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Sample records for spore display system

  1. Recent progress in Bacillus subtilis spore-surface display: concept, progress, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Wang, Yunxiang; Yang, Ruijin

    2017-02-01

    With the increased knowledge on spore structure and advances in biotechnology engineering, the newly developed spore-surface display system confers several inherent advantages over other microbial cell-surface display systems including enhanced stability and high safety. Bacillus subtilis is the most commonly used Bacillus species for spore-surface display. The expression of heterologous antigen or protein on the surface of B. subtilis spores has now been practiced for over a decade with noteworthy success. As an update and supplement to other previous reviews, we comprehensively summarize recent studies in the B. subtilis spore-surface display technique. We focus on its benefits as well as the critical factors affecting its display efficiency and offer suggestions for the future success of this field.

  2. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression and display of UreA of Helicobacter acinonychis on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Felice Maurilio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial endospore (spore has recently been proposed as a new surface display system. Antigens and enzymes have been successfully exposed on the surface layers of the Bacillus subtilis spore, but only in a few cases the efficiency of expression and the effective surface display and have been determined. We used this heterologous expression system to produce the A subunit of the urease of the animal pathogen Helicobater acinonychis. Ureases are multi-subunit enzymes with a central role in the virulence of various bacterial pathogens and necessary for colonization of the gastric mucosa by the human pathogen H. pylori. The urease subunit UreA has been recognized as a major antigen, able to induce high levels of protection against challenge infections. Results We expressed UreA from H. acinonychis on the B. subtilis spore coat by using three different spore coat proteins as carriers and compared the efficiency of surface expression and surface display obtained with the three carriers. A combination of western-, dot-blot and immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to conclude that, when fused to CotB, UreA is displayed on the spore surface (ca. 1 × 103 recombinant molecules per spore, whereas when fused to CotC, although most efficiently expressed (7-15 × 103 recombinant molecules per spore and located in the coat layer, it is not displayed on the surface. Experiments with CotG gave results similar to those with CotC, but the CotG-UreA recombinant protein appeared to be partially processed. Conclusion UreA was efficiently expressed on the spore coat of B. subtilis when fused to CotB, CotC or CotG. Of these three coat proteins CotC allows the highest efficiency of expression, whereas CotB is the most appropriate for the display of heterologous proteins on the spore surface.

  4. Expression and display of UreA of Helicobacter acinonychis on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinc, Krzysztof; Isticato, Rachele; Dembek, Marcin; Karczewska, Joanna; Iwanicki, Adam; Peszyńska-Sularz, Grazyna; De Felice, Maurilio; Obuchowski, Michał; Ricca, Ezio

    2010-01-18

    The bacterial endospore (spore) has recently been proposed as a new surface display system. Antigens and enzymes have been successfully exposed on the surface layers of the Bacillus subtilis spore, but only in a few cases the efficiency of expression and the effective surface display and have been determined. We used this heterologous expression system to produce the A subunit of the urease of the animal pathogen Helicobater acinonychis. Ureases are multi-subunit enzymes with a central role in the virulence of various bacterial pathogens and necessary for colonization of the gastric mucosa by the human pathogen H. pylori. The urease subunit UreA has been recognized as a major antigen, able to induce high levels of protection against challenge infections. We expressed UreA from H. acinonychis on the B. subtilis spore coat by using three different spore coat proteins as carriers and compared the efficiency of surface expression and surface display obtained with the three carriers. A combination of western-, dot-blot and immunofluorescence microscopy allowed us to conclude that, when fused to CotB, UreA is displayed on the spore surface (ca. 1 x 10(3) recombinant molecules per spore), whereas when fused to CotC, although most efficiently expressed (7-15 x 10(3) recombinant molecules per spore) and located in the coat layer, it is not displayed on the surface. Experiments with CotG gave results similar to those with CotC, but the CotG-UreA recombinant protein appeared to be partially processed. UreA was efficiently expressed on the spore coat of B. subtilis when fused to CotB, CotC or CotG. Of these three coat proteins CotC allows the highest efficiency of expression, whereas CotB is the most appropriate for the display of heterologous proteins on the spore surface.

  5. Conversion of xylan by recyclable spores of Bacillus subtilis displaying thermophilic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattossovich, Rosanna; Iacono, Roberta; Cangiano, Giuseppina; Cobucci-Ponzano, Beatrice; Isticato, Rachele; Moracci, Marco; Ricca, Ezio

    2017-11-28

    The Bacillus subtilis spore has long been used to display antigens and enzymes. Spore display can be accomplished by a recombinant and a non-recombinant approach, with the latter proved more efficient than the recombinant one. We used the non-recombinant approach to independently adsorb two thermophilic enzymes, GH10-XA, an endo-1,4-β-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius, and GH3-XT, a β-xylosidase (EC 3.2.1.37) from Thermotoga thermarum. These enzymes catalyze, respectively, the endohydrolysis of (1-4)-β-D-xylosidic linkages of xylans and the hydrolysis of (1-4)-β-D-xylans to remove successive D-xylose residues from the non-reducing termini. We report that both purified enzymes were independently adsorbed on purified spores of B. subtilis. The adsorption was tight and both enzymes retained part of their specific activity. When spores displaying either GH10-XA or GH3-XT were mixed together, xylan was hydrolysed more efficiently than by a mixture of the two free, not spore-adsorbed, enzymes. The high total activity of the spore-bound enzymes is most likely due to a stabilization of the enzymes that, upon adsorption on the spore, remained active at the reaction conditions for longer than the free enzymes. Spore-adsorbed enzymes, collected after the two-step reaction and incubated with fresh substrate, were still active and able to continue xylan degradation. The recycling of the mixed spore-bound enzymes allowed a strong increase of xylan degradation. Our results indicate that the two-step degradation of xylans can be accomplished by mixing spores displaying either one of two required enzymes. The two-step process occurs more efficiently than with the two un-adsorbed, free enzymes and adsorbed spores can be reused for at least one other reaction round. The efficiency of the process, the reusability of the adsorbed enzymes, and the well documented robustness of spores of B. subtilis indicate the spore as a suitable platform to display enzymes

  6. Multichannel waveform display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolvankar, V.G.

    1989-01-01

    For any multichannel data acquisition system, a multichannel paper chart recorder undoubtedly forms an essential part of the system. When deployed on-line, it instantaneously provides, for visual inspection, hard copies of the signal waveforms on common time base at any desired sensitivity and time resolution. Within the country, only a small range of these strip chart recorder s is available, and under stringent specifications imported recorders are often procured. The cost of such recorders may range from 1 to 5 lakhs of rupees in foreign exchange. A system to provide on the oscilloscope a steady display of multichannel waveforms, refreshed from the digital data stored in the memory is developed. The merits and demerits of the display system are compared with that built around a conventional paper chart recorder. Various illustrations of multichannel seismic event data acquired at Gauribidanur seismic array station are also presented. (author). 2 figs

  7. Bacillus subtilis spore with surface display of paramyosin from Clonorchis sinensis potentializes a promising oral vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hengchang; Lin, Zhipeng; Zhao, Lu; Chen, Tingjin; Shang, Mei; Jiang, Hongye; Tang, Zeli; Zhou, Xinyi; Shi, Mengchen; Zhou, Lina; Ren, Pengli; Qu, Honglin; Lin, Jinsi; Li, Xuerong; Xu, Jin; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2018-03-07

    Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis has become increasingly prevalent in recent years. Effective prevention strategies are urgently needed to control this food-borne infectious disease. Previous studies indicated that paramyosin of C. sinensis (CsPmy) is a potential vaccine candidate. We constructed a recombinant plasmid of PEB03-CotC-CsPmy, transformed it into Bacillus subtilis WB600 strain (B.s-CotC-CsPmy), and confirmed CsPmy expression on the spore surface by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay. The immune response and protective efficacy of the recombinant spore were investigated in BALB/c mice after intragastrical or intraperitoneal immunization. Additionally, biochemical enzyme activities in sera, the intestinal histopathology and gut microflora of spore-treated mice were investigated. CsPmy was successfully expressed on the spore surface and the fusion protein on the spore surface with thermostability. Specific IgG in sera and intestinal mucus were increased after intraperitoneal and intragastrical immunization. The sIgA level in intestinal mucus, feces and bile of B.s-CotC-CsPmy orally treated mice were also significantly raised. Furthermore, numerous IgA-secreting cells were detected in intestinal mucosa of intragastrically immunized mice. No inflammatory injury was observed in the intestinal tissues and there was no significant difference in levels of enzyme-indicated liver function among the groups. Additionally, the diversity and abundance of gut microbiota were not changed after oral immunization. Intragastric and intraperitoneal immunization of B.s-CotC-CsPmy spores in mice resulted in egg reduction rates of 48.3 and 51.2% after challenge infection, respectively. Liver fibrosis degree in B.s-CotC-CsPmy spores treated groups was also significantly reduced. CsPmy expressed on the spore surface maintained its immunogenicity. Both intragastrical and intraperitoneal immunization with B.s-CotC-CsPmy spores induced systemic and

  8. Investigation of spore coat display of Bacillus subtilis β-galactosidase for developing of whole cell biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Setareh; Hinc, Krzysztof; Iwanicki, Adam; Obuchowski, Michal; Ahmadian, Gholamreza

    2013-03-01

    The production of highly efficient, recyclable and cost-effective enzymes is one of the most important goals in industrial biotechnology. Bacterial spores are highly resistant to harsh environmental conditions, easy to produce and are suitable for manipulation of genetic materials. These features make them a very efficient tool for biotechnology. Here, we show the use bacterial spores for presentation of functional enzyme. Spore coat display was used to produce a biocatalyst, which expresses β-galactiosidase (LacA). This enzyme is commonly used to produce lactose-free milk for lactose intolerant individuals. The lacA gene from Bacillus subtilis strain 168 was expressed on the surface of B. subtilis RH101(ΔcotC) spores using CotC as protein carrier. Presence of LacA protein is verified by western blotting. Results of β-galactiosidase assay show that the expressed enzyme retained its activity in condition of freezing and drying, as well as after recovery from the reaction's mixture.

  9. Gamma camera display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    A gamma camera having an array of photomultipliers coupled via pulse shaping circuitry and a resistor weighting circuit to a display for forming an image of a radioactive subject is described. A linearizing circuit is coupled to the weighting circuit, the linearizing circuit including a nonlinear feedback circuit with diode coupling to the weighting circuit for linearizing the correspondence between points of the display and points of the subject. 4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures

  10. Display systems for NPP control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozov, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    Main trends in development of display systems used as the means for image displaying in NPP control systems are considered. It is shown that colour display devices appear to be the most universal means for concentrated data presentation. Along with digital means the display systems provide for high-speed response, sufficient for operative control of executive mechanisms. A conclusion is drawn that further development of display systems will move towards creation of large colour fields (on reflection base or with multicolour gas-discharge elements)

  11. System control and display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, J.

    1977-01-01

    The system described was designed, developed, and installed on short time scales and primarily utilized of-the-shelf military and commercial hardware. The system was designed to provide security-in-depth and multiple security options with several stages of redundancy. Under normal operating conditions, the system is computer controlled with manual backup during abnormal conditions. Sensor alarm data are processed in conjunction with weather data to reduce nuisance alarms. A structured approach is used to order alarmed sectors for assessment. Alarm and video information is presented to security personnel in an interactive mode. Historical operational data are recorded for system evaluation

  12. Software for graphic display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper some aspects of graphic display systems are discussed. The design of a display subroutine library is described, with an example, and graphic dialogue software is considered primarily from the point of view of the programmer who uses a high-level language. (Auth.)

  13. 3D display system using monocular multiview displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Saruta, Kazuki; Takeda, Kazutoki

    2002-05-01

    A 3D head mounted display (HMD) system is useful for constructing a virtual space. The authors have researched the virtual-reality systems connected with computer networks for real-time remote control and developed a low-priced real-time 3D display for building these systems. We developed a 3D HMD system using monocular multi-view displays. The 3D displaying technique of this monocular multi-view display is based on the concept of the super multi-view proposed by Kajiki at TAO (Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan) in 1996. Our 3D HMD has two monocular multi-view displays (used as a visual display unit) in order to display a picture to the left eye and the right eye. The left and right images are a pair of stereoscopic images for the left and right eyes, then stereoscopic 3D images are observed.

  14. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  15. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  16. LMDS Lightweight Modular Display System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-16

    based on standard functions. This means that the cost to produce a particular display function can be met in the most economical fashion and at the same...not mean that the NTDS interface would be eliminated. What is anticipated is the use of ETHERNET at a low level of system interface, ie internal to...GENERATOR dSYMBOL GEN eCOMMUNICATION 3-2 The architecture of the unit’s (fig 3-4) input circuitry is based on a video table look-up ROM. The function

  17. Surface display of Clonorchis sinensis enolase on Bacillus subtilis spores potentializes an oral vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Wenjun; Tian, Yanli; Mao, Qiang; Lv, Xiaoli; Shang, Mei; Li, Xuerong; Yu, Xinbing; Huang, Yan

    2014-03-10

    Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infections remain the common public health problem in freshwater fish consumption areas. New effective prevention strategies are still the urgent challenges to control this kind of foodborne infectious disease. The biochemical importance and biological relevance render C. sinensis enolase (Csenolase) as a potential vaccine candidate. In the present study, we constructed Escherichia coli/Bacillus subtilis shuttle genetic engineering system and investigated the potential of Csenolase as an oral vaccine candidate for C. sinensis prevention in different immunization routes. Our results showed that, compared with control groups, both recombinant Csenolase protein and nucleic acid could induce a mixed IgG1/IgG2a immune response when administrated subcutaneously (Psinensis infection. Csenolase derived oral vaccine conferred worm reduction rate and egg reduction rate at 60.07% (Psinensis prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spore coat protein synthesis in cell-free systems from sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, T; Munoz, L E; Sadaie, Y; Doi, R H

    1978-09-01

    Cell-free systems for protein synthesis were prepared from Bacillus subtilis 168 cells at several stages of sporulation. Immunological methods were used to determine whether spore coat protein could be synthesized in the cell-free systems prepared from sporulating cells. Spore coat protein synthesis first occurred in extracts from stage t2 cells. The proportion of spore coat protein to total proteins synthesized in the cell-free systems was 2.4 and 3.9% at stages t2 and t4, respectively. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis patterns of immunoprecipitates from the cell-free systems showed the complete synthesis of an apparent spore coat protein precursor (molecular weight, 25,000). A polypeptide of this weight was previously identified in studies in vivo (L.E. Munoz, Y. Sadaie, and R.H. Doi, J. Biol. Chem., in press). The synthesis in vitro of polysome-associated nascent spore coat polypeptides with varying molecular weights up to 23,000 was also detected. These results indicate that the spore coat protein may be synthesized as a precursor protein. The removal of proteases in the crude extracts by treatment with hemoglobin-Sepharose affinity techniques may be preventing the conversion of the large 25,000-dalton precursor to the 12,500-dalton mature spore coat protein.

  19. Integrated Display & Environmental Awareness System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is the development of a head mounted display for use in operations here on Earth and in Space. The technology would provide various means of...

  20. The virtual environment display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgreevy, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Virtual environment technology is a display and control technology that can surround a person in an interactive computer generated or computer mediated virtual environment. It has evolved at NASA-Ames since 1984 to serve NASA's missions and goals. The exciting potential of this technology, sometimes called Virtual Reality, Artificial Reality, or Cyberspace, has been recognized recently by the popular media, industry, academia, and government organizations. Much research and development will be necessary to bring it to fruition.

  1. Digital image display system for emergency room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, R.C.; Lane, T.J.; Miax, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a digital image display system for the emergency room (ER) in a major trauma hospital. Its objective is to reduce radiographic image delivery time to a busy ER while simultaneously providing a multimodality capability. Image storage, retrieval, and display will also be facilitated with this system. The system's backbone is a token-ring network of RISC and personal computers. The display terminals are higher- function RISC computers with 1,024 2 color or gray-scale monitors. The PCs serve as administrative terminals. Nuclear medicine, CT, MR, and digitized film images are transferred to the image display system

  2. Data display with the Q system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Q data-acquisition system for PDP-11 mini-computers at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) provides experimenters with basic tools for on-line data display. Tasks are available to plot one- and two-parameter histograms on Tektronix 4000 series storage-tube terminals. The histograms to be displayed and the display format may be selected with simple keyboard commands. A task is also available to create and display live two-parameter scatter plots for any acquired or calculated quantities. Other tasks in the system manage the display data base, list display parameters and histogram contents on hardcopy devices, and save core histograms on disk or tape for off-line analysis. 8 figures

  3. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  4. An integrated acquisition, display, and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.; Huckins, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The design goal of the ND9900/Genuie was to integrate a high performance data acquisition and display subsystem with a state-of-the-art 32-bit supermicrocomputer. This was achieved by integrating a Digital Equipment Corporation MicroVAX II CPU board with acquisition and display controllers via the Q-bus. The result is a tightly coupled processing and analysis system for Pulse Height Analysis and other applications. The system architecture supports distributed processing, so that acquisition and display functions are semi-autonomous, making the VAX concurrently available for applications programs

  5. Display-management system for MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.O.

    1981-01-01

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) is controlled by 65 local control microcomputers which are supervised by a local network of nine 32-bit minicomputers. Associated with seven of the nine computers are state-of-the-art graphics devices, each with extensive local processing capability. These devices provide the means for an operator to interact with the control software running on the minicomputers. It is critical that the information the operator views accurately reflects the current state of the experiment. This information is integrated into dynamically changing pictures called displays. The primary organizational component of the display system is the software-addressable segment. The segments created by the display creation software are managed by display managers associated with each graphics device. Each display manager uses sophisticated storage management mechanisms to keep the proper segments resident in the local graphics device storage

  6. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'HARA, J.M.; PIRUS, D.; BELTRATCCHI, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work

  7. Security alarm communication and display systems development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has, as lead Department of Energy (DOE) physical security laboratory, developed a variety of alarm communication and display systems for DOE and Department of Defense (DOD) facilities. This paper briefly describes some of the systems developed and concludes with a discussion of technology relevant to those currently designing, developing, implementing, or procuring such a system. Development activities and the rapid evolution of computers over the last decade have resulted in a broad variety of capabilities to support most security system communication and display needs. The major task in selecting a system is becoming familiar with these capabilities and finding the best match to a specific need

  8. Advanced image display systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendler, T.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced image display systems for the fully digital diagnostic imaging departments of the future will be far more than simple replacements of the traditional film-viewing equipment. The new capabilities of very high resolution and highly dynamic displays offer a userfriendly and problem-oriented way of image interpretation. Advanced harware-, software- and human-machine interaction-concepts have been outlined. A scenario for a future way of handling and displaying images, reflecting a new image viewing paradigm in radiology is sketched which has been realized in an experimental image workstation model in the laboratory which, despite its technical complexity, offers a consistent strategy for fast and convenient interaction with image objects. The perspective of knowledge based techniques for workstation control software with object-oriented programming environments and user- and task-adaptive behavior leads to more advanced display properties and a new quality of userfriendliness. 2 refs.; 5 figs

  9. Development of a method to determine the effectiveness of cleaning agents in removal of biofilm derived spores in milking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ievgeniia Ostrov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial damages caused by biofilm forming bacteria in the dairy industry are a fundamental threat to safety and quality of dairy products. In order to ensure the optimal level of equipment hygiene in the dairy industry, it is necessary to determine the biofilm removal efficiency of cleaning agents used for cleaning-in-place procedures. However, currently there is no standard method available for evaluating and comparing cleaning agents for use in cleaning-in-place procedures in the dairy industry under realistic conditions. The present study aims to establish a cleaning-in-place model system to evaluate the effectiveness of cleaning agents in removal of biofilm derived spores from the surfaces of stainless steel which is the predominant substrate in milking equipment on dairy farms. The system is based on Bacillus subtilis spores surrounded with exopolymeric substances produced by bacteria during biofilm formation. The spores applied on sampling plates were mounted on T-junctions protruding 1.5 – 11-times the milk pipe diameter from the main loop to resemble different levels of cleaning difficulty. The cleaning tests were conducted using commercial alkaline detergents and caustic soda at conditions which are relevant to actual farm environment. The spores removal effect was evaluated by comparing the number of viable spores (attached to sampling plates before and after cleaning. Evaluation of the cleaning and disinfecting effect of cleaning agents towards biofilm derived spores was further performed, which indicates whether spores elimination effect of an agent is due to killing the spores or removing them from the surfaces of dairy equipment. Moreover, it was established that the presence of extracellular matrix is an important factor responsible for high level of cleaning difficulty characteristic for surface attached spores. In overall, the results of this study suggest that the developed model system simulates actual farm conditions for

  10. Friction and Adhesion Forces of Bacillus thuringiensis Spores on Planar Surfaces in Atmospheric Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-11-07

    The kinetic friction force and the adhesion force of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on planar surfaces in atmospheric systems were studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on these forces varied for different surface properties including hydrophobicity, roughness, and surface charge. The friction force of the spore was greater on a rougher surface than on mica, which is atomically flat. As RH increases, the friction force of the spores decreases on mica whereas it increases on rough surfaces. The influence of RH on the interaction forces between hydrophobic surfaces is not as strong as for hydrophilic surfaces. The friction force of the spore is linear to the sum of the adhesion force and normal load on the hydrophobic surface. In conclusion, the poorly defined surface structure of the spore and the adsorption of contaminants from the surrounding atmosphere are believed to cause a discrepancy between the calculated and measured adhesion forces.

  11. Qinshan plant display system: experience to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin, L.; Jiangdong, Y.; Weili, C.; Haidong, W.; Wangtian, L.; Lockwood, R.; Doucet, R.; Trask, D.; Judd, R.

    2004-01-01

    The two CANDU 6 units operated by the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Corporation (TQNPC) include, as part of a control centre upgrade, a new plant display system (PDS). The PDS provides plant operators with new display and monitoring functionality designed to compliment the DCC capability. It includes new overview and trend displays (e.g., critical safety parameter monitor and user-defined trends), and enhanced annunciation based on AECL's Computerized Alarm Message List System (CAMLS) including an alarm interrogation capability. This paper presents a review of operating experience gained since the PDS was commissioned more than three years ago. It includes feedback provided by control room operators and trainers, PDS maintainers, and AECL development and support staff. It also includes an overview of improvements implemented since the PDS and suggestions for the future enhancements. (author)

  12. Spacesuit Data Display and Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David G.; Sells, Aaron; Shah, Hemal

    2009-01-01

    A prototype embedded avionics system has been designed for the next generation of NASA extra-vehicular-activity (EVA) spacesuits. The system performs biomedical and other sensor monitoring, image capture, data display, and data transmission. An existing NASA Phase I and II award winning design for an embedded computing system (ZIN vMetrics - BioWATCH) has been modified. The unit has a reliable, compact form factor with flexible packaging options. These innovations are significant, because current state-of-the-art EVA spacesuits do not provide capability for data displays or embedded data acquisition and management. The Phase 1 effort achieved Technology Readiness Level 4 (high fidelity breadboard demonstration). The breadboard uses a commercial-grade field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processor core that can be upgraded to a space-rated device for future revisions.

  13. CANDU 9 operator plant display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueman, R.; Webster, A.; MacBeth, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    To meet evolving client and regulatory needs, AECL has adopted an evolutionary approach to the design of the CANDU 9 control centre. That is, the design incorporates feedback from existing stations, reflects the growing diversity in the roles and responsibilities of the operating staff, and reduces costs associated with plant capital and operations, maintenance and administration (OM and A), through the appropriate introduction of new technologies. Underlying this approach is a refined engineering design process that cost-effectively integrates operational feedback and human factors engineering to define the operating staff information and information presentation requirements. Based on this approach, the CANDU 9 control centre will provide utility operating staff with the means to achieve improved operations and reduced OM and A costs. One of the design features that will contribute to the improved operational capabilities of the control centre is a new Plant Display System (PDS) that is separate from the digital control system. The PDS will be used to implement non-safety panel, and console video display systems within the CANDU 9 main control room (MCR). This paper presents a detailed description of the CANDU 9 Plant Display System and features that provide increased operational capabilities. (author)

  14. Advanced alarm systems: Display and processing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Hara, J.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Wachtel, J.; Perensky, J. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a research program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address the human factors engineering (HFE) deficiencies associated with nuclear power plant alarm systems. The overall objective of the study is to develop HFE review guidance for alarm systems. In support of this objective, human performance issues needing additional research were identified. Among the important issues were alarm processing strategies and alarm display techniques. This paper will discuss these issues and briefly describe our current research plan to address them.

  15. Measurement techniques of LC display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.; Becker, Michael E.; Neumeier, Juergen

    1993-10-01

    The strong increase of applications of liquid crystal displays in various areas (measuring, medical equipment, automotive, telecommunication, office, etc.) has forced the demand for the adequate specification of the LCDs performances. The optical, electro-optical and spectral properties of LCDs are strongly dependent on viewing direction, electrical driving conditions, illumination and temperature. All these quantities have to be precisely controlled, when one of them is varied, the resulting optical response of the object is recorded. In this paper we present measuring methods proposed for LCD panels and the computer controlled measuring system (DMS) for their evaluation.

  16. Vision based flight procedure stereo display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Wan, Di; Ma, Lan; He, Yuncheng

    2008-03-01

    A virtual reality flight procedure vision system is introduced in this paper. The digital flight map database is established based on the Geographic Information System (GIS) and high definitions satellite remote sensing photos. The flight approaching area database is established through computer 3D modeling system and GIS. The area texture is generated from the remote sensing photos and aerial photographs in various level of detail. According to the flight approaching procedure, the flight navigation information is linked to the database. The flight approaching area vision can be dynamic displayed according to the designed flight procedure. The flight approaching area images are rendered in 2 channels, one for left eye images and the others for right eye images. Through the polarized stereoscopic projection system, the pilots and aircrew can get the vivid 3D vision of the flight destination approaching area. Take the use of this system in pilots preflight preparation procedure, the aircrew can get more vivid information along the flight destination approaching area. This system can improve the aviator's self-confidence before he carries out the flight mission, accordingly, the flight safety is improved. This system is also useful in validate the visual flight procedure design, and it helps to the flight procedure design.

  17. Knowledge based development of graphic display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Most human factors guidelines on computer display design attempt to ensure that human sensory limits are not strained or that users can potentially access data. While this is a necessary and too often an overlooked step in interface design, it does not address issues about how to use computer displays to aid human performance at domain tasks. This challenge to human factors guidance is particularly acute in complex environments such as nuclear power plants where the goal is more than a useable interface system; the interface must support effective human performance at tasks like situation assessment, fault management, problem solving and planning. Studies of human performance in complex domains reveal that human-machine performance failures can often be linked to problems in information handling - data overload, getting lost, keyhole effects, tunnel vision to name but a few. All of these information handling problems represent manifestations of an inability to find, integrate or interpret the ''right'' data at the ''right'' time, i.e., failures where critical information is not detected among the ambient data load, where critical information is not assembled from data distributed over time or over space; and where critical information is not looked for because of misunderstandings or erroneous assumptions (cf., Woods, 1985). Problems of this kind illustrate that the potential to see, read, or access data does not guarantee successful user information extraction. The result is a need for research and guidance on design for enhanced information extraction in addition to design for data availability

  18. Efficient production of D-tagatose using a food-grade surface display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Wu, Lingtian; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Jing; Feng, Xiaohai

    2014-07-16

    D-tagatose, a functional sweetener, is commonly transformed from D-galactose by L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI). In this study, a novel type of biocatalyst, L-AI from Lactobacillus fermentum CGMCC2921 displayed on the spore surface of Bacillus subtilis 168, was developed for producing D-tagatose. The anchored L-AI, exhibiting the relatively high bioactivity, suggested that the surface display system using CotX as the anchoring protein was successfully constructed. The stability of the anchored L-AI was significantly improved. Specifically, the consolidation of thermal stability representing 87% of relative activity was retained even at 80 °C for 30 min, which remarkably favored the production of D-tagatose. Under the optimal conditions, the robust spores can convert 75% D-galactose (100 g/L) into D-tagatose after 24 h, and the conversion rate remained at 56% at the third cycle. Therefore, this biocatalysis system, which could express the target enzyme on the food-grade vector, was an alternative method for the value-added production of D-tagatose.

  19. Safety parameter display system for Kalinin NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.I.; Videneev, E.N.; Tissot, J.C.; Joonekindt, D.; Davidenko, N.N.; Shaftan, G.I.; Dounaev, V.G.; Neboyan, V.T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the safety parameter display system (SPDS), which is being designed for Kalinin NPP. The assessment of the safety status of the plant is done by the continuous monitoring of six critical safety functions and the corresponding status trees. Besides, a number of additional functions are realized within the scope of KlnNPP, aimed at providing the operator and the safety engineer in the main control room with more detailed information in accidental situation as well as during the normal operation. In particular, these functions are: archiving, data logs and alarm handling, safety actions monitoring, mnemonic diagrams indicating the state of main technological equipment and basic plant parameters, reference data, etc. As compared with the traditional scope of functions of this kind of systems, the functionality of KlnNPP SPDS is significantly expanded due to the inclusion in it the operator support function ''computerized procedures''. The basic SPDS implementation platform is ADACS of SEMA GROUP design. The system architecture includes two workstations in the main control room: one is for reactor operator and the other one for safety engineer. Every station has two CRT screens which ensures computerized procedures implementation and provides for extra services for the operator. Also, the information from the SPDS is transmitted to the local crisis center and to the crisis center of the State utility organization concern ''Rosenergoatom''. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  20. Industrial Personal Computer based Display for Nuclear Safety System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Aram; Jo, Jung Hee; Kim, Ki Beom; Cheon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min

    2014-01-01

    The safety display of nuclear system has been classified as important to safety (SIL:Safety Integrity Level 3). These days the regulatory agencies are imposing more strict safety requirements for digital safety display system. To satisfy these requirements, it is necessary to develop a safety-critical (SIL 4) grade safety display system. This paper proposes industrial personal computer based safety display system with safety grade operating system and safety grade display methods. The description consists of three parts, the background, the safety requirements and the proposed safety display system design. The hardware platform is designed using commercially available off-the-shelf processor board with back plane bus. The operating system is customized for nuclear safety display application. The display unit is designed adopting two improvement features, i.e., one is to provide two separate processors for main computer and display device using serial communication, and the other is to use Digital Visual Interface between main computer and display device. In this case the main computer uses minimized graphic functions for safety display. The display design is at the conceptual phase, and there are several open areas to be concreted for a solid system. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and suggest a methodology to develop a safety-critical display system and the descriptions are focused on the safety requirement point of view

  1. Industrial Personal Computer based Display for Nuclear Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Aram; Jo, Jung Hee; Kim, Ki Beom; Cheon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min [KEPCO, Youngin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The safety display of nuclear system has been classified as important to safety (SIL:Safety Integrity Level 3). These days the regulatory agencies are imposing more strict safety requirements for digital safety display system. To satisfy these requirements, it is necessary to develop a safety-critical (SIL 4) grade safety display system. This paper proposes industrial personal computer based safety display system with safety grade operating system and safety grade display methods. The description consists of three parts, the background, the safety requirements and the proposed safety display system design. The hardware platform is designed using commercially available off-the-shelf processor board with back plane bus. The operating system is customized for nuclear safety display application. The display unit is designed adopting two improvement features, i.e., one is to provide two separate processors for main computer and display device using serial communication, and the other is to use Digital Visual Interface between main computer and display device. In this case the main computer uses minimized graphic functions for safety display. The display design is at the conceptual phase, and there are several open areas to be concreted for a solid system. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and suggest a methodology to develop a safety-critical display system and the descriptions are focused on the safety requirement point of view.

  2. A variable-collimation display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchko, Robert; Robinson, Sam; Schmidt, Jack; Graniela, Benito

    2014-03-01

    Two important human depth cues are accommodation and vergence. Normally, the eyes accommodate and converge or diverge in tandem; changes in viewing distance cause the eyes to simultaneously adjust both focus and orientation. However, ambiguity between accommodation and vergence cues is a well-known limitation in many stereoscopic display technologies. This limitation also arises in state-of-the-art full-flight simulator displays. In current full-flight simulators, the out-the-window (OTW) display (i.e., the front cockpit window display) employs a fixed collimated display technology which allows the pilot and copilot to perceive the OTW training scene without angular errors or distortions; however, accommodation and vergence cues are limited to fixed ranges (e.g., ~ 20 m). While this approach works well for long-range, the ambiguity of depth cues at shorter range hinders the pilot's ability to gauge distances in critical maneuvers such as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). This is the first in a series of papers on a novel, variable-collimation display (VCD) technology that is being developed under NAVY SBIR Topic N121-041 funding. The proposed VCD will integrate with rotary-wing and vertical take-off and landing simulators and provide accurate accommodation and vergence cues for distances ranging from approximately 3 m outside the chin window to ~ 20 m. A display that offers dynamic accommodation and vergence could improve pilot safety and training, and impact other applications presently limited by lack of these depth cues.

  3. Information Display: Considerations for Designing Modern Computer-Based Display Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, J.; Pirus, D.; Beltracchi, L.

    2003-01-01

    OAK- B135 To help nuclear utilities and suppliers design and implement plant information management systems and displays that provide accurate and timely information and require minimal navigation and interface management

  4. A programmable display layer for virtual reality system architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, F.A.; Liere, van R.; Fröhlich, B.

    2010-01-01

    Display systems typically operate at a minimum rate of 60 Hz. However, existing VR-architectures generally produce application updates at a lower rate. Consequently, the display is not updated by the application every display frame. This causes a number of undesirable perceptual artifacts. We

  5. Panoramic, large-screen, 3-D flight display system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Henry; Larson, Brent; Johnson, Michael; Droessler, Justin; Reinhart, William F.

    1995-01-01

    The report documents and summarizes the results of the required evaluations specified in the SOW and the design specifications for the selected display system hardware. Also included are the proposed development plan and schedule as well as the estimated rough order of magnitude (ROM) cost to design, fabricate, and demonstrate a flyable prototype research flight display system. The thrust of the effort was development of a complete understanding of the user/system requirements for a panoramic, collimated, 3-D flyable avionic display system and the translation of the requirements into an acceptable system design for fabrication and demonstration of a prototype display in the early 1997 time frame. Eleven display system design concepts were presented to NASA LaRC during the program, one of which was down-selected to a preferred display system concept. A set of preliminary display requirements was formulated. The state of the art in image source technology, 3-D methods, collimation methods, and interaction methods for a panoramic, 3-D flight display system were reviewed in depth and evaluated. Display technology improvements and risk reductions associated with maturity of the technologies for the preferred display system design concept were identified.

  6. Display of adenoregulin with a novel Pichia pastoris cell surface display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ren; Jiang, Zhengbing; Liu, Meiyun; Tao, Xinyi; Ma, Yushu; Wei, Dongzhi

    2007-02-01

    Two Pichia pastoris cell surface display vectors were constructed. The vectors consisted of the flocculation functional domain of Flo1p with its own secretion signal sequence or the alpha-factor secretion signal sequence, a polyhistidine (6xHis) tag for detection, an enterokinase recognition site, and the insertion sites for target proteins. Adenoregulin (ADR) is a 33-amino-acid antimicrobial peptide isolated from Phyllomedusa bicolor skin. The ADR was expressed and displayed on the Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface with the system reported. The displayed recombinant ADR fusion protein was detected by fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The antimicrobial activity of the recombinant adenoregulin was detected after proteolytic cleavage of the fusion protein on cell surface. The validity of the Pichia pastoris cell surface display vectors was proved by the displayed ADR.

  7. System Would Generate Virtual Heads-Up Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed helmet-mounted electronic display system superimposes full-color alphanumerical and/or graphical information onto observer's visual field. Displayed information projected directly onto observer's retinas, giving observer illusion of full-size computer display in foreground or background. Display stereoscopic, holographic, or in form of virtual image. Used by pilots to view navigational information while looking outside or at instruments, by security officers to view information about critical facilities while looking at visitors, or possibly even stock-exchange facilities to view desktop monitors and overhead displays simultaneously. System includes acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF), which acts as both spectral filter and spatial light modulator.

  8. User interface design in safety parameter display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, E.E. Jr.; Johnson, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The extensive installation of computerized safety Parameter Display Systems (SPDSs) in nuclear power plants since the Three-Mile Island accident has enhanced plant safety. It has also raised new issues of how best to ensure an effective interface between human operators and the plant via computer systems. New developments in interface technologies since the current generation of SPDSs was installed can contribute to improving display interfaces. These technologies include new input devices, three-dimensional displays, delay indicators, and auditory displays. Examples of how they might be applied to improve current SPDSs are given. These examples illustrate how the new use interface technology could be applied to future nuclear plant displays

  9. OLED Display For Real Time Vision System

    OpenAIRE

    Sandhyalakshmi Narayanan; Sanjana Sridhar; Neha Deshpande; Ashwini Gaikwad

    2015-01-01

    This innovative glass design will carry an OLED based display controlled via nano Ardiuno board having Bluetooth connectivity with a Smartphone to exchange information along with onboard accelerometer. We are using a tilt angle sensor for detecting if the driver is feeling drowsy. An alcohol sensor has been used to promote the safe driving habit. The glasses will be getting latest updates about the current speed of the vehicle navigation directions nearby or approaching sign broads or service...

  10. Advanced Colorimetry of Display Systems: Tetra-Chroma3 Display Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available High-fidelity color image reproduction is one of the key issues invisual telecommunication systems, for electronic commerce,telemedicine, digital museum and so on. All colorimetric standards ofdisplay systems are up to the present day trichromatic. But, from theshape of a horseshoe-area of all existing colors in the CIE xychromaticity diagram it follows that with three real reproductivelights, the stated area in the CIE xy chromaticity diagram cannot beoverlaid. The expansion of the color gamut of a display device ispossible in a few ways. In this paper, the way of increasing the numberof primaries is studied. The fourth cyan primary is added to threeconventional ones to enlarge the color gamut of reproduction towardscyans and yellow-oranges. The original method of color management forthis new display unit is introduced. In addition, the color gamut ofthe designed additive-based display is successfully compared with thecolor gamut of a modern subtractive-based system. A display with morethan three primary colors is called a multiprimary color display. Thevery advantageous property of such display is the possibility todisplay metameric colors.

  11. OLED Display For Real Time Vision System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhyalakshmi Narayanan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This innovative glass design will carry an OLED based display controlled via nano Ardiuno board having Bluetooth connectivity with a Smartphone to exchange information along with onboard accelerometer. We are using a tilt angle sensor for detecting if the driver is feeling drowsy. An alcohol sensor has been used to promote the safe driving habit. The glasses will be getting latest updates about the current speed of the vehicle navigation directions nearby or approaching sign broads or services like petrol pumps. Itll also display information like incoming calls or received messages. All this information will be obtained through a Smartphone connected via Bluetooth. Also the car mileage can be monitored with help of fuel sensor as the consumption of fuel is directly related to it. Abnormalities if detected will be immediately notified in the glasses. Also the angle of the tilt angle sensor can be defined and set by the user according to his needs. Also the main idea of using OLED glasses is that it is organic thereby helps in reducing the carbon footprint and is quite slim. Therefore it can be easily mounted on the specs without making it heavy. Also they higher level of flexibility and have low power drain and energy consumption

  12. Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System - System Architecture Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doule, Ondrej; Miranda, David; Hochstadt, Jake

    2017-01-01

    The Integrated Display and Environmental Awareness System (IDEAS) is an interdisciplinary team project focusing on the development of a wearable computer and Head Mounted Display (HMD) based on Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) components for the specific application and needs of NASA technicians, engineers and astronauts. Wearable computers are on the verge of utilization trials in daily life as well as industrial environments. The first civil and COTS wearable head mounted display systems were introduced just a few years ago and they probed not only technology readiness in terms of performance, endurance, miniaturization, operability and usefulness but also maturity of practice in perspective of a socio-technical context. Although the main technical hurdles such as mass and power were addressed as improvements on the technical side, the usefulness, practicality and social acceptance were often noted on the side of a broad variety of humans' operations. In other words, although the technology made a giant leap, its use and efficiency still looks for the sweet spot. The first IDEAS project started in January 2015 and was concluded in January 2017. The project identified current COTS systems' capability at minimum cost and maximum applicability and brought about important strategic concepts that will serve further IDEAS-like system development.

  13. Adsorption of β-galactosidase of Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius on wild type and mutants spores of Bacillus subtilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirec Teja

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bacillus subtilis spore has long been used as a surface display system with potential applications in a variety of fields ranging from mucosal vaccine delivery, bioremediation and biocatalyst development. More recently, a non-recombinant approach of spore display has been proposed and heterologous proteins adsorbed on the spore surface. We used the well-characterized β-galactosidase from the thermoacidophilic bacterium Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius as a model to study enzyme adsorption, to analyze whether and how spore-adsorption affects the properties of the enzyme and to improve the efficiency of the process. Results We report that purified β-galactosidase molecules were adsorbed to purified spores of a wild type strain of B. subtilis retaining ca. 50% of their enzymatic activity. Optimal pH and temperature of the enzyme were not altered by the presence of the spore, that protected the adsorbed β-galactosidase from exposure to acidic pH conditions. A collection of mutant strains of B. subtilis lacking a single or several spore coat proteins was compared to the isogenic parental strain for the adsorption efficiency. Mutants with an altered outermost spore layer (crust were able to adsorb 60-80% of the enzyme, while mutants with a severely altered or totally lacking outer coat adsorbed 100% of the β-galactosidase molecules present in the adsorption reaction. Conclusion Our results indicate that the spore surface structures, the crust and the outer coat layer, have an negative effect on the adhesion of the β-galactosidase. Electrostatic forces, previously suggested as main determinants of spore adsorption, do not seem to play an essential role in the spore-β-galactosidase interaction. The analysis of mutants with altered spore surface has shown that the process of spore adsorption can be improved and has suggested that such improvement has to be based on a better understanding of the spore surface structure

  14. Marshall information retrieval and display system (MIRADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; Jones, S. C.; King, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Program for data management system allows sophisticated inquiries while utilizing simplified language. Online system is composed of several programs. System is written primarily in COBOL with routines in ASSEMBLER and FORTRAN V.

  15. An Advanced Diagnostic Display for Core Protection Calculator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong, See-Chae; Sohn, Se-Do [Korea Power Engineering Company, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    The main purpose of a Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Display System is to provide operator's interface for I and C systems. The CPCS display(Shin-Kori 1 and 2) provides operators with 1) plant monitoring values of field input and algorithm variables that reflect the reactor core conditions, 2) operation values that operators can change and 3) CPCS status. It will be an optimal case if operators can understand the plant (including CPCS itself) condition intuitively with the displayed values but it is not easy in CPCS. For example, if the CPCS Channel Trouble light is lit, operators need some amount of time to investigate what caused the trouble light because there are more than hundred causes that can generate the channel trouble. If a Display supports diagnostic information that shows what cause the displayed alarms, it will greatly help operators in easy understanding the CPCS status. To provide these diagnostic information, this paper suggests an active self-explanatory display mechanism. This self-explanatory diagnostic display mechanism utilizes an ontology in XML that describes parent child, sibling relationships of display variables, through which in-depth, in-breadth diagnostic tracking is possible. This paper consists of two parts. First, the key features of CPCS Flat Panel Display System (FPDS) are described. Second, the features of active self explanatory diagnostic display are discussed.

  16. An Advanced Diagnostic Display for Core Protection Calculator System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hyeon; Jeong, See-Chae; Sohn, Se-Do

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of a Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Display System is to provide operator's interface for I and C systems. The CPCS display(Shin-Kori 1 and 2) provides operators with 1) plant monitoring values of field input and algorithm variables that reflect the reactor core conditions, 2) operation values that operators can change and 3) CPCS status. It will be an optimal case if operators can understand the plant (including CPCS itself) condition intuitively with the displayed values but it is not easy in CPCS. For example, if the CPCS Channel Trouble light is lit, operators need some amount of time to investigate what caused the trouble light because there are more than hundred causes that can generate the channel trouble. If a Display supports diagnostic information that shows what cause the displayed alarms, it will greatly help operators in easy understanding the CPCS status. To provide these diagnostic information, this paper suggests an active self-explanatory display mechanism. This self-explanatory diagnostic display mechanism utilizes an ontology in XML that describes parent child, sibling relationships of display variables, through which in-depth, in-breadth diagnostic tracking is possible. This paper consists of two parts. First, the key features of CPCS Flat Panel Display System (FPDS) are described. Second, the features of active self explanatory diagnostic display are discussed

  17. Face detection for interactive tabletop viewscreen system using olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2009-10-01

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  18. The action of ionizing radiation on Bacillus subtilis spores in a dry and wet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woizenko, E.

    1985-01-01

    The action of water in combination with ionizing radiation was examined using different strains of Bacillus subtilis spores. The parameter of the experiments was a modification of water content; maximal degree of desiccation was achieved by high vacuum. The Fricke-method for X-ray dosimetry was compared to the ionizing-chamber method. In the dry state spores of both wild and mutant strain appeared to be more sensitive than in the wet state. This contradicts to the opinion of dose enhancement by the indirect action of water. (orig.) [de

  19. A green-color portable waveguide eyewear display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Lingbo; Xu, Ke; Wu, Zhengming; Hu, Yingtian; Li, Zhenzhen; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Juan

    2013-08-01

    Waveguide display systems are widely used in various display fields, especially in head mounted display. Comparing with the traditional head mounted display system, this device dramatically reduce the size and mass. However, there are still several fatal problems such as high scatting, the cumbersome design and chromatic aberration that should be solved. We designed and fabricated a monochromatic portable eyewear display system consist of a comfortable eyewear device and waveguide system with two holographic gratings located on the substrate symmetrically. We record the gratings on the photopolymer medium with high efficiency and wavelength sensitivity. The light emitting from the micro-display is diffracted by the grating and trapped in the glass substrate by total internal reflection. The relationship between the diffraction efficiency and exposure value is studied and analyzed, and we fabricated the gratings with appropriate diffraction efficiency in a optimization condition. To avoid the disturbance of the stray light, we optimize the waveguide system numerically and perform the optical experiments. With this system, people can both see through the waveguide to obtain the information outside and catch the information from the micro display. After considering the human body engineering and industrial production, we design the structure in a compact and portable way. It has the advantage of small-type configuration and economic acceptable. It is believe that this kind of planar waveguide system is a potentially replaceable choice for the portable devices in future mobile communications.

  20. Interactive display of molecular models using a microcomputer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J. T.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, microcomputer-based, interactive graphics display system has been developed for the presentation of perspective views of wire frame molecular models. The display system is based on a TERAK 8510a graphics computer system with a display unit consisting of microprocessor, television display and keyboard subsystems. The operating system includes a screen editor, file manager, PASCAL and BASIC compilers and command options for linking and executing programs. The graphics program, written in USCD PASCAL, involves the centering of the coordinate system, the transformation of centered model coordinates into homogeneous coordinates, the construction of a viewing transformation matrix to operate on the coordinates, clipping invisible points, perspective transformation and scaling to screen coordinates; commands available include ZOOM, ROTATE, RESET, and CHANGEVIEW. Data file structure was chosen to minimize the amount of disk storage space. Despite the inherent slowness of the system, its low cost and flexibility suggests general applicability.

  1. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  2. Function-oriented display system: background and first prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Friberg, Maarten; Teigen, Arild; Pirus, Dominique

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the function-oriented displays and alarm project is to design, implement and evaluate Human System Interfaces (HSI) based on a function-oriented design philosophy. Function-oriented design is an approach for designing HSIs where the plant's functions, identified through a function analysis, are used for determining the content, organisation, and management of displays. The project has used the 'FITNESS approach', originally developed by EDF in France, as a starting point. FITNESS provides an integrated display system consisting of process operating displays, operating procedures, alarms and trend displays - all based on a functional decomposition of the plant. So far, two prototypes have been implemented on the FRESH PWR simulator in HAMMLAB. The first prototype focused on the condensate pumps. Three process operating displays representing functions at different levels of the functional hierarchy were implemented. Computerised startup and shutdown procedures for the condensate pumps function were also implemented. In the second prototype, the scope was increased to cover the main feedwater system. The displays of the first prototype were redesigned and additional displays were created. In conclusion, the first phase of the project has been completed successfully, and we are now ready to enter the second phase. In the second phase, the scope of the prototype will be increased further to include the steam-generators and function-oriented disturbance operating procedures. The prototype will be evaluated in a user test conducted later in 2004. (Author)

  3. Paradigm for expert display systems in nuclear plant and elsewhere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, J.R.

    1986-02-01

    Display of relevant data concerning plant operation has been a concern of the nuclear industry from its beginnings. Since the incident at Three Mile Island, this matter has had much careful scrutiny. L. Beltracchi, in particular, has originated a sequence of important steps to improve the operator's ability to recognize plant states and their changes. In the early 1980's, Beltracchi (1983, 1984) proposed a display based on the Rankine cycle for light water reactors. More recently, in an unpublished work (1986b), he described an extension that includes a small, rule-based system in the display program, drawing inferences about plant operation from sensor readings, and displaying those inferences on the Rankine display. Our paper examines Beltracchi's rule-based display from the perspective of knowledge bases. Earlier (Gabriel, 1983) we noted that analytical models of system behavior are just as much a knowledge base as are the rules of a conventional expert system. The problem of finding useful displays for a complex plant is discussed from this perspective. We then present a paradigm for developing designs with properties similar to those in Beltracchi's Rankine cycle display. Finally, to clarify the issue, we give a small example from an imaginary plant

  4. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Message Display System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. M. Bakura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The technology of displaying message is an important part of communication and advertisement. In recent times, Wireless communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going with Smartphone technology. This work describes the design and implementation of a microcontroller based messaging display system. The messaging display system will be interfaced with an android application which will then be used to display information from the comfort of one‘s phone to an LCD screen using the Bluetooth application interface. The work employs the use of an ATMEGA328p Microcontroller mounted on an Arduino board, a Bluetooth Module (HC-06 and an LCD screen. Most of these electronic display systems were using wired cable connections, the Bluetooth technology used in this work is aimed at solving the problem of wired cable connections.The microcontroller provides all the functionality of the display notices and wireless control. A desired text message from a mobile phone is sent via android mobile application to the Bluetooth module located at the receiving end. The Mobile Application was created using online software called App Inventor. When the entire system was connected and tested, it functioned as designed without any noticeable problems. The Bluetooth module responded to commands being sent from the android application appropriately and in a timely manner. The system was able to display 80 characters on the 4 x 20 LCD within the range of 10m as designated by the Bluetooth datasheet.

  5. Safety parameter display system (SPDS) for Russian-designed NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikanov, S.S.; Catullo, W.J.; Pelusi, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the programs aimed at improving the safety of Russian-designed reactors, the US DoE has sponsored a project of providing a safety parameter display system (SPDS) for nuclear power plants with such reactors. The present paper is focused mostly on the system architecture design features of SPDS systems for WWER-1000 and RBMK-1000 reactors. The function and the operating modes of the SPDS are outlined, and a description of the display system is given. The system architecture and system design of both an integrated and a stand-alone IandC system is explained. (A.K.)

  6. A programmable display layer for virtual reality system architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Ferdi Alexander; van Liere, Robert; Froehlich, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Display systems typically operate at a minimum rate of 60 Hz. However, existing VR-architectures generally produce application updates at a lower rate. Consequently, the display is not updated by the application every display frame. This causes a number of undesirable perceptual artifacts. We describe an architecture that provides a programmable display layer (PDL) in order to generate updated display frames. This replaces the default display behavior of repeating application frames until an update is available. We will show three benefits of the architecture typical to VR. First, smooth motion is provided by generating intermediate display frames by per-pixel depth-image warping using 3D motion fields. Smooth motion eliminates various perceptual artifacts due to judder. Second, we implement fine-grained latency reduction at the display frame level using a synchronized prediction of simulation objects and the viewpoint. This improves the average quality and consistency of latency reduction. Third, a crosstalk reduction algorithm for consecutive display frames is implemented, which improves the quality of stereoscopic images. To evaluate the architecture, we compare image quality and latency to that of a classic level-of-detail approach.

  7. Display of the information model accounting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Varga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the accounting information system in public companies, business technology matrix and data flow diagram. The paper describes the purpose and goals of the accounting process, matrix sub-process and data class. Data flow in the accounting process and the so-called general ledger module are described in detail. Activities of the financial statements and determining the financial statements of the companies are mentioned as well. It is stated how the general ledger module should function and what characteristics it must have. Line graphs will depict indicators of the company’s business success, indebtedness and company’s efficiency coefficients based on financial balance reports, and profit and loss report.

  8. Data displays for multi-detector monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, R.C.M.

    1978-03-01

    Extensive installations of sensors are used for environmental surveillance of radiological hazards, fire, etc. The data from such arrays of detectors can be collected by data processing systems which generate appropriate supervisory displays and records. This paper reviews facilities and physical configurations of computer-based display systems, with particular reference to radiological protection schemes. The general principles are relevant to other fields of application. (author)

  9. An expert display system and nuclear power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltracchi, L.

    1988-01-01

    An expert display system controls automatically the display of segments on a cathode ray tube's screen to form an image of plant operations. The image consists of an icon of: 1) the process (heat engine cycle), 2) plant control systems, and 3) safety systems. A set of data-driven, forward-chaining computer stored rules control the display of segments. As plant operation changes, measured plant data are processed through the rules, and the results control the deletion and addition of segments to the display format. The icon contains information needed by control rooms operators to monitor plant operations. One example of an expert display is illustrated for the operator's task of monitoring leakage from a safety valve in a steam line of a boiling water reactor (BWR). In another example, the use of an expert display to monitor plant operations during pre-trip, trip, and post-trip operations is discussed as a universal display. The viewpoints and opinions expressed herein are the author's personal ones, and they are not to be interpreted as Nuclear Regulatory Commission criteria, requirements, or guidelines

  10. General multiplex centralized fire-alarm display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Liqun; Chen Jinming

    2002-01-01

    The fire-alarm display system is developed, which can connect with each type of fire controllers produced in the factory and SIGMASYS controllers. It can display whole alarm information. The display system software gathers communication, database and multimedia, has functions of inspecting fire, showing alarm, storing data, searching information and so on. The drawing software lets the user expediently add, delete, move and modify fire detection or fire fighting facilities on the building floor maps. The graphic transform software lets the display use the vectorgraph produced by popular plotting software such as Auto CAD. The system software provides the administration function, such as log book of changing shift and managing workers etc.. The software executed on Windows 98 platform. The user interface is friendly and reliable in operation

  11. Efficiency of Artemia cysts removal as a model invasive spore using a continuous microwave system with heat recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sundar; Ortego, Jeffrey; Rusch, Kelly A; Boldor, Dorin

    2008-12-15

    A continuous microwave system to treat ballast water inoculated with Artemia salina cysts as a model invasive spore was tested for its efficacy in inactivating the cysts present. The system was tested at two different flow rates (1 and 2 L x min(-1)) and two different power levels (2.5 and 4.5 kW). Temperature profiles indicate that the system could deliver heating loads in excess of 100 degrees C in a uniform and near-instantaneous manner when using a heat recovery system. Except for a power and flow rate combination of 2.5 kW and 2 L x min(-1), complete inactivation of the cysts was observed at all combinations at holding times below 100 s. The microwave treatment was better or equal to the control treatment in inactivating the cysts. Use of heat exchangers increased the power conversion efficiency and the overall efficiency of the treatment system. Cost economics analysis indicates that in the present form of development microwave treatment costs are higher than the existing ballast water treatment methods. Overall, tests results indicated that microwave treatment of ballast water is a promising method that can be used in conjunction with other methods to form an efficient treatment system that can prevent introduction of potentially invasive spore forming species in non-native waters.

  12. Decontamination of Bacillus subtilis Spores in a Sealed Package Using a Non-thermal Plasma System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, Kevin M.; Jensen, J. L.; Valdramidis, V. P.; Byrne, E.; Connolly, J.; Mosnier, J. P.; Cullen, P. J.

    The safety of packaged food and medical devices is a major concern to consumers and government officials. Recent inventions (PK-1 and PK-2) based on the principles of non-thermal, atmospheric plasma has shown significant reduction in bacterial contamination inside a sealed package. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PK-1 and PK-2 systems in the reduction of Bacillus subtilis spores using packages containing air or modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). The experimental design consisted of the following parameters: (1) two voltage conditions: 13.5 kV with 1.0 cm electrode gap (PK-1) and 80 kV with 4.5 cm electrode gap (PK-2), (2) two treatment conditions: inside and outside the field of ionization, (3) PK-1 and PK-2 optimized treatment times: 300 and 120 s, respectively, and (4) two package gas types: air and modified atmosphere (MA) gas (65% O2/30% CO2/5% N2). Measurements included: (1) bacterial reductions of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. atrophaeus), (2) ozone, nitrous oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide concentrations, and (3) relative humidity. Bacillus subtilis (1.7 × 106/strip) were loaded into sterile uncovered petri dishes and treated with ionization generated in packages using air or MA gas blend. Samples were treated for 300 s (PK-1) or 120 s (PK-2) and stored at room ­temperature for 24 h. Results documented relative humidity (RH) ranged from 20% to 30%. After 300 s of PK-1 treatment (13.5 kV/44 W/1.0 cm gap), ozone concentrations were 6,000 ppm (air) and 7,500 ppm (MA). After 120 s of PK-2 treatment (80 kV/150 W/4.5 cm), ozone concentrations were 7,500 ppm (air) and 12,000 ppm (MA). Ozone and NOx concentrations were non-detect (ND) after 24 h. PK-1 carbon monoxide levels were package ionization process.

  13. Artificial intelligence enhancements to safety parameter display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, B.K.; Hashemi, S.; Sharma, D.; Chandrasekaran, B.; Miller, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Two prototype knowledge based systems have been developed at The Ohio State University to be the basis of an operator aid that can be attached to an existing nuclear power plant Safety Parameter Display System. The first system uses improved sensor validation techniques to provide input to a fault diagnosis process. The second system would use the diagnostic system output to synthesize corrective procedures to aid the control room licensed operator in plant recovery

  14. Virtual vision system with actual flavor by olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2010-11-01

    The authors have researched multimedia system and support system for nursing studies on and practices of reminiscence therapy and life review therapy. The concept of the life review is presented by Butler in 1963. The process of thinking back on one's life and communicating about one's life to another person is called life review. There is a famous episode concerning the memory. It is called as Proustian effects. This effect is mentioned on the Proust's novel as an episode that a story teller reminds his old memory when he dipped a madeleine in tea. So many scientists research why smells trigger the memory. The authors pay attention to the relation between smells and memory although the reason is not evident yet. Then we have tried to add an olfactory display to the multimedia system so that the smells become a trigger of reminding buried memories. An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  15. : Light Steering Projection Systems and Attributes for HDR Displays

    KAUST Repository

    Damberg, Gerwin

    2017-06-02

    New light steering projectors in cinema form images by moving light away from dark regions into bright areas of an image. In these systems, the peak luminance of small features can far exceed full screen white luminance. In traditional projectors where light is filtered or blocked in order to give shades of gray (or colors), the peak luminance is fixed. The luminance of chromatic features benefit in the same way as white features, and chromatic image details can be reproduced at high brightness leading to a much wider overall color gamut coverage than previously possible. Projectors of this capability are desired by the creative community to aid in and enhance storytelling. Furthermore, reduced light source power requirements of light steering projectors provide additional economic and environmental benefits. While the dependency of peak luminance level on (bright) image feature size is new in the digital cinema space, display technologies with identical characteristics such as OLED, LED LCD and Plasma TVs are well established in the home. Similarly, direct view LED walls are popular in events, advertising and architectural markets. To enable consistent color reproduction across devices in today’s content production pipelines, models that describe modern projectors and display attributes need to evolve together with HDR standards and available metadata. This paper is a first step towards rethinking legacy display descriptors such as contrast, peak luminance and color primaries in light of new display technology. We first summarize recent progress in the field of light steering projectors in cinema and then, based on new projector and existing display characteristics propose the inclusion of two simple display attributes: Maximum Average Luminance and Peak (Color) Primary Luminance. We show that the proposed attributes allow a better prediction of content reproducibility on HDR displays. To validate this assertion, we test professional content on a commercial HDR

  16. LOFT advanced control room operator diagnostic and display system (ODDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, D.G.; Robb, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Reactor Facility in Idaho includes a highly instrumented nuclear reactor operated by the Department of Energy for the purpose of establishing nuclear safety requirements. The results of the development and installation into LOFT of an Operator Diagnostic and Display System (ODDS) are presented. The ODDS is a computer-based graphics display system centered around a PRIME 550 computer with several RAMTEK color graphic display units located within the control room and available to the reactor operators. Use of computer-based color graphics to aid the reactor operator is discussed. A detailed hardware description of the LOFT data system and the ODDS is presented. Methods and problems of backfitting the ODDS equipment into the LOFT plant are discussed

  17. Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Current display technology has relied on flat, 2D screens that cannot truly convey the third dimension of visual information: depth. In contrast to conventional visualization that is primarily based on 2D flat screens, the volumetric 3D display possesses a true 3D display volume, and places physically each 3D voxel in displayed 3D images at the true 3D (x,y,z) spatial position. Each voxel, analogous to a pixel in a 2D image, emits light from that position to form a real 3D image in the eyes of the viewers. Such true volumetric 3D display technology provides both physiological (accommodation, convergence, binocular disparity, and motion parallax) and psychological (image size, linear perspective, shading, brightness, etc.) depth cues to human visual systems to help in the perception of 3D objects. In a volumetric 3D display, viewers can watch the displayed 3D images from a completely 360 view without using any special eyewear. The volumetric 3D display techniques may lead to a quantum leap in information display technology and can dramatically change the ways humans interact with computers, which can lead to significant improvements in the efficiency of learning and knowledge management processes. Within a block of glass, a large amount of tiny dots of voxels are created by using a recently available machining technique called laser subsurface engraving (LSE). The LSE is able to produce tiny physical crack points (as small as 0.05 mm in diameter) at any (x,y,z) location within the cube of transparent material. The crack dots, when illuminated by a light source, scatter the light around and form visible voxels within the 3D volume. The locations of these tiny voxels are strategically determined such that each can be illuminated by a light ray from a high-resolution digital mirror device (DMD) light engine. The distribution of these voxels occupies the full display volume within the static 3D glass screen. This design eliminates any moving screen seen in previous

  18. Computer system for nuclear power plant parameter display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritar, A.; Klobuchar, M.

    1990-01-01

    The computer system for efficient, cheap and simple presentation of data on the screen of the personal computer is described. The display is in alphanumerical or graphical form. The system can be used for the man-machine interface in the process monitoring system of the nuclear power plant. It represents the third level of the new process computer system of the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko. (author)

  19. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  20. Head Worn Display System for Equivalent Visual Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupero, Frank; Valimont, Brian; Wise, John; Best. Carl; DeMers, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Head-Worn Displays or so-called, near-to-eye displays have potentially significant advantages in terms of cost, overcoming cockpit space constraints, and for the display of spatially-integrated information. However, many technical issues need to be overcome before these technologies can be successfully introduced into commercial aircraft cockpits. The results of three activities are reported. First, the near-to-eye display design, technological, and human factors issues are described and a literature review is presented. Second, the results of a fixed-base piloted simulation, investigating the impact of near to eye displays on both operational and visual performance is reported. Straight-in approaches were flown in simulated visual and instrument conditions while using either a biocular or a monocular display placed on either the dominant or non-dominant eye. The pilot's flight performance, visual acuity, and ability to detect unsafe conditions on the runway were tested. The data generally supports a monocular design with minimal impact due to eye dominance. Finally, a method for head tracker system latency measurement is developed and used to compare two different devices.

  1. A new concept of safety parameter display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.; Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Schirru, R.; Thome Filho, Z.D.; Silva, R.A. da.

    1986-07-01

    A general description of Angra-1 Parameter Display System (SSPA), a real time and on-line computerized monitoring system for the parameters related to the power plant safety is presented. This system has the main purpose of diminish the load on the Angra-1 power plant operators at an emergency event by supplying them with the additional tools serving as the basis for a prompt identification of the accident. The SSPA is a kind of safety parameter display system whose concept was introduced after Three Mile Island accident in USA. The SSPA comprises two nuclear applications independently considered. They are included into the Parameters Monitoring Integrated System (SIMP) and the safety critical function system (SFCS). (Author) [pt

  2. Open control/display system for a telerobotics work station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keslowitz, Saul

    1987-01-01

    A working Advanced Space Cockpit was developed that integrated advanced control and display devices into a state-of-the-art multimicroprocessor hardware configuration, using window graphics and running under an object-oriented, multitasking real-time operating system environment. This Open Control/Display System supports the idea that the operator should be able to interactively monitor, select, control, and display information about many payloads aboard the Space Station using sets of I/O devices with a single, software-reconfigurable workstation. This is done while maintaining system consistency, yet the system is completely open to accept new additions and advances in hardware and software. The Advanced Space Cockpit, linked to Grumman's Hybrid Computing Facility and Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS), was used to test the Open Control/Display System via full-scale simulation of the following tasks: telerobotic truss assembly, RCS and thermal bus servicing, CMG changeout, RMS constrained motion and space constructible radiator assembly, HPA coordinated control, and OMV docking and tumbling satellite retrieval. The proposed man-machine interface standard discussed has evolved through many iterations of the tasks, and is based on feedback from NASA and Air Force personnel who performed those tasks in the LASS.

  3. Producing EGS4 shower displays with the Unified Graphics System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    The EGS4 Code System has been coupled with the SLAC Unified Graphics System in such a manner as to provide a means for displaying showers on UGS77-supported devices. This is most easily accomplished by attaching an auxiliary subprogram package (SHOWGRAF) to existing EGS4 User Codes and making use of a graphics display or a post-processor code called EGS4PL. SHOWGRAF may be used to create shower displays directly on interactive IBM 5080 color display devices, supporting three-dimensional rotations, translations, and zoom features, and providing illustration of particle types and energies by color and/or intensity. Alternatively, SHOWGRAF may be used to record a two-dimensional projection of the shower in a device-independent graphics file. The EGS4PL post-processor may then be used to convert this file into device-dependent graphics code for any UGS77-supported device. Options exist within EGS4PL that allow for two-dimensional translations and zoom, for creating line structure to indicate particle types and energies, and for optional display of particles by type. All of this is facilitated by means of the command processor EGS4PL EXEC together with new options (5080 and PDEV) with the standard EGS4IN EXEC routine for running EGS4 interactively under VM/SP. 6 refs

  4. Integration of Predictive Display and Aircraft Flight Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of predictive display information and direct lift control system are considered for the path control tracking tasks (in particular landing task. The both solutions are based on pilot-vehicle system analysis and requirements to provide the highest accuracy and lowest pilot workload. The investigation was carried out for cases with and without time delay in aircraft dynamics. The efficiency of the both ways for the flying qualities improvement and their integration is tested by ground based simulation.

  5. Repetitive display system of line profiles for Doppler broadening measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, A.; Narihara, K.; Haba, K.

    1982-10-01

    Line profiles of impurities in visible and ultraviolet regions are repetitively displayed on a CRT with an interval of 250 mu s or 500 mu s, using a system composed of a Czerny-Turner monochromator with 1 m F.L., a self-resonant optical scanner, a photomultiplier shielded against hard X-rays and electronic circuits. The profile resolution is 0.035 nm FWHM. This system can be used in the environment of strong hard X-rays. (author)

  6. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  7. Cyber Security Test Strategy for Non-safety Display System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Han Seong; Kim, Hee Eun

    2016-01-01

    Cyber security has been a big issue since the instrumentation and control (I and C) system of nuclear power plant (NPP) is digitalized. A cyber-attack on NPP should be dealt with seriously because it might cause not only economic loss but also the radioactive material release. Researches on the consequences of cyber-attack onto NPP from a safety point of view have been conducted. A previous study shows the risk effect brought by initiation of event and deterioration of mitigation function by cyber terror. Although this study made conservative assumptions and simplifications, it gives an insight on the effect of cyber-attack. Another study shows that the error on a non-safety display system could cause wrong actions of operators. According to this previous study, the failure of the operator action caused by a cyber-attack on a display system might threaten the safety of the NPP by limiting appropriate mitigation actions. This study suggests a test strategy focusing on the cyber-attack on the information and display system, which might cause the failure of operator. The test strategy can be suggested to evaluate and complement security measures. Identifying whether a cyber-attack on the information and display system can affect the mitigation actions of operator, the strategy to obtain test scenarios is suggested. The failure of mitigation scenario is identified first. Then, for the test target in the scenario, software failure modes are applied to identify realistic failure scenarios. Testing should be performed for those scenarios to confirm the integrity of data and to assure effectiveness of security measures

  8. Cyber Security Test Strategy for Non-safety Display System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Han Seong [Joongbu University, Geumsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee Eun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Cyber security has been a big issue since the instrumentation and control (I and C) system of nuclear power plant (NPP) is digitalized. A cyber-attack on NPP should be dealt with seriously because it might cause not only economic loss but also the radioactive material release. Researches on the consequences of cyber-attack onto NPP from a safety point of view have been conducted. A previous study shows the risk effect brought by initiation of event and deterioration of mitigation function by cyber terror. Although this study made conservative assumptions and simplifications, it gives an insight on the effect of cyber-attack. Another study shows that the error on a non-safety display system could cause wrong actions of operators. According to this previous study, the failure of the operator action caused by a cyber-attack on a display system might threaten the safety of the NPP by limiting appropriate mitigation actions. This study suggests a test strategy focusing on the cyber-attack on the information and display system, which might cause the failure of operator. The test strategy can be suggested to evaluate and complement security measures. Identifying whether a cyber-attack on the information and display system can affect the mitigation actions of operator, the strategy to obtain test scenarios is suggested. The failure of mitigation scenario is identified first. Then, for the test target in the scenario, software failure modes are applied to identify realistic failure scenarios. Testing should be performed for those scenarios to confirm the integrity of data and to assure effectiveness of security measures.

  9. Laser display system for multi-depth screen projection scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, J Pablo; Mayes, Nathan; Riza, Nabeel A

    2017-11-10

    Proposed is a laser projection display system that uses an electronically controlled variable focus lens (ECVFL) to achieve sharp and in-focus image projection over multi-distance three-dimensional (3D) conformal screens. The system also functions as an embedded distance sensor that enables 3D mapping of the multi-level screen platform before the desired laser scanned beam focused/defocused projected spot sizes are matched to the different localized screen distances on the 3D screen. Compared to conventional laser scanning and spatial light modulator (SLM) based projection systems, the proposed design offers in-focus non-distorted projection over a multi-distance screen zone with varying depths. An experimental projection system for a screen depth variation of 65 cm is demonstrated using a 633 nm laser beam, 3 KHz scan speed galvo-scanning mirrors, and a liquid-based ECVFL. As a basic demonstration, an in-house developed MATLAB based graphic user interface is deployed to work along with the laser projection display, enabling user inputs like text strings or predefined image projection. The user can specify projection screen distance, scanned laser linewidth, projected text font size, projected image dimensions, and laser scanning rate. Projected images are shown highlighting the 3D control capabilities of the display, including the production of a non-distorted image onto two-depths versus a distorted image via dominant prior-art projection methods.

  10. Lighting Control System for Premises with Display Screen Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The use of Display Screen Equipment (DSE) at enterprises allows one to increase the productivity and safety of production, minimize the number of personnel and leads to the simplification of the work of specialists, but on the other side, changes usual working conditions. If the personnel works with displays, visual fatigue develops more quickly which contributes to the emergence of nervous tension, stress and possible erroneous actions. Low interest of the lighting control system developers towards the rooms with displays is dictated by special requirements for coverage by sanitary and hygienic standards (limiting excess workplace illumination). We decided to create a combined lighting system which works considering daylight illumination and artificial light sources. The brightness adjustment of the LED lamps is carried out according to the DALI protocol, adjustment of the natural illumination by means of smart glasses. The technical requirements for a lighting control system, the structural-functional scheme and the algorithm for controlling the operation of the system have been developed. The elements of control units, sensors and actuators have been selected.

  11. Volumetric three-dimensional display system with rasterization hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favalora, Gregg E.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Giovinco, Michael; Napoli, Joshua

    2001-06-01

    An 8-color multiplanar volumetric display is being developed by Actuality Systems, Inc. It will be capable of utilizing an image volume greater than 90 million voxels, which we believe is the greatest utilizable voxel set of any volumetric display constructed to date. The display is designed to be used for molecular visualization, mechanical CAD, e-commerce, entertainment, and medical imaging. As such, it contains a new graphics processing architecture, novel high-performance line- drawing algorithms, and an API similar to a current standard. Three-dimensional imagery is created by projecting a series of 2-D bitmaps ('image slices') onto a diffuse screen that rotates at 600 rpm. Persistence of vision fuses the slices into a volume-filling 3-D image. A modified three-panel Texas Instruments projector provides slices at approximately 4 kHz, resulting in 8-color 3-D imagery comprised of roughly 200 radially-disposed slices which are updated at 20 Hz. Each slice has a resolution of 768 by 768 pixels, subtending 10 inches. An unusual off-axis projection scheme incorporating tilted rotating optics is used to maintain good focus across the projection screen. The display electronics includes a custom rasterization architecture which converts the user's 3- D geometry data into image slices, as well as 6 Gbits of DDR SDRAM graphics memory.

  12. Flat-panel video resolution LED display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareberg, P. G.; Kennedy, D. I.

    The system consists of a 128 x 128 element X-Y addressable LED array fabricated from green-emitting gallium phosphide. The LED array is interfaced with a 128 x 128 matrix TV camera. Associated electronics provides for seven levels of grey scale above zero with a grey scale ratio of square root of 2. Picture elements are on 0.008 inch centers resulting in a resolution of 125 lines-per-inch and a display area of approximately 1 sq. in. The LED array concept lends itself to modular construction, permitting assembly of a flat panel screen of any desired size from 1 x 1 inch building blocks without loss of resolution. A wide range of prospective aerospace applications exist extending from helmet-mounted systems involving small dedicated arrays to multimode cockpit displays constructed as modular screens. High-resolution LED arrays are already used as CRT replacements in military film-marking reconnaissance applications.

  13. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description: MicroVAX system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Display MicroVAX computer used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery of February 27, 1991, known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global references section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight Cathode Ray Tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  14. A faster technique for rendering meshes in multiple display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Randall E.; Moorhead, Robert J., II

    2003-05-01

    Level of detail algorithms have widely been implemented in architectural VR walkthroughs and video games, but have not had widespread use in VR terrain visualization systems. This thesis explains a set of optimizations to allow most current level of detail algorithms run in the types of multiple display systems used in VR. It improves both the visual quality of the system through use of graphics hardware acceleration, and improves the framerate and running time through moifications to the computaitons that drive the algorithms. Using ROAM as a testbed, results show improvements between 10% and 100% on varying machines.

  15. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays and the user`s prospective model of a system. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming and its use in expanding design choices from the operator`s perspective image. The contents of this paper focuses on the studies and how they are applicable to the safety of operating reactors.

  16. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays and the user's prospective model of a system. The studies involve a methodology known as Neuro-Linguistic Programming and its use in expanding design choices from the operator's perspective image. The contents of this paper focuses on the studies and how they are applicable to the safety of operating reactors

  17. An introduction to the Marshall information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    An on-line terminal oriented data storage and retrieval system is presented which allows a user to extract and process information from stored data bases. The use of on-line terminals for extracting and displaying data from the data bases provides a fast and responsive method for obtaining needed information. The system consists of general purpose computer programs that provide the overall capabilities of the total system. The system can process any number of data files via a Dictionary (one for each file) which describes the data format to the system. New files may be added to the system at any time, and reprogramming is not required. Illustrations of the system are shown, and sample inquiries and responses are given.

  18. Implementation of safety parameter display system at VVER-440 NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, T.

    1997-01-01

    Furnishing WWER-440 nuclear power plant units with a safety parameter display system (SPDS) fulfilling the requirements of internationally recognized standards and guidelines has been ranked high on the lists of proposed safety improvement projects. Technically such an SPDS system can be implemented either as a separate stand-alone system or as a more or less closely integrated part of a process information system of the plant unit. In the paper examples of these approaches are presented. Functionally all these examples include the well proven SPDS concept developed by IVO Power Engineering Ltd, Finland. The functional design basis, the general requirements for the system platform, experience with implementation and expansion possibilities of the systems are discussed. (author)

  19. System for recording and displaying two-phase flow topographies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, C.N.; Block, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A system of hardware and software has been developed and used to record and display in various forms details of the countercurrent flow topographies occurring in a scaled Pressurized Water Reactor downcomer annulus. An array of 288 conductivity sensors was mounted in a 1/15 scale PWR annulus. At each moment in time, the state of each probe indicates the presence or absence of water in this immediate vicinity. An electronic data acquisition system records the states of all probes 108 times per second on magnetic tape; software routines retrieve the data and reconstruct visual analogs of the flow topographies. The instantaneous two-phase state of the annulus at each instant can be displayed on a hard copy plotter or on a CRT screen. By synchronizing a camera drive with the CRT display, 16mm films have been made recreating the flow process at full speed and at various slow motion rates. All data obtained are stored in computer files in numerical form and can be subjected to various types of quantitative analysis to assist in advanced code development and verification

  20. HTML 5 Displays for On-Board Flight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Chandika

    2016-01-01

    During my Internship at NASA in the summer of 2016, I was assigned to a project which dealt with developing a web-server that would display telemetry and other system data using HTML 5, JavaScript, and CSS. By doing this, it would be possible to view the data across a variety of screen sizes, and establish a standard that could be used to simplify communication and software development between NASA and other countries. Utilizing a web- approach allowed us to add in more functionality, as well as make the displays more aesthetically pleasing for the users. When I was assigned to this project my main task was to first establish communication with the current display server. This display server would output data from the on-board systems in XML format. Once communication was established I was then asked to create a dynamic telemetry table web page that would update its header and change as new information came in. After this was completed, certain minor functionalities were added to the table such as a hide column and filter by system option. This was more for the purpose of making the table more useful for the users, as they can now filter and view relevant data. Finally my last task was to create a graphical system display for all the systems on the space craft. This was by far the most challenging part of my internship as finding a JavaScript library that was both free and contained useful functions to assist me in my task was difficult. In the end I was able to use the JointJs library and accomplish the task. With the help of my mentor and the HIVE lab team, we were able to establish stable communication with the display server. We also succeeded in creating a fully dynamic telemetry table and in developing a graphical system display for the advanced modular power system. Working in JSC for this internship has taught me a lot about coding in JavaScript and HTML 5. I was also introduced to the concept of developing software as a team, and exposed to the different

  1. An integrated port camera and display system for laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Benjamin S; Ruppert, Austin D; Steinhaus, Kristen R; Schoen, Jonathan A; Rentschler, Mark E

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we built and tested the port camera, a novel, inexpensive, portable, and battery-powered laparoscopic tool that integrates the components of a vision system with a cannula port. This new device 1) minimizes the invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery by combining a camera port and tool port; 2) reduces the cost of laparoscopic vision systems by integrating an inexpensive CMOS sensor and LED light source; and 3) enhances laparoscopic surgical procedures by mechanically coupling the camera, tool port, and liquid crystal display (LCD) screen to provide an on-patient visual display. The port camera video system was compared to two laparoscopic video systems: a standard resolution unit from Karl Storz (model 22220130) and a high definition unit from Stryker (model 1188HD). Brightness, contrast, hue, colorfulness, and sharpness were compared. The port camera video is superior to the Storz scope and approximately equivalent to the Stryker scope. An ex vivo study was conducted to measure the operative performance of the port camera. The results suggest that simulated tissue identification and biopsy acquisition with the port camera is as efficient as with a traditional laparoscopic system. The port camera was successfully used by a laparoscopic surgeon for exploratory surgery and liver biopsy during a porcine surgery, demonstrating initial surgical feasibility.

  2. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa

    2016-06-01

    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  3. Three-dimensional modeler for animated images display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boubekeur, Rania

    1987-01-01

    The mv3d software allows the modeling and display of three dimensional objects in interpretative mode with animation possibility in real time. This system is intended for a graphical extension of a FORTH interpreter (implemented by CEA/IRDI/D.LETI/DEIN) in order to control a specific hardware (3.D card designed and implemented by DEIN) allowing the generation of three dimensional objects. The object description is carried out with a specific graphical language integrated in the FORTH interpreter. Objects are modeled using elementary solids called basic forms (cube, cone, cylinder...) assembled with classical geometric transformations (rotation, translation and scaling). These basic forms are approximated by plane polygonal facets further divided in triangles. Coordinates of the summits of triangles constitute the geometrical data. These are sent to the 3.D. card for processing and display. Performed processing are: geometrical transformations on display, hidden surface elimination, shading and clipping. The mv3d software is not an entire modeler but a simple, modular and extensible tool, to which other specific functions may be easily added such as: robots motion, collisions... (author) [fr

  4. Data concentrator requirements for a safety parameter display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    To comply with NUREG 0696 several nuclear plants are being fitted with new facilities and data systems; specifically a Technical Support Center (TSC), Operational Support Center (OSC), Emergency Operational Facility (EOF), and Backup Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS), Emergency Response Computer System (ERCS) and Nuclear Data Link (NDL). The TSC, OSC, and EOF are physical locations while the SPDS, ERCS, and NDL are Systems. The SPDS and ERCS are usually separate and independent systems, however, they may share a common front end data acquisition system that acquires and sends SPDS related data to both the SPDS and to the ERCS. In the situation just described an SPDS system must depend upon input data from a source that is SPDS host computer independent. To achieve this independence the front end data acquisition system may employ a concept of intelligent distributed processing. This concept essentially takes functional capabilities that were once found only in realtime host computers and distributes it to front end data acquisition systems. Thus by expanding the functionality of the data acquisition system in a manner that provides more capability, independence from the computer vendor, links to multiple computer systems, processing power and redundancy, the concept of a data concentrator evolved. This paper will define this new distributed functionality, and its related requirements. It will also examine different system configuration approaches

  5. Change Blindness Phenomena for Virtual Reality Display Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinicke, Frank; Bruder, Gerd; Hinrichs, Klaus; Willemsen, Pete

    2011-09-01

    In visual perception, change blindness describes the phenomenon that persons viewing a visual scene may apparently fail to detect significant changes in that scene. These phenomena have been observed in both computer-generated imagery and real-world scenes. Several studies have demonstrated that change blindness effects occur primarily during visual disruptions such as blinks or saccadic eye movements. However, until now the influence of stereoscopic vision on change blindness has not been studied thoroughly in the context of visual perception research. In this paper, we introduce change blindness techniques for stereoscopic virtual reality (VR) systems, providing the ability to substantially modify a virtual scene in a manner that is difficult for observers to perceive. We evaluate techniques for semiimmersive VR systems, i.e., a passive and active stereoscopic projection system as well as an immersive VR system, i.e., a head-mounted display, and compare the results to those of monoscopic viewing conditions. For stereoscopic viewing conditions, we found that change blindness phenomena occur with the same magnitude as in monoscopic viewing conditions. Furthermore, we have evaluated the potential of the presented techniques for allowing abrupt, and yet significant, changes of a stereoscopically displayed virtual reality environment.

  6. Unit information system operational displays for VVER-1000 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikanov, S.S.; Carrera, J.P.; Gordon, P.

    1997-01-01

    The role of high level operational displays is explained as well as the principles of the design of such displays. The tasks of WWER operating personnel are described and the support provided by operational displays is highlighted. The architecture of the displays is also dealt with. (A.K.)

  7. LOFT data acquisition and visual display system (DAVDS) presentation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, M.G.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1976-03-01

    The Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) at the Loss-of-Fluid Test Facility (LOFT) has 742 data channel recording capability of which 576 are recorded digitally. The purpose of this computer program is to graphically present the data acquired and/or processed by the LOFT DAVDS. This program takes specially created plot data buffers of up to 1024 words and generates time history plots on the system electrostatic printer-plotter. The data can be extracted from two system input devices: Magnetic disk or digital magnetic tape. Versatility has been designed in the program by providing the user three methods of scaling plots: Automatic, control record, and manual. Time required to produce a plot on the system electrostatic printer-plotter varies from 30 to 90 seconds depending on the options selected. The basic computer and program details are described

  8. A ECG Signal Gathering and Displaying System Based on AVR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Ruilan, Zhang; Jian, Liu; Xiaochen, Wang; Shuying, Chen; Zhuolin, Lang

    2017-12-01

    This article introduces a kind of system which is based on the AVR to acquire the data of ECG. Such system using the A/D function of ATmega8 chip and the lattice graph LCD to design ECG heart acquisition satisfies the demands above. This design gives a composition of hardware and programming of software about the system in detail which has mainly realized the real-time gathering, the amplifier, the filter, the A/D transformation and the LCD display. Since the AVR includes A/D transformation function and support embedded C language programming, it reduces the peripheral circuit, further more it also decreases the time to design and debug this system.

  9. Systems and methods for displaying data in split dimension levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, Chris; Hanrahan, Patrick

    2015-07-28

    Systems and methods for displaying data in split dimension levels are disclosed. In some implementations, a method includes: at a computer, obtaining a dimensional hierarchy associated with a dataset, wherein the dimensional hierarchy includes at least one dimension and a sub-dimension of the at least one dimension; and populating information representing data included in the dataset into a visual table having a first axis and a second axis, wherein the first axis corresponds to the at least one dimension and the second axis corresponds to the sub-dimension of the at least one dimension.

  10. The immunological characteristics and probiotic function of recombinant Bacillus subtilis spore expressing Clonorchis sinensis cysteine protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zeli; Shang, Mei; Chen, Tingjin; Ren, Pengli; Sun, Hengchang; Qu, Hongling; Lin, Zhipeng; Zhou, Lina; Yu, Jinyun; Jiang, Hongye; Zhou, Xinyi; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2016-12-19

    Clonorchiasis, a food-borne zoonosis, is caused by Clonorchis sinensis. The intestinal tract and bile ducts are crucial places for C. sinensis metacercariae to develop into adult worms. The endospore of Bacillus subtilis is an ideal oral immunization vehicle for delivery of heterologous antigens to intestine. Cysteine protease of C. sinensis (CsCP) is an endogenous key component in the excystment of metacercariae and other physiological or pathological processes. We constructed a fusion gene of CotC (a coat protein)-CsCP and obtained B. subtilis spores with recombinant plasmid of pEB03-CotC-CsCP (B.s-CotC-CsCP). CotC-CsCP expressed on spores' surface was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Immunological characteristics of recombinant spore coat protein were evaluated in a mouse model. The levels of CsCP-specific antibodies were detected by ELISA. Effects of recombinant spores on mouse intestine were evaluated by histological staining. The activities of biochemical enzymes in serum were assayed by microplate. Liver sections of infected mice were evaluated by Ishak score after Masson's trichrome. The B.s-CotC-CsCP spores displayed CsCP on their coat. Specific IgG and isotypes were significantly induced by coat proteins of B.s-CotC-CsCP spores after subcutaneous immunization. IgA levels in intestinal mucus and bile of B.s-CotC-CsCP orally treated mice significantly increased. Additionally, more IgA-secreting cells were observed in enteraden and lamina propria regions of the mouse jejunum, and an increased amount of acidic mucins in intestines were also observed. There were no significant differences in enzyme levels of serum among groups. No inflammatory injury was observed in the intestinal tissues of each group. The degree of liver fibrosis was significantly reduced after oral immunization with B.s-CotC-CsCP spores. Bacillus subtilis spores maintained the original excellent immunogenicity of CsCP expressed on their surface. Both local and systemic

  11. Central display system of figures in fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shaohong; Zhu Zicheng; Zhu Liqun; Ren Yi; Yu Hongmei; Du Chengbao; Xie Guoxue

    1997-01-01

    A new type of 'central display system of figures in fire alarm' includes two parts: (1) software package of drawing picture; (2) real time processing and operate system (POS). Main function of the software package is to draw floor plane figures, fire-fighting facility signs and room numbers; and then all pictures are used in POS. Main functions of POS are to process fire alarm, faults and activation of fire fighting control facility, save and print reports, look over floor plane figures, look over concrete condition of fire fighting facilities, and to show appropriate prompt according to different case. This system realizes many functions, such as, control with mouse, operation with push-button, menu operation interface, flip windows to prompt, and chinese character. It have won acclaim for its amazing interface, its convenience to operate, its reliability and flexibility

  12. [Construction of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG particles surface display system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Runyu; Nie, Boyao; Yuan, Shengling; Tao, Haoxia; Liu, Chunjie; Yang, Bailiang; Wang, Yanchun

    2017-01-25

    To describe a novel particles surface display system which is consisted of gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM) particles and anchor proteins for bacteria-like particles vaccines, we treated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteria with 10% heated-TCA for preparing GEM particles, and then identified the harvested GEM particles by electron microscopy, RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE. Meanwhile, Escherichia coli was induced to express hybrid proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP, and GEM particles were incubated with them. Then binding of anchor proteins were determined by Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry. GEM particles preserved original size and shape, and proteins and DNA contents of GEM particles were released substantially. The two anchor proteins both had efficiently immobilized on the surface of GEM. GEM particles that were bounded by anchor proteins were brushy. The fluorescence of GEM particles anchoring PA3 was slightly brighter than P60, but the difference was not significant (P>0.05). GEM particles prepared from L. rhamnosus GG have a good binding efficiency with anchor proteins PA3-EGFP and P60-EGFP. Therefore, this novel foreign protein surface display system could be used for bacteria-like particle vaccines.

  13. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Information Display Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to information displays, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed and the models proposed by the nuclear energy industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the United States Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for information displays, in particular, display pages, formats, elements and data quality and update rate recommendations are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMMLAB.

  14. Application of verification and validation on safety parameter display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Offers some explanation of how verification and validation (VandV) can support development and licensing of the Safety Parameter Display Systems (SPDS). Advocates that VandV can be more readily accepted within the nuclear industry if a better understanding exists of what the objectives of VandV are and should be. Includes a discussion regarding a reasonable balance of costs and benefits of VandV as applied to the SPDS and to other digital systems. Represents the author's perception of the regulator's perspective based on background information and experience, and discussions with regulators about their current concerns and objectives. Suggests that the introduction of the SPDS into the Control Room is a first step towards growing dependency on use of computers

  15. Recent progress in OLED and flexible displays and their potential for application to aerospace and military display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Kalluri

    2015-05-01

    Organic light emitting diode (OLED) display technology has advanced significantly in recent years and it is increasingly being adapted in consumer electronics products with premium performance, such as high resolution smart phones, Tablet PCs and TVs. Even flexible OLED displays are beginning to be commercialized in consumer electronic devices such as smart phones and smart watches. In addition to the advances in OLED emitters, successful development and adoption of OLED displays for premium performance applications relies on the advances in several enabling technologies including TFT backplanes, pixel drive electronics, pixel patterning technologies, encapsulation technologies and system level engineering. In this paper we will discuss the impact of the recent advances in LTPS and AOS TFTs, R, G, B and White OLED with color filter pixel architectures, and encapsulation, on the success of the OLEDs in consumer electronic devices. We will then discuss potential of these advances in addressing the requirements of OLED and flexible displays for the military and avionics applications.

  16. Development and evaluation of a function-oriented display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, G.; Broberg, H.; Kvalem, J.

    2006-01-01

    Although no clear design philosophy for screen-based HSIs exist, Screen-based Human System Interfaces (HSI) are gradually replacing the conventional panel-based HSIs. The current paper presents a comprehensive design philosophy where a function-analysis of the plant forms the backbone of the information requirements, information presentation and display organization. The main characteristics of the concept are described as well as the development process behind the first prototype. Findings from the first usability test of the prototype are reported and potential benefits of the HSI are discussed. Ideas and problem areas for a future improved prototype are also described in the paper. The work is part of OECD Halden Reactor Project's ongoing research on innovative design for advanced NPP control-rooms and is conducted in close co-operation with Electricite de France. (authors)

  17. Oral delivery of Bacillus subtilis spore expressing enolase of Clonorchis sinensis in rat model: induce systemic and local mucosal immune responses and has no side effect on liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinyun; Chen, Tingjin; Xie, Zhizhi; Liang, Pei; Qu, Honglin; Shang, Mei; Mao, Qiang; Ning, Dan; Tang, Zeli; Shi, Mengchen; Zhou, Lina; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-07-01

    Caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish containing infective metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis, human clonorchiasis remains a major public health problem in China. In previous study, we had expressed enolase from C. sinensis (CsENO) on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spore and the recombinant spore induced a pronounced protection in terms of reduced worm burden and eggs per gram feces, suggesting B. subtilis spore as an ideal vehicle for antigen delivery by oral treatment and CsENO as a promising vaccine candidate against clonorchiasis. In the current study, we detected CsENO-specific IgG and IgA levels both in serum and in intestinal mucus from rats orally administrated with B. subtilis spore surface expressing CsENO by ELISA. Lysozyme levels in serum and in intestinal mucus were analyzed too. In addition, IgA-secreting cells in intestine epithelium of the rats were detected by immunohistochemistry assay. The intestinal villi lengths of duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were also measured. Rats orally treated with B. subtilis spore or normal saline were used as controls. Our results showed that, compared with the control groups, oral administration of B. subtilis spore expressing CsENO induced both systemic and local mucosal immune response. The recombinant spores also enhanced non-specific immune response in rats. The spores had no side effect on liver function. Moreover, it might facilitate food utilization and digestion of the rats. Our work will pave the way to clarify the involved mechanisms of protective efficacy elicited by B. subtilis spore expressing CsENO and encourage us to carry out more assessment trails of the oral treated spore to develop vaccine against clonorchiasis.

  18. Safety parameter display systems' effect on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerven, F.; Ford, R.E.; Blackman, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Computer generated displays are a powerful and flexible tool for presenting data to the operators of nuclear power plants. Such displays are currently being developed in industry for use as safety parameter displays and for use in advanced control rooms. There exists a need for methods to objectively evaluate the effect of these displays, positive or negative, on the performance of control room personnel. Results of developing one such method, noninteractive simulation, and the two experiments that were performed to determine if it can be used as a method for evaluating computer displays are presented. This method is more objective and powerful than pencil and paper methods because it measures human performance rather than opinion or perference, has excellent control of the experimental variables, and has a higher fidelity to the control room environment. The results of these experiments indicates that the present methodology does not differentiate among the display types tested at a statistically significant level. In other words, all display types tested worked equally well in providing operators needed information

  19. Plant automation and CRT display system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekiguchi, S.; Sukai, K.; Watanabe, N.; Yamasaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    The reliability of plant operation is greatly improved by utilizing selected data for display in real-time on the screens of 12 color CRTs in the Central Control Room and voice information. The load on operators is reduced by automated operation of plant equipment and an operation guide. Information from the power station is transmitted to an off-site location via an optical fiber data way which makes it possible to display in real-time the same CRT screens displayed in the Central Control Room

  20. Size matters for violent discharge height and settling speed of Sphagnum spores: important attributes for dispersal potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Sebastian

    2010-02-01

    Initial release height and settling speed of diaspores are biologically controlled components which are key to modelling wind dispersal. Most Sphagnum (peat moss) species have explosive spore liberation. In this study, how capsule and spore sizes affect the height to which spores are propelled were measured, and how spore size and spore number of discharged particles relate to settling speed in the aspherical Sphagnum spores. Spore discharge and spore cloud development were filmed in a closed chamber (nine species). Measurements were taken from snapshots at three stages of cloud development. Settling speed of spores (14 species) and clusters were timed in a glass tube. The maximum discharge speed measured was 3.6 m s(-1). Spores reached a maximum height of 20 cm (average: 15 cm) above the capsule. The cloud dimensions at all stages were related positively to capsule size (R(2) = 0.58-0.65). Thus species with large shoots (because they have large capsules) have a dispersal advantage. Half of the spores were released as singles and the rest as clusters (usually two to four spores). Single spores settled at 0.84-1.86 cm s(-1), about 52 % slower than expected for spherical spores with the same diameters. Settling speed displayed a positive curvilinear relationship with spore size, close to predictions by Stokes' law for spherical spores with 68 % of the actual diameters. Light-coloured spores settled slower than dark spores. Settling speed of spore clusters agrees with earlier studies. Effective spore discharge and small, slowly settling spores appear particularly important for species in forested habitats. The spore discharge heights in Sphagnum are among the greatest for small, wind-dispersed propagules. The discharge heights and the slow settling of spores affect dispersal distances positively and may help to explain the wide distribution of most boreal Sphagnum species.

  1. 76 FR 22726 - Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-694] Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain multimedia display and...

  2. Phosphorescence In Bacillus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reinisch, Lou; Swartz, Barry A; Bronk, Burt V

    2003-01-01

    .... Our present work attempts to build on this approach for environmental applications. We have measured a change in the fluorescence spectra of suspensions of Bacillus bacteria between the vegetative bacteria and their spores at room temperature...

  3. Study of three-dimensional image display by systemic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, Tadao; Ebihara, Yoshiyuki; Unei, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masao; Shinohe, Tooru; Wada, Yuji; Sakai, Takatsugu; Kashima, Kenji; Fujita, Yoshihiro

    1989-01-01

    A head phantom for CT was scanned at 2 mm intervals from the cervix to the vertex in an attempt to obtain a three-dimensional image display of bones and facial epidermis from an ordinary axial image. Clinically, three-dimensional images were formed at eye sockets and hip joints. With the three-dimensional image using the head phantom, the entire head could be displayed at any angle. Clinically, images were obtained that could not be attained by ordinary CT scanning, such as broken bones in eye sockets and stereoscopic structure at the bottom of a cranium. The three-dimensional image display is considered to be useful in clinical diagnosis. (author)

  4. Design of the control system for full-color LED display based on MSP430 MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Xu, Hui-juan; Qin, Ling-ling; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2013-08-01

    The LED display incorporate the micro electronic technique, computer technology and information processing as a whole, it becomes the most preponderant of a new generation of display media with the advantages of bright in color, high dynamic range, high brightness and long operating life, etc. The LED display has been widely used in the bank, securities trading, highway signs, airport and advertising, etc. According to the display color, the LED display screen is divided into monochrome screen, double color display and full color display. With the diversification of the LED display's color and the ceaseless rise of the display demands, the LED display's drive circuit and control technology also get the corresponding progress and development. The earliest monochrome screen just displaying Chinese characters, simple character or digital, so the requirements of the controller are relatively low. With the widely used of the double color LED display, the performance of its controller will also increase. In recent years, the full color LED display with three primary colors of red, green, blue and grayscale display effect has been highly attention with its rich and colorful display effect. Every true color pixel includes three son pixels of red, green, blue, using the space colour mixture to realize the multicolor. The dynamic scanning control system of LED full-color display is designed based on MSP430 microcontroller technology of the low power consumption. The gray control technology of this system used the new method of pulse width modulation (PWM) and 19 games show principle are combining. This method in meet 256 level grayscale display conditions, improves the efficiency of the LED light device, and enhances the administrative levels feels of the image. Drive circuit used 1/8 scanning constant current drive mode, and make full use of the single chip microcomputer I/O mouth resources to complete the control. The system supports text, pictures display of 256 grayscale

  5. Development of design window evaluation and display system. 1. System development and performance confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2003-07-01

    Purpose: The work was performed to develop a design window evaluation and display system for the purpose of obtaining the effects of various design parameters on the typical thermal hydraulic issues resulting from a use of various kind of working fluid etc. easily. Method: The function of the system were 'confirmation of design margin' of the present design, 'confirmation of the affected design zone' when a designer changed some design parameter, and search for an design improvement' for design optimization. The system was developed using existing soft wares on PC and the database relating analytical results of typical thermal hydraulic issues provided by separate work. Results: (1) System design: In order to develop a design window evaluation and display system, 'numerical analysis unit', 'statistical analysis unit', 'MMI unit', 'optimization unit' were designed based on the result of selected optimization procedure and display visualization. Further, total system design was performed combining these units. Typical thermal hydraulic issues to be considered are upper plenum thermal hydraulics, thermal stratification, free surface sloshing, flow-induced vibration of a heat exchanger and thermal striping in the T-junction piping systems. (2) Development of prototype system and a functional check: A prototype system of a design window evaluation and display system was developed and the functions were confirmed as was planned. (author)

  6. Development of plant status display system for on-site educational training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Okamoto, Hisatake; Tsunoda, Ryohei; Watanabe, Takao; Masuko, Jiro.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to make easy the comprehension of the facility and dynamics of nuclear power plants. This report describes the tendency and future position of how the educational training system should be, and furthermore describes the experiment. Main results are as follows. 1. The present status and the future tendency of educational training system for nuclear power plant operators. CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction) system has following characteristics. (1) It is easy to introduce plant specific characteristics to the educational training. (2) It is easy to execute the detailed training for the compensation of the full-scale simulator. 2. Plant status display system for on-site educational training system. The fundamental function of the system is as follows. (1) It has 2 CRT displays and voice output devices. (2) It has easy manupulation type of man-machine interface. (3) It has the function for the evaluation of the training results. 3. The effectiveness of this system. The effectiveness evaluation test has been carried out by using this system actually. (1) This system has been proved to be essentially effective and some improvements for the future utilization has been pointed out. (2) It should be faster when the CRT displayes are changed, and it should have the explanation function when the plant transients are displayed. (author)

  7. Spores of Mucor ramosissimus, Mucor plumbeus and Mucor circinelloides and their ability to activate human complement system in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granja, Luiz Fernando Zmetek; Pinto, Lysianne; Almeida, Cátia Amancio; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Da Silva, Maria Helena; Ejzemberg, Regina; Alviano, Celuta Sales

    2010-03-01

    Complement activation by spores of Mucor ramosissimus, Mucor plumbeus and Mucor circinelloides was studied using absorbed human serum in the presence or absence of chelators (EGTA or EDTA). We found that the spore caused full complement activation when incubated with EGTA-Mg2+ or without chelators, indicating that the alternative pathway is mainly responsible for this response. In order to compare activation profiles from each species, ELISAs for C3 and C4 fragments, mannan binding lectin (MBL), C-reactive protein (CRP) and IgG studies were carried out. All proteins were present on the species tested. Immunofluorescence tests demonstrated the presence of C3 fragments on the surface of all samples, which were confluent throughout fungal surfaces. The same profile of C3, C4, MBL, CRP and IgG deposition, observed in all species, suggests a similar activation behavior for these species.

  8. KGCS and ECS Local HMI Display Control System Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    My time here at KSC has involved creating and updating HMI displays to support Pad 39B and the Mobile Launcher. I also had the opportunity to be involved with testing PLC hardware for Electromagnetic interferences. This report explains in more detail of the steps involved in successfully completing these responsibilities I have been fortunate enough to be involved with.

  9. A low-cost system for graphical process monitoring with colour video symbol display units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, H.; Jarsch, V.; Mueller, W.

    1977-01-01

    A system for computer controlled graphic process supervision, using color symbol video displays is described. It has the following characteristics: - compact unit: no external memory for image storage - problem oriented simple descriptive cut to the process program - no restriction of the graphical representation of process variables - computer and display independent, by implementation of colours and parameterized code creation for the display. (WB) [de

  10. Comparison of the interleukin-1β-inducing potency of allergenic spores from higher fungi (Basidiomycetes) in a cryopreserved human whole blood system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mariani, Félix E.; Vysyaraju, Kranthi; Negherbon, Jesse; Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W. Elliot; Hartung, Thomas; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Spores from basidiomycete fungi (basidiospores) are highly prevalent in the atmosphere of urban and rural settings. Studies have confirmed their potential to affect human health as allergens. Less is known about their potential to serve as stimuli of the innate immune system and induce pro-inflammatory reactions. Methods In this study, we evaluated the pro-inflammatory potential of spores from 11 allergenic gilled (Pleurotus ostreatus, Oudemansiella radicata, Armillaria tabescens, Coprinus micaceus, Pluteus cervinus, Chlorophyllum molybdites) and non-gilled (Pisolithus arhizus, Merulius tremullosus, Calvatia cyathiformis, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Boletus bicolor) basidiomycetes fungi based on their potency to induce the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β in a cryopreserved human whole blood system. In addition, the role of morphological features of the spores (surface area, shape, and pigmentation) were examined for their role in the spores’ interleukin (IL)-1β-including potency. Peripheral blood from healthy volunteers was collected, pooled, and cryopreserved. After stimulating the cryopreserved pooled blood with 106 to 103 basidiospores/ml, the concentration of IL-1β in culture supernatants was determined with ELISA. Results Basidiospores manifested concentration-dependent IL-1β-inducing potency, which was more noteworthy among basidiospores from gilled basidiomycetes. At higher concentrations of basidiospores, the IL-1β-inducing potency was able to be differentiated in the cryopreserved human whole blood system. Morphological features did not correlate with the IL-1β-inducing potency of the basidiospores, suggesting that non-morphological properties modulate the IL-1β-inducing potency. Conclusion Our data provides evidence of the pro-inflammatory potential of basidiospores, and the utility of cryopreserved human whole blood as a human-based in-vitro system to study the immune reactivity of allergenic basidiospores. PMID

  11. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool

  12. A rule-based expert system for generating control displays at the advanced photon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    The integration of a rule-based expert system for generating screen displays for controlling and monitoring instrumentation under the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is presented. The expert system is implemented using CLIPS, an expert system shell from the Software Technology Branch at Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. The user selects the hardware input and output to be displayed and the expert system constructs a graphical control screen appropriate for the data. Such a system provides a method for implementing a common look and feel for displays created by several different users and reduces the amount of time required to create displays for new hardware configurations. Users are able to modify the displays as needed using the EPICS display editor tool. ((orig.))

  13. Comparison of the efficacy of a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist disinfection system and sodium hypochlorite solution for eradication of Clostridium difficile spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, F; Menuet, D; Verachten, M; Girou, E

    2009-06-01

    To compare a hydrogen peroxide dry-mist system and a 0.5% hypochlorite solution with respect to their ability to disinfect Clostridium difficile-contaminated surfaces in vitro and in situ. Prospective, randomized, before-after trial. Two French hospitals affected by C. difficile. In situ efficacy of disinfectants was assessed in rooms that had housed patients with C. difficile infection. A prospective study was performed at 2 hospitals that involved randomization of disinfection processes. When a patient with C. difficile infection was discharged, environmental contamination in the patient's room was evaluated before and after disinfection. Environmental surfaces were sampled for C. difficile by use of moistened swabs; swab samples were cultured on selective plates and in broth. Both disinfectants were tested in vitro with a spore-carrier test; in this test, 2 types of material, vinyl polychloride (representative of the room's floor) and laminate (representative of the room's furniture), were experimentally contaminated with spores from 3 C. difficile strains, including the epidemic clone ribotype 027-North American pulsed-field gel electrophoresis type 1. There were 748 surface samples collected (360 from rooms treated with hydrogen peroxide and 388 from rooms treated with hypochlorite). Before disinfection, 46 (24%) of 194 samples obtained in the rooms randomized to hypochlorite treatment and 34 (19%) of 180 samples obtained in the rooms randomized to hydrogen peroxide treatment showed environmental contamination. After disinfection, 23 (12%) of 194 samples from hypochlorite-treated rooms and 4 (2%) of 180 samples from hydrogen peroxide treated rooms showed environmental contamination, a decrease in contamination of 50% after hypochlorite decontamination and 91% after hydrogen peroxide decontamination (P disinfection system is significantly more effective than 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution at eradicating C. difficile spores and might represent a new

  14. Improvement of Head-Up Display Standards. Volume 5. Head Up Display ILS (Instrument Landing System) Accuracy Flight Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    amber system. The front canopy of the NT-33A is cov- ered with an amber plastic sheet; when the front seat pilot low- ers his blue visor, the...tigation of the effect of head-up display symbol dynamic response caracteristics on flying qualities; Task B was an investigation of symbol accuracy...An amber vinyl plastic sheet covered the in- side front half of the NT-33 canopy. Blue snap-on visors were pi ovided to the evaluation pilots. The

  15. Multichannel display system with automatic sequential output of analog data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Gruzinov, A.E.; Lagoda, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a device that, with maximum simplicity and autonomy, permits parallel data display from 16 measuring channels with automatic output to the screen of a storage oscilloscope in ∼ 50 μsec. The described device can be used to study the divergence characteristics of the ion component of plasma sources and in optical and x-ray spectroscopy of pulsed processes. Owing to its compactness and autonomy, the device can be located in the immediate vicinity of the detectors (for example, inside a vacuum chamber), which allows the number of vacuum electrical lead-ins and the induction level to be reduced

  16. High-Resolution Spore Coat Architecture and Assembly of Bacillus Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkin, A J; Elhadj, S; Plomp, M

    2011-03-14

    Elucidating the molecular architecture of bacterial and cellular surfaces and its structural dynamics is essential to understanding mechanisms of pathogenesis, immune response, physicochemical interactions, environmental resistance, and provide the means for identifying spore formulation and processing attributes. I will discuss the application of in vitro atomic force microscopy (AFM) for studies of high-resolution coat architecture and assembly of several Bacillus spore species. We have demonstrated that bacterial spore coat structures are phylogenetically and growth medium determined. We have proposed that strikingly different species-dependent coat structures of bacterial spore species are a consequence of sporulation media-dependent nucleation and crystallization mechanisms that regulate the assembly of the outer spore coat. Spore coat layers were found to exhibit screw dislocations and two-dimensional nuclei typically observed on inorganic and macromolecular crystals. This presents the first case of non-mineral crystal growth patterns being revealed for a biological organism, which provides an unexpected example of nature exploiting fundamental materials science mechanisms for the morphogenetic control of biological ultrastructures. We have discovered and validated, distinctive formulation-specific high-resolution structural spore coat and dimensional signatures of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) grown in different formulation condition. We further demonstrated that measurement of the dimensional characteristics of B. anthracis spores provides formulation classification and sample matching with high sensitivity and specificity. I will present data on the development of an AFM-based immunolabeling technique for the proteomic mapping of macromolecular structures on the B. anthracis surfaces. These studies demonstrate that AFM can probe microbial surface architecture, environmental dynamics and the life cycle of bacterial and cellular systems at near

  17. Fifth international fungus spore conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  18. Biomarkers of Aspergillus spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulc, Miroslav; Peslova, Katerina; Zabka, Martin; Hajduch, Marian; Havlicek, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    We applied both matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometric and 1D sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic (1D-PAGE) approaches for direct analysis of intact fungal spores of twenty four Aspergillus species. In parallel, we optimized various protocols for protein extraction from Aspergillus spores using acidic conditions, step organic gradient and variable sonication treatment. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra obtained from optimally prepared samples provided a reproducible fingerprint demonstrating the capability of the MALDI-TOF approach to type and characterize different fungal strains within the Aspergillus genus. Mass spectra of intact fungal spores provided signals mostly below 20 kDa. The minimum material amount represented 0.3 [mu]g (10,000 spores). Proteins with higher molecular weight were detected by 1D-PAGEE Eleven proteins were identified from three selected strains in the range 5-25 kDa by the proteomic approach. Hemolysin and hydrophobin have the highest relevance in host-pathogen interactions.

  19. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 4: Graphical status display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (4 of 4) contains the description, structured flow charts, prints of the graphical displays, and source code to generate the displays for the AMPS graphical status system. The function of these displays is to present to the manager of the AMPS system a graphical status display with the hot boxes that allow the manager to get more detailed status on selected portions of the AMPS system. The development of the graphical displays is divided into two processes; the creation of the screen images and storage of them in files on the computer, and the running of the status program which uses the screen images.

  20. Techniques for optimizing human-machine information transfer related to real-time interactive display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years the needs of ground-based researcher-analysts to access real-time engineering data in the form of processed information has expanded rapidly. Fortunately, the capacity to deliver that information has also expanded. The development of advanced display systems is essential to the success of a research test activity. Those developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR), range from simple alphanumerics to interactive mapping and graphics. These unique display systems are designed not only to meet basic information display requirements of the user, but also to take advantage of techniques for optimizing information display. Future ground-based display systems will rely heavily not only on new technologies, but also on interaction with the human user and the associated productivity with that interaction. The psychological abilities and limitations of the user will become even more important in defining the difference between a usable and a useful display system. This paper reviews the requirements for development of real-time displays; the psychological aspects of design such as the layout, color selection, real-time response rate, and interactivity of displays; and an analysis of some existing WATR displays.

  1. Auditory display as feedback for a novel eye-tracking system for sterile operating room interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, David; Unger, Michael; Fischer, Nele; Kikinis, Ron; Hahn, Horst; Neumuth, Thomas; Glaser, Bernhard

    2018-01-01

    The growing number of technical systems in the operating room has increased attention on developing touchless interaction methods for sterile conditions. However, touchless interaction paradigms lack the tactile feedback found in common input devices such as mice and keyboards. We propose a novel touchless eye-tracking interaction system with auditory display as a feedback method for completing typical operating room tasks. Auditory display provides feedback concerning the selected input into the eye-tracking system as well as a confirmation of the system response. An eye-tracking system with a novel auditory display using both earcons and parameter-mapping sonification was developed to allow touchless interaction for six typical scrub nurse tasks. An evaluation with novice participants compared auditory display with visual display with respect to reaction time and a series of subjective measures. When using auditory display to substitute for the lost tactile feedback during eye-tracking interaction, participants exhibit reduced reaction time compared to using visual-only display. In addition, the auditory feedback led to lower subjective workload and higher usefulness and system acceptance ratings. Due to the absence of tactile feedback for eye-tracking and other touchless interaction methods, auditory display is shown to be a useful and necessary addition to new interaction concepts for the sterile operating room, reducing reaction times while improving subjective measures, including usefulness, user satisfaction, and cognitive workload.

  2. A customized digital monitoring and display system for nonpower reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficaro, E.P.; Wehe, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    A digital data acquisition system for monitoring plant variables has been designed and implemented at the University of Michigan's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), a 2-MW open-pool research reactor. The digital data provided by this system will be useful for: improved operator training, real-time experimental calculations, noise analysis, closed-loop control, and expert system applications. This paper describes the analog-to-digital (A/D) transitions and the associated applications and benefits experienced

  3. Spacesuit Sensing Data Display and Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZIN Technologies, Inc will breadboard an integrated electronic system for space suit application to acquire images, biomedical sensor signals and suit health &...

  4. New procedures to evaluate visually lossless compression for display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolitzka, Dale F.; Schelkens, Peter; Bruylants, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Visually lossless image coding in isochronous display streaming or plesiochronous networks reduces link complexity and power consumption and increases available link bandwidth. A new set of codecs developed within the last four years promise a new level of coding quality, but require new techniques that are sufficiently sensitive to the small artifacts or color variations induced by this new breed of codecs. This paper begins with a summary of the new ISO/IEC 29170-2, a procedure for evaluation of lossless coding and reports the new work by JPEG to extend the procedure in two important ways, for HDR content and for evaluating the differences between still images, panning images and image sequences. ISO/IEC 29170-2 relies on processing test images through a well-defined process chain for subjective, forced-choice psychophysical experiments. The procedure sets an acceptable quality level equal to one just noticeable difference. Traditional image and video coding evaluation techniques, such as, those used for television evaluation have not proven sufficiently sensitive to the small artifacts that may be induced by this breed of codecs. In 2015, JPEG received new requirements to expand evaluation of visually lossless coding for high dynamic range images, slowly moving images, i.e., panning, and image sequences. These requirements are the basis for new amendments of the ISO/IEC 29170-2 procedures described in this paper. These amendments promise to be highly useful for the new content in television and cinema mezzanine networks. The amendments passed the final ballot in April 2017 and are on track to be published in 2018.

  5. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid (DAA) Displays for Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Pack, Jessica S.; Shively, R. Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of government, industry and academia is currently working to establish minimum operational performance standards for Detect and Avoid (DAA) and Control and Communications (C2) systems in order to enable broader integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). One subset of these performance standards will need to address the DAA display requirements that support an acceptable level of pilot performance. From a pilot's perspective, the DAA task is the maintenance of self separation and collision avoidance from other aircraft, utilizing the available information and controls within the Ground Control Station (GCS), including the DAA display. The pilot-in-the-loop DAA task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots' ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The authors propose an eight-stage pilot-DAA interaction timeline from which several pilot response time metrics can be extracted. These metrics were compared across the four display conditions. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays. Implications of the findings on understanding pilot performance on the DAA task, the

  6. High-resolution laser-projection display system using a grating electromechanical system (GEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazas, John C.; Kowarz, Marek W.

    2004-01-01

    Eastman Kodak Company has developed a diffractive-MEMS spatial-light modulator for use in printing and display applications, the grating electromechanical system (GEMS). This modulator contains a linear array of pixels capable of high-speed digital operation, high optical contrast, and good efficiency. The device operation is based on deflection of electromechanical ribbons suspended above a silicon substrate by a series of intermediate supports. When electrostatically actuated, the ribbons conform to the supporting substructure to produce a surface-relief phase grating over a wide active region. The device is designed to be binary, switching between a reflective mirror state having suspended ribbons and a diffractive grating state having ribbons in contact with substrate features. Switching times of less than 50 nanoseconds with sub-nanosecond jitter are made possible by reliable contact-mode operation. The GEMS device can be used as a high-speed digital-optical modulator for a laser-projection display system by collecting the diffracted orders and taking advantage of the low jitter. A color channel is created using a linear array of individually addressable GEMS pixels. A two-dimensional image is produced by sweeping the line image of the array, created by the projection optics, across the display screen. Gray levels in the image are formed using pulse-width modulation (PWM). A high-resolution projection display was developed using three 1080-pixel devices illuminated by red, green, and blue laser-color primaries. The result is an HDTV-format display capable of producing stunning still and motion images with very wide color gamut.

  7. Development of an Adaptable Display and Diagnostic System for the Evaluation of Tropical Cyclone Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, P. A.; Burek, T.; Halley-Gotway, J.

    2015-12-01

    NCAR's Joint Numerical Testbed Program (JNTP) focuses on the evaluation of experimental forecasts of tropical cyclones (TCs) with the goal of developing new research tools and diagnostic evaluation methods that can be transitioned to operations. Recent activities include the development of new TC forecast verification methods and the development of an adaptable TC display and diagnostic system. The next generation display and diagnostic system is being developed to support evaluation needs of the U.S. National Hurricane Center (NHC) and broader TC research community. The new hurricane display and diagnostic capabilities allow forecasters and research scientists to more deeply examine the performance of operational and experimental models. The system is built upon modern and flexible technology that includes OpenLayers Mapping tools that are platform independent. The forecast track and intensity along with associated observed track information are stored in an efficient MySQL database. The system provides easy-to-use interactive display system, and provides diagnostic tools to examine forecast track stratified by intensity. Consensus forecasts can be computed and displayed interactively. The system is designed to display information for both real-time and for historical TC cyclones. The display configurations are easily adaptable to meet the needs of the end-user preferences. Ongoing enhancements include improving capabilities for stratification and evaluation of historical best tracks, development and implementation of additional methods to stratify and compute consensus hurricane track and intensity forecasts, and improved graphical display tools. The display is also being enhanced to incorporate gridded forecast, satellite, and sea surface temperature fields. The presentation will provide an overview of the display and diagnostic system development and demonstration of the current capabilities.

  8. Human factors considerations for the use of color in display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demars, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    Identified and assessed are those human factor considerations impacting an operator's ability to perform when information is displayed in color as contrasted to monochrome (black and white only). The findings provide valuable guidelines for the assessment of the advantages (and disadvantages) of using a color display system. The use of color provides an additional sensory channel (color perception) which is not available with black and white. The degree to which one can exploit the use of this channel is highly dependent on available display technology, mission information display requirements, and acceptable operational modes.

  9. Real-time graphic display system for ROSA-V Large Scale Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Anoda, Yoshinari; Osaki, Hideki; Kukita, Yutaka; Takigawa, Yoshio.

    1993-11-01

    A real-time graphic display system was developed for the ROSA-V Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) experiments simulating accident management measures for prevention of severe core damage in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The system works on an IBM workstation (Power Station RS/6000 model 560) and accommodates 512 channels out of about 2500 total measurements in the LSTF. It has three major functions: (a) displaying the coolant inventory distribution in the facility primary and secondary systems; (b) displaying the measured quantities at desired locations in the facility; and (c) displaying the time histories of measured quantities. The coolant inventory distribution is derived from differential pressure measurements along vertical sections and gamma-ray densitometer measurements for horizontal legs. The color display indicates liquid subcooling calculated from pressure and temperature at individual locations. (author)

  10. Microprocessor based beam intensity and efficiency display system for the Fermilab accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biwer, R.

    1979-01-01

    The Main Accelerator display system for the Fermilab accelerator gathers charge data and displays it including processed transfer efficiencies of each of the accelerators. To accomplish this, strategically located charge converters monitor the circulating internal beam of each of the Fermilab accelerators. Their outputs are processed via an asynchronously triggered, multiplexed analog-to-digital converter. The data is converted into a digital byte containing address code and data, then stores it into two 16-bit memories. One memory outputs the interleaved data as a data pulse train while the other interfaces directly to a local host computer for further analysis. The microprocessor based display unit synchronizes displayed data during normal operation as well as special storage modes. The display unit outputs data to the fron panel in the form of a numeric value and also makes digital-to-analog conversions of displayed data for external peripheral devices. 5 refs

  11. Virtual Display Design and Evaluation of Clothing: A Design Process Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Fang; Huang, Ren-Qun

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new computer-aided educational system for clothing visual merchandising and display. It aims to provide an operating environment that supports the various stages of display design in a user-friendly and intuitive manner. First, this paper provides a brief introduction to current software applications in the field of…

  12. Design characteristics of safety parameter display system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuangfang

    1992-02-01

    The design features of safety parameter display system (SPDS) developed by Tsinghua University is introduced. Some new features have been added into the system functions and they are: (1) hierarchical display structure; (2) human factor in the display format design; (3)automatic diagnosis of safety status of nuclear power plant; (4) extension of SPDS use scope; (5) flexible hardware structure. The new approaches in the design are: (1)adopting the international design standards; (2) selecting safety parameters strictly; (3) developing software under multitask operating system; (4) using a nuclear power plant simulator to verify the SPDS design

  13. The Role of the Electrostatic Force in Spore Adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Electrostatic force is investigated as one of the components of the adhesion force between Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spores and planar surfaces. The surface potentials of a Bt spore and a mica surface are experimentally obtained using a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)-scanning surface potential microscopy technique. On the basis of experimental information, the surface charge density of the spores is estimated at 0.03 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} at 20% relative humidity and decreases with increasing humidity. The Coulombic force is introduced for the spore-mica system (both charged, nonconductive surfaces), and an electrostatic image force is introduced to the spore-gold system because gold is electrically conductive. The Coulombic force for spore-mica is repulsive because the components are similarly charged, while the image force for the spore-gold system is attractive. The magnitude of both forces decreases with increasing humidity. The electrostatic forces are added to other force components, e.g., van der Waals and capillary forces, to obtain the adhesion force for each system. The adhesion forces measured by AFM are compared to the estimated values. It is shown that the electrostatic (Coulombic and image) forces play a significant role in the adhesion force between spores and planar surfaces.

  14. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, Yu V [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mokrushin, Yu M [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Shakin, O V [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  15. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Kazaryan, M A; Mokrushin, Yu M; Shakin, O V

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  16. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  17. Transparent Fingerprint Sensor System for Large Flat Panel Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkuk Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a transparent fingerprint sensing system using a thin film transistor (TFT sensor panel, based on a self-capacitive sensing scheme. An armorphousindium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO TFT sensor array and associated custom Read-Out IC (ROIC are implemented for the system. The sensor panel has a 200 × 200 pixel array and each pixel size is as small as 50 μm × 50 μm. The ROIC uses only eight analog front-end (AFE amplifier stages along with a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC. To get the fingerprint image data from the sensor array, the ROIC senses a capacitance, which is formed by a cover glass material between a human finger and an electrode of each pixel of the sensor array. Three methods are reviewed for estimating the self-capacitance. The measurement result demonstrates that the transparent fingerprint sensor system has an ability to differentiate a human finger’s ridges and valleys through the fingerprint sensor array.

  18. Transparent Fingerprint Sensor System for Large Flat Panel Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Wonkuk; Pi, Jae-Eun; Cho, Sung Haeung; Kang, Seung-Youl; Ahn, Seong-Deok; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Jeon, Ho-Sik; Kim, Jong-Uk; Lee, Myunghee

    2018-01-19

    In this paper, we introduce a transparent fingerprint sensing system using a thin film transistor (TFT) sensor panel, based on a self-capacitive sensing scheme. An armorphousindium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFT sensor array and associated custom Read-Out IC (ROIC) are implemented for the system. The sensor panel has a 200 × 200 pixel array and each pixel size is as small as 50 μm × 50 μm. The ROIC uses only eight analog front-end (AFE) amplifier stages along with a successive approximation analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC). To get the fingerprint image data from the sensor array, the ROIC senses a capacitance, which is formed by a cover glass material between a human finger and an electrode of each pixel of the sensor array. Three methods are reviewed for estimating the self-capacitance. The measurement result demonstrates that the transparent fingerprint sensor system has an ability to differentiate a human finger's ridges and valleys through the fingerprint sensor array.

  19. Spore: Spawning Evolutionary Misconceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas E.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Schrader, P. G.

    2010-10-01

    The use of computer simulations as educational tools may afford the means to develop understanding of evolution as a natural, emergent, and decentralized process. However, special consideration of developmental constraints on learning may be necessary when using these technologies. Specifically, the essentialist (biological forms possess an immutable essence), teleological (assignment of purpose to living things and/or parts of living things that may not be purposeful), and intentionality (assumption that events are caused by an intelligent agent) biases may be reinforced through the use of computer simulations, rather than addressed with instruction. We examine the video game Spore for its depiction of evolutionary content and its potential to reinforce these cognitive biases. In particular, we discuss three pedagogical strategies to mitigate weaknesses of Spore and other computer simulations: directly targeting misconceptions through refutational approaches, targeting specific principles of scientific inquiry, and directly addressing issues related to models as cognitive tools.

  20. The application of autostereoscopic display in smart home system based on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ling, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Smart home is a system to control home devices which are more and more popular in our daily life. Mobile intelligent terminals based on smart homes have been developed, make remote controlling and monitoring possible with smartphones or tablets. On the other hand, 3D stereo display technology developed rapidly in recent years. Therefore, a iPad-based smart home system adopts autostereoscopic display as the control interface is proposed to improve the userfriendliness of using experiences. In consideration of iPad's limited hardware capabilities, we introduced a 3D image synthesizing method based on parallel processing with Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) implemented it with OpenGL ES Application Programming Interface (API) library on IOS platforms for real-time autostereoscopic displaying. Compared to the traditional smart home system, the proposed system applied autostereoscopic display into smart home system's control interface enhanced the reality, user-friendliness and visual comfort of interface.

  1. Safety parameter display system: an operator support system for enhancement of safety in Indian PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramaniam, K.; Biswas, T.

    1994-01-01

    Ensuring operational safety in nuclear power plants is important as operator errors are observed to contribute significantly to the occurrence of accidents. Computerized operator support systems, which process and structure information, can help operators during both normal and transient conditions, and thereby enhance safety and aid effective response to emergency conditions. An important operator aid being developed and described in this paper, is the safety parameter display system (SPDS). The SPDS is an event-independent, symptom-based operator aid for safety monitoring. Knowledge-based systems can provide operators with an improved quality of information. An information processing model of a knowledge based operator support system (KBOSS) developed for emergency conditions using an expert system shell is also presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of the design issues involved in the use of a knowledge based systems for real time safety monitoring and fault diagnosis. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Flatbed-type 3D display systems using integral imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yuzo; Nagatani, Hiroyuki; Saishu, Tatsuo; Fukushima, Rieko; Taira, Kazuki

    2006-10-01

    We have developed prototypes of flatbed-type autostereoscopic display systems using one-dimensional integral imaging method. The integral imaging system reproduces light beams similar of those produced by a real object. Our display architecture is suitable for flatbed configurations because it has a large margin for viewing distance and angle and has continuous motion parallax. We have applied our technology to 15.4-inch displays. We realized horizontal resolution of 480 with 12 parallaxes due to adoption of mosaic pixel arrangement of the display panel. It allows viewers to see high quality autostereoscopic images. Viewing the display from angle allows the viewer to experience 3-D images that stand out several centimeters from the surface of the display. Mixed reality of virtual 3-D objects and real objects are also realized on a flatbed display. In seeking reproduction of natural 3-D images on the flatbed display, we developed proprietary software. The fast playback of the CG movie contents and real-time interaction are realized with the aid of a graphics card. Realization of the safety 3-D images to the human beings is very important. Therefore, we have measured the effects on the visual function and evaluated the biological effects. For example, the accommodation and convergence were measured at the same time. The various biological effects are also measured before and after the task of watching 3-D images. We have found that our displays show better results than those to a conventional stereoscopic display. The new technology opens up new areas of application for 3-D displays, including arcade games, e-learning, simulations of buildings and landscapes, and even 3-D menus in restaurants.

  3. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA's Implementation of the Display System Replacement Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...) implementation of the Display System Replacement (DSR) project. DSR, which replaces the controllers' workstations and other equipment in the nation's en route centers, is one of FAA's major projects under the air traffic control modernization program...

  4. Upper Limb-Hand 3D Display System for Biomimetic Myoelectric Hand Simulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jimenez, Gonzalo

    2001-01-01

    A graphics system displaying both upper limb posture and opening-closing of a prosthetic hand was developed for realtime operation of our biomimetic myoelectric hand simulator, Posture of the upper...

  5. A Novel Volumetric 3D Display System with Static Screen, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet most existing display systems with flat screens can handle only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that...

  6. Three-Dimensional Cockpit Display System for Improved Situational Awareness, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a 3D cockpit display (3D-COD) system for improved pilot situational awareness and safety in 3D airspace by...

  7. An application of the process computer and CRT display system in BWR nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Seiichiro; Aoki, Retsu; Kawahara, Haruo; Sato, Takahisa

    1975-01-01

    A color CRT display system was combined with a process computer in some BWR nuclear power plants in Japan. Although the present control system uses the CRT display system only as an output device of the process computer, it has various advantages over conventional control panel as an efficient plant-operator interface. Various graphic displays are classified into four categories. The first is operational guide which includes the display of control rod worth minimizer and that of rod block monitor. The second is the display of the results of core performance calculation which include axial and radial distributions of power output, exit quality, channel flow rate, CHFR (critical heat flux ratio), FLPD (fraction of linear power density), etc. The third is the display of process variables and corresponding computational values. The readings of LPRM, control rod position and the process data concerning turbines and feed water system are included in this category. The fourth category includes the differential axial power distribution between base power distribution (obtained from TIP) and the reading of each LPRM detector, and the display of various input parameters being used by the process computer. Many photographs are presented to show examples of those applications. (Aoki, K.)

  8. A system for tracking braille readers using a Wii Remote and a refreshable braille display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranyanak, Inthraporn; Reilly, Ronan G

    2013-03-01

    This article describes a cheap and easy-to-use finger-tracking system for studying braille reading. It provides improved spatial and temporal resolution over the current available solutions and can be used with either a refreshable braille display or braille-embossed paper. In conjunction with a refreshable braille display, the tracking system has the unique capacity to implement display-change paradigms derived from sighted reading research. This will allow researchers to probe skilled braille reading in significantly more depth than has heretofore been possible.

  9. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides 85 strontium and 197 cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs

  10. DNA repair in ultraviolet-irradiated spores of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.C.V.

    1976-01-01

    It has been shown previously by others that at least two independent repair mechanisms are present in Bacillus subtilis for removing ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of ultraviolet (254 nm)-irradiated spores after germination. One of these, designated as ''spore repair,'' is shown in this study to restore ''spore photoproduct'' to two thymine residues, leaving the DNA backbone intact at the end of the process in vivo. The circumstances under which this repair can occur and some characteristics of its energy requirements have been clarified. The second repair process is identified as excision repair, which can excise both ''spore photoproduct'' from DNA of irradiated spores and cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers from DNA of irradiated vegetative cells. In this study it is shown that the gene hcr 1 affects an enzyme activity for the incision step initiating this repair, while the gene hcr 42 affects a step subsequent to incision in the mechanism. In addition a third, independent repair system, termed ''germinative excision repair,'' is discovered and shown to be specific for excising only cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers but not ''spore photoproduct.'' This repair system is responsible for the observed high ultraviolet-resistance and temporary capacity for host cell reactivation on recently germinated spores of Bacillus subtilis HCR - strains

  11. Effects of an ontology display with history representation on organizational memory information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wonil; Salvendy, Gavriel

    2005-06-10

    Ontologies, as a possible element of organizational memory information systems, appear to support organizational learning. Ontology tools can be used to share knowledge among the members of an organization. However, current ontology-viewing user interfaces of ontology tools do not fully support organizational learning, because most of them lack proper history representation in their display. In this study, a conceptual model was developed that emphasized the role of ontology in the organizational learning cycle and explored the integration of history representation in the ontology display. Based on the experimental results from a split-plot design with 30 participants, two conclusions were derived: first, appropriately selected history representations in the ontology display help users to identify changes in the ontologies; and second, compatibility between types of ontology display and history representation is more important than ontology display and history representation in themselves.

  12. Observations on the migration of bacillus spores outside a contaminated facility during a decontamination efficacy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Erin E.; Perkins, Sarah; Lordo, Robert; Kovacik, William; Nichols, Tonya L.; Bowling, Charlena Yoder; Griffin, Dale W.; Schaefer, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for an intentional wide-area or indoor release of Bacillus anthracis spores remains a concern, but the fate and transport of B. anthracis spores in indoor and outdoor environments are not well understood. Some studies have examined the possibility of spore transport within ventilation systems and in buildings and transport into a building following an outdoor release. Little research exists regarding the potential for spores to migrate to the outside of a building following an indoor release.

  13. Computer-generated display system guidelines. Volume 2. Developing an evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    Volume 1 of this report provides guidance to utilities on the design of displays and the selection and retrofit of a computer-generated display system in the control room of an operating nuclear power plant. Volume 2 provides guidance on planning and managing empirical evaluation of computer-generated display systems, particularly when these displays are primary elements of computer-based operator aids. The guidance provided is in terms of a multilevel evaluation methodology that enables sequential consideration of three primary issues: (1) compatibility; (2) understandability; and (3) effectiveness. The evaluation process approaches these three issues with a top-down review of system objectives, functions, tasks, and information requirements. The process then moves bottom-up from lower-level to higher-level issues, employing different evaluation methods at each level in order to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of the evaluation process

  14. A manned maneuvering unit proximity operations planning and flight guidance display and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershzohn, Gary R.; Sirko, Robert J.; Zimmerman, K.; Jones, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    This task concerns the design, development, testing, and evaluation of a new proximity operations planning and flight guidance display and control system for manned space operations. A forecast, derivative manned maneuvering unit (MMU) was identified as a candidate for the application of a color, highway-in-the-sky display format for the presentation of flight guidance information. A silicon graphics 4D/20-based simulation is being developed to design and test display formats and operations concepts. The simulation includes the following: (1) real-time color graphics generation to provide realistic, dynamic flight guidance displays and control characteristics; (2) real-time graphics generation of spacecraft trajectories; (3) MMU flight dynamics and control characteristics; (4) control algorithms for rotational and translational hand controllers; (5) orbital mechanics effects for rendezvous and chase spacecraft; (6) inclusion of appropriate navigation aids; and (7) measurement of subject performance. The flight planning system under development provides for: (1) selection of appropriate operational modes, including minimum cost, optimum cost, minimum time, and specified ETA; (2) automatic calculation of rendezvous trajectories, en route times, and fuel requirements; (3) and provisions for manual override. Man/machine function allocations in planning and en route flight segments are being evaluated. Planning and en route data are presented on one screen composed of two windows: (1) a map display presenting a view perpendicular to the orbital plane, depicting flight planning trajectory and time data attitude display presenting attitude and course data for use en route; and (2) an attitude display presenting local vertical-local horizontal attitude data superimposed on a highway-in-the-sky or flight channel representation of the flight planned course. Both display formats are presented while the MMU is en route. In addition to these displays, several original display

  15. The establishment of Saccharomyces boulardii surface display system using a single expression vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiantian; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Chen, Peipei; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, an a-agglutinin-based Saccharomyces boulardii surface display system was successfully established using a single expression vector. Based on the two protein co-expression vector pSP-G1 built by Partow et al., a S. boulardii surface display vector-pSDSb containing all the display elements was constructed. The display results of heterologous proteins were confirmed by successfully displaying enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and chicken Eimeria tenella Microneme-2 proteins (EtMic2) on the S. boulardii cell surface. The DNA sequence of AGA1 gene from S. boulardii (SbAGA1) was determined and used as the cell wall anchor partner. This is the first time heterologous proteins have been displayed on the cell surface of S. boulardii. Because S. boulardii is probiotic and eukaryotic, its surface display system would be very valuable, particularly in the development of a live vaccine against various pathogenic organisms especially eukaryotic pathogens such as protistan parasites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An interactive display system for large-scale 3D models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zijian; Sun, Kun; Tao, Wenbing; Liu, Liman

    2018-04-01

    With the improvement of 3D reconstruction theory and the rapid development of computer hardware technology, the reconstructed 3D models are enlarging in scale and increasing in complexity. Models with tens of thousands of 3D points or triangular meshes are common in practical applications. Due to storage and computing power limitation, it is difficult to achieve real-time display and interaction with large scale 3D models for some common 3D display software, such as MeshLab. In this paper, we propose a display system for large-scale 3D scene models. We construct the LOD (Levels of Detail) model of the reconstructed 3D scene in advance, and then use an out-of-core view-dependent multi-resolution rendering scheme to realize the real-time display of the large-scale 3D model. With the proposed method, our display system is able to render in real time while roaming in the reconstructed scene and 3D camera poses can also be displayed. Furthermore, the memory consumption can be significantly decreased via internal and external memory exchange mechanism, so that it is possible to display a large scale reconstructed scene with over millions of 3D points or triangular meshes in a regular PC with only 4GB RAM.

  17. A distributed system of wireless signs using Gyricon electronic paper displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Robert A.

    2006-04-01

    The proliferation of digital information is leading to a wide range of applications which make it desirable to display data easily in many locations, all changeable and updateable. The difficulty in achieving such ubiquitous displays is the cost of signage, the cost of installation, and the software and systems to control the information being sent to each of these signs. In this paper we will talk about a networked system of such signs which are made from gyricon electronic paper. Gyricon electronic paper is a reflective, bistable display which can be made in large web sheets at a reasonable price. Since it does not require a backlight nor does it require power to refresh the display image, such technology is ideal for making signs which can be run on batteries with extremely long battery life, often not needing replacement for years. The display also has a very broad illumination scattering profile which makes it readily viewable from any angle. The basic operating mechanism of the display, its manufacturing technique, and achieved performance will be described, along with the description of a networked solution using many such signs controlled with system software to identify speakers and meetings in conference rooms, hospitality suites, or classrooms in universities. Systems will also be shown which are adapted to retail pricing signage and others which can be used for large format outdoor billboards.

  18. [Current situations and problems of quality control for medical imaging display systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibutani, Takayuki; Setojima, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Katsumi; Takada, Katsumi; Okuno, Teiichi; Onoguchi, Masahisa; Nakajima, Tadashi; Fujisawa, Ichiro

    2015-04-01

    Diagnostic imaging has been shifted rapidly from film to monitor diagnostic. Consequently, Japan medical imaging and radiological systems industries association (JIRA) have recommended methods of quality control (QC) for medical imaging display systems. However, in spite of its need by majority of people, executing rate is low. The purpose of this study was to validate the problem including check items about QC for medical imaging display systems. We performed acceptance test of medical imaging display monitors based on Japanese engineering standards of radiological apparatus (JESRA) X-0093*A-2005 to 2009, and performed constancy test based on JESRA X-0093*A-2010 from 2010 to 2012. Furthermore, we investigated the cause of trouble and repaired number. Medical imaging display monitors had 23 inappropriate monitors about visual estimation, and all these monitors were not criteria of JESRA about luminance uniformity. Max luminance was significantly lower year-by-year about measurement estimation, and the 29 monitors did not meet the criteria of JESRA about luminance deviation. Repaired number of medical imaging display monitors had 25, and the cause was failure liquid crystal panel. We suggested the problems about medical imaging display systems.

  19. Design and hardware alternatives for a Safety-Parameter Display System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeycutt, F.; Merten, W.T.; Roy, G.M.; Segraves, E.; Stone, G.P.

    1981-05-01

    The SPDS is a dedicated control room operator aid and is viewed as an important safety improvement within the context of other post-TMI fixes. Hardware configurations and components to implement the NSAC display format of a Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) are evaluated. The evaluation was made on the basis of five alternative hardware configurations which use commercially available components. Four of the alternatives use computer/video display architecture. The fifth alternative is a simple hardwired system which uses strip chart recorders. SPDS regulatory requirements are defined by NUREG 0696. Overall feasibility of the NSAC concept was evaluated in terms of performance, reliability, cost, licensability, and flexibility. The flexibility evaluation relates to the ability to handle other display formats, the data acquisition needs of the other emergency facilities and the impact of expected future NRC requirements

  20. Three Dimensional Spherical Display Systems and McIDAS: Tools for Science, Education and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, R.; Mooney, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) and Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin are now using a 3D spherical display system and their Man computer Data Access System (McIDAS)-X and McIDAS-V as outreach tools to demonstrate how scientists and forecasters utilize satellite imagery to monitor weather and climate. Our outreach program displays orbits and data coverage of geostationary and polar satellites and demonstrates how each is beneficial for the remote sensing of Earth. Global composites of visible, infrared and water vapor images illustrate how satellite instruments collect data from different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum to monitor global weather patterns 24 hours a day. Captivating animations on spherical display systems are proving to be much more intuitive than traditional 2D displays, enabling audiences to view satellites orbiting above real-time weather systems circulating the entire globe. Complimenting the 3D spherical display system are the UNIX-based McIDAS-X and Java-based McIDAS-V software packages. McIDAS is used to composite the real-time global satellite data and create other weather related derived products. Client and server techniques used by these software packages provide the opportunity to continually update the real-time content on our globe. The enhanced functionality of McIDAS-V extends our outreach program by allowing in-depth interactive 4-dimensional views of the imagery previously viewed on the 3D spherical display system. An important goal of our outreach program is the promotion of remote sensing research and technology at SSEC and CIMSS. The 3D spherical display system has quickly become a popular tool to convey societal benefits of these endeavors. Audiences of all ages instinctively relate to recent weather events which keeps them engaged in spherical display presentations. McIDAS facilitates further exploration of the science behind the weather

  1. High color fidelity thin film multilayer systems for head-up display use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Ho, Fang C.

    1996-09-01

    Head-up display is gaining increasing access in automotive vehicles for indication and position/navigation purposes. An optical combiner, which allows the driver to receive image information from outside and inside of the automobile, is the essential part of this display device. Two multilayer thin film combiner coating systems with distinctive polarization selectivity and broad band spectral neutrality are discussed. One of the coating systems was designed to be located at the lower portion of the windshield. The coating reduced the exterior glare by approximately 45% and provided about 70% average see-through transmittance in addition to the interior information display. The other coating system was designed to be integrated with the sunshield located at the upper portion of the windshield. The coating reflected the interior information display while reducing direct sunlight penetration to 25%. Color fidelity for both interior and exterior images were maintained in both systems. This facilitated the display of full-color maps. Both coating systems were absorptionless and environmentally durable. Designs, fabrication, and performance of these coating systems are addressed.

  2. Web data display system based on data segment technology of MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Rui; Zhang Ming; Wen Chuqiao; Zheng Wei; Zhuang Ge; Yu Kexun

    2014-01-01

    Long pulse operation is the main character of advanced Tokamak, so the technology of data storage and human-data interaction are vital for dealing with the large data generated in long pulse experiment. The Web data display system was designed. The system is based on the ASP. NET architecture, and it reads segmented-record data from MDSplus database by segmented-record technology and displays the data on Web page by using NI Measurement Studio control library. With the segmented-record technology, long pulse data could be divided into many small units, data segments. Users can read the certain data segments from the long pulse data according to their special needs. Also, the system develops an efficient strategy for reading segmented record data, showing the waveforms required by users accurately and quickly. The data display Web system was tested on J-TEXT Tokamak, and was proved to be reliable and efficient to achieve the initial design goal. (authors)

  3. Designing display primaries with currently available light sources for UHDTV wide-gamut system colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Nishida, Yukihiro; Sugawara, Masayuki

    2014-08-11

    The wide-gamut system colorimetry has been standardized for ultra-high definition television (UHDTV). The chromaticities of the primaries are designed to lie on the spectral locus to cover major standard system colorimetries and real object colors. Although monochromatic light sources are required for a display to perfectly fulfill the system colorimetry, highly saturated emission colors using recent quantum dot technology may effectively achieve the wide gamut. This paper presents simulation results on the chromaticities of highly saturated non-monochromatic light sources and gamut coverage of real object colors to be considered in designing wide-gamut displays with color filters for the UHDTV.

  4. Applicability of UV resistant Bacillus pumilus spore as a human adenovirus surrogate for evaluating the effectiveness of virus inactivation in low-pressure UV treatment systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data set includes UV dose, and Bacillus pumilus spore plate counts in colony forming units. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Boczek , L.,...

  5. System analysis of formation and perception processes of three-dimensional images in volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakov, Alexander; Sgibnev, Arthur

    2018-03-01

    One of the promising devices is currently a volumetric display. Volumetric displays capable to visualize complex three-dimensional information as nearly as possible to its natural – volume form without the use of special glasses. The invention and implementation of volumetric display technology will expand opportunities of information visualization in various spheres of human activity. The article attempts to structure and describe the interrelation of the essential characteristics of objects in the area of volumetric visualization. Also there is proposed a method of calculation of estimate total number of voxels perceived by observers during the 3D demonstration, generated using a volumetric display with a rotating screen. In the future, it is planned to expand the described technique and implement a system for estimation the quality of generated images, depending on the types of biplanes and their initial characteristics.

  6. The influence of an activity awareness display on distributed multi-team systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, L.; Greef, T. de; Kleij, R. van der

    2010-01-01

    Motivation - Both multi-team systems and awareness displays have been studied more often in the past years, but there hasn't been much focus on the combination of these two subjects. Apart from doing so, we are particularly interested in the difficulties encountered when multi-team systems are

  7. Microprocessor system for data acquisition processing and display for Auger electrons spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, Z.; Cudny, W.; Hildebrandt, S.; Marzec, J.; Walentek, J.; Zaremba, K.

    1984-01-01

    Data acquisition system for Auger electron spectrometry is developed. The system is used for chemical and structural analysis of materials and consists of a cylindrical mirror analyzer being a measuring spectrometer device, CAMAC unit and control unit. The control unit comprises a microcomputer based on INTEL 8080 microprocessor and display

  8. Registration of an on-axis see-through head-mounted display and camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Rensing, Noa M.; Weststrate, Evan; Peli, Eli

    2005-02-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (HMD) system integrating a miniature camera that is aligned with the user's pupil is developed and tested. Such an HMD system has a potential value in many augmented reality applications, in which registration of the virtual display to the real scene is one of the critical aspects. The camera alignment to the user's pupil results in a simple yet accurate calibration and a low registration error across a wide range of depth. In reality, a small camera-eye misalignment may still occur in such a system due to the inevitable variations of HMD wearing position with respect to the eye. The effects of such errors are measured. Calculation further shows that the registration error as a function of viewing distance behaves nearly the same for different virtual image distances, except for a shift. The impact of prismatic effect of the display lens on registration is also discussed.

  9. Interface of the transport systems research vehicle monochrome display system to the digital autonomous terminal access communication data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, W. C.; Tanguy, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An upgrade of the transport systems research vehicle (TSRV) experimental flight system retained the original monochrome display system. The original host computer was replaced with a Norden 11/70, a new digital autonomous terminal access communication (DATAC) data bus was installed for data transfer between display system and host, while a new data interface method was required. The new display data interface uses four split phase bipolar (SPBP) serial busses. The DATAC bus uses a shared interface ram (SIR) for intermediate storage of its data transfer. A display interface unit (DIU) was designed and configured to read from and write to the SIR to properly convert the data from parallel to SPBP serial and vice versa. It is found that separation of data for use by each SPBP bus and synchronization of data tranfer throughout the entire experimental flight system are major problems which require solution in DIU design. The techniques used to accomplish these new data interface requirements are described.

  10. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  11. Advances and trends of head-up and head-down display systems in automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancur, J. Alejandro; Osorio-Gomez, Gilberto; Agudelo, J. David

    2014-06-01

    Currently, in the automotive industry the interaction between drivers and Augmented Reality (AR) systems is a subject of analysis, especially the identification of advantages and risks that this kind of interaction represents. Consequently, this paper attempts to put in evidence the potential applications of Head-Up (Display (HUD) and Head-Down Display (HDD) systems in automotive vehicles, showing applications and trends under study. In general, automotive advances related to AR devices suggest the partial integration of the HUD and HDD in automobiles; however, the right way to do it is still a moot point.

  12. Waterline ATS B. globigii spore water disinfection data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Disinfection of B. globigii spores (a non-pathogenic surrogate for B. anthracis) in clean and dirty water using the ATS-Waterline system, which uses ultraviolet...

  13. A passive cooling system proposal for multifunction and high-power displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tari, Ilker

    2013-03-01

    Flat panel displays are conventionally cooled by internal natural convection, which constrains the possible rate of heat transfer from the panel. On one hand, during the last few years, the power consumption and the related cooling requirement for 1080p displays have decreased mostly due to energy savings by the switch to LED backlighting and more efficient electronics. However, on the other hand, the required cooling rate recently started to increase with new directions in the industry such as 3D displays, and ultra-high-resolution displays (recent 4K announcements and planned introduction of 8K). In addition to these trends in display technology itself, there is also a trend to integrate consumer entertainment products into displays with the ultimate goal of designing a multifunction device replacing the TV, the media player, the PC, the game console and the sound system. Considering the increasing power requirement for higher fidelity in video processing, these multifunction devices tend to generate very high heat fluxes, which are impossible to dissipate with internal natural convection. In order to overcome this obstacle, instead of active cooling with forced convection that comes with drawbacks of noise, additional power consumption, and reduced reliability, a passive cooling system relying on external natural convection and radiation is proposed here. The proposed cooling system consists of a heat spreader flat heat pipe and aluminum plate-finned heat sink with anodized surfaces. For this system, the possible maximum heat dissipation rates from the standard size panels (in 26-70 inch range) are estimated by using our recently obtained heat transfer correlations for the natural convection from aluminum plate-finned heat sinks together with the surface-to-surface radiation. With the use of the proposed passive cooling system, the possibility of dissipating very high heat rates is demonstrated, hinting a promising green alternative to active cooling.

  14. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.J.; Gunasekera, T.S. [Macquarie Univ., Dept. of Biological Sciences, Sydney (Australia); Williams, K.L. [Proteome Systems Ltd., Sydney (Australia); Nevalainen, K.M.H. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney (Australia)

    2002-10-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. (author)

  15. Ultrastructure and properties of Paecilomyces lilacinus spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, R.J.; Gunasekera, T.S.; Williams, K.L.; Nevalainen, K.M.H.

    2002-01-01

    Strains of the filamentous soil fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus are currently being developed for use as biological control agents against root-knot, cyst, and other plant-parasitic nematodes. The inoculum applied in the field consists mainly of spores. This study was undertaken to examine the size, ultrastructure, and rodlet layers of P. lilacinus spores and the effect of the culture method on structural and functional spore properties. A rodlet layer was identified on aerial spores only. Other differences noted between aerial spores and those produced in submerged culture included the size and appearance of spores and thickness of spore coat layers when examined with transmission electron microscopy. The two spore types differed in UV tolerance, with aerial spores being less sensitive to environmentally relevant UV radiation. Also, viability after drying and storage was better with the aerial spores. Both spore types exhibited similar nematophagous ability. (author)

  16. A Fluid Membrane-Based Soluble Ligand Display System for Live CellAssays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Jwa-Min; Nair, Pradeep N.; Neve, Richard M.; Gray, Joe W.; Groves, Jay T.

    2005-10-14

    Cell communication modulates numerous biological processes including proliferation, apoptosis, motility, invasion and differentiation. Correspondingly, there has been significant interest in the development of surface display strategies for the presentation of signaling molecules to living cells. This effort has primarily focused on naturally surface-bound ligands, such as extracellular matrix components and cell membranes. Soluble ligands (e.g. growth factors and cytokines) play an important role in intercellular communications, and their display in a surface-bound format would be of great utility in the design of array-based live cell assays. Recently, several cell microarray systems that display cDNA, RNAi, or small molecules in a surface array format were proven to be useful in accelerating high-throughput functional genetic studies and screening therapeutic agents. These surface display methods provide a flexible platform for the systematic, combinatorial investigation of genes and small molecules affecting cellular processes and phenotypes of interest. In an analogous sense, it would be an important advance if one could display soluble signaling ligands in a surface assay format that allows for systematic, patterned presentation of soluble ligands to live cells. Such a technique would make it possible to examine cellular phenotypes of interest in a parallel format with soluble signaling ligands as one of the display parameters. Herein we report a ligand-modified fluid supported lipid bilayer (SLB) assay system that can be used to functionally display soluble ligands to cells in situ (Figure 1A). By displaying soluble ligands on a SLB surface, both solution behavior (the ability to become locally enriched by reaction-diffusion processes) and solid behavior (the ability to control the spatial location of the ligands in an open system) could be combined. The method reported herein benefits from the naturally fluid state of the supported membrane, which allows

  17. Development of Information Display System for Operator Support in Severe Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang Il; Lee, Joon Ku

    2016-01-01

    When the severe accident occurs, the technical support center (TSC) performs the mitigation strategy with severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) and communicates with main control room (MCR) operators to obtain information of plant's status. In such circumstances, the importance of an information display for severe accident is increased. Therefore an information display system dedicated to severe accident conditions is required to secure the plant information, to provide the necessary information to MCR operators and TSC operators, and to support the decision using these information. We setup the design concept of severe accident information display system (SIDS) in the previous study and defined its requirements of function and performance. This paper describes the process, results of the identification of the severe accident information for MCR operator and the implementation of SIDS. Further implementation on post-accident monitoring function and data validation function for severe accidents will be accomplished in the future

  18. Development of Information Display System for Operator Support in Severe Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang Il; Lee, Joon Ku [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    When the severe accident occurs, the technical support center (TSC) performs the mitigation strategy with severe accident management guidelines (SAMG) and communicates with main control room (MCR) operators to obtain information of plant's status. In such circumstances, the importance of an information display for severe accident is increased. Therefore an information display system dedicated to severe accident conditions is required to secure the plant information, to provide the necessary information to MCR operators and TSC operators, and to support the decision using these information. We setup the design concept of severe accident information display system (SIDS) in the previous study and defined its requirements of function and performance. This paper describes the process, results of the identification of the severe accident information for MCR operator and the implementation of SIDS. Further implementation on post-accident monitoring function and data validation function for severe accidents will be accomplished in the future.

  19. Experience in the review of utility control room design review and safety parameter display system programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The Detailed Control Room Design Review (DCRDR) and the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) had their origins in the studies and investigations conducted as the result of the TMI-2 accident. The President's Commission (Kemeny Commission) critized NRC for not examining the man-machine interface, over-emphasizing equipment, ignoring human beings, and tolerating outdated technology in control rooms. The Commission's Special Inquiry Group (Rogovin Report) recommended greater application of human factors engineering including better instrumentation displays and improved control room design. The NRC Lessons Learned Task Force concluded that licensees should review and improve control rooms using NRC Human engineering guidelines, and install safety parameter display systems (then called the safety staff vector). The TMI Action Plan Item I.D.1 and I.D.2 were based on these recommendations

  20. Micromotors to capture and destroy anthrax simulant spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Jahir; Pan, Guoqing; Sattayasamitsathit, Sirilak; Galarnyk, Michael; Wang, Joseph

    2015-03-07

    Towards addressing the need for detecting and eliminating biothreats, we describe a micromotor-based approach for screening, capturing, isolating and destroying anthrax simulant spores in a simple and rapid manner with minimal sample processing. The B. globilli antibody-functionalized micromotors can recognize, capture and transport B. globigii spores in environmental matrices, while showing non-interactions with excess of non-target bacteria. Efficient destruction of the anthrax simulant spores is demonstrated via the micromotor-induced mixing of a mild oxidizing solution. The new micromotor-based approach paves a way to dynamic multifunctional systems that rapidly recognize, isolate, capture and destroy biological threats.

  1. Lessons learned while implementing a safety parameter display system at the Comanche Peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagar, B.

    1987-01-01

    With the completion of site Verification and Validation tests, the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) will be fully operational at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Implementation of the SPDS, which began in 1982, included: modifying generic Safety Assessment System Software; developing site-specific displays and features; installing and integrating system equipment into the plant; modifying station heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems to provide necessary cooling; installing an additional uninterruptible power supply system to provide necessary power; and training station personnel in the operation and use of the system. Lessons learned during this project can be discussed in terms of an ideal SPDS implementation project. Such a project would design and implement an SPDS for a plant that is already under construction or operating, and would progress through a sequence of activities that includes: (1) developing and documenting the system design bases, and including all major design influences; (2) developing a database description and system functional specifications to clarify specific system requirements; (3) developing detailed system hardware and software design specifications to fully describe the system, and to enable identification of necessary site design changes early in the project; (4) implementing the system design; (5) configuring and extensively testing the system prior to routine system operation; and (6) tuning the system after the completion of system installation. The ideal project would include future system users in design development and system testing, and would use Verification and Validation techniques throughout the project to ensure that each sequential step is appropriate and correct

  2. Designing and researching of the virtual display system based on the prism elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, V. N.; Grimm, V. A.; Romanova, G. E.; Smirnov, S. A.; Bakholdin, A. V.; Grishina, N. Y.

    2014-05-01

    Problems of designing of systems for virtual display systems for augmented reality placed near the observers eye (so called head worn displays) with the light guide prismatic elements are considered. Systems of augmented reality is the complex consists of the image generator (most often it's the microdisplay with the illumination system if the display is not self-luminous), the objective which forms the display image practically in infinity and the combiner which organizes the light splitting so that an observer could see the information of the microdisplay and the surrounding environment as the background at the same time. This work deals with the system with the combiner based on the composite structure of the prism elements. In the work three cases of the prism combiner design are considered and also the results of the modeling with the optical design software are presented. In the model the question of the large pupil zone was analyzed and also the discontinuous character (mosaic structure) of the angular field in transmission of the information from the microdisplay to the observer's eye with the prismatic structure are discussed.

  3. Development of a visual control and display system for the SMART plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Han Ok; Yoon, Ju Hyeon; Seo, Jae Kwang; Lee, Doo Jeong

    2000-01-01

    A Visual Control and Display System (VCDS) for the SMART plant analyzer has been developed using the MMS simulation tools. The SAMRT plant analyzer consists of the VCDS and the MMS SMART model. The MMS SMART model is a numerical simulation model for the SMART plant and is composed of the MMS real-time modules and control blocks. It covers the whole plant including primary, secondary and auxiliary systems. The developed VCDS is Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) that is running in a synchronized way with the SMART model. The VCDS consists of the MMS Simulation tools and seven control and display screens. The VCDS provides easy means for the control and display of the SMART model status. The VCDS allows users to display and change a specified list of model variables and transient scenarios interactively through the MMS simulation tools. The control and display screens are developed with Visual Basic 6.0 and MMI32 ActiveX controls and it can be executed in several TCP/IP networked computers simultaneously. The developed VCDS can be utilized for the engineering simulation of the SMART plant operation, and for control logic and operational procedure developments

  4. Operation aid system upon occurrence of abnormality and display method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Ueno, Takashi.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides an operation aid system for a plant having a large number of systematic equipments upon occurrence of an abnormality and a method of displaying it. Namely, contents of an operation manual upon occurrence of an abnormality is displayed in the form of a flow chart divided into a judging section and an operation section depending on symptoms of plant parameters. Discrimination numbers are provided to a plurality sets of the judging sections and the operation sections respectively. With such procedures, using various measured signals of the plant as inputted data, the discrimination numbers of the judging sections in accordance with the inputted data are stored. Then a flow chart for the judging sections and the operation sections corresponding to the stored discrimination numbers are displayed. Further, an operation manual upon occurrence of abnormalities relevant to the judging sections and the operation sections in the form of writings, and previously determined drawings of relevant systems and trend graphs of the plant are also displayed with reference to the discrimination numbers described above. As a result, both of an appropriate operation manual and relevant information are displayed simultaneously for the occurrence of a plant abnormality and an operator's erroneous operation. (I.S.)

  5. Using the Multi-Display Teaching System to Lower Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tsung-Sheng; Lu, Yu-Chun; Yang, Chu-Sing

    2015-01-01

    Multimedia plays a vital role in both learning systems and the actual education process. However, currently used presentation software is often not optimized and generates a great deal of clutter on the screen. Furthermore, there is often insufficient space on a single display, leading to the division of content. These limitations generally…

  6. Internet Protocol Display Sharing Solution for Mission Control Center Video System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of broadcast television as a constant source of information throughout the NASA manned space flight Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), the current Video Transport System (VTS) characteristics provides the ability to visually enhance real-time applications as a broadcast channel that decision making flight controllers come to rely on, but can be difficult to maintain and costly. The Operations Technology Facility (OTF) of the Mission Operations Facility Division (MOFD) has been tasked to provide insight to new innovative technological solutions for the MCC environment focusing on alternative architectures for a VTS. New technology will be provided to enable sharing of all imagery from one specific computer display, better known as Display Sharing (DS), to other computer displays and display systems such as; large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and other offsite centers using IP networks. It has been stated that Internet Protocol (IP) applications are easily readied to substitute for the current visual architecture, but quality and speed may need to be forfeited for reducing cost and maintainability. Although the IP infrastructure can support many technologies, the simple task of sharing ones computer display can be rather clumsy and difficult to configure and manage to the many operators and products. The DS process shall invest in collectively automating the sharing of images while focusing on such characteristics as; managing bandwidth, encrypting security measures, synchronizing disconnections from loss of signal / loss of acquisitions, performance latency, and provide functions like, scalability, multi-sharing, ease of initial integration / sustained configuration, integration with video adjustments packages, collaborative tools, host / recipient controllability, and the utmost paramount priority, an enterprise solution that provides ownership to the whole

  7. Coupling Retinal Scanning Displays to the Human Visual System: Visual System Response and Engineering Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turner, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    A retinal scanning display (RSD) is a visual display that presents an image to an observer via a modulated beam of light that is directed through the eye's pupil and rapidly scanned in a raster-like pattern across the retina...

  8. Improved Second-Generation 3-D Volumetric Display System. Revision 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    computer control, uses infrared lasers to address points within a rare-earth-infused solid glass cube. Already, simple animated computer-generated images...Volumetric Display System permits images to be displayed in a three- dimensional format that can be observed without the use of special glasses . Its...MM 120 nm 60 mm nI POLARIZING I $-"• -’’""BEAMSPLI’i-ER ) 4P40-MHz 50-MHz BW PLRZN i TeO2 MODULATORS TeO2 DEFLECTORS Figure 1-4. NEOS four-channel

  9. The search and identification of the new immunodiagnostic targets of bacillus anthracis spore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biketov, S.; Dunaytsev, I.; Baranova, E.; Marinin, L.; Dyatlov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus anthracis have been used as bio warfare agent to bio terrorize purposes. As efficiency of anti-epidemic measures included urgent prevention and treatment is determined by terms within which the bio agent is identified. Direct and rapid spore detection by antibodies based detection system is very attractive alternative to current PCR-based assays or routine phenotyping which are the most accurate but are also complex, time-consumption and expensive. The main difficulty with respect to such kind of anthrax spores detection is a cross-reaction with spores of closely related bacteria. For development of species-specific antibodies to anthrax spores recombinant scFvs or hybridoma technique were used. In both case surface spore antigens contained species-specific epitopes are need. Among exosporium proteins only ExsF(BxpB), ExsK and SoaA are specific to B.cereus group. On the surface of B. anthracis spores, a unique tetrasaccharides containing an novel monosaccharide - anthrose, was discovered. It was shown that anthrose can be serving as species-specific target for B. anthracis spores detection. We have revealed that EA1 isolated from spore of Russians strain STI-1 contain carbohydrate which formed species-specific epitopes and determine immunogenicity of this antigen. Antibodies to this antigen specifically recognized the surface target of B. anthracis spores and do not reacted with others Bacillus spore. Based on these antibodies we developed the test-systems in different formats for rapid direct detection and identification of B. anthracis spores. The results of trial these test-systems with using more than 50 different Bacillus strains were indicated that carbohydrate of EA1 isolated from spore is effective immunodiagnostic target for anthrax spores bio detection.(author)

  10. Spore Coat Architecture of Clostridium novyi-NT spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plomp, M; McCafferey, J; Cheong, I; Huang, X; Bettegowda, C; Kinzler, K; Zhou, S; Vogelstein, B; Malkin, A

    2007-05-07

    Spores of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium novyi-NT are able to germinate in and destroy hypoxic regions of tumors in experimental animals. Future progress in this area will benefit from a better understanding of the germination and outgrowth processes that are essential for the tumorilytic properties of these spores. Towards this end, we have used both transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to determine the structure of dormant as well as germinating spores. We found that the spores are surrounded by an amorphous layer intertwined with honeycomb parasporal layers. Moreover, the spore coat layers had apparently self-assembled and this assembly was likely to be governed by crystal growth principles. During germination and outgrowth, the honeycomb layers as well as the underlying spore coat and undercoat layers sequentially dissolved until the vegetative cell was released. In addition to their implications for understanding the biology of C. novyi-NT, these studies document the presence of proteinaceous growth spirals in a biological organism.

  11. Demonstration of Vibrational Braille Code Display Using Large Displacement Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Arouette, Xavier; Matsumoto, Yasuaki; Miki, Norihisa

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a vibrational Braille code display with large-displacement micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) actuator arrays. Tactile receptors are more sensitive to vibrational stimuli than to static ones. Therefore, when each cell of the Braille code vibrates at optimal frequencies, subjects can recognize the codes more efficiently. We fabricated a vibrational Braille code display that used actuators consisting of piezoelectric actuators and a hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) as cells. The HDAM that encapsulated incompressible liquids in microchambers with two flexible polymer membranes could amplify the displacement of the MEMS actuator. We investigated the voltage required for subjects to recognize Braille codes when each cell, i.e., the large-displacement MEMS actuator, vibrated at various frequencies. Lower voltages were required at vibration frequencies higher than 50 Hz than at vibration frequencies lower than 50 Hz, which verified that the proposed vibrational Braille code display is efficient by successfully exploiting the characteristics of human tactile receptors.

  12. Real-time embedded system for stereo video processing for multiview displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretty, R.-P. M.; Riemens, A. K.; Machado, P. F.

    2007-02-01

    In video systems, the introduction of 3D video might be the next revolution after the introduction of color. Nowadays multiview auto-stereoscopic displays are entering the market. Such displays offer various views at the same time. Depending on its positions, the viewers' eyes see different images. Hence, the viewers' left eye receives a signal that is different from what his right eye gets; this gives, provided the signals have been properly processed, the impression of depth. New auto-stereoscopic products use an image-plus-depth interface. On the other hand, a growing number of 3D productions from the entertainment industry use a stereo format. In this paper, we show how to compute depth from the stereo signal to comply with the display interface format. Furthermore, we present a realisation suitable for a real-time cost-effective implementation on an embedded media processor.

  13. A history and overview of the safety parameter display system concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, J.P.; Lapinsky, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Inquiries into the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2, on March 28, 1979 brought to public attention the need to improve operators' capabilities to interact with the systems under their control. Recommendations ran the full gamut of human/machine interaction, from improvements in training and procedures to improvements in control and display hardware in the control room. This presentation briefly traces the history and development of a display concept that evolved in the post-TMI era, the Safety Parameter Display System or SPDS. The SPDS is intended to function as a detection aid for control room operators, providing an integrated overview of significant plant parameters. The purpose of this report is to describe the general concept of SPDS, its history, and its current regulatory status. A review of NRC guidance documents is included, as well as a discussion of NRC requirements placed on the SPDS. The presentation concludes with an outline of the NRC staff review process for safety parameter display systems and a synopsis of the results of generic SPDS reviews performed thus far

  14. SEMPaC - an expert system prototype associated with safety parameter display system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, K.

    1989-01-01

    This work presents SEMPaC, an expert system prototype: it provides means to support diagnosis and to make decisions during abnormal transients that cause the trip of nuclear power plant. The system operation is associated with Safety Parameter Display System - SPDS that was recommended by U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) after the Three-Mile Island (TMI) accident analysis. (author)

  15. Verification and validation of the safety parameter display system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanfang

    1993-05-01

    During the design and development phase of the safety parameter display system for nuclear power plant, a verification and validation (V and V) plan has been implemented to improve the quality of system design. The V and V activities are briefly introduced, which were executed in four stages of feasibility research, system design, code development and system integration and regulation. The evaluation plan and the process of implementation as well as the evaluation conclusion of the final technical validation for this system are also presented in detail

  16. Process information displays from a computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.H.

    1981-11-01

    A computerized nuclear materials control and accounting system is being developed for an LWR spent fuel reprocessing facility. This system directly accesses process instrument readings, sample analyses, and outputs of various on-line analytical instruments. In this paper, methods of processing and displaying this information in ways that aid in the efficient, timely, and safe control of the chemical processes of the facility are described

  17. A digital data acquisition and display system for ITU TRIGA Mark II reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, B.; Omuz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In this study, a digital data acquisition and display system realized for ITU TRIGA Mark-II Reactor is described. This system is realized in order to help the reactor operator and to increase reactor console capacity. The system consists of two main units, which are host computers and RTI-815F, analog devices, data acquisition card. RTI-815F is multi-function analog/digital input/output board that plugs into one of the available long expansion slots in the IBM-PC, PC/XT, PC/AT, or equivalent personal computers. It has 16 analog input channels for single-ended input signals or 8 analog input channels for differential input signals. But its channel capacity can be increased to 32 input channels for single-ended input signals or 16 input channels for differential input signals. RTI-815F board contains 2 analog output channels, 8 digital input channels and 8 digital output channels. In the ITD TRIGA Mark-II Reactor, 6 fuel temperature channels, 3 water temperature channels, 3 control rod position channels and 4 power channels are chosen as analog input signals for RTI-815F. Its digital outputs are assigned to cooling tower fan, primary and secondary pump reactor scram, control rod rundown. During operation, data are automatically archived to disk and displayed on screen. The channel selection time and sampling time can be adjusted. The simulated movement and position of control rods in the reactor core can be noted and displayed. The changes of power, fuel temperature and water temperature can be displayed on the screen as a graphic. In this system both period and reactivity are calculated and displayed on the screen. (authors)

  18. Non-Seasonal Variation of Airborne Aspergillus Spore Concentration in a Hospital Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Oberle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial fungal infections are gaining increased attention from infectiologists. An adequate investigation into the levels of airborne Aspergillus and other fungal spores in hospital settings, under normal conditions, is largely unknown. We monitored airborne spore contamination in a Swiss hospital building in order to establish a seasonally-dependent base-line level. Air was sampled using an impaction technique, twice weekly, at six different locations over one year. Specimens were seeded in duplicate on Sabouraud agar plates. Grown colonies were identified to genus levels. The airborne Aspergillus spore concentration was constantly low throughout the whole year, at a median level of 2 spores/m3 (inter-quartile range = IQR 1–4, and displayed no seasonal dependency. The median concentration of other fungal spores was higher and showed a distinct seasonal variability with the ambient temperature change during the different seasons: 82 spores/m3 (IQR 26–126 in summer and 9 spores/m3 (IQR 6–15 in winter. The spore concentration varied considerably between the six sampling sites in the building (10 to 26 spores/m3. This variability may explain the variability of study results in the literature.

  19. Head-worn display-based augmented reality system for manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwal, Alok; Baker, Chris; Filipovic, Dragan

    2005-05-01

    This system provides real-time guidance for training and problem-solving on production-line machinery. A prototype of a wearable, real-time, video guidance, interactive system for use in manufacturing, has been developed and demonstrated. Anticipated benefits are: relatively inexperienced personnel can provide machine servicing and the dependency on the vendor to repair or maintain equipment is significantly reduced. Additionally, servicing, training or part change-over schedules can be exercised more predictably and with less training. This approach utilizes Head Worn Display or Head Mounted Display (HMD) technology that can be readily adapted for various machines on the factory floor with training steps for a new location. Such a system can support various applications in manufacturing such as direct video guiding or applying scheduled maintenance and training to effectively resolve servicing emergencies and reduce machine downtime. It can also provide training of inexperienced operators and maintenance personnel. The gap between production line complexity and ability of production personnel to effectively maintain equipment is expected to widen in the future and advanced equipment will require complex servicing procedures that are neither well documented nor user-friendly. This system offers benefits in increased manufacturing equipment availability by facilitating effective servicing and training and can interface to a server system for additional computational resources on an as-needed basis. This system utilizes markers to guide the user and enforces a well defined sequence of operations. It performs augmentation of information on the display in order to provide guidance in real-time.

  20. Man machine interaction for operator information systems : a general purpose display package on PC/AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, A.K.; Dubey, B.P.; Deshpande, S.V.; Vaidya, U.W.; Khandekar, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    Several operator information systems for nuclear plants have been developed at Reactor Control Division of BARC and these have involved extensive operator interaction to extract the maximum information from the systems. Each of these systems used a different scheme for operator interaction. A composite package has now been developed on PC/AT with EGA/VGA for use with any system to obviate the necessity to develop new software for each project. This permits information to be displayed in various formats viz. trend and history curves, tabular data, bar graphs and core matrix (both for 235 and 500 MWe cores). It also allows data to be printed and plotted using multi colour plotter. This package thus integrates all the features of the earlier systems. It also integrates the operator interaction scheme. It uses window based pull down menus to select parameters to be fed into a particular display format. Within any display format the operator has significant flexibility to modify the selected parameters using context dependent soft keys. The package also allows data to be retrieved in machine readable form. This report describes the various user friendly functions implemented and also the design of the system software. (author). 1 tab., 10 fig., 3 refs

  1. Design of area array CCD image acquisition and display system based on FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Ning; Li, Tianting; Pan, Yue; Dai, Yuming

    2014-09-01

    With the development of science and technology, CCD(Charge-coupled Device) has been widely applied in various fields and plays an important role in the modern sensing system, therefore researching a real-time image acquisition and display plan based on CCD device has great significance. This paper introduces an image data acquisition and display system of area array CCD based on FPGA. Several key technical challenges and problems of the system have also been analyzed and followed solutions put forward .The FPGA works as the core processing unit in the system that controls the integral time sequence .The ICX285AL area array CCD image sensor produced by SONY Corporation has been used in the system. The FPGA works to complete the driver of the area array CCD, then analog front end (AFE) processes the signal of the CCD image, including amplification, filtering, noise elimination, CDS correlation double sampling, etc. AD9945 produced by ADI Corporation to convert analog signal to digital signal. Developed Camera Link high-speed data transmission circuit, and completed the PC-end software design of the image acquisition, and realized the real-time display of images. The result through practical testing indicates that the system in the image acquisition and control is stable and reliable, and the indicators meet the actual project requirements.

  2. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathys, A.; Heinz, V.; Knorr, D.

    2008-07-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122°C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80°C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa with 37

  3. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, A; Knorr, D [Berlin University of Technology, Department of Food Biotechnology and Food Process Engineering, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 22, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Heinz, V [German Institute of Food Technology, p. o. box 1165, D-49601, Quackenbrueck (Germany)], E-mail: alexander.mathys@tu-berlin.de

    2008-07-15

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122 deg. C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80 deg. C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa

  4. New pressure and temperature effects on bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathys, A; Knorr, D; Heinz, V

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of inactivation of bacterial spores by heat and pressure is still a matter of discussion. Obviously, the change of the dissociation equilibrium under pressure and temperature plays a dominant role in inactivation of microorganisms. Heat and pressure inactivation of Geobacillus. stearothermophilus spores at different initial pH-values in ACES and phosphate buffer confirmed this view. Thermal inactivation in ACES buffer at 122 deg. C resulted in higher logarithmic reductions. Contrary, after pressure treatment at 900 MPa with 80 deg. C phosphate buffer showed higher inactivation. These results indicated the different dissociation equilibrium shifts in buffer systems by heat and pressure. Due to preparation, storage and handling of highly concentrated spore suspensions the clumping and the formation of aggregates can hardly be avoided. Consequently, the impact of the agglomeration size distribution on the quantitative assessment of G. stearothermophilus spore inactivation was determined by using a three-fold dynamic optical backreflexion measurement. Two limiting cases have been discriminated in mathematical modelling: three dimensional, spherical packing for maximum spore count and two dimensional, circular packing for minimum spore count of a particular agglomerate. Thermal inactivation studies have been carried out in thin glass capillaries, where by using numerical simulations the non isothermal conditions were modelled and taken into account. It is shown that the shoulder formation often found in thermal spore inactivation can sufficiently be described by first-order inactivation kinetics when the agglomeration size is considered. In case of high pressure inactivation agglomerations could be strongly changed by high forces at compression and especially decompression phase. The physiological response of Bacillus licheniformis spores to high pressure was investigated using multiparameter flow cytometry. Spores were treated by high pressure at 150 MPa

  5. Hybrid diffractive-refractive optical system design of head-mounted display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan

    2005-02-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display for augmented reality is designed in this paper. Considering the factors, such as the optical performance, the utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world, the feelings of users when he wears it and etc., a structure of the optical see-through is adopted. With the characteristics of the particular negative dispersive and the power of realizing random-phase modulation, the diffractive surface is helpful for optical system of reducing weight, simplifying structure and etc., and a diffractive surface is introduced in our optical system. The optical system with 25 mm eye relief, 12 mm exit pupil and 20° (H)x15.4° (V) field-of-view is designed. The utilization ratios of energy of real world and virtual world are 1/4 and 1/2, respectively. The angular resolution of display is 0.27 mrad and it less than that of the minimum of human eyes. The diameter of this system is less than 46mm, and it applies the binocular. This diffractive-refractive optical system of see-through head-mounted display not only satisfies the demands of user"s factors in structure, but also with high resolution, very small chromatic aberration and distortion, and satisfies the need of augmented reality. In the end, the parameters of the diffractive surface are discussed.

  6. Improvements to the annunciation and display systems at Gentilly 2 NGS - An integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dufresne, R; Desaulniers, M [Central Nucleaire Gentilly, PQ (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    Since 1990, Gentilly 2 Nuclear Generating Station has revised its overall strategy during upsets and abnormal events and has also completely revised its Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP), its abnormal General Operating Procedures (GOP) and is near completing the revision of its Operating Manuals (OM). This strategy, these new EOPs, abnormal GOPs and the abnormal OMs were validated on our full scale simulator when applicable by a multidisciplinary team composed of authorized staff, technical and safety specialists and also candidates in training for authorization. We have identified significant weakness in the annunciation and display systems impairing the management of these events. To benefit from CANDU Owner`s Group (COG) expertise, we met in some occasions the CRNL`s research team on CAMLS project (CANDU Annunciation Message List System). In order to have more immediate benefits, we chose to improve the actual annunciation and display systems using, in some cases, ideas and/or principles used in the prototype CAMLS. After a brief history, we will present the global approach used at Gentilly 2 for upset and event management and, we will therefore describe in more detail each of the improvements on annunciation and display systems which contributed to reinforce this global approach. Hereafter are some of these improvements: prioritization via color coding of window alarms, re-prioritization (major/minor) of all CRT alarms, coalescence of multi-channel analog and contact CRT alarms, increase in the amount of trends and bar charts for upset management, special alarm summary functions (contextual) for startup after a trip. We did also identify certain needs which are not yet fulfilled with the actual improved system. Finally we will describe some other proposed improvements to the annunciation and display systems that we foresee in the near future. (author). 3 refs, figs.

  7. Improvements to the annunciation and display systems at Gentilly 2 NGS - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, R.; Desaulniers, M.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990, Gentilly 2 Nuclear Generating Station has revised its overall strategy during upsets and abnormal events and has also completely revised its Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP), its abnormal General Operating Procedures (GOP) and is near completing the revision of its Operating Manuals (OM). This strategy, these new EOPs, abnormal GOPs and the abnormal OMs were validated on our full scale simulator when applicable by a multidisciplinary team composed of authorized staff, technical and safety specialists and also candidates in training for authorization. We have identified significant weakness in the annunciation and display systems impairing the management of these events. To benefit from CANDU Owner's Group (COG) expertise, we met in some occasions the CRNL's research team on CAMLS project (CANDU Annunciation Message List System). In order to have more immediate benefits, we chose to improve the actual annunciation and display systems using, in some cases, ideas and/or principles used in the prototype CAMLS. After a brief history, we will present the global approach used at Gentilly 2 for upset and event management and, we will therefore describe in more detail each of the improvements on annunciation and display systems which contributed to reinforce this global approach. Hereafter are some of these improvements: prioritization via color coding of window alarms, re-prioritization (major/minor) of all CRT alarms, coalescence of multi-channel analog and contact CRT alarms, increase in the amount of trends and bar charts for upset management, special alarm summary functions (contextual) for startup after a trip. We did also identify certain needs which are not yet fulfilled with the actual improved system. Finally we will describe some other proposed improvements to the annunciation and display systems that we foresee in the near future. (author). 3 refs, figs

  8. A low-cost multimodal head-mounted display system for neuroendoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinghua; Zheng, Yi; Yao, Shujing; Sun, Guochen; Xu, Bainan; Chen, Xiaolei

    2018-01-01

    With rapid advances in technology, wearable devices as head-mounted display (HMD) have been adopted for various uses in medical science, ranging from simply aiding in fitness to assisting surgery. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and practicability of a low-cost multimodal HMD system in neuroendoscopic surgery. A multimodal HMD system, mainly consisted of a HMD with two built-in displays, an action camera, and a laptop computer displaying reconstructed medical images, was developed to assist neuroendoscopic surgery. With this intensively integrated system, the neurosurgeon could freely switch between endoscopic image, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed virtual endoscopy images, and surrounding environment images. Using a leap motion controller, the neurosurgeon could adjust or rotate the 3D virtual endoscopic images at a distance to better understand the positional relation between lesions and normal tissues at will. A total of 21 consecutive patients with ventricular system diseases underwent neuroendoscopic surgery with the aid of this system. All operations were accomplished successfully, and no system-related complications occurred. The HMD was comfortable to wear and easy to operate. Screen resolution of the HMD was high enough for the neurosurgeon to operate carefully. With the system, the neurosurgeon might get a better comprehension on lesions by freely switching among images of different modalities. The system had a steep learning curve, which meant a quick increment of skill with it. Compared with commercially available surgical assistant instruments, this system was relatively low-cost. The multimodal HMD system is feasible, practical, helpful, and relatively cost efficient in neuroendoscopic surgery.

  9. Halftone display, particularly for a high resolution radioactivity distribution detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    A device is described for presenting a halftone pictorial presentation composed of dot picture elements by selectively controlling the number of dot picture elements per unit area at locations on a display. In a high resolution radioactivity distribution detection system, the number of detected radioactive elements at XY locations of an array of sensing devices are fed to a computer and stored at corresponding address locations. The number of radioactive events detected at each address location is normalized into Gray scale coded signals as a function of the greatest number of radioactive events detected at any one address location. The normalized Gray scale coded signals are applied to a display for controlling the number of dot picture elements per unit area presented at corresponding XY locations on the display. The number of radioactive events detected at XY locations of the array are presented on the display as a halftone pictorial representation; the greatest number of picture dot elements per unit are being presented as a brighter image

  10. Bandwidth Optimization On Design Of Visual Display Information System Based Networking At Politeknik Negeri Bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudiartha, IKG; Catur Bawa, IGNB

    2018-01-01

    Information can not be separated from the social life of the community, especially in the world of education. One of the information fields is academic calendar information, activity agenda, announcement and campus activity news. In line with technological developments, text-based information is becoming obsolete. For that need creativity to present information more quickly, accurately and interesting by exploiting the development of digital technology and internet. In this paper will be developed applications for the provision of information in the form of visual display, applied to computer network system with multimedia applications. Network-based applications provide ease in updating data through internet services, attractive presentations with multimedia support. The application “Networking Visual Display Information Unit” can be used as a medium that provides information services for students and academic employee more interesting and ease in updating information than the bulletin board. The information presented in the form of Running Text, Latest Information, Agenda, Academic Calendar and Video provide an interesting presentation and in line with technological developments at the Politeknik Negeri Bali. Through this research is expected to create software “Networking Visual Display Information Unit” with optimal bandwidth usage by combining local data sources and data through the network. This research produces visual display design with optimal bandwidth usage and application in the form of supporting software.

  11. Head-Up Auditory Displays for Traffic Collision Avoidance System Advisories: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.

    1993-01-01

    The advantage of a head-up auditory display was evaluated in a preliminary experiment designed to measure and compare the acquisition time for capturing visual targets under two auditory conditions: standard one-earpiece presentation and two-earpiece three-dimensional (3D) audio presentation. Twelve commercial airline crews were tested under full mission simulation conditions at the NASA-Ames Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility advanced concepts flight simulator. Scenario software generated visual targets corresponding to aircraft that would activate a traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) aural advisory; the spatial auditory position was linked to the visual position with 3D audio presentation. Results showed that crew members using a 3D auditory display acquired targets approximately 2.2 s faster than did crew members who used one-earpiece head- sets, but there was no significant difference in the number of targets acquired.

  12. Synthetic Vision System Commercial Aircraft Flight Deck Display Technologies for Unusual Attitude Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Ellis, Kyle E.; Arthur, Jarvis J.; Nicholas, Stephanie N.; Kiggins, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) study of 18 worldwide loss-of-control accidents and incidents determined that the lack of external visual references was associated with a flight crew's loss of attitude awareness or energy state awareness in 17 of these events. Therefore, CAST recommended development and implementation of virtual day-Visual Meteorological Condition (VMC) display systems, such as synthetic vision systems, which can promote flight crew attitude awareness similar to a day-VMC environment. This paper describes the results of a high-fidelity, large transport aircraft simulation experiment that evaluated virtual day-VMC displays and a "background attitude indicator" concept as an aid to pilots in recovery from unusual attitudes. Twelve commercial airline pilots performed multiple unusual attitude recoveries and both quantitative and qualitative dependent measures were collected. Experimental results and future research directions under this CAST initiative and the NASA "Technologies for Airplane State Awareness" research project are described.

  13. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 1. Preparation of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with a handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. An explanation is given under three sections: (1) life cycle of spore-forming bacteria, medium to form bacterial spores, and colony and purification methods of bacterial spores; (2) methods for measuring the number of bacterial spores and resistance against gamma radiation (D values); and (3) a test method for identifying spore-forming bacteria and a simple identification method. (N.K.)

  14. JIGSAW: Acquisition, Display and Analysis system designed to collect data from Multiple Gamma-Ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.E.; Bamford, G.J.; Rester, A.C.; Coldwell, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report on work performed to date on JIGSAW - a self contained data acquisition, display and analysis system designed to collect data form multiple gamma-ray detectors. The data acquisition system utilizes commercially available VMEbus and NIM hardware modules and the VME exec real time operating system. A Unix based software package, written in ANSI standard C and with the XII graphics routines, allows the user to view the acquired spectra. Analysis of the histograms can be performed in background during the run with the ROBFIT suite of curve fitting routines

  15. Real-time analysis and display of reactor system mass inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, L.T.; Meachum, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    A mass inventory system (MIS) to evaluate, in real-time, the coolant distribution within the primary coolant system of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor has been developed. The computer-based system calculates and displays the coolant levels by two methods: using level measurements and performing a mass balance. The MIS is designed to provide up-to-date, intelligible information on the coolant distribution during any LOFT experiment. During LOFT experiments in which the primary coolant pumps are on, the method also provides void fraction information and the anticipated liquid level in the reactor vessel should the pumps be turned off

  16. Development of a flagellin surface display expression system in a moderate thermophile, Bacillus halodurans Alk36

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available BIOTECHNOLOGY The development of a flagellin surface display expression system in a moderate thermophile, Bacillus halodurans Alk36 Michael Crampton & Eldie Berger & Sharon Reid & Maureen Louw Received: 3 October 2006 /Revised: 29 January 2007 /Accepted... techniques Plasmid DNA was isolated using a Plasmid Midi Kit (Qiagen). Restriction enzymes were used as specified by the manufacturer (Fermentas and Roche Diagnostics). All mini-preps were done using Perfectprep Plasmid Mini Kit (Eppendorf). All DNA...

  17. Augmented Reality Head-Up-Display for Advanced Driver Assistance System: A Driving Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    HALIT, Lynda; KEMENY, Andras; GARBAYA, Samir; MERIENNE, Frédéric; MICHELIN, Sylvain; ALBAUT, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Research and technological advance in the field of Augmented Reality (AR) is growing rapidly (Mas, 2011). One of the new application domains is the automobile industry, linked to the necessary men machine aspects of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Relevant road traffic as well as useful navigation or path planning information may be displayed using partially or totally the windshield surface thanks to these emerging technologies. However, the way road traffic, signs or vehicle inf...

  18. Augmented Reality Head-Up-Display for Advanced Driver Assistance System: A Driving Simulation Study

    OpenAIRE

    HALIT , Lynda; Kemeny , Andras; Mohellebi , Hakim; GARBAYA , Samir; Merienne , Frédéric; Michelin , Sylvain; ALBAUT , Valentin

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Research and technological advance in the field of Augmented Reality (AR) is growing rapidly (Mas, 2011). One of the new application domains is the automobile industry, linked to the necessary men machine aspects of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADAS). Relevant road traffic as well as useful navigation or path planning information may be displayed using partially or totally the windshield surface thanks to these emerging technologies. However, the way road traff...

  19. The role of heat resistance in thermorestoration of hydrated bacterial spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, Y.S.; Grecz, N.

    1973-01-01

    This study for the first time presents evidence of the distinct role played in thermorestoration by cellular determinants such as the resistance to heat and radiation, and the ionic state of spores. In the past only radiochemical determinants associated with radical annealment have been studied in hydrated systems. The basic heat resistance of spores plays a significant role in the precipitous drop in spore survival due to 0.45 Mrad radiation plus heat above 65-75 0 C for B.cereus and 75-95 0 C for B.stearothermophilus. The effect of the spores radiation resistance was not distinct except in the frozen state and at the saturation plateau of thermorestoration where the radiation resistant B.cereus showed ca. 1 log cycle higher survival than the radiation sensitive B.stearothermophilus. When spores are chemically converted into their H + and Ca ++ ionic forms, the H + spores are distinctly more responsive than Ca ++ spores to processes of radical annealment responsible for thermorestoration in hydrated spore systems. At temperatures of extensive thermorestoration of water radicals, H + spores showed higher survival than Ca ++ spores. (F.J.)

  20. Operation status display and monitoring system for BWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Yasuo; Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Kawamura, Atsuo; Kaneda, Mitsunori.

    1982-01-01

    Lately, the development of the system has been made for BWR plants, which monitors the operating status not only in normal operation but also in abnormal state and also for plant safety. Recently, the improvement of man-machine interface has been tried through the practical use of technique which displays data collectively on a CRT screen relating them mutually. As one of those results, the practical use of an electronic computer and color CRT display for No. 1 unit in the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station (2F-1), Tokyo Electric Power Co., is described. Also, new centralized control panels containing such systems were used for the 1100 MWe BWR nuclear power plants now under construction, No. 3 unit of the Fukushima No. 2 Power Station and No. 1 unit of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (2F-3 and K-1, respectively). The display and monitoring system in 2F-1 plant is the first one in which a computer and color CRTs were practically employed for a BWR plant in Japan, and already in commercial operation. The advanced operating status monitoring system, to which the result of evaluation of the above system was added, was incorporated in the new centralized control panels presently under production for 2F-3 and K-1 plants. The outline of the system, the functions of an electronic computer, plant operating status monitor, surveillance test guide, the automation of plant operation and auxiliary operation guide are reported for these advanced monitoring system. It was confirmed that these systems are useful means to improve the man-machine communication for plant operation minitoring. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  1. A head-mounted display system for augmented reality: Initial evaluation for interventional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, M.; Wacker, F.K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the technical details of a head mounted display with an augmented reality (AR) system and to describe a first pre-clinical evaluation in interventional MRI. Method: The AR system consists of a video-see-through head mounted display (HMD), mounted with a mini video camera for tracking and a stereo pair of mini cameras that capture live images of the scene. The live video view of the phantom/patient is augmented with graphical representations of anatomical structures from MRI image data and is displayed on the HMD. The application of the AR system with interventional MRI was tested using a MRI data set of the head and a head phantom. Results: The HMD enables the user to move around and observe the scene dynamically from various viewpoints. Within a short time the natural hand-eye coordination can easily be adapted to the slightly different view. The 3D perception is based on stereo and kinetic depth cues. A circular target with a diameter of 0.5 square centimeter was hit in 19 of 20 attempts. In a first evaluation the MRI image data augmented reality scene of a head phantom allowed good planning and precise simulation of a puncture. Conclusion: The HMD in combination with AR provides a direct, intuitive guidance for interventional MR procedures. (orig.) [de

  2. Yeast arming systems: pros and cons of different protein anchors and other elements required for display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Cecilia; Del Olmo, Marcel Lí

    2018-03-01

    Yeast display is a powerful strategy that consists in exposing peptides or proteins of interest on the cell surface of this microorganism. Ever since initial experiments with this methodology were carried out, its scope has extended and many applications have been successfully developed in different science and technology fields. Several yeast display systems have been designed, which all involve introducting into yeast cells the gene fusions that contain the coding regions of a signal peptide, an anchor protein, to properly attach the target to the cell surface, and the protein of interest to be exposed, all of which are controlled by a strong promoter. In this work, we report the description of such elements for the alternative systems introduced by focusing particularly on anchor proteins. The comparisons made between them are included whenever possible, and the main advantages and inconveniences of each one are discussed. Despite the huge number of publications on yeast surface display and the revisions published to date, this topic has not yet been widely considered. Finally, given the growing interest in developing systems for non-Saccharomyces yeasts, the main strategies reported for some are also summarized.

  3. An assessment of advanced displays and controls technology applicable to future space transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, Jack J.; Villarreal, Diana

    1990-01-01

    The topic of advanced display and control technology is addressed along with the major objectives of this technology, the current state of the art, major accomplishments, research programs and facilities, future trends, technology issues, space transportation systems applications and projected technology readiness for those applications. The holes that may exist between the technology needs of the transportation systems versus the research that is currently under way are addressed, and cultural changes that might facilitate the incorporation of these advanced technologies into future space transportation systems are recommended. Some of the objectives are to reduce life cycle costs, improve reliability and fault tolerance, use of standards for the incorporation of advancing technology, and reduction of weight, volume and power. Pilot workload can be reduced and the pilot's situational awareness can be improved, which would result in improved flight safety and operating efficiency. This could be accomplished through the use of integrated, electronic pictorial displays, consolidated controls, artificial intelligence, and human centered automation tools. The Orbiter Glass Cockpit Display is an example examined.

  4. High-Definition 3D Stereoscopic Microscope Display System for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Kwan-Hee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical research has been performed by using advanced information techniques, and micro-high-quality stereo images have been used by researchers and/or doctors for various aims in biomedical research and surgery. To visualize the stereo images, many related devices have been developed. However, the devices are difficult to learn for junior doctors and demanding to supervise for experienced surgeons. In this paper, we describe the development of a high-definition (HD three-dimensional (3D stereoscopic imaging display system for operating a microscope or experimenting on animals. The system consists of a stereoscopic camera part, image processing device for stereoscopic video recording, and stereoscopic display. In order to reduce eyestrain and viewer fatigue, we use a preexisting stereo microscope structure and polarized-light stereoscopic display method that does not reduce the quality of the stereo images. The developed system can overcome the discomfort of the eye piece and eyestrain caused by use over a long period of time.

  5. Using Auditory Cues to Perceptually Extract Visual Data in Collaborative, Immersive Big-Data Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wendy

    The advent of multisensory display systems, such as virtual and augmented reality, has fostered a new relationship between humans and space. Not only can these systems mimic real-world environments, they have the ability to create a new space typology made solely of data. In these spaces, two-dimensional information is displayed in three dimensions, requiring human senses to be used to understand virtual, attention-based elements. Studies in the field of big data have predominately focused on visual representations and extractions of information with little focus on sounds. The goal of this research is to evaluate the most efficient methods of perceptually extracting visual data using auditory stimuli in immersive environments. Using Rensselaer's CRAIVE-Lab, a virtual reality space with 360-degree panorama visuals and an array of 128 loudspeakers, participants were asked questions based on complex visual displays using a variety of auditory cues ranging from sine tones to camera shutter sounds. Analysis of the speed and accuracy of participant responses revealed that auditory cues that were more favorable for localization and were positively perceived were best for data extraction and could help create more user-friendly systems in the future.

  6. Geographic Information Systems: Tools for Displaying In-Library Use Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren H. Mandel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In-library use data is crucial for modern libraries to understand the full spectrum of patron use, including patron self-service activities, circulation, and reference statistics. Rather than using tables and charts to display use data, a geographic information system (GIS facilitates a more visually appealing graphical display of the data in the form of a map. GISs have been used by library and information science (LIS researchers and practitioners to create maps that display analyses of service area populations and demographics, facilities space management issues, spatial distribution of in-library use of materials, planned branch consolidations, and so on. The “seating sweeps” method allows researchers and librarians to collect in-library use data regarding where patrons are locating themselves within the library and what they are doing at those locations, such as sitting and reading, studying in a group, or socializing. This paper proposes a GIS as a tool to visually display in-library use data collected via “seating sweeps” of a library. By using a GIS to store, manage, and display the data, researchers and librarians can create visually appealing maps that show areas of heavy use and evidence of the use and value of the library for a community. Example maps are included to facilitate the reader’s understanding of the possibilities afforded by using GISs in LIS research.

  7. Fate of ingested Clostridium difficile spores in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Howerton

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, a major nosocomial complication. The infective form of C. difficile is the spore, a dormant and resistant structure that forms under stress. Although spore germination is the first committed step in CDI onset, the temporal and spatial distribution of ingested C. difficile spores is not clearly understood. We recently reported that CamSA, a synthetic bile salt analog, inhibits C. difficile spore germination in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we took advantage of the anti-germination activity of bile salts to determine the fate of ingested C. difficile spores. We tested four different bile salts for efficacy in preventing CDI. Since CamSA was the only anti-germinant tested able to prevent signs of CDI, we characterized CamSa's in vitro stability, distribution, and cytotoxicity. We report that CamSA is stable to simulated gastrointestinal (GI environments, but will be degraded by members of the natural microbiota found in a healthy gut. Our data suggest that CamSA will not be systemically available, but instead will be localized to the GI tract. Since in vitro pharmacological parameters were acceptable, CamSA was used to probe the mouse model of CDI. By varying the timing of CamSA dosage, we estimated that C. difficile spores germinated and established infection less than 10 hours after ingestion. We also showed that ingested C. difficile spores rapidly transited through the GI tract and accumulated in the colon and cecum of CamSA-treated mice. From there, C. difficile spores were slowly shed over a 96-hour period. To our knowledge, this is the first report of using molecular probes to obtain disease progression information for C. difficile infection.

  8. GPLS VME Module: A Diagnostic and Display Tool for NSLS Micro Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, S.; Smith, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The General Purpose Light Source VME module is an integral part of every front-end micro in the NSLS control system. The board incorporates features such as a video character generator, clock signals, time-of-day clock, a VME bus interrupter and general-purpose digital inputs and outputs. This module serves as a valuable diagnostic and real-time display tool for the micro development as well as for the find operational systems. This paper describes the functions provided by the board for the NSLS micro control monitor software

  9. A force transmission system based on a tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch for haptic display devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hikaru; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Kazuo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes a novel type of force transmission system for haptic display devices. The system consists of an array of end-effecter elements, a force/displacement transmitter and a single actuator producing a large force/displacement. It has tulip-shaped electrostatic clutch devices to distribute the force/displacement from the actuator among the individual end effecters. The specifications of three components were determined to stimulate touched human fingers. The components were fabricated by using micro-electromechanical systems and conventional machining technologies, and finally they were assembled by hand. The performance of the assembled transmission system was experimentally examined and it was confirmed that each projection in the arrayed end effecters could be moved individually. The actuator in a system whose total size was only 3.0 cm × 3.0 cm × 4.0 cm produced a 600 mN force and displaced individual array elements by 18 µm.

  10. DASS: A decision aid integrating the safety parameter display system and emergency functional recovery procedures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.E.

    1984-08-01

    Using a stand-alone developmental test-bed consisting of a minicomputer and a high-resolution color graphics computer, displays and supporting software incorporating advanced on-line decision-aid concepts were developed and evaluated. The advanced concepts embodied in displays designed for the operating crew of a PWR plant include: (1) an integrated display format which supports a top-down approach to problem detection, recovery planning, and control; (2) introduction of nonobservable plant parameters derived from first principles mass and energy balances as part of the displayed information; and (3) systematic processing and display of key success path (plant safety system) attributes. The prototype system, referred to as the PWR-DASS (Disturbance Analysis and Surveillance System), consists of 18 displays targeted for principal use by the control room systems manager. PWR-DASS was conceived to fulfill an operational void not fully supported by safety parameter display systems or reformulated emergency procedure guidelines. The results from the evaluation by licensed operators suggest that organization and display of desired critical safety function and success path information as incorporated in the PWR-DASS prototype can support the systems manager's overview. The results also point to the need for several refinements required for a field grade system, and to the need for a simulator-based evaluation of the prototype or its successor. (author)

  11. ACCURACY EVALUATION OF THE OBJECT LOCATION VISUALIZATION FOR GEO-INFORMATION AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS OF MANNED AIRCRAFTS NAVIGATION COMPLEXES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Kostishin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of accuracy estimating for the object location display in the geographic information systems and display systems of manned aircrafts navigation complexes. Application features of liquid crystal screens with a different number of vertical and horizontal pixels are considered at displaying of geographic information data on different scales. Estimation display of navigation parameters values on board the aircraft is done in two ways: a numeric value is directly displayed on the screen of multi-color indicator, and a silhouette of the object is formed on the screen on a substrate background, which is a graphical representation of area map in the flight zone. Various scales of area digital map display currently used in the aviation industry have been considered. Calculation results of one pixel scale interval, depending on the specifications of liquid crystal screen and zoom of the map display area on the multifunction digital display, are given. The paper contains experimental results of the accuracy evaluation for area position display of the aircraft based on the data from the satellite navigation system and inertial navigation system, obtained during the flight program run of the real object. On the basis of these calculations a family of graphs was created for precision error display of the object reference point position using the onboard indicators with liquid crystal screen with different screen resolutions (6 "×8", 7.2 "×9.6", 9"×12" for two map display scales (1:0 , 25 km, 1-2 km. These dependency graphs can be used both to assess the error value of object area position display in existing navigation systems and to calculate the error value in upgrading facilities.

  12. In vitro Fab display: a cell-free system for IgG discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Ryan L.; Matsumoto, Marissa L.; Yin, Gang; Cai, Qi; Fung, Juan Jose; Stephenson, Heather; Gill, Avinash; You, Monica; Lin, Shwu-Hwa; Wang, Willie D.; Masikat, Mary Rose; Li, Xiaofan; Penta, Kalyani; Steiner, Alex R.; Baliga, Ramesh; Murray, Christopher J.; Thanos, Christopher D.; Hallam, Trevor J.; Sato, Aaron K.

    2014-01-01

    Selection technologies such as ribosome display enable the rapid discovery of novel antibody fragments entirely in vitro. It has been assumed that the open nature of the cell-free reactions used in these technologies limits selections to single-chain protein fragments. We present a simple approach for the selection of multi-chain proteins, such as antibody Fab fragments, using ribosome display. Specifically, we show that a two-chain trastuzumab (Herceptin) Fab domain can be displayed in a format which tethers either the heavy or light chain to the ribosome while retaining functional antigen binding. Then, we constructed synthetic Fab HC and LC libraries and performed test selections against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The Fab selection output was reformatted into full-length immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) and directly expressed at high levels in an optimized cell-free system for immediate screening, purification and characterization. Several novel IgGs were identified using this cell-free platform that bind to purified CEA, CEA positive cells and VEGF. PMID:24586053

  13. System description and analysis. Part 1: Feasibility study for helicopter/VTOL wide-angle simulation image generation display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary design for a helicopter/VSTOL wide angle simulator image generation display system is studied. The visual system is to become part of a simulator capability to support Army aviation systems research and development within the near term. As required for the Army to simulate a wide range of aircraft characteristics, versatility and ease of changing cockpit configurations were primary considerations of the study. Due to the Army's interest in low altitude flight and descents into and landing in constrained areas, particular emphasis is given to wide field of view, resolution, brightness, contrast, and color. The visual display study includes a preliminary design, demonstrated feasibility of advanced concepts, and a plan for subsequent detail design and development. Analysis and tradeoff considerations for various visual system elements are outlined and discussed.

  14. Workshop on data-acquisition and -display systems: directions after TMI. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island Unit-2 raised questions as to the adequacy of data acquisition and display systems in commercial nuclear power plants. A series of recommendations have developed from the various groups that have analyzed the accident in order to improve the oprator's overview of the plant safety conditions and to facilitate information transfer to technical support centers in emergency situations. This report is the result of an NSAC-sponsored workshop, where the various recommendations and emerging regulatory requirements were reviewed in an attempt to provide an integrated basis for their implementation.

  15. Selection and verification of safety parameters in safety parameter display system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuangfang

    1992-02-01

    The method and results for safety parameter selection and its verification in safety parameter display system of nuclear power plants are introduced. According to safety analysis, the overall safety is divided into six critical safety functions, and a certain amount of safety parameters which can represent the integrity degree of each function and the causes of change are strictly selected. The verification of safety parameter selection is carried out from the view of applying the plant emergency procedures and in the accident man oeuvres on a full scale nuclear power plant simulator

  16. Workshop on data-acquisition and -display systems: directions after TMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island Unit-2 raised questions as to the adequacy of data acquisition and display systems in commercial nuclear power plants. A series of recommendations have developed from the various groups that have analyzed the accident in order to improve the oprator's overview of the plant safety conditions and to facilitate information transfer to technical support centers in emergency situations. This report is the result of an NSAC-sponsored workshop, where the various recommendations and emerging regulatory requirements were reviewed in an attempt to provide an integrated basis for their implementation

  17. A status report regarding industry implementation of safety parameter display systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapinsky, G.W. Jr.; Eckenrode, R.J.; Goodman, P.C.; Correia, R.P.

    1989-04-01

    This report provides a summary of the results of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's review of installed safety parameter display systems (SPDS) at 57 nuclear units. The staff describes its rationale and practice for determining acceptability of some of the methods for satisfying the various requirements for SPDS as well as some methods that the staff has not accepted. The staff's discussion of identified strengths and weaknesses should aid licensees in solving some of the problems they may be experiencing with their SPDS

  18. Network of siren, public address and display system to preparedness and response for nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, G.H.; Padmanabhan, N.; Raman, N.; Pradeepkumar, K.S.; Sharma, D.N.; Abani, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    For an effective emergency response and implementation of counter measures, communication during a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect. The declaration of a nuclear emergency must be immediately conveyed to all those working in the plant and around the nuclear site. Besides this, the nature of emergency also needs to be conveyed unambiguously along with corresponding counter measures, such as stay in, evacuation or all clear signal for the relevant plants. This requirement has necessitated the need for a networked signaling system. Based on this requirement, a microcontroller based signaling and a telephone/wireless based communication and display system has been designed at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. It is proposed to be used as a part of emergency preparedness and response programme at the nuclear facility sites. As per the design made for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site, each plant or area in the site is identified by a unique identification code. The main Site Emergency Control Centre/Emergency Response Centre at Mod. Labs. selectively calls the various plants and declares the nature of emergency to be followed In that plant/area through different siren signals along with display and announcement of instructions. This paper describes the details of the system that is designed for Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay site and proposed for other nuclear power plant sites. (author)

  19. Monitor quality and its importance in a picture archiving and communications system display workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, R.M.; Todd-Prokropek, A.; Craig, J.O.M.C.; Highman, J.H.; Glass, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    Trials have compared image quality using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for different digitization resolution, particularly on hard copy. Resolution required for such systems is critical. Monitor quality significantly affects results of such studies. Several ''high-quality'' monitors were tested for gray level uniformity, flicker, resolution, stationarity (including distortion), jitter, and stability with time. An ROC study has demonstrated that such errors, on one commercially available system, were large enough to degrade image display at both 1k x 1k and 2k x 2k matrix sizes. Flicker was very disturbing with difficult images. Greater attention to these factors is required in designing (and evaluating) picture archiving and communication system work stations

  20. Analysis of man-machine interaction for control and display system in main control room of light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa, Kussigit; Supriatna, Piping; Karlina, Itjeu; Widagdo, Suharyo; Darlis; Sudiono, Bambang

    1998-01-01

    One of potential hazard in Nuclear Power Plant is the failure of its operation. The accident or operation failure in the reactor must be concerned event its probability is low. The important thing should be concerned is 'Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI) for Control and Display System in Main Control Room (MCR) of Nuclear Power Reactor', especially LWR type. Control and Display System in MCR of Reactor is the main part of MMI link process in Reactor MCR work system. Signal from display system showed performance process in reactor, while this signal will be received by operator. This signal will be described through central nerve for making decision what kind must be done. Then the operator manage the next process of reactor operation through control system. So by knowing Analysis of Man-Machine Interaction for Control and Display System in Main Control Room of Power Reactor, we can understand human error probability of the operator in reactor operation

  1. Humidification of unwrapped chilled meat on retail display using an ultrasonic fogging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tim; Corry, Janet E L; Evans, Judith A

    2007-12-01

    The effects of an ultrasonic humidification system on unwrapped meat in a chilled retail display cabinet were assessed. Humidification raised the relative humidity of the cabinet air from a mean of 76.7% to just below saturation at 98.8%. This reduced the mean evaporative weight loss from whole samples of meat after 14h from 1.68% to 0.62% of their initial weight. The rate of deterioration in the appearance of the meat due to dehydration was reduced to the extent that while the unhumidified trial was terminated after 14h because all samples were judged to be unacceptable, the humidified trial was continued for 24h without any major changes in appearance. Levels of presumptive pseudomonas bacteria were relatively high in water samples taken from the humidification system and defrost water during the humidified trial, but Legionella spp. were not isolated. Significant increases in the numbers of bacteria on the meat during either trial were only found in one case, that of humidified minced beef. However, some of the samples had high counts even before display, and this may have masked any effect due to humidification. Differences in levels of air-borne contamination were small and inconsistent. Air temperatures were raised by humidification by between 1 and 2°C and this was reflected in similarly raised product temperatures. Temperatures of air leaving the evaporator indicated that this was due to icing of the evaporator in the periods leading up to defrosts.

  2. A Photo Storm Report Mobile Application, Processing/Distribution System, and AWIPS-II Display Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, S. P.; Bikos, D.; Szoke, E.; Miller, S. D.; Brummer, R.; Lindsey, D. T.; Hillger, D.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones equipped with digital cameras and the ability to post images and information to the Internet in real-time has significantly improved the ability to report events almost instantaneously. In the context of severe weather reports, a representative digital image conveys significantly more information than a simple text or phone relayed report to a weather forecaster issuing severe weather warnings. It also allows the forecaster to reasonably discern the validity and quality of a storm report. Posting geo-located, time stamped storm report photographs utilizing a mobile phone application to NWS social media weather forecast office pages has generated recent positive feedback from forecasters. Building upon this feedback, this discussion advances the concept, development, and implementation of a formalized Photo Storm Report (PSR) mobile application, processing and distribution system and Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System II (AWIPS-II) plug-in display software.The PSR system would be composed of three core components: i) a mobile phone application, ii) a processing and distribution software and hardware system, and iii) AWIPS-II data, exchange and visualization plug-in software. i) The mobile phone application would allow web-registered users to send geo-location, view direction, and time stamped PSRs along with severe weather type and comments to the processing and distribution servers. ii) The servers would receive PSRs, convert images and information to NWS network bandwidth manageable sizes in an AWIPS-II data format, distribute them on the NWS data communications network, and archive the original PSRs for possible future research datasets. iii) The AWIPS-II data and exchange plug-ins would archive PSRs, and the visualization plug-in would display PSR locations, times and directions by hour, similar to surface observations. Hovering on individual PSRs would reveal photo thumbnails and clicking on them would display the

  3. Displaying DIII-D plasma data using DEC's X window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.L.

    1991-11-01

    The D3-D tokamak program, funded by the Department of Energy, carries out plasma physics and fusion energy research experiments. The machine began operation in February 1986; at that time, approximately 7 Mbytes of data was collected for shot. Since that time, the shot size has steadily increased to over 50 Mbytes with the average shot size between 35 and 45 Mbytes. Shots are fired every 12 to 15 minutes and last approximately 5 to 10 seconds. Between 30 and 40 shots are fired each day when plasma experiments are scheduled. In 1987 MFITD and MFITPLAY were written/modified. These two programs provide graphical output that allows the users to see, before the next shot, the plasma shape and the locations of the plasma and magnetic flux lines within the tokamak. MFITD performs the computations which calculate the shape and location of the plasma; it also graphically displays a small subset of timeslice data. MFITPLAY graphically displays the full set of timeslice data. Through interactive commands, MFITPLAY also allows the user to control the various aspects of how the data is displayed. In 1990, both programs were converted from User Interface Services (UIS) routines, which are part of the MicroVMS workstation graphics software, to DEC's X Window System using the DECWindows window manager. These modifications were required because of a move by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to support X windows and phase out UIS. Due to the nature and purpose of each program, MFITD needed only simple graphics conversion while MFITPLAY was completely rewritten. The DECWindows version of MFITPLAY offers a number of improvements, such as a more intuitive user interface

  4. A power system design and analysis of carbon nano-tubes field emission displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong C.; Yao, W. C.

    2006-01-01

    In new generation Flat Panel Displays(FPD), a lot of design methods are being deployed, including OLED, PDP, TFT-LCD, Back Projection and Field Emission Display(FED) etc. These new generation FPDs have their respective pluses and minuses. Each has its selling points and market attractions. But among them, FED principles are most close to that of CRT displays. Not only FEDs are advantageous in their good degree of saturation of color, but also they have excellent contrast, luminance and electricity consumption etc. It has been considered as the main products of future generation FPDs. Japan and countries all over the world are successively proposing and launching related FED products in the fields. This will not only drive the FEDs into a wave of new trends, but also it will be able to replace most of the current FPD products within a short time. In this paper, based on these solid trends, we are determined to put into our resources and efforts to perform research on these important FEDs technologies and products, particularly in Carbon Nano-Tubes FEDs(CNT-FED). Our research group has already performed research on CNT-FED subjects for almost three years. During the course of our research, we have run into a lot of issues and problems. We have made every effort to overcome some of them. This paper performs comparative analysis of three power option for small size (4-inch) CNT-FEDs to drive the FED effects such as the direct current power, pulsed power and sinusoidal power respectively. This paper performs comparative analysis of three power options for small sized CNT-FEDs. It was concluded that the pulsed power option will produce the best results overall among the three power options. It is felt that these data presented can then be referenced and used to design a power system circuit to get an optimum design for better luminance and least power consumption for small sized commercial CNT-FED products.

  5. Construction of the Lyapunov Spectrum in a Chaotic System Displaying Phase Synchronization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, Leonardo De, E-mail: neoleodeo@gmail.com [Gran Sasso Science Institute (GSSI) (Italy); Gentile, Guido, E-mail: gentile@mat.uniroma3.it; Giuliani, Alessandro, E-mail: giuliani@mat.uniroma3.it [Università degli Studi Roma Tre, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We consider a three-dimensional chaotic system consisting of the suspension of Arnold’s cat map coupled with a clock via a weak dissipative interaction. We show that the coupled system displays a synchronization phenomenon, in the sense that the relative phase between the suspension flow and the clock locks to a special value, thus making the motion fall onto a lower dimensional attractor. More specifically, we construct the attractive invariant manifold, of dimension smaller than three, using a convergent perturbative expansion. Moreover, we compute via convergent series the Lyapunov exponents, including notably the central one. The result generalizes a previous construction of the attractive invariant manifold in a similar but simpler model. The main novelty of the current construction relies in the computation of the Lyapunov spectrum, which consists of non-trivial analytic exponents. Some conjectures about a possible smoothening transition of the attractor as the coupling is increased are also discussed.

  6. Development of a graphical user interface and graphics display for the WIND system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Steen, B.L.; Fast, J.D.; Suire, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    An advanced graphical user interface (GUI) and improved graphics for transport calculations have been developed for the Weather Information and Display System (WINDS). Two WINDS transport codes, Area Evac and 2DPUF, have been ported from their original VAX/VMS environment to a UNIX operating system and reconfigured to take advantage of the new graphics capability. A developmental prototype of this software is now available on a UNIX based IBM 340 workstation in the Dose Assessment Center (DAC). Automatic transfer of meteorological data from the WINDS VAX computers to the IBM workstation in the DAC has been implemented. This includes both regional National Weather Service (NWS) data and SRS tower data. The above developments fulfill a FY 1993 DOE milestone

  7. Application of Modbus communication protocol and float-point display in MCS51 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangcheng; Liu Shaozhen

    2010-01-01

    As its widely opening and easy performance, Modbus communication protocol has a great advantage in field bus using. Details are given on a method to implement Modbus communication protocol based on MCS51 system, and the advantage of uVision integrated environment. The design realizes Modbus RTU mode communication, meanwhile the problem of synchronization in communication is solved. And float-point operation and display are achieved by format print. All of this are carried out under uVision integrated environment. The result approves that the response ratio of Modbus communication is 100%. The design shows the advantage of uVision integrated environment and MCS51 system. And also gives solution to the occasion where communication interface and low cost are required. (authors)

  8. Photometric immersion refractometry of bacterial spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, P; Beaman, T C; Corner, T R; Greenamyre, J T; Tisa, L S

    1982-01-01

    Photometric immersion refractometry was used to determine the average apparent refractive index (n) of five types of dormant Bacillus spores representing a 600-fold range in moist-heat resistance determined as a D100 value. The n of a spore type increased as the molecular size of various immersion solutes decreased. For comparison of the spore types, the n of the entire spore and of the isolated integument was determined by use of bovine serum albumin, which is excluded from permeating into them. The n of the sporoplast (the structures bounded by the outer pericortex membrane) was determined by use of glucose, which was shown to permeate into the spore only as deeply as the pericortex membrane. Among the various spore types, an exponential increase in the heat resistance correlated with the n of the entire spore and of the sporoplast, but not of the isolated perisporoplast integument. Correlation of the n with the solids content of the entire spore provided a method of experimentally obtaining the refractive index increment (dn/dc), which was constant for the various spore types and enables the calculation of solids and water content from an n. Altogether, the results showed that the total water content is distributed unequally within the dormant spore, with less water in the sporoplast than in the perisporoplast integument, and that the sporoplast becomes more refractile and therefore more dehydrated as the heat resistance becomes greater among the various spore types. PMID:6802796

  9. Antigen 43-mediated autotransporter display, a versatile bacterial cell surface presentation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Hasman, Henrik; Schembri, Mark

    2002-01-01

    bridges does not interfere with surface display, and Ag43 chimeras are correctly processed into alpha- and beta-modules, offering optional and easy release of the chimeric alpha-subunits. Furthermore, Ag43 can be displayed in many gram-negative bacteria. This feature is exploited for display of our...... chimeras in an attenuated Salmonella strain....

  10. Photosensor-Based Latency Measurement System for Head-Mounted Displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Woo Seo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a photosensor-based latency measurement system for head-mounted displays (HMDs is proposed. The motion-to-photon latency is the greatest reason for motion sickness and dizziness felt by users when wearing an HMD system. Therefore, a measurement system is required to accurately measure and analyze the latency to reduce these problems. The existing measurement system does not consider the actual physical movement in humans, and its accuracy is also very low. However, the proposed system considers the physical head movement and is highly accurate. Specifically, it consists of a head position model-based rotary platform, pixel luminance change detector, and signal analysis and calculation modules. Using these modules, the proposed system can exactly measure the latency, which is the time difference between the physical movement for a user and the luminance change of an output image. In the experiment using a commercial HMD, the latency was measured to be up to 47.05 ms. In addition, the measured latency increased up to 381.17 ms when increasing the rendering workload in the HMD.

  11. Prototype particulate stack sampler with single-cut nozzle and microcomputer calculating/display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eler, J.C.; Littlefield, L.G.; Tillery, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype particulate stack sampler (PPSS) has been developed to improve on the existing EPA Method 5 sampling apparatus. Its primary features are (1) higher sampling rate (56 1/min); (2) display (on demand) of all required variables and calculated values by a microcomputer-based calculating and display system; (3) continuous stack gas moisture determination; (4) a virtual impactor nozzle with 3 μm mass median diameter cutpoint which collects fine and coarse particle fractions on separate glass fiber filters; (5) a variable-area inlet to maintain isokinetic sampling conditions; and (6) conversion to stainless steel components from the glass specified by EPA Method 5. The basic sampling techniques of EPA Method 5 have been retained; however, versatility in the form of optional in-stack filters and general modernization of the stack sampler have been provided in the prototype design. Laboratory testing with monodisperse dye aerosols has shown the present variable inlet, virtual impactor nozzle to have a collection efficiency which is less than 77% and significant wall losses. This is primarily due to lack of symmetry in this rectangular jet impactor and short transition lengths dictated by physical design constraints (required passage of the nozzle through a 7.6 cm (3 in) diameter stack port). Electronic components have shown acceptable service in laboratory testing although no field testing of the prototype under a broad range of temperature, humidity, and SO 2 concentration has been undertaken

  12. Human engineering evaluation of Hamaoka No. 3 advanced control room CRT display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takahiko; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Kabasawa, Yoshihiko

    1985-01-01

    As the central control board of Hamaoka No. 3 plant, a new type control board was adopted for the purpose of powerfully supporting the general judgement function of operators by processing enormous plant data in the normal operation and at the time of an accident with a computer, and displaying the results on CRT screens in the summarized form. Recently, the evaluation of this new control board was carried out by ergonomical techniques, and it was confirmed that the initial objective has been attained. Besides, the criteria for the ergonomical evaluation of central control boards mainly for CRT display were determined, and the contents of design were able to be systematically evaluated and verified. As the ergonomical design of the central control board, the easy distinction of the function of switches, the easy confirmation of system constitution by mimics, the use of CRTs, the easy identification of operation pilot lamps, alarms, instruments and so on were considered. The central control board consists of the main control board, auxiliary control boards and vertical boards, and 12 CRTs are installed. (Kako, I.)

  13. Detection of Bacillus spores using PCR and FTA filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Keith A; Dyer, Deanne; Kornegay, Leroy; Orlandi, Palmer A

    2004-05-01

    Emphasis has been placed on developing and implementing rapid detection systems for microbial pathogens. We have explored the utility of expanding FTA filter technology for the preparation of template DNA for PCR from bacterial spores. Isolated spores from several Bacillus spp., B. subtilis, B. cereus, and B. megaterium, were applied to FTA filters, and specific DNA products were amplified by PCR. Spore preparations were examined microscopically to ensure that the presence of vegetative cells, if any, did not yield misleading results. PCR primers SRM86 and SRM87 targeted a conserved region of bacterial rRNA genes, whereas primers Bsub5F and Bsub3R amplified a product from a conserved sequence of the B. subtilis rRNA gene. With the use of the latter set of primers for nested PCR, the sensitivity of the PCR-based assay was increased. Overall, 53 spores could be detected after the first round of PCR, and the sensitivity was increased to five spores by nested PCR. FTA filters are an excellent platform to remove PCR inhibitors and have universal applications for environmental, clinical, and food samples.

  14. Aircraft interrogation and display system: A ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor-based general purpose ground support equipment for electronic systems was developed. The hardware and software are designed to permit diverse applications in support of aircraft flight systems and simulation facilities. The implementation of the hardware, the structure of the software, describes the application of the system to an ongoing research aircraft project are described.

  15. Teaching systems thinking to 4th and 5th graders using Environmental Dashboard display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Shane; Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cindy M; Roose, Deborah; Ginn, Joel; Rosenberg Daneri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Tackling complex environmental challenges requires the capacity to understand how relationships and interactions between parts result in dynamic behavior of whole systems. There has been convincing research that these "systems thinking" skills can be learned. However, there is little research on methods for teaching these skills to children or assessing their impact. The Environmental Dashboard is a technology that uses "sociotechnical" feedback-information feedback designed to affect thought and behavior. Environmental Dashboard (ED) combines real-time information on community resource use with images and words that reflect pro-environmental actions of community members. Prior research indicates that ED supports the development of systems thinking in adults. To assess its impact on children, the technology was installed in a primary school and children were passively exposed to ED displays. This resulted in no measurable impact on systems thinking skills. The next stage of this research examined the impact of actively integrating ED into lessons on electricity in 4th and 5th grade. This active integration enhanced both content-related systems thinking skills and content retention.

  16. Full-parallax 3D display from stereo-hybrid 3D camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seokmin; Ansari, Amir; Saavedra, Genaro; Martinez-Corral, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the production of the microimages ready to display onto an integral-imaging monitor. Our main contribution is using a stereo-hybrid 3D camera system, which is used for picking up a 3D data pair and composing a denser point cloud. However, there is an intrinsic difficulty in the fact that hybrid sensors have dissimilarities and therefore should be equalized. Handled data facilitate to generating an integral image after projecting computationally the information through a virtual pinhole array. We illustrate this procedure with some imaging experiments that provide microimages with enhanced quality. After projection of such microimages onto the integral-imaging monitor, 3D images are produced with great parallax and viewing angle.

  17. HISTORICAL TRAJECTORIES OF THE FINANCIAL SECTOR DISPLAY IN THE SYSTEM OF NATIONAL ACCOUNTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zadorozhna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the evolution of approaches to the financial sector display as a part of the economy on the conceptual basis of the System of National Accounts. The main prerequisites for the formation of SNA are revealed. The formation of the methodology of national accounting and the impact of the development of economic theory on it are traced. The role and interconditionality of the Keynes' macroeconomic theory as a methodological basis of the SNA and the SNA as an empirical basis of macroeconomics are defined. The international standards SNA-1953, SNA-1968, SNA-1993 and SNA-2008; the features of presentation of the financial sector and its subsectors composition in standards are analysed.

  18. Development and evaluation of a function-oriented display system: background and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Pirus, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Screen-based Human System Interfaces (HSI) are gradually replacing the conventional panel-based HSls, although no clear design philosophy for screen-based HSIs exists. The current paper presents a comprehensive design philosophy where a function-analysis of the plant forms the backbone of the information requirements, information presentation and display organization. The main characteristics of the concept are described as well as the development process behind the first prototype. Findings from the first usability test of the prototype are reported and potential benefits of the HSI are discussed. The work is part of OECD Halden Reactor Project's ongoing research on innovative design for advanced NPP control-rooms and is conducted in close co-operation with Electricite de France

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of Alternaria spores in the Iberian Peninsula atmosphere, and meteorological relationships: 1993-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, Francisco-Javier; Fernández-González, María; Seijo, Carmen; Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; Abreu, Ilda; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, Montserrat; Pérez-Sánchez, Elena; Oliveira, Manuela; Recio, Marta; Tormo, Rafael; Morales, Julia

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides an updated of airborne Alternaria spore spatial and temporal distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula, using a common non-viable volumetric sampling method. The highest mean annual spore counts were recorded in Sevilla (39,418 spores), Mérida (33,744) and Málaga (12,947), while other sampling stations never exceeded 5,000. The same cities also recorded the highest mean daily spore counts (Sevilla 109 spores m(-3); Mérida 53 spores m(-3) and Málaga 35 spores m(-3)) and the highest number of days on which counts exceeded the threshold levels required to trigger allergy symptoms (Sevilla 38 % and Mérida 30 % of days). Analysis of annual spore distribution patterns revealed either one or two peaks, depending on the location and prevailing climate of sampling stations. For all stations, average temperature was the weather parameter displaying the strongest positive correlation with airborne spore counts, whilst negative correlations were found for rainfall and relative humidity.

  20. Integrating existing radiation monitors into a microprocessor-based display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, R, S.; Bartucci, C.M.; Mason, R.G.; Greaves, C.

    1992-01-01

    Plantwide digital radiation monitoring systems (RMSs) have been generally installed as part of the original design for newer nuclear reactors. For older plants, area and process radiation monitors were either analog or a combination of analog and digital but were not part of an integrated system design. At some plants, individual monitors have been replaced or modified, resulting in a rainbow of different monitors and vendors being represented at the plant. Usually at some point, consideration is given to replacing these monitors with a state-of-the-art RMS to improve overall reliability and achieve the benefits of sound human factors engineering. This can be a very costly project in terms of expenditures for engineering, equipment, construction, startup, and time. When human engineering deficiencies (HEDs) became an issue at Zion station, Commonwealth Edison elected to install a computer-based radiation monitoring display system (RMDS) that would interface existing raidation monitors. After reviewing the existing as-built RMS configuration and internal circuits of the various monitors, it was concluded that a microprocessor-based RMDS could be successfully designed and installed that would solve the HEDs and would tie the older analog channels into a system configuration. Although in many cases, internal modifications were made to existing RMS monitors, the RMDS upgrade allowed the existing RMS monitors to retain their original functionality and location

  1. The effect of control and display lag on unmanned air system internal pilot manual landing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Marshall Everett

    An important characteristic of UASs is lag because it can become a considerable challenge to successful human-in-the-loop control. As such, UASs are designed and configured to minimize system lag, though this can increase acquisition and operation costs considerably. In an effort to cut costs, an organization may choose to accept greater risk and deploy a UAS with high system lag. Before this risk can be responsibly accepted, it must be quantified. While many studies have examined system lag, very few have been able to quantify the risk that various levels of lag pose to an internally piloted, manually landed UAS. This study attempted to do so by evaluating pilot landing performance in a simulator with 0 ms, 240 ms, and 1000 ms of additional lag. Various measures were used, including a novel coding technique. Results indicated that 1000 ms of lag was unsafe by all measures. They also indicate that 240 ms of lag degrades performance, but participants were able to successfully land the simulated aircraft. This study showed the utility of using several measures to evaluate the effect of lag on landing performance and it helped demonstrate that while 1000 ms poses a high risk, 240 ms of lag may be a much more manageable risk. Future research suggested by this research includes: investigating lag between 240 ms and 1000 ms, introducing different weather phenomena, developing system lag training techniques for operators, and investigating the effect of aides such as predictive displays and autopilot-assisted recovery.

  2. Effects of steam autoclave treatment on Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesca-Espitia, L C; Suvira, M; Rosenbeck, K; Korza, G; Setlow, B; Li, W; Wang, S; Li, Y-Q; Setlow, P

    2016-11-01

    To determine the mechanism of autoclave killing of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores used in biological indicators (BIs) for steam autoclave sterilization, and rates of loss of spore viability and a spore enzyme used in BIs. Spore viability, dipicolinic acid (DPA) release, nucleic acid staining, α-glucosidase activity, protein structure and mutagenesis were measured during autoclaving of G. stearothermophilus spores. Loss of DPA and increases in spore core nucleic acid staining were slower than loss of spore viability. Spore core α-glucosidase was also lost more slowly than spore viability, although soluble α-glucosidase in spore preparations was lost more rapidly. However, spores exposed to an effective autoclave sterilization lost all viability and α-glucosidase activity. Apparently killed autoclaved spores were not recovered by artificial germination in supportive media, much spore protein was denatured during autoclaving, and partially killed autoclave-treated spore preparations did not acquire mutations. These results indicate that autoclave-killed spores cannot be revived, spore killing by autoclaving is likely by protein damage, and spore core α-glucosidase activity is lost more slowly than spore viability. This work provides insight into the mechanism of autoclave killing of spores of an organism used in BIs, and that a spore enzyme in a BI is more stable to autoclaving than spore viability. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Anti-spoofing for display and print attacks on palmprint verification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhangad, Vivek; Bhilare, Shruti; Garg, Pragalbh; Singh, Pranjalya; Chaudhari, Narendra

    2015-05-01

    A number of approaches for personal authentication using palmprint features have been proposed in the literature, majority of which focus on improving the matching performance. However, of late, preventing potential attacks on biometric systems has become a major concern as more and more biometric systems get deployed for wide range of applications. Among various types of attacks, sensor level attack, commonly known as spoof attack, has emerged as the most common attack due to simplicity in its execution. In this paper, we present an approach for detection of display and print based spoof attacks on palmprint verifcation systems. The approach is based on the analysis of acquired hand images for estimating surface re ectance. First and higher order statistical features computed from the distributions of pixel intensities and sub-band wavelet coeefficients form the feature set. A trained binary classifier utilizes the discriminating information to determine if the acquired image is of real hand or a fake one. Experiments are performed on a publicly available hand image dataset, containing 1300 images corresponding to 230 subjects. Experimental results show that the real hand biometrics samples can be substituted by the fake digital or print copies with an alarming spoof acceptance rate as high as 79.8%. Experimental results also show that the proposed spoof detection approach is very effective for discriminating between real and fake palmprint images. The proposed approach consistently achieves over 99% average 10-fold cross validation classification accuracy in our experiments.

  4. The integrated workstation, a realtime data acquisition, analysis and display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treadway, T.R. III.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Workstation was developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to consolidate the data from many widely dispersed systems in order to provide an overall indication of the enrichment performance of the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation experiments. In order to accomplish this task a Hewlett Packard 9000/835 turboSRX was employed to acquire over 150 analog input signals. Following the data acquisition, a spreadsheet-type analysis package and interpreter was used to derive 300 additional values. These values were the results of applying physics models to the raw data. Following the calculations were plotted and archived for post-run analysis and report generation. Both the modeling calculations, and real-time plot configurations can be dynamically reconfigured as needed. Typical sustained data acquisition and display rates of the system was 1 Hz. However rates exceeding 2.5 Hz have been obtained. This paper will discuss the instrumentation, architecture, implementation, usage, and results of this system in a set of experiments that occurred in 1989. 2 figs

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi spore propagation using single spore as starter inoculum and a plant host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, G; Shagol, C C; Kang, Y; Chung, B N; Han, S G; Sa, T M

    2018-06-01

    The propagation of pure cultures of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) is an essential requirement for their large-scale agricultural application and commercialization as biofertilizers. The present study aimed to propagate AMF using the single-spore inoculation technique and compare their propagation ability with the known reference spores. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores were collected from salt-affected Saemangeum reclaimed soil in South Korea. The technique involved inoculation of sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor L.) seedlings with single, healthy spores on filter paper followed by the transfer of successfully colonized seedlings to 1-kg capacity pots containing sterilized soil. After the first plant cycle, the contents were transferred to 2·5-kg capacity pots containing sterilized soil. Among the 150 inoculated seedlings, only 27 seedlings were colonized by AMF spores. After 240 days, among the 27 seedlings, five inoculants resulted in the production of over 500 spores. The 18S rDNA sequencing of spores revealed that the spores produced through single-spore inoculation method belonged to Gigaspora margarita, Claroideoglomus lamellosum and Funneliformis mosseae. Furthermore, indigenous spore F. mosseae M-1 reported a higher spore count than the reference spores. The AMF spores produced using the single-spore inoculation technique may serve as potential bio-inoculants with an advantage of being more readily adopted by farmers due to the lack of requirement of a skilled technique in spore propagation. The results of the current study describe the feasible and cost-effective method to mass produce AMF spores for large-scale application. The AMF spores obtained from this method can effectively colonize plant roots and may be easily introduced to the new environment. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user`s perspective of the system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.

  7. Designing visual displays and system models for safe reactor operations based on the user's perspective of the system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user's processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user's perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user's ''model of the world,'' in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more

  8. Global transcriptome analysis of spore formation in Myxococcus xanthus reveals a locus necessary for cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treuner-Lange Anke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxococcus xanthus is a Gram negative bacterium that can differentiate into metabolically quiescent, environmentally resistant spores. Little is known about the mechanisms involved in differentiation in part because sporulation is normally initiated at the culmination of a complex starvation-induced developmental program and only inside multicellular fruiting bodies. To obtain a broad overview of the sporulation process and to identify novel genes necessary for differentiation, we instead performed global transcriptome analysis of an artificial chemically-induced sporulation process in which addition of glycerol to vegetatively growing liquid cultures of M. xanthus leads to rapid and synchronized differentiation of nearly all cells into myxospore-like entities. Results Our analyses identified 1 486 genes whose expression was significantly regulated at least two-fold within four hours of chemical-induced differentiation. Most of the previously identified sporulation marker genes were significantly upregulated. In contrast, most genes that are required to build starvation-induced multicellular fruiting bodies, but which are not required for sporulation per se, were not significantly regulated in our analysis. Analysis of functional gene categories significantly over-represented in the regulated genes, suggested large rearrangements in core metabolic pathways, and in genes involved in protein synthesis and fate. We used the microarray data to identify a novel operon of eight genes that, when mutated, rendered cells unable to produce viable chemical- or starvation-induced spores. Importantly, these mutants displayed no defects in building fruiting bodies, suggesting these genes are necessary for the core sporulation process. Furthermore, during the starvation-induced developmental program, these genes were expressed in fruiting bodies but not in peripheral rods, a subpopulation of developing cells which do not sporulate

  9. Computer based plant display and digital control system of Wolsong NPP Tritium Removal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, C.; Smith, B.; Tosello, G.; Grosbois, J. de; Ahn, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Wolsong Tritium Removal Facility (WTRF) is an AECL-designed, first-of-a-kind facility that removes tritium from the heavy water that is used in systems of the CANDUM reactors in operation at the Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant in South Korea. The Plant Display and Control System (PDCS) provides digital plant monitoring and control for the WTRF and offers the advantages of state-of-the-art digital control system technologies for operations and maintenance. The overall features of the PDCS will be described and some of the specific approaches taken on the project to save construction time and costs, to reduce in-service life-cycle costs and to improve quality will be presented. The PDCS consists of two separate computer sub-systems: the Digital Control System (DCS) and the Plant Display System (PDS). The PDS provides the computer-based Human Machine Interface (HMI) for operators, and permits efficient supervisory or device level monitoring and control. A System Maintenance Console (SMC) is included in the PDS for the purpose of software and hardware configuration and on-line maintenance. A Historical Data System (HDS) is also included in the PDS as a data-server that continuously captures and logs process data and events for long-term storage and on-demand selective retrieval. The PDCS of WTRF has been designed and implemented based on an off-the-self PDS/DCS product combination, the Delta-V System from Emerson. The design includes fully redundant Ethernet network communications, controllers, power supplies and redundancy on selected I/O modules. The DCS provides field bus communications to interface with 3rd party controllers supplied on specialized skids, and supports HART communication with field transmitters. The DCS control logic was configured using a modular and graphical approach. The control strategies are primarily device control modules implemented as autonomous control loops, and implemented using IEC 61131-3 Function Block Diagram (FBD) and Structured

  10. Real-time image reconstruction and display system for MRI using a high-speed personal computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haishi, T; Kose, K

    1998-09-01

    A real-time NMR image reconstruction and display system was developed using a high-speed personal computer and optimized for the 32-bit multitasking Microsoft Windows 95 operating system. The system was operated at various CPU clock frequencies by changing the motherboard clock frequency and the processor/bus frequency ratio. When the Pentium CPU was used at the 200 MHz clock frequency, the reconstruction time for one 128 x 128 pixel image was 48 ms and that for the image display on the enlarged 256 x 256 pixel window was about 8 ms. NMR imaging experiments were performed with three fast imaging sequences (FLASH, multishot EPI, and one-shot EPI) to demonstrate the ability of the real-time system. It was concluded that in most cases, high-speed PC would be the best choice for the image reconstruction and display system for real-time MRI. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  11. Portable waveguide display system with a large field of view by integrating freeform elements and volume holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Liu, Juan; Yao, Xincheng; Wang, Yongtian

    2015-02-09

    A compact waveguide display system integrating freeform elements and volume holograms is presented here for the first time. The use of freeform elements can broaden the field of view, which limits the applications of a holographic waveguide. An optimized system can achieve a diagonal field of view of 45° when the thickness of the waveguide planar is 3mm. Freeform-elements in-coupler and the volume holograms out-coupler were designed in detail in our study, and the influence of grating configurations on diffraction efficiency was analyzed thoroughly. The off-axis aberrations were well compensated by the in-coupler and the diffraction efficiency of the optimized waveguide display system could reach 87.57%. With integrated design, stability and reliability of this monochromatic display system were achieved and the alignment of the system was easily controlled by the record of the volume holograms, which makes mass production possible.

  12. Partnering and teamwork to create content for spherical display systems to enhance public literacy in earth system and ocean sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, S. E.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.; Spargo, A.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.

    2013-12-01

    Spherical display systems, also known as digital globes, are technologies that, in person or online, can be used to help visualize global datasets and earth system processes. Using the InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields and imagery from deep-sea vehicles, we are creating content for spherical display systems to educate and excite the public about dynamic geophysical and biological processes and exploration in the deep ocean. The 'Global Viewport for Virtual Exploration of Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vents' is a collaboration between the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and the Ocean Explorium at New Bedford Seaport, hosting a Magic Planet and Science On a Sphere (SOS), respectively. The main activities in the first year of our project were geared towards team building and content development. Here we will highlight the partnering and teamwork involved in creating and testing the effectiveness of our new content. Our core team is composed of a lead scientist, educators at both institutions, graphic artists, and a professional evaluator. The new content addresses key principles of Earth Science Literacy and Ocean Literacy. We will share the collaborative, iterative process by which we developed two educational pieces, 'Life without sunlight' and 'Smoke and fire underwater' - each focusing on a different set of 3 literacy principles. We will share how we conducted our front-end and formative evaluations and how we focused on 2 NSF Informal Education Impact Categories for our evaluation questionnaire for the public. Each educational piece is being produced as a stand-alone movie and as an interactive, docent-led presentation integrating a number of other datasets available from NOAA's SOS Users Network. The proximity of our two institutions enables a unique evaluation of the learning attained with a stand-alone spherical display vs. live presentations with an SOS.

  13. Implementation of safety parameter display system on Russian NPPs with WWER reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dounaev, V.G.; Neboyan, V.T.

    1996-01-01

    This report gives a short overview of the status of safety parameter display systems (SPDS) implementation on Russian NPPs with WWER reactors and also discusses the SPDS, which is being developed for Kalinin NPP. The assessment of the safety status of the plant is done by the continuous monitoring of six critical safety functions and the corresponding status trees. Besides, a number of additional functions are realized within the scope of KlnNPP, aimed at providing the operator and the safety engineer in the main control room with more detailed information in accidental situation as well as during the normal operation. In particular, these functions are: archiving, data logs and alarm handling, safety actions monitoring, mnemonic diagrams indicating the state of main technological equipment and basic plant parameters, reference data, etc. Also, the operator support function ''computerized procedures'' is included in the scope of SPDS. The basic SPDS implementation platform is ADACS of SEMA GROUP design. The system architecture includes two workstations in the main control room: one is for reactor operator and the other one for safety engineer. Every station has two CRT screens which ensures computerized procedures implementation and provides for extra services for the operator. Also, the information from the SPDS is transmitted to the local crisis centre and to the crisis centre of the State utility organization concern ''Rosenergoatom''. (author). 3 refs

  14. Seasonal variation in the mating system of a selfing annual with large floral displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ge; Barrett, Spencer C H; Luo, Yi-Bo; Bai, Wei-Ning

    2016-03-01

    Flowering plants display considerable variation in mating system, specifically the relative frequency of cross- and self-fertilization. The majority of estimates of outcrossing rate do not account for temporal variation, particularly during the flowering season. Here, we investigated seasonal variation in mating and fertility in Incarvillea sinensis (Bignoniaceae), an annual with showy, insect-pollinated, 'one-day' flowers capable of delayed selfing. We examined the influence of several biotic and abiotic environmental factors on day-to-day variation in fruit set, seed set and patterns of mating. We recorded daily flower number and pollinator abundance in nine 3 × 3-m patches in a population at Mu Us Sand land, Inner Mongolia, China. From marked flowers we collected data on daily fruit and seed set and estimated outcrossing rate and biparental inbreeding using six microsatellite loci and 172 open-pollinated families throughout the flowering period. Flower density increased significantly over most of the 50-d flowering season, but was associated with a decline in levels of pollinator service by bees, particularly on windy days. Fruit and seed set declined over time, especially during the latter third of the flowering period. Multilocus estimates of outcrossing rate were obtained using two methods (the programs MLTR and BORICE) and both indicated high selfing rates of ∼80 %. There was evidence for a significant increase in levels of selfing as the flowering season progressed and pollinator visitation declined. Biparental inbreeding also declined significantly as the flowering season progressed. Temporal variation in outcrossing rates may be a common feature of the mating biology of annual, insect-pollinated plants of harsh environments but our study is the first to examine seasonal mating-system dynamics in this context. Despite having large flowers and showy floral displays, I. sinensis attracted relatively few pollinators. Delayed selfing by corolla dragging

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Bacillus cereus Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwandt, Kerrie

    2002-01-01

    .... All of the identified proteins were plausible spore components, and included chaperonins, sporulation regulators, ribosomal proteins, proteases, and metabolic enzymes involved in energy production...

  16. Assessment of display performance for medical imaging systems: Executive summary of AAPM TG18 report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Badano, Aldo; Chakraborty, Dev

    2005-01-01

    Digital imaging provides an effective means to electronically acquire, archive, distribute, and view medical images. Medical imaging display stations are an integral part of these operations. Therefore, it is vitally important to assure that electronic display devices do not compromise image quality and ultimately patient care. The AAPM Task Group 18 (TG18) recently published guidelines and acceptance criteria for acceptance testing and quality control of medical display devices. This paper is an executive summary of the TG18 report. TG18 guidelines include visual, quantitative, and advanced testing methodologies for primary and secondary class display devices. The characteristics, tested in conjunction with specially designed test patterns (i.e., TG18 patterns), include reflection, geometric distortion, luminance, the spatial and angular dependencies of luminance, resolution, noise, glare, chromaticity, and display artifacts. Geometric distortions are evaluated by linear measurements of the TG18-QC test pattern, which should render distortion coefficients less than 2%/5% for primary/secondary displays, respectively. Reflection measurements include specular and diffuse reflection coefficients from which the maximum allowable ambient lighting is determined such that contrast degradation due to display reflection remains below a 20% limit and the level of ambient luminance (L amb ) does not unduly compromise luminance ratio (LR) and contrast at low luminance levels. Luminance evaluation relies on visual assessment of low contrast features in the TG18-CT and TG18-MP test patterns, or quantitative measurements at 18 distinct luminance levels of the TG18-LN test patterns. The major acceptable criteria for primary/secondary displays are maximum luminance of greater than 170/100 cd/m 2 , LR of greater than 250/100, and contrast conformance to that of the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) of better than 10%/20%, respectively. The angular response is tested to

  17. Electron Beam Irradiation Dose Dependently Damages the Bacillus Spore Coat and Spore Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Fiester

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective control of spore-forming bacilli begs suitable physical or chemical methods. While many spore inactivation techniques have been proven effective, electron beam (EB irradiation has been frequently chosen to eradicate Bacillus spores. Despite its widespread use, there are limited data evaluating the effects of EB irradiation on Bacillus spores. To study this, B. atrophaeus spores were purified, suspended in sterile, distilled water, and irradiated with EB (up to 20 kGy. Irradiated spores were found (1 to contain structural damage as observed by electron microscopy, (2 to have spilled cytoplasmic contents as measured by spectroscopy, (3 to have reduced membrane integrity as determined by fluorescence cytometry, and (4 to have fragmented genomic DNA as measured by gel electrophoresis, all in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, cytometry data reveal decreased spore size, increased surface alterations, and increased uptake of propidium iodide, with increasing EB dose, suggesting spore coat alterations with membrane damage, prior to loss of spore viability. The present study suggests that EB irradiation of spores in water results in substantial structural damage of the spore coat and inner membrane, and that, along with DNA fragmentation, results in dose-dependent spore inactivation.

  18. Spore-to-spore agar culture of the myxomycete Physarum globuliferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pu; Wang, Qi; Li, Yu

    2010-02-01

    The ontogeny of the myxomycete Physarum globuliferum was observed on corn meal agar and hanging drop cultures without adding sterile oat flakes, bacteria or other microorganisms. Its complete life cycle including spore germination, myxamoebae, swarm cells, plasmodial development, and maturity of fructifications was demonstrated. Details of spore-to-spore development are described and illustrated.

  19. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm-1. For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification.

  20. Distinction of broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores using FTIR microspectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xianliang; Liu, Xingcun; Sheng, Daping; Huang, Dake; Li, Weizu; Wang, Xin

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to identify broken cellular wall Ganoderma lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. For IR spectra, broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores were mainly different in the regions of 3000-2800, 1660-1600, 1400-1200 and 1100-1000 cm(-1). For curve fitting, the results showed the differences in the protein secondary structures and the polysaccharide structures/content between broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. Moreover, the value of A1078/A1741 might be a potentially useful factor to distinguish broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores from G. lucidum spores. Additionally, FTIR microspectroscopy could identify broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores accurately when it was combined with hierarchical cluster analysis. The result suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is very simple and efficient for distinction of broken cellular wall G. lucidum spores and G. lucidum spores. The result also indicates FTIR microspectroscopy may be useful for TCM identification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. European display scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Christopher T.

    2000-08-01

    The manufacture of Flat Panel Displays (FPDs) is dominated by Far Eastern sources, particularly in Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Displays (AMLCD) and Plasma. The United States has a very powerful capability in micro-displays. It is not well known that Europe has a very active research capability which has lead to many innovations in display technology. In addition there is a capability in display manufacturing of organic technologies as well as the licensed build of Japanese or Korean designs. Finally, Europe has a display systems capability in military products which is world class.

  2. A Reconfigurable Readout Integrated Circuit for Heterogeneous Display-Based Multi-Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeonghwan Park

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reconfigurable multi-sensor interface and its readout integrated circuit (ROIC for display-based multi-sensor systems, which builds up multi-sensor functions by utilizing touch screen panels. In addition to inherent touch detection, physiological and environmental sensor interfaces are incorporated. The reconfigurable feature is effectively implemented by proposing two basis readout topologies of amplifier-based and oscillator-based circuits. For noise-immune design against various noises from inherent human-touch operations, an alternate-sampling error-correction scheme is proposed and integrated inside the ROIC, achieving a 12-bit resolution of successive approximation register (SAR of analog-to-digital conversion without additional calibrations. A ROIC prototype that includes the whole proposed functions and data converters was fabricated in a 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and its feasibility was experimentally verified to support multiple heterogeneous sensing functions of touch, electrocardiogram, body impedance, and environmental sensors.

  3. A Comparison of Two Control Display Unit Concepts on Flight Management System Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Terence S.

    1997-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for a pilot in the transition to a 'glass' cockpit is understanding the flight management system (FMS). Because of both the complex nature of the FMS and the pilot-FMS interface, a large portion of transition training is devoted to the FMS. The current study examined the impact of the primary pilot-FMS interface, the control display unit (CDU), on FMS training. Based on the hypothesis that the interface design could have a significant impact on training, an FMS simulation with two separate interfaces was developed. One interface was similar to a current-generation design, and the other was a multiwindows CDU based on graphical user interface techniques. For both application and evaluation reasons, constraints were applied to the graphical CDU design to maintain as much similarity as possible with the conventional CDU. This preliminary experiment was conducted to evaluate the interface effects on training. Sixteen pilots with no FMS experience were used in a between-subjects test. A time-compressed, airline-type FMS training environment was simulated. The subjects were trained to a fixed-time criterion, and performance was measured in a final, full-mission simulation context. This paper describes the technical approach, simulation implementation, and experimental results of this effort.

  4. Data Driven - Android based displays on data acquisition and system status

    CERN Document Server

    Canilho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    For years, both hardware and software engineers have struggled with the acquisition of device information in a flexible and fast perspective, numerous devices cannot have their status quickly tested due to time limitation associated with the travelling to a computer terminal. For instance, in order to test a scintillator status, one has to inject beam into the device and quickly return to a terminal to see the results, this is not only time demanding but extremely inconvenient for the person responsible, it consumes time that would be used in more pressing matters. In this train of thoughts, the proposal of creating an interface to bring a stable, flexible, user friendly and data driven solution to this problem was created. Being the most common operative system for mobile display, the Android API proved to have the best efficient in financing, since it is based on an open source software, and in implementation difficulty since it’s backend development resides in JAVA calls and XML for visual representation...

  5. P1-32: Response of Human Visual System to Paranormal Stimuli Appearing in Three-Dimensional Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisoo Hong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D display became one of indispensable features of commercial TVs in recent years. However, the 3D content displayed by 3D display may contain the abrupt change of depth when the scene changes, which might be considered as a paranormal stimulus. Because the human visual system is not accustomed to such paranormal stimuli in natural conditions, they can cause unexpected responses which usually induce discomfort. Following the change of depth expressed by 3D display, the eyeballs rotate to match the convergence to the new 3D image position. The amount of rotation varies according to the initial longitudinal location and depth displacement of 3D image. Because the change of depth is abrupt, there is delay in human visual system following the change and such delay can be a source of discomfort. To guarantee the safety in watching 3D TV, the acceptable level of displacement in the longitudinal direction should be revealed quantitatively. Additionally, the artificially generated scenes also can provide paranormal stimuli such as periodic depth variations. In the presentation, we investigate the response of human visual system to such paranormal stimuli given by 3D display system. Using the result of investigation, we can give guideline to creating the 3D content to minimize the discomfort coming from the paranormal stimuli.

  6. Effects of Viewing Displays from Different Distances on Human Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Z. Ramadan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The current stereoscopic 3D displays have several human-factor issues including visual-fatigue symptoms such as eyestrain, headache, fatigue, nausea, and malaise. The viewing time and viewing distance are factors that considerably affect the visual fatigue associated with 3D displays. Hence, this study analyzes the effects of display type (2D vs. 3D and viewing distance on visual fatigue during a 60-min viewing session based on electroencephalogram (EEG relative beta power, and alpha/beta power ratio. In this study, twenty male participants watched four videos. The EEGs were recorded at two occipital lobes (O1 and O2 of each participant in the pre-session (3 min, post-session (3 min, and during a 60-min viewing session. The results showed that the decrease in relative beta power of the EEG and the increase in the alpha/beta ratio from the start until the end of the viewing session were significantly higher when watching the 3D display. When the viewing distance was increased from 1.95 m to 3.90 m, the visual fatigue was decreased in the case of the 3D-display, whereas the fatigue was increased in the case of the 2D-display. Moreover, there was approximately the same level of visual fatigue when watching videos in 2D or 3D from a long viewing distance (3.90 m.

  7. An intelligent system and a relational data base for codifying helmet-mounted display symbology design requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Steven P.; Hamilton, David B.

    1994-06-01

    To employ the most readily comprehensible presentation methods and symbology with helmet-mounted displays (HMDs), it is critical to identify the information elements needed to perform each pilot function and to analytically determine the attributes of these elements. The extensive analyses of mission requirements currently performed for pilot-vehicle interface design can be aided and improved by the new capabilities of intelligent systems and relational databases. An intelligent system, named ACIDTEST, has been developed specifically for organizing and applying rules to identify the best display modalities, locations, and formats. The primary objectives of the ACIDTEST system are to provide rapid accessibility to pertinent display research data, to integrate guidelines from many disciplines and identify conflicts among these guidelines, to force a consistent display approach among the design team members, and to serve as an 'audit trail' of design decisions and justifications. A powerful relational database called TAWL ORDIR has been developed to document information requirements and attributes for use by ACIDTEST as well as to greatly augment the applicability of mission analysis data. TAWL ORDIR can be used to rapidly reorganize mission analysis data components for study, perform commonality analyses for groups of tasks, determine the information content requirement for tailored display modes, and identify symbology integration opportunities.

  8. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  9. Studies of the Interactions Between Vestibular Function and Tactual Orientation Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewiak, Roger W.; Reschke, Millard F.

    1997-01-01

    When humans experience conditions in which internal vestibular cues to movement or spatial location are challenged or contradicted by external visual information, the result can be spatial disorientation, often leading to motion sickness. Spatial disorientation can occur in any situation in which the individual is passively moved in the environment, but is most common in automotive, aircraft, or undersea travel. Significantly, the incidence of motion sickness in space travel is great: The majority of individuals in Shuttle operations suffer from the syndrome. Even after the space-sickness-producing influences of spatial disorientation dissipate, usually within several days, there are other situations in which, because of the absence of reliable or familiar vestibular cues, individuals in space still experience disorientation, resulting in a reliance on the already preoccupied sense of vision. One possible technique to minimize the deleterious effects of spatial disorientation might be to present attitude information (including orientation, direction, and motion) through another less-used sensory modality - the sense of touch. Data from experiences with deaf and blind persons indicate that this channel can provide useful communication and mobility information on a real-time basis. More recently, technologies have developed to present effective attitude information to pilots in situations in which dangerously ambiguous and conflicting visual and vestibular sensations occur. This summers project at NASA-Johnson Space Center will evaluate the influence of motion-based spatial disorientation on the perception of tactual stimuli representing veridical position and orientation information, presented by new dynamic vibrotactile array display technologies. In addition, the possibility will be explored that tactile presentations of motion and direction from this alternative modality might be useful in mitigating or alleviating spatial disorientation produced by multi

  10. Sphagnum moss disperses spores with vortex rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Dwight L; Edwards, Joan

    2010-07-23

    Sphagnum spores, which have low terminal velocities, are carried by turbulent wind currents to establish colonies many kilometers away. However, spores that are easily kept aloft are also rapidly decelerated in still air; thus, dispersal range depends strongly on release height. Vascular plants grow tall to lift spores into sufficient wind currents for dispersal, but nonvascular plants such as Sphagnum cannot grow sufficiently high. High-speed videos show that exploding capsules of Sphagnum generate vortex rings to efficiently carry spores high enough to be dispersed by turbulent air currents. Spores launched ballistically at similar speeds through still air would travel a few millimeters and not easily reach turbulent air. Vortex rings are used by animals; here, we report vortex rings generated by plants.

  11. Adhesion of Spores of Bacillus thuringiensis on a Planar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eunhyea [Georgia Institute of Technology; Kweon, Hyojin [Georgia Institute of Technology; Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lee, Ida [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Joy, David Charles [ORNL; Palumbo, Anthony Vito [ORNL; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Adhesion of spores of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) and spherical silica particles on surfaces was experimentally and theoretically investigated in this study. Topography analysis via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electron microscopy indicates that Bt spores are rod shaped, {approx}1.3 {mu}m in length and {approx}0.8 {mu}m in diameter. The adhesion force of Bt spores and silica particles on gold-coated glass was measured at various relative humidity (RH) levels by AFM. It was expected that the adhesion force would vary with RH because the individual force components contributing to the adhesion force depend on RH. The adhesion force between a particle and a planar surface in atmospheric environments was modeled as the contribution of three major force components: capillary, van der Waals, and electrostatic interaction forces. Adhesion force measurements for Bt spore (silica particle) and the gold surface system were comparable with calculations. Modeling results show that there is a critical RH value, which depends on the hydrophobicity of the materials involved, below which the water meniscus does not form and the contribution of the capillary force is zero. As RH increases, the van der Waals force decreases while the capillary force increases to a maximum value.

  12. High level organizing principles for display of systems fault information for commercial flight crews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, William H.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced fault management aiding concepts for commercial pilots are being developed in a research program at NASA Langley Research Center. One aim of this program is to re-evaluate current design principles for display of fault information to the flight crew: (1) from a cognitive engineering perspective and (2) in light of the availability of new types of information generated by advanced fault management aids. The study described in this paper specifically addresses principles for organizing fault information for display to pilots based on their mental models of fault management.

  13. Lethality of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Due to Short Duration Heating Measured Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goetz, Kristina M

    2005-01-01

    In this research, Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to bursts of heat lasting on the order of one second in duration using a laser system to simulate the explosive environment from an agent defeat weapon...

  14. Displays in scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.E.; Pizer, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Displays have several functions: to transmit images, to permit interaction, to quantitate features and to provide records. The main characteristics of displays used for image transmission are their resolution, dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and uniformity. Considerations of visual acuity suggest that the display element size should be much less than the data element size, and in current practice at least 256X256 for a gamma camera image. The dynamic range for image transmission should be such that at least 64 levels of grey (or equivalent) are displayed. Scanner displays are also considered, and in particular, the requirements of a whole-body camera are examined. A number of display systems and devices are presented including a 'new' heated object colour display system. Interaction with displays is considered, including background subtraction, contrast enhancement, position indication and region-of-interest generation. Such systems lead to methods of quantitation, which imply knowledge of the expected distributions. Methods for intercomparing displays are considered. Polaroid displays, which have for so long dominated the field, are in the process of being replaced by stored image displays, now that large cheap memories exist which give an equivalent image quality. The impact of this in nuclear medicine is yet to be seen, but a major effect will be to enable true quantitation. (author)

  15. Display graphical information optimization methods in a client-server information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Викторович Мазуревич

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to reduce load time and volume of data necessary to display web page due to server side preprocessing. Measurement of this approach’s effectivity has been conducted. There were discovered conditions in which this approach will be the most effective, its disadvantages and presented ways to reduce them

  16. A computer-oriented system for assembling and displaying land management information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot L. Amidon

    1964-01-01

    Maps contain information basic to land management planning. By transforming conventional map symbols into numbers which are punched into cards, the land manager can have a computer assemble and display information required for a specific job. He can let a computer select information from several maps, combine it with such nonmap data as treatment cost or benefit per...

  17. A novel apparatus for testing binocular function using the 'CyberDome' three-dimensional hemispherical visual display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, T; Ishikawa, H; Shimizu, K; Kawamura, R; Nakayama, H; Sawada, K

    2009-11-01

    Virtual reality has recently been highlighted as a promising medium for visual presentation and entertainment. A novel apparatus for testing binocular visual function using a hemispherical visual display system, 'CyberDome', has been developed and tested. Subjects comprised 40 volunteers (mean age, 21.63 years) with corrected visual acuity of -0.08 (LogMAR) or better, and stereoacuity better than 100 s of arc on the Titmus stereo test. Subjects were able to experience visual perception like being surrounded by visual images, a feature of the 'CyberDome' hemispherical visual display system. Visual images to the right and left eyes were projected and superimposed on the dome screen, allowing test images to be seen independently by each eye using polarizing glasses. The hemispherical visual display was 1.4 m in diameter. Three test parameters were evaluated: simultaneous perception (subjective angle of strabismus), motor fusion amplitude (convergence and divergence), and stereopsis (binocular disparity at 1260, 840, and 420 s of arc). Testing was performed in volunteer subjects with normal binocular vision, and results were compared with those using a major amblyoscope. Subjective angle of strabismus and motor fusion amplitude showed a significant correlation between our test and the major amblyoscope. All subjects could perceive the stereoscopic target with a binocular disparity of 480 s of arc. Our novel apparatus using the CyberDome, a hemispherical visual display system, was able to quantitatively evaluate binocular function. This apparatus offers clinical promise in the evaluation of binocular function.

  18. Surface Immobilization of Human Arginase-1 with an Engineered Ice Nucleation Protein Display System in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation protein (INP is frequently used as a surface anchor for protein display in gram-negative bacteria. Here, MalE and TorA signal peptides, and three charged polypeptides, 6×Lys, 6×Glu and 6×Asp, were anchored to the N-terminus of truncated INP (InaK-N to improve its surface display efficiency for human Arginase1 (ARG1. Our results indicated that the TorA signal peptide increased the surface translocation of non-protein fused InaK-N and human ARG1 fused InaK-N (InaK-N/ARG1 by 80.7% and 122.4%, respectively. Comparably, the MalE signal peptide decreased the display efficiencies of both the non-protein fused InaK-N and InaK-N/ARG1. Our results also suggested that the 6×Lys polypeptide significantly increased the surface display efficiency of K6-InaK-N/ARG1 by almost 2-fold, while also practically abolishing the surface translocation of non-protein fused InaK-N, indicating the interesting roles of charged polypeptides in bacteria surface display systems. Cell surface-immobilized K6-InaK-N/ARG1 presented an arginase activity of 10.7 U/OD600 under the optimized conditions of 40°C, pH 10.0 and 1 mM Mn2+, which could convert more than 95% of L-Arginine (L-Arg to L-Ornithine (L-Orn in 16 hours. The engineered InaK-Ns expanded the INP surface display system, which aided in the surface immobilization of human ARG1 in E. coli cells.

  19. Protection of Bacillus pumilus spores by catalases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J

    2012-09-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains tested, YjqC was not detected in ATCC 7061 and BG-B79. Furthermore, both catalases were localized in the spore coat layer along with laccase and superoxide dismutase. Although the initial catalase activity in ATCC 7061 spores was higher, it was less stable over time than the SAFR-032 enzyme. We propose that synergistic activity of YjqC and BPUM_1305, along with other coat oxidoreductases, contributes to the enhanced resistance of B. pumilus spores to hydrogen peroxide. We observed that the product of the catalase reaction, gaseous oxygen, forms expanding vesicles on the spore surface, affecting the mechanical integrity of the coat layer, resulting in aggregation of the spores. The accumulation of oxygen gas and aggregations may play a crucial role in limiting further exposure of Bacilli spore surfaces to hydrogen peroxide or other toxic chemicals when water is present.

  20. New insights in the bacterial spore resistance to extreme terrestrial and extraterrestrial factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Ralf; Horneck, Gerda; Reitz, Guenther

    Based on their unique resistance to various space parameters, Bacillus endospores are one of the model systems used for astrobiological studies. The extremely high resistance of bacterial endospores to environmental stress factors has intrigued researchers since long time and many characteristic spore features, especially those involved in the protection of spore DNA, have already been uncovered. The disclosure of the complete genomic sequence of Bacillus subtilis 168, one of the often used astrobiological model system, and the rapid development of tran-scriptional microarray techniques have opened new opportunities of gaining further insights in the enigma of spore resistance. Spores of B. subtilis were exposed to various extreme ter-restrial and extraterrestrial stressors to reach a better understanding of the DNA protection and repair strategies, which them to cope with the induced DNA damage. Following physical stress factors of environmental importance -either on Earth or in space -were selected for this thesis: (i) mono-and polychromatic UV radiation, (ii) ionizing radiation, (iii) exposure to ultrahigh vacuum; and (iv) high shock pressures simulating meteorite impacts. To reach a most comprehensive understanding of spore resistance to those harsh terrestrial or simulated extraterrestrial conditions, a standardized experimental protocol of the preparation and ana-lyzing methods was established including the determination of the following spore responses: (i) survival, (ii) induced mutations, (iii) DNA damage, (iv) role of different repair pathways by use of a set of repair deficient mutants, and (v) transcriptional responses during spore germi-nation by use of genome-wide transcriptome analyses and confirmation by RT-PCR. From this comprehensive set of data on spore resistance to a variety of environmental stress parameters a model of a "built-in" transcriptional program of bacterial spores in response to DNA damaging treatments to ensure DNA restoration

  1. On the development of an interactive resource information management system for analysis and display of spatiotemporal data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The recent availability of timely synoptic earth imagery from the Earth Resources Technology Satellites (ERTS) provides a wealth of information for the monitoring and management of vital natural resources. Formal language definitions and syntax interpretation algorithms were adapted to provide a flexible, computer information system for the maintenance of resource interpretation of imagery. These techniques are incorporated, together with image analysis functions, into an Interactive Resource Information Management and Analysis System, IRIMAS, which is implemented on a Texas Instruments 980A minicomputer system augmented with a dynamic color display for image presentation. A demonstration of system usage and recommendations for further system development are also included.

  2. Data base management system and display software for the National Geophysical Data Center geomagnetic CD-ROM's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papitashvili, N. E.; Papitashvili, V. O.; Allen, J. H.; Morris, L. D.

    1995-01-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center has the largest collection of geomagnetic data from the worldwide network of magnetic observatories. The data base management system and retrieval/display software have been developed for the archived geomagnetic data (annual means, monthly, daily, hourly, and 1-minute values) and placed on the center's CD-ROM's to provide users with 'user-oriented' and 'user-friendly' support. This system is described in this paper with a brief outline of provided options.

  3. A head-mounted display-based personal integrated-image monitoring system for transurethral resection of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Soichiro; Kihara, Kazunori; Takeshita, Hideki; Fujii, Yasuhisa

    2014-12-01

    The head-mounted display (HMD) is a new image monitoring system. We developed the Personal Integrated-image Monitoring System (PIM System) using the HMD (HMZ-T2, Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) in combination with video splitters and multiplexers as a surgical guide system for transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). The imaging information obtained from the cystoscope, the transurethral ultrasonography (TRUS), the video camera attached to the HMD, and the patient's vital signs monitor were split and integrated by the PIM System and a composite image was displayed by the HMD using a four-split screen technique. Wearing the HMD, the lead surgeon and the assistant could simultaneously and continuously monitor the same information displayed by the HMD in an ergonomically efficient posture. Each participant could independently rearrange the images comprising the composite image depending on the engaging step. Two benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients underwent TURP performed by surgeons guided with this system. In both cases, the TURP procedure was successfully performed, and their postoperative clinical courses had no remarkable unfavorable events. During the procedure, none of the participants experienced any HMD-wear related adverse effects or reported any discomfort.

  4. Ptaquiloside in bracken spores from Britain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lars Holm; Schmidt, Bjørn; Sheffield, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Secondary metabolites from bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn) are suspected of causing cancer in humans. The main carcinogen is the highly water-soluble norsesquiterpene glucoside ptaquiloside, which may be ingested by humans through food, e.g. via contaminated water, meat or milk. It has...... been postulated that carcinogens could also be ingested through breathing air containing bracken spores. Ptaquiloside has not previously been identified in bracken spores. The aim of the study was to determine whether ptaquiloside is present in bracken spores, and if so, to estimate its content...

  5. An oral vaccine against candidiasis generated by a yeast molecular display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Aoki, Wataru; Nomura, Takashi; Miyoshi, Ayuko; Tafuku, Senji; Sewaki, Tomomitsu; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2013-12-01

    Enolase 1 (Eno1p) of Candida albicans is an immunodominant antigen. However, conventional technologies for preparing an injectable vaccine require purification of the antigenic protein and preparation of an adjuvant. To develop a novel type of oral vaccine against candidiasis, we generated Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells that display the Eno1p antigen on their surfaces. Oral delivery of the engineered S. cerevisiae cells prolonged survival rate of mice that were subsequently challenged with C. albicans. Given that a vaccine produced using molecular display technology avoids the need for protein purification, this oral vaccine offers a promising alternative to the use of conventional and injectable vaccines for preventing a range of infectious diseases. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Engineering Data Base for Design and Selection of Cathode Ray Tube and Other Display Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    on a display. Several studies (Ericksen, 195’f; Garner & Creelman , ige’f) have reported improved ability to discriminate among objects when size and...strength (directly related to target echo signal-to-noise ratio) and the psychological state of the operator. Single- scan-detection probability as a...information analysis of verbal and motor responses to symbolic and conventional arable numerals. Journal of Applied Psychology , 1958, ^, 79-8^^. Allusi, E

  7. [Design and implementation of Chinese materia medica resources survey results display system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yan; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    From the beginning of the fourth national census of traditional Chinese medicine resources in 2011, a large amount of data have been collected and compiled, including wild medicinal plant resource data, cultivation of medicinal plant information, traditional knowledge, and specimen information. The traditional paper-based recording method is inconvenient for query and application. The B/S architecture, JavaWeb framework and SOA are used to design and develop the fourth national census results display platform. Through the data integration and sorting, the users are to provide with integrated data services and data query display solutions. The platform realizes the fine data classification, and has the simple data retrieval and the university statistical analysis function. The platform uses Echarts components, Geo Server, Open Layers and other technologies to provide a variety of data display forms such as charts, maps and other visualization forms, intuitive reflects the number, distribution and type of Chinese material medica resources. It meets the data mapping requirements of different levels of users, and provides support for management decision-making. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. VME data acquisition system. Interactive software for the acquisition, display and storage of one or two dimensional spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petremann, E.

    1989-01-01

    The development and construction of a complete data acquisition system for nuclear physics applications, are described. The system is based on the VME bus and the 16/32 bits microprocessor. The data acquisition system enables the obtention of line spectra, involving one or two parameters, and the simultaneous storage of events in a magnetic tape. The analysis and the description of the data acquisition software, the experimental spectra display and saving on magnetic systems are given. Pascal and Assembler are used. The development of cards, for the standard VME and electronic equipment interfaces, is performed [fr

  9. The regulated synthesis of a Bacillus anthracis spore coat protein that affects spore surface properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, A; Goodman, B; Smith, Z

    2014-05-01

    Examine the regulation of a spore coat protein and the effects on spore properties. A c. 23 kDa band in coat/exosporial extracts of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores varied in amount depending upon the conditions of sporulation. It was identified by MALDI as a likely orthologue of ExsB of Bacillus cereus. Little if any was present in an exosporial preparation with a location to the inner coat/cortex region established by spore fractionation and immunogold labelling of electron micrograph sections. Because of its predominant location in the inner coat, it has been renamed Cotγ. It was relatively deficient in spores produced at 37°C and when acidic fermentation products were produced a difference attributable to transcriptional regulation. The deficiency or absence of Cotγ resulted in a less robust exosporium positioned more closely to the coat. These spores were less hydrophobic and germinated somewhat more rapidly. Hydrophobicity and appearance were rescued in the deletion strain by introduction of the cotγ gene. The deficiency or lack of a protein largely found in the inner coat altered spore hydrophobicity and surface appearance. The regulated synthesis of Cotγ may be a paradigm for other spore coat proteins with unknown functions that modulate spore properties in response to environmental conditions. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. The role of diatom resting spores in pelagic-benthic coupling in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembauville, Mathieu; Blain, Stéphane; Manno, Clara; Tarling, Geraint; Thompson, Anu; Wolff, George; Salter, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Natural iron fertilization downstream of Southern Ocean island plateaus supports large phytoplankton blooms and promotes carbon export from the mixed layer. In addition to sequestering atmospheric CO2, the biological carbon pump also supplies organic matter (OM) to deep-ocean ecosystems. Although the total flux of OM arriving at the seafloor sets the energy input to the system, the chemical nature of OM is also of significance. However, a quantitative framework linking ecological flux vectors to OM composition is currently lacking. In the present study we report the lipid composition of export fluxes collected by five moored sediment traps deployed in contrasting productivity regimes of Southern Ocean island systems (Kerguelen, Crozet and South Georgia) and compile them with quantitative data on diatom and faecal pellet fluxes. At the three naturally iron-fertilized sites, the relative contribution of labile lipids (mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty alcohols) is 2-4 times higher than at low productivity sites. There is a strong attenuation of labile components as a function of depth, irrespective of productivity. The three island systems also display regional characteristics in lipid export. An enrichment of zooplankton dietary sterols, such as C27Δ5, at South Georgia is consistent with high zooplankton and krill biomass in the region and the importance of faecal pellets to particulate organic carbon (POC) flux. There is a strong association of diatom resting spore fluxes that dominate productive flux regimes with energy-rich unsaturated fatty acids. At the Kerguelen Plateau we provide a statistical framework to link seasonal variation in ecological flux vectors and lipid composition over a complete annual cycle. Our analyses demonstrate that ecological processes in the upper ocean, e.g. resting spore formation and grazing, not only impact the magnitude and stoichiometry of the Southern Ocean biological pump, but also regulate the

  11. Integrated light-guide plates that can control the illumination angle for liquid crystal display backlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Di; Yang, Xingpeng; Jin, Guofan; Yan, Yingbai; Fan, Shoushan

    2006-01-01

    Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) with edge-lit backlight systems offer several advantages, such as low energy consuming, low weight, and high uniformity of intensity, over traditional cathode-ray tube displays, and make them ideal for many applications including monitors in notebook personal computers, screens for TV, and many portable information terminals, such as mobile phones, personal digital assistants, etc. To satisfy market requirements for mobile and personal display panels, it is more and more necessary to modify the backlight system and make it thinner, lighter, and brighter all at once. In this paper, we have proposed a new integrated LGP based on periodic and aperiodic microprism structures by using polymethyl methacrylate material, which can be designed to control the illumination angle, and to get high uniformity of intensity. So the backlight system will be simplified to use only light sources and one LGP without using other optical sheets, such as reflection sheet, diffusion sheet and prism sheets. By using optimizing program and ray tracing method, the designed LGPs can achieve a uniformity of intensity better than 86%, and get a peak illumination angle from +400 to -200, without requiring other optical sheets. We have designed a backlight system with only one LED light source and one LGP, and other LGP design examples with different sizes (1.8 inches and 14.1 inches) and different light source (LED or CCFL), are performed also.

  12. Sensitivity of thermally treated Bacillus subtilis spores to subsequent irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, S.A.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.; Awny, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    B. subtilis spores exposed to thermal treatment at 70 or 80 0 C for 1 hr were more sensitive to subsequent radiation exposure than non-heated spores. Deactivation of previously heated spores by increasing dose of 0-radiation followed an exponential function while, for non-heated spores a shoulder followed by exponential deactivation was noticed. Combined heat-radiation treatment exhibited a synergistic effect on spore deactivation at low irradiation doses, while at high irradiation doses, the effect was more or less additive. Added values of spore injury was higher for B. subtilis spores that received heat and radiation separately than the observed injury for spores that received combined treatment (heat followed by radiation). Results of spore deactivation and injury due to heat followed by radiation treatment are discussed in comparison to those of spores that received radiation-heat sequence

  13. Modeling Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    information is preserved and replicated by the Watson - Crick base pairing in which 4-3 complementary bases recognize each other. One incorrect amino acid can...hydrolysis reactions to take place with the spore’s DNA and other proteins. These chemical reactions degrade the DNA and proteins to such an extent that the... DNA cannot be repaired or replicated, thus causing spore death. We further assert that damage to a spore is based on a certain initial DNA information

  14. New stereoacuity test using a 3-dimensional display system in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Beom Han

    Full Text Available The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional or behind (proposed the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus.

  15. Flight evaluation of advanced controls and displays for transition and landing on the NASA V/STOL systems research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on Ames Research Center's V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) to assess the influence of advanced control modes and head-up displays (HUD's) on flying qualities for precision approach and landing operations. Evaluations were made for decelerating approaches to hover followed by a vertical landing and for slow landings for four control/display mode combinations: the basic YAV-8B stability augmentation system; attitude command for pitch, roll, and yaw; flightpath/acceleration command with translational rate command in the hover; and height-rate damping with translational-rate command. Head-up displays used in conjunction with these control modes provided flightpath tracking/pursuit guidance and deceleration commands for the decelerating approach and a mixed horizontal and vertical presentation for precision hover and landing. Flying qualities were established and control usage and bandwidth were documented for candidate control modes and displays for the approach and vertical landing. Minimally satisfactory bandwidths were determined for the translational-rate command system. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, the Boeing Military Airplane Group, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Rolls-Royce, and the British Defense Research Agency participated in the program along with NASA research pilots from the Ames and Lewis Research Centers. The results, in conjunction with related ground-based simulation data, indicate that the flightpath/longitudinal acceleration command response type in conjunction with pursuit tracking and deceleration guidance on the HUD would be essential for operation to instrument minimums significantly lower than the minimums for the AV-8B. It would also be a superior mode for performing slow landings where precise control to an austere landing area such as a narrow road is demanded. The translational-rate command system would reduce pilot workload for

  16. Dynamic changes in display architecture and function across environments revealed by a systems approach to animal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Malcolm F; Wilkins, Matthew R; Shizuka, Daizaburo; Hebets, Eileen A

    2018-02-20

    Animal communication is often structurally complex and dynamic, with signaler and receiver behavior varying in response to multiple environmental factors. To date, studies assessing signal dynamics have mostly focused on the relationships between select signaling traits and receiver responses in a single environment. We use the wolf spider Schizocosa floridana to explore the relationships between courtship display form and function across two social contexts (female presence vs absence) and two light environments (light vs dark). We use traditional analytical methods to determine predictors of copulation success (i.e., signal function) and examine these predictors in a structural context by overlaying them on signal phenotype networks (Wilkins et al. 2015). This allows us to explore system design principles (degeneracy, redundancy, pluripotentiality), providing insight into hypotheses regarding complex signal evolution. We found that both social context and light environment affect courtship structure, although the predictors of mating success remain similar across light environments, suggesting system degeneracy. Contrastingly, the same display traits may serve different functions across social environments, suggesting pluripotentiality. Ultimately, our network approach uncovers a complexity in display structure and function that is missed by functional analyses alone, highlighting the importance of systems-based methodologies for understanding the dynamic nature of complex signals. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  17. Alternative Paths to Hearing (A Conjecture. Photonic and Tactile Hearing Systems Displaying the Frequency Spectrum of Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. Hara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the hearing process is considered from a system engineering perspective. For those with total hearing loss, a cochlear implant is the only direct remedy. It first acts as a spectrum analyser and then electronically stimulates the neurons in the cochlea with a number of electrodes. Each electrode carries information on the separate frequency bands (i.e., spectrum of the original sound signal. The neurons then relay the signals in a parallel manner to the section of the brain where sound signals are processed. Photonic and tactile hearing systems displaying the spectrum of sound are proposed as alternative paths to the section of the brain that processes sound. In view of the plasticity of the brain, which can rewire itself, the following conjectures are offered. After a certain period of training, a person without the ability to hear should be able to decipher the patterns of photonic or tactile displays of the sound spectrum and learn to ‘hear’. This is very similar to the case of a blind person learning to ‘read’ by recognizing the patterns created by the series of bumps as their fingers scan the Braille writing. The conjectures are yet to be tested. Designs of photonic and tactile systems displaying the sound spectrum are outlined.

  18. Vortex information display system program description manual. [data acquisition from laser Doppler velocimeters and real time operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, R.; Matuck, G. N.; Roe, J. M.; Taylor, J.; Turner, A.

    1975-01-01

    A vortex information display system is described which provides flexible control through system-user interaction for collecting wing-tip-trailing vortex data, processing this data in real time, displaying the processed data, storing raw data on magnetic tape, and post processing raw data. The data is received from two asynchronous laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV's) and includes position, velocity, and intensity information. The raw data is written onto magnetic tape for permanent storage and is also processed in real time to locate vortices and plot their positions as a function of time. The interactive capability enables the user to make real time adjustments in processing data and provides a better definition of vortex behavior. Displaying the vortex information in real time produces a feedback capability to the LDV system operator allowing adjustments to be made in the collection of raw data. Both raw data and processing can be continually upgraded during flyby testing to improve vortex behavior studies. The post-analysis capability permits the analyst to perform in-depth studies of test data and to modify vortex behavior models to improve transport predictions.

  19. Safety parameter display system functions are integrated parts of the KWU KONVOI process information system (SPDS functions are parts of the KWU-PRINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleite, W.; Geyer, K.H.

    1984-01-01

    The desirability of having flexible overview as well as extended detail information with pictorial and abstraction features and easy and quick access throughout the large-size control rooms in German plants has been recognized. Developments over the last years now make it possible to add on extensive computer driven VDU-systems to the three German KONVOI NPPs (Isar II, Emsland and Neckarwestheim II) thereby creating the Process Information System ''PRINS''. The new system is driven by multiple computers at different locations controlling about 30 full-graphic, high resolution Video Display Units. They are arranged singly and in three ''mxn - Information Panels'' distributed about the control room and present all thinkable kinds of display formats with more than 1000 separate pictures. The display of only single ''Safety Parameters'' or even complete ''Safety Goal Information'' on single or multiple VDUs in parallel is only one aspect of this computerized part of the entire integrated Information System. (orig./HP)

  20. Enzyme-driven Bacillus spore coat degradation leading to spore killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundra, Ruchir V; Mehta, Krunal K; Wu, Xia; Paskaleva, Elena E; Kane, Ravi S; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2014-04-01

    The bacillus spore coat confers chemical and biological resistance, thereby protecting the core from harsh environments. The primarily protein-based coat consists of recalcitrant protein crosslinks that endow the coat with such functional protection. Proteases are present in the spore coat, which play a putative role in coat degradation in the environment. However these enzymes are poorly characterized. Nonetheless given the potential for proteases to catalyze coat degradation, we screened 10 commercially available proteases for their ability to degrade the spore coats of B. cereus and B. anthracis. Proteinase K and subtilisin Carlsberg, for B. cereus and B. anthracis spore coats, respectively, led to a morphological change in the otherwise impregnable coat structure, increasing coat permeability towards cortex lytic enzymes such as lysozyme and SleB, thereby initiating germination. Specifically in the presence of lysozyme, proteinase K resulted in 14-fold faster enzyme induced germination and exhibited significantly shorter lag times, than spores without protease pretreatment. Furthermore, the germinated spores were shown to be vulnerable to a lytic enzyme (PlyPH) resulting in effective spore killing. The spore surface in response to proteolytic degradation was probed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which provided key insights regarding coat degradation. The extent of coat degradation and spore killing using this enzyme-based pretreatment approach is similar to traditional, yet far harsher, chemical decoating methods that employ detergents and strong denaturants. Thus the enzymatic route reduces the environmental burden of chemically mediated spore killing, and demonstrates that a mild and environmentally benign biocatalytic spore killing is achievable. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Displays and simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohon, N.

    A 'simulator' is defined as a machine which imitates the behavior of a real system in a very precise manner. The major components of a simulator and their interaction are outlined in brief form, taking into account the major components of an aircraft flight simulator. Particular attention is given to the visual display portion of the simulator, the basic components of the display, their interactions, and their characteristics. Real image displays are considered along with virtual image displays, and image generators. Attention is given to an advanced simulator for pilot training, a holographic pancake window, a scan laser image generator, the construction of an infrared target simulator, and the Apollo Command Module Simulator.

  2. A method for the determination of bacterial spore DNA content based on isotopic labelling, spore germination and diphenylamine assay; ploidy of spores of several Bacillus species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, P.M.; Karamata, D.

    1992-01-01

    A reliable method for measuring the spore DNA content, based on radioactive DNA labelling, spore germination in absence of DNA replication and diphenylamine assay, was developed. The accuracy of the method, within 10 - 15%, is adequate for determining the number of chromosomes per spore, provided that the genome size is known. B subtilis spores were shown to be invariably monogenomic, while those of larger bacilli Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis, often, if not invariably, contain two genomes. Attempts to modify the spore DNA content of B subtilis by altering the richness of the sporulation medium, the sporulation conditions (liquid or solid medium), or by mutation, were apparently unsuccessful. An increase of spore size with medium richness, not accompanied by an increase in DNA content, was observed. The implication of the apparently species-specific spore ploidy and the influence of the sporulation conditions on spore size and shape are discussed

  3. Alternative Voice Switching and Control System Display Panel Format Simulation and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    hear DA statusF Dvoice FW1 3 voice FUTTER , push IA, DA statue DA Status DA Ole OFF d . ot e tI .1F S A-i 5, %P*-.*~. *.S**~ S a V * C. a6 4c Cu v V V c...UU 0 C C .4. 4c c I.. lbC (W. ki a A-2o -. ... -. - J6 ’... Ii I1N INDIMIIi A0tlS tAil.|: INIIIAIt, Hilli. IrumINAT.vs At..WlUNi’|L.. I. v’enecimon...ALTERNATIVE 2 RADIO SCREEN Displayed below is a frequency pair and its legend 127.100TM 317.7 HRM .. tI I11 I If-> M-main I It S-standby I II These appear

  4. Control/interlock/display system for EBT-P using commercially-available hardware and firmware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    For the EBT-P project, alternative commercially-available hardware, software and firmware have been employed for control, interlock and data display functions. This paper describes the criteria and rationale used to select that commercial equipment and discusses the important features of the equipment chosen, especially programmable controllers. Additional discussion is centered on interface problems which are encountered upon attempts to integrate equipment from several vendors. Some solutions to these problems are discussed. Details of software and hardware performance during tests are presented. The extent to which the EBT-P hardware and software configuration addresses and resolves various issues is discussed. Several areas have been uncovered in which relatively slight improvements/modifications of commercial programmable controller firmware would significantly improve the capability of this type of hardware in fusion control applications. These improvements are discussed in detail

  5. Development and characterization of membrane surface display system using molecular chaperon, prsA, of Bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, June-Hyung; Park, In-Suk; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2005-01-01

    We report a new membrane surface display system based on molecular chaperon, prsA, of Bacillus subtilis. Clostridium thermocellum cellulase, celA, was fused to C-terminal end of PrsA. Cellulase activity of B. subtilis protoplast, which expressed PrsA-CelA was 15 times higher compared to control strain. More than 85% of total cellulase activity was observed in surface displayed format and less than 15% of total cellulase activity was found in supernatant. Flow cytometric analysis of protoplast of PrsA-CelA fusion expressing bacteria provided another proof of uniform expression of fusion protein onto cytoplasmic membrane of B. subtilis. Without lysozyme treatment, only part of cellulase activity (10%) was observed in whole cell fraction

  6. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R.; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N.; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has

  7. Data processing and critical function status display system in the nuclear power plant monitoring systems; Procesiranje podataka i prika zstanja kriticnih funkcija postrojenja u sistemima nadzora nuklrearne elektrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinjeri, Lj; Plackovic, R [SOUR Rade Koncar, Zagreb (Yugoslavia)

    1984-07-01

    The Critical Function Monitoring System is a data acquisition and display system designed for effective presentation of essential nuclear plant operational data enabling supervision of the safety status of the nuclear plant by the operational staff. In this article the system functional requirements have been analysed and in accordance with the results of this analysis approach to defininf the design basis for realisation of the Critical Function Monitoring System by 'RK' equipment has been briefly described. (author)

  8. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G; de Koning, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14 N spores prepared on solid Schaeffer's-glucose (SG) agar plates and 15 N metabolically labeled spores prepared in shake flasks containing 3-( N -morpholino) propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14 N: 15 N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the

  9. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R.; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N.; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14N spores prepared on solid Schaeffer’s-glucose (SG) agar plates and 15N metabolically labeled spores prepared in shake flasks containing 3-(N-morpholino) propane sulfonic acid (MOPS) buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14N:15N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the

  10. The influence of sporulation conditions on the spore coat protein composition of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishwas R. Abhyankar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for the first time assesses, at the proteomic level, the effect of two commonly used sporulation conditions on spore protein presence. 14N spores prepared on solid SG agar plates and 15N metabolically labelled spores prepared in shake flasks containing MOPS buffered defined liquid medium differ in their coat protein composition as revealed by LC-FT-MS/MS analyses. The former condition mimics the industrial settings while the latter conditions mimic the routine laboratory environment wherein spores are developed. As seen previously in many studies, the spores prepared on the solid agar plates show a higher thermal resistance than the spores prepared under liquid culture conditions. The 14N: 15N isotopic ratio of the 1:1 mixture of the spore suspensions exposes that most of the identified inner coat and crust proteins are significantly more abundant while most of the outer coat proteins are significantly less abundant for the spores prepared on solid SG agar plates relative to the spores prepared in the liquid MOPS buffered defined medium. Sporulation condition-specific differences and variation in isotopic ratios between the tryptic peptides of expected cross-linked proteins suggest that the coat protein cross-linking may also be condition specific. Since the core dipicolinic acid content is found to be similar in both the spore populations, it appears that the difference in wet heat resistance is connected to the differences in the coat protein composition and

  11. Model Identification for Control of Display Units in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    in a supermarket refrigeration system. The grey-box modelling approach is adopted, using stochastic differential equations to define the dynamics of the model, combining prior knowledge of the physical system with data-driven modelling. Model identification is performed using the forward selection method...... model can contribute to the extension of the control capabilities of the entire supermarket refrigeration system....

  12. Muricholic acids inhibit Clostridium difficile spore germination and growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Francis

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Clostridium difficile have increased steadily over the past several years. While studies on C. difficile virulence and physiology have been hindered, in the past, by lack of genetic approaches and suitable animal models, newly developed technologies and animal models allow these processes to be studied in detail. One such advance is the generation of a mouse-model of C. difficile infection. The development of this system is a major step forward in analyzing the genetic requirements for colonization and infection. While important, it is equally as important in understanding what differences exist between mice and humans. One of these differences is the natural bile acid composition. Bile acid-mediated spore germination is an important step in C. difficile colonization. Mice produce several different bile acids that are not found in humans. These muricholic acids have the potential to impact C. difficile spore germination. Here we find that the three muricholic acids (α-muricholic acid, β-muricholic acid and ω-muricholic acid inhibit C. difficile spore germination and can impact the growth of vegetative cells. These results highlight an important difference between humans and mice and may have an impact on C. difficile virulence in the mouse-model of C. difficile infection.

  13. Mechanism and site of inhibition of Bacillus cereus spore outgrowth by nitrosothiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.L.

    1982-01-01

    Structure vs. activity studies demonstrate that nitrosothiols inhibit outgrowth of B. cereus spores by reversible covalent bond formation with sensitive spore components. Kinetic studies of the binding of nitrosothiols and iodoacetate, a known sulfhydryl reagent, show that they complete for the same spore sites. Since two other nitrite derivatives, the Perigo factor and the transferrin inhibitor, interfere with iodoacetate label uptake in a kinetically similar fashion, all of these compounds may inhibit spore outgrowth by interacting with the same spore thiol groups. Disruption of spores which have been inhibited by radioactive iodoacetate demonstrates that much of the label is incorporated into a membrane-rich fraction that sediments as a single peak on a sucrose density gradient. SDS gel electrophoresis and autofluorography allows the identification of four intensely labelled proteins with molecular weights of 13,000, 28,000, 29,000, and 30,000. If the iodoacetate labelling is carried out in the presence of nitrosothiol, incorporation is greatly reduced into all components. When germinating spores are labelled with succinate or the lactose analog, o-nitrophenylgalactopyranoside, a significant reduction in the amount of label bound is also observed suggesting that two iodoacetate-reactive sites may be the succinate and lactose permease systems. Severe decreases in the transport of succinate and lactose into iodoacetate and nitrosothiol inhibited spores further implicates a nitrosothiol (iodoacetate) permease interaction. Iodoacetate and nitrosothiols therefore may exert their inhibitory effects by interfering with critical membrane protein sulfhydryl groups, possibly by a a covalent modification mechanism. Some of these sensitive thiols may be involved in active transport processes

  14. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  15. Dothistroma septosporum: spore production and weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvorak, M.; Drapela, K.; Kankovsky, L.

    2012-11-01

    Dartmouth's septosporum, the causal agent of Dothistroma needle blight is a widespread fungus which infects more than 80 species of coniferous trees through the entire world. Spreading of the infection is strongly affected by climatic factors of each locality where it is recorded. We attempt to describe the concrete limiting climatic factors necessary for the releasing of conidia of D. septosporum and to find out the timing of its spore production within the year. For this purpose we used an automatic volumetric spore trap and an automatic meteorological station. We found that a minimum daily average temperature of 10 degree centigrade was necessary for any spore production, as well as a long period of high air humidity. The values obtained in the present study were a little bit higher than those previously published, which may arise questions about a possible changing trend of the behaviour in the development of the Dothistroma needle blight causal agent. We used autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict the spore counts on the base of previous values of spore counts and dew point. For a locality from Hackerovka, the best ARIMA model was 1,0,0; and for a locality from Lanzhot, the best was 3,1,0. (Author) 19 refs.

  16. Application of AI techniques to a voice-actuated computer system for reconstructing and displaying magnetic resonance imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherley, Patrick L.; Pujol, Alfonso, Jr.; Meadow, John S.

    1990-07-01

    To provide a means of rendering complex computer architectures languages and input/output modalities transparent to experienced and inexperienced users research is being conducted to develop a voice driven/voice response computer graphics imaging system. The system will be used for reconstructing and displaying computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan data. In conjunction with this study an artificial intelligence (Al) control strategy was developed to interface the voice components and support software to the computer graphics functions implemented on the Sun Microsystems 4/280 color graphics workstation. Based on generated text and converted renditions of verbal utterances by the user the Al control strategy determines the user''s intent and develops and validates a plan. The program type and parameters within the plan are used as input to the graphics system for reconstructing and displaying medical image data corresponding to that perceived intent. If the plan is not valid the control strategy queries the user for additional information. The control strategy operates in a conversation mode and vocally provides system status reports. A detailed examination of the various AT techniques is presented with major emphasis being placed on their specific roles within the total control strategy structure. 1.

  17. Application of Al techniques to a voice actuated computer system for reconstructing and displaying magnetic resonance imaging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherley, P.L.; Pujol, A. Jr.; Meadow, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that to provide a means of rendering complex computer architectures, languages, and input/output modalities transparent to experienced and inexperienced users, research is being conducted to develop a voice driven/voice response computer graphics imaging system. The system will be used for reconstructing and displaying computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scan data. In conjunction with this study, an artificial intelligence (AI) control strategy was developed to interface the voice components and support software to the computer graphics functions implemented on the Sun Microsystems 4/280 color graphics workstation. Based on generated text and converted renditions of verbal utterances by the user, the AI control strategy determines the user's intent and develops and validates a plan. The program type and parameters within the plan are used as input to the graphics system for reconstructing and displaying medical image data corresponding to that perceived intent. If the plan is not valid, the control strategy queries the user for additional informaiton. The control strategy operates in a conversation mode and vocally provides system status reports. A detailed examination of the various AI techniques is presented with major emphasis being placed on their specific roles within the total control strategy structure

  18. Development of a surgical navigation system based on augmented reality using an optical see-through head-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Xu, Lu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Huixiang; Wang, Fang; Zeng, Xiangsen; Wang, Qiugen; Egger, Jan

    2015-06-01

    The surgical navigation system has experienced tremendous development over the past decades for minimizing the risks and improving the precision of the surgery. Nowadays, Augmented Reality (AR)-based surgical navigation is a promising technology for clinical applications. In the AR system, virtual and actual reality are mixed, offering real-time, high-quality visualization of an extensive variety of information to the users (Moussa et al., 2012) [1]. For example, virtual anatomical structures such as soft tissues, blood vessels and nerves can be integrated with the real-world scenario in real time. In this study, an AR-based surgical navigation system (AR-SNS) is developed using an optical see-through HMD (head-mounted display), aiming at improving the safety and reliability of the surgery. With the use of this system, including the calibration of instruments, registration, and the calibration of HMD, the 3D virtual critical anatomical structures in the head-mounted display are aligned with the actual structures of patient in real-world scenario during the intra-operative motion tracking process. The accuracy verification experiment demonstrated that the mean distance and angular errors were respectively 0.809±0.05mm and 1.038°±0.05°, which was sufficient to meet the clinical requirements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliable cloning of functional antibody variable domains from hybridomas and spleen cell repertoires employing a reengineered phage display system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, A; Bornhauser, S; Burmester, J; Honegger, A; Willuda, J; Bosshard, H R; Plückthun, A

    1997-02-14

    A prerequisite for the use of recombinant antibody technologies starting from hybridomas or immune repertoires is the reliable cloning of functional immunoglobulin genes. For this purpose, a standard phage display system was optimized for robustness, vector stability, tight control of scFv-delta geneIII expression, primer usage for PCR amplification of variable region genes, scFv assembly strategy and subsequent directional cloning using a single rare cutting restriction enzyme. This integrated cloning, screening and selection system allowed us to rapidly obtain antigen binding scFvs derived from spleen-cell repertoires of mice immunized with ampicillin as well as from all hybridoma cell lines tested to date. As representative examples, cloning of monoclonal antibodies against a his tag, leucine zippers, the tumor marker EGP-2 and the insecticide DDT is presented. Several hybridomas whose genes could not be cloned in previous experimental setups, but were successfully obtained with the present system, expressed high amounts of aberrant heavy and light chain mRNAs, which were amplified by PCR and greatly exceeded the amount of binding antibody sequences. These contaminating variable region genes were successfully eliminated by employing the optimized phage display system, thus avoiding time consuming sequencing of non-binding scFv genes. To maximize soluble expression of functional scFvs subsequent to cloning, a compatible vector series to simplify modification, detection, multimerization and rapid purification of recombinant antibody fragments was constructed.

  20. Functional displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis De, F.; Haentjens, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Functional Displays are directly derived from the Man-Machine Design key document: Function-Based Task Analysis. The presentation defines and describes the goals-means structure of the plant function along with applicable control volumes and parameters of interest. The purpose of the subject is to show, through an example of a preliminary design, what the main parts of a function are. (3 figs.)

  1. Display hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    To appreciate the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics it is necessary to have some acquaintance with the available technology. The aim of this chapter is to mention briefly the different display types and their 'ball-park' price ranges. It must be stressed that prices change rapidly, and so those quoted here are only intended to give an idea of the cost at the time of writing.

  2. [Survival of Bacillus anthracis spores in various tannery baths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendrycka, M; Mierzejewski, J

    2000-01-01

    The influence of tannery baths: liming, deliming, bating, pickling, tanning, retannage on the survival and on the germination dynamism of B. anthracis spores (Sterne strain) was investigated. The periods and the conditions of this influence were established according to technological process of cow hide tannage. Practically after every bath some part of the spores remained vital. The most effective killing of spores occurred after pickling, liming and deliming. Inversely, the most viable spores remained after bating and retannage process. The lack of correlation that was observed between survival and germination of spores after retannage bath can be explained by different mechanism of spores germination inhibition and their killing.

  3. Online: a program to display histograms and control monitor processes on the WA62 VAX data acquisition system at CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hand, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    ONLINE is a program which can be launched from any terminal on the WA62 experiment's DEC VAX 11/780 computer when the Native mode data acquisition system is running. It is used to display histograms produced by the various experiment monitor processes running under the system and can establish links with such processes to allow the user to issue monitor commands and change internal monitor process parameters. This report describes the criteria used in the design of ONLINE and shows some of the features of the VAX/VMS Operating System which are used to access histograms produced by monitor processes, to establish communications links with monitor processes and to provide the user with an easy to learn system for the examination of online experimental data in a graphical form. Also given, is a brief account of the way monitor processes are structured and how this structure facilitates user-monitor dialogue. (author)

  4. Power Measurements for Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System Scanning Laser Helmet-Mounted Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rash, Clarence

    2002-01-01

    ...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...

  5. Cell surface expression system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of bacillus halodurans isolate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available system for the display of heterologous gene products using chimeric flagellin fusions of a Bacillus halodurans isolate Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Bacillus halodurans Alk 36 xrhombus Ability to over-produce cell... for functionality of the His-tag for metal binding. Slide 13 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za PAGE gel showing over-production of chimeric poly-His flagellin proteins 66.2 kDa 45.0 kDa 31.0 kDa 1. LMW ladder 2. NC3 3. NHisC3 4. NC6 5...

  6. Engineering bacterial surface displayed human norovirus capsid proteins: A novel system to explore interaction between norovirus and ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengya eNiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human noroviruses (HuNoVs are major contributors to acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis outbreaks. Many aspects of HuNoVs are poorly understood due to both the current inability to culture HuNoVs, and the lack of efficient small animal models. Surrogates for HuNoVs, such as recombinant viral like particles (VLPs expressed in eukaryotic system or P particles expressed in prokaryotic system, have been used for studies in immunology and interaction between the virus and its receptors. However, it is difficult to use VLPs or P particles to collect or isolate potential ligands binding to these recombinant capsid proteins. In this study, a new strategy was used to collect HuNoVs binding ligands through the use of ice nucleation protein (INP to display recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs on bacterial surfaces. The viral protein-ligand complex could be easily separated by a low speed centrifugation step. This system was also used to explore interaction between recombinant capsid proteins of HuNoVs and their receptors. In this system, the VP1 capsid encoding gene (ORF2 and the protruding domain (P domain encoding gene (3’ terminal fragment of ORF2 of HuNoVs GI.1 and GII.4 were fused with 5’ terminal fragment of ice nucleation protein encoding gene (inaQn. The results demonstrated that the recombinant VP1 and P domains of HuNoVs were expressed and anchored on the surface of Escherichia coli BL21 cells after the bacteria were transformed with the corresponding plasmids. Both cell surface displayed VP1 and P domains could be recognized by HuNoVs specific antibodies and interact with the viral histo-blood group antigens receptors. In both cases, displayed P domains had better binding abilities than VP1. This new strategy of using displayed HuNoVs capsid proteins on the bacterial surface could be utilized to separate HuNoVs binding components from complex samples, to investigate interaction between the virus and its receptors, as well as to develop an

  7. Modules of the SUMMA system for data readout to the oscillograph, digital display devices and digital printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnin, Yu.B.; Denisenko, A.A.; Dunajtsev, A.F.; Rybakov, V.G.; Sytin, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    The modules of the ''Summa'' system are described which allow outputting of information to an oscilloscope, a digital tableau, and a digital printing mechanism; they are: a digital-analog converter, a converter that converts a binary code to a binary-decimal code, a digital display module, a block for outputting to a digital printing mechanism, and a block for stipulating the programs during information outputting. The block diagrams of the modules and the block diagram of the information-outputting programs are presented

  8. Development of a data mining and imaging informatics display tool for a multiple sclerosis e-folder system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Margaret; Loo, Jerry; Ma, Kevin; Liu, Brent

    2011-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that damages axonal pathways through inflammation and demyelination. In order to address the need for a centralized application to manage and study MS patients, the MS e-Folder - a web-based, disease-specific electronic medical record system - was developed. The e-Folder has a PHP and MySQL based graphical user interface (GUI) that can serve as both a tool for clinician decision support and a data mining tool for researchers. This web-based GUI gives the e-Folder a user friendly interface that can be securely accessed through the internet and requires minimal software installation on the client side. The e-Folder GUI displays and queries patient medical records--including demographic data, social history, past medical history, and past MS history. In addition, DICOM format imaging data, and computer aided detection (CAD) results from a lesion load algorithm are also displayed. The GUI interface is dynamic and allows manipulation of the DICOM images, such as zoom, pan, and scrolling, and the ability to rotate 3D images. Given the complexity of clinical management and the need to bolster research in MS, the MS e-Folder system will improve patient care and provide MS researchers with a function-rich patient data hub.

  9. Positively charged TiO2 particles in non-polar system for electrophoretic display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Young Seon

    2005-02-01

    Electrophoretic display uses a technique called electrophoresis to represent images and letters electronically with electronic ink. Although it has good characteristics such as wide viewing angle, high contrast ratio and extremely low power consumption, there are still several issues to be resolved to improve its performances. Higher mobility and stability of the ink particles are the most important issues among them. In this study, TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide were found to be effective ink particles that satisfy higher mobility and stability. The TiO 2 particles coated with 5∼40% acrylamide were prepared by dispersion polymerization using monomers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylamide. The TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide were dispersed in isopar-G with sorbitan esters such as span 20, span 80 and span 85. The size of the TiO 2 particles were changed from 200±150 nm to 350∼500 nm by the coating process. The morphology of coated particles was observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From the TGA results, the weight fraction of TiO 2 and polymer in coated particle were calculated. From the zeta potential measurement, it was shown that as acrylamide concentration was increased from 5% to 30%, zeta potential of the coated TiO 2 particles was increased from 50mV to about 230mV. The zeta potential of the coated TiO 2 particles with 40% acrylamide was decreased to 50mV. As a stabilizer, span 85 was the most effective surfactant to improve stability of the TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide among used surfactants in this study. Span 85 showed best stability in the storage test with TiO 2 particles coated with 10% acrylamide. The mobility of TiO 2 particles coated with acrylamide with span 85 in dye solution (Oil Blue-N dissolved in isopar-G) were measured by ITO cell test. The mobility of TiO 2 particles coated with 10∼30% acrylamide was over 600μm 2 /Vs while the mobility of TiO 2

  10. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    1994-01-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.)

  11. Handling technique of spore-forming bacteria in radiation sterilization. 2. Determination of numbers and radiation resistance of spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko [Japan Radioisotope Association, Shiga (Japan). Koka Laboratory

    1994-12-01

    Stepwise ten-fold dilution of bacterial solution is required in the determination of bacterial spores. For this, the selection of diluted solution is important according to the purpose of experiment. First, the preparation of suspension of bacterial spores and selection of diluted solution are presented. Then, a method for determining the number of bacterial spores in materials is outlined in terms of dilution methods of bacterial solution (shaking and homogenization) and application method of diluted solution to the plating medium. Finally, a method for determining radiation resistance of spore-forming bacteria is explained according to the measurement conditions (suspension of bacterial spores and filters applied with bacterial spores). (N.K.).

  12. WINDSUN: Weather INformation Display Systems for UAS in the NAS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is leading a large-scale effort to conduct research, develop standards, and integrate technologies to facilitate the insertion of Unmanned Aircraft Systems...

  13. The entire network topology display system of terminal communication access network

    OpenAIRE

    An Yi

    2016-01-01

    Now order terminal communication access network is network technology in Shanxi Province is diversiform, device type complex, lack of unified technical standard, the terminal communication access network management system of construction constitutes a great obstacle. Need to build a “unified communication interface and communication standard, unified communications network management” of the terminal communication access network cut in the integrated network management system, for the termina...

  14. A novel augmented reality system for displaying inferior alveolar nerve bundles in maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Fei; Chai, Gang; Pan, Jun J; Jiang, Taoran; Lin, Li; Xin, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qingfeng

    2017-02-15

    Augmented reality systems can combine virtual images with a real environment to ensure accurate surgery with lower risk. This study aimed to develop a novel registration and tracking technique to establish a navigation system based on augmented reality for maxillofacial surgery. Specifically, a virtual image is reconstructed from CT data using 3D software. The real environment is tracked by the augmented reality (AR) software. The novel registration strategy that we created uses an occlusal splint compounded with a fiducial marker (OSM) to establish a relationship between the virtual image and the real object. After the fiducial marker is recognized, the virtual image is superimposed onto the real environment, forming the "integrated image" on semi-transparent glass. Via the registration process, the integral image, which combines the virtual image with the real scene, is successfully presented on the semi-transparent helmet. The position error of this navigation system is 0.96 ± 0.51 mm. This augmented reality system was applied in the clinic and good surgical outcomes were obtained. The augmented reality system that we established for maxillofacial surgery has the advantages of easy manipulation and high accuracy, which can improve surgical outcomes. Thus, this system exhibits significant potential in clinical applications.

  15. Practical Tips for Construction of Custom Peptide Libraries and Affinity Selection by Using Commercially Available Phage Display Cloning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Fukunaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage display technology is undoubtedly a powerful tool for affinity selection of target-specific peptide. Commercially available premade phage libraries allow us to take screening in the easiest way. On the other hand, construction of a custom phage library seems to be inaccessible, because several practical tips are absent in instructions. This paper focuses on what should be born in mind for beginners using commercially available cloning kits (Ph.D. with type 3 vector and T7Select systems for M13 and T7 phage, respectively. In the M13 system, Pro or a basic amino acid (especially, Arg should be avoided at the N-terminus of peptide fused to gp3. In both systems, peptides containing odd number(s of Cys should be designed with caution. Also, DNA sequencing of a constructed library before biopanning is highly recommended for finding unexpected bias.

  16. Identification and characterization of a spore-like morphotype in chronically starved Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise A Lamont

    Full Text Available Mycobacteria are able to enter into a state of non-replication or dormancy, which may result in their chronic persistence in soil, aquatic environments, and permissive hosts. Stresses such as nutrient deprivation and hypoxia provide environmental cues to enter a persistent state; however, a clear definition of the mechanism that mycobacteria employ to achieve this remains elusive. While the concept of sporulation in mycobacteria is not novel, it continues to spark controversy and challenges our perceptions of a non-replication. We investigated the potential role of sporulation in one-year old broth cultures of Mycobacterium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP. We show that dormant cultures of MAP contain a mix of vegetative cells and a previously unknown morphotype resembling a spore. These spore-like structures can be enriched for using sporulating media. Furthermore, purified MAP spore forms survive exposure to heat, lysozyme and proteinase K. Heat-treated spores are positive for MAP 16SrRNA and IS900. MAP spores display enhanced infectivity as well as maintain acid-fast characteristics upon germination in a well-established bovine macrophage model. This is the first study to demonstrate a new MAP morphotype possessing spore-like qualities. Data suggest that sporulation may be a viable mechanism by which MAP accomplishes persistence in the host and/or environment. Thus, our current understanding of mycobacterial persistence, pathogenesis, epidemiology and rational drug and vaccine design may need to be reevaluated.

  17. Development of real time monitor system displaying seismic waveform data observed at seafloor seismic network, DONET, for disaster management information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, H.; Takaesu, M.; Sueki, K.; Takahashi, N.; Sonoda, A.; Miura, S.; Tsuboi, S.

    2014-12-01

    Mega-thrust earthquakes are anticipated to occur in the Nankai Trough in southwest Japan. In the source areas, we have deployed seafloor seismic network, DONET (Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunamis), in 2010 in order to monitor seismicity, crustal deformations, and tsunamis. DONET system consists of totally 20 stations, which is composed of six kinds of sensors, including strong-motion seismometers and quartz pressure gauges. Those stations are densely distributed with an average spatial interval of 15-20 km and cover near the trench axis to coastal areas. Observed data are transferred to a land station through a fiber-optical cable and then to JAMSTEC (Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology) data management center through a private network in real time. After 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, each local government close to Nankai Trough try to plan disaster prevention scheme. JAMSTEC will disseminate DONET data combined with research accomplishment so that they will be widely recognized as important earthquake information. In order to open DONET data observed for research to local government, we have developed a web application system, REIS (Real-time Earthquake Information System). REIS is providing seismic waveform data to some local governments close to Nankai Trough as a pilot study. As soon as operation of DONET is ready, REIS will start full-scale operation. REIS can display seismic waveform data of DONET in real-time, users can select strong motion and pressure data, and configure the options of trace view arrangement, time scale, and amplitude. In addition to real-time monitoring, REIS can display past seismic waveform data and show earthquake epicenters on the map. In this presentation, we briefly introduce DONET system and then show our web application system. We also discuss our future plans for further developments of REIS.

  18. Mechanism of the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucoside by germinating and outgrowing spores of Bacillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B; Cabrera-Martinez, R-M; Setlow, P

    2004-01-01

    To determine the mechanism of the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (beta-MUG) by germinating and outgrowing spores of Bacillus species. Spores of B. atrophaeus (formerly B. subtilis var. niger, Fritze and Pukall 2001) are used as biological indicators of the efficacy of ethylene oxide sterilization by measurement of beta-MUG hydrolysis during spore germination and outgrowth. It was previously shown that beta-MUG is hydrolysed to 4-methylumbelliferone (MU) during the germination and outgrowth of B. atrophaeus spores (Chandrapati and Woodson 2003), and this was also the case with spores of B. subtilis 168. Germination of spores of either B. atrophaeus or B. subtilis with chloramphenicol reduced beta-MUG hydrolysis by almost 99%, indicating that proteins needed for rapid beta-MUG hydrolysis are synthesized during spore outgrowth. However, the residual beta-MUG hydrolysis during spore germination with chloramphenicol indicated that dormant spores contain low levels of proteins needed for beta-MUG uptake and hydrolysis. With B. subtilis 168 spores that lacked several general proteins of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for sugar uptake, beta-MUG hydrolysis during spore germination and outgrowth was decreased >99.9%. This indicated that beta-MUG is taken up by the PTS, resulting in the intracellular accumulation of the phosphorylated form of beta-MUG, beta-MUG-6-phosphate (beta-MUG-P). This was further demonstrated by the lack of detectable glucosidase activity on beta-MUG in dormant, germinated and outgrowing spore extracts, while phosphoglucosidase active on beta-MUG-P was readily detected. Dormant B. subtilis 168 spores had low levels of at least four phosphoglucosidases active on beta-MUG-P: BglA, BglH, BglC (originally called YckE) and BglD (originally called YdhP). These enzymes were also detected in spores germinating and outgrowing with beta-MUG, but levels of BglH were the highest, as this enzyme's synthesis was induced ca 100-fold

  19. Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility (SPRF) calculator-assisted pulse analysis and display system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, B.F.; Berry, D.T.

    1980-02-01

    Two solid-metal fast burst type reactors (SPR II and SPR III) are operated at the Sandia Pulsed Reactor Facility. Since startup of the reactors, oscilloscope traces have been used to record (by camera) the pulse (power) shape while log N systems have measured initial reactor period. Virtually no other pulse information is available. A decision was made to build a system that could collect the basic input data available from the reactor - fission chambers, photodiodes, and thermocouples - condition the signals and output the various parameters such as power, energy, temperature, period and lifetime on hard copy that would provide a record for operations personnel as well as the experimenter. Because the reactors operate in short time frames - pulse operation - it is convenient to utilize the classical Nordheim-Fuchs approximation of the diffusion equation to describe reactor behavior. This report describes the work performed to date in developing the calculator system and analytical models for computing the desired parameters

  20. Jedi training: playful evaluation of head-mounted augmented reality display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Christopher S.; Giesler, Bjorn; Dillmann, Ruediger

    2004-05-01

    A fundamental decision in building augmented reality (AR) systems is how to accomplish the combining of the real and virtual worlds. Nowadays this key-question boils down to the two alternatives video-see-through (VST) vs. optical-see-through (OST). Both systems have advantages and disadvantages in areas like production-simplicity, resolution, flexibility in composition strategies, field of view etc. To provide additional decision criteria for high dexterity, accuracy tasks and subjective user-acceptance a gaming environment was programmed that allowed good evaluation of hand-eye coordination, and that was inspired by the Star Wars movies. During an experimentation session with more than thirty participants a preference for optical-see-through glasses in conjunction with infra-red-tracking was found. Especially the high-computational demand for video-capture, processing and the resulting drop in frame rate emerged as a key-weakness of the VST-system.

  1. The influence of sporulation conditions on the spore coat protein composition of Bacillus subtilis spores.

    OpenAIRE

    Wishwas R. Abhyankar; Wishwas R. Abhyankar; Kiki Kamphorst; Bhagyashree N. Swarge; Bhagyashree N. Swarge; Henk van Veen; Nicole N. van der Wel; Stanley Brul; Chris G. de Koster; Leo J. de Koning

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for t...

  2. The Influence of Sporulation Conditions on the Spore Coat Protein Composition of Bacillus subtilis Spores

    OpenAIRE

    Abhyankar, Wishwas R.; Kamphorst, Kiki; Swarge, Bhagyashree N.; van Veen, Henk; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Brul, Stanley; de Koster, Chris G.; de Koning, Leo J.

    2016-01-01

    Spores are of high interest to the food and health sectors because of their extreme resistance to harsh conditions, especially against heat. Earlier research has shown that spores prepared on solid agar plates have a higher heat resistance than those prepared under a liquid medium condition. It has also been shown that the more mature a spore is, the higher is its heat resistance most likely mediated, at least in part, by the progressive cross-linking of coat proteins. The current study for t...

  3. Positively charged TiO{sub 2} particles in non-polar system for electrophoretic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Young Seon

    2005-02-15

    Electrophoretic display uses a technique called electrophoresis to represent images and letters electronically with electronic ink. Although it has good characteristics such as wide viewing angle, high contrast ratio and extremely low power consumption, there are still several issues to be resolved to improve its performances. Higher mobility and stability of the ink particles are the most important issues among them. In this study, TiO{sub 2} particles coated with acrylamide were found to be effective ink particles that satisfy higher mobility and stability. The TiO{sub 2} particles coated with 5∼40% acrylamide were prepared by dispersion polymerization using monomers of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and acrylamide. The TiO{sub 2} particles coated with acrylamide were dispersed in isopar-G with sorbitan esters such as span 20, span 80 and span 85. The size of the TiO{sub 2} particles were changed from 200±150 nm to 350∼500 nm by the coating process. The morphology of coated particles was observed using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From the TGA results, the weight fraction of TiO{sub 2} and polymer in coated particle were calculated. From the zeta potential measurement, it was shown that as acrylamide concentration was increased from 5% to 30%, zeta potential of the coated TiO{sub 2} particles was increased from 50mV to about 230mV. The zeta potential of the coated TiO{sub 2} particles with 40% acrylamide was decreased to 50mV. As a stabilizer, span 85 was the most effective surfactant to improve stability of the TiO{sub 2} particles coated with acrylamide among used surfactants in this study. Span 85 showed best stability in the storage test with TiO{sub 2} particles coated with 10% acrylamide. The mobility of TiO{sub 2} particles coated with acrylamide with span 85 in dye solution (Oil Blue-N dissolved in isopar-G) were measured by ITO cell test. The mobility of TiO{sub 2} particles coated with 10∼30

  4. Spore analysis and tetrad dissection of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekwall, Karl; Thon, Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe the processing of Schizosaccharomyces pombe spores in batches (random spore analysis) or through tetrad dissections. Spores are usually prepared from matings between haploid strains (producing zygotic asci) or from sporulating diploids (producing azygotic asci). In random spore...

  5. 76 FR 32258 - Access to Aircraft Situation Display (ASDI) and National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... ``even more transparent, participatory, and collaborative'' and to release data ``proactively'' making it... disclosure of information it collects is an integral part of a constitutional democracy and informed public.... L. 110-175, Dec. 31, 2007; 5 U.S.C. 552 note), ``our constitutional democracy, our system of self...

  6. Using a Ternary Diagram to Display a System's Evolving Energy Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzle, Bob; Tapp, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A ternary diagram is a graphical representation used for systems with three components. They are familiar to mineralogists (who typically use them to categorize varieties of solid solution minerals such as feldspar) but are not yet widely used in the physics community. Last year the lead author began using ternary diagrams in his introductory…

  7. Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2012-01-01

    The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems...

  8. Performance Monitoring in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems - Synchronisation of Refrigerated Display Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Liang; Green, Torben; Sloth Larsen, Lars Finn

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid control has in the recent years drawn considerable attention in academia as it poses a large number of theoretical and computational challenges. The interested scientific community has proposed various methods to address some of the problems related to modeling and control of hybrid system...

  9. Dendritic Cells Endocytose Bacillus Anthracis Spores: Implications for Anthrax Pathogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brittingham, Katherine C; Ruthel, Gordon; Panchal, Rekha G; Fuller, Claudette L; Ribot, Wilson J

    2005-01-01

    Phagocytosis of inhaled Bacillus anthracis spores and subsequent trafficking to lymph nodes are decisive events in the progression of inhaled anthrax because they initiate germination and dissemination of spores...

  10. Comparison of hand hygiene procedures for removing Bacillus cereus spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasahara, Teppei; Hayashi, Shunji; Hosoda, Kouichi; Morisawa, Yuji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium. B. cereus occasionally causes nosocomial infections, in which hand contamination with the spores plays an important role. Therefore, hand hygiene is the most important practice for controlling nosocomial B. cereus infections. This study aimed to determine the appropriate hand hygiene procedure for removing B. cereus spores. Thirty volunteers' hands were experimentally contaminated with B. cereus spores, after which they performed 6 different hand hygiene procedures. We compared the efficacy of the procedures in removing the spores from hands. The alcohol-based hand-rubbing procedures scarcely removed them. The soap washing procedures reduced the number of spores by more than 2 log10. Extending the washing time increased the spore-removing efficacy of the washing procedures. There was no significant difference in efficacy between the use of plain soap and antiseptic soap. Handwashing with soap is appropriate for removing B. cereus spores from hands. Alcohol-based hand-rubbing is not effective.

  11. The Eye Catching Property of Digital-Signage with Scent and a Scent-Emitting Video Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomono, Akira; Otake, Syunya

    In this paper, the effective method of inducing a glance aimed at the digital signage by emitting a scent is described. The simulation experiment was done using the immersive VR System because there were a lot of restrictions to the experiment in an actual passageway. In order to investigate the eye catching property of the digital signage, the passer-by's eye movement was analyzed. Through the experiment, they were clarified that the digital signage with the scent was paid to attention, and the strong impression remained in the memory. Next, a scent-emitting video display system applying to the digital signage is described. To this end, a scent-emitting device that is able to quickly change the scents it is releasing, and present them from a distance (by the non-contact method), thus maintaining a relationship between the scent and the image, must be developed. We propose a new method where a device that can release pressurized gases is placed behind the display screen filled with tiny pores. Scents are then ejected from this device, traveling through the pores to the front side of the screen. An excellent scent delivery characteristic was obtained because the distance to the user is close and the scent is presented from the front. We also present a method for inducing viewer reactions using on-screen images, thereby enabling scent release to coincide precisely with viewer inhalations. We anticipate that the simultaneous presentation of scents and video images will deepen viewers' comprehension of these images.

  12. Development of novel drug delivery systems using phage display technology for clinical application of protein drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Kazuya; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Attempts are being made to develop therapeutic proteins for cancer, hepatitis, and autoimmune conditions, but their clinical applications are limited, except in the cases of drugs based on erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, interferon-alpha, and antibodies, owing to problems with fundamental technologies for protein drug discovery. It is difficult to identify proteins useful as therapeutic seeds or targets. Another problem in using bioactive proteins is pleiotropic actions through receptors, making it hard to elicit desired effects without side effects. Additionally, bioactive proteins have poor therapeutic effects owing to degradation by proteases and rapid excretion from the circulatory system. Therefore, it is essential to establish a series of novel drug delivery systems (DDS) to overcome these problems. Here, we review original technologies in DDS. First, we introduce antibody proteomics technology for effective selection of proteins useful as therapeutic seeds or targets and identification of various kinds of proteins, such as cancer-specific proteins, cancer metastasis-related proteins, and a cisplatin resistance-related protein. Especially Ephrin receptor A10 is expressed in breast tumor tissues but not in normal tissues and is a promising drug target potentially useful for breast cancer treatment. Moreover, we have developed a system for rapidly creating functional mutant proteins to optimize the seeds for therapeutic applications and used this system to generate various kinds of functional cytokine muteins. Among them, R1antTNF is a TNFR1-selective antagonistic mutant of TNF and is the first mutein converted from agonist to antagonist. We also review a novel polymer-conjugation system to improve the in vivo stability of bioactive proteins. Site-specific PEGylated R1antTNF is uniform at the molecular level, and its bioactivity is similar to that of unmodified R1antTNF. In the future, we hope that many innovative protein drugs will be

  13. Magnetic Ganoderma lucidum spore microspheres: A novel material to immobilize CotA multicopper oxidase for dye decolorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Lili [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Yan, E-mail: wangy_msn@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhao, Min [College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Song, Jinzhu [School of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jueyu; Jin, Zijing [College of Life Science, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. • Novel magnetic microspheres were prepared by load hollow spore microspheres with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles. • CotA multicopper oxidase was immobilized on the magnetic spore microspheres for indigo carmine decolorization. • The immobilized CotA displayed higher decolorization capability and reusability. - Abstract: In this study, hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. Then the hollow microspheres were loaded with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles to prepare novel magnetic spore microspheres. TEM images and X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were incorporated throughout the spore microsphere. CotA multicopper oxidase was chosen as biomacromolecule to study the loading ability of the magnetic spore microspheres. The combination of the CotA enzyme with the microsphere was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. The loaded amount of CotA on the microspheres was 75 mg/g when the CotA concentration was 1.2 mg/mL and the activity recovery of the immobilized CotA was 81%. The magnetic microspheres loaded with CotA, which can be easily and quickly recovered by an external magnetic field, were used for dye decolorization. After 1 h decolorization, 99% of the indigo carmine has been removed by 10 mg microspheres. In addition, the immobilized CotA retained 75% of activity after 10 consecutive cycles, which indicated that the magnetic spore microspheres are good support material for immobilization of the enzyme.

  14. Magnetic Ganoderma lucidum spore microspheres: A novel material to immobilize CotA multicopper oxidase for dye decolorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lili; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Min; Song, Jinzhu; Wang, Jueyu; Jin, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. • Novel magnetic microspheres were prepared by load hollow spore microspheres with Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles. • CotA multicopper oxidase was immobilized on the magnetic spore microspheres for indigo carmine decolorization. • The immobilized CotA displayed higher decolorization capability and reusability. - Abstract: In this study, hollow microspheres were obtained from Ganoderma lucidum spores. Then the hollow microspheres were loaded with Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles to prepare novel magnetic spore microspheres. TEM images and X-ray diffractometry demonstrated that the Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles were incorporated throughout the spore microsphere. CotA multicopper oxidase was chosen as biomacromolecule to study the loading ability of the magnetic spore microspheres. The combination of the CotA enzyme with the microsphere was observed by laser scanning confocal microscope. The loaded amount of CotA on the microspheres was 75 mg/g when the CotA concentration was 1.2 mg/mL and the activity recovery of the immobilized CotA was 81%. The magnetic microspheres loaded with CotA, which can be easily and quickly recovered by an external magnetic field, were used for dye decolorization. After 1 h decolorization, 99% of the indigo carmine has been removed by 10 mg microspheres. In addition, the immobilized CotA retained 75% of activity after 10 consecutive cycles, which indicated that the magnetic spore microspheres are good support material for immobilization of the enzyme.

  15. Simple display system of mechanical properties of cells and their dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Shimizu

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of cells are unique indicators of their states and functions. Though, it is difficult to recognize the degrees of mechanical properties, due to small size of the cell and broad distribution of the mechanical properties. Here, we developed a simple virtual reality system for presenting the mechanical properties of cells and their dispersion using a haptic device and a PC. This system simulates atomic force microscopy (AFM nanoindentation experiments for floating cells in virtual environments. An operator can virtually position the AFM spherical probe over a round cell with the haptic handle on the PC monitor and feel the force interaction. The Young's modulus of mesenchymal stem cells and HEK293 cells in the floating state was measured by AFM. The distribution of the Young's modulus of these cells was broad, and the distribution complied with a log-normal pattern. To represent the mechanical properties together with the cell variance, we used log-normal distribution-dependent random number determined by the mode and variance values of the Young's modulus of these cells. The represented Young's modulus was determined for each touching event of the probe surface and the cell object, and the haptic device-generating force was calculated using a Hertz model corresponding to the indentation depth and the fixed Young's modulus value. Using this system, we can feel the mechanical properties and their dispersion in each cell type in real time. This system will help us not only recognize the degrees of mechanical properties of diverse cells but also share them with others.

  16. Altered Dermal Fibroblasts in Systemic Sclerosis Display Podoplanin and CD90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Banafsheh; Rice, Lisa M; Stifano, Giuseppina; Barron, Alexander M S; Wang, Yu Mei; Korndorf, Tess; Lee, Jungeun; Bhawan, Jag; Lafyatis, Robert; Browning, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    Tissue injury triggers the activation and differentiation of multiple cell types to minimize damage and initiate repair processes. In systemic sclerosis, these repair processes appear to run unchecked, leading to aberrant remodeling and fibrosis of the skin and multiple internal organs, yet the fundamental pathological defect remains unknown. We describe herein a transition wherein the abundant CD34(+) dermal fibroblasts present in healthy human skin disappear in the skin of systemic sclerosis patients, and CD34(-), podoplanin(+), and CD90(+) fibroblasts appear. This transition is limited to the upper dermis in several inflammatory skin diseases, yet in systemic sclerosis, it can occur in all regions of the dermis. In vitro, primary dermal fibroblasts readily express podoplanin in response to the inflammatory stimuli tumor necrosis factor and IL-1β. Furthermore, we show that on acute skin injury in both human and murine settings, this transition occurs quickly, consistent with a response to inflammatory signaling. Transitioned fibroblasts partially resemble the cells that form the reticular networks in organized lymphoid tissues, potentially linking two areas of fibroblast research. These results allow for the visualization and quantification of a basic stage of fibroblast differentiation in inflammatory and fibrotic diseases in the skin. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fifth international fungus spore conference. [Abstracts]: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timberlake, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    This folio contains the proceedings of the Fifth International Fungal Spore Conference held August 17-21, 1991 at the Unicoi State Park at Helen, Georgia. The volume contains abstracts of each oral presentation as well as a collection of abstracts describing the poster sessions. Presentations were organized around the themes (1) Induction of Sporulation, (2) Nuclear Division, (3) Spore Formation, (4) Spore Release and Dispersal, and (4) Spore Germination.

  18. Impact of Advanced Alarm Systems and Information Displays on Human Reliability in the Digital Control Room of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Dang, Vinh N

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential impacts of two advanced features of digital control rooms, alarm systems and information display systems, on the Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in nuclear power plants. Although the features of digital control rooms have already been implemented in new or upgraded nuclear power plants, HRAs have so far not taken much credit for these features. In this circumstance, this paper aims at examining the potential effects of these features on human performance and discussing how these effects can be addressed with existing HRA methods. A conclusion derivable from past experimental studies is that those features are supportive in the severe conditions such as complex scenarios and knowledge-based works. However, in the less complex scenarios and rule-based work, they may have no difference with or sometimes negative impacts on operator performance. The discussion about the impact on the HRA is provided on the basis on the THERP method

  19. The Development and Evaluation of Color Systems for Airborne Applications: Fundamental Visual, Perceptual, and Display Systems Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    CIE- UCG 1960 CIE-UC1-1 0 3.1 02. 0.5 0.6 U. u Figure 2.17.17.2- . A Comparlson of the CIE 1960 and CIE 1 󈨐 UCS Diagrams 272 NADC-8601 1-60 .7. .4 4W3...Significant advances have also been made in the general aviation market , where full-color electronic flight displays are currently offered as options to...Oregon Tektronix has developed and is currently marketing a high-resolution, highly versatile color monitor designated the 690 SR. This unit is designed

  20. Development of a remote data acquisition and graphic display system for the sodium rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, A.; Sylvia, J.I.; Swaminathan, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Remote Data Acquisition System for Sodium Rigs. Seven data loggers, an alarm monitor and a PLC are geographically distributed in two sodium rigs over a distance of 500 m. A serial data highway based on RS485 transceivers has been constructed to remotely acquire data from these stations. The field stations are connected to the data highway in a multi drop fashion. A PC/AT computer on the same bus remotely acquires and monitors the data from the field stations. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs

  1. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W.; Judge, J.

    1997-01-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark

  2. Use of yeast spores for microencapsulation of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Libing; Li, Zijie; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-08-01

    Here, we report a novel method to produce microencapsulated enzymes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae spores. In sporulating cells, soluble secreted proteins are transported to the spore wall. Previous work has shown that the spore wall is capable of retaining soluble proteins because its outer layers work as a diffusion barrier. Accordingly, a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion of the α-galactosidase, Mel1, expressed in spores was observed in the spore wall even after spores were subjected to a high-salt wash in the presence of detergent. In vegetative cells, however, the cell wall cannot retain the RFP fusion. Although the spore wall prevents diffusion of proteins, it is likely that smaller molecules, such as sugars, pass through it. In fact, spores can contain much higher α-galactosidase activity to digest melibiose than vegetative cells. When present in the spore wall, the enzyme acquires resistance to environmental stresses including enzymatic digestion and high temperatures. The outer layers of the spore wall are required to retain enzymes but also decrease accessibility of the substrates. However, mutants with mild spore wall defects can retain and stabilize the enzyme while still permitting access to the substrate. In addition to Mel1, we also show that spores can retain the invertase. Interestingly the encapsulated invertase has significantly lower activity toward raffinose than toward sucrose.This suggests that substrate selectivity could be altered by the encapsulation.

  3. Imaging bacterial spores by soft-x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, A.D.; Ford, T.W. [Univ. of London, Surrey (United Kingdom); Judge, J. [Unilever plc, Sharnbrook (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Bacterial spores are able to survive dehydration, but neither the physiological nor structural basis of this have been fully elucidated. Furthermore, once hydrated, spores often require activation before they will germinate. Several treatments can be used to activate spores, but in the case of Bacillus subtlis the most effective is heat treatment. The physiological mechanism associated with activation is also not understood, but some workers suggest that the loss of calcium from the spores may be critical. However, just prior to germination, the spores change from being phase bright to phase dark when viewed by light microscopy. Imaging spores by soft x-ray microscopy is possible without fixation. Thus, in contrast to electron microscopy, it is possible to compare the structure of dehydrated and hydrated spores in a manner not possible previously. A further advantage is that it is possible to monitor individual spores by phase contrast light microscopy immediately prior to imaging with soft x-rays; whereas, with both electron microscopy and biochemical studies, it is a population of spores being studied without knowledge of the phase characteristics of individual spores. This study has therefore tried to compare dehydrated and hydrated spores and to determine if there is a mass loss from individual spores as they pass the transition from being phase bright to phase dark.

  4. Expression and characterization of a novel spore wall protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular, eukaryotic, spore-forming parasites. The environmentally resistant spores, which harbor a rigid cell wall, are critical for their survival outside their host cells and host-to-host transmission. The spore wall comprises two major layers: the exospore and the endospore. In Nosema ...

  5. Vibrio tapetis Displays an Original Type IV Secretion System in Strains Pathogenic for Bivalve Molluscs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela M. Dias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Brown Ring Disease (BRD caused high mortality rates since 1986 in the Manila clam Venerupis philippinarum introduced and cultured in Western Europe from the 1970s. The causative agent of BRD is a Gram-Negative bacterium, Vibrio tapetis, which is also pathogenic to fish. Here we report the first assembly of the complete genome of V. tapetis CECT4600T, together with the genome sequences of 16 additional strains isolated across a broad host and geographic range. Our extensive genome dataset allowed us to describe the pathogen pan- and core genomes and to identify putative virulence factors. The V. tapetis core genome consists of 3,352 genes, including multiple potential virulence factors represented by haemolysins, transcriptional regulators, Type I restriction modification system, GGDEF domain proteins, several conjugative plasmids, and a Type IV secretion system. Future research on the coevolutionary arms race between V. tapetis virulence factors and host resistance mechanisms will improve our understanding of how pathogenicity develops in this emerging pathogen.

  6. Dynamic Tunnel Usability Study: Format Recommendations for Synthetic Vision System Primary Flight Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Jarvis J., III; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Bailey, Randall E.

    2006-01-01

    A usability study evaluating dynamic tunnel concepts has been completed under the Aviation Safety and Security Program, Synthetic Vision Systems Project. The usability study was conducted in the Visual Imaging Simulator for Transport Aircraft Systems (VISTAS) III simulator in the form of questionnaires and pilot-in-the-loop simulation sessions. Twelve commercial pilots participated in the study to determine their preferences via paired comparisons and subjective rankings regarding the color, line thickness and sensitivity of the dynamic tunnel. The results of the study showed that color was not significant in pilot preference paired comparisons or in pilot rankings. Line thickness was significant for both pilot preference paired comparisons and in pilot rankings. The preferred line/halo thickness combination was a line width of 3 pixels and a halo of 4 pixels. Finally, pilots were asked their preference for the current dynamic tunnel compared to a less sensitive dynamic tunnel. The current dynamic tunnel constantly gives feedback to the pilot with regard to path error while the less sensitive tunnel only changes as the path error approaches the edges of the tunnel. The tunnel sensitivity comparison results were not statistically significant.

  7. DISTRIBUTION ET ABONDANCE DE SPORES DE CHAMPIGNONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    (PCR) des racines échantillonnées et le comptage directe des spores des sols échantillonnés ont permis ... cowpea, sing the PCR technique, reveal that this plant was an efficient host for ..... genes from vesicular-arbuscular endomy- ...

  8. Pollen and spores of terrestrial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.; Shennan, Ian; Long, Antony J.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen and spores are valuable tools in reconstructing past sea level and climate because of their ubiquity, abundance, and durability as well as their reciprocity with source vegetation to environmental change (Cronin, 1999; Traverse, 2007; Willard and Bernhardt, 2011). Pollan is found in many sedimentary environments, from freshwater to saltwater, terrestrial to marine. It can be abundant in a minimal amount of sample material, for example half a gram, as concentrations can be as high as four million grains per gram (Traverse, 2007). The abundance of pollen in a sample lends it to robust statistical analysis for the quantitative reconstruction of environments. The outer cell wall is resistant to decay in sediments and allows palynomorphs (pollen and spores) to record changes in plant communities and sea level over millions of years. These characteristics make pollen and spores a powerful tool to use in sea-level research.This chapter describes the biology of pollen and spores and how they are transported and preserved in sediments. We present a methodology for isolating pollen from sediments and a general language and framework to identify pollen as well as light micrographs of a selection of common pollen grains, We then discuss their utility in sea-level research.

  9. Detecting bacterial spores in soup manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zuijlen, A.C.M.; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Vos, P.; Brul, S.

    2009-01-01

    Spores from mesophilic aerobic sporeforming bacteria (Bacillus) are sometimes able to survive the thermal process of commercial sterile products and sporadically cause spoilage or food poisoning. Because of an increasing demand for more fresh products, ideally the processing temperatures should be

  10. Paleozoic in situ spores and pollen. Lycopsida

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 296, 1/6 (2017), s. 1-111 ISSN 0375-0299 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2053 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : in situ spores * reproductive organs * Lycopsida * Paleozoic Sub ject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016

  11. Can spores survive in interstellar space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, P.; Greenberg, J.M.

    1985-08-01

    Inactivation of spores (Bacillus subtilis) has been investigated in the laboratory by vacuum ultraviolet radiation in simulated interstellar conditions. Damage produced at the normal interstellar particle temperature of 10 K is less than at higher temperatures: the major damage being produced by radiation in the 2,000-3,000 A range. The results place constraints on the panspermia hypothesis. (author).

  12. Modeling to control spores in raw milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.

    2007-01-01

    A modeling approach was used to identify measures at the farm that reduce transmission of microorganisms to raw milk. Butyric acid bacteria (BAB) and Bacillus cereus were used as case-studies. Minimizing the concentration of BAB spores in raw milk is important to prevent late-blowing of Gouda-type

  13. Phospholipase Cδ regulates germination of Dictyostelium spores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijken, Peter van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Background: Many eukaryotes, including plants and fungi make spores that resist severe environmental stress. The micro-organism Dictyostelium contains a single phospholipase C gene (PLC); deletion of the gene has no effect on growth, cell movement and differentiation. In this report we show that PLC

  14. The Conserved Spore Coat Protein SpoVM Is Largely Dispensable in Clostridium difficile Spore Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribis, John W; Ravichandran, Priyanka; Putnam, Emily E; Pishdadian, Keyan; Shen, Aimee

    2017-01-01

    The spore-forming bacterial pathogen Clostridium difficile is a leading cause of health care-associated infections in the United States. In order for this obligate anaerobe to transmit infection, it must form metabolically dormant spores prior to exiting the host. A key step during this process is the assembly of a protective, multilayered proteinaceous coat around the spore. Coat assembly depends on coat morphogenetic proteins recruiting distinct subsets of coat proteins to the developing spore. While 10 coat morphogenetic proteins have been identified in Bacillus subtilis , only two of these morphogenetic proteins have homologs in the Clostridia : SpoIVA and SpoVM. C. difficile SpoIVA is critical for proper coat assembly and functional spore formation, but the requirement for SpoVM during this process was unknown. Here, we show that SpoVM is largely dispensable for C. difficile spore formation, in contrast with B. subtilis . Loss of C. difficile SpoVM resulted in modest decreases (~3-fold) in heat- and chloroform-resistant spore formation, while morphological defects such as coat detachment from the forespore and abnormal cortex thickness were observed in ~30% of spoVM mutant cells. Biochemical analyses revealed that C. difficile SpoIVA and SpoVM directly interact, similarly to their B. subtilis counterparts. However, in contrast with B. subtilis , C. difficile SpoVM was not essential for SpoIVA to encase the forespore. Since C. difficile coat morphogenesis requires SpoIVA-interacting protein L (SipL), which is conserved exclusively in the Clostridia , but not the more broadly conserved SpoVM, our results reveal another key difference between C. difficile and B. subtilis spore assembly pathways. IMPORTANCE The spore-forming obligate anaerobe Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of antibiotic-associated diarrheal disease in the United States. When C. difficile spores are ingested by susceptible individuals, they germinate within the gut and

  15. Wfs1-deficient mice display altered function of serotonergic system and increased behavioural response to antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanel eVisnapuu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene make humans more susceptible to mood disorders. Besides that, mood disorders are associated with alterations in the activity of serotonergic and noradrenergic systems. Therefore, in this study, the effects of imipramine, an inhibitor of serotonin (5-HT and noradrenaline (NA reuptake, and paroxetine, a selective inhibitor of 5-HT reuptake, were studied in tests of behavioural despair. The tail suspension test (TST and forced swimming test (FST were performed in Wfs1-deficient mice. Simultaneously, gene expression and monoamine metabolism studies were conducted to evaluate changes in 5-HT- and NA-ergic systems of Wfs1-deficient mice. The basal immobility time of Wfs1-deficient mice in TST and FST did not differ from that of their wild-type littermates. However, a significant reduction of immobility time in response to lower doses of imipramine and paroxetine was observed in homozygous Wfs1-deficient mice, but not in their wild-type littermates. In gene expression studies, the levels of 5-HT transporter (SERT were significantly reduced in the pons of homozygous animals. Monoamine metabolism was assayed separately in the dorsal and ventral striatum of naive mice and mice exposed for 30 minutes tobrightly lit motility boxes. We found that this aversive challenge caused a significant increase in the levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA, a metabolite of 5-HT, in the ventral and dorsal striatum of wild-type mice, but not in their homozygous littermates. Taken together, the blunted 5-HT metabolism and reduced levels of SERT are a likely reason for the elevated sensitivity of these mice to the action of imipramine and paroxetine. These changes in the pharmacological and neurochemical phenotype of Wfs1-deficient mice may help to explain the increased susceptibility of Wolfram syndrome patients to depressive states.

  16. Displaying DIII-D plasma data using DEC's X window system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the DIII-D tokamak program funded by the Department of Energy, which carries out plasma physics and fusion energy research experiments. The machine began operation in February 1986; at that time, approximately 7 Mbytes of data was collected for each shot. Since that time, the shot size has steadily increased to over 50 Mbytes with the average shot size between 35 and 45 Mbytes. Shots are fired every 12 to 15 minutes and last approximately 5 to 10 seconds. Between 30 and 40 shots are fired each day when plasma experiments are scheduled. In 1990, both programs were converted from User Interface Services (UIS) routines, which are part of the MicroVMS workstation graphics software, to DEC's X Window System using the DECWindows window manager. These modifications were required because of a move by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to support Xwindows and phase out UIS. Due to the nature and purpose of each program, MFITD needed only simple graphics conversion while MFITPLAY was completely rewritten. The DECWindows version of MFITPLAY offers a number of improvements, such as a more intuitive user interface

  17. Spectroscopy and viability of Bacillus subtilis spores after ultraviolet irradiation: implications for the detection of potential bacterial life on Europa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noell, Aaron C; Ely, Tucker; Bolser, Diana K; Darrach, Halley; Hodyss, Robert; Johnson, Paul V; Hein, Jeffrey D; Ponce, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    One of the most habitable environments in the Solar System outside of Earth may exist underneath the ice on Europa. In the near future, our best chance to look for chemical signatures of a habitable environment (or life itself) will likely be at the inhospitable icy surface. Therefore, it is important to understand the ability of organic signatures of life and life itself to persist under simulated europan surface conditions. Toward that end, this work examined the UV photolysis of Bacillus subtilis spores and their chemical marker dipicolinic acid (DPA) at temperatures and pressures relevant to Europa. In addition, inactivation curves for the spores at 100 K, 100 K covered in one micron of ice, and 298 K were measured to determine the probability for spore survival at the surface. Fourier transform infrared spectra of irradiated DPA showed a loss of carboxyl groups to CO2 as expected but unexpectedly showed significant opening of the heterocyclic ring, even for wavelengths>200 nm. Both DPA and B. subtilis spores showed identical unknown spectral bands of photoproducts after irradiation, further highlighting the importance of DPA in the photochemistry of spores. Spore survival was enhanced at 100 K by ∼5× relative to 298 K, but 99.9% of spores were still inactivated after the equivalent of ∼25 h of exposure on the europan surface.

  18. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem chemistry

  19. Pollen and spore monitoring in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buters, J T M; Antunes, C; Galveias, A; Bergmann, K C; Thibaudon, M; Galán, C; Schmidt-Weber, C; Oteros, J

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air quality monitoring is a governmental duty that is widely carried out in order to detect non-biological ("chemical") components in ambient air, such as particles of monitoring networks are publicly funded and air quality data are open to the public. The situation for biological particles that have detrimental effects on health, as is the case of pollen and fungal spores, is however very different. Most pollen and spore monitoring networks are not publicly funded and data are not freely available. The information regarding which biological particle is being monitored, where and by whom, is consequently often not known, even by aerobiologists themselves. This is a considerable problem, as local pollen data are an important tool for the prevention of allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to review pollen monitoring stations throughout the world and to create an interactive visualization of their distribution. The method employed to collect information was based on: (a) a review of the recent and historical bibliography related to pollen and fungal spore monitoring, and (b) personal surveys of the managers of national and regional monitoring networks. The interactive application was developed using the R programming language. We have created an inventory of the active pollen and spore monitoring stations in the world. There are at least 879 active pollen monitoring stations in the world, most of which are in Europe (> 500). The prevalent monitoring method is based on the Hirst principle (> 600 stations). The inventory is visualised as an interactive and on-line map. It can be searched, its appearance can be adjusted to the users' needs and it is updated regularly, as new stations or changes to those that already exist can be submitted online. The map shows the current situation of pollen and spore monitoring and facilitates collaboration among those individuals who are interested in pollen and spore counts. It might also help to improve the

  20. Adaptation of the spore discharge mechanism in the basidiomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Stolze-Rybczynski

    Full Text Available Spore discharge in the majority of the 30,000 described species of Basidiomycota is powered by the rapid motion of a fluid droplet, called Buller's drop, over the spore surface. In basidiomycete yeasts, and phytopathogenic rusts and smuts, spores are discharged directly into the airflow around the fungal colony. Maximum discharge distances of 1-2 mm have been reported for these fungi. In mushroom-forming species, however, spores are propelled over much shorter ranges. In gilled mushrooms, for example, discharge distances of <0.1 mm ensure that spores do not collide with opposing gill surfaces. The way in which the range of the mechanism is controlled has not been studied previously.In this study, we report high-speed video analysis of spore discharge in selected basidiomycetes ranging from yeasts to wood-decay fungi with poroid fruiting bodies. Analysis of these video data and mathematical modeling show that discharge distance is determined by both spore size and the size of the Buller's drop. Furthermore, because the size of Buller's drop is controlled by spore shape, these experiments suggest that seemingly minor changes in spore morphology exert major effects upon discharge distance.This biomechanical analysis of spore discharge mechanisms in mushroom-forming fungi and their relatives is the first of its kind and provides a novel view of the incredible variety of spore morphology that has been catalogued by traditional taxonomists for more than 200 years. Rather than representing non-selected variations in micromorphology, the new experiments show that changes in spore architecture have adaptive significance because they control the distance that the spores are shot through air. For this reason, evolutionary modifications to fruiting body architecture, including changes in gill separation and tube diameter in mushrooms, must be tightly linked to alterations in spore morphology.

  1. A moving image system for cardiovascular nuclear medicine. A dedicated auxiliary device for the total capacity imaging system for multiple plane dynamic colour display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, M.; Toyama, H.; Murata, H.; Takaoka, S.

    1981-01-01

    The recent device of the authors, the dedicated multiplane dynamic colour image display system for nuclear medicine, is discussed. This new device is a hardware-based auxiliary moving image system (AMIS) attached to the total capacity image processing system of the authors' department. The major purpose of this study is to develop the dedicated device so that cardiovascular nuclear medicine and other dynamic studies will include the ability to assess the real time delicate processing of the colour selection, edge detection, phased analysis, etc. The auxiliary system consists of the interface for image transferring, four IC refresh memories of 64x64 matrix with 10 bit count depth, a digital 20-in colour TV monitor, a control keyboard and a control panel with potentiometers. This system has five major functions for colour display: (1) A microcomputer board can select any one of 40 different colour tables preset in the colour transformation RAM. This key also provides edge detection at a certain level of the count by leaving the optional colour and setting the rest of the levels at 0 (black); (2) The arithmetic processing circuit performs the operation of the fundamental rules, permitting arithmetic processes of the two images; (3) The colour level control circuit is operated independently by four potentiometers for four refresh image memories, so that the gain and offset of the colour level can be manually and visually controlled to the satisfaction of the operator; (4) The simultaneous CRT display of the maximum four images with or without cinematic motion is possible; (5) The real time movie interval is also adjustable by hardware, and certain frames can be freezed with overlapping of the dynamic frames. Since this system of AMIS is linked with the whole capacity image processing system of the CPU size of 128kW, etc., clinical applications are not limited to cardiovascular nuclear medicine. (author)

  2. PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS AND AUTECOLOGY OF SPORE-FORMING BACTERIA FROM HYPERSALINE ENVIRONMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladka, G V; Romanovskaya, V A; Tashyreva, H O; Tashyrev, O B

    2015-01-01

    Multi-resistant to extreme factors spore-forming bacteria of Bacillus genus are isolated from hypersaline environments of the Crimea (Ukraine) and the Dead Sea (Israel). Phylogenetic analysis showed distinction of dominating extremophilic culturable species in studied regions. In Crimean environments they are B. mojavensis and B. simplex, in the Dead Sea ecosystem--B. subtilis subsp. spizizenii, B. subtilis subsp. subtilis, B. licheniformis and B. simplex. Isolates are simultaneously halotolerant and resistant to UV radiation. Strains isolated from the Dead Sea and the Crimea environments were resistant to UV: LD90 and LD99.99 made 100-170 J/m2 and 750-1500 J/m2 respectively. Spores showed higher UV-resistance (LD99.99-2500 J/m2) than the vegetative cells. However the number of spores made 0.02-0.007% of the whole cell population, and should not significantly affect the UV LD99.99 value. Isolates of both environments were halotolerant in the range of 0.1-10% NaCl and thermotolerant in the range of 20-50 °C, and didn't grow at 15 °C. Survival strategy of spore-forming bacteria from hypersaline environments under high UV radiation level can be performed by spore formation which minimize cell damage as well as efficient DNA-repair systems that remove damages.

  3. A Waking Review: Old and Novel Insights into the Spore Germination in Streptomyces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bobek

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex development undergone by Streptomyces encompasses transitions from vegetative mycelial forms to reproductive aerial hyphae that differentiate into chains of single-celled spores. Whereas their mycelial life – connected with spore formation and antibiotic production – is deeply investigated, spore germination as the counterpoint in their life cycle has received much less attention. Still, germination represents a system of transformation from metabolic zero point to a new living lap. There are several aspects of germination that may attract our attention: (1 Dormant spores are strikingly well-prepared for the future metabolic restart; they possess stable transcriptome, hydrolytic enzymes, chaperones, and other required macromolecules stabilized in a trehalose milieu; (2 Germination itself is a specific sequence of events leading to a complete morphological remodeling that include spore swelling, cell wall reconstruction, and eventually germ tube emergences; (3 Still not fully unveiled are the strategies that enable the process, including a single cell’s signal transduction and gene expression control, as well as intercellular communication and the probability of germination across the whole population. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the germination process in Streptomyces, while focusing on the aforementioned points.

  4. A Waking Review: Old and Novel Insights into the Spore Germination in Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobek, Jan; Šmídová, Klára; Čihák, Matouš

    2017-01-01

    The complex development undergone by Streptomyces encompasses transitions from vegetative mycelial forms to reproductive aerial hyphae that differentiate into chains of single-celled spores. Whereas their mycelial life - connected with spore formation and antibiotic production - is deeply investigated, spore germination as the counterpoint in their life cycle has received much less attention. Still, germination represents a system of transformation from metabolic zero point to a new living lap. There are several aspects of germination that may attract our attention: (1) Dormant spores are strikingly well-prepared for the future metabolic restart; they possess stable transcriptome, hydrolytic enzymes, chaperones, and other required macromolecules stabilized in a trehalose milieu; (2) Germination itself is a specific sequence of events leading to a complete morphological remodeling that include spore swelling, cell wall reconstruction, and eventually germ tube emergences; (3) Still not fully unveiled are the strategies that enable the process, including a single cell's signal transduction and gene expression control, as well as intercellular communication and the probability of germination across the whole population. This review summarizes our current knowledge about the germination process in Streptomyces , while focusing on the aforementioned points.

  5. A new head-mounted display-based augmented reality system in neurosurgical oncology: a study on phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Fabrizio; Meola, Antonio; Carbone, Marina; Sinceri, Sara; Cagnazzo, Federico; Denaro, Ennio; Esposito, Nicola; Ferrari, Mauro; Ferrari, Vincenzo

    2017-12-01

    Benefits of minimally invasive neurosurgery mandate the development of ergonomic paradigms for neuronavigation. Augmented Reality (AR) systems can overcome the shortcomings of commercial neuronavigators. The aim of this work is to apply a novel AR system, based on a head-mounted stereoscopic video see-through display, as an aid in complex neurological lesion targeting. Effectiveness was investigated on a newly designed patient-specific head mannequin featuring an anatomically realistic brain phantom with embedded synthetically created tumors and eloquent areas. A two-phase evaluation process was adopted in a simulated small tumor resection adjacent to Broca's area. Phase I involved nine subjects without neurosurgical training in performing spatial judgment tasks. In Phase II, three surgeons were involved in assessing the effectiveness of the AR-neuronavigator in performing brain tumor targeting on a patient-specific head phantom. Phase I revealed the ability of the AR scene to evoke depth perception under different visualization modalities. Phase II confirmed the potentialities of the AR-neuronavigator in aiding the determination of the optimal surgical access to the surgical target. The AR-neuronavigator is intuitive, easy-to-use, and provides three-dimensional augmented information in a perceptually-correct way. The system proved to be effective in guiding skin incision, craniotomy, and lesion targeting. The preliminary results encourage a structured study to prove clinical effectiveness. Moreover, our testing platform might be used to facilitate training in brain tumour resection procedures.

  6. Use of the stereoscopic virtual reality display system for the detection and characterization of intracranial aneurysms: A Icomparison with conventional computed tomography workstation and 3D rotational angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiujuan; Tao, Haiquan; Xiao, Xigang; Guo, Binbin; Xu, Shangcai; Sun, Na; Li, Maotong; Xie, Li; Wu, Changjun

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the diagnostic performance of the stereoscopic virtual reality display system with the conventional computed tomography (CT) workstation and three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) for intracranial aneurysm detection and characterization, with a focus on small aneurysms and those near the bone. First, 42 patients with suspected intracranial aneurysms underwent both 256-row CT angiography (CTA) and 3DRA. Volume rendering (VR) images were captured using the conventional CT workstation. Next, VR images were transferred to the stereoscopic virtual reality display system. Two radiologists independently assessed the results that were obtained using the conventional CT workstation and stereoscopic virtual reality display system. The 3DRA results were considered as the ultimate reference standard. Based on 3DRA images, 38 aneurysms were confirmed in 42 patients. Two cases were misdiagnosed and 1 was missed when the traditional CT workstation was used. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of the conventional CT workstation were 94.7%, 85.7%, 97.3%, 75%, and99.3%, respectively, on a per-aneurysm basis. The stereoscopic virtual reality display system missed a case. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of the stereoscopic virtual reality display system were 100%, 85.7%, 97.4%, 100%, and 97.8%, respectively. No difference was observed in the accuracy of the traditional CT workstation, stereoscopic virtual reality display system, and 3DRA in detecting aneurysms. The stereoscopic virtual reality display system has some advantages in detecting small aneurysms and those near the bone. The virtual reality stereoscopic vision obtained through the system was found as a useful tool in intracranial aneurysm diagnosis and pre-operative 3D imaging. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Protection of Bacillus pumilus Spores by Catalases

    OpenAIRE

    Checinska, Aleksandra; Burbank, Malcolm; Paszczynski, Andrzej J.

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032, isolated at spacecraft assembly facilities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is difficult to kill by the sterilization method of choice, which uses liquid or vapor hydrogen peroxide. We identified two manganese catalases, YjqC and BPUM_1305, in spore protein extracts of several B. pumilus strains by using PAGE and mass spectrometric analyses. While the BPUM_1305 catalase was present in six of the B. pumilus strains teste...

  8. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, N. (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Pasar Djumat Research Centre)

    1982-04-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans.

  9. Efforts to identify spore forming bacillus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuleiha, M.S.; Hilmy, Nazly

    1982-01-01

    Efforts to identify 47 species of radioresistant spore forming bacillus sp. isolated from locally produced medical devices have been carried out. The identifications was conducted using 19 kinds of biochemical tests and compared to species to bacillus subtilis W. T.; bacillus pumilus E 601 and bacillus sphaericus Csub(I)A. The results showed that bacillus sp. examined could be divided into 6 groups, i.e. bacillus cereus; bacillus subtilis; bacillus stearothermophylus; bacillus coagulans; bacillus sphaericus and bacillus circulans. (author)

  10. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  11. Spore membrane(s) as the site of damage within heated Clostridium perfringens spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, R S; Adams, D M

    1976-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens spores were injured by ultrahigh-temperature treatment at 105 C for 5 min. Injury was manifested as an increased sensitivity to polymyxin and neomycin. Since many of the survivors could not germinate normally the ultrahigh-temperature-treated spores were sensitized to and germinated by lysozyme. Polymyxin reportedly acts upon the cell membrane. Neomycin may inhibit protein synthesis and has surface-active properties. Injured spores were increasingly sensitive to known surface-active agents, sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium deoxycholate, and Roccal, a quaternary ammonium compound. Injured spores sensitive to polymyxin and neomycin also were osmotically fragile and died during outgrowth in a liquid medium unless the medium was supplemented with 20% sucrose, 10% dextran, or 10% polyvinylpyrrolidone. The results suggested that a spore structure destined to become cell membrane or cell wall was the site of injury. Repair of injury during outgrowth in the presence of protein, deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid and cell wall synthesis inhibitors was consistent with this hypothesis.

  12. A flow visualization study of spore release using a wind tunnel-mounted laser light sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Eisner, A.D.; Wiener, R.W.; Main, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    A phase Doppler anemometry system in combination with a laser light sheet was used in a low-speed recirculating wind tunnel to examine the flow field around an individual leaf. Turbulence similar to that encountered near the surface of the earth in a neutral stability boundary layer was generated using a grid at the upwind end of the wind tunnel test section. Individual healthy and diseased plant leaves were introduced into the tunnel with the leaf tip pointing downwind. The Mie-scattered radiation from the spores departing the diseased leaf was captured on videotape. Image processing software was used to enhance the visual quality of the individual frames from the videotape and to make spore velocity calculations. Three main vortex regions around the leaf were identified. The importance of these regions to the separation of the spores from the leaf surface and their subsequent downwind movement was analyzed

  13. Ruggedized Full-Color Flexible OLED Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hack, Michael

    2003-01-01

    .... The team comprised Universal Display Corporation, Princeton University, the University of Southern California, Penn State University, L3 Displays and Vitex Systems, and was led by Universal Display Corporation (PI: Michael Hack...

  14. Computer-generated holographic near-eye display system based on LCoS phase only modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Chang, Shengqian; Zhang, Siman; Xie, Ting; Li, Huaye; Liu, Siqi; Wang, Chang; Tao, Xiao; Zheng, Zhenrong

    2017-09-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technology has been applied in various areas, such as large-scale manufacturing, national defense, healthcare, movie and mass media and so on. An important way to realize AR display is using computer-generated hologram (CGH), which is accompanied by low image quality and heavy computing defects. Meanwhile, the diffraction of Liquid Crystal on Silicon (LCoS) has a negative effect on image quality. In this paper, a modified algorithm based on traditional Gerchberg-Saxton (GS) algorithm was proposed to improve the image quality, and new method to establish experimental system was used to broaden field of view (FOV). In the experiment, undesired zero-order diffracted light was eliminated and high definition 2D image was acquired with FOV broadened to 36.1 degree. We have also done some pilot research in 3D reconstruction with tomography algorithm based on Fresnel diffraction. With the same experimental system, experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of 3D reconstruction. These modifications are effective and efficient, and may provide a better solution in AR realization.

  15. A zero-footprint 3D visualization system utilizing mobile display technology for timely evaluation of stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woo; Guo, Bing; Mogensen, Monique; Wang, Kevin; Law, Meng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    When a patient is accepted in the emergency room suspected of stroke, time is of the utmost importance. The infarct brain area suffers irreparable damage as soon as three hours after the onset of stroke symptoms. A CT scan is one of standard first line of investigations with imaging and is crucial to identify and properly triage stroke cases. The availability of an expert Radiologist in the emergency environment to diagnose the stroke patient in a timely manner only increases the challenges within the clinical workflow. Therefore, a truly zero-footprint web-based system with powerful advanced visualization tools for volumetric imaging including 2D. MIP/MPR, 3D display can greatly facilitate this dynamic clinical workflow for stroke patients. Together with mobile technology, the proper visualization tools can be delivered at the point of decision anywhere and anytime. We will present a small pilot project to evaluate the use of mobile technologies using devices such as iPhones in evaluating stroke patients. The results of the evaluation as well as any challenges in setting up the system will also be discussed.

  16. Purine and its analogues and radiation damage in Bacillus megaterium spores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    As an extension of results obtained from radiation studies on caffeine both in other laboratories and more recently in this laboratory using the bacterial spore as the test system, six compounds with chemical structures closely resembling that of caffeine were tested as radiation modifiers. Of these compounds, purine, adenine and hypoxanthine resembled caffeine in sensitizing spores to radiation, while theobromine, xanthine and theophylline did not. These responses are discussed in relation to the electron sequestration hypothesis of cellular sensitization to high-energy radiation. (author)

  17. Purine and its analogues and radiation damage in Bacillus megaterium spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, E.L.

    1986-12-01

    As an extension of results obtained from radiation studies on caffeine both in other laboratories and more recently in this laboratory using the bacterial spore as the test system, six compounds with chemical structures closely resembling that of caffeine were tested as radiation modifiers. Of these compounds, purine, adenine and hypoxanthine resembled caffeine in sensitizing spores to radiation, while theobromine, xanthine and theophylline did not. These responses are discussed in relation to the electron sequestration hypothesis of cellular sensitization to high-energy radiation.

  18. Dynamics of Spore Coat Morphogenesis in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Peter T.; Eichenberger, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Spores of Bacillus subtilis are encased in a protective coat made up of at least 70 proteins. The structure of the spore coat has been examined using a variety of genetic, imaging and biochemical techniques, however, the majority of these studies have focused on mature spores. In this study we use a library of 41 spore coat proteins fused to the Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) to examine spore coat morphogenesis over the time-course of sporulation. We found considerable diversity in the localization dynamics of coat proteins and were able to establish 6 classes based on localization kinetics. Localization dynamics correlate well with the known transcriptional regulators of coat gene expression. Previously, we described the existence of multiple layers in the mature spore coat. Here, we find that the spore coat initially assembles a scaffold that is organized into multiple layers on one pole of the spore. The coat then encases the spore in multiple coordinated waves. Encasement is driven, at least partially, by transcription of coat genes and deletion of sporulation transcription factors arrests encasement. We also identify the trans-compartment SpoIIIAH-SpoIIQ channel as necessary for encasement. This is the first demonstration of a forespore contribution to spore coat morphogenesis. PMID:22171814

  19. Asynchronous spore germination in isogenic natural isolates of Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelkens, Rike B; Miller, Eric L; Greig, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Spores from wild yeast isolates often show great variation in the size of colonies they produce, for largely unknown reasons. Here we measure the colonies produced from single spores from six different wild Saccharomyces paradoxus strains. We found remarkable variation in spore colony sizes, even among spores that were genetically identical. Different strains had different amounts of variation in spore colony sizes, and variation was not affected by the number of preceding meioses, or by spore maturation time. We used time-lapse photography to show that wild strains also have high variation in spore germination timing, providing a likely mechanism for the variation in spore colony sizes. When some spores from a laboratory strain make small colonies, or no colonies, it usually indicates a genetic or meiotic fault. Here, we demonstrate that in wild strains spore colony size variation is normal. We discuss and assess potential adaptive and non-adaptive explanations for this variation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Preliminary Effect of Synthetic Vision Systems Displays to Reduce Low-Visibility Loss of Control and Controlled Flight Into Terrain Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaab, Louis J.; Takallu, Mohammad A.

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effectiveness of Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) flight displays as a means of eliminating Low Visibility Loss of Control (LVLOC) and Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) accidents by low time general aviation (GA) pilots. A series of basic maneuvers were performed by 18 subject pilots during transition from Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) to Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), with continued flight into IMC, employing a fixed-based flight simulator. A total of three display concepts were employed for this evaluation. One display concept, referred to as the Attitude Indicator (AI) replicated instrumentation common in today's General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The second display concept, referred to as the Electronic Attitude Indicator (EAI), featured an enlarged attitude indicator that was more representative of a glass display that also included advanced flight symbology, such as a velocity vector. The third concept, referred to as the SVS display, was identical to the EAI except that computer-generated terrain imagery replaced the conventional blue-sky/brown-ground of the EAI. Pilot performance parameters, pilot control inputs and physiological data were recorded for post-test analysis. Situation awareness (SA) and qualitative pilot comments were obtained through questionnaires and free-form interviews administered immediately after the experimental session. Initial pilot performance data were obtained by instructor pilot observations. Physiological data (skin temperature, heart rate, and muscle flexure) were also recorded. Preliminary results indicate that far less errors were committed when using the EAI and SVS displays than when using conventional instruments. The specific data example examined in this report illustrates the benefit from SVS displays to avoid massive loss of SA conditions. All pilots acknowledged the enhanced situation awareness provided by the SVS display concept. Levels of

  1. Analysis of the diffraction effects for a multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional display system based on shutter parallax barriers with full resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yang; Yu, Zhongyuan; Jia, Fangda; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Ye; Liu, Yumin; Ye, Han; Chen, Laurence Lujun

    2017-10-01

    A multi-view autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) system is built by using a 2D display screen and a customized parallax-barrier shutter (PBS) screen. The shutter screen is controlled dynamically by address driving matrix circuit and it is placed in front of the display screen at a certain location. The system could achieve densest viewpoints due to its specially optical and geometric design which is based on concept of "eye space". The resolution of 3D imaging is not reduced compared to 2D mode by using limited time division multiplexing technology. The diffraction effects may play an important role in 3D display imaging quality, especially when applied to small screen, such as iPhone screen etc. For small screen, diffraction effects may contribute crosstalk between binocular views, image brightness uniformity etc. Therefore, diffraction effects are analyzed and considered in a one-dimensional shutter screen model of the 3D display, in which the numerical simulation of light from display pixels on display screen through parallax barrier slits to each viewing zone in eye space, is performed. The simulation results provide guidance for criteria screen size over which the impact of diffraction effects are ignorable, and below which diffraction effects must be taken into account. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the corresponding experimental measurements and observation with discussion.

  2. Comparative analysis of immune effects in mice model: Clonorchis sinensis cysteine protease generated from recombinant Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhanshuai; Tang, Zeli; Shang, Mei; Zhao, Lu; Zhou, Lina; Kong, Xiangzhan; Lin, Zhipeng; Sun, Hengchang; Chen, Tingjin; Xu, Jin; Li, Xuerong; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xinbing

    2017-07-01

    Clonorchiasis remains a nonnegligible public health problem in endemic areas. Cysteine protease of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCP) plays indispensable roles in the parasitic physiology and pathology, and has been exploited as a promising drug and vaccine candidate. In recent years, development of spore-based vaccines against multiple pathogens has attracted many investigators' interest. In previous studies, the recombinant Escherichia coli (BL21) and Bacillus subtilis spores expressing CsCP have been successfully constructed, respectively. In this study, the immune effects of CsCP protein purified from recombinant BL21 (rCsCP) and B. subtilis spores presenting CsCP (B.s-CsCP) in Balb/c mice model were conducted with comparative analysis. Levels of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were significantly increased in sera from both rCsCP and B.s-CsCP intraperitoneally immunized mice. Additionally, recombinant spores expressing abundant fusion CsCP (0.03125 pg/spore) could strongly enhance the immunogenicity of CsCP with significantly higher levels of IgG and isotypes. Compared with rCsCP alone, intraperitoneal administration of mice with spores expressing CsCP achieved a better effect of fighting against C. sinensis infection by slowing down the process of fibrosis. Our results demonstrated that a combination of Th1/Th2 immune responses could be elicited by rCsCP, while spores displaying CsCP prominently induced Th1-biased specific immune responses, and the complex cytokine network maybe mediates protective immune responses against C. sinensis. This work further confirmed that the usage of B. subtilis spores displaying CsCP is an effective way to against C. sinensis.

  3. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Interleukin 8 in Human Adenocarcinoma Cell Line HT-29 by Spore Probiotics: B. coagulans and B. subtilis (natto).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimirad, Masoumeh; Alebouyeh, Masoud; Naji, Tahereh

    2017-03-01

    Probiotics are used as a treatment for different intestinal disorders. They confer health benefits by different ways. This study was aimed to investigate immunomodulatory effect of Bacillus probiotic spores on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 8 (IL-8) in HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells. Differentiated intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model for the study of colonization of purified spores (Bacillus subtilis (natto) and B. coagulans) and their anti-inflammatory effects. MTT assay and trypan blue staining were used for the detection of optimal concentration of the purified spores and LPS. Pre-treatment assay was done by treatment of the cells with the purified spores for 2 h, followed by challenges with LPS for 3 and 18 h. Post-treatment assay was done by initial treatment of the cells with LPS for 18 h, followed by the spores for 3 and 6 h. Levels of IL-8 secretion and its mRNA expression were measured by ELISA and relative Q real-time PCR. Our results showed similar rates of adherence to intestinal epithelial cells by the spore probiotics, while displaying no cytotoxic effect. In the pre-treatment assay, a significant decrease in IL-8, at both protein and mRNA levels, was measured for B. coagulans spores after the addition of LPS, which was higher than those observed for Bacillus subtilis (natto) spores. In the post-treatment assay, while Bacillus subtilis (but not B. coagulans) diminished the LPS-stimulated IL-8 levels after 3 h of incubation, the inhibitory effect was not constant. In conclusion, ability of Bacillus spore probiotics for adherence to intestinal epithelial cell and their anti-inflammatory effects, through interference with LPS/IL-8 signaling, was shown in this study. Further studies are needed to characterize responsible bacterial compounds associated with these effects.

  4. LRRK2 knockout mice have an intact dopaminergic system but display alterations in exploratory and motor co-ordination behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common cause of genetic Parkinson’s disease. Although the mechanisms behind the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations are still not clear, data emerging from in vitro and in vivo models suggests roles in regulating neuronal polarity, neurotransmission, membrane and cytoskeletal dynamics and protein degradation. We created mice lacking exon 41 that encodes the activation hinge of the kinase domain of LRRK2. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of these mice up to 20 months of age, including evaluation of dopamine storage, release, uptake and synthesis, behavioral testing, dendritic spine and proliferation/neurogenesis analysis. Our results show that the dopaminergic system was not functionally comprised in LRRK2 knockout mice. However, LRRK2 knockout mice displayed abnormal exploratory activity in the open-field test. Moreover, LRRK2 knockout mice stayed longer than their wild type littermates on the accelerated rod during rotarod testing. Finally, we confirm that loss of LRRK2 caused degeneration in the kidney, accompanied by a progressive enhancement of autophagic activity and accumulation of autofluorescent material, but without evidence of biphasic changes. PMID:22647713

  5. Destruction of Bacillus cereus spores in a thick soy bean paste (doenjang) by continuous ohmic heating with five sequential electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryang, J H; Kim, N H; Lee, B S; Kim, C T; Rhee, M S

    2016-07-01

    This study selected spores from Bacillus cereus FSP-2 strain (the isolate from a commercial doenjang processing line) as the test strain which showed significantly higher thermal resistance (P 1·5 National Bureau of Standards units), treatment at 105°C for 60 s was selected and applied on a large scale (500 kg of product). Reliable and reproducible destruction of B. cereus spores occurred; the reductions achieved (to < 4 log CFU g(-1) ) met the Korean national standards. Scanning electron microscopy revealed microstructural alterations in the spores (shrinkage and a distorted outer spore coat). OH is an effective method for destroying B. cereus spores to ensure the microbiological quality and safety of a thick, highly viscous sauce. This study shows that an ohmic heating (OH) using a five sequential electrode system can effectively destroy highly heat-resistant Bacillus cereus spores which have been frequently found in a commercial doenjang processing line without perceivable quality change in the product. In addition, it may demonstrate high potential of the unique OH system used in this study that will further contribute to ensure microbiological quality and safety of crude sauces containing high levels of electrolyte other than doenjang as well. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Atmospheric mold spore counts in relation to meteorological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katial, R. K.; Zhang, Yiming; Jones, Richard H.; Dyer, Philip D.

    Fungal spore counts of Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum were studied during 8 years in Denver, Colorado. Fungal spore counts were obtained daily during the pollinating season by a Rotorod sampler. Weather data were obtained from the National Climatic Data Center. Daily averages of temperature, relative humidity, daily precipitation, barometric pressure, and wind speed were studied. A time series analysis was performed on the data to mathematically model the spore counts in relation to weather parameters. Using SAS PROC ARIMA software, a regression analysis was performed, regressing the spore counts on the weather variables assuming an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) error structure. Cladosporium was found to be positively correlated (Pmodel was derived for Cladosporium spore counts using the annual seasonal cycle and significant weather variables. The model for Alternaria and Epicoccum incorporated the annual seasonal cycle. Fungal spore counts can be modeled by time series analysis and related to meteorological parameters controlling for seasonallity; this modeling can provide estimates of exposure to fungal aeroallergens.

  7. A study of Ganoderma lucidum spores by FTIR microspectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Chen, Xianliang; Qi, Zeming; Liu, Xingcun; Li, Weizu; Wang, Shengyi

    2012-06-01

    In order to obtain unique information of Ganoderma lucidum spores, FTIR microspectroscopy was used to study G. lucidum spores from Anhui Province (A), Liaoning Province (B) and Shangdong Province (C) of China. IR micro-spectra were acquired with high-resolution and well-reproducibility. The IR spectra of G. lucidum spores from different areas were similar and mainly made up of the absorption bands of polysaccharide, sterols, proteins, fatty acids, etc. The results of curve fitting indicated the protein secondary structures were dissimilar among the above G. lucidum spores. To identify G. lucidum spores from different areas, the H1078/H1640 value might be a potentially useful factor, furthermore FTIR microspectroscopy could realize this identification efficiently with the help of hierarchical cluster analysis. The result indicates FTIR microspectroscopy is an efficient tool for identification of G. lucidum spores from different areas. The result also suggests FTIR microspectroscopy is a potentially useful tool for the study of TCM.

  8. Spore communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal associations in different ecosystems, south Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Antoniolli

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF were surveyed in different South Australian ecosystems. The soil was wet-sieved for spore extraction, followed by the determination of presence and abundance of AMF species as well as the percentage of root colonization. Mycorrhizal associations were common and there was substantial fungal diversity in different ecosystems. Spores were most abundant in the permanent pasture system and less abundant under continuous wheat. The incidence of mycorrhizal associations in different plant species and the occurrence of Arum and Paris type colonization generally conformed with previous information. Spores of seventeen AMF were verified throughout seasonal changes in 1996 and 1997 in the permanent pasture and on four host species (Lolium perenne, Plantago lanceolata, Sorghum sp. and Trifolium subterraneum , set up with the same soils under greenhouse conditions. Glomus mosseae was the dominant spore type at all sampling times and in all trap cultures. Mycorrhizal diversity was significantly affected by different sampling times in trap cultures but not in field-collected soil. P. lanceolata, Sorghum sp. and T. subterraneum as hosts for trap cultures showed no differences in richness and diversity of AMF spores that developed in association with their roots. Abundance and diversity were lowest, however, in association with L. perenne , particularly in December 1996. Results show that the combination of spore identification from field-collected soil and trap cultures is essential to study population and diversity of AMF. The study provides baseline data for ongoing monitoring of mycorrhizal populations using conventional methods and material for the determination of the symbiotic effectiveness of AMF key members.

  9. Root colonization and spore abundance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in distinct successional stages from an Atlantic rainforest biome in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangaro, Waldemar; Rostirola, Leila Vergal; de Souza, Priscila Bochi; de Almeida Alves, Ricardo; Lescano, Luiz Eduardo Azevedo Marques; Rondina, Artur Berbel Lírio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Carrenho, Rosilaine

    2013-04-01

    The influence of plant functional groups and moderate seasonality on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status (root colonization and spore density) was investigated during 13 consecutive months in a chronosequence of succession in southern Brazil, consisting of grassland field, scrub vegetation, secondary forest and mature forest, in a region of transition from tropical to subtropical zones. AM root colonization and spore density decreased with advancing succession and were highest in early successional sites with grassland and scrub vegetation, intermediary in the secondary forest and lowest in the mature forest. They were little influenced by soil properties, but were sufficiently influenced by the fine root nutrient status and fine root traits among different functional plant groups. AM root colonization and spore density were higher during the favourable plant growth season (spring and summer) than during the less favourable plant growth season (autumn and winter). Spore density displayed significant seasonal variation at all sites, whilst root colonization displayed significant seasonal variation in grassland, scrub and secondary forest, but not in mature forest. The data suggest that (1) different plant functional groups display different relationships with AM fungi, influencing their abundance differentially; (2) plant species from early successional phases are more susceptible to AM root colonization and maintain higher AM sporulation than late successional species; (3) fine root traits and nutrient status influence these AM fungal attributes; and (4) higher AM spore production and root colonization is associated with the season of higher light incidence and temperature, abundant water in soil and higher plant metabolic activity.

  10. Are 1-K display systems suitable for primary diagnosis from radiographic images in picture archiving and communications systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, R.M.; Todd-Pokropek, A.; Highman, J.H.; Porter, A.; Craig, J.O.M.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors of this paper performed a formal clinical evaluation of a commercially available high-resolution (1,280-line) picture archiving and communications system workstation. Diagnostic accuracy with plain radiographs was compared with that with laser-digitized images, with the use of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve methods. Four major clinical groups were studied: hand films of patients with renal osteodystrophy, chest films of patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, mammograms of patients with breast carcinoma, and skull films of patients with fractures. More than 13,000 observations were recorded

  11. Spore coat protein of Bacillus subtilis. Structure and precursor synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, L; Sadaie, Y; Doi, R H

    1978-10-10

    The coat protein of Bacillus subtilis spores comprises about 10% of the total dry weight of spores and 25% of the total spore protein. One protein with a molecular weight of 13,000 to 15,000 comprises a major portion of the spore coat. This mature spore coat protein has histidine at its NH2 terminus and is relatively rich in hydrophobic amino acids. Netropsin, and antibiotic which binds to A-T-rich regions of DNA and inhibits sporulation, but not growth, decreased the synthesis of this spore coat protein by 75%. A precursor spore coat protein with a molecular weight of 25,000 is made initially at t1 of sporulation and is converted to the mature spore coat protein with a molecular weight of 13,500 at t2 - t3. These data indicate that the spore coat protein gene is expressed very early in sporulation prior to the modifications of RNA polymerase which have been noted.

  12. Surface tension propulsion of fungal spores by use of microdroplets

    OpenAIRE

    Noblin, Xavier; Yang, Sylvia; Dumais, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    Many edible mushrooms eject their spores (about 10 microns in size) at high speed (about 1 m/s) using surface tension forces in a few microseconds. Basically the coalescence of a droplet with the spore generates the necessary momentum to eject the spore. We have detailed this mechanism in \\cite{noblin2}. In this article, we give some details about the high speed movies (up to 250000 fps) of mushrooms' spores ejection attached to this submission. This video was submitted as part of the Gallery...

  13. Use of human factors in the integration of a safety parameter display system (SPDS) and emergency response facility (ERF) capabilities for the James A. Fitzpatrick nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, H.C. Jr.; Gutierrez, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 1987, New York Power Authority's Emergency and Process Information Computer (EPIC) System will be operational. The EPIC system was designed to perform two distinct functions: to serve as an advanced replacement for the existing plant process computer and to assist in providing the JAFNPP operations staff with information during plant emergency conditions. Besides meeting the operational and regulatory goals of NYPA, EPIC was designed to meet NYPA human factors criteria. Using human factors literature, industry standards and guidelines, a Human Factors Criteria document was prepared for the EPIC project. This document served as the bases for all hardware, display, and documentation design applicable to EPIC. The major tasks of the EPIC human factors plan include integration of past and present applicable human factors information, establishment of a user definition using data gathered from control room observations (startup and shutdown of JAFNPP), survey of computer programs used by the operators, and obtaining input from licensed operators. These major tasks played a role in the design of the design of the control room configuration, the design and development of computer generated displays, and the format in which the displayed and hard copy information would be presented to the user. This paper presents an overview of the human factors work performed and the documents researched or developed in the design of EPIC displays, software, and hardware. The location and operation of this new computer based information system, like the displays was based on the systematic application of operations and human factors principles

  14. Maternal parentage influences spore production but not spore pigmentation in the anisogamous and hermaphroditic fungus Neurospora crassa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmerman, Kolea; Levitis, Daniel; Pringle, Anne

    2014-01-01

    . In this fungus, pigmented spores are viable and unpigmented spores are inviable. These results show that while both parents influence all these traits, maternal influence is strongest on both fertility and mortality traits until the spores are physiologically independent of the maternal cytoplasm.......In this study, we tested the hypothesis that maternal effects on offspring production and quality are greater than paternal effects in both offspring number (fertility) and offspring viability (mortality). We used the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. This fungus is anisogamous......, and various ascospore characteristics. Mixed effects models of these data show that the female parent accounts for the majority of variation in perithecial production, number of spores produced, and spore germination. Surprisingly, both sexes equally influence the percentage of spores that are pigmented...

  15. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  16. Elastic and inelastic light scattering from single bacterial spores in an optical trap allows the monitoring of spore germination dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Lixin; Chen, De; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2009-01-01

    Raman scattering spectroscopy and elastic light scattering intensity (ESLI) were used to simultaneously measure levels of Ca-dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) and changes in spore morphology and refractive index during germination of individual B. subtilis spores with and without the two redundant enzymes (CLEs), CwlJ and SleB, that degrade spores’ peptidoglycan cortex. Conclusions from these measurements include: 1) CaDPA release from individual wild-type germinating spores was biphasic; in a first h...

  17. Inhibiting Inosine Hydrolase and Alanine Racemase to Enhance the Germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne Spores: Potential Spore Decontamination Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-19

    decontamination strategies>> Maryline DEFEZ 1𔃼, Melissa HUNTER3J Susan WELKOS :~J Christopher COTE3 1 University Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble, France. 1...inosine hydrolase and alanine racemase to enhance the germination of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores potential spore decontamination strategies 5a...8217 • Accidentally in Humans • Natural reservoir is soil • Anthrax Disease Cycle: - animals infected by soilborne spores in food and water or bites from certain

  18. Integrated System Validation Usability Questionnaire: Information Display Element; Desarrollo del Cuestionario de Facilidad de Uso para la Validación de Sistemas Integrados: Displays de Información

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.

    2015-07-01

    The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to information displays, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed and the models proposed by the nuclear energy industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the United States Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for information displays, in particular, display pages, formats, elements and data quality and update rate recommendations are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMMLAB.

  19. [Peptide phage display in biotechnology and biomedicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmicheva, G A; Belyavskaya, V A

    2016-07-01

    To date peptide phage display is one of the most common combinatorial methods used for identifying specific peptide ligands. Phage display peptide libraries containing billions different clones successfully used for selection of ligands with high affinity and selectivity toward wide range of targets including individual proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, different kind of cancer cells and variety of nonorganic targets (metals, alloys, semiconductors etc.) Success of using filamentous phage in phage display technologies relays on the robustness of phage particles and a possibility to genetically modify its DNA to construct new phage variants with novel properties. In this review we are discussing characteristics of the most known non-commercial peptide phage display libraries of different formats (landscape libraries in particular) and their successful applications in several fields of biotechnology and biomedicine: discovery of peptides with diagnostic values against different pathogens, discovery and using of peptides recognizing cancer cells, trends in using of phage display technologies in human interactome studies, application of phage display technologies in construction of novel nano materials.

  20. Development of preliminary design concept for a multifunction display and control system for the Orbiter crew station. Task 4: Design concept recommendation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiger, R. J.; Farrell, R. J.; Holcomb, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Application of multifunction display and control systems to the NASA Orbiter spacecraft offers the potential for reducing crew workload and improving the presentation of system status and operational data to the crew. A design concept is presented for the application of a multifunction display and control system (MFDCS) to the Orbital Maneuvering System and Electrical Power Distribution and Control System on the Orbiter spacecraft. The MFDCS would provide the capability for automation of procedures, fault prioritization and software reconfiguration of the MFDCS data base. The MFDCS would operate as a stand-alone processor to minimize the impact on the current Orbiter software. Supervisory crew command of all current functions would be retained through the use of several operating modes in the system. Both the design concept and the processes followed in defining the concept are described.

  1. Rugged single domain antibody detection elements for Bacillus anthracis spores and vegetative cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A Walper

    Full Text Available Significant efforts to develop both laboratory and field-based detection assays for an array of potential biological threats started well before the anthrax attacks of 2001 and have continued with renewed urgency following. While numerous assays and methods have been explored that are suitable for laboratory utilization, detection in the field is often complicated by requirements for functionality in austere environments, where limited cold-chain facilities exist. In an effort to overcome these assay limitations for Bacillus anthracis, one of the most recognizable threats, a series of single domain antibodies (sdAbs were isolated from a phage display library prepared from immunized llamas. Characterization of target specificity, affinity, and thermal stability was conducted for six sdAb families isolated from rounds of selection against the bacterial spore. The protein target for all six sdAb families was determined to be the S-layer protein EA1, which is present in both vegetative cells and bacterial spores. All of the sdAbs examined exhibited a high degree of specificity for the target bacterium and its spore, with affinities in the nanomolar range, and the ability to refold into functional antigen-binding molecules following several rounds of thermal denaturation and refolding. This research demonstrates the capabilities of these sdAbs and their potential for integration into current and developing assays and biosensors.

  2. Fungal spore germination into yeast or mycelium: possible implications of dimorphism in evolution and human pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghormade, Vandana; Deshpande, M. V.

    The ability of dimorphism in fungi is conventionally regarded as a reversible change between the two vegetative forms, yeast and mycelium, in response to environmental change. A zygomycetous isolate, Benjaminiella poitrasii, exhibited yeast-mycelium transition in response to the change in temperature (37-28 °C) and decrease in glucose concentration. For the first time the presence of dimorphic response during asexual and sexual spore germination is reported under the dimorphism-triggering conditions in B. poitrasii. The zygospores germinated into budding yeast when subjected to yeast-form supporting conditions. The mycelium-form favoring conditions gave rise to true mycelium. Similarly, the asexual spores displayed a dimorphic response during germination. Our observations suggest that dimorphism is an intrinsic ability present in the vegetative, asexual, and sexual forms of the fungus. As dimorphic fungi are intermediate to the unicellular yeast and the filamentous forms, understanding of the dimorphic character could be useful to trace the evolutionary relationships among taxonomically different fungi. Moreover, the implications of spore germination during the onset of pathogenesis and in drug development for human health care are discussed.

  3. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  4. Nuclear image display controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    In a nuclear imaging system the digitized x and y coordinates of gamma ray photon emission events address memory locations corresponding to the coordinates. The respective locations are incremented each time they are addressed so at the end of a selected time or event count period the locations contain digital values or raw data corresponding to the intensity of pixels comprising an image frame. The raw data for a frame is coupled to one input of an arithmetic logic unit (ALU) whose output is coupled to a display controller memory. The output of the controller memory is coupled to another ALU input with a feedback bus and is also coupled to a further signal processing circuit which includes means for converting processed data to analog video signals for television display. The ALU is selectively controlled to let raw image data pass through to the display controllor memory or alternately to add (or subtract) raw data for the last image frame developed to the raw data for preceding frames held in the display controller to thereby produce the visual effect on the television screen of an isotope flowing through anatomy

  5. Absence of transient elevated uv resistance during germination of Bacillus subtilis spores lacking small, acid-soluble spore proteins α and β

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, B.; Setlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    Dormant spores of various Bacillus species are much more resistant to UV irradiation than are the corresponding vegetative cells. This elevated spore UV resistance appears to have two causes. First, UV irradiation of spores does not produce the pyrimidine dimers formed in vegetative-cell DNA, but rather produces several other photoproducts, the most predominant of which is termed the spore photoproduct, a 5-thyminyl-5,6-dihydrothymine adduct (1, 10). Second, spores have at least two mechanisms which efficiently repair this spore photoproduct during spore germination, including one which monomerizes the adduct back to two thymines. This study shows that germinating spores of bacillus subtilis mutants which lack small, acid-soluble spore proteins α and β did not exhibit the transient elevated UV resistance seen during germination of wild-type spores

  6. Live-imaging of Bacillus subtilis spore germination and outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandey, R.

    2014-01-01

    Spores of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium cause huge economic losses to the food industry. In food products, spores survive under food preservation conditions and subsequent germination and outgrowth eventually causes food spoilage. Therefore efforts are being made to

  7. Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores Using Rapid Resistive Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    agents. There is motivation for using thermal decontamination of B.a. spores for agent defeat scenarios. Spore-forming microorganisms are much...the top soil on Gruinard Island for over 40 years after the British detonated experimental anthrax bombs on the island during World War II (U.S

  8. Inhibition of spore germination of Alternaria tenuis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couey, H.M.

    1962-08-01

    As a part of a continuing study of SO/sub 2/ fumigation of table grapes, the effect of SO/sub 2/ on spores of an isolate of A. tenuis Auct. causing decay of table grapes was determined. The amount of SO/sub 2/ required to inhibit completely spore germination depended on availability of moisture and the temperature. At 20/sup 0/C, wet spores required 20-min exposure to 100 ppm SO/sub 2/ to prevent germination, but spores equilibrated at 90% relative humidity (RH) required 10-min exposure to 1000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Dry spores at 60% RH were unaffected by a 20-min exposure to 4000 ppm SO/sub 2/. Increasing the temperature in the range 5-20/sup 0/C increased effectiveness of the SO/sub 2/ treatment. A comparison of Alternaria with Botrytis cinerea Fr. (studied earlier) showed that wet spores of these organisms were about equally sensitive to SO/sub 2/, but that dry Alternaria spores were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than dry Botrytis spores under comparable conditions.

  9. LEVELS AND TYPES OF AEROBIC SPORE FORMING BACTERIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four companies whose packaged product were studied had an average plate total spore counts as follows: Company A=6.2x 103; Company B= 3.1x 104; Company C= 6.0x 104 and Company D= 3.1x102 colony forming units per gram, respectively. Identification tests showed that among the aerobic spore formers were ...

  10. Breaking the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fermentation of G. lucidum with Lactobacillus plantarum was applied to break down the sporoderm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the spores. The broken spores were found on the 3rd day and complete breaking on the 5th day of fermentation. Lactic acid, acetic acid and ...

  11. Macroalgal spore dysfunction: ocean acidification delays and weakens adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Rebecca; Miklasz, Kevin; Carrington, Emily; Martone, Patrick T

    2018-04-01

    Early life stages of marine organisms are predicted to be vulnerable to ocean acidification. For macroalgae, reproduction and population persistence rely on spores to settle, adhere and continue the algal life cycle, yet the effect of ocean acidification on this critical life stage has been largely overlooked. We explicitly tested the biomechanical impact of reduced pH on early spore adhesion. We developed a shear flume to examine the effect of reduced pH on spore attachment time and strength in two intertidal rhodophyte macroalgae, one calcified (Corallina vancouveriensis) and one noncalcified (Polyostea robusta). Reduced pH delayed spore attachment of both species by 40%-52% and weakened attachment strength in C. vancouveriensis, causing spores to dislodge at lower flow-induced shear forces, but had no effect on the attachment strength of P. robusta. Results are consistent with our prediction that reduced pH disrupts proper curing and gel formation of spore adhesives (anionic polysaccharides and glycoproteins) via protonation and cation displacement, although experimental verification is needed. Our results demonstrate that ocean acidification negatively, and differentially, impacts spore adhesion in two macroalgae. If results hold in field conditions, reduced ocean pH has the potential to impact macroalgal communities via spore dysfunction, regardless of the physiological tolerance of mature thalli. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  12. Architecture and Assembly of the Bacillus subtilis Spore Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    with chromosomal DNA was as described [32]. Table 1. 8. subtifis strains used in this study. Stra in Genotype Phenotype• PS832 wild type PS3394...of the morphology of fully hydrated and air dried spores demonstrate that surface ridges on dehydrated spores mostly disappear or decrease in size

  13. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  14. Helicopter Display Improvement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    PRESSURE INDICATOR 43 TURN A N D SLIP INDICATOR 21 ENGINE AND SDG OIL IN TEMPERATURE INDICATOR 44 COURSE INDICATOR 22 RADIO MAGNETIC COMPASS INDICATOR... compass seemed to present a problem to several H-l series pilots In that It was poorly located and should be moved. Possible locations Included...the UH-lNs standby compass . Both H/L and L/L pilots agreed that internal, white light was the best system currently in use. INDIVIDUAL DISPLAYS

  15. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-10

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  16. The Display of Visual Information in Mission Command Systems: Implications for Cognitive Performance in the Command Post of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    detection with baggage screening or anomalies in medical imaging . However, the visual information displays in an MCS should support automatic human...Bigelow, C. A. Does Print Size Matter for Reading? A Review of Findings from Vision Science and Typography . Journal of Vision 2011, 11 (5), 1–22

  17. Quantitative evaluation of Candia antarctica lipase B displayed on the cell surface of a Pichia pastoris based on an FS anchor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xing-xiang; Wang, Bei-bei; Sun, Yu-fei; Lin, Ying; Han, Shuang-yan; Zheng, Sui-ping; Cui, Tang-bing

    2013-03-01

    A new approach is described to quantify the number of enzyme molecules, such as Candia antarctica lipase B, that are displayed on the cell surface of Pichia pastoris. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) were fused and displayed on the surface of P. pastoris by linking to the anchor flocculation functional domain of FLO1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescence spectrophotometry were used to monitor the fluorescence intensity of fused EGFP. Combined with the corresponding protein concentration detected in the medium, a standard curve describing the relationship between the fusion protein concentration and fluorescence intensity were obtained and could be used to number CALB displayed on the cell surface. The results showed that approx. 10(4) molecules of CALB molecules were immobilized on the single P. pastoris cell wall based on FS anchor system.

  18. Presence survival spores of Bacillus thuringiensis varieties in grain warehouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Yáñez Juan Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Genus Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt synthesized spores and crystals toxic to pest-insects in agriculture. Bt is comospolitan then possible to isolate some subspecies or varieties from warehouse. The aims of study were: i to isolate Bt varieties from grain at werehouse ii to evaluate Bt toxicity on Spodoptera frugiperda and Shit-ophilus zeamaisese iii to analyze Bt spores persistence in Zea mays grains at werehouse compared to same Bt on grains exposed to sun radiation. Results showed that at werehouse were recovered more than one variety of Bt spores. According to each isolate Bt1 o Bt2 were toxic to S. frugiperda or S. zeamaisese. One those Bt belong to var morrisoni. At werehouse these spores on Z. mays grains surviving more time, while the same spores exposed to boicide sun radiation they died.

  19. The effects of salinity and temperature shock on Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed spores release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwinda, F. K.; Satyantini, W. H.; Masithah, E. W.

    2018-04-01

    One of the reproductive aspects of development step that is considered as the solution of this issue is seaweed sporulation technique through which is induced through salinity and temperature shock. This study aims to determine the effect of combination and interaction of salinity and temperature shock on the release of K. alvarezii spores in order to produce superior seeds. This research was conducted using Complete Randomized Design Factorial which consists of nine combinations of treatments and three replications. The used treatment in this study is the combination of different environmental factors such as salinity shock and temperature shock. The data were analyzed using ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that salinity (31 ppt, 33 ppt, and 35 ppt) and temperature (30°C, 32°C, and 34°C). shock affected the osmoregulation system and the release of K. alvarezii spores. The salinity shock and temperature shock had interaction with K. alvarezii spore release on the sixth and seventh day with the best treatment at 32°C temperature and 31 ppt salinity and released 5413 cells/ml spores on the seventh day.

  20. Informatics in Radiology (infoRAD): mobile wireless DICOM server system and PDA with high-resolution display: feasibility of group work for radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Norio; Kandatsu, Susumu; Suzuki, Naoki; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2005-01-01

    A novel mobile system has been developed for use by radiologists in managing Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image data. The system consists of a mobile DICOM server (MDS) and personal digital assistants (PDAs), including a Linux PDA with a video graphics array (VGA) display (307,200 pixels, 3.7 inches). The MDS weighs 410 g, has a 60-GB hard disk drive and a built-in wireless local area network (LAN) access point, and supports a DICOM server (Central Test Node). The Linux-based MDS can be accessed with personal computers (PCs) and PDAs by means of a wireless or wired LAN, and client-server communications can be established at any time. DICOM images can be displayed by using any PDA or PC by means of a Web browser. Simultaneous access to the MDS is possible for multiple authenticated users. With most PDAs, image compression is necessary for complete display of DICOM images; however, the VGA screen can display a 512 x 512-pixel DICOM image almost in its entirety. This wireless system allows efficient management of heavy loads of lossless DICOM image data and will be useful for collaborative work by radiologists in education, conferences, and research.

  1. Presenting Influenza A M2e Antigen on Recombinant Spores of Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łęga

    Full Text Available Effective vaccination against influenza virus infection is a serious problem mainly due to antigenic variability of the virus. Among many of investigated antigens, the extracellular domain of the M2 protein (M2e features high homology in all strains of influenza A viruses and antibodies against M2e and is protective in animal models; this makes it a potential candidate for generation of a universal influenza vaccine. However, due to the low immunogenicity of the M2e, formulation of a vaccine based on this antigen requires some modification to induce effective immune responses. In this work we evaluated the possible use of Bacillus subtilis spores as a carrier of the Influenza A M2e antigen in mucosal vaccination. A tandem repeat of 4 consensus sequences coding for human-avian-swine-human M2e (M2eH-A-S-H peptide was fused to spore coat proteins and stably exposed on the spore surface, as demonstrated by the immunostaining of intact, recombinant spores. Oral immunization of mice with recombinant endospores carrying M2eH-A-S-H elicited specific antibody production without the addition of adjuvants. Bacillus subtilis endospores can serve as influenza antigen carriers. Recombinant spores constructed in this work showed low immunogenicity although were able to induce antibody production. The System of influenza antigen administration presented in this work is attractive mainly due to the omitting time-consuming and cost-intensive immunogen production and purification. Therefore modification should be made to increase the immunogenicity of the presented system.

  2. Decontamination Options for Drinking Water Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Spores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raber, E; Burklund, A

    2010-02-16

    Five parameters were evaluated with surrogates of Bacillus anthracis spores to determine effective decontamination options for use in a contaminated drinking water supply. The parameters were: (1) type of Bacillus spore surrogate (B. thuringiensis or B. atrophaeus); (2) spore concentration in suspension (10{sup 2} to 10{sup 6} spores/ml); (3) chemical characteristics of decontaminant [sodium dicholor-s-triazinetrione dihydrate (Dichlor), hydrogen peroxide, potassium peroxymonosulfate (Oxone), sodium hypochlorite, and VirkonS{reg_sign}]; (4) decontaminant concentration (0.01% to 5%); and (5) decontaminant exposure time (10 min to 24 hr). Results from 162 suspension tests with appropriate controls are reported. Hydrogen peroxide at a concentration of 5%, and Dichlor and sodium hypochlorite at a concentration of 2%, were effective at spore inactivation regardless of spore type tested, spore exposure time, or spore concentration evaluated. This is the first reported study of Dichlor as an effective decontaminant for B. anthracis spore surrogates. Dichlor's desirable characteristics of high oxidation potential, high level of free chlorine, and more neutral pH than that of other oxidizers evaluated appear to make it an excellent alternative. All three oxidizers were effective against B. atrophaeus spores in meeting EPA's biocide standard of greater than a 6 log kill after a 10-minute exposure time and at lower concentrations than typically reported for biocide use. Solutions of 5% VirkonS{reg_sign} and Oxone were less effective decontaminants than other options evaluated in this study and did not meet the EPA's efficacy standard for biocides. Differences in methods and procedures reported by other investigators make quantitative comparisons among studies difficult.

  3. Characterizing aeroallergens by infrared spectroscopy of fungal spores and pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Fungal spores and plant pollen cause respiratory diseases in susceptible individuals, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Aeroallergen monitoring networks are an important part of treatment strategies, but unfortunately traditional analysis is time consuming and expensive. We have explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen and spores for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of aeroallergens.The study is based on measurement of spore and pollen samples by single reflectance attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (SR-ATR FTIR. The experimental set includes 71 spore (Basidiomycota and 121 pollen (Pinales, Fagales and Poales samples. Along with fresh basidiospores, the study has been conducted on the archived samples collected within the last 50 years.The spectroscopic-based methodology enables clear spectral differentiation between pollen and spores, as well as the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. In addition, the analysis of the scattering signals inherent in the infrared spectra indicates that the FTIR methodology offers indirect estimation of morphology of pollen and spores. The analysis of fresh and archived spores shows that chemical composition of spores is well preserved even after decades of storage, including the characteristic taxonomy-related signals. Therefore, biochemical analysis of fungal spores by FTIR could provide economical, reliable and timely methodologies for improving fungal taxonomy, as well as for fungal identification and monitoring. This proof of principle study shows the potential for using FTIR as a rapid tool in aeroallergen studies. In addition, the presented method is ready to be immediately implemented in biological and ecological studies for direct measurement of pollen and spores from flowers and sporocarps.

  4. Survival of Spores of Trichoderma longibrachiatum in Space: data from the Space Experiment SPORES on EXPOSE-R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Katja; Lux-Endrich, Astrid; Panitz, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    In the space experiment `Spores in artificial meteorites' (SPORES), spores of the fungus Trichoderma longibrachiatum were exposed to low-Earth orbit for nearly 2 years on board the EXPOSE-R facility outside of the International Space Station. The environmental conditions tested in space were: space vacuum at 10-7-10-4 Pa or argon atmosphere at 105 Pa as inert gas atmosphere, solar extraterrestrial ultraviolet (UV) radiation at λ > 110 nm or λ > 200 nm with fluences up to 5.8 × 108 J m-2, cosmic radiation of a total dose range from 225 to 320 mGy, and temperature fluctuations from -25 to +50°C, applied isolated or in combination. Comparable control experiments were performed on ground. After retrieval, viability of spores was analysed by two methods: (i) ethidium bromide staining and (ii) test of germination capability. About 30% of the spores in vacuum survived the space travel, if shielded against insolation. However, in most cases no significant decrease was observed for spores exposed in addition to the full spectrum of solar UV irradiation. As the spores were exposed in clusters, the outer layers of spores may have shielded the inner part. The results give some information about the likelihood of lithopanspermia, the natural transfer of micro-organisms between planets. In addition to the parameters of outer space, sojourn time in space seems to be one of the limiting parameters.

  5. Computer-generated direct perception displays for supporting PWR feedwater system start-up and fault management: a proof-of-principle in design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reising, D.V.C.; Jones, B.G.; Shaheen, S.; Moray, N.; Sanderson, P.M.; Rasmussen, J.

    1998-01-01

    Traditional Single-Sensor, Single-Indicator displays are poorly matched to the cognitive abilities of operators, especially for large and complex systems. It is difficult for operators to monitor very large arrays of displays and controls as well as to integrate the data displayed into the meaningful information needed to complete tasks. Research over the last decade on interface design has suggested that computer generated graphical or 'configural' displays are better designed to support these complex tasks. Moreover, a theoretical framework for designing such graphical interfaces known as Ecological Interface Design is becoming more widely accepted as the basis for designing control interfaces for continuous process control systems. If the start-up sequence of a plant can be thought of as constructing that plant from its components, then the level at which operators think about the plant becomes progressively more global and abstract during the start-up procedure. As operators construct the plant, they climb the 'abstraction hierarchy' in terms of their cognitive reasoning. Standard operating procedures (SOPs) do not support this intellectual effort or change of strategy for thinking more globally about the plant. SOPs run to many hundreds of pages, are difficult to use, and require multiple operators. The manuals do not in themselves provide indications that steps have been omitted, performed in the wrong order, performed at the wrong time, or that inappropriate actions have been performed - nor do they indicate what appropriate steps have been completed. A graphical interface is proposed which should enforce the correct sequence of behaviors, prevent incorrect sequences, and provide constant feedback as to the state of the plant as well as the location of the operator actions in the overall start-up sequence. More generally, we believe that such an approach can support normal operations and recovery from fault conditions, but, as shall be discussed, there are

  6. Strategy to inactivate Clostridium perfringens spores in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J Antonio; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2009-05-01

    The current study aimed to develop an inactivation strategy for Clostridium perfringens spores in meat through a combination of spore activation at low pressure (100-200 MPa, 7 min) and elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min); spore germination at high temperatures (55, 60 or 65 degrees C); and inactivation of germinated spores with elevated temperatures (80 and 90 degrees C, 10 and 20 min) and high pressure (586 MPa, at 23 and 73 degrees C, 10 min). Low pressures (100-200 MPa) were insufficient to efficiently activate C. perfringens spores for germination. However, C. perfringens spores were efficiently activated with elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min), and germinated at temperatures lethal for vegetative cells (>or= 55 degrees C) when incubated for 60 min with a mixture of L-asparagine and KCl (AK) in phosphate buffer (pH 7) and in poultry meat. Inactivation of spores (approximately 4 decimal reduction) in meat by elevated temperatures (80-90 degrees C for 20 min) required a long germination period (55 degrees C for 60 min). However, similar inactivation level was reached with shorter germination period (55 degrees C for 15 min) when spore contaminated-meat was treated with pressure-assisted thermal processing (568 MPa, 73 degrees C, 10 min). Therefore, the most efficient strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in poultry meat containing 50 mM AK consisted: (i) a primary heat treatment (80 degrees C, 10 min) to pasteurize and denature the meat proteins and to activate C. perfringens spores for germination; (ii) cooling of the product to 55 degrees C in about 20 min and further incubation at 55 degrees C for about 15 min for spore germination; and (iii) inactivation of germinated spores by pressure-assisted thermal processing (586 MPa at 73 degrees C for 10 min). Collectively, this study demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative and novel strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in meat products formulated with germinants specific for C

  7. Heterologous expression of carcinoembryonic antigen in Lactococcus lactis via LcsB-mediated surface displaying system for oral vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Hu, Shumin; Du, Xue; Li, Tiejun; Han, Lanlan; Kong, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an attractive target for immunotherapy because it is expressed minimally in normal tissue, but is overexpressed in a wide variety of malignant epithelial tissues. Lactic acid bacteria (LABs), widely used in food processes, are attractive candidates for oral vaccination. Thus, we examined whether LABs could be used as a live vaccine vector to deliver CEA antigen. CEA was cloned into an Escherichia coli/Lactococcus lactis shuttle vector pSEC:LEISS under the control of a nisin promoter. For displaying the CEA on the cell surface of the L. lactis strain, the anchor motif LcsB from the S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus was fused with CEA. Intracellular and cell surface expression of the CEA-LcsB fusion was confirmed by western blot analysis. Significantly higher levels of CEA-specific secretory immunoglobulin A in the sera of mice were observed upon oral administration of strain cultures containing the CEA-LcsB fused protein. In addition, the CEA-LcsB antigen group showed a higher spleen index compared to the CEA antigen alone or negative control, demonstrating that surface-displayed CEA antigen could induce a higher immune response. These results provided the first evidence for displaying CEA antigen on the cell surfaces of LABs as oral vaccines against cancer or infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Elastic and inelastic light scattering from single bacterial spores in an optical trap allows the monitoring of spore germination dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lixin; Chen, De; Setlow, Peter; Li, Yong-qing

    2009-01-01

    Raman scattering spectroscopy and elastic light scattering intensity (ESLI) were used to simultaneously measure levels of Ca-dipicolinic acid (CaDPA) and changes in spore morphology and refractive index during germination of individual B. subtilis spores with and without the two redundant enzymes (CLEs), CwlJ and SleB, that degrade spores’ peptidoglycan cortex. Conclusions from these measurements include: 1) CaDPA release from individual wild-type germinating spores was biphasic; in a first heterogeneous slow phase, Tlag, CaDPA levels decreased ∼15% and in the second phase ending at Trelease, remaining CaDPA was released rapidly; 2) in L-alanine germination of wild-type spores and spores lacking SleB: a) the ESLI rose ∼2-fold shortly before Tlag at T1; b) following Tlag, the ESLI again rose ∼2-fold at T2 when CaDPA levels had decreased ∼50%; and c) the ESLI reached its maximum value at ∼Trelease and then decreased; 3) in CaDPA germination of wild-type spores: a) Tlag increased and the first increase in ESLI occurred well before Tlag, consistent with different pathways for CaDPA and L-alanine germination; b) at Trelease the ESLI again reached its maximum value; 4) in L-alanine germination of spores lacking both CLEs and unable to degrade their cortex, the time ΔTrelease (Trelease–Tlag) for excretion of ≥75% of CaDPA was ∼15-fold higher than that for wild-type or sleB spores; and 5) spores lacking only CwlJ exhibited a similar, but not identical ESLI pattern during L-alanine germination to that seen with cwlJ sleB spores, and the high value for ΔTrelease. PMID:19374431

  9. Using Spores for Fusarium spp. Classification by MALDI-Based Intact Cell/Spore Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Winkler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is a widespread genus of filamentous fungi and a member of the soil microbial community. Certain subspecies are health threatening because of their mycotoxin production that affects the human and animal food chain. Thus, for early and effective pest control, species identification is of particular interest; however, differentiation on the subspecies level is challenging and time-consuming for this fungus. In the present study, we show the possibilities of intact cell mass spectrometry for spore analysis of 22 different Fusarium strains belonging to six Fusarium subspecies. We found that species differentiation is possible if mass spectrometric analyses are performed under well-defined conditions with fixed parameters. A critical point for analysis is a proper sample preparation of spores, which increases the quality of mass spectra with respect to signal intensity and m/z value variations. It was concluded that data acquistion has to be performed automatically; otherwise, user-specific variations are introduced generating data which cannot fit the existing datasets. Data that show clearly that matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-based intact cell/intact spore mass spectrometry (IC/ISMS can be applied to differentiate closely related Fusarium spp. are presented. Results show a potential to build a database on Fusarium species for accurate species identification, for fast response in the case of infections in the cornfield. We furthermore demonstrate the high precision of our approach in classification of intact Fusarium species according to the location of their collection.

  10. Dynamic phase microscopy, a new method to detect viable and killed spores and to estimate the heterogeneity of spore populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tychinsky, Vladimir P.; Mulyukin, Andrey L.; Lisovskii, Vitalii V.; Nikolaev, Yury A.; Kretushev, Aleksander V.; Vyshenskaya, Tatyana V.; Suzina, Nataliya E.; Duda, Vitalii I.; El-Registan, Galina I.

    One of the challenging tasks in monitoring studies is to estimate heterogeneity of microbial populations by the physiological state and potential viability of individual cells, especially with regard of their ability to withstand various environmental assaults. Previously, we described some approaches based on electron microscopy methods to discriminate vegetative, dormant, and dead cells in both aged microbial cultures and environmental samples, including permafrost. We propose to extend the arsenal of microscopy methods for monitoring studies by a new non-invasive and informative method - dynamic phase microscopy (DPM). The substantial advantage of DPM is that it gives quantitative (digitized) data of undestroyed (living) microscopic objects, exemplified in our work by Bacillus licheniformis spores. Using DPM made it possible to record interference images of objects (spores) and to produce picture of their "phase thickness" (PT) that is the optical path difference in nm. Thus, it was demonstrated the remarkable difference in the PT of spores at different physiological states: dormant, germinating, and heat-killed spores had PT values of 80, 40-50, and 20 nm, respectively. The other found criterion to distinguish between spores was the PT fluctuations. In contrast to dormant and killed spores, the PT of germinating spores oscillated with amplitude of up to 7 nm, with typical frequencies of 1.3 and 3.4 Hz. A combination of the recorded PT values and PT fluctuations gave a key to detect viable and dead cells. Under the conditions that did not support germination (the lack of nutrients), we were able to follow the response of a single dormant spore and a spore population to heating from 25 °C to 70 °C. Thus, a very small temperature change (from 40 °C to 42 °C) under conditions non-favorable for germination, caused a drastic decrease in the spores' PT; the second drop in the PT values was observed during heating from 60 °C to 70 °C. These changes were

  11. Mechanism of Bacillus subtilis spore inactivation by and resistance to supercritical CO2 plus peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlow, B; Korza, G; Blatt, K M S; Fey, J P; Setlow, P

    2016-01-01

    Determine how supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) plus peracetic acid (PAA) inactivates Bacillus subtilis spores, factors important in spore resistance to scCO2 -PAA, and if spores inactivated by scCO2 -PAA are truly dead. Spores of wild-type B. subtilis and isogenic mutants lacking spore protective proteins were treated with scCO2 -PAA in liquid or dry at 35°C. Wild-type wet spores (aqueous suspension) were more susceptible than dry spores. Treated spores were examined for viability (and were truly dead), dipicolinic acid (DPA), mutations, permeability to nucleic acid stains, germination under different conditions, energy metabolism and outgrowth. ScCO2 -PAA-inactivated spores retained DPA, and survivors had no notable DNA damage. However, DPA was released from inactivated spores at a normally innocuous temperature (85°C), and colony formation from treated spores was salt sensitive. The inactivated spores germinated but did not outgrow, and these germinated spores had altered plasma membrane permeability and defective energy metabolism. Wet or dry coat-defective spores had increased scCO2 -PAA sensitivity, and dry spores but not wet spores lacking DNA protective proteins were more scCO2 -PAA sensitive. These findings suggest that scCO2 -PAA inactivates spores by damaging spores' inner membrane. The spore coat provided scCO2 -PAA resistance for both wet and dry spores. DNA protective proteins provided scCO2 -PAA resistance only for dry spores. These results provide information on mechanisms of spore inactivation of and resistance to scCO2 -PAA, an agent with increasing use in sterilization applications. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, H. [Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2014-12-15

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  13. Nuclear Medicine Image Display. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, H.

    2014-01-01

    The final step in a medical imaging procedure is to display the image(s) on a suitable display system where it is presented to the medical specialist for diagnostic interpretation. The display of hard copy images on X ray film or photographic film has largely been replaced today by soft copy image display systems with cathode ray tube (CRT) or liquid crystal display (LCD) monitors as the image rendering device. Soft copy display requires a high quality display monitor and a certain amount of image processing to optimize the image both with respect to the properties of the display device and to some psychophysiological properties of the human visual system. A soft copy display system, therefore, consists of a display workstation providing some basic image processing functions and the display monitor as the intrinsic display device. Display devices of lower quality may be used during intermediate steps of the acquisition and analysis of a patient study. Display monitors with a quality suitable for diagnostic reading by the specialist medical doctor are called primary devices, also known as diagnostic devices. Monitors with lower quality but good enough to be used for positioning, processing of studies, presentation of images in the wards, etc. are referred to as secondary devices or clinical devices. Nuclear medicine images can be adequately displayed even for diagnostic purposes on secondary devices. However, the increasing use of X ray images on which to report jointly with images from nuclear medicine studies, such as those generated by dual modality imaging, notably by positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT, requires display devices capable of visualizing high resolution grey scale images at diagnostic quality, i.e. primary display devices. Both grey scale and colour display devices are used, the latter playing an important role in the display of processed nuclear medicine images and

  14. Spore formation and toxin production in Clostridium difficile biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina G Semenyuk

    Full Text Available The ability to grow as a biofilm can facilitate survival of bacteria in the environment and promote infection. To better characterize biofilm formation in the pathogen Clostridium difficile, we established a colony biofilm culture method for this organism on a polycarbonate filter, and analyzed the matrix and the cells in biofilms from a variety of clinical isolates over several days of biofilm culture. We found that biofilms readily formed in all strains analyzed, and that spores were abundant within about 6 days. We also found that extracellular DNA (eDNA, polysaccharide and protein was readily detected in the matrix of all strains, including the major toxins A and/or B, in toxigenic strains. All the strains we analyzed formed spores. Apart from strains 630 and VPI10463, which sporulated in the biofilm at relatively low frequencies, the frequencies of biofilm sporulation varied between 46 and 65%, suggesting that variations in sporulation levels among strains is unlikely to be a major factor in variation in the severity of disease. Spores in biofilms also had reduced germination efficiency compared to spores obtained by a conventional sporulation protocol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that in 3 day-old biofilms, the outermost structure of the spore is a lightly staining coat. However, after 6 days, material that resembles cell debris in the matrix surrounds the spore, and darkly staining granules are closely associated with the spores surface. In 14 day-old biofilms, relatively few spores are surrounded by the apparent cell debris, and the surface-associated granules are present at higher density at the coat surface. Finally, we showed that biofilm cells possess 100-fold greater resistance to the antibiotic metronidazole then do cells cultured in liquid media. Taken together, our data suggest that C. difficile cells and spores in biofilms have specialized properties that may facilitate infection.

  15. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eEgan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural, approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable

  16. Sterilization Resistance of Bacterial Spores Explained with Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Anthony W; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Middaugh, Amy N; Garimella, Ravindranath; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rice, Charles V

    2015-11-05

    Bacterial spores can survive for long periods without nutrients and in harsh environmental conditions. This survival is influenced by the structure of the spore, the presence of protective compounds, and water retention. These compounds, and the physical state of water in particular, allow some species of bacterial spores to survive sterilization schemes with hydrogen peroxide and UV light. The chemical nature of the spore core and its water has been a subject of some contention and the chemical environment of the water impacts resistance paradigms. Either the spore has a glassy core, where water is immobilized along with other core components, or the core is gel-like with mobile water diffusion. These properties affect the movement of peroxide and radical species, and hence resistance. Deuterium solid-state NMR experiments are useful for examining the nature of the water inside the spore. Previous work in our lab with spores of Bacillus subtilis indicate that, for spores, the core water is in a more immobilized state than expected for the gel-like core theory, suggesting a glassy core environment. Here, we report deuterium solid-state NMR observations of the water within UV- and peroxide-resistant spores from Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032. Variable-temperature NMR experiments indicate no change in the line shape after heating to 50 °C, but an overall decrease in signal after heating to 100 °C. These results show glass-like core dynamics within B. pumilus SAFR-032 that may be the potential source of its known UV-resistance properties. The observed NMR traits can be attributed to the presence of an exosporium containing additional labile deuterons that can aid in the deactivation of sterilizing agents.

  17. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC 50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle.

  18. Spore formation and toxin production in Clostridium difficile biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenyuk, Ekaterina G; Laning, Michelle L; Foley, Jennifer; Johnston, Pehga F; Knight, Katherine L; Gerding, Dale N; Driks, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The ability to grow as a biofilm can facilitate survival of bacteria in the environment and promote infection. To better characterize biofilm formation in the pathogen Clostridium difficile, we established a colony biofilm culture method for this organism on a polycarbonate filter, and analyzed the matrix and the cells in biofilms from a variety of clinical isolates over several days of biofilm culture. We found that biofilms readily formed in all strains analyzed, and that spores were abundant within about 6 days. We also found that extracellular DNA (eDNA), polysaccharide and protein was readily detected in the matrix of all strains, including the major toxins A and/or B, in toxigenic strains. All the strains we analyzed formed spores. Apart from strains 630 and VPI10463, which sporulated in the biofilm at relatively low frequencies, the frequencies of biofilm sporulation varied between 46 and 65%, suggesting that variations in sporulation levels among strains is unlikely to be a major factor in variation in the severity of disease. Spores in biofilms also had reduced germination efficiency compared to spores obtained by a conventional sporulation protocol. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that in 3 day-old biofilms, the outermost structure of the spore is a lightly staining coat. However, after 6 days, material that resembles cell debris in the matrix surrounds the spore, and darkly staining granules are closely associated with the spores surface. In 14 day-old biofilms, relatively few spores are surrounded by the apparent cell debris, and the surface-associated granules are present at higher density at the coat surface. Finally, we showed that biofilm cells possess 100-fold greater resistance to the antibiotic metronidazole then do cells cultured in liquid media. Taken together, our data suggest that C. difficile cells and spores in biofilms have specialized properties that may facilitate infection.

  19. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle. PMID:27900038

  20. Bacteriocins: Novel Solutions to Age Old Spore-Related Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Kevin; Field, Des; Rea, Mary C; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; Cotter, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria, which have the ability to kill or inhibit other bacteria. Many bacteriocins are produced by food grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Indeed, the prototypic bacteriocin, nisin, is produced by Lactococcus lactis, and is licensed in over 50 countries. With consumers becoming more concerned about the levels of chemical preservatives present in food, bacteriocins offer an alternative, more natural approach, while ensuring both food safety and product shelf life. Bacteriocins also show additive/synergistic effects when used in combination with other treatments, such as heating, high pressure, organic compounds, and as part of food packaging. These features are particularly attractive from the perspective of controlling sporeforming bacteria. Bacterial spores are common contaminants of food products, and their outgrowth may cause food spoilage or food-borne illness. They are of particular concern to the food industry due to their thermal and chemical resistance in their dormant state. However, when spores germinate they lose the majority of their resistance traits, making them susceptible to a variety of food processing treatments. Bacteriocins represent one potential treatment as they may inhibit spores in the post-germination/outgrowth phase of the spore cycle. Spore eradication and control in food is critical, as they are able to spoil and in certain cases compromise the safety of food by producing dangerous toxins. Thus, understanding the mechanisms by which bacteriocins exert their sporostatic/sporicidal activity against bacterial spores will ultimately facilitate their optimal use in food. This review will focus on the use of bacteriocins alone, or in combination with other innovative processing methods to control spores in food, the current knowledge and gaps therein with regard to bacteriocin-spore interactions and discuss future research approaches to enable spores to be more