017-12-01

    The North face Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N) routinely images the dynamics of the polar ionosphere, providing measurements of the plasma density, electron temperature, ion temperature, and line of sight velocity with seconds to minutes time resolution. RISR-N does not directly measure ionospheric parameters, but backscattered signals, recording them as voltage samples. Using signal processing techniques, radar autocorrelation functions (ACF) are estimated from the voltage samples. A model of the signal ACF is then fitted to the ACF using non-linear least-squares techniques to obtain the best-fit ionospheric parameters. The signal model, and therefore the fitted parameters, depend on the ionospheric ion composition that is used [e.g. Zettergren et. al. (2010), Zou et. al. (2017)].The software used to process RISR-N ACF data includes the "flipchem" model, which is an ion photochemistry model developed by Richards [2011] that was adapted from the Field LineInterhemispheric Plasma (FLIP) model. Flipchem requires neutral densities, neutral temperatures, electron density, ion temperature, electron temperature, solar zenith angle, and F10.7 as inputs to compute ion densities, which are input to the signal model. A description of how the flipchem model is used in RISR-N fitting software will be presented. Additionally, a statistical comparison of the fitted electron density, ion temperature, electron temperature, and velocity obtained using a flipchem ionosphere, a pure O+ ionosphere, and a Chapman O+ ionosphere will be presented. The comparison covers nearly two years of RISR-N data (April 2015 - December 2016). Richards, P. G. (2011), Reexamination of ionospheric photochemistry, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A08307, doi:10.1029/2011JA016613.Zettergren, M., Semeter, J., Burnett, B., Oliver, W., Heinselman, C., Blelly, P.-L., and Diaz, M.: Dynamic variability in F-region ionospheric composition at auroral arc boundaries, Ann. Geophys., 28, 651-664, https

  17. A Gompertz regression model for fern spores germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel y Galán, Jose María

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Germination is one of the most important biological processes for both seed and spore plants, also for fungi. At present, mathematical models of germination have been developed in fungi, bryophytes and several plant species. However, ferns are the only group whose germination has never been modelled. In this work we develop a regression model of the germination of fern spores. We have found that for Blechnum serrulatum, Blechnum yungense, Cheilanthes pilosa, Niphidium macbridei and Polypodium feuillei species the Gompertz growth model describe satisfactorily cumulative germination. An important result is that regression parameters are independent of fern species and the model is not affected by intraspecific variation. Our results show that the Gompertz curve represents a general germination model for all the non-green spore leptosporangiate ferns, including in the paper a discussion about the physiological and ecological meaning of the model.La germinación es uno de los procesos biológicos más relevantes tanto para las plantas con esporas, como para las plantas con semillas y los hongos. Hasta el momento, se han desarrollado modelos de germinación para hongos, briofitos y diversas especies de espermatófitos. Los helechos son el único grupo de plantas cuya germinación nunca ha sido modelizada. En este trabajo se desarrolla un modelo de regresión para explicar la germinación de las esporas de helechos. Observamos que para las especies Blechnum serrulatum, Blechnum yungense, Cheilanthes pilosa, Niphidium macbridei y Polypodium feuillei el modelo de crecimiento de Gompertz describe satisfactoriamente la germinación acumulativa. Un importante resultado es que los parámetros de la regresión son independientes de la especie y que el modelo no está afectado por variación intraespecífica. Por lo tanto, los resultados del trabajo muestran que la curva de Gompertz puede representar un modelo general para todos los helechos leptosporangiados

  18. A Generic Method for Fungal Spore Detection: The use of a monoclonal antibody and surface plasmon resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter; Hearty, Stephen; Frøkiær, Hanne

    causing wheat yellow rust. We have developed mabs towards intact whole spores and used a subtractive inhibition format for detection of spores in solution. The antibody was incubated with different spore concentrations and the remaining free antibody was quantified using a BIAcore® 3000 sensor. Decreasing...

  19. Chlorine inactivation of fungal spores on cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, S; Pardoel, D; Harun, A; Treloar, T

    1997-04-01

    Although 0.4% chlorine for 2 min has been recommended for surface disinfection of food samples before direct plating for fungal enumeration, this procedure may not be adequate for highly contaminated products. The effectiveness of a range of chlorine solutions was investigated using barley samples artificially contaminated with four different concentrations of Aspergillus flavus. A. niger, A. ochraceus, Eurotium repens, Penicillium brevicompactum P. chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. At initial contamination levels greater than 10(4)/g, 0.4% chlorine did not inactivate sufficient spores to produce less than 20% contamination. Of the test fungi, ascospores of E. repens were the most resistant to chlorine inactivation, whereas the conidia of C. cladosporioides were the most sensitive. Rinsing the samples with 70% ethanol improved the effectiveness of the recommended surface disinfection procedure. However, some ethanol appears to permeate into the grains and may inactivate sensitive internal fungi, although a minimal effect only was observed on wheat infected with Alternaria.

  20. The influence of lime and nitrogen fertilisers on spore counts of Pithomyces chartarum in pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttance, E L; Laven, R A; Mason, W A; Stevenson, M

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether the application of lime or nitrogen to pasture affected the spore counts of Pithomyces chartarum. The lime application studies were undertaken on a spring-calving, pasture-based, commercial dairy farm near Te Awamutu, New Zealand. On 6 November 2012, five randomly selected paddocks were split into three equal sections. In two of the sections, lime was applied at either 1.5 or 2.5 t/ha, and the central section was left as an untreated control. Each section was sampled for spore counting weekly from 16 January to 15 May 2013. Starting in January 2013, five other randomly selected paddocks were monitored for spore counts. On 20 March 2013 the average spore counts in three paddocks were >100,000 spores/g of pasture. These paddocks were then divided into three equal sections and lime was applied as described above. Spore counting in each section continued weekly until 15 May 2013. The nitrogen application study was carried out on three commercial dairy farms near Te Awamutu, New Zealand. Two randomly selected paddocks on each farm were divided into three equal sections and, on 20 December 2012, nitrogen in the form of urea was applied at either 50 or 80 kg urea/ha to two of the sections; the central section remained as an untreated control. Each section was sampled for spore counting weekly from 16 January to 15 May 2013. Following pre-summer lime application, treatment at 1.5 or 2.5 t/ha did not affect spore counts over time compared with the control section (p>0.26). Similarly following autumn lime application, treatment at 1.5 or 2.5 t/ha did not affect spore counts over time compared with the control section (p>0.11). Following nitrogen application median spore counts remained 0.49). This study found that application of lime before the risk period for facial eczema, in November, application of lime after a spore count rise, in March, or urea application in December did not affect changes in number of spores produced by P. chartarum. This

  1. Conversion of xylan by recyclable spores of Bacillus subtilis displaying thermophilic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattossovich, Rosanna; Iacono, Roberta; Cangiano, Giuseppina; Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Isticato, Rachele; Moracci, Marco; Ricca, Ezio

    2017-11-28

    The Bacillus subtilis spore has long been used to display antigens and enzymes. Spore display can be accomplished by a recombinant and a non-recombinant approach, with the latter proved more efficient than the recombinant one. We used the non-recombinant approach to independently adsorb two thermophilic enzymes, GH10-XA, an endo-1,4-β-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, and GH3-XT, a β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) from Thermotoga thermarum. These enzymes catalyze, respectively, the endohydrolysis of (1-4)-β-D-xylosidic linkages of xylans and the hydrolysis of (1-4)-β-D-xylans to remove successive D-xylose residues from the non-reducing termini. We report that both purified enzymes were independently adsorbed on purified spores of B. subtilis. The adsorption was tight and both enzymes retained part of their specific activity. When spores displaying either GH10-XA or GH3-XT were mixed together, xylan was hydrolysed more efficiently than by a mixture of the two free, not spore-adsorbed, enzymes. The high total activity of the spore-bound enzymes is most likely due to a stabilization of the enzymes that, upon adsorption on the spore, remained active at the reaction conditions for longer than the free enzymes. Spore-adsorbed enzymes, collected after the two-step reaction and incubated with fresh substrate, were still active and able to continue xylan degradation. The recycling of the mixed spore-bound enzymes allowed a strong increase of xylan degradation. Our results indicate that the two-step degradation of xylans can be accomplished by mixing spores displaying either one of two required enzymes. The two-step process occurs more efficiently than with the two un-adsorbed, free enzymes and adsorbed spores can be reused for at least one other reaction round. The efficiency of the process, the reusability of the adsorbed enzymes, and the well documented robustness of spores of B. subtilis indicate the spore as a suitable platform to display enzymes

  2. Photochemistry of Coronene in Cosmic Water Ice Analogs at Different Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Barros, A. L. F. [Departamento de Física, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca, Av. Maracanã 229, 20271-110 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mattioda, A. L.; Ricca, A.; Cruz-Diaz, G.A.; Allamandola, L. J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    This work presents the photochemistry of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated coronene in water ices at 15 K studied using mid-infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) spectroscopy for C{sub 24}H{sub 12}:H{sub 2}O at concentrations of (1:50), (1:150), (1:200), (1:300), and (1:400). Previous UV irradiation studies of anthracene:H{sub 2}O, pyrene:H{sub 2}O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H{sub 2}O ices at 15 K have shown that aromatic alcohols and ketones, as well as CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}CO, are formed at very low temperatures. Likewise, here, in addition to the coronene cation, hydroxy-, keto-, and protonated coronene (coronene H{sup +}) are formed. The rate constants for the decay of neutral coronene and for the formation of photoproducts have been derived. It is shown that Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their UV induced PAH:H{sub 2}O photoproducts have mid-infrared spectroscopic signatures in the 5–8 μ m region that can contribute to the interstellar ice components described by Boogert et al. as C1–C5. Our results suggest that oxygenated and hydrogenated PAHs could be in UV-irradiated regions of the interstellar medium where water-rich ices are important.

  3. The atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR: a tool for the investigation of photochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauers, T.; Bohn, B.; Johnen, F.-J.; Rohrer, R.; Rodriguez Bares, S.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.

    2003-04-01

    On the campus of the Forschungszentrum Jülich we constructed SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber) which was accomplished in fall 2001. The chamber consists of a 280-m^3 double-wall Teflon bag of cylindrical shape that is held by a steel frame. Typically 75% of the outside actinic flux (290~nm~--~420~nm) is available inside the chamber. A louvre system allows switching between full sun light and dark within 40 s giving the opportunity to study relaxation processes of the photo chemical system. The SAPHIR chamber is equipped with a comprehensive set of sensitive instruments including the measurements of OH, HO_2, CO, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen-oxides and solar radiation. Moreover, the modular concept of SAPHIR allows fast and flexible integration of new instruments and techniques. In this paper we will show the unique and new features of the SAPHIR chamber, namely the clean air supply and high purity water vapor supply providing a wide range of trace gas concentrations being accessible through the experiments. We will also present examples from the first year of SAPHIR experiment showing the scope of application from high quality instrument inter-comparison and kinetic studies to the simulation of complex mixtures of trace gases at ambient concentrations.

  4. Photochemistry of Coronene in Cosmic Water Ice Analogs at Different Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, A. L. F.; Mattioda, A. L.; Ricca, A.; Cruz-Diaz, G. A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the photochemistry of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated coronene in water ices at 15 K studied using mid-infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) spectroscopy for C24H12:H2O at concentrations of (1:50), (1:150), (1:200), (1:300), and (1:400). Previous UV irradiation studies of anthracene:H2O, pyrene:H2O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H2O ices at 15 K have shown that aromatic alcohols and ketones, as well as CO2 and H2CO, are formed at very low temperatures. Likewise, here, in addition to the coronene cation, hydroxy-, keto-, and protonated coronene (coronene H+) are formed. The rate constants for the decay of neutral coronene and for the formation of photoproducts have been derived. It is shown that Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their UV induced PAH:H2O photoproducts have mid-infrared spectroscopic signatures in the 5-8 μm region that can contribute to the interstellar ice components described by Boogert et al. as C1-C5. Our results suggest that oxygenated and hydrogenated PAHs could be in UV-irradiated regions of the interstellar medium where water-rich ices are important.

  5. Photochemistry of Coronene in Cosmic Water Ice Analogs at Different Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Barros, A. L. F.; Mattioda, A. L.; Ricca, A.; Cruz-Diaz, G.A.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the photochemistry of ultraviolet (UV) irradiated coronene in water ices at 15 K studied using mid-infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) spectroscopy for C 24 H 12 :H 2 O at concentrations of (1:50), (1:150), (1:200), (1:300), and (1:400). Previous UV irradiation studies of anthracene:H 2 O, pyrene:H 2 O, and benzo[ghi]perylene:H 2 O ices at 15 K have shown that aromatic alcohols and ketones, as well as CO 2 and H 2 CO, are formed at very low temperatures. Likewise, here, in addition to the coronene cation, hydroxy-, keto-, and protonated coronene (coronene H + ) are formed. The rate constants for the decay of neutral coronene and for the formation of photoproducts have been derived. It is shown that Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their UV induced PAH:H 2 O photoproducts have mid-infrared spectroscopic signatures in the 5–8 μ m region that can contribute to the interstellar ice components described by Boogert et al. as C1–C5. Our results suggest that oxygenated and hydrogenated PAHs could be in UV-irradiated regions of the interstellar medium where water-rich ices are important.

  6. Energy transfer and photochemistry on a metal surface: Mo(CO)6 on Rh(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germer, T.A.; Ho, W.

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of photoinduced reactions on solid surfaces depends on the relative rates between the excited-state decomposition and the energy transfer to the surface. In this study, the photodecomposition of Mo(CO) 6 on Rh(100) at 90 K by 325-nm UV irradiation has been studied as a function of coverage and surface preparation using thermal desorption spectroscopy, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and photoinduced desorption spectroscopy. It is found that Mo(CO) 6 adsorbs dissociatively on Rh(100) into carbonyl fragments and CO in the first monolayer and molecularly in multilayers. Photoinduced desorption of CO is observed for the multilayers adsorbed onto the dissociated first layer via a nonthermal electronic excitation of adsorbed metal carbonyls. The presence of the metal surface prevents complete decarbonylation as in the gas phase; deexcitation of electronically excited carbonyls is not sufficiently fast to quench all the observed photochemistry. It is also found that Mo(CO) 6 adsorbs molecularly on a presaturated CO ordered overlayer on Rh(100) and undergoes photodissociation to a greater degree than on the dissociated and disordered surface of carbonyl fragments. The ordered CO layer effectively screens the interaction between the molecular carbonyls and the Rh(100) layer surface

  7. Interactive Photochemistry in Earth System Models to Assess Uncertainty in Ozone and Greenhouse Gases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prather, Michael J. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Hsu, Juno [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Nicolau, Alex [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Veidenbaum, Alex [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Smith, Philip Cameron [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergmann, Dan [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Atmospheric chemistry controls the abundances and hence climate forcing of important greenhouse gases including N2O, CH4, HFCs, CFCs, and O3. Attributing climate change to human activities requires, at a minimum, accurate models of the chemistry and circulation of the atmosphere that relate emissions to abundances. This DOE-funded research provided realistic, yet computationally optimized and affordable, photochemical modules to the Community Earth System Model (CESM) that augment the CESM capability to explore the uncertainty in future stratospheric-tropospheric ozone, stratospheric circulation, and thus the lifetimes of chemically controlled greenhouse gases from climate simulations. To this end, we have successfully implemented Fast-J (radiation algorithm determining key chemical photolysis rates) and Linoz v3.0 (linearized photochemistry for interactive O3, N2O, NOy and CH4) packages in LLNL-CESM and for the first time demonstrated how change in O2 photolysis rate within its uncertainty range can significantly impact on the stratospheric climate and ozone abundances. From the UCI side, this proposal also helped LLNL develop a CAM-Superfast Chemistry model that was implemented for the IPCC AR5 and contributed chemical-climate simulations to CMIP5.

  8. Photophysics and Photochemistry of Canonical Nucleobases’ Thioanalogs: From Quantum Mechanical Studies to Time Resolved Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serra Arslancan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Interest in understanding the photophysics and photochemistry of thiated nucleobases has been awakened because of their possible involvement in primordial RNA or their potential use as photosensitizers in medicinal chemistry. The interpretation of the photodynamics of these systems, conditioned by their intricate potential energy surfaces, requires the powerful interplay between experimental measurements and state of the art molecular simulations. In this review, we provide an overview on the photophysics of natural nucleobases’ thioanalogs, which covers the last 30 years and both experimental and computational contributions. For all the canonical nucleobase’s thioanalogs, we have compiled the main steady state absorption and emission features and their interpretation in terms of theoretical calculations. Then, we revise the main topographical features, including stationary points and interstate crossings, of their potential energy surfaces based on quantum mechanical calculations and we conclude, by combining the outcome of different spectroscopic techniques and molecular dynamics simulations, with the mechanism by which these nucleobase analogs populate their triplet excited states, which are at the origin of their photosensitizing properties.

  9. What do PANs Tell us about VOC-NOx Photochemistry in the Urban/Rural Interface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. M.; Flocke, F. M.; Zheng, W.; Bertman, S.; Marchewka, M.; Williams, E.; Lerner, B.; Kuster, W.; Goldan, P.; Gilman, J.; Sommariva, R.; Trainer, M.; Fehsenfeld, F.

    2006-12-01

    Peroxycarboxylic Nitric Anhydrides (PANs) are co-products of the VOC-NOx photochemistry that is responsible for O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the troposphere. The relative abundance of the various PAN type compounds can provide important diagnostic information as to the contribution of different VOC sources to these processes. Anthropogenic, biogenic and petrochemical VOC sources have shown distinct profiles of PAN, PPN, MPAN, PiBN, and APAN, which can be analyzed using simple numerical models and compared to the results of detailed chemical mechanisms. One result of these studies is that the PAN compounds can be used to better define the contribution of isoprene to O3 production in the urban/rural interface. Another result is that high relative concentrations of APAN are characteristic of high petrochemical source impact. In addition, changes in the relative abundance of PPN and PAN can indicate the aging of a continental photochemical plume. This paper will present selected results from five field experiments and modeling studies from the Nashville 1999 Southern Oxidant Study up through the TexAQS 2006 study, in and around Houston, TX.

  10. A novel synthesis of polymeric CO via useful hard X-ray photochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pravica

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the synchrotron hard X-ray-induced decomposition of strontium oxalate (SrC2O4 pressurized to 7 GPa inside a diamond anvil cell (DAC. After some 4 h of irradiation in a white X-ray synchrotron beam, a dark reddish/brown region formed in the area of irradiation which was surrounded by a yellowish brown remainder in the rest of the sample. Upon depressurization of the sample to ambient conditions, the reacted/decomposed sample was recoverable as a dark brown/red and yellow waxy solid. Synchrotron infrared spectroscopy confirmed the strong presence of CO2 even under ambient conditions with the sample exposed to air and other strongly absorbing regions, suggesting that the sample may likely be polymerized CO (in part with dispersed CO2 and SrO trapped within the polymer. These results will have significant implications in the ability to readily produce and trap CO2 in situ via irradiation of a simple powder for useful hard X-ray photochemistry and in the ability to easily manufacture polymeric CO (via loading of powders in a DAC or high volume press without the need for the dangerous and complex loading of toxic CO. A novel means of X-ray-induced polymerization under extreme conditions has also been demonstrated.

  11. Aerosols from fires: an examination of the effects on ozone photochemistry in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2012-11-06

    This study presents a first attempt to investigate the roles of fire aerosols in ozone (O(3)) photochemistry using an online coupled meteorology-chemistry model, the Weather Research and Foresting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). Four 1-month WRF-Chem simulations for August 2007, with and without fire emissions, were carried out to assess the sensitivity of O(3) predictions to the emissions and subsequent radiative feedbacks associated with large-scale fires in the Western United States (U.S.). Results show that decreases in planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) resulting from the radiative effects of fire aerosols and increases in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the fires tend to increase modeled O(3) concentrations near the source. Reductions in downward shortwave radiation reaching the surface and surface temperature due to fire aerosols cause decreases in biogenic isoprene emissions and J(NO(2)) photolysis rates, resulting in reductions in O(3) concentrations by as much as 15%. Thus, the results presented in this study imply that considering the radiative effects of fire aerosols may reduce O(3) overestimation by traditional photochemical models that do not consider fire-induced changes in meteorology; implementation of coupled meteorology-chemistry models are required to simulate the atmospheric chemistry impacted by large-scale fires.

  12. Mushroom's spore size and time of fruiting are strongly related: is moisture important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauserud, Håvard; Heegaard, Einar; Halvorsen, Rune; Boddy, Lynne; Høiland, Klaus; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2011-04-23

    Most basidiomycete fungi produce annual short-lived sexual fruit bodies from which billions of microscopic spores are spread into the air during a short time period. However, little is known about the selective forces that have resulted in some species fruiting early and others later in the fruiting season. This study of relationships between morphological and ecological characteristics, climate factors and time of fruiting are based upon thorough statistical analyses of 66 520 mapped records from Norway, representing 271 species of autumnal fruiting mushroom species. We found a strong relationship between spore size and time of fruiting; on average, a doubling of spore size (volume) corresponded to 3 days earlier fruiting. Small-spored species dominate in the oceanic parts of Norway, whereas large-spored species are typical of more continental parts. In separate analyses, significant relationships were observed between spore size and climate factors. We hypothesize that these relationships are owing to water balance optimization, driven by water storage in spores as a critical factor for successful germination of primary mycelia in the drier micro-environments found earlier in the fruiting season and/or in continental climates.

  13. Isolated Bacterial Spores at High-velocity Survive Surface Impacts in Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Daniel; Barney, Brandon

    We present experiments in which bacterial spores were found to survive being accelerated in vacuum to velocities in the range 30-120 m/s and impacted on a dense target. In these experiments, spores of Bacillus subtilis spores were charged using electrospray at atmospheric pressure, dried, and then introduced into high vacuum. Through choice of skimmers and beam tubes, different velocity ranges were achieved. An image-charge detector observed the charged spores, providing total charge and velocity. The spores then impacted a glass target within a collection vessel. After the experiment, the collection vessel contents were extracted and cultured. Several positive and negative controls were used, including the use of antibiotic-resistant spores and antibiotic-containing (rifampicin) agar for culturing. These impact velocities are of particular interest for possible transport of bacterial spores from Mars to Phobos, and may have implications for planetary protection in a Phobos sample return mission. In addition, bacteria may reach similar velocities during a spacecraft crash (e.g., within components, or from spacecraft to surface materials during impact, etc.), raising concerns about forward contamination. The velocities of interest to transport of life between planets (panspermia) are somewhat higher, but these results complement shock-based experiments and contribute to the general discussion of impact survivability of organisms.

  14. Spore coat protein synthesis in cell-free systems from sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Munoz, L E; Sadaie, Y; Doi, R H

    1978-09-01

    Cell-free systems for protein synthesis were prepared from Bacillus subtilis 168 cells at several stages of sporulation. Immunological methods were used to determine whether spore coat protein could be synthesized in the cell-free systems prepared from sporulating cells. Spore coat protein synthesis first occurred in extracts from stage t2 cells. The proportion of spore coat protein to total proteins synthesized in the cell-free systems was 2.4 and 3.9% at stages t2 and t4, respectively. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of immunoprecipitates from the cell-free systems showed the complete synthesis of an apparent spore coat protein precursor (molecular weight, 25,000). A polypeptide of this weight was previously identified in studies in vivo (L.E. Munoz, Y. Sadaie, and R.H. Doi, J. Biol. Chem., in press). The synthesis in vitro of polysome-associated nascent spore coat polypeptides with varying molecular weights up to 23,000 was also detected. These results indicate that the spore coat protein may be synthesized as a precursor protein. The removal of proteases in the crude extracts by treatment with hemoglobin-Sepharose affinity techniques may be preventing the conversion of the large 25,000-dalton precursor to the 12,500-dalton mature spore coat protein.

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans Predation on Bacillus anthracis: Decontamination of Spore Contaminated Soil with Germinants and Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelkle, Bettina; Choi, Young; Baillie, Leslie W; Richter, William; Buyuk, Fatih; Celik, Elif; Wendling, Morgan; Sahin, Mitat; Gallagher, Theresa

    2017-01-01

    Remediation of Bacillus anthracis -contaminated soil is challenging and approaches to reduce overall spore levels in environmentally contaminated soil or after intentional release of the infectious disease agent in a safe, low-cost manner are needed. B. anthracis spores are highly resistant to biocides, but once germinated they become susceptible to traditional biocides or potentially even natural predators such as nematodes in the soil environment. Here, we describe a two-step approach to reducing B. anthracis spore load in soil during laboratory trials, whereby germinants and Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes are applied concurrently. While the application of germinants reduced B. anthracis spore load by up to four logs depending on soil type, the addition of nematodes achieved a further log reduction in spore count. These laboratory based results suggest that the combined use of nematodes and germinants could represent a promising approach for the remediation of B. anthracis spore contaminated soil. Originality-Significance Statement: This study demonstrates for the first time the successful use of environmentally friendly decontamination methods to inactivate Bacillus anthracis spores in soil using natural predators of the bacterium, nematode worms.

  16. The Luna stain, an improved selective stain for detection of microsporidian spores in histologic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tracy S.; Spitsbergen, Jan M.; Feist, Stephen W.; Kent, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Microsporidia in histologic sections are most often diagnosed by observing spores in host tissues. Spores are easy to identify if they occur in large aggregates or xenomas when sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). However, individual spores are not frequently detected in host tissues with conventional H&E staining, particularly if spores are scattered within the tissues, areas of inflammation or small spores in nuclei (i.e., Nucleospora salmonis). Hence, a variety of selective stains that enhance visualization of spores are recommended. We discovered that the Luna stain, used to highlight eosinophils, red blood cells and chitin in arthropods and other invertebrates, also stains spores of Pseudoloma neurophilia. We compared this stain to the Gram, Fite’s acid fast, Giemsa, and H&E stains on eight aquatic microsporidian organisms that were readily available in our two laboratories: Loma salmonae, Glugea anomala, Pseudoloma neurophilia, Pleistophora hyphessobryconis, Pleistophora vermiformis, Glugea sp., Steinhausia mytilovum and an unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis, UK. Based on tinctorial properties and background staining, the Luna stain performed better for detection of 6 of the 8 microsporidia. Gram stain was superior for the two microsporidia from invertebrates, Steinhausia mytilovum and the unidentified microsporidian from E. sinensis. PMID:21848126

  17. Effect of Coat Layers in Bacillus Subtilis Spores Resistance to Photo-Catalytic Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz del Carmen Huesca-Espitia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Different water treatment processes (physical and chemical exist to obtain safe water for human or food industry supply. The advanced oxidation technologies are rising as a new alternative to eliminate undesirable chemicals and waterborne diseases. In this work, we analyze the power of the photo-assisted Fenton process using Fe(II/H2O2 and UV radiation (365 nm to inactivate Bacillus subtilis spores, considered among the most resistant biological structures known. Different concentrations of Fe(II, H2O2 and UV radiation (365 nm were used to inactivate wt and some coat spore mutants of B. subtilis. Wt spores of B. subtilis were inactivated after 60 min using this process. In general, all defective coat mutants were more sensitive than the wt spores and, particularly, the double mutant was 10 folds more sensitive than others being inactivated during the first 10 minutes using soft reaction conditions. Presence of Fe(II ions was found essential for spore inactivating process and, for those spores inactivated using the Fe(II/H2O2 under UV radiation process, it is suggested that coat structures are important to their resistance to the treatment process. The photo-assisted Fenton process using Fe(II, H2O2 and UV radiation (365 nm can be used to inactivate any water microorganisms with the same or less resistance that B. subtilis spores to produce safe drinking water in relatively short treatment time.

  18. Rapid Detection of Bacillus anthracis Spores Using Immunomagnetic Separation and Amperometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Waller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Portable detection and quantitation methods for Bacillus anthracis (anthrax spores in pure culture or in environmental samples are lacking. Here, an amperometric immunoassay has been developed utilizing immunomagnetic separation to capture the spores and remove potential interferents from test samples followed by amperometric measurement on a field-portable instrument. Antibody-conjugated magnetic beads and antibody-conjugated glucose oxidase were used in a sandwich format for the capture and detection of target spores. Glucose oxidase activity of spore pellets was measured indirectly via amperometry by applying a bias voltage after incubation with glucose, horseradish peroxidase, and the electron mediator 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid. Target capture was mediated by polyclonal antisera, whereas monoclonal antibodies were used for signal generation. This strategy maximized sensitivity (500 target spores, 5000 cfu/mL, while also providing a good specificity for Bacillus anthracis spores. Minimal signal deviation occurs in the presence of environmental interferents including soil and modified pH conditions, demonstrating the strengths of immunomagnetic separation. The simultaneous incubation of capture and detection antibodies and rapid substrate development (5 min result in short sample-to-signal times (less than an hour. With attributes comparable or exceeding that of ELISA and LFDs, amperometry is a low-cost, low-weight, and practical method for detecting anthrax spores in the field.

  19. Germination and Inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris Spores Induced by Moderate Hydrostatic Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, Barbara; Skapska, Sylwia; Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Niezgoda, Jolanta; Porebska, Izabela; Dekowska, Agnieszka; Rzoska, Sylwester J

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of spoilage caused by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris for the fruit juice industry, the objective of this work was to study the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores induced by moderate hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic pressure treatment can induce the germination and inactivation of A. acidoterrestris spores. At low pH, spore germination of up to 3.59-3.75 log and inactivation of 1.85-2.04 log was observed in a low pressure window (200-300 MPa) applied at 50 degrees C for 20 min. Neutral pH suppressed inactivation, the number of spores inactivated at pH 7.0 was only 0.24-1.06 log. The pressurization temperature significantly affected spore germination and inactivation. The degree of germination in apple juice after pressurization for 30 min with 200 MPa at 20 degrees C was 2.04 log, with only 0.61 log of spores being inactivated, while at 70 degrees C spore germination was 5.94 log and inactivation 4.72 log. This temperature strongly stimulated germination and inactivation under higher (500 MPa) than lower (200 MPa) pressure. When the oscillatory mode was used, the degree of germination and inactivation was slightly higher than at continuous mode. The degree of germination and inactivation was inversely proportional to the soluble solids content and was lowest in concentrated apple juice.

  20. Image Cytometric Analysis of Algal Spores for Evaluation of Antifouling Activities of Biocidal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il Koo, Bon; Lee, Yun-Soo; Seo, Mintae; Seok Choi, Hyung; Leng Seah, Geok; Nam, Taegu; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2017-07-31

    Chemical biocides have been widely used as marine antifouling agents, but their environmental toxicity impose regulatory restriction on their use. Although various surrogate antifouling biocides have been introduced, their comparative effectiveness has not been well investigated partly due to the difficulty of quantitative evaluation of their antifouling activity. Here we report an image cytometric method to quantitatively analyze the antifouling activities of seven commercial biocides using Ulva prolifera as a target organism, which is known to be a dominant marine species causing soft fouling. The number of spores settled on a substrate is determined through image analysis using the intrinsic fluorescence of chlorophylls in the spores. Pre-determined sets of size and shape of spores allow for the precise determination of the number of settled spores. The effects of biocide concentration and combination of different biocides on the spore settlement are examined. No significant morphological changes of Ulva spores are observed, but the amount of adhesive pad materials is appreciably decreased in the presence of biocides. It is revealed that the growth rate of Ulva is not directly correlated with the antifouling activities against the settlement of Ulva spores. This work suggests that image cytometric analysis is a very convenient, fast-processable method to directly analyze the antifouling effects of biocides and coating materials.

  1. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores during Laboratory-Scale Composting of Feedlot Cattle Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanwei; Harvey, Amanda; Barbieri, Ruth; Reuter, Tim; Stanford, Kim; Amoako, Kingsley K.; Selinger, Leonard B.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax outbreaks in livestock have social, economic and health implications, altering farmer’s livelihoods, impacting trade and posing a zoonotic risk. Our study investigated the survival of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. anthracis spores sporulated at 15, 20, or 37°C, over 33 days of composting. Spores (∼7.5 log10 CFU g-1) were mixed with manure and composted in laboratory scale composters. After 15 days, the compost was mixed and returned to the composter for a second cycle. Temperatures peaked at 71°C on day 2 and remained ≥55°C for an average of 7 days in the first cycle, but did not exceed 55°C in the second. For B. thuringiensis, spores generated at 15 and 21°C exhibited reduced (P composting for spores generated at 15, 21, and 37°C, respectively. For both species, spore viability declined more rapidly (P composting cycle. Our findings suggest that the duration of thermophilic exposure (≥55°C) is the main factor influencing survival of B. anthracis spores in compost. As sporulation temperature did not influence survival of B. anthracis, composting may lower the viability of spores associated with carcasses infected with B. anthracis over a range of sporulation temperatures. PMID:27303388

  2. Evaluation of surface sampling method performance for Bacillus Spores on clean and dirty outdoor surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mollye C.; Einfeld, Wayne; Boucher, Raymond M.; Brown, Gary Stephen; Tezak, Matthew Stephen

    2011-06-01

    Recovery of Bacillus atrophaeous spores from grime-treated and clean surfaces was measured in a controlled chamber study to assess sampling method performance. Outdoor surfaces investigated by wipe and vacuum sampling methods included stainless steel, glass, marble and concrete. Bacillus atrophaeous spores were used as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis spores in this study designed to assess whether grime-coated surfaces significantly affected surface sampling method performance when compared to clean surfaces. A series of chamber tests were carried out in which known amounts of spores were allowed to gravitationally settle onto both clean and dirty surfaces. Reference coupons were co-located with test coupons in all chamber experiments to provide a quantitative measure of initial surface concentrations of spores on all surfaces, thereby allowing sampling recovery calculations. Results from these tests, carried out under both low and high humidity conditions, show that spore recovery from grime-coated surfaces is the same as or better than spore recovery from clean surfaces. Statistically significant differences between method performance for grime-coated and clean surfaces were observed in only about half of the chamber tests conducted.

  3. Factors influencing the inactivation of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores exposed to high hydrostatic pressure in apple juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowska, B.; Skąpska, S.; Fonberg-Broczek, M.; Niezgoda, J.; Chotkiewicz, M.; Dekowska, A.; Rzoska, S. J.

    2013-03-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, a thermoacidophilic and spore-forming bacterium, survives the typical pasteurization process and can cause the spoilage of juices, producing compounds associated with disinfectant-like odour (guaiacol, 2,6 - dibromophenol, 2,6 - dichlorophenol). Therefore, the use of other more effective techniques such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) is considered for preserving juices. The aim of this study was to search for factors affecting the resistance of A. acidoterrestris spores to HHP. The baroprotective effect of increased solute concentration in apple juice on A. acidoterrestris spores during high pressure processing was observed. During the 45 min pressurization (200 MPa, 50°C) of the spores in concentrated apple juice (71.1°Bx), no significant changes were observed in their number. However, in the juices with a soluble solids content of 35.7, 23.6 and 11.2°Bx, the reduction in spores was 1.3-2.4 log, 2.6-3.3 log and 2.8-4.0 log, respectively. No clear effect of age of spores on the survival under high pressure conditions was found. Spores surviving pressurization and subjected to subsequent HHP treatment showed increased resistance to pressure, by even as much as 2.0 log.

  4. Ectomycorrhizal fungal spore bank recovery after a severe forest fire: some like it hot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Levine, Carrie R; DiRocco, Angela M; Battles, John J; Bruns, Thomas D

    2016-05-01

    After severe wildfires, pine recovery depends on ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal spores surviving and serving as partners for regenerating forest trees. We took advantage of a large, severe natural forest fire that burned our long-term study plots to test the response of ECM fungi to fire. We sampled the ECM spore bank using pine seedling bioassays and high-throughput sequencing before and after the California Rim Fire. We found that ECM spore bank fungi survived the fire and dominated the colonization of in situ and bioassay seedlings, but there were specific fire adapted fungi such as Rhizopogon olivaceotinctus that increased in abundance after the fire. The frequency of ECM fungal species colonizing pre-fire bioassay seedlings, post-fire bioassay seedlings and in situ seedlings were strongly positively correlated. However, fire reduced the ECM spore bank richness by eliminating some of the rare species, and the density of the spore bank was reduced as evidenced by a larger number of soil samples that yielded uncolonized seedlings. Our results show that although there is a reduction in ECM inoculum, the ECM spore bank community largely remains intact, even after a high-intensity fire. We used advanced techniques for data quality control with Illumina and found consistent results among varying methods. Furthermore, simple greenhouse bioassays can be used to determine which fungi will colonize after fires. Similar to plant seed banks, a specific suite of ruderal, spore bank fungi take advantage of open niche space after fires.

  5. Sporangium Exposure and Spore Release in the Peruvian Maidenhair Fern (Adiantum peruvianum, Pteridaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Poppinga

    Full Text Available We investigated the different processes involved in spore liberation in the polypod fern Adiantum peruvianum (Pteridaceae. Sporangia are being produced on the undersides of so-called false indusia, which are situated at the abaxial surface of the pinnule margins, and become exposed by a desiccation-induced movement of these pinnule flaps. The complex folding kinematics and functional morphology of false indusia are being described, and we discuss scenarios of movement initiation and passive hydraulic actuation of these structures. High-speed cinematography allowed for analyses of fast sporangium motion and for tracking ejected spores. Separation and liberation of spores from the sporangia are induced by relaxation of the annulus (the 'throwing arm' of the sporangium catapult and conservation of momentum generated during this process, which leads to sporangium bouncing. The ultra-lightweight spores travel through air with a maximum velocity of ~5 m s(-1, and a launch acceleration of ~6300 g is measured. In some cases, the whole sporangium, or parts of it, together with contained spores break away from the false indusium and are shed as a whole. Also, spores can stick together and form spore clumps. Both findings are discussed in the context of wind dispersal.

  6. Validation of the Hirst-Type Spore Trap for Simultaneous Monitoring of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Biodiversities in Urban Air Samples by Next-Generation Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Andrés; Amo de Paz, Guillermo; Ferencova, Zuzana; Rastrojo, Alberto; Guantes, Raúl; García, Ana M; Alcamí, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, A Montserrat; Moreno, Diego A

    2017-07-01

    Pollen, fungi, and bacteria are the main microscopic biological entities present in outdoor air, causing allergy symptoms and disease transmission and having a significant role in atmosphere dynamics. Despite their relevance, a method for monitoring simultaneously these biological particles in metropolitan environments has not yet been developed. Here, we assessed the use of the Hirst-type spore trap to characterize the global airborne biota by high-throughput DNA sequencing, selecting regions of the 16S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer for the taxonomic assignment. We showed that aerobiological communities are well represented by this approach. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of two traps working synchronically compiled >87% of the total relative abundance for bacterial diversity collected in each sampler, >89% for fungi, and >97% for pollen. We found a good correspondence between traditional characterization by microscopy and genetic identification, obtaining more-accurate taxonomic assignments and detecting a greater diversity using the latter. We also demonstrated that DNA sequencing accurately detects differences in biodiversity between samples. We concluded that high-throughput DNA sequencing applied to aerobiological samples obtained with Hirst spore traps provides reliable results and can be easily implemented for monitoring prokaryotic and eukaryotic entities present in the air of urban areas. IMPORTANCE Detection, monitoring, and characterization of the wide diversity of biological entities present in the air are difficult tasks that require time and expertise in different disciplines. We have evaluated the use of the Hirst spore trap (an instrument broadly employed in aerobiological studies) to detect and identify these organisms by DNA-based analyses. Our results showed a consistent collection of DNA and a good concordance with traditional methods for identification, suggesting that these devices can be used as a tool for continuous

  7. Laboratory Investigations on the Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Deliquescent Salt Mars Analog Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, Danielle L.; Gough, Raina V.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Spry, James A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    2017-10-01

    Observed features such as recurring slope lineae suggest that liquid water may exist on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars today. The presence of this liquid water, likely in the form of a brine, has important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. It is possible that this water is formed, at least partially, by deliquescence of salts, a process during which hygroscopic salts absorb water vapor from the atmosphere and form a saturated liquid brine. We performed laboratory experiments to examine the ability of Bacillus subtilis (B-168) spores, alone or mixed with calcium perchlorate salt (Ca(ClO4)2), to form liquid water via deliquescence under Mars-relevant conditions. Spore survival after exposure to these conditions was examined. An environmental chamber was used to expose the samples to temperature and relative humidity (RH) values similar to those found on Mars, and Raman microscopy was used to identify the phases of water and salt that were present and to confirm the presence of spores. We found that B-168 spores did not condense any detectable water vapor on their own during the diurnal cycle, even at 100% RH. However, when spores were mixed with perchlorate salt, the entire sample deliquesced at low RH values, immersing the spores in a brine solution during the majority of the simulated martian temperature and humidity cycle. After exposure to the simulated diurnal cycles and, in some cases, perchlorate brine, the impact of each environmental scenario on spore survival was estimated by standard plate assay. We found that, if there are deliquescent salts in contact with spores, there is a mechanism for the spores to acquire liquid water starting with only atmospheric water vapor as the H2O source. Also, neither crystalline nor liquid Ca(ClO4)2 is sporicidal despite the low water activity.

  8. Diurnal Variations of Airborne Pollen and Spores in Taipei City, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Lin Yang

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal variation of airborne pollen and spores in Taipei City, Taiwan, was investigated during a two-year survey from 1993 to 1994. The pollen and spores were sampled using a Burkard seven-day volumetric pollen trap. The diurnal trends of the total amount of pollen and spores in 1993 and in 1994 were similar to each other, and peaked at 3 to 10 o’clock. The diurnal patterns of airborne pollen and spores of Broussonetia, Fraxinus, Cyathea and Gramineae in 1993 were similar to those in 1994. High concentrations of Broussonetia and Fraxinus were obtained from midnight to the next morning. Cyathea spores peaked from morning till noon, and Gramineae peaked in the afternoon. The diurnal patterns of airborne pollen of Bischofia, Juniperus, Mallotus, Morus, Trema and Urticaceae in 1993 were different to those in 1994. Regular diurnal patterns also associated with the taxa, which produce large pollen or spores, such as Gramineae and Cyathea. In contrast, Bischofia, Juniperus, Mallotus, Morus, Trema and Urticaceae produce relatively small pollen and the diurnal patterns of their airborne pollen were found irregular. The source plants Broussonetia and Fraxinus were close to the collection site so the diurnal patterns of their airborne pollen were regular, suggesting that the diurnal fluctuations of the pollen or spores in air might be affected by the source of plants and the sizes of pollen or spores. The transportation of the smaller pollen or spores in air is probably more easily affected by instability of air currents; they are therefore more likely to exhibit irregular diurnal patterns.

  9. Optimisation of a direct plating method for the detection and enumeration of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henczka, Marek; Djas, Małgorzata; Filipek, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    A direct plating method for the detection and enumeration of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris spores has been optimised. The results of the application of four types of growth media (BAT agar, YSG agar, K agar and SK agar) regarding the recovery and enumeration of A. acidoterrestris spores were compared. The influence of the type of applied growth medium, heat shock conditions, incubation temperature, incubation time, plating technique and the presence of apple juice in the sample on the accuracy of the detection and enumeration of A. acidoterrestris spores was investigated. Among the investigated media, YSG agar was the most sensitive medium, and its application resulted in the highest recovery of A. acidoterrestris spores, while K agar and BAT agar were the least suitable media. The effect of the heat shock time on the recovery of spores was negligible. When there was a low concentration of spores in a sample, the membrane filtration method was superior to the spread plating method. The obtained results show that heat shock carried out at 80°C for 10 min and plating samples in combination with membrane filtration on YSG agar, followed by incubation at 46°C for 3 days provided the optimal conditions for the detection and enumeration of A. acidoterrestris spores. Application of the presented method allows highly efficient, fast and sensitive identification and enumeration of A. acidoterrestris spores in food products. This methodology will be useful for the fruit juice industry for identifying products contaminated with A. acidoterrestris spores, and its practical application may prevent economic losses for manufacturers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Use of Germinants to Potentiate the Sensitivity of Bacillus anthracis Spores to Peracetic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ozgur; Buyuk, Fatih; Pottage, Tom; Crook, Ant; Hawkey, Suzanna; Cooper, Callum; Bennett, Allan; Sahin, Mitat; Baillie, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Elimination of Bacillus anthracis spores from the environment is a difficult and costly process due in part to the toxicity of current sporicidal agents. For this reason we investigated the ability of the spore germinants L-alanine (100 mM) and inosine (5 mM) to reduce the concentration of peracetic acid (PAA) required to inactivate B. anthracis spores. While L-alanine significantly enhanced (p = 0.0085) the bactericidal activity of 500 ppm PAA the same was not true for inosine suggesting some form of negative interaction. In contrast the germinant combination proved most effective at 100 ppm PAA (p = 0.0009). To determine if we could achieve similar results in soil we treated soil collected from the burial site of an anthrax infected animal which had been supplemented with spores of the Sterne strain of B. anthracis to increase the level of contamination to 10(4) spores/g. Treatment with germinants followed 1 h later by 5000 ppm PAA eliminated all of the spores. In contrast direct treatment of the animal burial site using this approach delivered using a back pack sprayer had no detectable effect on the level of B. anthracis contamination or on total culturable bacterial numbers over the course of the experiment. It did trigger a significant, but temporary, reduction (p < 0.0001) in the total spore count suggesting that germination had been triggered under real world conditions. In conclusion, we have shown that the application of germinants increase the sensitivity of bacterial spores to PAA. While the results of the single field trial were inconclusive, the study highlighted the potential of this approach and the challenges faced when attempting to perform real world studies on B. anthracis spores contaminated sites.

  11. The use of germinants to potentiate the sensitivity of Bacillus anthracis spores to peracetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur eCelebi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Elimination of Bacillus anthracis spores from the environment is a difficult and costly process due in part to the toxicity of current sporicidal agents. For this reason we investigated the ability of the spore germinants L-alanine (100 mM and inosine (5 mM to reduce the concentration of peracetic acid (PAA required to inactivate B.anthracis spores. While L-alanine significantly enhanced (p=0.0085 the bactericidal activity of 500 ppm PAA the same was not true for inosine suggesting some form of negative interaction. In contrast the germinant combination proved most effective at 100 ppm PAA (p=0.0009. To determine if we could achieve similar results in soil we treated soil collected from the burial site of an anthrax infected animal which had been supplemented with spores of the Sterne strain of B.anthracis to increase the level of contamination to 104 spores/g. Treatment with germinants followed one hour later by 5000 ppm PAA eliminated all of the spores. In contrast direct treatment of the animal burial site using this approach delivered using a back pack sprayer had no detectable effect on the level of B.anthracis contamination or on total culturable bacterial numbers over the course of the experiment. It did trigger a significant, but temporary, reduction (p<0.0001 in the total spore count suggesting that germination had been triggered under real world conditions. In conclusion, we have shown that the application of germinants increase the sensitivity of bacterial spores to PAA. While the results of the single field trial were inconclusive, the study highlighted the potential of this approach and the challenges faced when attempting to perform real world studies on B.anthracis spores contaminated sites.

  12. A Clostridium difficile-Specific, Gel-Forming Protein Required for Optimal Spore Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lauren Donnelly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a Gram-positive spore-forming obligate anaerobe that is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea worldwide. In order for C. difficile to initiate infection, its aerotolerant spore form must germinate in the gut of mammalian hosts. While almost all spore-forming organisms use transmembrane germinant receptors to trigger germination, C. difficile uses the pseudoprotease CspC to sense bile salt germinants. CspC activates the related subtilisin-like protease CspB, which then proteolytically activates the cortex hydrolase SleC. Activated SleC degrades the protective spore cortex layer, a step that is essential for germination to proceed. Since CspC incorporation into spores also depends on CspA, a related pseudoprotease domain, Csp family proteins play a critical role in germination. However, how Csps are incorporated into spores remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that incorporation of the CspC, CspB, and CspA germination regulators into spores depends on CD0311 (renamed GerG, a previously uncharacterized hypothetical protein. The reduced levels of Csps in gerG spores correlate with reduced responsiveness to bile salt germinants and increased germination heterogeneity in single-spore germination assays. Interestingly, asparagine-rich repeat sequences in GerG’s central region facilitate spontaneous gel formation in vitro even though they are dispensable for GerG-mediated control of germination. Since GerG is found exclusively in C. difficile, our results suggest that exploiting GerG function could represent a promising avenue for developing C. difficile-specific anti-infective therapies.

  13. Laboratory Investigations on the Survival of Bacillus subtilis Spores in Deliquescent Salt Mars Analog Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, Danielle L; Gough, Raina V; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J; Spry, James A; Tolbert, Margaret A

    2017-10-01

    Observed features such as recurring slope lineae suggest that liquid water may exist on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars today. The presence of this liquid water, likely in the form of a brine, has important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. It is possible that this water is formed, at least partially, by deliquescence of salts, a process during which hygroscopic salts absorb water vapor from the atmosphere and form a saturated liquid brine. We performed laboratory experiments to examine the ability of Bacillus subtilis (B-168) spores, alone or mixed with calcium perchlorate salt (Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 ), to form liquid water via deliquescence under Mars-relevant conditions. Spore survival after exposure to these conditions was examined. An environmental chamber was used to expose the samples to temperature and relative humidity (RH) values similar to those found on Mars, and Raman microscopy was used to identify the phases of water and salt that were present and to confirm the presence of spores. We found that B-168 spores did not condense any detectable water vapor on their own during the diurnal cycle, even at 100% RH. However, when spores were mixed with perchlorate salt, the entire sample deliquesced at low RH values, immersing the spores in a brine solution during the majority of the simulated martian temperature and humidity cycle. After exposure to the simulated diurnal cycles and, in some cases, perchlorate brine, the impact of each environmental scenario on spore survival was estimated by standard plate assay. We found that, if there are deliquescent salts in contact with spores, there is a mechanism for the spores to acquire liquid water starting with only atmospheric water vapor as the H 2 O source. Also, neither crystalline nor liquid Ca(ClO 4 ) 2 is sporicidal despite the low water activity. Key Words: Raman microscopy-Mars-Planetary protection-Salts-Water activity. Astrobiology 17, 997-1008.

  14. High Pressure Germination of Bacillus subtilis Spores with Alterations in Levels and Types of Germination Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    1ITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a CONTRACTNUMBER High pressure germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with W911NF-09-l-0286 alterations in levels and types of...A moderate high pressure (mHP) of 150 megaPascals (MPa) triggers germination of Bacillus subtilis spores via germinant receptors (GRs), while...germination by a very high pressure (vHP) of550 MPa is GR-independent. The mHP and vHP germination of Bacillus subtilis spores with different levels ofGRs

  15. Low-energy ion bombardment of frozen bacterial spores and its relevance to interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L.; Szkarlat, A.

    2005-01-01

    The panspermia hypothesis is concerned with the dissemination of life in space in the form of simple micro-organisms. During an interplanetary journey the micro-organisms are subjected to the action of, among others, the solar wind. We have simulated experimentally such conditions bombarding frozen bacterial spores with low-energy hydrogen ions. On the basis of the results obtained and our earlier research, a new look at the panspermia hypothesis is discussed. The general conclusion is that unprotected naked spores, their conglomerates and protected spores can survive attack of the solar wind, although to various degrees. (authors)

  16. Low-energy ion bombardment of frozen bacterial spores and its relevance to interplanetary space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Szkarlat, A. [Clinical Children' s Hospital of the Jagiellonian Univ., Medical College, Lab. of Microbiology, Cracow (Poland)

    2005-04-01

    The panspermia hypothesis is concerned with the dissemination of life in space in the form of simple micro-organisms. During an interplanetary journey the micro-organisms are subjected to the action of, among others, the solar wind. We have simulated experimentally such conditions bombarding frozen bacterial spores with low-energy hydrogen ions. On the basis of the results obtained and our earlier research, a new look at the panspermia hypothesis is discussed. The general conclusion is that unprotected naked spores, their conglomerates and protected spores can survive attack of the solar wind, although to various degrees. (authors)

  17. The immunological characteristics and probiotic function of recombinant Bacillus subtilis spore expressing Clonorchis sinensis cysteine protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zeli; Shang, Mei; Chen, Tingjin; Ren, Pengli; Sun, Hengchang; Qu, Hongling; Lin, Zhipeng; Zhou, Lina; Yu, Jinyun; Jiang, Hongye; Zhou, Xinyi; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-12-19

    Clonorchiasis, a food-borne zoonosis, is caused by Clonorchis sinensis. The intestinal tract and bile ducts are crucial places for C. sinensis metacercariae to develop into adult worms. The endospore of Bacillus subtilis is an ideal oral immunization vehicle for delivery of heterologous antigens to intestine. Cysteine protease of C. sinensis (CsCP) is an endogenous key component in the excystment of metacercariae and other physiological or pathological processes. We constructed a fusion gene of CotC (a coat protein)-CsCP and obtained B. subtilis spores with recombinant plasmid of pEB03-CotC-CsCP (B.s-CotC-CsCP). CotC-CsCP expressed on spores' surface was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Immunological characteristics of recombinant spore coat protein were evaluated in a mouse model. The levels of CsCP-specific antibodies were detected by ELISA. Effects of recombinant spores on mouse intestine were evaluated by histological staining. The activities of biochemical enzymes in serum were assayed by microplate. Liver sections of infected mice were evaluated by Ishak score after Masson's trichrome. The B.s-CotC-CsCP spores displayed CsCP on their coat. Specific IgG and isotypes were significantly induced by coat proteins of B.s-CotC-CsCP spores after subcutaneous immunization. IgA levels in intestinal mucus and bile of B.s-CotC-CsCP orally treated mice significantly increased. Additionally, more IgA-secreting cells were observed in enteraden and lamina propria regions of the mouse jejunum, and an increased amount of acidic mucins in intestines were also observed. There were no significant differences in enzyme levels of serum among groups. No inflammatory injury was observed in the intestinal tissues of each group. The degree of liver fibrosis was significantly reduced after oral immunization with B.s-CotC-CsCP spores. Bacillus subtilis spores maintained the original excellent immunogenicity of CsCP expressed on their surface. Both local and systemic

  18. Fungal spores as potential ice nuclei in fog/cloud water and snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Heidi; Goncalves, Fabio L. T.; Schueller, Elisabeth; Puxbaum, Hans

    2010-05-01

    INTRODUCTION: In discussions about climate change and precipitation frequency biological ice nucleation has become an issue. While bacterial ice nucleation (IN) is already well characterized and even utilized in industrial processes such as the production of artificial snow or to improve freezing processes in food industry, less is known about the IN potential of fungal spores which are also ubiquitous in the atmosphere. A recent study performed at a mountain top in the Rocky Mountains suggests that fungal spores and/or pollen might play a role in increased IN abundance during periods of cloud cover (Bowers et al. 2009). In the present work concentrations of fungal spores in fog/cloud water and snow were determined. EXPERIMENTAL: Fog samples were taken with an active fog sampler in 2008 in a traffic dominated area and in a national park in São Paulo, Brazil. The number concentrations of fungal spores were determined by microscopic by direct enumeration by epifluorescence microscopy after staining with SYBR Gold nucleic acid gel stain (Bauer et al. 2008). RESULTS: In the fog water collected in the polluted area at a junction of two highly frequented highways around 22,000 fungal spores mL-1 were counted. Fog in the national park contained 35,000 spores mL-1. These results were compared with cloud water and snow samples from Mt. Rax, situated at the eastern rim of the Austrian Alps. Clouds contained on average 5,900 fungal spores mL-1 cloud water (1,300 - 11,000) or 2,200 spores m-3 (304 - 5,000). In freshly fallen snow spore concentrations were lower than in cloud water, around 1,000 fungal spores mL-1 were counted (Bauer et al. 2002). In both sets of samples representatives of the ice nucleating genus Fusarium could be observed. REFERENCES: Bauer, H., Kasper-Giebl, A., Löflund, M., Giebl, H., Hitzenberger, R., Zibuschka, F., Puxbaum, H. (2002). The contribution of bacteria and fungal spores to the organic carbon content of cloud water, precipitation and aerosols

  19. Single Spore Isolation as a Simple and Efficient Technique to obtain fungal pure culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, E.; Al-Gheethi, AA; Rahman, N. K.; Talip, B.; Mohamed, R.; H, N.; Kadir, O. A.

    2018-04-01

    The successful identification of fungi by phenotypic methods or molecular technique depends mainly on the using an advanced technique for purifying the isolates. The most efficient is the single spore technique due to the simple requirements and the efficiency in preventing the contamination by yeast, mites or bacteria. The method described in the present work is depends on the using of a light microscope to transfer one spore into a new culture medium. The present work describes a simple and efficient procedure for single spore isolation to purify of fungi recovered from the clinical wastes.

  20. Fluorescence-based methods for the detection of pressure-induced spore germination and inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Daniel; Reineke, Kai; Doehner, Isabel; Mathys, Alexander; Knorr, Dietrich

    2011-03-01

    The application of high pressure (HP) provides an opportunity for the non-thermal preservation of high-quality foods, whereas highly resistant bacterial endospores play an important role. It is known that the germination of spores can be initiated by the application of HP. Moreover, the resistance properties of spores are highly dependent on their physiological states, which are passed through during the germination. To distinguish between different physiological states and to detect the amount of germinated spores after HP treatments, two fluorescence-based methods were applied. A flow cytometric method using a double staining with SYTO 16 as an indicator for germination and propidium iodide as an indicator for membrane damage was used to detect different physiological states of the spores. During the first step of germination, the spore-specific dipicolinic acid (DPA) is released [P. Setlow, Spore germination, Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6 (2003), pp. 550-556]. DPA reacts with added terbium to form a distinctive fluorescent complex. After measuring the fluorescence intensity at 270 nm excitation wavelength in a fluorescence spectrophotometer, the amount of germinated spores can be determined. Spores of Bacillus subtilis were treated at pressures from 150 to 600 MPa and temperatures from 37 °C to 60 °C in 0.05 M ACES buffer solution (pH 7) for dwell times of up to 2 h. During the HP treatments, inactivation up to 2log 10 cycles and thermal sensitive populations up to 4log 10 cycles could be detected by plate counts. With an increasing number of thermal sensitive spores, an increased proportion of spores in germinated states was detected by flow cytometry. Also the released amount of DPA increased during the dwell times. Moreover, a clear pressure-temperature-time-dependency was shown by screening different conditions. The fluorescence-based measurement of the released DPA can provide the opportunity of an online monitoring of the germination of spores under HP inside

  1. Feasibility of flotation concentration of fungal spores as a method to identify toxigenic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzle LJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lisa J Bazzle,1 Marc A Cubeta,2 Steven L Marks,1 David C Dorman3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Center for Integrated Fungal Research, 3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Purpose: Mushroom poisoning is a recurring and challenging problem in veterinary medicine. Diagnosis of mushroom exposure in animals is hampered by the lack of rapid diagnostic tests. Our study evaluated the feasibility of using flotation concentration and microscopic evaluation of spores for mushroom identification. Evaluation of this method in living animals exposed to toxigenic mushrooms is limited by ethical constraints; therefore, we relied upon the use of an in vitro model that mimics the oral and gastric phases of digestion. Methods: In our study, mycologist-identified toxigenic (poisonous and nontoxigenic fresh mushrooms were collected in North Carolina, USA. In phase 1, quantitative spore recovery rates were determined following magnesium sulfate, modified Sheather's sugar solution, and zinc sulfate flotation (n=16 fungal species. In phase 2, mushrooms (n=40 fungal species were macerated and digested for up to 2 hours in a salivary and gastric juice simulant. The partially digested material was acid neutralized, filtered, and spores concentrated using zinc sulfate flotation followed by microscopic evaluation of spore morphology. Results: Mean spore recovery rates for the three flotation fluids ranged from 32.5% to 41.0% (P=0.82. Mean (± standard error of the mean Amanita spp. spore recovery rates were 38.1%±3.4%, 36.9%±8.6%, and 74.5%±1.6% (P=0.0012 for the magnesium sulfate, Sheather's sugar, and zinc sulfate solutions, respectively. Zinc sulfate flotation following in vitro acid digestion (phase 2 yielded spore numbers adequate for microscopic visualization in

  2. Allergenic pollens and spores in the working environment of Japanese pear farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, H; Uchida, M; Hayashi, S; Yamada, N

    2007-01-01

    Occupational allergies such as pollinosis are reported in several agricultural works in Japan. Many pollens and spores were observed in Japanese pear orchard during the artificial pollination season. By the study on daily symptoms in an allergic farmer, we confirmed that the pollinosis symptoms were most common and most severe during the artificial pollination. These results suggest that the exposure to allergenic pollens and spores induces allergic symptoms. Thus, caution should be paid for the avoidance of the exposure to these allergenic pollens and spores to prevent the allergy.

  3. The effects of meteorological factors on airborne fungal spore concentration in two areas differing in urbanisation level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M.; Ribeiro, H.; Delgado, J. L.; Abreu, I.

    2009-01-01

    Although fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere throughout the year, their concentration oscillates widely. This work aims to establish correlations between fungal spore concentrations in Porto and Amares and meteorological data. The seasonal distribution of fungal spores was studied continuously (2005-2007) using volumetric spore traps. To determine the effect of meteorological factors (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) on spore concentration, the Spearman rank correlation test was used. In both locations, the most abundant fungal spores were Cladosporium, Agaricus, Agrocybe, Alternaria and Aspergillus/Penicillium, the highest concentrations being found during summer and autumn. In the present study, with the exception of Coprinus and Pleospora, spore concentrations were higher in the rural area than in the urban location. Among the selected spore types, spring-autumn spores ( Coprinus, Didymella, Leptosphaeria and Pleospora) exhibited negative correlations with temperature and positive correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. On the contrary, late spring-early summer (Smuts) and summer spores ( Alternaria, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Ganoderma, Stemphylium and Ustilago) exhibited positive correlations with temperature and negative correlations both with relative humidity and rainfall level. Rust, a frequent spore type during summer, had a positive correlation with temperature. Aspergillus/Penicillium, showed no correlation with the meteorological factors analysed. This knowledge can be useful for agriculture, allowing more efficient and reliable application of pesticides, and for human health, by improving the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory allergic disease.

  4. Energy cascades, excited state dynamics, and photochemistry in cob(III)alamins and ferric porphyrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, Aaron S; Wiley, Theodore E; Sension, Roseanne J

    2015-03-17

    Porphyrins and the related chlorins and corrins contain a cyclic tetrapyrrole with the ability to coordinate an active metal center and to perform a variety of functions exploiting the oxidation state, reactivity, and axial ligation of the metal center. These compounds are used in optically activated applications ranging from light harvesting and energy conversion to medical therapeutics and photodynamic therapy to molecular electronics, spintronics, optoelectronic thin films, and optomagnetics. Cobalt containing corrin rings extend the range of applications through photolytic cleavage of a unique axial carbon-cobalt bond, permitting spatiotemporal control of drug delivery. The photochemistry and photophysics of cyclic tetrapyrroles are controlled by electronic relaxation dynamics including internal conversion and intersystem crossing. Typically the electronic excitation cascades through ring centered ππ* states, ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) states, metal to ligand charge transfer (MLCT) states, and metal centered states. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for the investigation of the electronic state dynamics in metal containing tetrapyrroles. The UV-visible spectrum is sensitive to the oxidation state, electronic configuration, spin state, and axial ligation of the central metal atom. Ultrashort broadband white light probes spanning the range from 270 to 800 nm, combined with tunable excitation pulses, permit the detailed unravelling of the time scales involved in the electronic energy cascade. State-of-the-art theoretical calculations provide additional insight required for precise assignment of the states. In this Account, we focus on recent ultrafast transient absorption studies of ferric porphyrins and corrin containing cob(III)alamins elucidating the electronic states responsible for ultrafast energy cascades, excited state dynamics, and the resulting photoreactivity or photostability of these compounds. Iron

  5. Photochemistry Saturn's Atmosphere. 2; Effects of an Influx of External Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Bezard, Bruno; Gladstone, G. Randall; Allen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    We use a one-dimensional diurnally averaged model of photochemistry and diffusion in Saturn's stratosphere to investigate the influence of extraplanetary debris on atmospheric chemistry. In particular, we consider the effects of an influx of oxygen from micrometeoroid ablation or from ring-particle diffusion; the contribution from cometary impacts, satellite debris, or ring vapor is deemed to be less important. The photochemical model results are compared directly with Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) observations to constrain the influx of extraplanetary oxygen to Saturn. From the ISO observations, we determine that the column densities of CO2 and H2O above 10 mbar in Saturn's atmosphere are (6.3 +/- 1) x 10(exp 14) and (1.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 15)/ square cm, respectively; our models indicate that a globally averaged oxygen influx of (4+/-2) x 10(exp 6) O atoms /sq cm/s is required to explain these observations. Models with a locally enhanced influx of H20 operating over a small fraction of the projected area do not provide as good a fit to the ISO H2O observations. If volatile oxygen compounds comprise one-third to one-half of the exogenic source by mass, then Saturn is currently being bombarded with (3 +/- 2) x 10(exp -16) g/square cm/s of extraplanetary material. To reproduce the observed CO2/H2O ratio in Saturn's stratosphere, some of the exogenic oxygen must arrive in the form of a carbon-oxygen bonded species such as CO or CO2. An influx consistent with the composition of cometary ices fails to reproduce the high observed CO2/H2O ratio, suggesting that (i) the material has ices that are slightly more carbon-rich than is typical for comets, (ii) a contribution from an organic-rich component is required, or (iii) some of the hydrogen-oxygen bonded material is converted to carbon-oxygen bonded material without photochemistry (e.g., during the ablation process). We have also reanalyzed the 5-micron CO observations of Noll and Larson and determine that the CO

  6. Aerosol effects on the photochemistry in Mexico City during MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the impact of aerosols on the photochemistry in Mexico City is evaluated using the WRF-CHEM model for the period from 24 to 29 March during the MCMA-2006/MILAGRO campaign. An aerosol radiative module has been developed with detailed consideration of aerosol size, composition, and mixing. The module has been coupled into the WRF-CHEM model to calculate the aerosol optical properties, including optical depth, single scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Calculated aerosol optical properties are in good agreement with the surface observations and aircraft and satellite measurements during daytime. In general, the photolysis rates are reduced due to the absorption by carbonaceous aerosols, particularly in the early morning and late afternoon hours with a long aerosol optical path. However, with the growth of aerosol particles and the decrease of the solar zenith angle around noontime, aerosols can slightly enhance photolysis rates when ultraviolet (UV radiation scattering dominates UV absorption by aerosols at the lower-most model layer. The changes in photolysis rates due to aerosols lead to about 2–17 % surface ozone reduction during daytime in the urban area in Mexico City with generally larger reductions during early morning hours near the city center, resulting in a decrease of OH level by about 9 %, as well as a decrease in the daytime concentrations of nitrate and secondary organic aerosols by 5–6 % on average. In addition, the rapid aging of black carbon aerosols and the enhanced absorption of UV radiation by organic aerosols contribute substantially to the reduction of photolysis rates.

  7. Structure and UV-induced photochemistry of 2-furaldehyde dimethylhydrazone isolated in rare gas matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Giuliano, B. M.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Fausto, R.

    2012-11-01

    In this work, a combined matrix isolation FTIR and theoretical DFT(B3LYP)/6-311++G(d,p) study of 2-furaldehyde dimethylhydrazone (2FDH) was performed. According to calculations, two E and two Z conformers exist, the E forms having considerably lower energy than the Z forms. The absence of relevant sterical hindrance between the two substituents around the Cdbnd N bond (dimethylamino and 2-furyl) in the E structures and an extended π-p electron delocalization in the hydrazone moiety determines the higher stability of these species relatively to the Z structures. In the lowest energy form (E-AG) the O-C-Cdbnd N and Cdbnd N-N-Lp (Lp = lone electron pair of amine nitrogen atom) dihedral angles are predicted by the calculations to be -177.2° and 93.7°, respectively. The weak (Ndbnd C)-H⋯O hydrogen bond type interaction (H⋯O distance: 252.2 pm) in form E-AG, together with the absence in this form of the destabilizing interaction between the lone electron pairs of the oxygen and nitrogen atoms existing in E-SG, explains its lower energy in comparison with this latter form. Both E-AG and E-SG conformers could be trapped from room temperature gas phase in low temperature argon and xenon matrices. The high E-SG → E-AG energy barrier (>25 kJ mol-1) explains that, upon increasing the temperature of the matrices no conformational isomerization could be observed. After irradiation of 2FDH with UV-light at λ > 328 and λ > 234 nm, two different photochemistries were observed. Irradiation at lower energy (λ > 328 nm) induced the E-AG → E-SG isomerization. Further irradiation at higher energy (λ > 234 nm) led to a quick consumption of 2FDH and production of furan and dimethylisocyanide.

  8. Ultrafast infrared and UV-vis studies of the photochemistry of methoxycarbonylphenyl azides in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiadan; Luk, Hoi Ling; Eswaran, S V; Hadad, Christopher M; Platz, Matthew S

    2012-06-07

    The photochemistry of 4-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (2a), 2-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (3a), and 2-methoxy-6-methoxycarbonylphenyl azide (4a) were studied by ultrafast time-resolved infrared (IR) and UV-vis spectroscopies in solution. Singlet nitrenes and ketenimines were observed and characterized for all three azides. Isoxazole species 3g and 4g are generated after photolysis of 3a and 4a, respectively, in acetonitrile. Triplet nitrene 4e formation correlated with the decay of singlet nitrene 4b. The presence of water does not change the chemistry or kinetics of singlet nitrenes 2b and 3b, but leads to protonation of 4b to produce nitrenium ion 4f. Singlet nitrenes 2b and 3b have lifetimes of 2 ns and 400 ps, respectively, in solution at ambient temperature. The singlet nitrene 4b in acetonitrile has a lifetime of about 800 ps, and reacts with water with a rate constant of 1.9 × 10(8) L·mol(-1)·s(-1) at room temperature. These results indicate that a methoxycarbonyl group at either the para or ortho positions has little influence on the ISC rate, but that the presence of a 2-methoxy group dramatically accelerates the ISC rate relative to the unsubstituted phenylnitrene. An ortho-methoxy group highly stabilizes the corresponding nitrenium ion and favors its formation in aqueous solvents. This substituent has little influence on the ring-expansion rate. These results are consistent with theoretical calculations for the various intermediates and their transition states. Cyclization from the nitrene to the azirine intermediate is favored to proceed toward the electron-deficient ester group; however, the higher energy barrier is the ring-opening process, that is, azirine to ketenimine formation, rendering the formation of the ester-ketenimine (4d') to be less favorable than the isomeric MeO-ketenimine (4d).

  9. Interfacial photochemistry of biogenic surfactants: a major source of abiotic volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüggemann, Martin; Hayeck, Nathalie; Bonnineau, Chloé; Pesce, Stéphane; Alpert, Peter A; Perrier, Sébastien; Zuth, Christoph; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Chen, Jianmin; George, Christian

    2017-08-24

    Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O 3 /OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.

  10. Binding of Substrate Locks the Electrochemistry of CRY-DASH into DNA Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindt, Yvonne M; Messyasz, Adriana; Jumbo, Pamela I

    2015-05-12

    VcCry1, a member of the CRY-DASH family, may serve two diverse roles in vivo, including blue-light signaling and repair of UV-damaged DNA. We have discovered that the electrochemistry of the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor of VcCry1 is locked to cycle only between the hydroquinone and neutral semiquinone states when UV-damaged DNA is present. Other potential substrates, including undamaged DNA and ATP, have no discernible effect on the electrochemistry, and the kinetics of the reduction is unaffected by damaged DNA. Binding of the damaged DNA substrate determines the role of the protein and prevents the presumed photochemistry required for blue-light signaling.

  11. Investigation of Sterilization Mechanism for Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores with Plasma-Excited Neutral Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kei; Ikenaga, Noriaki; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the mechanism of the sterilization with plasma-excited neutral gas that uniformly sterilizes both the space and inner wall of the reactor chamber at atmospheric pressure. Only reactive neutral species such as plasma-excited gas molecules and radicals are separated from the plasma and sent to the reactor chamber for chemical sterilization. The plasma source gas uses humidified mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores and tyrosine which is amino acid are treated by the plasma-excited neutral gas. Shape change of the treated spore is observed by SEM, and chemical modification of the treated tyrosine is analyzed by HPLC. As a result, the surface of the treated spore shows depression. Hydroxylation and nitration of tyrosine are shown after the treatment. For these reasons, we believe that the sterilization with plasma-excited neutral gas results from the deformation of spore structure due to the chemical modification of amino acid.

  12. Particle size distribution of airborne Aspergillus fumigatus spores emitted from compost using membrane filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, L. J.; Pankhurst, L. J.; Drew, G. H.; Hayes, E. T.; Jackson, S.; Longhurst, P. J.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Liu, J.; Pollard, S. J. T.; Tyrrel, S. F.

    Information on the particle size distribution of bioaerosols emitted from open air composting operations is valuable in evaluating potential health impacts and is a requirement for improved dispersion simulation modelling. The membrane filter method was used to study the particle size distribution of Aspergillus fumigatus spores in air 50 m downwind of a green waste compost screening operation at a commercial facility. The highest concentrations (approximately 8 × 10 4 CFU m -3) of culturable spores were found on filters with pore diameters in the range 1-2 μm which suggests that the majority of spores are emitted as single cells. The findings were compared to published data collected using an Andersen sampler. Results were significantly correlated ( p < 0.01) indicating that the two methods are directly comparable across all particles sizes for Aspergillus spores.

  13. A Novel Protocol for Decoating and Permeabilizing Bacterial Spores for Epifluorescent Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2014-01-01

    Based on previously reported procedures for permeabilizing vegetative bacterial cells, and numerous trial-and-error attempts with bacterial endospores, a protocol was developed for effectively permeabilizing bacterial spores, which facilitated the applicability of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) microscopy. Bacterial endospores were first purified from overgrown, sporulated suspensions of B. pumilus SAFR-032. Purified spores at a concentration of approx equals 10 million spores/mL then underwent proteinase-K treatment, in a solution of 468.5 µL of 100 mM Tris-HCl, 30 µL of 10% SDS, and 1.5 microL of 20 mg/mL proteinase-K for ten minutes at 35 ºC. Spores were then harvested by centrifugation (15,000 g for 15 minutes) and washed twice with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution. This washing process consisted of resuspending the spore pellets in 0.5 mL of PBS, vortexing momentarily, and harvesting again by centrifugation. Treated and washed spore pellets were then resuspended in 0.5 mL of decoating solution, which consisted of 4.8 g urea, 3 mL Milli-Q water, 1 mL 0.5M Tris, 1 mL 1M dithiothreitol (DTT), and 2 mL 10% sodium-dodecylsulfate (SDS), and were incubated at 65 ºC for 15 minutes while being shaken at 165 rpm. Decoated spores were then, once again, washed twice with sterile PBS, and subjected to lysozyme/mutanolysin treatment (7 mg/mL lysozyme and 7U mutanolysin) for 15 minutes at 35 C. Spores were again washed twice with sterile PBS, and spore pellets were resuspended in 1-mL of 2% SDS. This treatment, facilitating inner membrane permeabilization, lasted for ten minutes at room temperature. Permeabilized spores were washed two final times with PBS, and were resuspended in 200 mkcroL of sterile PBS. At this point, the spores were permeable and ready for downstream processing, such as oligonucleotideprobe infiltration, hybridization, and microscopic evaluation. FISH-microscopic imagery confirmed the effective and efficient (˜50

  14. Universal nucleic acids sample preparation method for cells, spores and their mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavykin, Sergei [Darien, IL

    2011-01-18

    The present invention relates to a method for extracting nucleic acids from biological samples. More specifically the invention relates to a universal method for extracting nucleic acids from unidentified biological samples. An advantage of the presently invented method is its ability to effectively and efficiently extract nucleic acids from a variety of different cell types including but not limited to prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells and/or recalcitrant organisms (i.e. spores). Unlike prior art methods which are focused on extracting nucleic acids from vegetative cell or spores, the present invention effectively extracts nucleic acids from spores, multiple cell types or mixtures thereof using a single method. Important that the invented method has demonstrated an ability to extract nucleic acids from spores and vegetative bacterial cells with similar levels effectiveness. The invented method employs a multi-step protocol which erodes the cell structure of the biological sample, isolates, labels, fragments nucleic acids and purifies labeled samples from the excess of dye.

  15. Inactivation of B. Pumilus spores by combination hydrostatic pressure-radiation treatment of parenteral solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    Bacterial spores are inactivated by moderate hydrostatic pressures. The radiation dose required to sterilize radiation sensitive pharmaceuticals can be considerably reduced using a combination hydrostatic pressure-radiation treatment. This paper describes a combination pressure-radiation sterilization process using Bacillus pumilus spores suspended in water, 0.9% saline, and 5% dextrose solutions. The optimum temperatures for spore inactivation at 35 MPa and the degree of inactivation at 35, 70 and 105 MPa applied for times up to 100 min have been determined. Inactivation was greatest in saline and least in dextrose. Spores in dextrose were only slightly less radiation resistant than in saline or water. It was calculated that the radiation dose required for sterilization could be halved with appropriate compression treatment. Examples of combinations of pressure-radiation suitable for sterilization are given. One combination is compression at 105 MPa for 18 min for a dose of 1.25 Mrad. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the Performance of Iodine-Treated Biocide Filters Challenged with Bacterial Spores and Viruses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jin-Hwa; Wu, Chang-Yu

    2006-01-01

    Filter media coated with a cationic resin in triiodide form were challenged by Bacillus subtilis spores and MS2 bacteriophage aerosols delivered from a Collison nebulizer through air at 35% RH and 23 C...

  17. Ascospores of large-spored Metschnikowia species are genuine meiotic products of these yeasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinoni, G.; Piskur, Jure; Lachance, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    continentalis var. continentalis, and M. continentalis var. borealis. Asci were dissected and the segregation patterns for various phenotypes analyzed. In all cases (n = 47) both mating types (h(+) and h(-)) were recovered in pairs of sister spores, casting further uncertainty as to whether normal meiosis takes...... place. However, the segregation patterns for cycloheximide resistance and several auxotrophic markers were random, suggesting that normal meiosis indeed occurs. To explain the lack of second-division segregation of mating types, we concluded that crossing-over does not occur between the mating......-type locus and the centromere, and that meiosis I is tied to spore formation, which explains why the number of spores is limited to two. The latter assumption was also supported by fluorescence microscopy. The second meiotic division takes place inside the spores and is followed by the resorption of two...

  18. Resistance and recovery studies on ultraviolet-irradiated spores of Bacillus pumilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abshire, R.L.; Bain, B.; Williams, T.

    1980-01-01

    A spore suspension model and a procedure for recovering ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated spores of Bacillus pumilus were investigated. A most-probable-number tube dilution method using double-strength Trypticase soy broth was found to be superior to the agar plate method for recovering optimal numbers of spores irradiated with sublethal doses of uv energy. Aqueous suspensions of B. pumilus survived uv doses up to 108,000 ergs/mm 2 as determined by a most-probable-number recovery and estimation procedure. Resistance and stability data were consistent and reproducible, indicating the dependability of this method for recovering uv-damaged spores. The procedures used to collect information concerning resistance characteristics for two strains of B. pumilus are discussed

  19. Spores of the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae host yeasts that solubilize phosphate and accumulate polyphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabal Alonso, Loreli; Kleiner, Diethelm; Ortega, Eduardo

    2008-04-01

    The present paper reports the presence of bacteria and yeasts tightly associated with spores of an isolate of Glomus mosseae. Healthy spores were surface disinfected by combining chloramine-T 5%, Tween-40, and cephalexin 2.5 g L(-1) (CTCf). Macerates of these spores were incubated on agar media, microorganisms were isolated, and two yeasts were characterized (EndoGm1, EndoGm11). Both yeasts were able to solubilize low-soluble P sources (Ca and Fe phosphates) and accumulate polyphosphates (polyPs). Sequence analysis of 18S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid showed that the yeasts belong to the genera Rhodotorula or Rhodosporidium (EndoGm1) and Cryptococcus (EndoGm11). Results from inoculation experiments showed an effect of the spore-associated yeasts on the root growth of rice, suggesting potential tripartite interactions with mycorrhizal fungi and plants.

  20. Influence of selected variables on transport of plutonium to spores of Aspergillus niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.H.F.; Beckert, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were carried out on the influences of different chemical forms and concentrations of Pu at two hydrogen ion concentrations of the culture medium on uptake and transport of 238 Pu to the spores of Aspergillus niger. Results indicated that Pu, when added to the culture medium as dioxide microspheres, nitrate, or citrate complex, was transported to the spores, and that an almost linear relationship existed between transport and concentration. Raising the pH of the culture medium from 2.5 to 5.5 generally increased transport of Pu to spores for all three chemical forms. At Pu concentrations of 224 pCi/g in the culture media, and for both pH 2.5 and 5.5, transport of Pu to spores was approximately three times as high from the nitrate or citrate form as from the dioxide microspheres. (auth)

  1. Airspora concentrations in the Vaal-triangle-monitoring and potential health-effects.2, fungal spores

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vismer, HF

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fungal spores were monitored in Vanderbijlpark for the period 1991-92 as part of the Vaal triangle air pollution health study of the medical research council and the CSIR. Cladosporium, Aspergillus/ Penicillium, Alternaria and Epicoccum...

  2. Palynological investigation of the sediment cores from the Arabian Sea 1 Fungal spores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandra, A.; Saxena, R.K.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    are new to the record @iInapertisporites@@ is represented in all the samples and is the most common element of the assemblage The distribution of various fungal spore genera and species in each core has been discussed...

  3. Fate of pathogenic Bacillus cereus spores after ingestion by protist grazers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Santos, Susana; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse

    The aim of this study is to understand the symbiosis between bacterivorous protists and pathogenic bacterial spores, in order to gain insight on survival and dispersal of pathogenic bacteria in the environment. It is generally accepted that resistance to grazing by protists has contributed...... to the evolution of Bacillus cereus group bacteria (e.g. B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringiensis) as a pathogen. It has been hypothesized that the spore stage protects against digestion by predating protists. Indeed, B. thuringiensis spores have been shown to be readily ingested by ciliated protists but failed...... to be digested (Manasherob et al 1998 AEM 64:1750-). Here we report how diverse protist grazers grow on both vegetative cells and spores of B. cereus and how the bacteria survive ingestion and digestion, and even proliferate inside the digestive vacuoles of ciliated protists. The survival ability of B. cereus...

  4. Lethality of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Due to Short Duration Heating Measured Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goetz, Kristina M

    2005-01-01

    In this research, Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to bursts of heat lasting on the order of one second in duration using a laser system to simulate the explosive environment from an agent defeat weapon...

  5. Absorption edge imaging of sporocide-treated and non-treated bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panessa-Warren, B.J.; Tortora, G.T.; Warren, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    When deprived of nutrients, spore forming bacilli produce endospores which are remarkably resistant to chemical sterilization. Little is known about the morphology and response fo these spores following exposure to sporocidal agents. Light microscopy does not provide sufficient resolution for studying the rupture of the spore coat and fate of intracellular material. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy offer superior resolution but require specimen preparation methods that induce physiologic as well as morphologic changes in the spores, thereby making accurate interpretation of micrographs difficult. To eliminate the possible artifacts induced by chemical fixation, dehydration, embeddment, staining and sectioning, treated and non-sporocide-treated endospores of B. thuringiensis and B. subtilis were imaged by x-ray contact microscopy using monochromatic x-rays. 6 refs., 2 figs

  6. Physical mapping of a 330 X 10(3)-base-pair region of the Myxococcus xanthus chromosome that is preferentially labeled during spore germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komano, T.; Inouye, S.; Inouye, M.

    1985-01-01

    Myxococcus xanthus was pulse-labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine immediately after germination of dimethyl sulfoxide-induced spores. The restriction enzyme digests of the total chromosomal DNA from the pulse- labeled cells were analyzed by one-dimensional as well as two- dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis. Four PstI fragments preferentially labeled at a very early stage of germination were cloned into the unique PstI site of pBR322. By using these clones as probes, a restriction enzyme map was established covering approximately 6% of the total M. xanthus genome (330 X 10(3) base pairs). The distribution of the specific activities of the restriction fragments pulse-labeled after germination suggests a bidirectional mode of DNA replication from a fixed origin

  7. Lethality of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and a commercial fruit and vegetable sanitizer to vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus and spores of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, Larry R; Pettigrew, Charles A; Tremblay, Mario E; Roselle, Brian J; Scouten, Alan J

    2004-08-01

    Chlorine, ClO2, and a commercial raw fruit and vegetable sanitizer were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus cereus and spores of Bacillus thuringiensis. The ultimate goal was to use one or both species as a potential surrogate(s) for Bacillus anthracis in studies that focus on determining the efficacy of sanitizers in killing the pathogen on food contact surfaces and foods. Treatment with alkaline (pH 10.5 to 11.0) ClO2 (200 microg/ml) produced by electrochemical technologies reduced populations of a five-strain mixture of vegetative cells and a five-strain mixture of spores of B. cereus by more than 5.4 and more than 6.4 log CFU/ml respectively, within 5 min. This finding compares with respective reductions of 4.5 and 1.8 log CFU/ml resulting from treatment with 200 microg/ml of chlorine. Treatment with a 1.5% acidified (pH 3.0) solution of Fit powder product was less effective, causing 2.5- and 0.4-log CFU/ml reductions in the number of B. cereus cells and spores, respectively. Treatment with alkaline ClO2 (85 microg/ml), acidified (pH 3.4) ClO2 (85 microg/ml), and a mixture of ClO2 (85 microg/ml) and Fit powder product (0.5%) (pH 3.5) caused reductions in vegetative cell/spore populations of more than 5.3/5.6, 5.3/5.7, and 5.3/6.0 log CFU/ml, respectively. Treatment of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis spores in a medium (3.4 mg/ml of organic and inorganic solids) in which cells had grown and produced spores with an equal volume of alkaline (pH 12.1) ClO2 (400 microg/ml) for 30 min reduced populations by 4.6 and 5.2 log CFU/ml, respectively, indicating high lethality in the presence of materials other than spores that would potentially react with and neutralize the sporicidal activity of ClO2.

  8. Plutonium uptake by a soil fungus and transport to its spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckert, W.F.; Au, F.H.F.

    1976-01-01

    Three concentrations of plutonium-238 nitrate, citrate and dioxide were each added to separate plates of malt agar buffered to pH 2.5 and 5.5 to determine the uptake of plutonium from these chemical forms and concentrations by a common soil fungus, Aspergillus niger. After inoculation and incubation, the aerial spores of Aspergillus niger were collected using a technique that excluded the possibility of cross-contamination of the spores by the culture media or by mycelial fragments. 238 Pu was taken up from all three chemical forms and transported to the aerial spores of Aspergillus niger at each concentration and at both pH levels. The specific activities of the spores grown at pH 5.5 were generally at least twice those of the spores grown at pH 2.5. The uptake of plutonium from the dioxide form was about one-third of that from the nitrate and citrate forms at both pH levels. The term 'transport factor' is used as a means to compare the transport of plutonium from the media to the fungal spores; the concentration-independent transport factor is defined as the specific activity of the spores divided by the specific activity of the dry culture medium. Though the transport factors were less than 1, which indicates discrimination against the transport of 238 Pu from the culture media to the spores, these findings suggest that this common soil fungus may be solubilizing soil-deposited plutonium and rendering it more biologically available for higher plants and animals. (author)

  9. Mutation induction in spores of Bacillus subtilis by accelerated very heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltschukat, K.; Horneck, G.; Buecker, H.; Facius, R.; Schaefer, M.

    1986-01-01

    Mutation induction (resistance to sodium azide) in spores of Bacillus subtilis was investigated after irradiation with heavy ions from Neon to Uranium with specific particle energies between 0.17 and 18.6 MeV/u. A strong dependence of the mutation induction cross section on particle charge and energy was observed. From the results it was concluded that mutation induction in bacterial spores by very heavy ions is mainly caused by secondary electrons. (orig.)

  10. The contribution of endogenous and exogenous effects to radiation-induced damage in the bacterial spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.; Samuni, A.; Czapski, G.

    1985-01-01

    Radical scavengers such as polyethylene glycol 400 and 4000 and bovine albumin have been used to define the contribution of exogenous and endogenous effects to the gamma-radiation-induced damage in aqueous buffered suspensions of Bacillus pumilus spores. The results indicate that this damage in the bacterial spore is predominantly endogenous both in the presence of 1 atmosphere of oxygen, and in anoxia. (author)

  11. The nature of water within bacterial spores: protecting life in extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Charles V.; Friedline, Anthony; Johnson, Karen; Zachariah, Malcolm M.; Thomas, Kieth J., III

    2011-10-01

    The bacterial spore is a formidable container of life, protecting the vital contents from chemical attack, antimicrobial agents, heat damage, UV light degradation, and water dehydration. The exact role of the spore components remains in dispute. Nevertheless, water molecules are important in each of these processes. The physical state of water within the bacterial spore has been investigated since the early 1930's. The water is found two states, free or bound, in two different areas, core and non-core. It is established that free water is accessible to diffuse and exchange with deuterated water and that the diffusible water can access all areas of the spore. The presence of bound water has come under recent scrutiny and has been suggested the water within the core is mobile, rather than bound, based on the analysis of deuterium relaxation rates. Using an alternate method, deuterium quadrupole-echo spectroscopy, we are able to distinguish between mobile and immobile water molecules. In the absence of rapid motion, the deuterium spectrum of D2O is dominated by a broad line, whose line shape is used as a characteristic descriptor of molecular motion. The deuterium spectrum of bacterial spores reveals three distinct features: the broad peak of immobilized water, a narrow line of water in rapid motion, and a signal of intermediate width. This third signal is assigned this peak from partially deuterated proteins with the spore in which N-H groups have undergone exchange with water deuterons to form N-D species. As a result of these observations, the nature of water within the spore requires additional explanation to understand how the spore and its water preserve life.

  12. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of Bacillus anthracis spore deposition in rabbit and human respiratory airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabilan, S.; Suffield, S. R.; Recknagle, K. P.; Jacob, R. E.; Einstein, D. R.; Kuprat, A. P.; Carson, J. P.; Colby, S. M.; Saunders, J. H.; Hines, S. A.; Teeguarden, J. G.; Straub, T. M.; Moe, M.; Taft, S. C.; Corley, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and Lagrangian particle deposition models were developed to compare the deposition of aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores in the respiratory airways of a human with that of the rabbit, a species commonly used in the study of anthrax disease. The respiratory airway geometries for each species were derived respectively from computed tomography (CT) and µCT images. Both models encompassed airways that extended from the external nose to the lung with a total of 272 outlets in the human model and 2878 outlets in the rabbit model. All simulations of spore deposition were conducted under transient, inhalation–exhalation breathing conditions using average species-specific minute volumes. Two different exposure scenarios were modeled in the rabbit based upon experimental inhalation studies. For comparison, human simulations were conducted at the highest exposure concentration used during the rabbit experimental exposures. Results demonstrated that regional spore deposition patterns were sensitive to airway geometry and ventilation profiles. Due to the complex airway geometries in the rabbit nose, higher spore deposition efficiency was predicted in the nasal sinus compared to the human at the same air concentration of anthrax spores. In contrast, higher spore deposition was predicted in the lower conducting airways of the human compared to the rabbit lung due to differences in airway branching pattern. This information can be used to refine published and ongoing biokinetic models of inhalation anthrax spore exposures, which currently estimate deposited spore concentrations based solely upon exposure concentrations and inhaled doses that do not factor in species-specific anatomy and physiology for deposition.

  13. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidhar Turgeman

    Full Text Available Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes-RdAQP1 and RdAQP2-were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection.

  14. Aspergillosis in the common sea fan Gorgonia ventalina: isolation of waterborne hyphae and spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeger, Victoria J; Sammarco, Paul W; Caruso, John H

    2014-07-03

    The octocoral disease aspergillosis is caused by the terrestrial fungus Aspergillus sydowii. The possibility of secondary (horizontal) transmission of aspergillosis among common sea fans Gorgonia ventalina would require waterborne transmission of hyphae and/or spores. A laboratory filtration experiment confirmed that fungal hyphae and spores were shed into the water by infected fans. This suggests that secondary infection might be possible in this species. It remains to be determined whether healthy fans actually develop aspergillosis after contact with hyphae-laden water.

  15. Comparison of fungal spores concentrations measured with wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor and Hirst methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, S.; Tormo-Molina, R.; Lemonis, N.; Clot, B.; O'Connor, D. J.; Sodeau, John R.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work was to provide both a comparison of traditional and novel methodologies for airborne spores detection (i.e. the Hirst Burkard trap and WIBS-4) and the first quantitative study of airborne fungal concentrations in Payerne (Western Switzerland) as well as their relation to meteorological parameters. From the traditional method -Hirst trap and microscope analysis-, sixty-three propagule types (spores, sporangia and hyphae) were identified and the average spore concentrations measured over the full period amounted to 4145 ± 263.0 spores/m3. Maximum values were reached on July 19th and on August 6th. Twenty-six spore types reached average levels above 10 spores/m3. Airborne fungal propagules in Payerne showed a clear seasonal pattern, increasing from low values in early spring to maxima in summer. Daily average concentrations above 5000 spores/m3 were almost constant in summer from mid-June onwards. Weather parameters showed a relevant role for determining the observed spore concentrations. Coniferous forest, dominant in the surroundings, may be a relevant source for airborne fungal propagules as their distribution and predominant wind directions are consistent with the origin. The comparison between the two methodologies used in this campaign showed remarkably consistent patterns throughout the campaign. A correlation coefficient of 0.9 (CI 0.76-0.96) was seen between the two over the time period for daily resolutions (Hirst trap and WIBS-4). This apparent co-linearity was seen to fall away once increased resolution was employed. However at higher resolutions upon removal of Cladosporium species from the total fungal concentrations (Hirst trap), an increased correlation coefficient was again noted between the two instruments (R = 0.81 with confidence intervals of 0.74 and 0.86).

  16. Mechanism and site of inhibition of Bacillus cereus spore outgrowth by nitrosothiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    Structure vs. activity studies demonstrate that nitrosothiols inhibit outgrowth of B. cereus spores by reversible covalent bond formation with sensitive spore components. Kinetic studies of the binding of nitrosothiols and iodoacetate, a known sulfhydryl reagent, show that they complete for the same spore sites. Since two other nitrite derivatives, the Perigo factor and the transferrin inhibitor, interfere with iodoacetate label uptake in a kinetically similar fashion, all of these compounds may inhibit spore outgrowth by interacting with the same spore thiol groups. Disruption of spores which have been inhibited by radioactive iodoacetate demonstrates that much of the label is incorporated into a membrane-rich fraction that sediments as a single peak on a sucrose density gradient. SDS gel electrophoresis and autofluorography allows the identification of four intensely labelled proteins with molecular weights of 13,000, 28,000, 29,000, and 30,000. If the iodoacetate labelling is carried out in the presence of nitrosothiol, incorporation is greatly reduced into all components. When germinating spores are labelled with succinate or the lactose analog, o-nitrophenylgalactopyranoside, a significant reduction in the amount of label bound is also observed suggesting that two iodoacetate-reactive sites may be the succinate and lactose permease systems. Severe decreases in the transport of succinate and lactose into iodoacetate and nitrosothiol inhibited spores further implicates a nitrosothiol (iodoacetate) permease interaction. Iodoacetate and nitrosothiols therefore may exert their inhibitory effects by interfering with critical membrane protein sulfhydryl groups, possibly by a a covalent modification mechanism. Some of these sensitive thiols may be involved in active transport processes

  17. Formation and characterization of non-growth states in Clostridium thermocellum: spores and L-forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mearls Elizabeth B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium thermocellum is an anaerobic thermophilic bacterium that exhibits high levels of cellulose solublization and produces ethanol as an end product of its metabolism. Using cellulosic biomass as a feedstock for fuel production is an attractive prospect, however, growth arrest can negatively impact ethanol production by fermentative microorganisms such as C. thermocellum. Understanding conditions that lead to non-growth states in C. thermocellum can positively influence process design and culturing conditions in order to optimize ethanol production in an industrial setting. Results We report here that Clostridium thermocellum ATCC 27405 enters non-growth states in response to specific growth conditions. Non-growth states include the formation of spores and a L-form-like state in which the cells cease to grow or produce the normal end products of metabolism. Unlike other sporulating organisms, we did not observe sporulation of C. thermocellum in low carbon or nitrogen environments. However, sporulation did occur in response to transfers between soluble and insoluble substrates, resulting in approximately 7% mature spores. Exposure to oxygen caused a similar sporulation response. Starvation conditions during continuous culture did not result in spore formation, but caused the majority of cells to transition to a L-form state. Both spores and L-forms were determined to be viable. Spores exhibited enhanced survival in response to high temperature and prolonged storage compared to L-forms and vegetative cells. However, L-forms exhibited faster recovery compared to both spores and stationary phase cells when cultured in rich media. Conclusions Both spores and L-forms cease to produce ethanol, but provide other advantages for C. thermocellum including enhanced survival for spores and faster recovery for L-forms. Understanding the conditions that give rise to these two different non-growth states, and the implications that

  18. Effects of produced water discharges on the colonization potential of Macrocystis pyrifera spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.J.; Reed, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Point sources of pollution (e.g. industrial outfalls) may produce ecological impacts at distant locations if pollutants affect dispersive propagules. The authors used laboratory experiments to determine how exposure to produced water (PW; aqueous fraction of petroleum production that is typically discharged into coastal waters) in the water column influences the colonization potential of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) spores on the bottom. Spores were maintained in suspension in 18 L containers and exposed to one of five concentrations of PW (0 to 10%) for varying amounts of time. Spore swimming generally decreased with increasing PW concentration and exposure duration, with the specific pattern of decrease differing between experimental trials done at different dates. The effect of exposure duration in the water column on the ability of swimming spores to attach to plastic dishes placed the bottom varied with PW concentration. Spores placed in 1 and 10% PW showed a steady decline in their ability to attach with increased exposure; lower concentrations of PW had no such effects. The proportion of spores that germinated after attachment varied tremendously with exposure duration and date of experimental trial. A low proportion of spores that settled during the first 12 h germinated, indicative of a short period of precompetency. Surprisingly, water column exposure to high concentrations of PW during the first 12 h reduced this precompetent period and greatly improved germination success. The magnitude of this enhancement, however, varied among dates. Delayed expression of PW effects were not observed in developing gametophytes; survival of individuals that successfully germinated and gamete production was not affected by previous exposure to PW as a spore

  19. Ganoderin A, a novel 9,11-secosterol from Ganoderma lucidum spores oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Fa-Huan; Duan, Ming-Hui; Li, Jing; Shi, Qing-Long

    2017-12-01

    In this study, four sterols were isolated from the Ganoderma lucidum spores oil obtained via supercritical CO 2 extraction. Four chemical constituents were ganoderin A (1), chaxine B (2), ergosterol, (3) and stellasterol (4). All the separated ingredients were characterized using spectral data interpretation and by comparing with reported data. Noticeably, stellasterol and chaxine B were both firstly isolated from Ganoderma lucidum spores oil and ganoderin A was shown to bear an unprecedented skeleton.

  20. Forecasting methodologies for Ganoderma spore concentration using combined statistical approaches and model evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadyś, Magdalena; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Kennedy, Roy

    2016-04-01

    High concentration levels of Ganoderma spp. spores were observed in Worcester, UK, during 2006-2010. These basidiospores are known to cause sensitization due to the allergen content and their small dimensions. This enables them to penetrate the lower part of the respiratory tract in humans. Establishment of a link between occurring symptoms of sensitization to Ganoderma spp. and other basidiospores is challenging due to lack of information regarding spore concentration in the air. Hence, aerobiological monitoring should be conducted, and if possible extended with the construction of forecast models. Daily mean concentration of allergenic Ganoderma spp. spores in the atmosphere of Worcester was measured using 7-day volumetric spore sampler through five consecutive years. The relationships between the presence of spores in the air and the weather parameters were examined. Forecast models were constructed for Ganoderma spp. spores using advanced statistical techniques, i.e. multivariate regression trees and artificial neural networks. Dew point temperature along with maximum temperature was the most important factor influencing the presence of spores in the air of Worcester. Based on these two major factors and several others of lesser importance, thresholds for certain levels of fungal spore concentration, i.e. low (0-49 s m-3), moderate (50-99 s m-3), high (100-149 s m-3) and very high (150 < n s m-3), could be designated. Despite some deviation in results obtained by artificial neural networks, authors have achieved a forecasting model, which was accurate (correlation between observed and predicted values varied from r s = 0.57 to r s = 0.68).

  1. Photosystem II Photochemistry and Phycobiliprotein of the Red Algae Kappaphycus alvarezii and Their Implications for Light Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Xiangyu; Wang, Jinfeng; Zhu, Jianyi; Yao, Chunyan; Liu, Jianguo; Qin, Song; Jiang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Photosystem II photochemistry and phycobiliprotein (PBP) genes of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii, raw material of κ -carrageenan used in food and pharmaceutical industries, were analyzed in this study. Minimum saturating irradiance (I k ) of this algal species was less than 115  μ mol m−2 s−1. Its actual PSII efficiency (yield II) increased when light intensity enhanced and decreased when light intensity reached 200  μ mol m−2 s−1. Under dim light, yield II declined at first and then increas...

  2. Sunscreen synthesis and their immobilisation on polymethylmethacrylate: an integrated project in organic chemistry, polymer chemistry and photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtinho, Dina Maria B.; Serra, Maria Elisa S.; Pineiro, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Dibenzalacetone and other aldol condensation products are known sunscreens commonly used in cosmetics. This type of compounds can easily be prepared in an Organic Chemistry Lab by reaction of aldehydes with ketones in basic medium. These compounds can be incorporated in poly(methyl methacrylate) and used as UV light absorbers, for example in sunglasses. This project has the advantage of using inexpensive reagents which are readily available in Chemistry Laboratories. This experiment can also be a base starting point for discussions of organic, polymer and photochemistry topics. (author)

  3. Sterilization of Bacillus spores by converted X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ohki, Yumi; Watanabe, Yuhei; Sunaga, Hiromi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1991-01-01

    Relative sensitivities of endospores of Bacillus pumilus E601, B. subtilis IAM1069, B. megaterium S31 and B. brevis S5 to gamma-rays, converted X-rays (Bremsstrahlung), and electron beams were examined in order to estimate the conditions in which converted X-rays kill Bacillus spores. The radiation sensitivities to gamma-rays, X-rays and electron beams of each strain dried on glass fiber filter without additives were found to be almost equivalent, and D 10 values were obtained as follows: 1.5-1.6 kGy for B. pumilus, 1.4-1.5 kGy for B. subtilis, 1.9-2.0 kGy for B. megaterium, and 1.6-2.0 kGy for B. brevis. The radiation sensitivities of endospores of each strain to electron beams were slightly lower than those to gamma-rays in the dry condition with additives of 2% peptone + 1% glycerin on glass fiber filter. The increase of radiation resistance in the presence of additives was also observed with X-rays, and it was on an intermediate level between those with gamma-rays and electron beams. In the dry condition using cellulose filter paper, only the radiation resistances of B. megaterium and B. brevis in the presence of additives were increased. (author)

  4. Assessment of Gamma Radiation Resistance of Spores Isolated from the Spacecraft Assembly Facility During MSL Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Arsh; Ramirez, Gustavo A.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

    2011-01-01

    Spore forming bacteria, a common inhabitant of spacecraft assembly facilities, are known to tolerate extreme environmental conditions such as radiation, desiccation, and high temperatures. Since the Viking era (early 1970's), spores have been utilized to assess the degree and level of microbiological contamination on spacecraft and their associated spacecraft assembly facilities. There is a growing concern that desiccation and extreme radiation resistant spore forming microorganisms associated with spacecraft surfaces can withstand space environmental conditions and subsequently proliferate on another solar body. Such forward contamination would certainly jeopardize future life detection or sample return technologies. It is important to recognize that different classes of organisms are critical while calculating the probability of contamination, and methods must be devised to estimate their abundances. Microorganisms can be categorized based on radiation sensitivity as Type A, B, C, and D. Type C represents spores resistant to radiation (10% or greater survival above 0.8 Mrad gamma radiation). To address these questions we have purified 96 spore formers, isolated during planetary protection efforts of Mars Science Laboratory assembly for gamma radiation resistance. The spores purified and stored will be used to generate data that can be used further to model and predict the probability of forward contamination.

  5. Contamination pathways of spore-forming bacteria in a vegetable cannery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Loïc; Planchon, Stella; Guinebretiere, Marie-Hélène; André, Stéphane; Carlin, Frédéric; Remize, Fabienne

    2015-06-02

    Spoilage of low-acid canned food during prolonged storage at high temperatures is caused by heat resistant thermophilic spores of strict or facultative bacteria. Here, we performed a bacterial survey over two consecutive years on the processing line of a French company manufacturing canned mixed green peas and carrots. In total, 341 samples were collected, including raw vegetables, green peas and carrots at different steps of processing, cover brine, and process environment samples. Thermophilic and highly-heat-resistant thermophilic spores growing anaerobically were counted. During vegetable preparation, anaerobic spore counts were significantly decreased, and tended to remain unchanged further downstream in the process. Large variation of spore levels in products immediately before the sterilization process could be explained by occasionally high spore levels on surfaces and in debris of vegetable combined with long residence times in conditions suitable for growth and sporulation. Vegetable processing was also associated with an increase in the prevalence of highly-heat-resistant species, probably due to cross-contamination of peas via blanching water. Geobacillus stearothermophilus M13-PCR genotypic profiling on 112 isolates determined 23 profile-types and confirmed process-driven cross-contamination. Taken together, these findings clarify the scheme of contamination pathway by thermophilic spore-forming bacteria in a vegetable cannery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CONTROL OF POSTHARVEST TOMATO ROT BY SPORE SUSPENSION AND ANTIFUNGAL METABOLITES OF TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momein H. El-Katatny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rot of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum fruits caused by several fungal pathogens is a detrimental disease leading to substantial yield loses worldwide. Alternaria isolates were the most common fungal species isolated from healthy or rotten fruits. Trichoderma harzianum spore suspension and culture filtrate were tested for their antagonistic activity on controlling tomato fruit rot. T. harzianum isolates suppressed or interfered with the growth of different postharvest tomato fungal pathogens albeit at different degrees. Their culture filtrate inhibited pathogen spore germination possibly due to the released extracellular diffusible metabolite(s. Besides, aberrant morphology of conidia was observed with deformation of hyphal tips. Furthermore, the resulting mycelia appeared desiccated with coagulated protoplasm leading to complete collapse of protoplasm in presence of T. harzianum culture filtrate. Application of T. harzianum spores to tomato fruits decreased disease severity significantly with the most profound effect at higher spore concentrations (108 cells per ml. Similarly, culture filtrate of T. harzianum prevented pathogen spore germination on the surface of tomato fruits leading to decreased incidence of rot symptoms at high culture filtrate concentrations. This work provides strong evidence that T. harzianum is a competent antagonist and its spore suspension and culture filtrate can be used efficiently to control postharvest tomato rot.

  7. Characterization of single spore isolates of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach using conventional and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manju; Suman, B C; Gupta, Dharmesh

    2014-10-01

    Strains A-15, S11, S-140, and U3 of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach, were used as parent strains for raising single spore homokaryotic isolates. Out of total 1,642 single spore isolates, only 36 single spore isolates were homokaryons and exhibited slow mycelial growth rate (≤2.0 mm/day) and appressed colony morphology. All these SSIs failed to produce pinheads in Petri plates even after 65 days of incubation, whereas the strandy slow growing SSIs along with parent strains were able to form the fructification in petriplates after 30 days. Out of 24, six ISSR primers, exhibited scorable bands. In the ISSR fingerprints, single spore isolates, homokaryons, lacked amplification products at multiple loci; they grow slowly and all of them had appressed types of colony morphology. The study revealed losses of ISSR polymorphic patterns in non-fertile homokaryotic single spore isolates compared to the parental control or fertile heterokaryotic single spore isolates.

  8. Demulsification of crude oil-in-water emulsions by means of fungal spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Adriana Vallejo-Cardona

    Full Text Available The present feature describes for the first time the application of spores from Aspergillus sp. IMPMS7 to break out crude oil-in-water emulsions (O/W. The fungal spores were isolated from marine sediments polluted with petroleum hydrocarbons. The spores exhibited the ability to destabilize different O/W emulsions prepared with medium, heavy or extra-heavy Mexican crude oils with specific gravities between 10.1 and 21.2°API. The isolated fungal spores showed a high hydrophobic power of 89.3 ± 1.9% and with 2 g of spores per liter of emulsion, the half-life for emulsion destabilization was roughly 3.5 and 0.7 h for extra-heavy and medium crude oil, respectively. Then, the kinetics of water separation and the breaking of the O/W emulsion prepared with heavy oil through a spectrofluorometric technique were studied. A decrease in the fluorescence ratio at 339 and 326 nm (I339/I326 was observed in emulsions treated with spores, which is similar to previously reported results using chemical demulsifiers.

  9. RNA synthesis during germination of UV-irradiated Dictyostelium discoideum spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okaichi, Kumio

    1987-01-01

    UV irradiation to the spores of Dictyostelium discoideum NC4 resulted in a more prolonged delay of amoeba-emergence from swollen spores with increasing UV fluence. During the germination, an inhibition of total RNA synthesis and a shift of stage of maximum RNA synthesis to the later period were observed. The maximum poly(A) + RNA synthetic activity was found on an early stage of amoeba-emergence prior about 1 h to the beginning of rRNA synthesis in unirradiated spore germination; but, in UV-irradiated spore germination, the stage of maximum poly(A) + RNA synthesis shifted to the later stage of germination with increasing UV fluence. A decreased synthesis of poly(A) + RNA and a severe inhibition of rRNA synthesis were observed on UV-irradiated and germinated spores, but no significant inhibition of 4 - 5 S RNA synthesis was detected. Actinomycin D suppressed almost completely the rRNA synthesis of emerged amoebae but the drug apparently did not affect the emergence of amoebae at any stage of germination. It was postulated that the delay of amoeba-emergence in UV-irradiated spore must be mainly due to the shift of the stage of maximum synthesis of poly(A) + RNA to the later stage of germination. (author)

  10. The effect of growth medium on B. anthracis Sterne spore carbohydrate content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Heather A; Wunschel, David S; Antolick, Kathryn C; Melville, Angela M; Valentine, Nancy B

    2011-06-01

    The expressed characteristics of biothreat agents may be impacted by variations in the culture environment, including growth medium formulation. The carbohydrate composition of B. anthracis spores has been well studied, particularly for the exosporium, which is the outermost spore structure. The carbohydrate composition of the exosporium has been demonstrated to be distinct from the vegetative form containing unique monosaccharides. We have investigated the carbohydrate composition of B. anthracis Sterne spores produced using four different medium types formulated with different sources of medium components. The amount of rhamnose, 3-O-methyl rhamnose and galactosamine was found to vary significantly between spores cultured using different medium formulations. The relative abundance of these monosaccharides compared to other monosaccharides such as mannosamine was also found to vary with medium type. Specific medium components were also found to impact the carbohydrate profile. Xylose has not been previously described in B. anthracis spores but was detected at low levels in two media. This may represent residual material from the brewery yeast extract used to formulate these two media. These results illustrate the utility of this method to capture the impact of growth medium on carbohydrate variation in spores. Detecting carbohydrate profiles in B. anthracis evidentiary material may provide useful forensic information on the growth medium used for sporulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Study the rudimentary immunoregulatory mechanisms of Ganoderma Spore oil on immunocompromized mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youjin; Hu, Shun; Xiong, Xingyao; Liu, Dongbo; Zhong, Yingli

    2012-09-01

    To study the rudimentary immunoregulatory mechanisms of Ganoderma spore oil on immunocompromized mice model. Thrity KM mice were randomly selected and assigned into three groups (ten animals per group): the model control group, Ganoderma Lucidum spores oil group and the normal control group. The model control group and Ganoderma Lucidum spores oil group were injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide at 40 mg x kg(-1) d to generate a immunocompromized mice model. The normal control group were administered with 0.9% NaCl solution 0.1 ml/10 g BW as placebo. All agents were given orally once a day, given for consecutive 30 days, Ganoderma Lucidum spores oil group 150 mg/kg, the others given maize 0.1 ml/10 g BW. The serum TNF-alpha , IFN-gamma content of the mice through ELISA kit and the expression levels of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-4, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha mRNA in mouse spleen and thymus were examined by RT-PCR to rudimentary study its immunoregulatory mechanisms. Ganoderma spore oil can significantly increased the content of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in the serum and the expression levels of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-4, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha mRNA in spleen and thymus, with obvious difference from the model control (P Ganoderma spore oil can be able to improve the above cytokine ion expression to immunoregulate the immunocompromized mice.

  12. The effects of meteorological factors on the occurrence of Ganoderma sp. spores in the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2011-03-01

    Ganoderma sp. is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we analysed fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland, and its dependence on meteorological conditions. Statistical models for the airborne spore concentrations of Ganoderma sp.—one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area—were developed. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2008 using a volumetric Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation, maximum and average wind speed, relative humidity and maximum, minimum, average and dew point temperatures. These data were used as the explaining variables. Due to the non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the applied modelling techniques were artificial neural networks (ANN) and mutlivariate regression trees (MRT). The obtained classification and MRT models predicted threshold conditions above which Ganoderma sp. appeared in the air. It turned out that dew point temperature was the main factor influencing the presence or absence of Ganoderma sp. spores. Further analysis of spore seasons revealed that the airborne fungal spore concentration depended only slightly on meteorological factors.

  13. Measurement and analysis on optical characteristics of Aspergillus oryzae spores in infrared band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Hu, Yihua; Gu, Youlin; Chen, Wei; Xu, Shilong; Zhao, Xinying

    2015-10-01

    Spore is an important part of bioaerosols. The optical characteristics of spore is a crucial parameter for study on bioaerosols. The reflection within the waveband of 2.5 to15μm were measured by squash method. Based on the measured data, Complex refractive index of Aspergillus oryzae spores within the waveband of 3 to 5μm and 8 to 14 μm were calculated by using Krames-Kronig (K-K) relationship. Then,the mass extinction coefficient of Aspergillus oryzae spores within the waveband of 3 to 5μm and 8 to 14μm were obtained by utilizing Mie scattering theory, and the results were analyzed and discussed. The average mass extinction coefficient of Aspergillus oryzae spores is 0.51 m2/g in the range of 3 to 5μm and 0.48m2/g in the range of 8 to 14μm. Compared with common inorganic compounds, Aspergillus oryzae spores possesses a good extinction performance in infrared band.

  14. Extraction of PCR-amplifiable genomic DNA from Bacillus anthracisspores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torok, Tamas

    2003-05-19

    Bacterial endospore disruption and nucleic acid extractionresulting in DNA of PCR-amplifiable quality and quantity are not trivial.Responding to the needs of the Hazardous Materials Response Unit (HMRU),Laboratory Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation, protocols weredeveloped to close these gaps. Effectiveness and reproducibility of thetechniques were validated with laboratory grown pure spores of Bacillusanthracis and its close phylogenetic neighbors, and with spiked soils anddamaged samples.

  15. Phylogeny and genetic diversity of Bridgeoporus nobilissimus inferred using mitochondrial and nuclear rDNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redberg, G.L.; Hibbett, D.S.; Ammirati, J.F.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    The genetic diversity and phylogeny of Bridgeoporus nobilissimus have been analyzed. DNA was extracted from spores collected from individual fruiting bodies representing six geographically distinct populations in Oregon and Washington. Spore samples collected contained low levels of bacteria, yeast and a filamentous fungal species. Using taxon-specific PCR primers, it was possible to discriminate among rDNA from bacteria, yeast, a filamentous associate and B. nobilissimus. Nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences of B. nobilissimus were compared among individuals representing six populations and were found to have less than 2% variation. These sequences also were used to design dual and nested PCR primers for B. nobilissimus-specific amplification. Mitochondrial small-subunit rDNA sequences were used in a phylogenetic analysis that placed B. nobilissimus in the hymenochaetoid clade, where it was associated with Oxyporus and Schizopora.

  16. Adsorption of β-galactosidase of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius on wild type and mutants spores of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirec Teja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus subtilis spore has long been used as a surface display system with potential applications in a variety of fields ranging from mucosal vaccine delivery, bioremediation and biocatalyst development. More recently, a non-recombinant approach of spore display has been proposed and heterologous proteins adsorbed on the spore surface. We used the well-characterized β-galactosidase from the thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius as a model to study enzyme adsorption, to analyze whether and how spore-adsorption affects the properties of the enzyme and to improve the efficiency of the process. Results We report that purified β-galactosidase molecules were adsorbed to purified spores of a wild type strain of B. subtilis retaining ca. 50% of their enzymatic activity. Optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were not altered by the presence of the spore, that protected the adsorbed β-galactosidase from exposure to acidic pH conditions. A collection of mutant strains of B. subtilis lacking a single or several spore coat proteins was compared to the isogenic parental strain for the adsorption efficiency. Mutants with an altered outermost spore layer (crust were able to adsorb 60-80% of the enzyme, while mutants with a severely altered or totally lacking outer coat adsorbed 100% of the β-galactosidase molecules present in the adsorption reaction. Conclusion Our results indicate that the spore surface structures, the crust and the outer coat layer, have an negative effect on the adhesion of the β-galactosidase. Electrostatic forces, previously suggested as main determinants of spore adsorption, do not seem to play an essential role in the spore-β-galactosidase interaction. The analysis of mutants with altered spore surface has shown that the process of spore adsorption can be improved and has suggested that such improvement has to be based on a better understanding of the spore surface structure

  17. Photochemistry of 1,1,1-Trifluoroacetone on Rutile TiO2(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehr, Robert T.; Deskins, N. Aaron; Henderson, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photon-induced photodecomposition of 1,1,1-trifluoroacetone (TFA) adsorbed on the rutile TiO2(110) surface has been investigated with photon stimulated desorption (PSD), temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and density functional theory (DFT). TFA adsorbed molecularly on the reduced surface (8% oxygen vacancies) in states desorbing below 300 K with trace thermal decomposition observed in TPD. Adsorption of TFA on a preoxidized TiO2(110) surface (accomplished by pre-exposure with 20 L O2) led to formation of a new TFA desorption state at 350 K, assigned to decomposition of a TFA-diolate species ((CF3)(CH3)COO). No TFA photochemistry was detected on the reduced surface. UV irradiation of TFA on the oxidized surface depleted TFA in the 350 K state, with TFA molecules in other TPD states unaffected. PSD measurements reveal that both carbonyl substituents (CH3 and CF3), as well as CO, were liberated during UV exposure at 95 K. Post-irradiation TPD showed evidence for both acetate (evolving as ketene at 650 K) and trifluoroacetate (evolving as CO2 at 600 K) as surface-bound photodecomposition products. The CO PSD product was not due to adsorbed CO, to mass spectrometer cracking of a CO-containing PSD product, or from background effects, but originated from complete fragmentation of an unidentified adsorbed TFA species. Thermodynamic analysis using DFT indicated that the photodecomposition of the TFA-diolate was likely not driven by thermodynamics alone as both pathways (CH3+trifluoroacetate and CF3+acetate) were detected when thermodynamics shows a clear preference for only one (CF3+acetate). These observations are in contrast to the photochemical behavior of acetone, butanone and acetaldehyde on TiO2(110), where only one of the two carbonyl substituent groups was observed, with a stoichiometric amount of carboxylate containing the other substituent left on the surface. We conclude that fluorination significantly alters the electronic structure of

  18. Structure and photochemistry of a novel tetrazole-saccharyl conjugate isolated in solid argon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, A.; Borba, A.; Duarte, L.; Giuliano, B. M.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Cristiano, M. L. S.

    2012-10-01

    A combined matrix isolation FTIR and theoretical DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) study of the novel synthesised tetrazole-saccharyl conjugate 2-[1-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)ethyl]-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide [1-TE-BZT] was performed. In the gas phase, at room temperature, the compound exists as a mixture of six isomeric forms (four conformers of 1H tautomer and two conformers of 2H tautomer). According to theoretical calculations, conformers 1H were the most stable and the relative energies among the three most stable forms are lower than 4 kJ mol-1. These conformers benefit from stabilising intramolecular hydrogen bonds-like interactions involving the 1H of the tetrazole ring and the carbonyl oxygen of the saccharyl moiety. The photochemistry of 1-TE-BZT in solid argon was investigated and theoretical DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) calculations also helped in assignment of the experimental bands. A quick consumption of the compound occurred after irradiation of the matrix with UV laser light at λ = 275 nm. Three photofragmentation pathways were proposed, one leading to 2-[1-(1H-diaziren-3-yl)ethyl]-1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one 1,1-dioxide and molecular nitrogen, a second one giving 2-(1,1-dioxide-3-oxo-1,2-benzisothiazol-2(3H)-yl)propanenitrile and azide, and a third one involving loss of azide from the tetrazole ring and decarbonylation of the saccharyl ring of 1-TE-BZT to give acrylonitrile and 7-thia-8-azabicyclo[4.2.0] octa-1,3,5-triene 7,7 dioxide. The comparison of the relative intensities of the bands of the photoproducts obtained from the three channels allowed us to consider the latter pathway, involving an unprecedented photocleavage of the benzisothiazole (saccharyl) ring, as the preferred photodegradation channel of 1-TE-BZT.

  19. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangyang; Bi, Aoyue; Amombo, Erick; Li, Huiying; Zhang, Liang; Cheng, Cheng; Hu, Tao; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue ( Festuca arundinacea Schreber) treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype "TF133" were subjected to the control (CK), salinity (S), salinity + calcium nitrate (SC), and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE). Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size), N (number of [Formula: see text] redox turnovers until F m is reached), ψE 0 , or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from Q A to Q B or PSI acceptors), ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC). All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond [Formula: see text]) and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca 2+ , and K + in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE 0 , δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca 2+ and K + content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role

  20. Exogenous Calcium Enhances the Photosystem II Photochemistry Response in Salt Stressed Tall Fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyang Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium enhances turfgrass response to salt stress. However, little is known about PSII photochemical changes when exogenous calcium was applied in salinity-stressed turfgrass. Here, we probe into the rearrangements of PSII electron transport and endogenous ion accumulation in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber treated with exogenous calcium under salt stress. Three-month-old seedlings of genotype “TF133” were subjected to the control (CK, salinity (S, salinity + calcium nitrate (SC, and salinity + ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (SE. Calcium nitrate and ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid was used as exogenous calcium donor and calcium chelating agent respectively. At the end of a 5-day duration treatment, samples in SC regime had better photochemistry performance on several parameters than salinity only. Such as the Area (equal to the plastoquinone pool size, N (number of QA- redox turnovers until Fm is reached, ψE0, or δRo (Efficiencdy/probability with which a PSII trapped electron is transferred from QA to QB or PSI acceptors, ABS/RC (Absorbed photon flux per RC. All the above suggested that calcium enhanced the electron transfer of PSII (especially beyond QA- and prevented reaction centers from inactivation in salt-stressed tall fescue. Furthermore, both grass shoot and root tissues generally accumulated more C, N, Ca2+, and K+ in the SC regime than S regime. Interrelated analysis indicated that ψE0, δRo, ABS/RC, C, and N content in shoots was highly correlated to each other and significantly positively related to Ca2+ and K+ content in roots. Besides, high salt increased ATP6E and CAMK2 transcription level in shoot at 1 and 5 day, respectively while exogenous calcium relieved it. In root, CAMK2 level was reduced by Salinity at 5 day and exogenous calcium recovered it. These observations involved in electron transport capacity and ion accumulation assist in understanding better the protective role of exogenous calcium in tall