Sample records for sporangia diameter measurements

  1. Dispersal and movement mechanisms of Phytophthora capsici sporangia. (United States)

    Granke, L L; Windstam, S T; Hoch, H C; Smart, C D; Hausbeck, M K


    Understanding the mechanisms of Phytophthora capsici sporangial dissemination is paramount to understanding epidemic initiation and development. Direct laboratory observations showed P. capsici sporangial dispersal occurred in water with capillary force, but did not occur in response to wind or a reduction in relative humidity. Atmospheric sporangial concentrations were monitored under field conditions using a volumetric spore sampler in a commercial cucurbit field and in an experimental setting where copious sporangia were continuously available in close proximity to the spore trap. Dispersal was infrequent (0.7% of total hours monitored) during sampling in a commercial field; 14 sporangia were detected during a 7.5-week sampling period. In the experimental field situation, dispersal occurred in 4.6% of the hours sampled and 438 sporangia were impacted onto tapes during a 7-week sampling period. Airborne sporangial concentrations were positively associated with rainfall at both sites, but not vapor pressure deficit. Furthermore, in the experimental field situation, wind speed was not significant in regression analysis. Wind speed was not measured in the commercial field. Hence, both direct laboratory observations and volumetric spore sampling indicate that dispersal of sporangia via wind currents is infrequent, and sporangia are unlikely to be naturally dispersed among fields by wind alone.

  2. Infection Efficiency of Four Phytophthora infestans Clonal Lineages and DNA-Based Quantification of Sporangia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamadou Lamine Fall

    Full Text Available The presence and abundance of pathogen inoculum is with host resistance and environmental conditions a key factor in epidemic development. Therefore, several spore-sampling devices have been proposed to monitor pathogen inoculum above fields. However, to make spore sampling more reliable as a management tool and to facilitate its adoption, information on infection efficiency and molecular tools for estimating airborne sporangia concentration are needed. Experiments were thus undertaken in a growth chamber to study the infection efficiency of four clonal lineages of P. infestans (US-8, US-11, US-23, and US-24 by measuring the airborne sporangia concentration and resulting disease intensity. The relationship between the airborne sporangia concentration and the number of lesions per leaf was exponential. For the same concentration, the sporangia of US-23 caused significantly more lesions than the sporangia of the other clonal lineages did. Under optimal conditions, an airborne sporangia concentration of 10 sporangia m-3 for US-23 was sufficient to cause one lesion per leaf, whereas for the other clonal lineages, it took 15 to 25 sporangia m-3 to reach the same disease intensity. However, in terms of diseased leaf area, there was no difference between clonal lineages US-8, US-23 and US-24. Also, a sensitive quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR tool was developed to quantify P. infestans airborne sporangia with detection sensitivity of one sporangium. The specificity of the qPCR assay was rigorously tested for airborne inoculum and was either similar to, or an improvement on, other published PCR assays. This assay allows rapid and reliable detection and quantification of P. infestans airborne sporangia and thereby, facilitates the implementation of spores-sampling network.

  3. Appendiceal diameter: CT versus sonographic measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orscheln, Emily S. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Ultrasound and CT are the dominant imaging modalities for assessment of suspected pediatric appendicitis, and the most commonly applied diagnostic criterion for both modalities is appendiceal diameter. The classically described cut-off diameter for the diagnosis of appendicitis is 6 mm when using either imaging modality. To demonstrate the fallacy of using the same cut-off diameter for both CT and US in the diagnosis of appendicitis. We conducted a retrospective review of patients younger than 18 years who underwent both US and CT of the appendix within 24 h. The shortest transverse dimension of the appendix was measured at the level of the proximal, mid and distal appendix on US and CT images. We compared mean absolute difference in appendiceal diameter between US and CT, using the paired t-test. We reviewed exams of 155 children (58.7% female) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 4.2 years; 38 of the children (24.5%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. The average time interval between US and CT was 7.0 ± 5.4 h. Mean appendiceal diameter measured by CT was significantly larger than that measured by US in cases without appendicitis (5.3 ± 1.0 mm vs. 4.7 ± 1.1 mm, P < 0.0001) and in cases with appendicitis (8.3 ± 2.2 mm vs. 7.0 ± 2.0 mm, P < 0.0001). Mean absolute diameter difference at any location along the appendix was 1.3-1.4 mm in normal appendices and 2 mm in cases of appendicitis. Measured appendiceal diameter differs between US and CT by 1-2 mm, calling into question use of the same diameter cut-off (6 mm) for both modalities for the diagnosis of appendicitis. (orig.)

  4. Rapid Determination of Phytophthora infestans sporangia Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer


    Phytophthora infestans is the cause of late blight disease in potato and is an economically important pathogen worldwide. Early disease detection is important to implement disease control measures. In this study a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for detection of P. infestans sporangia...

  5. Ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter and femur in foetal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our objective was to verify ultrasonic measurement of biparietal diameter and femur in foetal age determination in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The prospective cross sectional ... (3) L'errur standard pour la longueur du femur était de 0.2552 contre 0.3009 pour l'estimation du diameter bi-pariétal. Les résultats ...

  6. Diameter measurements of polystyrene particles with atomic force microscopy (United States)

    Garnaes, J.


    The size of (nano) particles is a key parameter used in controlling their function. The particle size is also important in order to understand their physical and chemical properties and regulate their number in health and safety issues. In this work, the geometric diameters of polystyrene spheres of nominal diameter 100 nm are measured using atomic force microscopy. The measurements are based on the apex height and on the average distance between neighbouring spheres when they form a close-packed monolayer on a flat mica substrate. The most important influence parameters for the determination of the geometric diameter are the lateral air gaps and deformation of the spheres. The lateral air gaps are caused by significant size variations of the individual spheres, and a correction is calculated based on the simulation of packing of spheres. The deformation of the spheres is caused mainly by capillary forces acting when they are in contact with each other or with the mica substrate. Based on calculated capillary forces and the literature values of the elastic properties of the polystyrene and mica, the deformation is estimated to be 2 nm with a standard uncertainty of 2 nm. The geometric diameter of the polystyrene spheres was measured with a combined standard uncertainty of ≈3 nm. The measured vertical diameter of 92.3 nm and the certified mobility equivalent diameter measured by differential mobility analysis (DMA) are marginally consistent at a confidence level of 95%. However, the measured lateral geometric diameter was 98.9 nm and is in good agreement with DMA.

  7. Uncertainty budget for optical coordinate measurements of circle diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    An uncertainty analysis for circle diameter measurements using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) equipped with an optical probe is presented in this paper. A mathematical model for data evaluation and uncertainty assessment was formulated in accordance with Guide to the Expression of Uncertain...

  8. Measurement error in CT assessment of appendix diameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Appendiceal diameter continues to be cited as an important criterion for diagnosis of appendicitis by computed tomography (CT). To assess sources of error and variability in appendiceal diameter measurements by CT. In this institutional review board-approved review of imaging and medical records, we reviewed CTs performed in children <18 years of age between Jan. 1 and Dec. 31, 2010. Appendiceal diameter was measured in the axial and coronal planes by two reviewers (R1, R2). One year later, 10% of cases were remeasured. For patients who had multiple CTs, serial measurements were made to assess within patient variability. Measurement differences between planes, within and between reviewers, within patients and between CT and pathological measurements were assessed using correlation coefficients and paired t-tests. Six hundred thirty-one CTs performed in 519 patients (mean age: 10.9 ± 4.9 years, 50.8% female) were reviewed. Axial and coronal measurements were strongly correlated (r = 0.92-0.94, P < 0.0001) with coronal plane measurements significantly larger (P < 0.0001). Measurements were strongly correlated between reviewers (r = 0.89-0.9, P < 0.0001) but differed significantly in both planes (axial: +0.2 mm, P=0.003; coronal: +0.1 mm, P=0.007). Repeat measurements were significantly different for one reviewer only in the axial plane (0.3 mm difference, P<0.05). Within patients imaged multiple times, measured appendix diameters differed significantly in the axial plane for both reviewers (R1: 0.5 mm, P = 0.031; R2: 0.7 mm, P = 0.022). Multiple potential sources of measurement error raise concern about the use of rigid diameter cutoffs for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis by CT. (orig.)

  9. The quantitative evaluation of intracranial pressure by optic nerve sheath diameter/eye diameter CT measurement. (United States)

    Bekerman, Inessa; Sigal, Tal; Kimiagar, Itzhak; Ben Ely, Anna; Vaiman, Michael


    The changes of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) have been used to assess changes of the intracranial pressure for 20 years. The aim of this research was to further quantify the technique of measuring the ONSD for this purpose. Retrospective study of computed tomographic (CT) data of 1766 adult patients with intracranial hypotension (n=134) or hypertension (n=1632) were analyzed. The eyeball transverse diameter (ETD) and ONSD were obtained bilaterally, and the ONSD/ETD ratio was calculated. The ratio was used to calculate the normal ONSD for patients and to estimate the intracranial pressure of the patients before and after the onset of the pathology. Correlation analysis was performed with invasively measured intracranial pressure, the presence or absence of papilledema, sex, and age. In hypotension cases, the ONSD by CT was 3.4±0.7 mm (P=.03 against normative 4.4±0.8 mm). In cases with hypertension, the diameter was 6.9±1.3 (P=.02, with a cutoff value ˃5.5 mm). The ONSD/ETD ratio was 0.29±0.04 against 0.19±0.02 in healthy adults (P=.01). The ONSD and the ONSD/ETD ratio can indicate low intracranial pressure, but quantification is impossible at intracranial pressure less than 13 mm Hg. In elevated intracranial pressure, the ONSD and the ratio provide readings that correspond to readings in millimeters of mercury. The ONSD method, reinforced with additional calculations, may help to indicate a raised intracranial pressure, evaluate its severity quantitatively, and establish quantitative goals for treatment of intracranial hypertension, but the limitations of the method are to be taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A strategy for the proliferation of Ulva prolifera, main causative species of green tides, with formation of sporangia by fragmentation.

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    Shan Gao

    Full Text Available Ulva prolifera, a common green seaweed, is one of the causative species of green tides that occurred frequently along the shores of Qingdao in 2008 and had detrimental effects on the preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games sailing competition, since more than 30 percent of the area of the games was invaded. In view of the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of floating U. prolifera in green tides, we investigated the formation of sporangia in disks of different diameters excised from U. prolifera, changes of the photosynthetic properties of cells during sporangia formation, and development of spores. The results suggested that disks less than 1.00 mm in diameter were optimal for the formation of sporangia, but there was a small amount of spore release in these. The highest percentage of area of spore release occurred in disks that were 2.50 mm in diameter. In contrast, sporangia were formed only at the cut edges of larger disks (3.00 mm, 3.50 mm, and 4.00 mm in diameter. Additionally, the majority of spores liberated from the disks appeared vigorous and developed successfully into new individuals. These results implied that fragments of the appropriate size from the U. prolifera thalli broken by a variety of factors via producing spores gave rise to the rapid proliferation of the seaweed under field conditions, which may be one of the most important factors to the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of U. prolifera in the green tide that occurred in Qingdao, 2008.

  11. A strategy for the proliferation of Ulva prolifera, main causative species of green tides, with formation of sporangia by fragmentation. (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Yi, Qianqian; Wang, Guangce; Pan, Guanghua; Lin, Apeng; Peng, Guang


    Ulva prolifera, a common green seaweed, is one of the causative species of green tides that occurred frequently along the shores of Qingdao in 2008 and had detrimental effects on the preparations for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games sailing competition, since more than 30 percent of the area of the games was invaded. In view of the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of floating U. prolifera in green tides, we investigated the formation of sporangia in disks of different diameters excised from U. prolifera, changes of the photosynthetic properties of cells during sporangia formation, and development of spores. The results suggested that disks less than 1.00 mm in diameter were optimal for the formation of sporangia, but there was a small amount of spore release in these. The highest percentage of area of spore release occurred in disks that were 2.50 mm in diameter. In contrast, sporangia were formed only at the cut edges of larger disks (3.00 mm, 3.50 mm, and 4.00 mm in diameter). Additionally, the majority of spores liberated from the disks appeared vigorous and developed successfully into new individuals. These results implied that fragments of the appropriate size from the U. prolifera thalli broken by a variety of factors via producing spores gave rise to the rapid proliferation of the seaweed under field conditions, which may be one of the most important factors to the rapid accumulation of the vast biomass of U. prolifera in the green tide that occurred in Qingdao, 2008.

  12. Real-time precision measuring device of tree diameter growth (United States)

    Guo, Mingming; Chen, Aijun; Li, Dongsheng; Liu, Nan; Yao, Jingyuan


    DBH(diameter at breast height) is an important factor to reflect of the quality of plant growth, also an important parameter indispensable in forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink, the accurate measurement of DBH or not is directly related to the research of forest resources inventory and forest carbon sink. In this paper, the principle and the mathematical model of DBH measurement device were introduced, the fixture measuring device and the hardware circuit for this tree diameter were designed, the measurement software programs were compiled, and the precision measuring device of tree diameter growth was developed. Some experiments with Australia fir were conducted. Based on experiment data, the correlations among the DBH variation of Australian fir, the environment temperature, air humility and PAR(photosynthetically active radiation) were obtained. The effects of environmental parameters (environment temperature, air humility and PAR) on tree diameter were analyzed. Experimental results show that there is a positive correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and environment temperature, a negative correlation between DBH variation of Australian fir and air humility , so is PAR.

  13. Conditioning a segmented stem profile model for two diameter measurements (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski; Joe P. Mcclure


    The stem profile model of Max and Burkhart (1976) is conditioned for dbh and a second upper stem measurement. This model was applied to a loblolly pine data set using diameter outside bark at 5.3m (i.e., height of 17.3 foot Girard form class) as the second upper stem measurement, and then compared to the original, unconditioned model. Variance of residuals was reduced...

  14. A tape-controlled remote automatic diameter measurement machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennison, W.; Salmon, A.M.


    The machine is designed for the automatic measurement of fuel pins after irradiation in the fast reactors and is a modified version of a machine which has been in use for several years. These modifications consist of mechanical improvements and solid state control circuitry but the design criteria are unchanged. Irradiated fuel pins with diameters up to 0.875 in. are measured at fixed axial positions and angular intervals. Axial stepping of either 1 cm or 1 in. with a standard deviation of 5 x 10 -4 in. and angular rotation by multiples of 18 0 with a non-cumulative error of 1 0 can be selected. Data on axial position to 0.1 in. or 0.1 cm and fuel element diameter to 5 x 10 -5 in. are both punched and printed out for computer evaluation. The standard deviation of a single measurement on cylindrical specimens with an eccentricity of up to at least 0.1 in. should be no worse than 1 x 10 -4 in. No operator attention is required after the pin is positioned in the machine and 40 sets of 10 diameter readings at 36 0 intervals can be performed in an hour. Switches can be set between 1 and 99 to terminate an examination when power is switched off with the machine in its rest position. (author)

  15. Continuous Measurement of Particle Hygroscopicity as a Function of Diameter (United States)

    Brock, C. A.; Anderson, B. E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Thornhill, K. L.; Moore, R.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Wagner, N.; Langridge, J. M.; Richardson, M.; Lack, D. A.; Law, D. C.; Shingler, T.; Sorooshian, A.


    An ultra-high sensitivity aerosol spectrometer (UHSAS, Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO, USA) has been substantially modified to humidify the aerosol sample stream. The size distribution of deliquesced particles at humidities as high as 95% is measured. By combining a Mie model of instrument response with measurements of dry and wet size distributions, the hygroscopic growth factor as a function of particle diameter can be estimated. By operating a second, well-calibrated dry UHSAS simultaneously with the humidified UHSAS, the size-dependent particle hygroscopicity can be determined continuously, which is particularly useful for airborne sampling where rapid time response is required. The technique has been applied to laboratory particles of inorganic salts and of polystyrene latex, and to mixed sulfate/organic particles and dense forest fire smoke measured on an aircraft during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) project. Results will be compared with measurements of aerosol extinction at different RH values and of hygroscopic growth made with a differential aerosol sizing and hygroscopicity spectrometer probe (DASH-SP). Initial evaluations of changes in hygroscopicity due to processing in convective clouds will be presented. Limitations of the technique, such as the effects of external mixtures and insoluble components, will be discussed.

  16. Factors affecting the survival of Bremia lactucae sporangia deposited on lettuce leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, B.M.; Subbarao, K.V.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.


    Experiments to identify the factors affecting survival of Bremia lactucae sporangia after deposition on lettuce leaves were conducted in growth chambers and outdoors under ambient conditions. Lettuce seedlings at the four-leaf stage were inoculated with B. lactucae sporangia under dry conditions.

  17. Potential value of aneurysm sac volume measurements in addition to diameter measurements after endovascular aneurysm repair.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen, J.W. van; Prehn, J. van; Prokop, M.; Moll, F.L.; Herwaarden, J.A. van


    PURPOSE:To investigate the value of aneurysm sac volume measurement in addition to diameter measurements based on computed tomographic angiography (CTA) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). METHODS:Interrogation of a vascular database identified 56 patients (51 men; median age 77 years, range

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG Is airway diameter measured accurately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • September 2010 selected children of this study was 4.2 mm (measured in soft tissue windows). Graph 1 illustrates little difference (ICC agreement 0.950) between the sets of measurements of stenosis in the trachea, with a high consistency value (ICC consistency 0.946). Of the differences in.

  19. Influence of environmental factors on germination of Plasmopara viticola sporangia sourced from mediterranean Western Australia

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    M. Williams


    Full Text Available Direct germination via the production of a germ tube was demonstrated in the absence of the host for Plasmopara viticola (causal agent of grape downy mildew sporangia sourced from a major grape production area in mediterranean Western Australia (WA. In general, direct germination was favoured by environmental conditions considered less than optimal for infection by P. viticola. Most notable however was that sporangia had the capacity to germinate in the absence of free water, a factor known to be essential for the production and release of zoospores. The frequency of direct germination was low with only seven among 108 000 sporangia observed producing a germ tube. This is the first study to i examine the influence of environmental factors viz: temperature, relative humidity (RH and light, on the direct germination of P. viticola sporangia and ii establish the frequency of this event. The infectivity of directly germinated P. viticola sporangia however remains unknown. Although rare, the capacity of sporangia to germinate directly and potentially infect the host, most likely when conditions are not conducive for zoospore production or survival, may provide an explanation for the source of the disease during the predominantly hot dry summer months in WA and other climatically similar viticultural areas.

  20. Measurement of Vein Diameter for Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter (PICC) Insertion: An Observational Study. (United States)

    Sharp, Rebecca; Cummings, Melita; Childs, Jessie; Fielder, Andrea; Mikocka-Walus, Antonina; Grech, Carol; Esterman, Adrian


    Choosing an appropriately sized vein reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with peripherally inserted central catheters. This observational study described the diameters of the brachial, basilic, and cephalic veins and determined the effect of patient factors on vein size. Ultrasound was used to measure the veins of 176 participants. Vein diameter was similar in both arms regardless of hand dominance and side. Patient factors-including greater age, height, and weight, as well as male gender-were associated with increased vein diameter. The basilic vein tended to have the largest diameter statistically. However, this was the case in only 55% of patients.

  1. Automated Nanofiber Diameter Measurement in SEM Images Using a Robust Image Analysis Method

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    Ertan Öznergiz


    Full Text Available Due to the high surface area, porosity, and rigidity, applications of nanofibers and nanosurfaces have developed in recent years. Nanofibers and nanosurfaces are typically produced by electrospinning method. In the production process, determination of average fiber diameter is crucial for quality assessment. Average fiber diameter is determined by manually measuring the diameters of randomly selected fibers on scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. However, as the number of the images increases, manual fiber diameter determination becomes a tedious and time consuming task as well as being sensitive to human errors. Therefore, an automated fiber diameter measurement system is desired. In the literature, this task is achieved by using image analysis algorithms. Typically, these methods first isolate each fiber in the image and measure the diameter of each isolated fiber. Fiber isolation is an error-prone process. In this study, automated calculation of nanofiber diameter is achieved without fiber isolation using image processing and analysis algorithms. Performance of the proposed method was tested on real data. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by comparing automatically and manually measured nanofiber diameter values.

  2. Precise measurement of inner diameter of mono-capillary optic using X-ray imaging technique. (United States)

    Kwon, Soonmu; Lim, Jae Hong; Namba, Yoshiharu; Chon, Kwon Su


    Mono-capillary optics have been applied to increase the performance of X-ray instruments. However, performance of a mono-capillary optic strongly depends on the shape accuracy, which is determined by the diameters of the inner hollow of the capillary along the axial direction. To precisely determine the inner diameter of the capillary optic used in X-ray imaging technique, which aims to replace the conventional method using a visible microscope. High spatial resolution X-ray images of the mono-capillary optic were obtained by a synchrotron radiation beamline. The inner diameter of the mono-capillary optic was measured and analyzed by the pixel values of the X-ray image. Edge enhancement effect was quite useful in determining the inner diameter, and the accuracy of the diameter determination was less than 1.32 μm. Many images obtained by scanning the mono-capillary optic along the axial direction were combined, and the axial profile, consisting of diameters along the axial direction, was obtained from the combined image. The X-ray imaging method could provide an accurate measurement with slope error of±19 μrad. Applying X-ray imaging technique to determine the inner diameter of a mono-capillary optic can contribute to increasing fabrication accuracy of the mono-capillary optic through a feedback process between the fabrication and measurement of its diameter.

  3. Comparison of two different methods for the uncertainty estimation of circle diameter measurements using an optical coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renata Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    This paper deals with the uncertainty estimation of measurements performed on optical coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). Two different methods were used to assess the uncertainty of circle diameter measurements using an optical CMM: the sensitivity analysis developing an uncertainty budget...

  4. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tree Diameter Measurements, Jacaranda Plots, Manaus, Brazil: 1999-2001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements made of trees in a dense terra-firme tropical moist forest at the ZF-2 Experimental Station, 90...

  5. LBA-ECO CD-08 Tree Diameter Measurements, Jacaranda Plots, Manaus, Brazil: 1999-2001 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements made of trees in a dense terra-firme tropical moist forest at the ZF-2 Experimental...

  6. Optical diameters of stars measured with the Mt. Wilson Mark III interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, R.S.; Mozurkewich, D.; Johnston, K.J.; Gaume, R.; Hutter, D.J.; Bowers, P.F.; Colavita, M.M.; Shao, M.


    Reliable stellar angular diameters can now be determined using the Mark III Optical Interferometer located on Mt. Wilson, California. The Mark III is a Michelson Interferometer capable of measuring the interferometric fringe visibility for stars using interferometer baselines varying from 3 to 31.5 meters in length. Angular diameters measured with the Mark III Optical Interferometer are presented for 12 stars at wavelengths of 450 and 800 nm. 10 refs

  7. Measurements of stem diameter: implications for individual- and stand-level errors. (United States)

    Paul, Keryn I; Larmour, John S; Roxburgh, Stephen H; England, Jacqueline R; Davies, Micah J; Luck, Hamish D


    Stem diameter is one of the most common measurements made to assess the growth of woody vegetation, and the commercial and environmental benefits that it provides (e.g. wood or biomass products, carbon sequestration, landscape remediation). Yet inconsistency in its measurement is a continuing source of error in estimates of stand-scale measures such as basal area, biomass, and volume. Here we assessed errors in stem diameter measurement through repeated measurements of individual trees and shrubs of varying size and form (i.e. single- and multi-stemmed) across a range of contrasting stands, from complex mixed-species plantings to commercial single-species plantations. We compared a standard diameter tape with a Stepped Diameter Gauge (SDG) for time efficiency and measurement error. Measurement errors in diameter were slightly (but significantly) influenced by size and form of the tree or shrub, and stem height at which the measurement was made. Compared to standard tape measurement, the mean systematic error with SDG measurement was only -0.17 cm, but varied between -0.10 and -0.52 cm. Similarly, random error was relatively large, with standard deviations (and percentage coefficients of variation) averaging only 0.36 cm (and 3.8%), but varying between 0.14 and 0.61 cm (and 1.9 and 7.1%). However, at the stand scale, sampling errors (i.e. how well individual trees or shrubs selected for measurement of diameter represented the true stand population in terms of the average and distribution of diameter) generally had at least a tenfold greater influence on random errors in basal area estimates than errors in diameter measurements. This supports the use of diameter measurement tools that have high efficiency, such as the SDG. Use of the SDG almost halved the time required for measurements compared to the diameter tape. Based on these findings, recommendations include the following: (i) use of a tape to maximise accuracy when developing allometric models, or when

  8. Measurements of pulmonary vein ostial diameter and distance to first bifurcation: A comparison of different measurement methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin, Paul [Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)], E-mail:; Saab, Ali [Des Moines University, College of Osteopathic Medicine 3200 Grand Avenue, Des Moines, IA (United States); Kelly, Aine Marie; Gross, Barry H.; Patel, Smita; Kazerooni, Ella A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Cardiothoracic Radiology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Carlos, Ruth C. [Division of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the agreement between axial, multiplanar reformatted (MPR) and semi-automated software measurements of pulmonary vein ostial diameters and distance to the first bifurcation. CT examinations of the thorax were retrospectively reviewed in 150 consecutive patients. The pulmonary vein ostial diameter and distance to the first bifurcation of the four main pulmonary veins were independently measured. The three measurement methods were compared using a Bland-Altman test. There was no significant variation between pulmonary vein ostial diameter measurements for the superior pulmonary veins across the three measurement methods. There was significant variation between the semi-automated program and both the axial (p = 0.001) and MPR (p < 0.001) measured diameters for the right inferior pulmonary vein ostial diameter and between the MPR and semi-automated program measurements (p = 0.02) for the left inferior pulmonary vein ostial diameter. There was no significant variation between the pulmonary vein distance to first bifurcation measurements for any pulmonary vein across the three measurement methods. However, from a clinical perspective, differences were negligible; therefore, the clinician may confidently use any of the three measurement methods presented.

  9. Transabdominal ultrasound measurement of rectal diameter is dependent on time to defecation in constipated children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Dalby, Kasper; Walsted, Anne-Mette


    AIM: To study whether diurnal variations and time in relation to defecation has to be taken into account when measurements of rectal diameter are used to determine faecal impaction in constipated children. METHODS: Repeated ultrasound measures of rectal diameter were performed in 28 children (14...... constipated/14 healthy, aged between 4 and 12 years) every third hour during 24 h. After defecation, three additional scans were performed at 1-h intervals. RESULTS: No diurnal variation in rectal diameter was found in the healthy group. In the constipated group, mean rectal diameter was significantly larger...... at 2 pm (P = 0.038) and 5 pm (P = 0.006). There were significant differences between rectal diameter in the healthy group and the constipated group at 2 pm (P = 0.016) and 5 pm (P = 0.027). When we omitted the rectal diameter of five constipated children who had their first bowel movement after 5 pm...

  10. Measurement of the aortic diameter in the asymptomatic Korean population: Assessment with multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hwan; Lee, Whal; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Kim, Dae Jin; Park, Eun Ah; Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine normal reference values for aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults. Three hundred adults without signs or symptoms of cardiovascular diseases were enrolled in this study. Aortic diameters were measured at nine predetermined levels on CT images. Aortic diameter measurements were adjusted for body surface area. Analysis of data was performed with regard to age, sex, weight, height and hypertension. Aortic diameters were 2.99 ± 0.57 cm at the ascending aorta, 2.54 ± 0.35 cm at the transverse aortic arch, 2.36 ± 0.35 cm at the proximal descending thoracic aorta (DTA), 2.23 ± 0.37 cm at the mid DTA, 2.17 ± 0.38 cm at the distal DTA, 2.16 ± 0.37 cm at the thoracoabdominal junction, 2.10, 00B1, 0.35 cm at the level of the celiac axis, 1.94, 00B1, 0.36 cm at the suprarenal aorta, 1.58 ± 0.24 cm at the aortic bifurcation. Men had slightly larger diameters than women (p < 0.05). All diameters increased with age and hypertension, with statistical significance (p < 0.01). And all aortic diameters increased with height (p < 0.05) except at the level of the aortic arch (p = 0.056), and increased with weight (p < 0.05) except at the level of the suprarenal aorta (p = 0.067). Male sex, higher weight and height, age and hypertension are associated with larger aortic diameters in asymptomatic Korean adults.

  11. Analysis of the Influence of Fibre Diameter on Wirescanner Beam Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    King, Quentin


    It is often important to be able to measure beam profiles in regions where the beam size is very small. Following concern that the profile measurement might be affected by having a beam size of the same order as the diameter of the wirescanner fibre, the effect was analysed numerically, and the results are presented.

  12. High-Speed Measurement of the Internal Diameter of Tubes: A Comparison of Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Hans Erik; Agerup, C.C.; Nielsen, N.


    The authors have compared various methods of tube measurement and have made the striking conclusion that the continuous measurement of the internal diameter of precision tubes with an air gauge is often useless in practice. The methods selected for experiment were all contactless and so included...

  13. Design of measuring system for wire diameter based on sub-pixel edge detection algorithm (United States)

    Chen, Yudong; Zhou, Wang


    Light projection method is often used in measuring system for wire diameter, which is relatively simpler structure and lower cost, and the measuring accuracy is limited by the pixel size of CCD. Using a CCD with small pixel size can improve the measuring accuracy, but will increase the cost and difficulty of making. In this paper, through the comparative analysis of a variety of sub-pixel edge detection algorithms, polynomial fitting method is applied for data processing in measuring system for wire diameter, to improve the measuring accuracy and enhance the ability of anti-noise. In the design of system structure, light projection method with orthogonal structure is used for the detection optical part, which can effectively reduce the error caused by line jitter in the measuring process. For the electrical part, ARM Cortex-M4 microprocessor is used as the core of the circuit module, which can not only drive double channel linear CCD but also complete the sampling, processing and storage of the CCD video signal. In addition, ARM microprocessor can complete the high speed operation of the whole measuring system for wire diameter in the case of no additional chip. The experimental results show that sub-pixel edge detection algorithm based on polynomial fitting can make up for the lack of single pixel size and improve the precision of measuring system for wire diameter significantly, without increasing hardware complexity of the entire system.

  14. The effect of relative humidity on germination of Sporangia of Phytophthora ramorum (United States)

    Sporangia of three isolates of P. ramorum representing three different clonal lineages were subjected to relative humidity (RH) levels between 80 and 100% for exposure periods ranging from 1 to 24 h at 20°C in darkness. Airtight snap-lid plastic containers (21.5 x 14.5 x 5 cm) were used as humidity ...

  15. Effects of temperature on germination of sporangia, infection and protein secretion by Phytophthora kernoviae (United States)

    Phytophthora kernoviae has been reported to cause bleeding stem lesions and foliar necrosis on a wide range of species, with little knowledge of the optimal conditions for infection. Detached Rhododendron ponticum leaves were inoculated with six different isolates of P. kernoviae sporangia and set ...

  16. Effects of Coil Diameter in Thickness Measurement Using Pulsed Eddy Current Non-destructive Testing (United States)

    Nisa Azaman, Khairun; Sophian, Ali; Nafiah, Faris


    Non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques are used in industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or structure without causing any permanent damage. Among the techniques, pulsed eddy current (PEC) NDT is regarded as a new technique where a broadband pulse excitation is used, as opposed to single frequencies employed in conventional eddy current NDT. In this study, a 2D axisymmetric electromagnetic model of a PEC probe has been developed and it has been used to study the effects of the excitation coil diameter on the performance of PEC probes in sample thickness measurement. A PEC system has also been built to validate the model. Aluminium plates are used as the sample and they can be stacked up to replicate thickness from 1 mm to 10 mm. The results show that there is a very good correlation between the simulation and experimental results, with an average error of less than 10%. The results also suggest that the larger the diameter of the excitation coil, the deeper the penetration and therefore the larger the thickness measurement range. It has also been shown that although the larger diameters have deeper penetration, the smallest diameter has the highest sensitivity if normalization is not used. These conclusions indicate that coil diameter is an important parameter in a PEC probe design for thickness measurement applications.

  17. Novel technique to accurately measure femoral diameter using a Thomas splint. (United States)

    Liew, Ignatius; Qureshi, Mobeen; Joseph, Jibu; Bailey, Oliver


    During surgical management of femoral shaft fractures, difficulties arise when treating patients with narrow femoral diaphyseal canals, such as young patients and those with dysplastic femurs secondary to underlying pathology. Accurate pre-operative assessment of the femoral diaphyseal canal diameter would allow the surgeon to plan surgical technique and ensure appropriate equipment was available, such as narrow, unreamed or paediatric sized nails. When secured to the patient both longitudinal rods of the main Thomas Splint component lie parallel with the femoral shaft and horizontal to the radiographic x-ray plate. The diameter of these rods are 13mm (Adult and paediatric). Using the calibration tool, we calibrate the diameter of the Thomas Splint to 13mm, accurately measuring any further detail on that radiograph, such as the diaphyseal canal diameter. Accurate knowledge pre-operatively of radiographic measurements is highly valuable to the operating surgeon. This technique can accurately measure femoral canal diameter using the Thomas splint, negates the requirement for a calibration marker, is reproducible, easy to perform, and is indispensible when faced with a patient with a narrow femoral canal in a diaphyseal femoral fracture. (181 words). Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new method for measuring coronary artery diameters with CT spatial profile curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yamazaki, Tadashi; Tsuji, Taeko; Ohmoto, Yuki; Morita, Toshihiro; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Honye, Junko; Nagai, Ryozo; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni


    Purpose: Coronary artery vascular edge recognition on computed tomography (CT) angiograms is influenced by window parameters. A noninvasive method for vascular edge recognition independent of window setting with use of multi-detector row CT was contrived and its feasibility and accuracy were estimated by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Methods: Multi-detector row CT was performed to obtain 29 CT spatial profile curves by setting a line cursor across short-axis coronary angiograms processed by multi-planar reconstruction. IVUS was also performed to determine the reference coronary diameter. IVUS diameter was fitted horizontally between two points on the upward and downward slopes of the profile curves and Hounsfield number was measured at the fitted level to test seven candidate indexes for definition of intravascular coronary diameter. The best index from the curves should show the best agreement with IVUS diameter. Results: Of the seven candidates the agreement was the best (agreement: 16 ± 11%) when the two ratios of Hounsfield number at the level of IVUS diameter over that at the peak on the profile curves were used with water and with fat as the background tissue. These edge definitions were achieved by cutting the horizontal distance by the curves at the level defined by the ratio of 0.41 for water background and 0.57 for fat background. Conclusions: Vascular edge recognition of the coronary artery with CT spatial profile curves was feasible and the contrived method could define the coronary diameter with reasonable agreement

  19. [Comparison of aortic annular diameter defined by different measurement mordalities before transcatheter aortic valve implantation]. (United States)

    Qi, R X; You, X D; Pu, Z X; Yang, Q; Huang, Z X; Zhou, L M; Huang, P T


    Objective: To compare aortic annular diameter measured by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and multislice computed tomography (MSCT) in patients with severe aortic stenosis, and to evaluate the impact on selection of prosthetic valve type in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods: Clinical data of 138 patients with severe aortic stenosis referred for TAVI between January 2014 and June 2016 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed.The difference of aortic annular diameter measured by TTE, TEE, and MSCT were compared.TTE was performed after TAVI to evaluate the accuracy of measurement before TAVI. Results: (1) Aortic annular diameter was (23.37±2.22) mm by TTE and (23.52±1.70) mm by TEE ( P =0.12). Pearson correlation analysis showed that aortic annular diameter measured by TTE was correlated to that measured by TEE ( r =0.87, P TTE and TTE (all P TTE and TEE measurements are smaller than that from MSCT.In the absence of a gold standard, selection of prosthetic valve type in TAVI procedure should rely on comprehensive considerations, which is of importance to get good clinical results for severe aortic stenosis patients underwent TAVI.

  20. Measured Performance of a Varied Airflow Small-Diameter Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  1. Measured Performance of a Varied Airflow Small-Diameter Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  2. Rapid Determination of Phytophthora infestans sporangia Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Nicolaisen, Mogens; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer


    is presented. The specificity of an existing mouse monoclonal antibody (phyt/G1470 mAb) against P. infestans was investigated in plate-trapped antigen ELISA and in subtractive inhibition ELISA. No or only limited cross-reactivity was observed against representatives having air-borne spores from Ascomycetes......, Deuteromycetes as well as Basidiomycetes. phyt/G1470 mAb was incorporated in a subtractive inhibition SPR assay, consisting of a pre-incubation of mAb and sporangia, a centrifugation step to remove sporangia-bound phyt/ G1470 mAb and quantification of remaining phyt/G1470 mAb by SPR. Good intra- and interday...

  3. Non-destructive estimation of root pressure using sap flow, stem diameter measurements and mechanistic modelling. (United States)

    De Swaef, Tom; Hanssens, Jochen; Cornelis, Annelies; Steppe, Kathy


    Upward water movement in plants via the xylem is generally attributed to the cohesion-tension theory, as a response to transpiration. Under certain environmental conditions, root pressure can also contribute to upward xylem water flow. Although the occurrence of root pressure is widely recognized, ambiguity exists about the exact mechanism behind root pressure, the main influencing factors and the consequences of root pressure. In horticultural crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), root pressure is thought to cause cells to burst, and to have an important impact on the marketable yield. Despite the challenges of root pressure research, progress in this area is limited, probably because of difficulties with direct measurement of root pressure, prompting the need for indirect and non-destructive measurement techniques. A new approach to allow non-destructive and non-invasive estimation of root pressure is presented, using continuous measurements of sap flow and stem diameter variation in tomato combined with a mechanistic flow and storage model, based on cohesion-tension principles. Transpiration-driven sap flow rates are typically inversely related to stem diameter changes; however, this inverse relationship was no longer valid under conditions of low transpiration. This decoupling between sap flow rates and stem diameter variations was mathematically related to root pressure. Root pressure can be estimated in a non-destructive, repeatable manner, using only external plant sensors and a mechanistic model.

  4. Dynamic Measurement for the Diameter of A Train Wheel Based on Structured-Light Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong


    Full Text Available Wheels are very important for the safety of a train. The diameter of the wheel is a significant parameter that needs regular inspection. Traditional methods only use the contact points of the wheel tread to fit the rolling round. However, the wheel tread is easily influenced by peeling or scraping. Meanwhile, the circle fitting algorithm is sensitive to noise when only three points are used. This paper proposes a dynamic measurement method based on structured-light vision. The axle of the wheelset and the tread are both employed. The center of the rolling round is determined by the axle rather than the tread only. Then, the diameter is calculated using the center and the contact points together. Simulations are performed to help design the layout of the sensors, and the influences of different noise sources are also analyzed. Static and field experiments are both performed, and the results show it to be quite stable and accurate.

  5. Diameter measurements of cerebral arteries on three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuzhong; Zhang Xuelin; Chang Renmin; Cang Peng; Liu Xingyuan; Xia Qiong


    Objective: To measure and establish the normal values of diameters of Chinese cerebral arteries on MRA. Methods: The diameters of the cerebral arteries in 100 persons with normal findings on 3D TOF MRA were measured with projector. There were 53 males and 47 females with the mean age of 45.8 years. 12 subjects were younger than 14 years and 88 were older than 14 years. The diameter differences between the left and the right, in gender and in ages were analyzed statistically. Results: The measurements of each arterial diameter were as follows: Ophthalmic artery: (0.8 ±0.2) mm in male, (0.9±0.2) mm in female. C2 segment of internal carotid artery (ICA-C2): (3.0±0.3) mm (≤14 years) and (3.5±0.6) mm (>14 years) in male, (2.8±0.6) mm (≤14 years) and (3.1±0.5) mm (>14 years) in female. ICA-C4: (4.3±0.6) mm in male, (3.9±0.6) mm in female. A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA-A1): (2.1±0.4) mm in male, (2.1±0.4) mm in female. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) : (1.4±0.4) mm in male, (1.3±0.4) mm in female. M1 segment of middle cerebral artery (MCA-M1) : (2.7±0.4) mm in male, (2.6±0.4) mm in female. Basilar artery (BA) : (2.9±0.5) mm in male, (2.8±0.4) mm in female. P1 segment of posterior cerebral artery (PCA-P1) : (2.1±0.5) mm on the left and (2.0±0.5) mm on the right in male, (2.0±0.3) mm on the left and (1.9±0.3) mm on the right in female. PCA-P2: (1.8±0.4) mm in male, (1.7±0.3) mm in female. Posterior communicating artery (PCoA): (1.1±0.3) mm in male, (1.2±0.4) mm in female. Among various diameters, only PCA-P1 had significant difference between the left and the right ( P=0.003); only MCA-M1 (P =0.048), PCA-P1 (P=0.012), ICA-C2 (P=0.000) and C4 segments (P=0.000) had significant differences in gender, respectively; and only ICA-C2 had significant difference in age (P=0.001). Of these significantly different diameters, the diameters in male were larger than those in female. There were significant correlation between PCA-P1 and PCA

  6. Optic nerve sheath diameter measurement techniques: examination using a novel ex-vivo porcine model. (United States)

    Nusbaum, Derek M; Antonsen, Erik; Bockhorst, Kurt H; Easley, R Blaine; Clark, Jonathan B; Brady, Kenneth M; Kibler, Kathleen K; Sutton, Jeffrey P; Kramer, Larry; Sargsyan, Ashot E


    Ultrasound (U/S) and MRI measurements of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) have been proposed as intracranial pressure measurement surrogates, but these methods have not been fully evaluated or standardized. The purpose of this study was to develop an ex-vivo model for evaluating ONSD measurement techniques by comparing U/S and MRI measurements to physical measurements. The left eye of post mortem juvenile pigs (N = 3) was excised and the subdural space of the optic nerve cannulated. Caliper measurements and U/S imaging measurements of the ONSD were acquired at baseline and following 1 cc saline infusion into the sheath. The samples were then embedded in 0.5% agarose and imaged in a 7 Tesla (7T) MRI. The ONSD was subsequently measured with digital calipers at locations and directions matching the U/S and direct measurements. Both MRI and sonographic measurements were in agreement with direct measurements. U/S data, especially axial images, exhibited a positive bias and more variance (bias: 1.318, 95% limit of agreement: 8.609) compared to MRI (bias: 0.3156, 95% limit of agreement: 2.773). In addition, U/S images were much more dependent on probe placement, distance between probe and target, and imaging plane. This model appears to be a valid test-bed for continued scrutiny of ONSD measurement techniques. In this model, 7T MRI was accurate and potentially useful for in-vivo measurements where direct measurements are not available. Current limitations with ultrasound imaging for ONSD measurement associated with image acquisition technique and equipment necessitate further standardization to improve its clinical utility.

  7. Effective mode-field diameter measurement for few-mode fibers (United States)

    Matsui, Takashi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Nakajima, Kazuhide


    We experimentally investigate the applicability of the conventional near-field patter (NFP), far-field pattern (FFP) and variable aperture (VA) methods for measuring the effective mode-field diameter (MFD) of the higher-order mode which can be used for evaluating the splice loss accurately. We confirmed that the variation in measured MFD values obtained with FFP and VA methods can be converged by considering the minimum scanning angle and minimum numerical aperture (NA) respectively for both fundamental and higher-order modes. We reveal that the FFP and VA methods provide adequate effective MFD values in the FMF, which can be used for evaluating the splice loss based on the traditional Gaussian fitting model. We also found that the minimum NA in the VA method can be determined empirically as a function of the effective MFD.

  8. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael


    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... (ICC) and limits of agreement. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes of hyperoxia was accompanied by mean reductions in arterial and venous perfusion velocities of 14% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.0080; p = 0.0019), constriction of major arteries and veins by 5.5% and 8.2%, respectively (p ...). For perfusion velocities, short-term ICCs were 0.79-0.82 and long-term ICCs were 0.06-0.11. Intersession increases in blood glucose were associated with reductions in perfusion velocities (arterial p = 0.0067; venous p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: Oxygen reactivity testing supported that motion-contrast velocimetry...

  9. Maximum Diameter Measurements of Aortic Aneurysms on Axial CT Images After Endovascular Aneurysm Repair: Sufficient for Follow-up?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumueller, Stephan; Nguyen, Thi Dan Linh; Goetti, Robert Paul; Lachat, Mario; Seifert, Burkhardt; Pfammatter, Thomas; Frauenfelder, Thomas


    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of maximum diameter measurements of aortic aneurysms after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) on axial computed tomographic (CT) images in comparison to maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the intravascular centerline for follow-up by using three-dimensional (3D) volume measurements as the reference standard. Materials and Methods: Forty-nine consecutive patients (73 ± 7.5 years, range 51–88 years), who underwent EVAR of an infrarenal aortic aneurysm were retrospectively included. Two blinded readers twice independently measured the maximum aneurysm diameter on axial CT images performed at discharge, and at 1 and 2 years after intervention. The maximum diameter perpendicular to the centerline was automatically measured. Volumes of the aortic aneurysms were calculated by dedicated semiautomated 3D segmentation software (3surgery, 3mensio, the Netherlands). Changes in diameter of 0.5 cm and in volume of 10% were considered clinically significant. Intra- and interobserver agreements were calculated by intraclass correlations (ICC) in a random effects analysis of variance. The two unidimensional measurement methods were correlated to the reference standard. Results: Intra- and interobserver agreements for maximum aneurysm diameter measurements were excellent (ICC = 0.98 and ICC = 0.96, respectively). There was an excellent correlation between maximum aneurysm diameters measured on axial CT images and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) as well as between maximum diameter measurements perpendicular to the centerline and 3D volume measurements (r = 0.93, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Measurements of maximum aneurysm diameters on axial CT images are an accurate, reliable, and robust method for follow-up after EVAR and can be used in daily routine.

  10. Quantifying unruptured giant intracranial aneurysms by measuring diameter and volume--a comparative analysis of 69 cases. (United States)

    Dengler, Julius; Maldaner, Nicolai; Bijlenga, Philippe; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Graewe, Alexander; Guhl, Susanne; Nakamura, Makoto; Hohaus, Christian; Kursumovic, Adisa; Schmidt, Nils Ole; Schebesch, Karl-Michael; Wostrack, Maria; Vajkoczy, Peter; Mielke, Dorothee


    Intracranial aneurysms (IA) are usually quantified according to their largest diameter. However, volumetry has recently been increasingly conducted as well, especially in giant intracranial aneurysms (GIAs). Since so far the true value of GIA volumetry is unknown, we designed a trial to examine correlations between GIA diameter and volume with special focus on clinical implications. Magnetic resonance imaging of 69 unruptured GIAs in 66 patients was retrospectively evaluated. The largest diameter and volume were measured. Also, potential associations to the patients' clinical conditions were examined. Comparing GIA sizes of our patient cohort produced different results depending on whether GIA diameter or volume was measured. Measuring the diameter identified posterior circulation GIAs as the largest ones (39.2 mm, IQR 37.3-48.3), while measuring the volume found GIAs of the MCA to be the largest ones (12.3 cm(3), IQR 7.2-27.8). A correlation of GIA diameter and volume was only found in anterior circulation GIAs, which were predominantly saccular in shape, but not in those of the posterior circulation, of which most were fusiform. Neither GIA diameter nor GIA volume but only GIA location was associated with neurological deficits. Diameter and volume measurements are not interchangeable modes of GIA quantification. Our data suggest that the idea of distinguishing different sizes of GIA may be clinically less relevant than examining their location, shape or mass effect.

  11. Predicting the Parturition Date in Bitches of Different Body Weight by Ultrasonographic Measurements of Inner Chorionic Cavity Diameter and Biparietal Diameter. (United States)

    Socha, P; Janowski, T


    Predicting the parturition date in dogs by taking ultrasonographic foetometry has opened interesting research areas of veterinary obstetrics. Recently developed calculation formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) are formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (2000). This study is one of the first reports referring to ICC and BP with the use of Luvoni and Grioni formulas for predicting the parturition time in dogs of different body weight in clinical practice conditions. The research material consists of 70 clinically healthy pregnant bitches of 27 breeds and cross-breeds. Bitches were divided into 4 groups according to their body weight. In each of the bitches, ultrasonographic examination of pregnancy was performed at least twice (ICC and BP measurements). Parturition dates for dogs with a body weight over 25 kg were calculated based on formulas intended for the group of medium dogs. It was caused by the lack of appropriate formulas for these groups of dogs. The predicting parturition dates were compared with the actual dates of delivery provided by the bitch owners. Generally, the results obtained in this study are very encouraging and similar or even better than those published by other authors using foetometric measurements. In our research, when comparing the effectiveness of predicting the delivery date based on foetometric formulas by Luvoni and Grioni (2000), it was proved that in all groups of dogs, even those over 25 kg, ICC and BP measurements at both accuracy levels were characterized similar reliability. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Association Between Obstetric Conjugate Diameter Measured by Transabdominal Ultrasonography During Pregnancy and the Type of Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Poureisa, Masoud; Ranjkesh, Mahnaz


    Normal morphological features of the maternal pelvis are an important prerequisite to vaginal delivery. We aimed to evaluate the association between obstetric conjugate diameter (OCD) measured by ultrasonography and the type of delivery, vaginally (V) or by cesarean (C) section. Pelvimetry was performed in 200 primigravid women for fetal cephalic presentation. The OCD was measured twice by transabdominal ultrasonography during 25-30 weeks and 30-35 weeks of pregnancy. The mean OCD of both sonographies in groups V and C was 125.51± 8.35 mm (105-144.5) and 112.99 ± 8.53 mm (96-134.5), respectively, which was significantly lower in group C (P<0.001). The values of OCD between the first and second measurements were not different significantly (P=0.065). C-section was indicated in 65 (32.5%) mothers. The optimal cut-off point for the OCD in the prediction of vaginal delivery was ≥ 119.75 mm, with a sensitivity and specificity of 80% and 78.5%, respectively. The US measurement of OCD might be an accurate method that almost always remains constant during late pregnancy; it is easy to measure and might be confidentially employed for predicting C-section, but needs more precise studies to be used widely


    Williams, Jackie M; Krebs, Ingar A; Riedesel, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Qianqian


    Tracheal collapse is a progressive airway disease that can ultimately result in complete airway obstruction. Intraluminal tracheal stents are a minimally invasive and viable treatment for tracheal collapse once the disease becomes refractory to medical management. Intraluminal stent size is chosen based on the maximum measured tracheal diameter during maximum inflation. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to compare tracheal lumen diameter measurements and subsequent selected stent size using both fluoroscopy and CT and to evaluate inter- and intraobserver variability of the measurements. Seventeen healthy Beagles were anesthetized and imaged with fluoroscopy and CT with positive pressure ventilation to 20 cm H2 O. Fluoroscopic and CT maximum tracheal diameters were measured by three readers. Three individual measurements were made at eight predetermined tracheal sites for dorsoventral (height) and laterolateral (width) dimensions. Tracheal diameters and stent sizes (based on the maximum tracheal diameter + 10%) were analyzed using a linear mixed model. CT tracheal lumen diameters were larger compared to fluoroscopy at all locations (P-value fluoroscopy compared to CT, both within and among observers. The greater tracheal diameter measured with CT and lower measurement variability has clinical significance, as this may be the imaging modality of choice for appropriate stent selection to minimize complications in veterinary patients. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  14. Fetal biacromial diameter as a new ultrasound measure for prediction of macrosomia in term pregnancy: a prospective observational study. (United States)

    Youssef, Alaa Eldin A; Amin, Ahmed F; Khalaf, Mohamed; Khalaf, Marwa S; Ali, Mohammed K; Abbas, Ahmed M


    The current study aims to evaluate a simple method for sonographic measurement of the fetal biacromial diameter for prediction of fetal macrosomia in term pregnancy. The current study was a single center prospective observational study conducted in a tertiary University Hospital from January 2015 to May 2017. We included all consecutive term (37-42 weeks) pregnant women presented to the labor ward for delivery. Ultrasound parameters were measured as biparietal diameter, head circumference, transverse thoracic diameter, mid arm diameter, abdominal circumference, femur length, estimated fetal weight and amniotic fluid index. The proposed ultrasound formula "Youssef's formula" to measure the fetal biacromial diameter is: [Transverse thoracic diameter + 2 × midarm diameter]. The accuracy of proposed formula was compared to the actual biacromial diameter of the newborn after delivery. The primary outcome of the study was accuracy of sonographic measurement of fetal biacromial diameter in prediction of fetal macrosomia in terms of sensitivity and specificity Results: The study included 600 participants; 49 (8.2%) of them delivered a macrosomic neonates and 551 (91.8%) delivered average weight neonates. There was no statistical significant difference between the proposed fetal biacromial diameter measured by ultrasound and the actual neonatal biacromial diameter measured after birth (p = 0.192). The area under the curve (AUC) for prediction of macrosomia at birth based on the fetal biacromial diameter and the abdominal circumference was 0.987 and 0.989, respectively on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Using the biacromial diameter cutoff of 15.4 cm has a PPV for prediction of macrosomia (88.4%) and 96.4% sensitivity with overall accuracy of 97%. Similarly, with the abdominal circumference (AC) cutoff of 35.5 cm, the PPV for prediction of macrosomia (87.7%) and 96.4% sensitivity with overall accuracy of 96.83%. No statistical significant

  15. Measurement of cochlear length using the 'A' value for cochlea basal diameter: A feasibility study. (United States)

    Deep, Nicholas L; Howard, Brittany E; Holbert, Sarah O; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Barrs, David M


    To determine whether the cochlea basal diameter (A value) measurement can be consistently and precisely obtained from high-resolution temporal bone imaging for use in cochlear length estimation. A feasibility study at a tertiary referral center was performed using the temporal bone CTs of 40 consecutive patients. The distance from the round window to the lateral wall was measured for each cochlea by two independent reviewers, a neuroradiologist and an otolaryngologist. The interrater reliability was calculated using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman plot. Forty patients (19 males, 21 females) for a total of 80 cochleae were included. Interrater reliability on the same ear had a high level of agreement by both the ICC and the Bland-Altman plot. ICCs were 0.90 (95% CI: 0.82, 0.94) for the left ear and 0.96 (95% CI: 0.92, 0.98) for the right ear. Bland-Altman plot confirmed interrater reliability with all 96% of measurements falling within the 95% limits of agreement. Measurement between the round window and lateral cochlear wall can be consistently and reliably obtained from high-resolution temporal bone CT scans. Thus, it is feasible to utilize this method to estimate the cochlear length of patients undergoing cochlear implantation.

  16. Quantification of sauter mean diameter in diesel sprays using scattering-absorption extinction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Gabrielle L; Magnotti, Gina M; Knox, Benjamin W; Genzale, Caroline L; Matusik, Katarzyna E; Duke, Daniel J; Powell, Christopher F; Kastengren, Alan L


    Quantitative measurements of the primary breakup process in diesel sprays are lacking due to a range of experimental and diagnostic challenges, including: high droplet number density environments, very small characteristic drop size scales (~1-10 μm), and high characteristic velocities in the primary breakup region (~600 m/s). Due to these challenges, existing measurement techniques have failed to resolve a sufficient range of the temporal and spatial scales involved and much remains unknown about the primary atomization process in practical diesel sprays. To gain a better insight into this process, we have developed a joint visible and x-ray extinction measurement technique to quantify axial and radial distributions of the path-integrated Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and Liquid Volume Fraction (LVF) for diesel-like sprays. This technique enables measurement of the SMD in regions of moderate droplet number density, enabling construction of the temporal history of drop size development within practical diesel sprays. The experimental campaign was conducted jointly at the Georgia Institute of Technology and Argonne National Laboratory using the Engine Combustion Network “Spray D” injector. X-ray radiography liquid absorption measurements, conducted at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, quantify the liquid-fuel mass and volume distribution in the spray. Diffused back-illumination liquid scattering measurements were conducted at Georgia Tech to quantify the optical thickness throughout the spray. By application of Mie-scatter equations, the ratio of the absorption and scattering extinction measurements is demonstrated to yield solutions for the SMD. This work introduces the newly developed scattering-absorption measurement technique and highlights the important considerations that must be taken into account when jointly processing these measurements to extract the SMD. These considerations include co-alignment of measurements taken at different institutions

  17. Comparison of volume and diameter measurement in assessing small abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion examined using computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, Adam; Jayaratne, Chanaka; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan


    Aim: First we aimed to assess the reproducibility of a computer tomography angiography (CTA) based technique for measuring infra-renal aortic volume and diameter. Second we sought to investigate whether changes in aortic volume and diameter were similar during follow-up. Materials and methods: A prospective series of 57 patients, with aortic diameter initially measuring between 25 and 55 mm, were assessed with 2 CTAs a median of 14 months apart. Aortic volume and maximum diameter (both axial and orthogonal) were measured by a semi-automated workstation protocol based on previously defined techniques. Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility were assessed by repeat assessment of the initial CTA images of the first 33 patients included in the study, in order to estimate the 95% limits of agreements. Changes in aortic dimensions between the first and follow-up CTA, were defined for volume and diameter separately as changes greater than their respective 95% limits of agreement. Results: Reproducibility of aortic volume and diameter was excellent with an average coefficient of variation 3 (0.01-14.18), 1.2 mm (0.40-3.50) and 1.4 mm (-0.15 to 3.55) respectively. Forty-two percent of patients who had increased aortic volume above the 95% limit of agreement did not display corresponding axial or orthogonal diameter changes. Conclusions: Infra-renal total aortic volume, axial and orthogonal diameter can all be measured reproducibly from CTA. Aortic volume changes are not always reflected by similar changes in diameter and therefore provide complementary information when assessing AAA expansion over time.

  18. Comparison of aortic annulus diameter measurement between multi-detector computed tomography and echocardiography: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruifang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Accurate measurement of aortic annulus diameter is crucial for choosing suitable prosthetic size for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI. Several imaging methods are available for the measurement, but significant variability between different modalities has been observed. The purpose of this study was to systematically compare the measurements of aortic annulus diameter between multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT, transthoracic echocardiography (TTE, and transesophegeal echocardiography (TEE. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases between January 2000 and January 2012 were searched. We extracted data from eligible studies evaluating the aortic annulus diameter by MDCT and echocardiography (TTE, TEE, or both. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis to calculate the weighted mean differences of aortic annulus diameter measurement between MDCT, TTE, and TEE. RESULTS: A total of 10 eligible studies involving 581 subjects with aortic valve stenosis were included. Aortic annulus diameter measured on coronal view by MDCT (25.3±0.52 mm was respectively larger than that measured on sagittal view by MDCT (22.7±0.37 mm, TTE (22.6±0.28 mm, and TEE (23.1±0.32 mm. The weighted mean difference of aortic annulus diameter between coronal view by MDCT and TTE these two methods was 2.97 mm, followed by the weighted mean difference of 2.53 mm between coronal view and sagittal view by MDCT, and the mean difference of 1.74 mm between coronal view on MDCT and TEE (P<0.0001 for all. The weighted mean difference of aortic annulus diameter measurement between TEE and TTE was significant but somewhat small (0.45 mm, P = 0.007. CONCLUSION: Aortic annulus diameter measured on coronal view by MDCT was robustly and significantly larger than that obtained on sagittal view by MDCT, TTE, or TEE. Such variability of aortic annulus diameter measurement by different imaging modalities cannot be ignored when developing optimal

  19. On-chip measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters from 10 nm to 250 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt


    We demonstrate the use of planar Hall effect magnetoresistive sensors for AC susceptibility measurements of magnetic beads with frequencies ranging from DC to 1 MHz. This wide frequency range allows for measuring Brownian relaxation of magnetic beads with diameters ranging from 10 nm to 250 nm...

  20. Measurement of Anterior–Posterior Diameter of Ivc By Ultrasonography: a Non Invasive Method for Estimation of Central Venous Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Nouri-Majalan


    Full Text Available Introduction:The assessment of intravascular volume in severely traumatized patients or patients admitted in ICU is very essential. At present the accurate method for estimating the intravascular volume requirement is by measuring the CVP which is an invasive method. The measurement of IVC diameter by ultrasound has been suggested as an easily available and simple method for measuring the intravascular volume status. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of IVC diameter measurement by ultrasonography and CVP measurement for calculating the intravascular volume in ICU admitted patients. Methods: This was a descriptive and prospective study including 50 patients admitted in ICU with a central venous catheter placed for any reason whatsoever and no signs of increased right atrial pressure. CVP was measured in supine position by CVP manometer. The anterior- posterior IVC diameter was assessed by ultrasonography during inspiration and expiration. Data analysis was performed by SPSS and evaluated statistically with Pearsons regression and linear correlation test. Results: The mean CVP at inspiration and during expiration was 11.35+ 5.53, 12.20 + 5.65 cmH2O, respectively. The mean of inspiratory and expiratory IVC diameter was 7.71 + 3.5 , 11.37 + 3.28 mm, respectively. There was significant correlation between CVP and IVC diameter both during inspiration (r= 0.64 , p-value= 0.001 and expiration (r=0.495 , p-value=0.001 Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that IVC diameter measurement by ultrasound can be used as a reliable and non- invasive method for estimating the intravascular volume.

  1. Reliability of new software in measuring cervical multifidus diameters and shoulder muscle strength in a synchronized way; an ultrasonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rahnama


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the inter-session reliability of new software to measure the diameters of the cervical multifidus muscle (CMM, both at rest and during isometric contractions of the shoulder abductors in subjects with neck pain and in healthy individuals.METHOD: In the present study, the reliability of measuring the diameters of the CMM with the Sonosynch software was evaluated by using 24 participants, including 12 subjects with chronic neck pain and 12 healthy individuals. The anterior-posterior diameter (APD and the lateral diameter (LD of the CMM were measured in a resting state and then repeated during isometric contraction of the shoulder abductors. Measurements were taken on separate occasions 3 to 7 days apart in order to determine inter-session reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, standard error of measurement (SEM, and smallest detectable difference (SDD were used to evaluate the relative and absolute reliability, respectively.RESULTS: The Sonosynch software has shown to be highly reliable in measuring the diameters of the CMM both in healthy subjects and in those with neck pain. The ICCs 95% CI for APD ranged from 0.84 to 0.94 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.86 to 0.94 in healthy subjects. For LD, the ICC 95% CI ranged from 0.64 to 0.95 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.82 to 0.92 in healthy subjects.CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic measurement of the diameters of the CMM using Sonosynch has proved to be reliable especially for APD in healthy subjects as well as subjects with neck pain.

  2. Quantitative measurement of changes in retinal vessel diameter in ocular fundus images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Grunkin, Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    The change in diameter of retinal vessels as a function of increasing distance to the optic disc is believed to be indicative of the risk level of various vascular diseases such as generalised arteriosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus. In particular, focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN) is considered re...

  3. Quantitative Measurement of Changes in Retinal Vessel Diameter in Ocular Fundus Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars; Grunkin, Michael; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær


    The Change in diameter of retinal vessels as a funcion of increasing distance to the optic disc is believed to be indicative of the risk level of various vascular diseases such as generalised arteriosclerosis and Diabetes Mellitus. In particular, Focal Arteriolar Narrowing (FAN) is considered...

  4. Modeling the growth of Byssochlamys fulva and Neosartorya fischeri on solidified apple juice by measuring colony diameter and ergosterol content. (United States)

    Tremarin, Andréia; Longhi, Daniel Angelo; Salomão, Beatriz de Cassia Martins; Aragão, Gláucia Maria Falcão


    Byssochlamys fulva and Neosartorya fischeri are heat-resistant fungi which are a concern to food industries (e.g. apple juice industry) since their growth represents significant economic liabilities. Although the most common method used to assess fungal growth in solid substrates is by measuring the colony's diameter, it is difficult to apply this method to food substrates. Alternatively, ergosterol contents have been used to quantify fungal contamination in some types of food. The current study aimed at modeling the growth of the heat-resistant fungi B. fulva and N. fischeri by measuring the colony diameter and ergosterol content, fitting the Baranyi and Roberts model to the results, and finally establishing a correlation between the parameters of the two analytical methods. Whereas the colony diameter was measured daily, the quantification of ergosterol was performed when the colonies reached diameters of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 mm. Results showed that B. fulva and N. fischeri were able to grow successfully on solidified apple juice at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C, and the Baranyi and Roberts model showed good ability to describe growth data. The correlation curves between the parameters of colony diameter and ergosterol content were obtained with satisfactory statistical indexes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Indirect Measurement of Regional Axon Diameter in Excised Mouse Spinal Cord with Q-space Imaging: Simulation and Experimental Studies (United States)

    Ong, Henry H.; Wright, Alex C.; Wehrli, Suzanne L.; Souza, Andre; Schwartz, Eric D.; Hwang, Scott N.; Wehrli, Felix W.


    Q-space imaging (QSI), a diffusion MRI technique, can provide quantitative tissue architecture information at cellular dimensions not amenable by conventional diffusion MRI. By exploiting regularities in molecular diffusion barriers, QSI can estimate the average barrier spacing such as the mean axon diameter in white matter (WM). In this work, we performed ex vivo QSI on cervical spinal cord sections from healthy C57BL/6 mice at 400MHz using a custom-designed uniaxial 50T/m gradient probe delivering a 0.6 µm displacement resolution capable of measuring axon diameters on the scale of 1 µm. After generating QSI-derived axon diameter maps, diameters were calculated using histology from seven WM tracts (dorsal corticospinal, gracilis, cuneatus, rubrospinal, spinothalamic, reticulospinal, and vestibulospinal tracts) each with different axon diameters. We found QSI-derived diameters from regions drawn in the seven WM tracts (1.1 to 2.1 µm) to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95) with those calculated from histology (0.8 to 1.8 µm). The QSI-derived values overestimated those obtained by histology by approximately 20%, which is likely due to the presence of extra-cellular signal. Finally, simulations on images of synthetic circular axons and axons from histology suggest that QSI-derived diameters are informative despite diameter and axon shape variation and the presence of intra-cellular and extra-cellular signal. QSI may be able to quantify nondestructively changes in WM axon architecture due to pathology or injury at the cellular level. PMID:18342541

  6. Form error compensation of on-machine noncontact measurement of precision grinding for large and middle-diameter aspheric elements (United States)

    Xi, Jianpu; Ren, Dongxu; Li, Bin; Zhao, Zexiang


    Based on the cross grind ing mode for large-diameter aspheric, a high-precision profile error compensation method by using an on-machine noncontact measuring sensor is presented to improve the manufacturing accuracy and efficiency of large and middle-diameter aspheric elements. Profile errors arising from machine motion errors and tool offset errors are obtained through the measured data from on-machine noncontact measurement. By measuring a standard flat ruler, the motion errors of the measurement sensor from the machine positioning errors is calibrated, the grinding tool setting error could be calculated according to the on-machine coordinate to achieve the grinding tool offset quick eccentricity calibration. By comparing the measured profile and the ideal profile, the normal residual error of each grinding program point was calculated, and the new compensation path was generated thereafter. The 300-mm-diameter K9 mirror was ground to verify the proposed compensation grinding method. Results indicate that the profile error was reduced from 35μm to 10μm through the tool setting error elimination during semi-finish grinding stage. Using the compensation grinding path according to the normal residual error, the profile accuracy was improved from 10μm to 4μm in fine grinding stage. It could be concluded that the proposed compensation grinding method is effective to improve profile accuracy and manufacturing efficiency for the large and middle-diameter aspheric elements.

  7. Modeling Caribbean tree stem diameters from tree height and crown width measurements (United States)

    Thomas Brandeis; KaDonna Randolph; Mike Strub


    Regression models to predict diameter at breast height (DBH) as a function of tree height and maximum crown radius were developed for Caribbean forests based on data collected by the U.S. Forest Service in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands. The model predicting DBH from tree height fit reasonably well (R2 = 0.7110), with...

  8. Two-phase fluid flow measurements in small diameter channels using real-time neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlisle, B.S.; Johns, R.C.; Hassan, Y.A.


    A series of real-time, neutron radiography, experiments are ongoing at the Texas A and M Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR). These tests determine the resolving capabilities for radiographic imaging of two phase water and air flow regimes through small diameter flow channels. Though both film and video radiographic imaging is available, the real-time video imaging was selected to capture the dynamic flow patterns with results that continue to improve. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the Barr & Stroud FP15 and Criterion 400 laser dendrometers for measuring upper stem diameters and heights (United States)

    Michael S. Williams; Kenneth L. Cormier; Ronald G. Briggs; Donald L. Martinez


    Calibrated Barr & Stroud FP15 and Criterion 400 laser dendrometers were tested for reliability in measuring upper stem diameters and heights under typical field conditions. Data were collected in the Black Hills National Forest, which covers parts of South Dakota and Wyoming in the United States. Mixed effects models were employed to account for differences between...

  10. Robot for measuring at a distance the external diameter and the defects in an irradiated fuel pin clads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanashov, B.A.; Leshchinskii, A.G.


    At the NIIAR Institute, in a hot cell of the complex, is settled a robot for measuring, at a distance, the external diameter and the defects of an irradiated fuel pin clad. The principle diagram is given in this document [fr

  11. Retinal Oximetry and Vessel Diameter Measurements With a Commercially Available Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope in Diabetic Retinopathy. (United States)

    Blair, Norman P; Wanek, Justin; Felder, Anthony E; Joslin, Charlotte E; Kresovich, Jacob K; Lim, Jennifer I; Chau, Felix Y; Leiderman, Yannek; Shahidi, Mahnaz


    To test the hypothesis that retinal vascular diameter and hemoglobin oxygen saturation alterations, according to stages of diabetic retinopathy (DR), are discernible with a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). One hundred eighty-one subjects with no diabetes (No DM), diabetes with no DR (No DR), nonproliferative DR (NPDR), or proliferative DR (PDR, all had photocoagulation) underwent imaging with an SLO with dual lasers (532 nm and 633 nm). Customized image analysis software determined the diameters of retinal arteries and veins (DA and DV) and central retinal artery and vein equivalents (CRAE and CRVE). Oxygen saturations of hemoglobin in arteries and veins (SO2A and SO2V) were estimated from optical densities of vessels on images at the two wavelengths. Statistical models were generated by adjusting for effects of sex, race, age, eye, and fundus pigmentation. DA, CRAE, and CRVE were reduced in PDR compared to No DM (P ≤ 0.03). DV and CRVE were similar between No DM and No DR, but they were higher in NPDR than No DR (P ≤ 0.01). Effect of stage of disease on SO2A differed by race, being increased relative to No DM in NPDR and PDR in Hispanic participants only (P ≤ 0.02). Relative to No DM, SO2V was increased in NPDR and PDR (P ≤ 0.05). Alterations in retinal vascular diameters and SO2 by diabetic retinopathy stage can be detected with a widely available SLO, and covariates such as race can influence the results.

  12. Inter-observer reproducibility of semi-automatic tumor diameter measurement and volumetric analysis in patients with lung cancer. (United States)

    Dinkel, J; Khalilzadeh, O; Hintze, C; Fabel, M; Puderbach, M; Eichinger, M; Schlemmer, H-P; Thorn, M; Heussel, C P; Thomas, M; Kauczor, H-U; Biederer, J


    Therapy monitoring in oncologic patient requires precise measurement methods. In order to improve the precision of measurements, we used a semi-automated generic segmentation algorithm to measure the size of large lung cancer tumors. The reproducibility of computer-assisted measurements were assessed and compared with manual measurements. CT scans of 24 consecutive lung cancer patients who were referred to our hospital over a period of 6 months were analyzed. The tumor sizes were measured manually by 3 independent radiologists, according to World Health Organization (WHO) and the Revised Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines. At least 10 months later, measurements were repeated semi-automatically on the same scans by the same radiologists. The inter-observer reproducibility of all measurements was assessed and compared between manual and semi-automated measurements. Manual measurements of the tumor longest diameter were significantly (p < 0.05) smaller compared with the semi-automated measurements. The intra-rater correlations coefficients were significantly higher for measurements of longest diameter (intra-class correlation coefficients: 0.998 vs. 0.986; p < 0.001) and area (0.995 vs. 0.988; p = 0.032) using semi-automated compared with manual method. The variation coefficient for manual measurement of the tumor area (WHO guideline, 15.7% vs. 7.3%) and the longest diameter (RECIST guideline, 7.7% vs. 2.7%) was 2-3 times that of semi-automated measurement. By using computer-assisted size assessment in primary lung tumor, interobserver-variability can be reduced to about half to one-third compared to standard manual measurements. This indicates a high potential value for therapy monitoring in lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of magnification effect to precision of computerized diameter measurement of a 3-mm vessel phantom in cineangiograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Yoshio; Sugahara, Tetsuo; Sugimoto, Naozou; Fukunishi, Yasunobu.


    To estimate influence of magnification on digitizing to Precision of computerized measurement of coronary vessel diameter, the two measurement methods, i.e., a combined filter and Entropy filter, were applied to magnified images (x1-x6) of cineangiograms radiographed for a 3-mm vessel phantom. In conclusion, the desirable precision in clinical use, we thought, was obtainable at the magnification of x3 to x4. (author)

  14. Ultrasound Intima-Media Thickness and Diameter Measurements of the Common Carotid Artery in Patients with Renal Failure Disease


    Loizou , Christos ,; Anastasiou , Eleni; Kasparis , Takis; Lazarou , Theodoros; Pantziaris , Marios; Pattichis , Constandinos ,


    Part 8: Third Workshop on Artificial Intelligence Applications in Biomedicine (AIAB 2013); International audience; Although the intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery (CCA) is an established indicator of cardiovascular disease (CVD), its relationship with renal failure disease (RFD) is not yet established. In this study, we use an automated integrated segmentation system based on snakes, for segmenting the CCA, perform measurements of the IMT, and measure the CCA diameter (...

  15. Optimising the measurement of bruises in children across conventional and cross polarized images using segmentation analysis techniques in Image J, Photoshop and circle diameter measurements. (United States)

    Harris, C; Alcock, A; Trefan, L; Nuttall, D; Evans, S T; Maguire, S; Kemp, A M


    Bruising is a common abusive injury in children, and it is standard practice to image and measure them, yet there is no current standard for measuring bruise size consistently. We aim to identify the optimal method of measuring photographic images of bruises, including computerised measurement techniques. 24 children aged Photoshop 'ruler' software (Photoshop diameter)). Inter and intra-observer effects were determined by two individuals repeating 11 electronic measurements, and relevant Intraclass Correlation Coefficient's (ICC's) were used to establish reliability. Spearman's rank correlation was used to compare in vivo with computerised measurements; a comparison of measurement techniques across imaging modalities was conducted using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Significance was set at p 0.5 for all techniques, with maximum Feret diameter and maximum Photoshop diameter on conventional images having the strongest correlation with in vivo measurements. There were significant differences between in vivo and computer-aided measurements, but none between different computer-aided measurement techniques. Overall, computer aided measurements appeared larger than in vivo. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was high for all maximum diameter measurements (ICC's > 0.7). Whilst there are minimal differences between measurements of images obtained, the most consistent results were obtained when conventional images, segmented by Image J Software, were measured with a Feret diameter. This is therefore proposed as a standard for future research, and forensic practice, with the proviso that all computer aided measurements appear larger than in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrasound measurement of the transverse diameter of the fetal thymus in pregnancies complicated by the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. (United States)

    Musilova, Ivana; Hornychova, Helena; Kostal, Milan; Jacobsson, Bo; Kacerovsky, Marian


    To determine whether the measurement of the transverse diameter of the fetal thymus is of value in the identification of either histologic chorioamnionitis or funisitis in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). The transverse diameter of the fetal thymus was measured in 216 fetuses from PPROM pregnancies. A small thymus was defined as a transverse thymic diameter below the fifth percentile according to a previously published nomogram. The placenta, the fetal membranes, and the umbilical cord were assessed for the presence of inflammation. A small thymus was identified in 69% (150/216) of fetuses. A small thymus was present in 80% (106/133) and 88% (36/41) of women with histologic chorioamnionitis or funisitis, respectively. The presence of a small thymus had a sensitivity of 79%, specificity of 47%, positive predictive value of 71%, negative predictive value of 59% for the identification of chorioamnionitis (p value of 24%, and negative predictive value of 92% in the identification of funisitis (p = 0.004; odds ratio 4.4). The sonographic finding of a small thymus is a sensitive indicator of histologic chorioamnionitis or funisitis; low specificity excludes it as a possible clinical implication in the management of PPROM pregnancies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Leak Detection in Water-Filled Small-Diameter Polyethylene Pipes by Means of Acoustic Emission Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Martini


    Full Text Available The implementation of effective strategies to manage leaks represents an essential goal for all utilities involved with drinking water supply in order to reduce water losses affecting urban distribution networks. This study concerns the early detection of leaks occurring in small-diameter customers’ connections to water supply networks. An experimental campaign was carried out in a test bed to investigate the sensitivity of Acoustic Emission (AE monitoring to water leaks. Damages were artificially induced on a polyethylene pipe (length 28 m, outer diameter 32 mm at different distances from an AE transducer. Measurements were performed in both unburied and buried pipe conditions. The analysis permitted the identification of a clear correlation between three monitored parameters (namely total Hits, Cumulative Counts and Cumulative Amplitude and the characteristics of the examined leaks.

  18. Measurement of the transverse cerebellar diameter in preterm neonates and its use in assessment of gestational age. (United States)

    Davies, M W; Swaminathan, M; Betheras, F R


    This study aims to confirm the relationship between gestational age (GA) and transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD), to define the prediction of GA by TCD, and assess the reliability of TCD measurements. Infants were included in the study if they had a routine cranial ultrasound scan by day 3, and the TCD was measured. Infants were excluded from the study if the GA was not known, if there was any cranio-spinal malformation or grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH). The GA assessment was an early pregnancy scan or certain dates. Cranial ultrasound scans were done with a LOGIQ 500 scanner (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, WI, USA) with a 7 MHz curvilinear sector probe (GE LOGIQ-C721; GE Medical Systems). The posterior fossa was scanned using the asterion as the acoustic window with the TCD measured in the coronal plane. Intra- and interobserver reliability were assessed. A total of 221 infants of known GA had their TCD measured. The linear regression for GA versus TCD is: GA(weeks) = (0.470 x TCD(millimetres)) + 13.162 (r = 0.89, r(2) = 0.79, P < 0.001). The 95% confidence interval predicts GA to +/- 2.33 weeks for a given TCD. Intra- and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients are 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. Transverse cerebellar diameter correlates closely with GA and predicts GA to +/- 2.33 weeks. Measurements of TCD have excellent reproducibility.

  19. Advanced terahertz electric near-field measurements at sub-wavelength diameter metallic apertures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Brok, J.M.; Seo, M.A.; Ahn, K.J.; Kim, D.S.; Kang, J.H.; Park, Q.H.; Nagel, M.; Planken, P.C.M.


    Using terahertz-light excitation, we have measured with sub-wavelength spatial, and sub-cycle temporal resolution the time- and frequency-dependent electric-field and surface-charge density in the vicinity of small metallic holes. In addition to a singularity like concentration of the electric field

  20. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knirsch, Walter; Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias; Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz


    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  1. Normal values of the sagittal diameter of the lumbar spine (vertebral body and dural sac) in children measured by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany); University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Division of Paediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Kurtz, Claudia; Langer, Mathias [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Haeffner, Nicole; Kececioglu, Deniz [University Children' s Hospital Freiburg, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Freiburg (Germany)


    The definition of normal values is a prerequisite for the reliable evaluation of abnormality in the lumbar spine, such as spinal canal stenosis or dural ectasia in patients with Marfan syndrome. Values for vertebral body diameter (VBD) and dural sac diameter (DSD) for the lumbar spine have been published in adults. In children, normal values have been established using conventional radiography or myelography, but not by MRI. To define normal values for the sagittal diameter of the vertebral body and dural sac, and to calculate a dural sac ratio (DSR) in the lumbosacral spine (L1-S1) in healthy children using MRI. A total of 75 healthy children between 6 years and 17 years of age were examined using a sagittal T2-weighted sequence. Sagittal VBD and DSD were measured and a DSR was calculated. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study. With increasing age there is a significant increase of VBD, a slight increase of DSD, and a slight decrease of DSR. There is no significant sex difference. DSR in healthy children is higher than in healthy adults. MRI is a reliable method demonstrating the natural shape of the lumbosacral spine and its absolute values. These normal values compare well with those established by conventional radiological techniques. Our data may serve as a reference for defining dural ectasia in children with Marfan syndrome. (orig.)

  2. Calibration of a Neutron Hydroprobe for Moisture Measurements in Small-Diameter Steel-Cased Boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Anderson L.; Wittman, Richard S.


    Computation of soil moisture content from thermalized neutron counts for the T-Farm Interim cover requires a calibration relationship but none exists for 2-in tubes. A number of calibration options are available for the neutron probe, including vendor calibration, field calibration, but none of these methods were deemed appropriate for the configuration of interest. The objective of this work was to develop a calibration relation for converting neutron counts measured in 2-in access tubes to soil water content. The calibration method chosen for this study was a computational approach using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). Model calibration was performed using field measurements in the Hanford calibration models with 6-in access tubes, in air and in the probe shield. The bet-fit model relating known water content to measured neutron counts was an exponential model that was essentially equivalent to that currently being used for 6-in steel cased wells. The MCNP simulations successfully predicted the neutron count rate for the neutron shield and the three calibration models for which data were collected in the field. However, predictions for air were about 65% lower than the measured counts . This discrepancy can be attributed to uncertainties in the configuration used for the air measurements. MCNP-simulated counts for the physical models were essentially equal to the measured counts with values. Accurate prediction of the response in 6-in casings in the three calibration models was motivation to predict the response in 2-in access tubes. Simulations were performed for six of the seven calibration models as well as 4 virtual models with the entire set covering a moisture range of 0 to 40%. Predicted counts for the calibration models with 2-in access tubes were 40 to 50% higher than in the 6-inch tubes. Predicted counts for water were about 60% higher in the 2-in tube than in the 6-in tube. The discrepancy between the 2-in and 6-in tube can be

  3. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  4. Feasibility of automated dropsize distributions from holographic data using digital image processing techniques. [particle diameter measurement technique (United States)

    Feinstein, S. P.; Girard, M. A.


    An automated technique for measuring particle diameters and their spatial coordinates from holographic reconstructions is being developed. Preliminary tests on actual cold-flow holograms of impinging jets indicate that a suitable discriminant algorithm consists of a Fourier-Gaussian noise filter and a contour thresholding technique. This process identifies circular as well as noncircular objects. The desired objects (in this case, circular or possibly ellipsoidal) are then selected automatically from the above set and stored with their parametric representations. From this data, dropsize distributions as a function of spatial coordinates can be generated and combustion effects due to hardware and/or physical variables studied.

  5. Reliability and validity of the ultrasound technique to measure the rectus femoris muscle diameter in older CAD-patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaes Tom


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing age of coronary artery disease (CAD patients and the occurrence of sarcopenia in the elderly population accompanied by 'fear of moving' and hospitalization in these patients often results in a substantial loss of skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength. Cardiac rehabilitation can improve exercise tolerance and muscle strength in CAD patients but less data describe eventual morphological muscular changes possibly by more difficult access to imaging techniques. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess and quantify the reliability and validity of an easy applicable method, the ultrasound (US technique, to measure the diameter of rectus femoris muscle in comparison to the muscle dimensions measured with CT scans. Methods 45 older CAD patients without cardiac event during the last 9 months were included in this study. 25 patients were tested twice with ultrasound with a two day interval to assess test-retest reliability and 20 patients were tested twice (once with US and once with CT on the same day to assess the validity of the US technique compared to CT as the gold standard. Isometric and isokinetic muscle testing was performed to test potential zero-order correlations between muscle diameter, muscle volume and muscle force. Results An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC of 0.97 ((95%CL: 0.92 - 0.99 was found for the test-retest reliability of US and the ICC computed between US and CT was 0.92 (95%CL: 0.81 - 0.97. The absolute difference between both techniques was 0.01 ± 0.12 cm (p = 0.66 resulting in a typical percentage error of 4.4%. Significant zero-order correlations were found between local muscle volume and muscle diameter assessed with CT (r = 0.67, p = 0.001 and assessed with US (r = 0.49, p Conclusions Ultrasound imaging can be used as a valid and reliable measurement tool to assess the rectus femoris muscle diameter in older CAD patients.

  6. An ultrasound-based liquid pressure measurement method in small diameter pipelines considering the installation and temperature. (United States)

    Li, Xue; Song, Zhengxiang


    Liquid pressure is a key parameter for detecting and judging faults in hydraulic mechanisms, but traditional measurement methods have many deficiencies. An effective non-intrusive method using an ultrasound-based technique to measure liquid pressure in small diameter (less than 15 mm) pipelines is presented in this paper. The proposed method is based on the principle that the transmission speed of an ultrasonic wave in a Kneser liquid correlates with liquid pressure. Liquid pressure was calculated using the variation of ultrasonic propagation time in a liquid under different pressures: 0 Pa and X Pa. In this research the time difference was obtained by an electrical processing approach and was accurately measured to the nanosecond level through a high-resolution time measurement module. Because installation differences and liquid temperatures could influence the measurement accuracy, a special type of circuit called automatic gain control (AGC) circuit and a new back propagation network (BPN) model accounting for liquid temperature were employed to improve the measurement results. The corresponding pressure values were finally obtained by utilizing the relationship between time difference, transient temperature and liquid pressure. An experimental pressure measurement platform was built and the experimental results confirm that the proposed method has good measurement accuracy.

  7. Interferometric diameters of five evolved intermediate-mass planet-hosting stars measured with PAVO at the CHARA Array (United States)

    White, T. R.; Huber, D.; Mann, A. W.; Casagrande, L.; Grunblatt, S. K.; Justesen, A. B.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Bedding, T. R.; Ireland, M. J.; Schaefer, G. H.; Tuthill, P. G.


    Debate over the planet occurrence rates around intermediate-mass stars has hinged on the accurate determination of masses of evolved stars, and has been exacerbated by a paucity of reliable, directly-measured fundamental properties for these stars. We present long-baseline optical interferometry of five evolved intermediate-mass (˜ 1.5 M⊙) planet-hosting stars using the PAVO beam combiner at the CHARA Array, which we combine with bolometric flux measurements and parallaxes to determine their radii and effective temperatures. We measured the radii and effective temperatures of 6 Lyncis (5.12±0.16 R⊙, 4949±58 K), 24 Sextantis (5.49±0.18 R⊙, 4908±65 K), κ Coronae Borealis (4.77±0.07 R⊙, 4870±47 K), HR 6817 (4.45±0.08 R⊙, 5013±59 K), and HR 8641 (4.91±0.12 R⊙, 4950±68 K). We find disagreements of typically 15 % in angular diameter and ˜ 200 K in temperature compared to interferometric measurements in the literature, yet good agreement with spectroscopic and photometric temperatures, concluding that the previous interferometric measurements may have been affected by systematic errors exceeding their formal uncertainties. Modelling based on BaSTI isochrones using various sets of asteroseismic, spectroscopic, and interferometric constraints tends to favour slightly (˜ 15 %) lower masses than generally reported in the literature.

  8. 3D Blade Vibration Measurements on an 80 m Diameter Wind Turbine by Using Non-contact Remote Measurement Systems (United States)

    Ozbek, Muammer; Rixen, Daniel J.

    Non-contact optical measurement systems photogrammetry and laser interferometry are introduced as cost efficient alternatives to the conventional wind turbine/farm monitoring systems that are currently in use. The proposed techniques are proven to provide an accurate measurement of the dynamic behavior of a 2.5 MW—80 m diameter—wind turbine. Several measurements are taken on the test turbine by using 4 CCD cameras and 1 laser vibrometer and the response of the turbine is monitored from a distance of 220 m. The results of the infield tests and the corresponding analyses show that photogrammetry (also can be called as videogrammetry or computer vision technique) enable the 3D deformations of the rotor to be measured at 33 different points simultaneously with an average accuracy of ±25 mm, while the turbine is rotating. Several important turbine modes can also be extracted from the recorded data. Similarly, laser interferometry (used for the parked turbine only) provides very valuable information on the dynamic properties of the turbine structure. Twelve different turbine modes can be identified from the obtained response data.

  9. Estimating the accuracy of optic nerve sheath diameter measurement using a pocket-sized, handheld ultrasound on a simulation model. (United States)

    Johnson, Garrett G R J; Zeiler, Frederick A; Unger, Bertram; Hansen, Gregory; Karakitsos, Dimitrios; Gillman, Lawrence M


    Ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) appears to be a promising, rapid, non-invasive bedside tool for identification of elevated intra-cranial pressure. With improvements in ultrasound technology, machines are becoming smaller; however, it is unclear if these ultra-portable handheld units have the resolution to make these measurements precisely. In this study, we estimate the accuracy of ONSD measurement in a pocket-sized ultrasound unit. Utilizing a locally developed, previously validated model of the eye, ONSD was measured by two expert observers, three times with two machines and on five models with different optic nerve sheath sizes. A pocket ultrasound (Vscan, GE Healthcare) and a standard portable ultrasound (M-Turbo, SonoSite) were used to measure the models. Data was analyzed by Bland-Altman plot and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The ICC between raters for the SonoSite was 0.878, and for the Vscan was 0.826. The between-machine agreement ICC was 0.752. Bland-Altman agreement analysis between the two ultrasound methods showed an even spread across the range of sheath sizes, and that the Vscan tended to read on average 0.33 mm higher than the SonoSite for each measurement, with a standard deviation of 0.65 mm. Accurate ONSD measurement may be possible utilizing pocket-sized, handheld ultrasound devices despite their small screen size, lower resolution, and lower probe frequencies. Further study in human subjects is warranted for all newer handheld ultrasound models as they become available on the market.

  10. Sensitivity of C-Band Polarimetric Radar-Based Drop Size Distribution Measurements to Maximum Diameter Assumptions (United States)

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Petersen, Walter A.


    The estimation of rain drop size distribution (DSD) parameters from polarimetric radar observations is accomplished by first establishing a relationship between differential reflectivity (Z(sub dr)) and the central tendency of the rain DSD such as the median volume diameter (D0). Since Z(sub dr) does not provide a direct measurement of DSD central tendency, the relationship is typically derived empirically from rain drop and radar scattering models (e.g., D0 = F[Z (sub dr)] ). Past studies have explored the general sensitivity of these models to temperature, radar wavelength, the drop shape vs. size relation, and DSD variability. Much progress has been made in recent years in measuring the drop shape and DSD variability using surface-based disdrometers, such as the 2D Video disdrometer (2DVD), and documenting their impact on polarimetric radar techniques. In addition to measuring drop shape, another advantage of the 2DVD over earlier impact type disdrometers is its ability to resolve drop diameters in excess of 5 mm. Despite this improvement, the sampling limitations of a disdrometer, including the 2DVD, make it very difficult to adequately measure the maximum drop diameter (D(sub max)) present in a typical radar resolution volume. As a result, D(sub max) must still be assumed in the drop and radar models from which D0 = F[Z(sub dr)] is derived. Since scattering resonance at C-band wavelengths begins to occur in drop diameters larger than about 5 mm, modeled C-band radar parameters, particularly Z(sub dr), can be sensitive to D(sub max) assumptions. In past C-band radar studies, a variety of D(sub max) assumptions have been made, including the actual disdrometer estimate of D(sub max) during a typical sampling period (e.g., 1-3 minutes), D(sub max) = C (where C is constant at values from 5 to 8 mm), and D(sub max) = M*D0 (where the constant multiple, M, is fixed at values ranging from 2.5 to 3.5). The overall objective of this NASA Global Precipitation Measurement

  11. Evaluation of nondestructive evaluation size measurement for integrity assessment of axial outside diameter stress corrosion cracking in steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Kyung Mun; Hong, Jun Hee


    Recently, the initiation of outside diameter stress corrosion cracking (ODSCC) at the tube support plate region of domestic steam generators (SG) with Alloy 600 HTMA tubes has been increasing. As a result, SGs with Alloy 600 HTMA tubes must be replaced early or are scheduled to be replaced prior to their designed lifetime. ODSCC is one of the biggest threats to the integrity of SG tubes. Therefore, the accurate evaluation of tube integrity to determine ODSCC is needed. Eddy current testing (ECT) is conducted periodically, and its results could be input as parameters for evaluating the integrity of SG tubes. The reliability of an ECT inspection system depends on the performance of the inspection technique and ability of the analyst. The detection probability and ECT sizing error of degradation are considered to be the performance indices of a nondestructive evaluation (NDE) system. This paper introduces an optimized evaluation method for ECT, as well as the sizing error, including the analyst performance. This study was based on the results of a round robin program in which 10 inspection analysts from 5 different companies participated. The analysis of ECT sizing results was performed using a linear regression model relating the true defect size data to the measured ECT size data.

  12. Comparison of ultrasonographic finding in men and women suspected of acute appendicitis: Usefulness and limitation of measurement of the outer diameter of the vermiform appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Joo; Kim, Soon; Oh, Yeon Hee; Kim, Seung Hyeon; Lee, Sung Woo [Gyeong Ju Hospital, Dongguk University School of Medicine, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the usefulness and limitations of measurement of the outer diameter of the vermiform appendix in men and women patients suspected of acute appendicitis on ultrasonography (US). Retrospectively, the review of the outer diameter of the appendix measured in 197 adult patients, 70 men and 127 women (age ranged from 16 to 83 years), suspected of acute appendicitis on sustained-compression US was done. The measured outer diameters were categorized into two groups according to the patient's sex, and relationships between categoric variables were analyzed by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy. Data analyses were performed using MedCalc for windows version The outer appendiceal diameters in men ranged between 3.2 and 15 mm, while those in women, between 3.4 and 17 mm. The diameters of acute inflamed appendices ranged from 6 to 17 mm. In men, a diameter equal to or larger than 6 mm was confirmed as acute appendicitis with the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of 100%, 57.6%, 70.2% and 100%, respectively. Meanwhile, in women, a diameter of {>=} 6 mm was confirmed as acute appendicitis with the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of 98%, 55.8%, 68.9% and 96.5%, respectively. The accuracy in women (67.7%) was lower than in men(75.7%), but no statistically significant difference (p=0.395) was seen between men and women. The outer appendiceal diameter of {>=} 6 mm as a sign of acute appendicitis provides a high sensitivity and negative predictive values. This diagnostic criterion is more useful in excluding acute appendicitis than confirming it. There was no statistically significant difference in the accuracy between men and women.

  13. Skewness as measure of the invariance of instantaneous renormalized drop diameter distributions – Part 1: Convective vs. stratiform precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ignaccolo


    Full Text Available We investigate the variability of the shape of the renormalized drop diameter instantaneous distribution using of the third order central moment: the skewness. Disdrometer data, collected at Darwin Australia, are considered either as whole or as divided in convective and stratiform precipitation intervals. We show that in all cases the distribution of the skewness is strongly peaked around 0.64. This allows to identify a most common distribution of renormalized drop diameters and two main variations, one with larger and one with smaller skewness. The distributions shapes are independent from the stratiform vs. convective classification.

  14. From Agglomerates of Spheres to Irregularly Shaped Particles: Determination of Dynamic Shape Factors from Measurements of Mobility and Vacuum Aerodynamic Diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Cai, Yong; Imre, Dan G.


    With the advert of aerosol instrumentation it has become possible to simultaneously measure individual particle mobility and vacuum aerodynamic diameters. For spherical particles these two diameters yield individual particle density. In contrast, assigning a physical meaning to the mobility or aerodynamic diameter of aspherical particles is not straightforward. This paper presents an experimental exploration of the effect of particle shape on the relationship between mobility and vacuum aerodynamic diameters. We make measurements on systems of three types: 1) Agglomerates of spheres, for which the density and the volume are known; 2) Ammonium sulfate, sodium chloride, succinic acid and lauric acid irregularly shaped particles of known density; and 3) Internally mixed particles, containing organics and ammonium sulfate, of unknown density and shape. For agglomerates of spheres we observed alignment effects in the DMA and report the first measurements of the dynamic shape factors (DSFs) in free molecular regime. We present here the first experimental determination of the DSF of ammonium sulfate particles. We find for ammonium sulfate particles a DSF that increases from 1.03 to 1.07 as particle mobility diameter increases from 160 nm to 500 nm. Three types of NaC1 particles were generated and characterized: nearly spherical particles with DSF of ~1.02; cubic with DSF that increases from 1.065 to 1.17 as particle mobility diameter increases from 200 nm to 900 nm; and compact agglomerates with DSF 1.3-1.4. Organic particles were found very nearly spherical. The data suggest that particles composed of binary mixtures of ammonium sulfate and succinic acid have lower dynamic shape factors than pure ammonium sulfate particles. However, for internally mixed ammonium sulfate and lauric acid particles we cannot distinguish between nearly spherical particles with low density and particles with DSF of 1.17.

  15. Reliability of Ultrasound Diameter Measurements in Patients with a Small Asymptomatic Popliteal Artery Aneurysm: An Intra- and Inter-observer Agreement Study. (United States)

    Zwiers, I; Hoogland, C M T; Mackaay, A J C


    In this study the intra- and inter-observer variability of ultrasound measurements of the diameter of the popliteal artery were tested in a group of patients under surveillance for a small (diameter 10-20 mm), asymptomatic popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA). From a group of patients under ultrasound surveillance for bilateral, asymptomatic PAAs, 13 consecutive patients agreed to participate in the study and provided informed consent. The maximum diameter of the popliteal arteries was assessed by a vascular technologist. The same assessment was repeated by a second vascular technologist, unaware of the results of the first measurement. After a week, this protocol was repeated. The intra- and inter-observer reliability of this measurement was calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland and Altman plots. Of the 10 patients with bilateral and three patients with unilateral PAA, 12 completed the 2 week protocol. A total of 86 measurements were analyzed. The mean diameter of the popliteal arteries was 13.5 ± 3.4 mm. The ICC for the intra-observer reliability of observer 1 was 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-0.99), p .47. The absolute magnitude of the systematic error of both observers was less than 0.135 mm (median 0.00). Ultrasound measurement of the maximum diameter of the popliteal artery is reproducible; hence, it is suitable for making a clinical treatment decision. Its use for surveillance of small, asymptomatic PAAs is justified. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of airway diameter measurements from an anthropomorphic airway tree phantom using hyperpolarized 3He MRI and high-resolution computed tomography. (United States)

    Tzeng, Yang-Sheng; Hoffman, Eric; Cook-Granroth, Janice; Maurer, Rie; Shah, Niral; Mansour, Joey; Tschirren, Juerg; Albert, Mitchell


    An anthropomorphic airway tree phantom was imaged with both hyperpolarized (HP) 3He MRI using a dynamic projection scan and computed tomography (CT). Airway diameter measurements from the HP 3He MR images obtained using a newly developed model-based algorithm were compared against their corresponding CT values quantified with a well-established method. Of the 45 airway segments that could be evaluated with CT, only 14 airway segments (31%) could be evaluated using HP 3He MRI. No airway segments smaller than approximately 4 mm in diameter and distal to the fourth generation were adequate for analysis in MRI. For the 14 airway segments measured, only two airway segments yielded a non-equivalent comparison between the two imaging modalities, while eight more had inconclusive comparison results, leaving only four airway segments (29%) that satisfied the designed equivalence criteria. Some of the potential problems in airway diameter quantification described in the formulation of the model-based algorithm were observed in this study. These results suggest that dynamic projection HP 3He MRI may have limited utility for measuring airway segment diameters, particularly those of the central airways. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction of the corticospinal tract in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus measured by q-space imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouhei Kamiya

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that compression and stretching of the corticospinal tract (CST potentially cause treatable gait disturbance in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH. Measurement of axon diameter with diffusion MRI has recently been used to investigate microstructural alterations in neurological diseases. In this study, we investigated alterations in the axon diameter and intra-axonal fraction of the CST in iNPH by q-space imaging (QSI analysis. METHODS: Nineteen patients with iNPH and 10 age-matched controls were recruited. QSI data were obtained with a 3-T system by using a single-shot echo planar imaging sequence with the diffusion gradient applied parallel to the antero-posterior axis. By using a two-component low-q fit model, the root mean square displacements of intra-axonal space ( =  axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction of the CST were calculated at the levels of the internal capsule and body of the lateral ventricle, respectively. RESULTS: Wilcoxon's rank-sum test revealed a significant increase in CST intra-axonal volume fraction at the paraventricular level in patients (p<0.001, whereas no significant difference was observed in the axon diameter. At the level of the internal capsule, neither axon diameter nor intra-axonal volume fraction differed significantly between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that in patients with iNPH, the CST does not undergo irreversible axonal damage but is rather compressed and/or stretched owing to pressure from the enlarged ventricle. These analyses of axon diameter and intra-axonal fraction yield insights into microstructural alterations of the CST in iNPH.

  18. Measurements of anterior chamber depth, white-to-white distance, anterior chamber angle, and pupil diameter using two Scheimpflug imaging devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Domínguez-Vicent


    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ocular anterior chamber depth, white-to-white distance, anterior chamber angle, and pupil diameter, as measured with two different Scheimpflug imaging devices. Methods: This transversal study included 80 right eyes from 80 subjects aged from 20 to 40 years. Their spherical equivalents ranged from -4.25 to +1.00 diopters (D. Each eye's anterior chamber depth, white-to-white distance, anterior chamber angle, and pupil diameter, were measured for far vision using both the Galilei G4 (double Scheimpflug camera and the Pentacam HR (single Scheimpflug camera systems. Results: Mean anterior chamber depths were calculated as 3.12 ± 0.23 mm and 3.19 ± 0.24 mm when measured with the Galilei G4 and the Pentacam HR, respectively. The mean white-to-white distance measured was 11.84 ± 0.31 mm and 11.90 ± 0.43 mm when measured with the Galilei G4 and the Pentacam HR, respectively. Mean pupil diameters were measured as 3.22 ± 0.58 mm and 3.22 ± 0.52 mm when measured with the Galilei G4 and the Pentacam HR, respectively. Finally, the mean anterior chamber angle was 34.30 ± 2.86 degrees when it was measured with the Galilei G4, and 39.26 ± 2.85 degrees when measured with the Pentacam HR. A comparative analysis revealed that the Galilei G4 yielded a significantly lower (P0.05 for both devices were obtained for the white-to-white distance measurements. Conclusion: The Galilei G4 and Pentacam HR Scheimpflug systems cannot be used interchangeably because they produce significant measurement differences.

  19. Bone tunnel diameter measured with CT after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double-bundle auto-hamstring tendors: Clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Soo Jeong; Yoon, Young Cheol; Bae, So Young; Wang, Joon Ho


    To evaluate the correlation between bone tunnel diameter after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction measured by computed tomography (CT) using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and stability or clinical scores. Forty-seven patients (41 men and 6 women, mean age: 34 years) who had undergone ACL reconstruction with the double bundle technique using auto-hamstring graft and had subsequently received CT scans immediately after the surgery (T1: range, 1-4 days, mean, 2.5 days) and at a later time (T2: range, 297-644 days, mean, 410.4 days) were enrolled in this study. The diameter of each tunnel (two femoral and two tibial) at both T1 and T2 were independently measured using MPR technique by two radiologists. Stability and clinical scores were evaluated with a KT-2000 arthrometer, International Knee Documentation Committee objective scores, and the Lysholm score. Statistical analysis of the correlation between the diameter at T2 or the interval diameter change ratio ([T2 - T1] / T1) and clinical scores or stability was investigated. The tibial bone tunnels for the anteromedial bundles were significantly widened at T2 compared with T1 (observer 1, 0.578 mm to 0.698 mm, p value of < 0.001; observer 2, 0.581 mm to 0.707 mm, p value of < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between the diameter at T2 and stability or clinical scores and between the interval change ratio ([T2 - T1] / T1) and stability or clinical scores (corrected p values for all were 1.0). Intraobserver agreement for measurements was excellent (> 0.8) for both observers. Interobserver agreement for measurement was excellent (> 0.8) except for the most distal portion of the femoral bone tunnel for anterior medial bundle in immediate postoperative CT, which showed moderate agreement (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.6311).Neither the diameter nor its change ratio during interval follow-up is correlated with stability or clinical scores

  20. Does measurement of small intestinal diameter increase diagnostic accuracy of radiography in dogs with suspected intestinal obstruction? (United States)

    Ciasca, Taízha C; David, Frederic H; Lamb, Christopher R


    The ratio between maximal small intestinal (SI) diameter and the height of the body of the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) in radiographs has been reported as a diagnostic test in dogs with suspected intestinal obstruction. In order to assess the effect of the SI/L5 ratio on the accuracy of radiographic diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, lateral abdominal radiographs of 37 dogs with small intestinal obstruction and 48 nonobstructed dogs were mixed and examined independently by six observers who were unaware of the final diagnosis and who represented a range of experience. Observers first examined radiographs subjectively and stated the likelihood of obstruction (definitely not, probably not, equivocal, probably, definitely). Observers subsequently reexamined the radiographs, determined the SI/L5 ratio, and again stated the likelihood of obstruction. The most frequent cause of obstruction was foreign body (29/37, 78%). Dogs with SI obstruction had a significantly larger median SI/L5 ratio than nonobstructed dogs (P = 0.0002). Using an SI/L5 ratio of 1.7 for diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, sensitivity and specificity were 66%. Use of the SI/L5 ratio was not associated with increased accuracy of diagnosis for any observer, regardless of experience, hence this test may have no diagnostic impact. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  1. Vascular diameter measurement in CT angiography: comparison of model-based iterative reconstruction and standard filtered back projection algorithms in vitro. (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeru; Machida, Haruhiko; Tanaka, Isao; Ueno, Eiko


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) in measurement of the inner diameter of models of blood vessels and compare performance between MBIR and a standard filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm. Vascular models with wall thicknesses of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 mm were scanned with a 64-MDCT unit and densities of contrast material yielding 275, 396, and 542 HU. Images were reconstructed images by MBIR and FBP, and the mean diameter of each model vessel was measured by software automation. Twenty separate measurements were repeated for each vessel, and variance among the repeated measures was analyzed for determination of measurement error. For all nine model vessels, CT attenuation profiles were compared along a line passing through the luminal center on axial images reconstructed with FBP and MBIR, and the 10-90% edge rise distances at the boundary between the vascular wall and the lumen were evaluated. For images reconstructed with FBP, measurement errors were smallest for models with 1.5-mm wall thickness, except those filled with 275-HU contrast material, and errors grew as the density of the contrast material decreased. Measurement errors with MBIR were comparable to or less than those with FBP. In CT attenuation profiles of images reconstructed with MBIR, the 10-90% edge rise distances at the boundary between the lumen and vascular wall were relatively short for each vascular model compared with those of the profile curves of FBP images. MBIR is better than standard FBP for reducing reconstruction blur and improving the accuracy of diameter measurement at CT angiography.

  2. Differences in mean fibre diameter and fibre diameter variance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sampled at five different body locations (Figure 1) at an age of 15 months. Samples were analysed by the Wool Testing. Bureaux, using an Optical Fibre Diameter Analyser which measured 4000 individual fibres in each sample. Apart from the mean, the variance of fibre diameter within samples was available. The statistical ...

  3. On the problems relating to the accuracy of the measurement of fuel pin diameters by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matfield, R.


    The paper identifies the sources of error in the neutron radiographic system and attempts to estimate some of these errors. The sources of error are in the fuel pin materials, the radiographic set-up, the radiographic equipment, image formation, the microdensitometer, the edge criteria and the dimensional measurement from the microdensitometer trace. However, the critical problem area is that of determining a representative edge criteria and upon this will depend the ability of the method to achieve the required measurement accuracy. (Auth.)

  4. Is the inferior vena cava diameter measured by bedside ultrasonography valuable in estimating the intravascular volume in patients with septic shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Talebi Doluie


    Full Text Available Introduction:Resuscitation should be initiated immediately in shock. Early goal-directed therapy is an established algorithm for the resuscitation in septic shock. The first step is to maintain cardiac preload. Central venous pressure (CVP plays an important role in goal-directed therapy. Central venous catheterization is invasive and time-consuming in emergency conditions. There are some alternative and noninvasive methods for estimating the intravascular volume such as measuring the inferior vena cava (IVC diameter by ultrasonography. Methods: We searched PubMed, Google scholar, and Scopus databases with keywords (central venous pressure OR venous pressure OR CVP AND (ultrasonography OR sonography AND (sepsis OR septic shock AND (inferior vena cava OR IVC.Result: The search resulted in 2550 articles. The articles were appraised regarding the relevance, type of article, and statistical methods. Finally, 12 articles were selected. The number of patients was between 30 and 83 cases (mean age=57-67 years, intubated and non-intubated in each study. The IVC diameter was measured in respiratory cycle by bedside ultrasonography in longitudinal subxiphoid view and caval index was calculated, then they were compared with the CVP measured by central venous catheter.Discussion: CVP is an indicator of intravascular fluid status and right heart function. CVP measurement is an invasive method and of course with some complications. The IVC is the biggest vein of venous system with low-pressure; expansion of the vein reflects intravascular volume.Conclusion: It seems that IVC diameter measured by ultrasonography could be used as an alternative method for the determination of CVP in the emergency or critical patients.

  5. Short communication: Local infection of opium poppy leaves by Peronospora somniferi sporangia can give rise to systemic infections and seed infection in resistant cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Montes-Borrego


    Full Text Available Downy mildew (DM of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum caused by Peronospora somniferi is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop due to the systemic nature of infection as compared with local infections caused by Peronospora meconopsidis, the other downy mildew pathogen of this crop. We developed an inoculation method using Peronospora somniferi sporangia as inoculum and demonstrated for the first time that local infection of leaves by sporangia give rise to systemic infections in the plant as well as of seeds. Our results also showed that this inoculation protocol was very effective in reproducing disease symptoms and assessing the resistance response to DM in opium poppy genotypes under field conditions. More interestingly, results indicate that up to 100% of seed samples from some genotypes showing a complete (symptomless resistant phenotype were infected by the pathogen when seeds were analyzed by a P. somniferi-specific nested-PCR protocol. This latter aspect deserves further attention while breeding opium poppy for resistance to P. somniferi.

  6. Can sonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter be used to detect raised intracranial pressure in patients with tuberculous meningitis? A prospective observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangani, Shruti V; Parikh, Samira


    CNS Tuberculosis can manifest as meningitis, arachnoiditis and a tuberculoma. The rupture of a tubercle into the subarachnoid space leads to Tuberculosis Meningitis (TBME); the resulting hypersensitivity reaction can lead to an elevation of the intracranial pressure and hydrocephalus. While bedside optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) ultrasonography (USG) can be a sensitive screening test for elevated intracranial pressure in adult head injury, little is known regarding ONSD measurements in Tuberculosis Meningitis. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with TBME had dilation of the optic nerve sheath, as detected by ocular USG performed in the emergency department (ED). We conducted a prospective, observational study on adult ED patients with suspected TBME. Patients underwent USG measurements of the optic nerve followed by MRI. The ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the globe in each eye. MRI evidence of basilar meningeal enhancement and any degree of hydrocephalus was suggestive of TBME. Those patients without evidence of hydrocephalus subsequently underwent a lumbar puncture to confirm the diagnosis. Exclusion criteria were age less than 18 and obvious ocular pathology. In total, the optic nerve sheath diameters of 25 adults with confirmed TBME were measured. These measurements were compared with 120 control patients. The upper limit of normal ONSD was 4.37 mm in control group. Those patients with TBME had a mean ONSD of 5.81 mm (SD 0.42). These results confirm that patients with tuberculosis meningitis have an ONSD in excess of the control data (P < 0.001). The evaluation of the ONSD is a simple non-invasive and potentially useful tool in the assessment of adults suspected of having TBME

  7. Perirenal fat diameter measured by echography could be an early predictor of lipodystrophy in HIV type 1-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. (United States)

    Asensi, Víctor; Martín-Roces, Eustaquio; Carton, José A; Collazos, Julio; Maradona, José A; Alonso, Angeles; Medina, Marifé; Aburto, Jesús M; Martínez, Esteban; Rojo, Carmen; Bustillo, Enrique; Fernández, Cristina; Arribas, José M


    Echographically measured thicknesses of perirenal and subcutaneous fat, as well as serum metabolic and anthropometric parameters, were evaluated in 74 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), 22 of whom were HAART-naive at baseline, who were followed-up for 27 months to detect predictive factors of lipodystrophy. Perirenal fat diameter (PRFD) at baseline differed in HAART-naive and HAART-experienced patients (Pperirenal fat than those in whom lipodystrophy did not improve (P=.04). A PRFD of >2.6 mm at baseline or >4.9 mm during receipt of HAART suggested lipodystrophy predisposition. PRFD correlated significantly with other metabolic and anthropometric parameters. Echographically measured PRFD is associated with lipodystrophy and could be used as an early predictor of this syndrome in treatment-naive patients starting HAART.

  8. Web-based accurate measurements of carotid lumen diameter and stenosis severity: An ultrasound-based clinical tool for stroke risk assessment during multicenter clinical trials. (United States)

    Saba, Luca; Banchhor, Sumit K; Londhe, Narendra D; Araki, Tadashi; Laird, John R; Gupta, Ajay; Nicolaides, Andrew; Suri, Jasjit S


    This pilot study presents a completely automated, novel, smart, cloud-based, point-of-care system for (a) carotid lumen diameter (LD); (b) stenosis severity index (SSI) and (c) total lumen area (TLA) measurement using B-mode ultrasound. The proposed system was (i) validated against manual reading taken by the Neurologist and (ii) benchmarked against the commercially available system. One hundred patients (73 M/27 F, mean age: 68 ± 11 years), institutional review board approved, written informed consent, consisted of left/right common carotid artery (200 ultrasound scans) were acquired using a 7.5-MHz linear transducer. The measured mean LD for left and right carotids were (in mm): (i) for proposed system (6.49 ± 1.77, 6.66 ± 1.70); and (ii) for manual (6.29 ± 1.79, 6.45 ± 1.63), respectively and coefficient of correlation between cloud-based automated against manual were 0.98 (P cloud-based system was: 1.0. Four statistical tests such as: Two-tailed z-test, Mann-Whitney test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) and one-way ANOVA were performed to demonstrate consistency and reliability. The proposed system is reliable, accurate, fast, completely automated, anytime-anywhere solution for multi-center clinical trials and routine vascular screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 7 CFR 51.2850 - Diameter. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diameter. 51.2850 Section 51.2850 Agriculture... Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a straight line running from the stem to the root. ...

  10. Lunar Noise-Temperature Increase Measurements at S-Band, X-Band, and Ka-Band Using a 34-Meter-Diameter Beam-Waveguide Antenna (United States)

    Morabito, D. D.


    The Moon radiates energy at infrared and microwave wavelengths, in addition to reflecting sunlight at optical wavelengths. As a result, an antenna pointed at or near the Moon will cause an increase in receiver noise temperature that needs to be accounted for in telemetry, radio science, or ranging link budgets. The Deep Space Network may be required to use its antennas in future lunar robotic or human missions, and thus it is important to understand the nature of this temperature increase as a function of observing frequency, lunar phase, and angular offset of the antenna beam from the center of the lunar disk. This article quantifies such a set of measurements acquired at DSS 13, a 34-m-diameter research and development beam-waveguide antenna located at Goldstone, California, at three different telecommunication frequencies, S-band (2.3 GHz), X-band (8.4 GHz), and Ka-band (32 GHz), over a wide range of lunar phase, for both disk-centered and limb-centered positions of the antenna beam.

  11. Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0: a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements with MATLAB® graphical user interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu B Sridhar


    Full Text Available We present a database client software – Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0 (NNE 1.0 – that uses MATLAB® based Graphical User Interface (GUI for interaction with a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements from our previous publication [1]. These data are of particular interest for modeling the hemodynamic response. NNE 1.0 is downloaded by the user and then runs either as a MATLAB script or as a standalone program on a Windows platform. The GUI allows browsing the database according to parameters specified by the user, simple manipulation and visualization of the retrieved records (such as averaging and peak-normalization, and export of the results. Further, we provide NNE 1.0 source code. With this source code, the user can database their own experimental results, given the appropriate data structure and naming conventions, and thus share their data in a user-friendly format with other investigators. NNE 1.0 provides an example of seamless and low-cost solution for sharing of experimental data by a regular size neuroscience laboratory and may serve as a general template, facilitating dissemination of biological results and accelerating data-driven modeling approaches.

  12. Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0: a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements with MATLAB(®) graphical user interface. (United States)

    Sridhar, Vishnu B; Tian, Peifang; Dale, Anders M; Devor, Anna; Saisan, Payam A


    We present a database client software-Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0 (NNE 1.0)-that uses MATLAB(®) based Graphical User Interface (GUI) for interaction with a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements from our previous publication (Tian et al., 2010). These data are of particular interest for modeling the hemodynamic response. NNE 1.0 is downloaded by the user and then runs either as a MATLAB script or as a standalone program on a Windows platform. The GUI allows browsing the database according to parameters specified by the user, simple manipulation and visualization of the retrieved records (such as averaging and peak-normalization), and export of the results. Further, we provide NNE 1.0 source code. With this source code, the user can database their own experimental results, given the appropriate data structure and naming conventions, and thus share their data in a user-friendly format with other investigators. NNE 1.0 provides an example of seamless and low-cost solution for sharing of experimental data by a regular size neuroscience laboratory and may serve as a general template, facilitating dissemination of biological results and accelerating data-driven modeling approaches.

  13. Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0: a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements with MATLAB® graphical user interface (United States)

    Sridhar, Vishnu B.; Tian, Peifang; Dale, Anders M.; Devor, Anna; Saisan, Payam A.


    We present a database client software—Neurovascular Network Explorer 1.0 (NNE 1.0)—that uses MATLAB® based Graphical User Interface (GUI) for interaction with a database of 2-photon single-vessel diameter measurements from our previous publication (Tian et al., 2010). These data are of particular interest for modeling the hemodynamic response. NNE 1.0 is downloaded by the user and then runs either as a MATLAB script or as a standalone program on a Windows platform. The GUI allows browsing the database according to parameters specified by the user, simple manipulation and visualization of the retrieved records (such as averaging and peak-normalization), and export of the results. Further, we provide NNE 1.0 source code. With this source code, the user can database their own experimental results, given the appropriate data structure and naming conventions, and thus share their data in a user-friendly format with other investigators. NNE 1.0 provides an example of seamless and low-cost solution for sharing of experimental data by a regular size neuroscience laboratory and may serve as a general template, facilitating dissemination of biological results and accelerating data-driven modeling approaches. PMID:24904401

  14. Investigations of DPPC effect on Al 2O 3 particles in the presence of (phospho)lipases by the zeta potential and effective diameter measurements (United States)

    Wiącek, Agnieszka Ewa


    Adsorption of phospholipid (DPPC) from NaCl electrolyte solution (or from chloroform solution) on Al2O3 particles in suspension was investigated by means of the zeta potential and effective diameter measurements as a function of pH using dynamic light scattering. Al2O3 particles were precovered with an amount of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine sufficient to cover the alumina surface by the statistical mono- or bilayer (ML or BL). It was found that DPPC from NaCl solution was adsorbed on Al2O3 surface independently of phospholipid concentration, which resulted in decrease of the initial zeta potential of Al2O3 suspension. When alumina was precovered with DPPC from chloroform (ML or BL) some reorientation of phospholipid molecules could take place. Despite the lowering of the zeta potential value in both cases (from both aqueous and chloroform solution) DPPC stabilized the Al2O3 particle aggregates, which resulted in smaller and smoother changes of the aggregate size during 2-experiment hours due to steric and electrostatic stabilization. In the next series of experiments the effect of enzymes (phospholipase A2 or lipase Candida cylindracea) on the behavior of Al2O3/DPPC particles was studied. The kind of the enzymes, the hydrolysis products, which were palmitic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine (or glycerylphosphorylcholine), and pH changed the suspension zeta potential and influenced the stability of these systems. Lipase was found to be a more active enzyme than phospholipase. The electrokinetic parameters connected with the adsorption process and resulting from the enzyme action seem to be helpful for characterization of the Al2O3/DPPC suspension and the activity of the enzymes, which is discussed in the paper.

  15. Discriminating Ability of Abbreviated Impactor Measurement Approach (AIM) to Detect Changes in Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of an Albuterol/Salbutamol pMDI Aerosol. (United States)

    David Christopher, J; Patel, Rajni B; Mitchell, Jolyon P; Tougas, Terrence P; Goodey, Adrian P; Quiroz, Jorge; Andersson, Patrik U; Lyapustina, Svetlana


    This article reports on results from a two-lab, multiple impactor experiment evaluating the abbreviated impactor measurement (AIM) concept, conducted by the Cascade Impaction Working Group of the International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium on Regulation and Science (IPAC-RS). The goal of this experiment was to expand understanding of the performance of an AIM-type apparatus based on the Andersen eight-stage non-viable cascade impactor (ACI) for the assessment of inhalation aerosols and sprays, compared with the full-resolution version of that impactor described in the pharmacopeial compendia. The experiment was conducted at two centers with a representative commercially available pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) containing albuterol (salbutamol) as active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Metrics of interest were total mass (TM) emitted from the inhaler, impactor-sized mass (ISM), as well as the ratio of large particle mass (LPM) to small particle mass (SPM). ISM and the LPM/SPM ratio together comprise the efficient data analysis (EDA) metrics. The results of the comparison demonstrated that in this study, the AIM approach had adequate discrimination to detect changes in the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the ACI-sampled aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD), and therefore could be employed for routine product quality control (QC). As with any test method considered for inclusion in a regulatory filing, the transition from an ACI (used in development) to an appropriate AIM/EDA methodology (used in QC) should be evaluated and supported by data on a product-by-product basis.

  16. Changes in Cross-Sectional Area and Transverse Diameter of the Heart on Inspiratory and Expiratory Chest CT: Correlation with Changes in Lung Size and Influence on Cardiothoracic Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Tomita

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in cardiac area and diameters between inspiratory and expiratory chest computed tomography (CT, and to assess their correlation with lung size change and influence on cardiothoracic ratio (CTR measurements.The institutional review board of our institution approved this study, and informed consent was waived. Forty-three subjects underwent inspiratory and expiratory chest CT as part of routine clinical care. On both inspiratory and expiratory scans, lung volumes and maximum lung diameters (transverse and vertical directions were measured. The maximum cardiac cross-sectional area (CSA and the maximum transverse cardiac diameter were measured on both scans, and the CT-based CTR was calculated. Changes in the lung and cardiac measurements were expressed as the expiratory/inspiratory (E/I ratios. Comparisons between inspiratory and expiratory measurements were made by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Correlations between the E/I ratios of lung and heart measurements were evaluated by Spearman's rank correlation analysis.Cardiac CSA and transverse cardiac diameter was significantly larger on expiratory than on inspiratory CT (p < 0.0001. Significant negative correlations were found between the E/I ratios of these cardiac measurements and the E/I ratios of lung volume and vertical lung diameter (p < 0.01. CT-based CTR was significantly larger on expiration than on inspiration (p < 0.0001.Heart size on chest CT depends on the phase of ventilation, and is correlated with changes in lung volume and craniocaudal lung diameter. The CTR is also significantly influenced by ventilation.

  17. The DIAMET campaign (United States)

    Vaughan, G.


    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  18. Continuous measurement of stem-diameter growth response of Pinus pinea seedlings mycorrhizal with Rhizopogon roseolus and submitted to two water regimes. (United States)

    Parladé, Javier; Cohen, Moshe; Doltra, Jordi; Luque, Jordi; Pera, Joan


    Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) sensors were used to detect continuous diameter growth responses of Pinus pinea (stone pine) seedlings inoculated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Rhizopogon roseolus. Colonised and non-colonised seedlings provided with sensors were submitted to different water regimes in two consecutive experiments established in a controlled-temperature greenhouse module (cycle 1), and in an adjacent module without temperature control (cycle 2). Under regular irrigation, colonised seedlings showed significantly higher growth than non-colonised seedlings. Water-stressed seedlings showed no benefit from inoculation in terms of growth. Also, seedlings with a high colonisation level recovered more slowly from water stress than control seedlings. A significant positive relationship between maximum daily shrinkage (amplitude of the daily stem contraction) and global radiation was observed only in the first water-stress period in cycle 1 and in regularly irrigated seedlings in both cycles. However, no differential responses due to inoculation were observed. The mycorrhizal colonisation of the seedlings at the end of the experiment was related with the initial colonisation level. Mycorrhizal colonisation by R. roseolus in old roots was maintained at significantly higher levels in seedlings which had an initial colonisation level >50% than in seedlings with 50% than in seedlings with an initial colonisation sensors can be used to detect a differential response of plants according to water supply, mycorrhizal status and, in some cases, to their colonisation level. The results are discussed in relation to the predictive possibilities of the method for the selection of efficient mycorrhizal fungi for the promotion of plant growth.

  19. Small diameter carbon nanopipettes (United States)

    Singhal, Riju; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Vitol, Elina; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury


    Nanoscale multifunctional carbon probes facilitate cellular studies due to their small size, which makes it possible to interrogate organelles within living cells in a minimally invasive fashion. However, connecting nanotubes to macroscopic devices and constructing an integrated system for the purpose of fluid and electrical signal transfer is challenging, as is often the case with nanoscale components. We describe a non-catalytic chemical vapor deposition based method for batch fabrication of integrated multifunctional carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with tip diameters much smaller (10-30 nm) than previously reported (200 nm and above) and approaching those observed for multiwalled carbon nanotubes. This eliminates the need for complicated attachment/assembly of nanotubes into nanofluidic devices. Variable tip geometries and structures were obtained by controlled deposition of carbon inside and outside quartz pipettes. We have shown that the capillary length and gas flow rate have a marked effect on the carbon deposition. This gives us a flexible protocol, useful for growing carbon layers of different thicknesses at selective locations on a glass pipette to yield a large variety of cellular probes in bulk quantities. The CNPs possess an open channel for fluid transfer with the carbon deposited inside at 875 °C behaving like an amorphous semiconductor. Vacuum annealing of the CNP tips at temperatures up to 2000 °C yields graphitic carbon structures with an increase in conductivity of two orders of magnitude. Penetration of the integrated carbon nanoprobes into cells was shown to produce minimal Ca2+ signals, fast recovery of basal Ca2+ levels and no adverse activation of the cellular metabolism during interrogation times as long as 0.5-1 h.

  20. Value of Tree Measurements Made at Age 5 Years for Predicting the Height and Diameter Growth at Age 25 Years in Loblolly Pine Plantations (United States)

    Allan E. Tiarks; Calvin E. Meier; V. Clark Baldwin; James D. Haywood


    Early growth measurements Of pine plantations are often used to predict the productivity of the stand later in the rotation when assessing the effect Of management on productivity. A loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) study established at 35 locations (2 to 3 plots/location) was used to test the relationship between height measurements at age 5 years...

  1. The relationship between computed tomography measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter and elevated intracranial pressure in non-trauma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël Luyt


    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the ONSD can be measured on digital images obtained by routine CT investigations of the brain, to identify patients with non-traumatic causes of elevated ICP, and to provide the observer with a non-invasive, objective measurement to predict elevated ICP. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective analysis of anonymised patient data, comparing the ONSD on CT imaging with the opening pressure manometry during LP on patients who presented with focal neurology or with a Glasgow coma scale score of less than 15. The study sample consisted of 67 patients, ≥18 years of age, treated at the emergency department of the Kimberly Hospital Complex from 01 March 2013 to 31 December 2014. Results: An ONSD measurement of ≥4.8 mm identified patients with an elevated ICP with a sensitivity of 92.9% and a specificity of 97.6%, using a 95% confidence interval. Raising the ONSD cut-off value to ≥5.0 mm decreased the sensitivity to 85.7% but increased the specificity to 100%, eliminating all patients with a normal ICP. Conclusion: The ONSD can be measured on digital images obtained by routine CT investigations of the brain to predict elevated ICP in non-trauma patients, ≥18 years of age, with acceptable sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Wheel Diameter and Speedometer Reading (United States)

    Murray, Clifton


    Most introductory physics students have seen vehicles with nonstandard wheel diameters; some may themselves drive "low-rider" cars or "big-wheel" pickup trucks. But how does changing wheel diameter affect speedometer readout for a given speed? Deriving the answer can be followed readily by students who have been introduced to rotation, and it…

  3. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The midsagittal, transverse diameters of the lumbar vertebral canal and the anteroposterior diameter of the inferior vertebral notch were measured using an electronic digital caliper. Collected data was analyzed using SPSS 12.0 computer program. Results and discussion: In both sexes, the midsagittal diameter of the canal ...

  4. Reliability of a semi-automated 3D-CT measuring method for tunnel diameters after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A comparison between soft-tissue single-bundle allograft vs. autograft. (United States)

    Robbrecht, Cedric; Claes, Steven; Cromheecke, Michiel; Mahieu, Peter; Kakavelakis, Kyriakos; Victor, Jan; Bellemans, Johan; Verdonk, Peter


    Post-operative widening of tibial and/or femoral bone tunnels is a common observation after ACL reconstruction, especially with soft-tissue grafts. There are no studies comparing tunnel widening in hamstring autografts versus tibialis anterior allografts. The goal of this study was to observe the difference in tunnel widening after the use of allograft vs. autograft for ACL reconstruction, by measuring it with a novel 3-D computed tomography based method. Thirty-five ACL-deficient subjects were included, underwent anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction and were evaluated at one year after surgery with the use of 3-D CT imaging. Three independent observers semi-automatically delineated femoral and tibial tunnel outlines, after which a best-fit cylinder was derived and the tunnel diameter was determined. Finally, intra- and inter-observer reliability of this novel measurement protocol was defined. In femoral tunnels, the intra-observer ICC was 0.973 (95% CI: 0.922-0.991) and the inter-observer ICC was 0.992 (95% CI: 0.982-0.996). In tibial tunnels, the intra-observer ICC was 0.955 (95% CI: 0.875-0.985). The combined inter-observer ICC was 0.970 (95% CI: 0.987-0.917). Tunnel widening was significantly higher in allografts compared to autografts, in the tibial tunnels (p=0.013) as well as in the femoral tunnels (p=0.007). To our knowledge, this novel, semi-automated 3D-computed tomography image processing method has shown to yield highly reproducible results for the measurement of bone tunnel diameter and area. This series showed a significantly higher amount of tunnel widening observed in the allograft group at one-year follow-up. Level II, Prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diameter 2 properties and convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abrahamsen, T. A.; Hájek, Petr Pavel; Nygaard, O.; Talponen, J.; Troyanski, S.


    Roč. 232, č. 3 (2016), s. 227-242 ISSN 0039-3223 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-07378S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : diameter 2 property * midpoint locally uniformly rotund * Daugavet property Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.535, year: 2016 mathematica /all/232/3/91534/diameter-2-properties-and-convexity

  6. Diameters of classes of smooth functions (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, S. N.


    We describe the weak asymptotic behaviour of diameters of n-th order of the unit ball of W_p^l H^\\omega (I^d) in L_q(I^d), where I=(0,1), in dependence on n. Namely we consider the Kolmogorov diameter, the Gel'fand diameter, the linear diameter, the Aleksandrov diameter and the entropy diameter.

  7. Liquid-vapor rectilinear diameter revisited (United States)

    Garrabos, Y.; Lecoutre, C.; Marre, S.; Beysens, D.; Hahn, I.


    In the modern theory of critical phenomena, the liquid-vapor density diameter in simple fluids is generally expected to deviate from a rectilinear law approaching the critical point. However, by performing precise scannerlike optical measurements of the position of the SF6 liquid-vapor meniscus, in an approach much closer to criticality in temperature and density than earlier measurements, no deviation from a rectilinear diameter can be detected. The observed meniscus position from far (10 K ) to extremely close (1 mK ) to the critical temperature is analyzed using recent theoretical models to predict the complete scaling consequences of a fluid asymmetry. The temperature dependence of the meniscus position appears consistent with the law of rectilinear diameter. The apparent absence of the critical hook in SF6 therefore seemingly rules out the need for the pressure scaling field contribution in the complete scaling theoretical framework in this SF6 analysis. More generally, this work suggests a way to clarify the experimental ambiguities in the simple fluids for the near-critical singularities in the density diameter.

  8. Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species (United States)


    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Spores of Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis were harvested shortly after release from sporangia, incubated under...Dec-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Measurement of Metabolic Activity in Dormant Spores of Bacillus Species...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 spores, Bacillus , spore dormancy, 3-phosphoglycerate REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11

  9. Cell diameter measurements obtained with a handheld cell counter could be used as a surrogate marker of G2/M arrest and apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines exposed to SN-38

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahara, Makiko; Inoue, Takeshi; Miyakura, Yasuyuki; Horie, Hisanaga; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Hirofumi; Kotake, Kenjiro; Sugano, Kokichi


    Highlights: •Chemo-sensitivity to SN-38 was assayed by the automated cell counter. •Colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells were more sensitive to SN-38 than HT29 cells. •Increase of cell size reflects G2/M arrest. •Appearance of small particles indicates cell apoptosis. -- Abstract: In vitro assessment of chemosensitivity are important for experiments evaluating cancer therapies. The Scepter 2.0 cell counter, an automated handheld device based on the Coulter principle of impedance-based particle detection, enables the accurate discrimination of cell populations according to cell size and volume. In this study, the effects of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan, on the colon cancer cell lines HCT116 and HT29 were evaluated using this device. The cell count data obtained with the Scepter counter were compared with those obtained with the 3 H-thymidine uptake assay, which has been used to measure cell proliferation in many previous studies. In addition, we examined whether the changes in the size distributions of these cells reflected alterations in the frequency of cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induced by SN-38 treatment. In our experiments using the Scepter 2.0 cell counter, the cell counts were demonstrated to be accurate and reproducible measure and alterations of cell diameter reflected G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our data show that easy-to-use cell counting tools can be utilized to evaluate the cell-killing effects of novel treatments on cancer cells in vitro

  10. 29 mm Diameter Target Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Naranjo, Angela Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Frank Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    After numerous delays, the test of the 29 mm diameter target was conducted on 8/18/2017. The complete target design report, dated 8/15/2016, is reproduced below for completeness. This describes in detail the 10 disk target with varying thickness disks. The report presents and discusses the test results. In brief summary, there appears to have been multiple instrumentation errors. Measured temperatures, pressures and IR camera window temperature measurement are all suspect. All tests were done at 35 MeV, with 171 μA current, or 6 kW of beam power.

  11. Sex Dimorphism of the Heart Diameters and Cardiothoracic Ratios ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine gender associated differences in the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and heart diameters in a normal Nigerian population. Subject and Method: The normal heart diameters and cardiothoracic ratios were measured from posteroanterior (PA) chest radiographs of healthy 510 male and 508 female ...

  12. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira


    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  13. Diameter of common bile duct: what are the predicting factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi


    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: This was a study to determine the correlation between the common bile duct (CBD diameter and demographic data, fasting, and the history of opium addiction.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 375 patients (>16 years old including 219 females and 156 males. They had no evident hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease and underwent abdominopelvic ultrasonography for measurement of their CBD diameter. Ultrasound (US was performed to measure CBD diameter at the porta hepatis (proximal part and behind the head of the pancreas (distal part. Correlation coefficients for the association between CBD diameter and predictive factors were calculated. t-test was applied to compare the means between the groups.
    RESULTS: The mean CBD diameter (1 standard deviation, in proximal and distal parts were 3.64 mm (±1.2 and 3.72 mm (±1.2, respectively. The CBD diameters (proximal and distal were significantly (P<0.05 correlated with age (r = 0.55 and 0.54, respectively, BMI (r = 0.25 and 0.27, respectively and portal vein diameter (r = 0.24 and 0.22, respectively. Distal diameter of CBD was significantly larger in opium addicts (5.66 ± 2.65 in comparison with non addicts (3.68 ± 1.17, P = 0.04.
    CONCLUSIONS: CBD diameter associates with age, BMI, portal vein diameter and opium addiction. CBD dilatation, if it can not be explained by age, opium usage or large BMI, should be evaluated further to rule out obstruction.
    KEY WORDS: Common bile duct, predicting factors, ultrasonography.

  14. Relation of Coronary Artery Diameters With Cardiorespiratory Fitness. (United States)

    Ho, John S; Cannaday, John J; FitzGerald, Shannon J; Leonard, David; Finley, Carrie E; Wade, Wendy A; Reinhardt, Dale B; Ellis, Joe R; Barlow, Carolyn E; Haskell, William L; Defina, Laura F; Gibbons, Larry W; Cooper, Kenneth H


    Cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality when adjusted for traditional risk factors. Mechanisms by which fitness reduces risk have been studied but remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that higher fitness is associated with larger coronary artery diameters independent of its effect on traditional risk factors. Two independent measurements of the proximal diameters of the left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex, and right coronary arteries were obtained from gated multidetector computed tomography scans in 500 men from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study (CCLS). Men with coronary artery calcium scores ≥10 were excluded. Fitness was measured with a maximal exercise treadmill test and reported by quintiles and as a function of METs. We then evaluated the relation between coronary artery diameters and fitness using mixed effect regression models. Higher fitness was associated with larger coronary artery diameters after adjustment for body surface area, smoking status, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, resting systolic blood pressure, and serum glucose. When examined continuously, each MET increase in fitness was associated with a mean 0.03 ± 0.01 mm larger diameter of the left main, a 0.04 ± 0.01 mm larger diameter of the left anterior descending, a 0.05 ± 0.01 mm larger diameter of the left circumflex, and a 0.07 ± 0.01 mm larger diameter of the right coronary artery (p = 0.002). This correlation between fitness and coronary artery diameters was most prominent for fitness levels above 10 METs. In conclusion, higher fitness is associated with larger coronary artery diameters. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fast and robust shape diameter function. (United States)

    Chen, Shuangmin; Liu, Taijun; Shu, Zhenyu; Xin, Shiqing; He, Ying; Tu, Changhe


    The shape diameter function (SDF) is a scalar function defined on a closed manifold surface, measuring the neighborhood diameter of the object at each point. Due to its pose oblivious property, SDF is widely used in shape analysis, segmentation and retrieval. However, computing SDF is computationally expensive since one has to place an inverted cone at each point and then average the penetration distances for a number of rays inside the cone. Furthermore, the shape diameters are highly sensitive to local geometric features as well as the normal vectors, hence diminishing their applications to real-world meshes which often contain rich geometric details and/or various types of defects, such as noise and gaps. In order to increase the robustness of SDF and promote it to a wide range of 3D models, we define SDF by offsetting the input object a little bit. This seemingly minor change brings three significant benefits: First, it allows us to compute SDF in a robust manner since the offset surface is able to give reliable normal vectors. Second, it runs many times faster since at each point we only need to compute the penetration distance along a single direction, rather than tens of directions. Third, our method does not require watertight surfaces as the input-it supports both point clouds and meshes with noise and gaps. Extensive experimental results show that the offset-surface based SDF is robust to noise and insensitive to geometric details, and it also runs about 10 times faster than the existing method. We also exhibit its usefulness using two typical applications including shape retrieval and shape segmentation, and observe a significant improvement over the existing SDF.

  16. The Relationship amongst Intervertebral Disc Vertical Diameter, Lateral Foramen Diameter and Nerve Root Impingement in Lumbar Vertebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof MI


    Full Text Available Introduction: The vertical diameter of the foramen is dependent upon the vertical diameter of the corresponding intervertebral disc. A decrease in disc vertical diameter has direct anatomic consequences to the foraminal diameter and area available for the nerve root passing through it. This study is to establish the relationship amongst the intervertebral disc vertical diameter, lateral foramen diameters and nerve root compression in the lumbar vertebra. Materials and Methods: Measurements of the study parameters were performed using sagittal MRI images. The parameters studied were: intervertebral disc vertical diameter (DVD, foraminal vertical diameter (FVD, foraminal transverse diameter (FTD and nerve root diameter (NRD of both sides. The relationship between the measured parameters were then analyzed. Results: A total of 62 MRI images were available for this study. Statistical analysis showed moderate to strong correlation between DVD and FVD at all the lumbar levels except at left L23 and L5S1 and right L3L4 and L4L5. Correlation between DVD and FTD were not significant at all lumbar levels. Regression analysis showed that a decrease of 1mm of DVD was associated with 1.3, 1.7, 3.3, 3.3 and 1.3mm reduction of FVD at L1L2, L2L3, L3L4, L4L5 and L5S1 respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of DVD was associated with reduction of FVD. However, FVD was relatively wide for the nerve root even with complete loss of DVD. FTD was much narrower than the FVD making it more likely to cause nerve root compression at the exit foramina. These anatomical details should be given consideration in treating patients with lateral canal stenosis.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Mar 1, 2000 ... Request for reprints to: Dr. P S Igbigbi, Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Private Bag 360 Chichiri, Blantyre 3 Malawi. SEX DETERMINATION .... Figure 2. Bar chart showing the ranges of head diameters of male and female femurs. (RVD-Right vertical diameter; LVD-Left vertical diameter; RTD -.

  18. 7 CFR 51.3211 - Diameter. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diameter. 51.3211 Section 51.3211 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions Definitions § 51.3211 Diameter. Diameter means the greatest dimension of the onion at right angles to a line running from the stem to the root. Metric...

  19. Diameter dependent electron transfer kinetics in semiconductor-enzyme complexes. (United States)

    Brown, Katherine A; Song, Qing; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W


    Excited state electron transfer (ET) is a fundamental step for the catalytic conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. To understand the properties controlling ET between photoexcited nanoparticles and catalysts, the ET kinetics were measured for solution-phase complexes of CdTe quantum dots and Clostridium acetobutylicum [FeFe]-hydrogenase I (CaI) using time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Over a 2.0-3.5 nm diameter range of CdTe nanoparticles, the observed ET rate (kET) was sensitive to CaI concentration. To account for diameter effects on CaI binding, a Langmuir isotherm and two geometric binding models were created to estimate maximal CaI affinities and coverages at saturating concentrations. Normalizing the ET kinetics to CaI surface coverage for each CdTe diameter led to k(ET) values that were insensitive to diameter, despite a decrease in the free energy for photoexcited ET (ΔGET) with increasing diameter. The turnover frequency (TOF) of CaI in CdTe-CaI complexes was measured at several molar ratios. Normalization for diameter-dependent changes in CaI coverage showed an increase in TOF with diameter. These results suggest that k(ET) and H2 production for CdTe-CaI complexes are not strictly controlled by ΔG(ET) and that other factors must be considered.

  20. Calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale using occultation diameters (United States)

    Brown, R. H.; Morrison, D.; Telesco, C. M.; Brunk, W. E.


    The paper describes a new approach to the calibration of the radiometric asteroid scale, which relies on recent accurate occultation measurements of the diameters of 2 Pallas (Wasserman et al., 1979) and 3 Juno (Millis et al., 1981), and the Voyager diameter of J4 Callisto, as well as IR photometry of these objects obtained with the NASA 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility. It is shown that this calibration is internally consistent to better than 5%, and probably has an absolute accuracy of + or - 5%. It is noted that a revision of the TRIAD radiometric diameters downward is required to bring them into agreement with the new calibration.

  1. An ecophysiological and developmental perspective on variation in vessel diameter. (United States)

    Hacke, Uwe G; Spicer, Rachel; Schreiber, Stefan G; Plavcová, Lenka


    Variation in xylem vessel diameter is one of the most important parameters when evaluating plant water relations. This review provides a synthesis of the ecophysiological implications of variation in lumen diameter together with a summary of our current understanding of vessel development and its endogenous regulation. We analyzed inter-specific variation of the mean hydraulic vessel diameter (D v ) across biomes, intra-specific variation of D v under natural and controlled conditions, and intra-plant variation. We found that the D v measured in young branches tends to stay below 30 µm in regions experiencing winter frost, whereas it is highly variable in the tropical rainforest. Within a plant, the widest vessels are often found in the trunk and in large roots; smaller diameters have been reported for leaves and small lateral roots. D v varies in response to environmental factors and is not only a function of plant size. Despite the wealth of data on vessel diameter variation, the regulation of diameter is poorly understood. Polar auxin transport through the vascular cambium is a key regulator linking foliar and xylem development. Limited evidence suggests that auxin transport is also a determinant of vessel diameter. The role of auxin in cell expansion and in establishing longitudinal continuity during secondary growth deserve further study. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Modelling of tomato stem diameter growth rate based on physiological responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.; Tan, J.; Lv, T.


    The stem diameter is an important parameter describing the growth of tomato plant during vegetative growth stage. A stem diameter growth model was developed to predict the response of plant growth under different conditions. By analyzing the diurnal variations of stem diameter in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), it was found that the stem diameter measured at 3:00 am was the representative value as the daily basis of tomato stem diameter. Based on the responses of growth rate in stem diameter to light and temperature, a linear regression relationship was applied to establish the stem diameter growth rate prediction model for the vegetative growth stage in tomato and which was further validated by experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE) were used to test the correlation between measured and modeled stem diameter variations. Results showed that the model can be used in prediction for stem diameter growth rate at vegetative growth stage in tomato. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J.; Sonnett, S. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    The Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission continues to detect, track, and characterize minor planets. We present diameters and albedos calculated from observations taken during the second year since the spacecraft was reactivated in late 2013. These include 207 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and 8885 other asteroids. Of the NEAs, 84% NEAs did not have previously measured diameters and albedos by the NEOWISE mission. Comparison of sizes and albedos calculated from NEOWISE measurements with those measured by occultations, spacecraft, and radar-derived shapes shows accuracy consistent with previous NEOWISE publications. Diameters and albedos fall within ±∼20% and ±∼40%, 1-sigma, respectively, of those measured by these alternate techniques. NEOWISE continues to preferentially discover near-Earth objects which are large (>100 m), and have low albedos.

  4. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...... initial response and a higher ultimate capacity. The initial stiffness of the soil-structure interaction measured in the centrifuge tests, equivalent to initial stiffness of p-y curves, shows a dependency of depth and diameter. Control issues in relation to cyclic tests have resulted in tests...... on the structure and the productivity of the turbine. Current design practice for monopiles are based on p-y curves developed for slender piles with a diameter of 0.6 m. The focus on the structure stiffness has entailed a significant research on the soil-structure interaction for large diameter monopiles...

  5. Porosity Assessment for Different Diameters of Coir Lignocellulosic Fibers (United States)

    da Luz, Fernanda Santos; Paciornik, Sidnei; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; da Silva, Luiz Carlos; Tommasini, Flávio James; Candido, Verônica Scarpini


    The application of natural lignocellulosic fibers (LCFs) in engineering composites has increased interest in their properties and structural characteristics. In particular, the inherent porosity of an LCF markedly affects its density and the adhesion to polymer matrices. For the first time, both open and closed porosities of a natural LCF, for different diameter ranges, were assessed. Fibers extracted from the mesocarp of the coconut fruit were investigated by nondestructive methods of density measurements and x-ray microtomography (microCT). It was found that, for all diameter ranges, the closed porosity is significantly higher than the open porosity. The total porosity increases with diameter to around 60% for coir fibers with more than 503 μm in diameter. The amount and characteristics of these open and closed porosities were revealed by t test and Weibull statistics as well as by microCT.

  6. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman


    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  7. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid eSepehrband


    Full Text Available Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy, or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI. The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.

  8. Mixed-effects height–diameter models for ten conifers in the inland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To demonstrate the utility of mixed-effects height–diameter models when conducting forest inventories, mixedeffects height–diameter models are presented for several commercially and ecologically important conifers in the inland Northwest of the USA. After obtaining height–diameter measurements from a plot/stand of ...

  9. Periodic Annual Diameter Increment After Overstory Removal in Mixed Conifer Stands (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh; K. Leroy Dolph; John R. Anstead


    Diameter growth rates of understory trees were measured for periods both before and after overstory removal on six study areas in northern California. All the species responded with increased diameter growth after adjusting to their new environments. Linear regression equations that predict periodic annual increment of the diameters of the residual trees after...

  10. Axon diameter mapping in crossing fibers with diffusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hui; Dyrby, Tim B; Alexander, Daniel C


    tissue than measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging. Most existing techniques for axon diameter mapping assume a single axon orientation in the tissue model, which limits their application to only the most coherently oriented brain white matter, such as the corpus callosum, where the single......This paper proposes a technique for a previously unaddressed problem, namely, mapping axon diameter in crossing fiber regions, using diffusion MRI. Direct measurement of tissue microstructure of this kind using diffusion MRI offers a new class of biomarkers that give more specific information about...... orientation assumption is a reasonable one. However, fiber crossings and other complex configurations are widespread in the brain. In such areas, the existing techniques will fail to provide useful axon diameter indices for any of the individual fiber populations. We propose a novel crossing fiber tissue...

  11. Assessment of vessel diameters for MR brain angiography processed images (United States)

    Moraru, Luminita; Obreja, Cristian-Dragos; Moldovanu, Simona


    The motivation was to develop an assessment method to measure (in)visible differences between the original and the processed images in MR brain angiography as a method of evaluation of the status of the vessel segments (i.e. the existence of the occlusion or intracerebral vessels damaged as aneurysms). Generally, the image quality is limited, so we improve the performance of the evaluation through digital image processing. The goal is to determine the best processing method that allows an accurate assessment of patients with cerebrovascular diseases. A total of 10 MR brain angiography images were processed by the following techniques: histogram equalization, Wiener filter, linear contrast adjustment, contrastlimited adaptive histogram equalization, bias correction and Marr-Hildreth filter. Each original image and their processed images were analyzed into the stacking procedure so that the same vessel and its corresponding diameter have been measured. Original and processed images were evaluated by measuring the vessel diameter (in pixels) on an established direction and for the precise anatomic location. The vessel diameter is calculated using the plugin ImageJ. Mean diameter measurements differ significantly across the same segment and for different processing techniques. The best results are provided by the Wiener filter and linear contrast adjustment methods and the worst by Marr-Hildreth filter.

  12. Modelling diameter growth, mortality and recruitment of trees in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Miombo woodlands cover large areas in Tanzania but very little reliable data on forest dynamics for the woodlands exist. The main objective of this study was to develop a model system describing such dynamics based on easily measurable tree variables. Individual tree diameter growth and mortality models, and ...

  13. Sex differences in diameter of the coronary sinus ostium: Correlation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-four hearts of adult black Kenyans [43 male, 31 females; age range 20 – 70 years] obtained during autopsy at the Department of Human Anatomy, University of Nairobi, Kenya were weighed. The coronary sinus ostium was identified and its transverse and supero-inferior diameters measured in millimeters.

  14. Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees (United States)

    T.R. Feldpausch; L. Banin; O.L. Phillips; T.R. Baker; S.L. Lewis; C.A. Quesada; K. Affum-Baffoe; E.J.M.M. Arets; N.J. Berry; M. Bird; E.S. Brondizio; P de Camargo; J. Chave; G. Djagbletey; T.F. Domingues; M. Drescher; P.M. Fearnside; M.B. Franca; N.M. Fyllas; G. Lopez-Gonzalez; A. Hladik; N. Higuchi; M.O. Hunter; Y. Iida; K.A. Salim; A.R. Kassim; M. Keller; J. Kemp; D.A. King; J.C. Lovett; B.S. Marimon; B.H. Marimon-Junior; E. Lenza; A.R. Marshall; D.J. Metcalfe; E.T.A. Mitchard; E.F. Moran; B.W. Nelson; R. Nilus; E.M. Nogueira; M. Palace; S. Patiño; K.S.-H. Peh; M.T. Raventos; J.M. Reitsma; G. Saiz; F. Schrodt; B. Sonke; H.E. Taedoumg; S. Tan; L. White; H. Woll; J. Lloyd


    Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D) relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical...

  15. Estimating root collar diameter growth for multi-stem western woodland tree species on remeasured forest inventory and analysis plots (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson; Maggie. Toone


    Tree diameter growth models are widely used in many forestry applications, often to predict tree size at a future point in time. Also, there are instances where projections of past diameters are needed. An individual tree model has been developed to estimate diameter growth of multi-stem woodland tree species where the diameter is measured at root collar. The model was...

  16. Effective diameters and corresponding states of fluids (United States)

    Del Río, Fernando

    Effective hard-sphere diameters of fluids with purely repulsive interactions are derived from a generalized corresponding-states principle of Leland, Rowlinson and coworkers. Various alternative definitions are discussed and related. Virial expansions of the effective diameters and their corresponding volumes are obtained and compared with results of perturbation theory. Applications are made to inverse-power potentials, the repulsive part of the Lennard-Jones potential and hard spherocylinders and dumbells.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nugent, C. R.; Cutri, R. M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Kramer, E.; Sonnett, S.; Stevenson, R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Wright, E. L., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)


    We present preliminary diameters and albedos for 7956 asteroids detected in the first year of the NEOWISE Reactivation mission. Of those, 201 are near-Earth asteroids and 7755 are Main Belt or Mars-crossing asteroids. 17% of these objects have not been previously characterized using the Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or “NEOWISE” thermal measurements. Diameters are determined to an accuracy of ∼20% or better. If good-quality H magnitudes are available, albedos can be determined to within ∼40% or better.

  18. Bijective Diameters of Gene Tree Parsimony Costs. (United States)

    Gorecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver


    Synthesizing median trees from a collection of gene trees under the biologically motivated gene tree parsimony (GTP) costs has provided credible species tree estimates. GTP costs are defined for each of the classic evolutionary processes. These costs count the minimum number of events necessary to reconcile the gene tree with the species tree where the leaf-genes are mapped to the leaf-species through a function called labeling. To better understand the synthesis of median trees under these costs there is an increased interest in analyzing their diameters. The diameters of a GTP cost between a gene tree and a species tree are the maximum values of this cost of one or both topologies of the trees involved. We are concerned about the diameters of the GTP costs under bijective labelings. While these diameters are linear time computable for the gene duplication and deep coalescence costs, this has been unknown for the classic gene duplication and loss, and for the loss cost. For the first time, we show how to compute these diameters and proof that this can be achieved in linear time, and thus, completing the computational time analysis for all of the bijective diameters under the GTP costs.

  19. Characteristics of two-phase flows in large diameter channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlegel, J.P., E-mail: [Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 301 W 14th St., Rolla, MO 65401 (United States); Hibiki, T.; Ishii, M. [School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, 400 Central Dr., West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)


    Two-phase flows in large diameter channels have a great deal of importance in a wide variety of industrial applications. Nuclear systems, petroleum refineries, and chemical processes make extensive use of larger systems. Flows in such channels have very different properties from flows in smaller channels which are typically used in experimental research. In this paper, the various differences between flows in large and small channels are highlighted using the results of previous experimental and analytical research. This review is followed by a review of recent experiments in and model development for flows in large diameter channels performed by the authors. The topics of these research efforts range from void fraction and interfacial area concentration measurement to flow regime identification and modeling, drift-flux modeling for high void fraction conditions, and evaluation of interfacial area transport models for large diameter channels.

  20. Bubble behaviour and mean diameter in subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitoun, O.; Shoukri, M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)


    Bubble behaviour and mean bubble diameter in subcooled upward flow boiling in a vertical annular channel were investigated under low pressure and mass flux conditions. A high speed video system was used to visualize the subcooled flow boiling phenomenon. The high speed photographic results indicated that, contrary to the common understanding, bubbles tend to detach from the heating surface upstream of the net vapour generation point. Digital image processing technique was used to measure the mean bubble diameter along the subcooled flow boiling region. Data on the axial area-averaged void fraction distributions were also obtained using a single beam gamma densitometer. Effects of the liquid subcooling, applied heat flux and mass flux on the mean bubble size were investigated. A correlation for the mean bubble diameter as a function of the local subcooling, heat flux and mass flux was obtained.

  1. Memory, emotion, and pupil diameter: Repetition of natural scenes. (United States)

    Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J


    Recent studies have suggested that pupil diameter, like the "old-new" ERP, may be a measure of memory. Because the amplitude of the old-new ERP is enhanced for items encoded in the context of repetitions that are distributed (spaced), compared to massed (contiguous), we investigated whether pupil diameter is similarly sensitive to repetition. Emotional and neutral pictures of natural scenes were viewed once or repeated with massed (contiguous) or distributed (spaced) repetition during incidental free viewing and then tested on an explicit recognition test. Although an old-new difference in pupil diameter was found during successful recognition, pupil diameter was not enhanced for distributed, compared to massed, repetitions during either recognition or initial free viewing. Moreover, whereas a significant old-new difference was found for erotic scenes that had been seen only once during encoding, this difference was absent when erotic scenes were repeated. Taken together, the data suggest that pupil diameter is not a straightforward index of prior occurrence for natural scenes. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. A small-diameter NMR logging tool for groundwater investigations (United States)

    Walsh, David; Turner, Peter; Grunewald, Elliot; Zhang, Hong; Butler, James J.; Reboulet, Ed; Knobbe, Steve; Christy, Tom; Lane, John W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Munday, Tim; Fitzpatrick, Andrew


    A small-diameter nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool has been developed and field tested at various sites in the United States and Australia. A novel design approach has produced relatively inexpensive, small-diameter probes that can be run in open or PVC-cased boreholes as small as 2 inches in diameter. The complete system, including surface electronics and various downhole probes, has been successfully tested in small-diameter monitoring wells in a range of hydrogeological settings. A variant of the probe that can be deployed by a direct-push machine has also been developed and tested in the field. The new NMR logging tool provides reliable, direct, and high-resolution information that is of importance for groundwater studies. Specifically, the technology provides direct measurement of total water content (total porosity in the saturated zone or moisture content in the unsaturated zone), and estimates of relative pore-size distribution (bound vs. mobile water content) and hydraulic conductivity. The NMR measurements show good agreement with ancillary data from lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydrogeologic measurements, and provide valuable information for groundwater investigations.

  3. Mockup Small-Diameter Air Distribution System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Poerschke and A. Rudd


    This report investigates the feasibility of using a home-run manifold small-diameter duct system to provide space conditioning air to individual thermal zones in a low-load home. This compact layout allows duct systems to be brought easily within conditioned space via interior partition walls. Centrally locating the air hander unit in the house significantly reduces duct lengths. The plenum box is designed so that each connected duct receives an equal amount of airflow, regardless of the duct position on the box. Furthermore, within a reasonable set of length restrictions, each duct continues to receive similar airflow. The design method uses an additive approach to reach the total needed zonal airflow. Once the cubic feet per minute needed to satisfy the thermal load of a zone has been determined, the total number of duct runs to a zone can be calculated by dividing the required airflow by the standard airflow from each duct. The additive approach greatly simplifies the design effort and reduces the potential for duct design mistakes to be made. Measured results indicate that this plenum design can satisfy the heating load. However, the total airflow falls short of satisfying the cooling load in a hypothetical building. Static pressure inside the plenum box of 51.5 Pa limited the total airflow of the attached mini-split heat pump blower, thus limiting the total thermal capacity. Fan energy consumption is kept to 0.16 to 0.22 watt/CFM by using short duct runs and smooth duct material.

  4. Filmwise condensation on low integral-fin tubes of different diameter


    Van Petten, Thomas Louis


    Heat transfer measurements were made for filmwise condensation of R-113, steam and ethylene glycol on three sets of finned tubes which differed only in root diameter. The fin root diameters were 12.7 mm. 19.05 mm and 25.0 mm. A comparison of the enhancement ratios (based on constant vapor-side temperature drop) revealed that, within the range of diameter tested, the effect of root diameter was small. Results indicated that two or more trends may exist while increasing root diameter. With the ...

  5. Directed growth of diameter-tunable nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Birol; Talukdar, Ishan; Flanders, Bret N [Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University, 145 Physical Sciences II, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)


    This study characterizes a method for controlling the nanowire diameter in the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly technique, where alternating voltages applied to electrodes in simple salt solutions induce the crystallization of metallic wires. Dendritic solidification is identified as an important component of this technique. A characteristic of dendritic solidification is that the growth velocity and tip radius are anti-correlated. This relationship is exploited here to realize diameter-tunable nanowire growth. The experimental parameter that provides this control is {omega}, the frequency of the alternating voltage. Increasing {omega} effectively steepens the metal cation concentration gradient at the wire-solution interface, thereby increasing the growth velocity of the wire. For indium wires, increasing {omega} from 0.5 to 3.5 MHz increases their growth velocity from 11 to 78 {mu}m s{sup -1} and reduces their diameter from 770 to 114 nm. Gold wires exhibit diameter-tunability that ranges from 150 nm to 45 nm. Thus, it is possible to tune the wire diameter from the microscale down to the nanoscale. Moreover, this control is a consequence of non-stationary dendritic growth, which distinguishes this process from most previously studied examples of dendritic solidification.

  6. Corrosion and deposit determination in large diameter pipes by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harara, W.


    Two steel reference pipes with outer diameters of 8 and 12 inches were machined to make artificial defects on each of them, such as inside and outside steps of different wall thicknesses, inside and outside flat bottomed holes (FBH) of different diameters and depths on steps, flat area (FA), and ground patch (GP). The artificial defect were made to simulate natural corrosion attack as regular corrosion and pitting. The two reference pipes were tested according to tangential radiography technique and double wall single image technique. Tangential radiography technique had been applied using Co-60 radio-isotope to determine the steps thicknesses, the FBH, the remaining wall thickness under the FA, the remaining wall thickness above the GP, and the minimum detectable thickness of the artificial cement deposit on the two reference pipes, with and without insulation. Double wall single image technique had also been applied on the two reference pipes with and without insulation using Ir-192 radio-isotope to measure the flat bottomed holes depths, GP depth, and FA depth by density measurement. The measurement results obtained from the radiographs confirm that, tangential radiography technique can be applied to detect and evaluate the inside and outside regular corrosion attack in the large diameter pipes. It can also be applied to detect and evaluate the outside FBH with depth equal or greater than 10%. Inside 10% FBH and inside 20% FBH can not be detected if their diameters are not larger than certain value related to diameter and wall thickness of the pipe under test. Increasing the film density up to 5 outside the pipe did not provide any detection improvement of 10% and 20% inside FBH. Tangential radiography technique can also be applied to detect and measure the deposit inside the pipes. Double wall technique can be applied as an alternative method of the tangential radiography technique to detect and to evaluate the shallow and small diameter, 10% and 20% inside FBH

  7. Normal cardiac diameters in cine-MRI of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hergan, K.; Schuster, A.; Mair, M.; Burger, R.; Toepker, M.


    Purpose: To measure the normal diameters of cardiac cavities in standard cardiac views using cine MRI. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six volunteers were examined (27 male, 29 female) on a 1.5 T MR unit with ECG-triggered single shot free precision (SSFP) cine MR sequences and parallel image acquisition. Standardized echocardiographic planes were used to depict the heart of all volunteers (short axis, 4-chamber view, left and right 2-chamber views). The different diameters of the cardiac cavities were measured using a fixed protocol. Results: For the estimation of ventricular dilatation, the important female/male cross diameters of the left ventricle are 45.2±3.4/51.6±4.6 mm diastolic and 30.5±3.5/33.8±3.6 mm systolic, and of the right ventricle 30.7±3.8/37.1±5.9 mm diastolic and 22.3±3.8/28.1±4.4 mm systolic. For the determination of a left ventricular hypertrophy, relevant septal wall thickness measured in the short axis of the left ventricle of female/male volunteers are 8.0±1.0/9.9±1.2 mm diastolic and 10.9±1.4/13.6±1.9 mm systolic. The measured normal values of male volunteers were generally higher than those of female volunteers. The thickness of the ventricular septum correlated well when measured in the short axis and 4-chamber view. When measured in the 4-chamber view, the longitudinal diameter of the ventricles had a higher value in diastole and a lower value in systole, compared to the 2-chamber views of the right and left cardiac cavities. The atrial longitudinal diameters were higher in the 4-chamber view compared to the 2-chamber views, without any difference in systole or diastole. Conclusion: Diameters of cardiac cavities are easily and quickly measured. Using the tables with the normal values published here, it is simple to estimate an abnormal size of the heart. (orig.)

  8. NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Kramer, E. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 183-301, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nugent, C.; Cutri, R. M. [California Institute of Technology, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, 1200 California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wright, E. L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bauer, J. M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Grav, T.; Sonnett, S., E-mail: [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 E Fort Lowell Road #106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)


    The Near-Earth Object Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) reactivation mission has completed its third year of surveying the sky in the thermal infrared for near-Earth asteroids and comets. NEOWISE collects simultaneous observations at 3.4 and 4.6  μ m of solar system objects passing through its field of regard. These data allow for the determination of total thermal emission from bodies in the inner solar system, and thus the sizes of these objects. In this paper, we present thermal model fits of asteroid diameters for 170 NEOs and 6110 Main Belt asteroids (MBAs) detected during the third year of the survey, as well as the associated optical geometric albedos. We compare our results with previous thermal model results from NEOWISE for overlapping sample sets, as well as diameters determined through other independent methods, and find that our diameter measurements for NEOs agree to within 26% (1 σ ) of previously measured values. Diameters for the MBAs are within 17% (1 σ ). This brings the total number of unique near-Earth objects characterized by the NEOWISE survey to 541, surpassing the number observed during the fully cryogenic mission in 2010.

  9. Determinação radiológica do índice e do tamanho craniano por mensuração dos diâmetros cranianos em uma população infantil brasileira Radiological determination of cranial size and index by measurement of skull diameters in a population of children in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Minniti Rodrigues Pereira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar as medidas dos diâmetros cranianos obtidos por método radiológico e elaborar, por meio delas, o índice e o tamanho craniano, para comparar com as medidas dos diâmetros e os índices propostos por alguns trabalhos da literatura, principalmente os do estudo de Haas. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 732 pacientes sem doenças cranianas, medidos seus diâmetros cranianos e, posteriormente, formulados o índice e o tamanho craniano, que mostram as diferentes fases do crescimento do crânio, pelas medidas de tábua interna a tábua interna. RESULTADOS: O estudo comparativo das médias dos diâmetros, por medidas de tábuas internas, mostrou aumento do crescimento francamente progressivo no primeiro ano de vida para ambos os sexos e aumento menor a partir do segundo ano de vida. As médias globais dos diâmetros não apresentaram diferença significativa entre os sexos feminino e masculino. CONCLUSÃO: O índice e o tamanho craniano são bons indicadores do crescimento craniano, principalmente nos quatro primeiros anos de vida, quando o crescimento aumenta vertiginosamente no primeiro ano e, posteriormente, ocorre aumento moderado até os quatro anos de idade. Após esta idade, ocorre um leve e estável aumento e seu valor estatístico diminui. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante, no crescimento, para ambos os sexos. Recomenda-se o uso dos valores médios dos diâmetros para ambos os sexos e sugere-se o uso do índice craniano, até os quatro anos de idade, e o tamanho craniano, após os quatro anos, sendo ideal para o acompanhamento do crescimento do crânio.OBJECTIVE: To measure radiologically obtained skull diameters and, based on these data, calculating the cranial index and size to compare with diameter measurements and indices reported in the literature, particularly those reported by Haas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study evaluated 732 individuals with no cranial disease, whose skull diameters

  10. Optical coating uniformity of 200mm (8") diameter precut wafers (United States)

    Burt, Travis C.; Fisher, Mark; Brown, Dean; Troiani, David


    Automated spectroscopic profiling (mapping) of a 200 mm diameter near infrared high reflector (centered at 1064 nm) are presented. Spatial resolution at 5 mm or less was achieved using a 5 mm × 1.5 mm monochromatic beam. Reflection changes of 1.0% across the wafer diameter were observed under s-polarized and p- polarized conditions. Redundancy was established for each chord by re-measuring the center of the wafer and reproducibility of approximately used to measure the reflectance and transmittance of a sample across a range of angles (θi) at near normal angles of incidence (AOI). A recent development by Agilent Technologies, the Cary 7000 Universal Measurement Spectrophotometer (UMS) combines both reflection and transmission measurements from the same patch of a sample's surface in a single automated platform for angles of incidence in the range 5°use of MPS on the Cary 7000 UMS with rotational (Φ) and vertical (z) sample positioning control. MPS(θi,Φ,z) provides for automated unattended multi-angle R/T analysis of at 200 mm diameter samples with the goal to provide better spectroscopic measurement feedback into large wafer manufacturing to ensure yields are maximized, product quality is better controlled and waste is reduced before further down-stream processing.

  11. Height - Diameter predictive equations for Rubber (Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The importance of calibrating models on height-diameter relationship can never be over emphasized in predicting mean ... parameters that variously important in forest growth modeling and many sustainable forest management options(e.g., Van ..... Natural forest Ecosystem, southwest Nigeria. Research Journal of Forestry ...

  12. Maximum Diameter of Impacting Liquid Droplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, N.; de Bruin, K.G.; Bartolo, D.; Josserand, C.; Bonn, D.


    The maximum diameter a droplet that impacts on a surface will attain is the subject of controversy, notably for high-velocity impacts of low-viscosity liquids such as water or blood. We study the impact of droplets of simple liquids of different viscosities, and a shear-thinning complex fluid

  13. Photoacoustic determination of blood vessel diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, R.G.M.; Klaessens, John H.G.M.; Hondebrink, Erwin; Hopman, Jeroen C.W.; de Mul, F.F.M.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Thijssen, Johan M.; van Leeuwen, Ton


    A double-ring sensor was applied in photoacoustic tomographic imaging of artificial blood vessels as well as blood vessels in a rabbit ear. The peak-topeak time (τ pp) of the laser (1064 nm) induced pressure transient was used to estimate the axial vessel diameter. Comparison with the actual vessel

  14. Diameter preserving linear maps and isometries, II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study linear bijections of simplex spaces A ( S ) which preserve the diameter of the range, that is, the seminorm ϱ ( f ) = sup { | f ( x ) − f ( y ) | : x , y ∈ S } . Author Affiliations. Félix Cabello Sánchez1. Departamento de Matemáticas, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de Elvas 06071- Badajoz, Spain. Dates. Manuscript ...

  15. The diameter and thermal inertia of 433 Eros (United States)

    Morrison, D.


    Radiometry of Eros at 10 and 20 micrometers demonstrates that the thermal conductivity of the upper centimeter of the surface is approximately as low as that of the moon, suggesting that the asteroid has a regolith of highly porous rocky material. When combined with photoelectric photometry, these infrared measurements yield an effective diameter of Eros at maximum light of 22 plus or minus 2 km and a geometric albedo of 0.18 plus or minus 0.03.

  16. Diameter of common bile duct: what are the predicting factors?


    Atoosa Adibi; Behrooz Givechian


    BACKGROUND: This was a study to determine the correlation between the common bile duct (CBD) diameter and demographic data, fasting, and the history of opium addiction.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 375 patients (>16 years old) including 219 females and 156 males. They had no evident hepatobiliary or pancreatic disease and underwent abdominopelvic ultrasonography for measurement of their CBD di...

  17. Visual function and retinal vessel diameters during hyperthermia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Hagström; Bram, Thue; Kappelgaard, Per


    .01), a 10.6-mmHg mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure (p vein...... laser ophthalmoscopy was used to measure retinal trunk vessel diameters. Assessment was made at baseline, during hyperthermia and after cooling. RESULTS: The induction of a mean increase in core body temperature of 1.02°C was associated with a 7.15-mmHg mean reduction in systolic blood pressure (p

  18. Evaluation of crown mesiodistal diameter of permanent teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ravanmehr


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate mesiodistal diameter of permanent teeth and evaluating it's distribution in Iran. In current study, 850 plastery impressions or 16590 teeth were precisely measured by a digital coulis with 0.01 mm accuracy.The obtained measures of the permanent teeth are shown in table 1. Table (4 demonstrates the symmetry of left and right maxillary and mandibular teeth. Obtainedmeasurements in Table 1 were compared with Gran's measures (Table 2 which are shown in Table (3.Bolton analysis was done and results were found close to the BolType text or a website address or translate a document.ton measures. It was concluded that it is better to replace measurements of our society instead of Bolton's. Since we found minor difference with the measures of other researchers, especially for teeth anterior to first molar, using our measures in treatment plans would not bring about any problem.

  19. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.


    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up

  20. On finding minimum-diameter clique trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, J.R.S. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science); Peyton, B.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))


    It is well-known that any chordal graph can be represented as a clique tree (acyclic hypergraph, join tree). Since some chordal graphs have many distinct clique tree representations, it is interesting to consider which one is most desirable under various circumstances. A clique tree of minimum diameter (or height) is sometimes a natural candidate when choosing clique trees to be processed in a parallel computing environment. This paper introduces a linear time algorithm for computing a minimum-diameter clique tree. The new algorithm is an analogue of the natural greedy algorithm for rooting an ordinary tree in order to minimize its height. It has potential application in the development of parallel algorithms for both knowledge-based systems and the solution of sparse linear systems of equations. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Positron annihilation characteristics in multi-wall carbon nanotubes with different average diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuyen, L A; Khiem, D D; Phuc, P T; Kajcsos, Zs; Lázár, K; Tap, T D


    Positron lifetime spectroscopy was used to study multi-wall carbon nanotubes. The measurements were performed in vacuum on the samples having different average diameters. The positron lifetime values depend on the nanotube diameter. The results also show an influence of the nanotube diameter on the positron annihilation intensity on the nanotube surface. The change in the annihilation probability is described and interpreted by the modified diffusion model introducing the positron escape rate from the nanotubes to their external surface.

  2. Fabrication of Cell-Laden Hydrogel Fibers with Controllable Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoqun Cheng


    Full Text Available Cell-laden hydrogel fibers are widely used as the fundamental building blocks to fabricate more complex functional three-dimensional (3D structures that could mimic biological tissues. The control on the diameter of the hydrogel fibers is important so as to precisely construct structures in the above 3D bio-fabrication. In this paper, a pneumatic-actuated micro-extrusion system is developed to produce hydrogel fibers based on the crosslinking behavior of sodium alginate with calcium ions. Excellent uniformity has been obtained in the diameters of the fabricated hydrogel fibers as a proportional-integral-derivative (PID control algorithm is applied on the driving pressure control. More importantly, a linear relationship has been obtained between the diameter of hydrogel fiber and the driving pressure. With the help of the identified linear model, we can precisely control the diameter of the hydrogel fiber via the control of the driving pressure. The differences between the measured and designed diameters are within ±2.5%. Finally, the influence of the calcium ions on the viability of the encapsulated cells is also investigated by immersing the cell-laden hydrogel fibers into the CaCl2 bath for different periods of time. LIVE/DEAD assays show that there is little difference among the cell viabilities in each sample. Therefore, the calcium ions utilized in the fabrication process have no impact on the cells encapsulated in the hydrogel fiber. Experimental results also show that the cell viability is 83 ± 2% for each sample after 24 h of culturing.

  3. Stand diameter distribution modelling and prediction based on Richards function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-guo Duan

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM were applied to estimate the parameters of models, and the parameter prediction method (PPM and parameter recovery method (PRM were used to predict the diameter distributions of unknown stands. Four main conclusions were obtained: (1 R distribution presented a more accurate simulation than three-parametric Weibull function; (2 the parameters p, q and r of R distribution proved to be its scale, location and shape parameters, and have a deep relationship with stand characteristics, which means the parameters of R distribution have good theoretical interpretation; (3 the ordinate of inflection point of R distribution has significant relativity with its skewness and kurtosis, and the fitted main distribution range for the cumulative diameter distribution of Chinese fir plantations was 0.4∼0.6; (4 the goodness-of-fit test showed diameter distributions of unknown stands can be well estimated by applying R distribution based on PRM or the combination of PPM and PRM under the condition that only quadratic mean DBH or plus stand age are known, and the non-rejection rates were near 80%, which are higher than the 72.33% non-rejection rate of three-parametric Weibull function based on the combination of PPM and PRM.

  4. Investigation of the ramp testing behaviour of fuel pins with different diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pott, G.; Herren, M.; Wigger, B.


    The aim of these experiments was the investigation of the influence of different fuel pin diameter on the ramp testing behaviour. Fuel elements with diameter between 10,75 and 15,6 mm and different cladding thickness had been ramptested in the HBWR (Halden Boiling Water Reactor) after preirradiated in the same facility. Fuel pins with the smallest diameter of 10,75 mm failed. This was indicated by fission gas release measurement. Metallographic examination showed these failure were caused by hydride blisters. A systematic influence of fuel pin diameter and cladding thickness on the ramptesting behaviour was not observed. (orig.) [de

  5. Automatic calculation of tree diameter from stereoscopic image pairs using digital image processing. (United States)

    Yi, Faliu; Moon, Inkyu


    Automatic operations play an important role in societies by saving time and improving efficiency. In this paper, we apply the digital image processing method to the field of lumbering to automatically calculate tree diameters in order to reduce culler work and enable a third party to verify tree diameters. To calculate the cross-sectional diameter of a tree, the image was first segmented by the marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm based on the hue saturation intensity (HSI) color model. Then, the tree diameter was obtained by measuring the area of every isolated region in the segmented image. Finally, the true diameter was calculated by multiplying the diameter computed in the image and the scale, which was derived from the baseline and disparity of correspondence points from stereoscopic image pairs captured by rectified configuration cameras.

  6. Diameter Tuning of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes by Diffusion Plasma CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kato


    Full Text Available We have realized a diameter tuning of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs by adjusting process gas pressures with plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Detailed photoluminescence measurements reveal that the diameter distribution of SWNTs clearly shifts to a large-diameter region with an increase in the pressure during plasma CVD, which is also confirmed by Raman scattering spectroscopy. Based on the systematical investigation, it is found that the main diameter of SWNTs is determined by the pressure during the heating in an atmosphere of hydrogen and the diameter distribution is narrowed by adjusting the pressure during the plasma generation. Our results could contribute to an application of SWNTs to high-performance thin-film transistors, which requires the diameter-controlled semiconductor-rich SWNTs.

  7. A method for determination of muscle fiber diameter using single fiber potential (SFP) analysis. (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa; Nandedkar, Sanjeev D; Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz, Irena


    We have used computer simulation to study the relationship between the muscle fiber diameter and parameters: peak-to-peak amplitude and duration of the negative peak of the muscle fiber action potential. We found that the negative peak duration is useful in the determination of fiber diameter via the diameter dependence of conduction velocity. We have shown a direct link between the underlying physiology and the measurements characterizing single fiber potential. Using data from simulations, a graphical tool and an analytical method to estimate the muscle fiber diameter from the recorded action potential has been developed. The ability to quantify the fiber diameter can add significantly to the single fiber electromyography examination. It may help study of muscle fiber diameter variability and thus compliment the muscle biopsy studies.

  8. Sample preparation and scanning protocol for computerised analysis of root length and diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Nielsen, K.F.; Koutstaal, B.P.


    Root length and diameter distribution are important characteristics to be considered when describing and comparing root systems. Root length and root-diameter distribution may be obtained in two ways: by microscopical measurements, which are laborious, or by computerised analysis, which is fast but

  9. Subarachnoid space diameter in chromosomally abnormal fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation. (United States)

    Ferreira, Carolina; Rouxinol-Dias, Ana Lidia; Loureiro, Teresa; Nicolaides, Kypros


    To examine the subarachnoid space diameters in chromosomally abnormal fetuses at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Stored three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound volumes of the fetal head at 11-13 weeks' gestation from 407 euploid and 88 chromosomally abnormal fetuses (trisomy 21, n = 40; trisomy 18, n = 19; trisomy 13, n = 7; triploidy, n = 14; Turner syndrome, n = 8) were analyzed. The subarachnoid space diameters, measured in the sagittal and transverse planes of the fetal head, in relation to biparietal diameter (BPD) in each group of aneuploidies was compared to that in euploid fetuses. A total of 20 head volumes were randomly selected and all the measurements were recorded by two different observers to examine the interobserver variability in measurements. In euploid fetuses, the anteroposterior, transverse and sagittal diameters of the subarachnoid space increased with BPD. The median of the observed to expected diameters for BPD were significantly increased in triploidy and trisomy 13 but were not significantly altered in trisomies 21 and 18 or Turner syndrome. In triploidy, the subarachnoid space diameters for BPD were above the 95th centile of euploid fetuses in 92.9% (13 of 14) cases. The intraclass reliability or agreement was excellent for all three subarachnoid space diameters. Most fetuses with triploidy at 11-13 weeks' gestation demonstrate increased subarachnoid space diameters.

  10. Body hair scores and total hair diameters in healthy women in the Kirikkale Region of Turkey. (United States)

    Sagsoz, Nevin; Kamaci, Mansur; Orbak, Zerrin


    It was aimed to determine the normal hair scores of women of Kirikkale region according to the Ferriman- Gallwey scale and to investigate the relationship between the hair shaft diameter and hair scores. Hair scores were calculated in 204 healthy women, and hair shaft diameters were measured from the hair samples collected from 60 patients. Body mass index, waist to hip ratio, insulin resistance and blood androgen levels were determined. Neutral, hormonal and total hair scores were 2.1 1.4, 3.1 2.7 and 5.2 3.6, respectively. The average total hair diameter and hormonal hair diameter were 191.93 90.49 m and 121.8 75.9 m respectively. The correlation between total hair diameter and total hair score was statistically significant (r=0.704 p 0.001). Also, the correlation between hormonal hair diameter and hormonal hair score was statistically significant (r=0.724 p 0.001). While hair scores and diameters show meaningful positive correlation with androgen levels, they show negative correlation with age. In our population, 95% value of total hair score was 11, and for the hormonal score, it was 9. Hair diameters increase with hair score, regardless of total or hormonal of hair scores. Hair scores and hair diameters may be affected by blood androgens in healthy women.

  11. Root diameter variations explained by anatomy and phylogeny of 50 tropical and temperate tree species. (United States)

    Gu, Jiacun; Xu, Yang; Dong, Xueyun; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Zhengquan


    Root diameter, a critical indicator of root physiological function, varies greatly among tree species, but the underlying mechanism of this high variability is unclear. Here, we sampled 50 tree species across tropical and temperate zones in China, and measured root morphological and anatomical traits along the first five branch orders in each species. Our objectives were (i) to reveal the relationships between root diameter, cortical thickness and stele diameter among tree species in tropical and temperate forests, and (ii) to investigate the relationship of both root morphological and anatomical traits with divergence time during species radiation. The results showed that root diameter was strongly affected by cortical thickness but less by stele diameter in both tropical and temperate species. Changes in cortical thickness explained over 90% of variation in root diameter for the first order, and ∼74-87% for the second and third orders. Thicker roots displayed greater cortical thickness and more cortical cell layers than thinner roots. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that root diameter, cortical thickness and number of cortical cell layers significantly correlated with divergence time at the family level, showing similar variation trends in geological time. The results also suggested that trees tend to decrease their root cortical thickness rather than stele diameter during species radiation. The close linkage of variations in root morphology and anatomy to phylogeny as demonstrated by the data from the 50 tree species should provide some insights into the mechanism of root diameter variability among tree species.

  12. Corrosion and deposit evaluation in large diameter pipes using radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A.


    The reliability and safety of industrial equipment in the factories and processing industries are substantially influenced by degradation processes such as corrosion, erosion, deposits and blocking of pipes. These might lead to low production, unpredictable and costly shutdowns due to repair and replacement and sometimes combined environmental pollution and risk of personnel injuries. Only periodic inspection for the integrity of pipes and equipment can reduce the risk in connection with other maintenance activities. The research explored two methods of radiographic inspection techniques, the double wall technique and the tangential radiographic technique using Ir-192 for evaluating deposits and corrosion attacks across the inner and outer walls of steel pipes with diameter greater than 150 mm with or without insulation. The application of both techniques was conducted depending on pipe diameter, wall thickness, radiation source (Ir-92) and film combination. The iridium source was positioned perpendicular with respect to the pipe axis projecting the double wall of the pipe on the plated radiographic film. With the tangential radiographic technique, the source was placed tangential to the pipe wall and because of its large diameter, the source was collimated to prevent backscatter and also to focus the beam at the target area of interest. All measurements were performed on special designed test pieces to simulate corrosion attack and deposits on industrial pipes. Pitting corrosion measurements based on Tangential Radiographic Technique were more sophisticated, and therefore magnification factor and correction were used to establish the estimated pit depth on the film. The insulating material used to conserve the thermodynamic properties of the transported media had relatively negligible attenuation coefficient compared to the concrete deposit. The two explored techniques were successful in evaluating corrosion attack and deposit on the walls of the pipe and the risk

  13. Crown-Stump Diameter Model for Parkia biglobosa Benth. Species in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chukwu


    Full Text Available The crown of tree is the centre of physiological activity which gives an indication of the potential photosynthetic capacity on a tree. Though, its measurement remains a challenge in forest inventory task. The ability to predict crown diameter from stump diameter provides an effective technique of obtaining its estimate. This helps in detecting the excessive tree felling than actual requirements and wildlife suitability.The main objective of this study was to develop and test crown diameter prediction models for silvicultural management of naturally grown Parkia biglobosa within the University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nine 100 m x 100 m temporary sample plots were established using simple random sampling method. Crown diameter and stump diameter were measured in all living P. biglobosa trees with stump diameter ≥10.0 cm. Least square method was used to convert the counted stumps into harvested crown dimension. Three linear and three non-linear models using stump diameter as the exploratory variable were developed and evaluated using the adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj.R2, standard error of estimate (SEE, prediction error sum of squares (PRESS and Akaike information criterion (AIC. The crown-stump diameter relationship was best described by the double logarithmic function with .The result showed that Crown diameter estimation was feasible even when the only information available is stump diameter.The resulting equation was tested for validation with independent data obtained from additional plots and was found to be desirable for estimating the crown diameter for Parkia biglobosa in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria.

  14. The diameters of long positive streamers in atmospheric air under lightning impulse voltage (United States)

    Chen, She; Zeng, Rong; Zhuang, Chijie


    Results from experiments on long positive streamers in atmospheric air under lightning impulse voltage are presented. The length of the rod-plane gap is 57 cm. The peak voltages applied to the gap are +210-290 kV. The voltage and current are measured through a synchronized measurement system. The streamer diameters are obtained by the analysis of photographs taken by an intensified CCD (ICCD) camera. The four continuous photographs of single streamer discharge allow us to investigate the variation of the streamer diameters with time. For the hemispherical electrode 2 cm in diameter the diameters vary in the range 1.6-6.3 mm when the streamer length is 2-16 cm. The streamers are thicker when the electrode diameter is doubled from 2 to 4 cm. There is a downward trend in the streamer diameter with the propagation of the streamer heads. Their diameters for higher voltage decline at a lower rate. A modified analytical model is also employed to explain the observations. The streamer head potential and the maximum electric field are analysed for long streamers of tens of centimetres. The model can predict the value of the streamer diameter for different streamer head positions during its propagation. The experimental data and the calculated results are in good agreement.

  15. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km...

  16. LBA-ECO ND-02 Secondary Forest Tree Heights and Diameters, Para, Brazil: 1999-2005 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides tree diameters and heights measured from 1999 to 2005 in plots of a secondary-growth forest fertilization experiment located 6.5-km northwest...

  17. Is there a relationship between the diameter of the inferior vena cava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    sectional study was performed included patients aged ≥ 18 years with an unstable haemodynamic and/or respiratory status who were referred to the ED for non-traumatic issues. IVC diameters were measured by ultrasound ...

  18. Fabricated nano-fiber diameter as liquid concentration sensors (United States)

    Chyad, Radhi M.; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Ibrahim, Kamarulazizi

    Nanofiber is characterized by thin, long, and very soft silica. Taper fibers are made using an easy and low cost chemical method. Etching is conducted with a HF solution to remove cladding and then a low molarity HF solution to reduce the fiber core diameter. One approach to on-line monitoring of the etching process uses spectrophotometer with a white light source. In the aforementioned technique, this method aims to determine the diameter of the reduced core and show the evolution of the two different processes from the nanofiber regime to the fixed regime in which the mode was remote from the surrounding evanescent field, intensity can propagate outside the segment fiber when the core diameter is less than 500 nm. Manufacturing technologies of nano-fiber sensors offer a number of approved properties of optical fiber sensors utilized in various sensory applications. The nano-fiber sensor is utilized to sense the difference in the concentration of D-glucose in double-distilled deionized water and to measure the refractive index (RI) of a sugar solution. Our proposed method exhibited satisfactory capability based on bimolecular interactions in the biological system. The response of the nano-fiber sensors indicates a different kind of interaction among various groups of AAs. These results can be interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions and the structure making or breaking ability of solutes in the given solution. This study utilized spectra photonics to measure the transmission of light through different concentrations of sugar solution, employing cell cumber and nano-optical fibers as sensors.

  19. A quick method to determine root biomass distribution in diameter classes


    Blouin, Manuel; Barot, Sébastien; Roumet, C.


    Describing root biomass distribution in diameter classes is a fundamental way to understand the relation between a plant and its surrounding soil. Current methods used for its measurement are not well adapted to large root systems. A new quick method is proposed for the measurement of diameter distribution in large root systems. It is based on the one used in pedology to assess soil granulometry. Roots are dried, cut in a mixer and placed on a sieve column; biomass distribution according to r...

  20. Estimation of vessel diameter and blood flow dynamics from laser speckle images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, Dmitry D.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Sosnovtseva, Olga


    Laser speckle imaging is a rapidly developing method to study changes of blood velocity in the vascular networks. However, to assess blood flow and vascular responses it is crucial to measure vessel diameter in addition to blood velocity dynamics. We suggest an algorithm that allows for dynamical...... masking of a vessel position and measurements of it's diameter from laser speckle images. This approach demonstrates high reliability and stability....

  1. Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.


    The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)

  2. Patterns of variability in the diameter of lateral roots in the banana root system. (United States)

    Lecompte, François; Pagès, Loïc; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry


    The relative importance of root system structure, plant carbon status and soil environment in the determination of lateral root diameter remains unclear, and was investigated in this study. Banana (Musa acuminata) plants were grown at various moderate levels of soil compaction in two distinct experiments, in a field experiment (FE) and in a glasshouse experiment (GE). Radiant flux density was 5 times lower in GE. The distribution of root diameter was measured for several root branching orders. Root diameters ranged between 0.09 and 0.52 mm for secondary roots and between 0.06 and 0.27 mm for tertiary roots. A relationship was found between the diameter of the parent bearing root and the median diameter of its laterals, which appears to be valid for a wide range of species. Mean lateral root diameter increased with distance to the base of the root and decreased with branching density [number of lateral roots per unit length of bearing root (cm(-1))]. Typical symptoms of low light availability were observed in GE. In this case, lateral root diameter variability was reduced. Although primary root growth was affected by soil compaction, no effects on lateral root diameter were observed.

  3. Follow-up on Small Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms Using Three Dimensional Ultrasound: Volume Versus Diameter. (United States)

    Ghulam, Q M; Bredahl, K K; Lönn, L; Rouet, L; Sillesen, H H; Eiberg, J P


    Rupture risk in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) is assessed using AAA diameter; yet 10% of ruptures occur in a small aneurysm. This underlines the inadequacy of diameter as a standalone parameter. In this prospective follow-up study, ultrasound determined aneurysm diameter was compared with aneurysm volume determined by three dimensional ultrasound (3D-US) in a group of 179 AAAs. This was a prospective cohort study with repeated diameter and volume measurements by 3D-US. In total, 179 patients with small infrarenal AAAs (diameter 30-55 mm) were enrolled consecutively. At enrolment and at 12 month follow-up, maximum diameter, using dual plane technique, and three dimensional volume were measured. Based on a previous accuracy study, significant change in diameter and volume were defined as an increase exceeding the known range of variability (ROV) of each US technique; ±3.7 mm and ±8.8 mL, respectively. Post-hoc Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to estimate time to conversion to treatment after the conclusion of the follow-up period between two groups. In total, 125 patients (70%) had an unchanged diameter during follow-up. In this group, 50 patients (40%) had an increasing aortic volume. Forty-five (83%) of the 54 patients with an increasing aortic diameter showed a corresponding volume increase. During a median follow-up of 367 days (364-380 days), a mean increase in diameter of 2.7 mm (±2.6 mm) and a mean increase in volume of 11.6 mL (±9.9 mL) were recorded. In post-hoc analysis, it was found that more AAAs with a stable diameter and a growing volume than AAAs with a stable diameter and volume were undergoing aortic repair during follow-up, based on the maximum diameter. In this cohort of small AAAs, 40% of patients with a stable diameter had an increasing volume at 12 month follow-up. From this perspective, 3D-US could have a future supplemental role in AAA surveillance programmes. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published

  4. Estimation of intrathoracic arterial diameter by means of computed tomographic angiography in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Rodriguez, Daniel; Pariaut, Romain; Gaschen Dvm, Lorrie; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Nevarez, Javier G; Tully, Thomas N


    To establish a computed tomography (CT)-angiography protocol and measure the diameters of major arteries in parrots. 13 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). 16-slice CT scanning was used to measure the apparent diameter of the ascending aorta, abdominal aorta, pulmonary arteries, and brachiocephalic trunk. Before scanning, all birds underwent ECG and echocardiographic assessment and were considered free of detectable cardiovascular diseases. Each bird was anesthetized, and a precontrast helical CT scan was performed. Peak aortic enhancement was established with a test bolus technique via dynamic axial CT scan over a predetermined single slice. An additional bolus of contrast medium was then injected, and a helical CT-angiography scan was performed immediately afterward. Arterial diameter measurements were obtained by 2 observers via various windows before and after injection, and intra- and interobserver agreement was assessed. Reference limits were determined for arterial diameter measurements before and after contrast medium administration in pulmonary, mediastinal, and manual angiography windows. Ratios of vertebral body diameter to keel length were also calculated. Intraobserver agreement was high (concordance correlation coefficients ≥ 0.95); interobserver agreement was medium to high (intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.65). CT-angiography was safe and is of potential diagnostic value in parrots. We recommend performing the angiography immediately after IV injection of 3 mL of iohexol/kg. Arterial diameter measurements at the described locations were reliable.

  5. Body diameters in 3 - 6 years old children from Plovdiv

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineshev Slavi


    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze the body diameters in 3-6 year old children. The biacromial diameters were taken as well as the two chest diameters, the bicristal and bitrohanterial diameters in 316 children (157 boys and 159 girls 3, 4, 5 and 6 years of age attending kindergarten in Plovdiv. The analysis shows that all diameters, with the exception of the bitrohanterial have higher values in boys. The absolute year's increment of the diameters is greater in girls. The growth velocity of the researched features is greatest at the age of 3-4 and 4-5, decreasing at different rates for the different features at the age of 5-6. The only exception is the sagittal chest diameter in both sexes and the bitrohanterial diameters in girls.

  6. Calibration of the Diameter Distribution Derived from the Area-based Approach with Individual Tree-based Diameter Estimates Using the Airborne Laser Scanning (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hou, Z.; Maltamo, M.; Tokola, T.


    Diameter distributions of trees are important indicators of current forest stand structure and future dynamics. A new method was proposed in the study to combine the diameter distributions derived from the area-based approach (ABA) and the diameter distribution derived from the individual tree detection (ITD) in order to obtain more accurate forest stand attributes. Since dominant trees can be reliably detected and measured by the Lidar data via the ITD, the focus of the study is to retrieve the suppressed trees (trees that were missed by the ITD) from the ABA. Replacement and histogram matching were respectively employed at the plot level to retrieve the suppressed trees. Cut point was detected from the ITD-derived diameter distribution for each sample plot to distinguish dominant trees from the suppressed trees. The results showed that calibrated diameter distributions were more accurate in terms of error index and the entire growing stock estimates. Compared with the best performer between the ABA and the ITD, calibrated diameter distributions decreased the relative RMSE of the estimated entire growing stock, saw log and pulpwood fractions by 2.81%, 3.05% and 7.73% points respectively. Calibration improved the estimation of pulpwood fraction significantly, resulting in a negligible bias of the estimated entire growing stock.

  7. High-resolution computed tomography evaluation of the bronchial lumen to vertebral body diameter and pulmonary artery to vertebral body diameter ratios in anesthetized ventilated normal cats. (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cole, Robert C; Dillon, A Ray; Tillson, D Michael; Garbarino, Rachel; Barney, Sharron


    Objectives Bronchial lumen to pulmonary artery diameter (BA) ratio has been utilized to investigate pulmonary pathology on high-resolution CT images. Diseases affecting both the bronchi and pulmonary arteries render the BA ratio less useful. The purpose of the study was to establish bronchial lumen diameter to vertebral body diameter (BV) and pulmonary artery diameter to vertebral body diameter (AV) ratios in normal cats. Methods Using high-resolution CT images, 16 sets of measurements (sixth thoracic vertebral body [mid-body], each lobar bronchi and companion pulmonary artery diameter) were acquired from young adult female cats and 41 sets from pubertal female cats. Results Young adult and pubertal cat BV ratios were not statistically different from each other in any lung lobe. Significant differences between individual lung lobe BV ratios were noted on combined age group analysis. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different between young adult and pubertal cats. All other lung lobe AV ratios were not significantly different. Caudal lung lobe AV ratios were significantly different from all other lung lobes but not from each other in both the young adult and pubertal cats. Conclusions and relevance BV ratio reference intervals determined for individual lung lobes could be applied to both young adult and pubertal cats. Separate AV ratios for individual lung lobes would be required for young adult and pubertal cats. These ratios should allow more accurate evaluation of cats with concurrent bronchial and pulmonary arterial disease.

  8. Aortic Root Diameter and Longitudinal Blood Pressure Tracking


    Ingelsson, Erik; Pencina, Michael J.; Levy, Daniel; Aragam, Jayashri; Mitchell, Gary F.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.


    Proximal aortic diameter, including aortic root (AoR) diameter, has been inversely related to pulse pressure (PP) in cross-sectional studies. So, investigators have hypothesized that a smaller AoR diameter may increase risk of developing hypertension. Prospective studies are lacking to test this hypothesis.

  9. Muscle fiber diameter assessment in cleft lip using image processing. (United States)

    Khan, M F J; Little, J; Abelli, L; Mossey, P A; Autelitano, L; Nag, T C; Rubini, M


    To pilot investigation of muscle fiber diameter (MFD) on medial and lateral sides of the cleft in 18 infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) using image processing. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from the medial and lateral sides of the cleft were analyzed for MFD using an image-processing program (ImageJ). For within-case comparison, a paired Student's t test was performed. For comparisons between classes, an unpaired t test was used. Image processing enabled rapid measurement of MFD with majority of fibers showing diameter between 6 and 11 μm. There was no significant difference in mean MFD between the medial and lateral sides, or between CL and CLP. However, we found a significant difference on the medial side (p = .032) between males and females. The image processing on FFPE tissues resulted in easy quantification of MFD with finding of a smaller MFD on the medial side in males suggesting possible differences in orbicularis oris (OO) muscle between the two sexes in CL that warrants replication using larger number of cases. Moreover, this finding can aid subclinical phenotyping and potentially in the restoration of the anatomy and function of the upper lip. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Webster, Thomas J [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, RI 02917 (United States); Alpaslan, Ece, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Sabanci University, Istanbul (Turkey)


    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawrot


    Full Text Available The article presents modern methods of hydraulic design of an innovative small diameter gravity sewerage system. In this system, domestic wastewater is preliminary treated in septic tanks equipped with outlet filters, thus the effluent features are similar to those of clear water. Innovative non-return valves at the outlets eliminate introduction of air to the system and thus the flows can be treated as one-phase ones. Computer codes EPANET 2 and SWMM 5.0 were applied and compared. Two flow schemes typical for the sewerage system were implemented in EPANET 2, and the third - in a slightly modified SWMM 5.0. Simulation results were validated on empirical data obtained on a laboratory physical model, consisting of four tanks of minimum volumes 600 dm3 each, connecting PE pipelines of diameters 25 mm and 36 mm and relevant sanitary fittings. Water inflows, typical for domestic wastewater outflows from single homesteads, were provided by a pump. Water flows were measured using water meters with pulse outputs, and water levels in tanks by pressure transducers. Hydraulic characteristics of filters and non-return valves were provided. Simulation results showed good agreement with the empirical data. Ranges of values of design parameters, needed for successful application of both codes, were established and discussed.

  12. Diameter of titanium nanotubes influences anti-bacterial efficacy (United States)

    Ercan, Batur; Taylor, Erik; Alpaslan, Ece; Webster, Thomas J.


    Bacterial infection of in-dwelling medical devices is a growing problem that cannot be treated by traditional antibiotics due to the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation. Here, due to changes in surface parameters, it is proposed that bacterial adhesion can be prevented through nanosurface modifications of the medical device alone. Toward this goal, titanium was created to possess nanotubular surface topographies of highly controlled diameters of 20, 40, 60, or 80 nm, sometimes followed by heat treatment to control chemistry and crystallinity, through a novel anodization process. For the first time it was found that through the control of Ti surface parameters including chemistry, crystallinity, nanotube size, and hydrophilicity, significantly changed responses of both Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus (pathogens relevant for orthopaedic and other medical device related infections) were measured. Specifically, heat treatment of 80 nm diameter titanium tubes produced the most robust antimicrobial effect of all surface treatment parameters tested. This study provides the first step toward understanding the surface properties of nano-structured titanium that improve tissue growth (as has been previously observed with nanotubular titanium), while simultaneously reducing infection without the use of pharmaceutical drugs.

  13. Diameter-dependent electronic transport properties of Au-catalyst/Ge-nanowire Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, S Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Francois [SNL; Swartzentruber, Brian S [SNL; Talin, A Alee [SNL


    We present electronic transport measurements in individual Au-catalyst/Ge-nanowire interfaces demonstrating the presence of a Schottky barrier. Surprisingly, the small-bias conductance density increases with decreasing diameter. Theoretical calculations suggest that this effect arises because electron-hole recombination in the depletion region is the dominant charge transport mechanism, with a diameter dependence of both the depletion width and the electron-hole recombination time. The recombination time is dominated by surface contributions and depends linearly on the nanowire diameter.

  14. Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Increase on Ascent to High Altitude: Correlation With Acute Mountain Sickness. (United States)

    Kanaan, Nicholas C; Lipman, Grant S; Constance, Benjamin B; Holck, Peter S; Preuss, James F; Williams, Sarah R


    Elevated optic nerve sheath diameter on sonography is known to correlate with increased intracranial pressure and is observed in acute mountain sickness. This study aimed to determine whether optic nerve sheath diameter changes on ascent to high altitude are associated with acute mountain sickness incidence. Eighty-six healthy adults enrolled at 1240 m (4100 ft), drove to 3545 m (11,700 ft) and then hiked to and slept at 3810 m (12,500 ft). Lake Louise Questionnaire scores and optic nerve sheath diameter measurements were taken before, the evening of, and the morning after ascent. The incidence of acute mountain sickness was 55.8%, with a mean Lake Louise Questionnaire score ± SD of 3.81 ± 2.5. The mean maximum optic nerve sheath diameter increased on ascent from 5.58 ± 0.79 to 6.13 ± 0.73 mm, a difference of 0.91 ± 0.55 mm (P = .09). Optic nerve sheath diameter increased at high altitude regardless of acute mountain sickness diagnosis; however, compared to baseline values, we observed a significant increase in diameter only in those with a diagnosis of acute mountain sickness (0.57 ± 0.77 versus 0.21 ± 0.76 mm; P = .04). This change from baseline, or Δ optic nerve sheath diameter, was associated with twice the odds of developing acute mountain sickness (95% confidence interval, 1.08-3.93). The mean optic nerve sheath diameter increased on ascent to high altitude compared to baseline values, but not to a statistically significant degree. The magnitude of the observed Δ optic nerve sheath diameter was positively associated with acute mountain sickness diagnosis. No such significant association was found between acute mountain sickness and diameter elevation above standard cutoff values, limiting the utility of sonography as a diagnostic tool. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Optic nerve sheath diameter: A novel way to monitor the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seelora Sahu


    Full Text Available Measurement and monitoring of intracranial pressure is pivotal in management of brain injured patients. As a rapid and easily done bed side measurement, ultrasonography of the optic nerve sheath diameter presents itself as a possible replacement of the conventional invasive methods of intracranial pressure management. In this review we go through the evolution of optic nerve sheath diameter measurement as a novel marker of predicting raised intracranial pressure, the modalities by which it can be measured as well as its correlation with the invasive methods of intracranial pressure monitoring.

  16. A 24mm diameter fibre positioner for spectroscopic surveys (United States)

    Hörler, Philipp; Kronig, Luzius; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Bleuler, Hannes; Bouri, Mohamed


    One of the big research topics in modern cosmology is the mystery of dark Energy. To unveil the secret, cosmologists want to measure precisely the evolution of large scale structures in the universe. One way of doing so is to measure the 3D location of a high number of galaxies. By measuring the redshift of a galaxy, it is possible to find its distance. In order to measure a high number of galaxies in a practical amount of time, we need to observe multiple objects in parallel. Instead of a spectrograph, thousands of optical fibres are placed in the focal plane of a telescope. They will transmit the light of many objects to a spectrograph. Each fibre has to be positioned to several μm precision in the focal plane of a telescope for each exposure. Each fibre is positioned by a 2-axis fibre positioner. In this paper such a fibre positioner with 24-mm diameter is presented. It is driven by two brushless DC motors in combination with a backlash free gearbox. The positioner has an optimal central fibre path and improved angular alignment. The fibre runs through the centre of the positioner and is only bent at the top to reach its target position. In this way, the flexion and torsion of the fibre are minimal. In addition to the high positioning accuracy, the design is optimized to allow a minimal tilt error of the fibre. This is demonstrated using a novel optical tilt measurement system.

  17. Film behaviour of vertical gas-liquid flow in a large diameter pipe


    Zangana, Mohammed Haseeb Sedeeq


    Gas-liquid flow commonly occurs in oil and gas production and processing system. Large diameter vertical pipes can reduce pressure drops and so minimize operating costs. However, there is a need for research on two-phase flow in large diameter pipes to provide confidence to designers of equipments such as deep water risers. In this study a number of experimental campaigns were carried out to measure pressure drop, liquid film thickness and wall shear in 127mm vertical pipe. Total pressur...

  18. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz


    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  19. Film boiling heat transfer from relatively large diameter downward-facing hemispheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Soo; Suh, Kune Y.; Park, Goon Cherl; Lee, Un Chul [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Jun [Purdue Univ., Indiana (United States)


    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Loop for Transient Analysis). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain Bi below 0.1. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of both the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the two test sections. The measured heat transfer coefficients for the test section with diameter 120 mm lie within the bounding values from the laminar film boiling analysis, while those for diameter 294 mm are found to be greater than the numerical results on account of the Helmholtz instability. There is little difference observed between the film boiling heat transfer coefficients measured from the two test sections. In addition, the higher thermal conductivity of copper results in the higher minimum heat flux in the tests. For the test section of diameter 120 mm, the Leidenfrost point is lower than that for the test section of diameter 294 mm. Destabilization of film boiling propagates radially inward for the 294 mm test section versus radially outward for the 120 mm test section.

  20. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song


    Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  1. Reduced arterial diameter during static exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, H L; Mitchell, J H; Friedman, D B


    for the radial and dorsalis pedis artery was 22 +/- 3 and 28 +/- 3% lower during handgrip than the relation during rest, respectively. After one-leg knee extension both arteries reached 30 +/- 4% lower values. This study demonstrated arterial constriction in the resting limbs within the first 30 s of static......In eight subjects luminal diameter of the resting limb radial and dorsalis pedis arteries was determined by high-resolution ultrasound (20 MHz). This measurement was followed during rest and during 2 min of static handgrip or of one-leg knee extension at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction...... of another limb. Static exercise increased heart rate and mean arterial pressure, which were largest during one-leg knee extension. After exercise heart rate and mean arterial pressure returned to the resting level. No changes were recorded in arterial carbon dioxide tension, and the rate of perceived...

  2. Comparison of urethral diameters for calculating the urethral dose after permanent prostate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Osamu; Hayashi, Shinya; Matsuo, Masayuki; Nakano, Masahiro; Kubota, Yasuaki; Maeda, Sunaho; Ohtakara, Kazuhiro; Deguchi, Takashi; Hoshi, Hiroaki


    No studies have yet evaluated the effects of a dosimetric analysis for different urethral volumes. We therefore evaluated the effects of a dosimetric analysis to determine the different urethral volumes. This study was based on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) combined findings in 30 patients who had undergone prostate brachytherapy. Postimplant CT/MRI scans were performed 30 days after the implant. The urethra was contoured based on its diameter (8, 6, 4, 2, and 0 mm). The total urethral volume-in cubic centimeters [UrV150/200 (cc)] and percent (UrV150%/200%), of the urethra receiving 150% or 200% of the prescribed dose-and the doses (UrD90/30/5) in Grays to 90%, 30%, and 5% of the urethral volume were measured based on the urethral diameters. The UrV150 (cc) and UrD30 were statistically different between the of 8-, 6-, 4-, 2-, and 0-mm diameters, whereas the UrD5 was statistically different only between the 8-, 6-, and 4-mm diameters. Especially for UrD5, there was an approximately 40-Gy difference between the mean values for the 8- and 0-mm diameters. We recommend that the urethra should be contoured as a 4- to 6-mm diameter circle or one side of a triangle of 5-7 mm. By standardizing the urethral diameter, the urethral dose will be less affected by the total urethral volume. (author)

  3. Analysis of Gear Wheel-shaft Joint Characterized by Comparable Pitch Diameter and Mounting Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryś


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design procedure for a gear wheel-shaft direct frictional joint. The small difference between the operating pitch diameter of the gear and the mounting diameter of the frictional joint is the key feature of the connection. The contact surface of the frictional joint must be placed outside the bottom land of the gear, and the geometry of the joint is limited to the specific type of solutions.The strength analysis is based on the relation between the torque and statistical load intensity of the gear transmission. Several dimensionless parameters are introduced to simplify the calculations. Stress-strain verifying analysis with respect to combined loading, the condition of appropriate load-carrying capacity of the frictional joint and the fatigue strength of the shaft are applied to obtain the relations between the dimensions of the joint and other parameters. The final engineering solution may then be suggested. The approach is illustrated by a numerical example.The proposed procedure can be useful in design projects for small, high-powered modern reducers and new-generation geared motors, in particular when manufactured in various series of types.

  4. Diameters of the common bile duct in adults and postcholecystectomy patients: A study with 64-slice CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senturk, Senem; Miroglu, Tugba Cezlan; Bilici, Aslan; Gumus, Hatice; Tekin, Rojbin Ceylan; Ekici, Faysal; Tekbas, Güven


    This study aims to collect data by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) on the diameter of the normal common bile duct (CBD) and the diameter of CBD after cholecystectomy. In this retrospective study, CBD measurements were performed on axial oblique images, perpendicular to the long axis of the distal CBD. The mean diameter of the normal CBD was measured in 604 patients without cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into 6 groups according to their age. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare data obtained from the six age groups. The mean diameter of the CBD of 46 patients who had cholecystectomy was calculated. The results were compared with age matched control group by Student's t test. The largest diameter of CBD ranged from 1.8 to 11.8 mm. The mean of the largest diameter of 604 subjects was 4.77 ± 1.81. The diameter of the CBD significantly increased with age. Mean largest CBD diameters of postcholecystectomy subjects (7.28 ± 2.37) were significantly greater than age matched control group. In conclusion the diameter of CBD shows a considerable increase with age. The largest diameter of the CBD is up to 6 mm in most of the subjects. An upper limit of 8 mm appears reasonable after the age of 50; and an upper limit of 10 mm seems appropriate for cholescystectomized subjects.

  5. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.A.


    A program to monitor solar luminosity variations through diameter measurements has been operation at SCLERA since 1981. The solar diameter is currently measured at multiple angles from the equator. Measurements at these different angles have the advantage that, not only can the solar oblateness be accurately measured, but, also, systematic errors, introduced by atmospheric refraction, can be reduced to a minimum. The primary emphasis during the last year has been on data analysis and interpretation. An extension of theoretical work relevant to the relationship between the solar diameter and luminosity for long-period oscillations has been extended to include 160 min period oscillations, and several tests have been completed. An absolute calibration system for the telescope field has been constructed and is being tested. A review of this work is presented

  6. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A program to monitor solar luminosity variations through diameter measurements has been in operation at SCLERA since 1981. The solar diameter is measured at multiple angles from the equator. Measurements at these different angles have the advantage that not only can the solar oblateness be accurately measured, but also, a systematic errors introduced by atmospheric refraction can be reduced to a minimum. An improved theoretical treatment relevant to the relationship between the solar diameter and luminosity for long period oscilations has been successfully developed, and testing is currently underway. The construction of an absolute calibration system for the telescope field has been conducted and will soon be operational. A review of this work is presented

  7. Metallic beryllium-7 target of small diameter

    CERN Document Server

    Zyuzin, A Yu; Vincent, J S; Buckley, K R; Bateman, N P; Snover, K A; Csandjan, J M; Steiger, T D; Adelberger, E G; Swanson, H E


    The stellar sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate has the largest uncertainty among all nuclear reaction rates in the standard solar model. However, the solar neutrino flux predicted for the majority of proposed and existing solar neutrino detectors is directly dependent on the rate of sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction. The existing solar neutrino detectors measure rate of sup 8 B decay neutrinos that is too low. This constitutes largely the solar neutrino problem. Existing measurements of the sup 7 Be(p, gamma) sup 8 B reaction rate disagree with one another, indicating the need for more precise experiments. To provide the required targets a new procedure for sup 7 Be production, separation and target manufacturing has been developed. First, a lithium target has been designed for sup 7 Be production at TRIUMF's 13 MeV cyclotron. The lithium target has been extensively tested at 50 mu A proton beam current yielding 8.1 MBq/mu A h of sup 7 Be. An adsorption filtration technique has been developed for sup ...

  8. Abdominal Aortic Diameter Is Increased in Males with a Family History of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejnert Jørgensen, Trine; Houlind, K; Green, A


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate, at a population level, whether a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is independently related to increased aortic diameter and prevalence of AAA in men, and to elucidate whether the mean aortic diameter and the prevalence of AAA are different between...... participants with male and female relatives with AAA. DESIGN: Observational population-based cross-sectional study. MATERIALS: 18,614 male participants screened for AAA in the VIVA-trial 2008-2011 with information on both family history of AAA and maximal aortic diameter. METHODS: Standardized ultrasound scan...... measurement of maximum antero-posterior aortic diameter. Family history obtained by questionnaire. Multivariate regression analysis was used to test for confounders: age, sex, smoking, comorbidity and medication. RESULTS: From the screened cohort, 569 participants had at least one first degree relative...

  9. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper


    skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after...... blood perfusion recording and grouped according to needle type, skin blood perfusion response relates to needle diameter. The response was significantly higher after insertions with 28G and hooked 32G needles than with 30G (P ..., but there was a trend of an increased response with increasing needle diameter. Skin blood perfusion response to pen needle insertions rank according to needle diameter, and the tissue response caused by hooked 32G needles corresponds to that of 28G needles. The relation between needle diameter and trauma when...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Aliomarov


    Full Text Available To handle the threaded holes in hard materials made of marine machinery, operating at high temperatures, heavy loads and in aggressive environments, the authors have developed the combined tool core drill -tap with a special cutting scheme, which has an asymmetric thread profile on the tap part. In order to control the average diameter of the thread of tap part of the combined tool was used the method three wires, which allows to make continuous measurement of the average diameter of the thread along the entire profile. Deviation from the average diameter from the sample is registered by inductive sensor and is recorded by the recorder. In the work are developed and presented control schemes of the average diameter of the threads with a symmetrical and asymmetrical profile. On the basis of these schemes are derived formulas for calculating the theoretical option to set the wires in the thread profile in the process of measuring the average diameter. Conducted complex research and the introduction of the combined instrument core drill-tap in the production of products of marine engineering, shipbuilding, ship repair power plants made of hard materials showed a high efficiency of the proposed technology for the processing of high-quality small-diameter threaded holes that meet modern requirements.

  11. Relationship between the tensile strengths and diameters of human umbilical cords. (United States)

    Fernando, D M G; Gamage, S M K; Ranmohottige, S; Weerakkody, I; Abeyruwan, H; Parakrama, H


    Mothers of alleged infanticides might claim that umbilical cord broke during precipitate delivery causing injuries detected on baby at autopsy. There is paucity of evidence regarding this possibility. The objective of the study was to determine relationship between tensile strength and diameter or weight per unit length of cord. Diameters and weights per unit length of fresh umbilical cords were determined. Tensile strengths were measured by Hounsfield Testing Machine. Relationship between tensile strength versus cord diameter and weight per unit length were analyzed. Of 122 cords, average tensile strength, diameter and weight per centimeter were 50.4 N, 7.73 mm and 6.87 g respectively. The tensile strengths were directly proportional to diameter. There was no association between tensile strength and weight per centimeter. Measurement of the diameter of cord is important during autopsy to predict tensile strength and thereby to presume whether cord could have broken by the weight of the baby. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  12. First phase of small diameter heater experiments in tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.M.


    As part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project, we have undertaken small diameter heater experiments in the G-Tunnel Underground Facility on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These experiments are to evaluate the thermal and hydrothermal behavior which might be encountered if heat producing nuclear waste were disposed of in welded and nonwelded tuffs. The two Phase I experiments discussed have focused on vertical borehole emplacements. In each experiment, temperatures were measured along the surface of the 10.2-cm-dia heater and the 12.7-cm-dia boreholes. For each experiment, measurements were compared with computer model representations. Maximum temperatures reached were: 196 0 C for the welded tuff after 21 days of operations at 800W and 173 0 C for the nonwelded tuff after 35 days of operations at 500W. Computed results indicate that the same heat transfer model (includes conduction and radiation only) can describe the behavior of both tuffs using empirical techniques to describe pore water vaporization. Hydrothermal measurements revealed heat-indiced water migration. Results indicated that small amounts of liquid water migrated into the welded tuff borehole early in the heating period. Once the rock-wall temperatures exceeded 94 0 C, in both tuffs, there was mass transport of water vapor as evidence indicated condensation cooler regions. Borehole pressures remained essentially ambient during the thermal periods

  13. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection. (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, P Joseph; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S


    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of swallow modulation in response to bolus volume in healthy subjects accounting for catheter diameter. (United States)

    Ferris, Lara; Schar, Mistyka; McCall, Lisa; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Scholten, Ingrid; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher


    Characterization of the pharyngeal swallow response to volume challenges is important for swallowing function assessment. The diameter of the pressure-impedance recording catheter may influence these results. In this study, we captured key physiological swallow measures in response to bolus volume utilizing recordings acquired by two catheters of different diameter. Ten healthy adults underwent repeat investigations with 8- and 10-Fr catheters. Liquid bolus swallows of volumes 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mL were recorded. Measures indicative of distension, contractility, and flow timing were assessed. Pressure-impedance recordings with pressure-flow analysis were used to capture key distension, contractility, and pressure-flow timing parameters. Larger bolus volumes increased upper esophageal sphincter distension diameter (P < .001) and distension pressures within the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (P < .05). Bolus flow timing measures were longer, particularly latency of bolus propulsion ahead of the pharyngeal stripping wave (P < .001). Use of a larger-diameter catheter produced higher occlusive pressures, namely upper esophageal sphincter basal pressure (P < .005) and upper esophageal sphincter postdeglutitive pressure peak (P < .001). The bolus volume swallowed changed measurements indicative of distension pressure, luminal diameter, and pressure-flow timing; this is physiologically consistent with swallow modulation to accommodate larger, faster-flowing boluses. Additionally, catheter diameter predominantly affects lumen occlusive pressures. Appropriate physiological interpretation of the pressure-impedance recordings of pharyngeal swallowing requires consideration of the effects of volume and catheter diameter. NA Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Atom-bond connectivity index and diameter of graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin WU


    Full Text Available For further study of the numerous nice properties of topological indices in physical and chemical fields, it is worth considering the relation between a degree-based index and a distance-based index. With the fact that diameter is an invariant based on distance, the relations between atom-bond connectivity index, diameter in trees and unicyclic graphs are studied. Based on relative lemma, the relation between atom-bond connectivity index and diameter in tree and unicyclic graphs is investigated, then the sharp lower bounds of the difference of index and diameter are given.

  16. Investigation of the relations between screw diameter and pilot hole diameter with withdrawal resistance in LVL for establishing regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mossayeb dalvand


    Full Text Available In this study, variation in screw diameter and corresponding pilot hole, and relationship between these variables with withdrawal resistance for establishing multiple linear regression model was investigated. In this investigation 9-ply LVL was made of poplar (Populus deltoids. LVL was produced with polyvinyl acetate adhesive. Test specimens were prepared from LVL produced with dimensions of 7.5 * 7.5 cm. Dimension of pilot hole embedded in specimens at 4 levels (50, 60, 70 and 80 present of nominal screw diameter. The test Specimens were studied with nominal screw diameter 4.2, 5, 6 and 7mm were produced. Withdrawal resistance of screw was tested from surface and, edge and cross-sections. Results have shown that withdrawal resistance from edge (perpendicular to grain was more than withdrawal resistance from face and cross-section (parallel to grain. Also the results have shown that withdrawal resistance of different screw diameter decreased with increase of pilot hole diameter, but withdrawal resistance increased with increase of screw diameter itself. The highest withdrawal resistance was obtained from screw 7 mm in diameters and predrilled hole diameter 50% of screw diameter. The lowest withdrawal resistance was observed from screw 4.2 mm in diameter and predrilled hole diameter 80% of screw diameter. Finally multiple linear regression models ys= 3.055+.411X1-3.358X2, ye║=2.6361.694X1+.089X2 and ye┴= 2.334+.509X1-2.901X2 were obtained to predict of withdrawal resistance for face, cross-section and edge respectively.

  17. Isotachophoresis system having larger-diameter channels flowing into channels with reduced diameter and with selectable counter-flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.


    An isotachophoresis system for separating a sample containing particles into discrete packets including a flow channel, the flow channel having a large diameter section and a small diameter section; a negative electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a positive electrode operably connected to the flow channel; a leading carrier fluid in the flow channel; a trailing carrier fluid in the flow channel; and a control for separating the particles in the sample into discrete packets using the leading carrier fluid, the trailing carrier fluid, the large diameter section, and the small diameter section.

  18. Weibull Analysis of the Behavior on Tensile Strength of Hemp Fibers for Different Intervals of Fiber Diameters (United States)

    Rohen, Lázaro A.; Margem, Frederico M.; Neves, Anna C. C.; Gomes, Maycon A.; Monteiro, Sérgio N.; Vieira, Carlos Maurício F.; de Castro, Rafael G.; Borges, Gustavo X.

    Economic and environmental benefits are motivating studies on natural fibers, especially lignocellulosic extracted from plants, have been studied to substitute synthetic fibers, such as glass fiber as reinforcement in polymer matrices. By contrast to synthetic fibers, natural fibers have the disadvantage of being heterogeneous in their dimensions specially the diameter. About the hemp fiber, little is known of their dimensional characteristics. The aim of the present work was to statistically characterize the distribution of the diameter of hemp fibers. Based on this characterization, diameter intervals were set and the dependence of the tensile strength of theses fibers with a corresponding diameter was analyzed by the Weibull method. The diameter was measured with precision using a profile projector. Tensile tests were conducted on each fiber obtain mechanical strength. The results interpreted by Weibull statistical showed a correlation between the resistances of the fiber to its diameter.

  19. Optic nerve sheath diameter on fat-saturated T2-weighted orbital MR imaging reflects intracranial pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Arata; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki; Horikoshi, Toru; Uchida, Mikito; Sakatsume, Satoshi


    Although dilated optic nerve sheath (ONS) is observed in the setting of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension or hydrocephalus, the relationship between ONS diameter and ICP is unclear. We analyzed the relationship between subdural pressure measured during surgery in patients with chronic subdural fluid collections and ONS diameter measured on MR images. Orbital thin slice fat-saturated MR images were obtained within 24 hours before surgery and ONS diameters were measured just behind the optic globe. Subdural pressure was measured using a manometer before opening the dura mater during surgery. Significant correlation was found between the ONS diameter and subdural pressure (y=0.0618x+4.8219. y: ONS diameter (mm), x: subdural pressure (cmH 2 O), correlation coefficient: 0.505). The ONS diameter before surgery (6.1±0.7 mm) was significantly reduced after surgery (4.8±0.9 mm, p=0.003). Increased ONS diameter on MR images is a strong indicator of increased ICP we propose 6 mm as the normal limit of diameter just behind the eyeball because this value corresponds to the upper normal limit of ICP of around 20 cmH 2 O with above mentioned approximate curve. (author)

  20. Sieving experiments and pore diameter: it's not a simple relationship. (United States)

    Krauss, Daniel; Gillespie, Dirk


    The classic sieving experiment for estimating an ion channel's diameter with successively larger ions is re-examined. Using a very reduced model of a calcium channel, it is shown that sieving experiments measure a combination of three mechanisms: the cross-sectional area available to the sieving ions (the classic interpretation), the exclusion of the sieving ions from a pore crowded with amino acid side chains that protrude into the permeation pathway, and competitive selectivity of the sieving ions with other ions in the bath (even if those are present only at trace concentrations). The latter two can be called sieving-by-crowding because they stem from the excluded volume of the amino acids in the permeation pathway. The model shows that--to a first--order approximation-sieving experiments measure the available volume inside a selectivity filter, rather than the available cross-sectional area. The two are only the same if the narrow part of the pore does not have flexible amino acid side chains interacting directly with the permeant ions; this may be true of potassium channels, but not calcium, sodium, and other channels with "crowded" selectivity filters.

  1. Growth of laser damage in fused silica: diameter to depth ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, M A; Adams, J J; Carr, C W; Donohue, E E; Feit, M D; Hackel, R P; Hollingsworth, W G; Jarboe, J A; Matthews, M; Rubenchik, A M; Spaeth, M L


    Growth of laser initiated damage plays a major role in determining optics lifetime in high power laser systems. Previous measurements have established that the lateral diameter grows exponentially. Knowledge of the growth of the site in the propagation direction is also important, especially so when considering techniques designed to mitigate damage growth, where it is required to reach all the subsurface damage. In this work, we present data on both the diameter and the depth of a growing exit surface damage sites in fused silica. Measured growth rates with both 351 nm illumination and with combined 351 nm and 1054 nm illumination are discussed.

  2. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jul 12, 2010 ... Using permanent sample plot data, selected tree height and diameter functions were evaluated for their predictive abilities for Populus tremula stands in Turkey. Two sets of models were evaluated. The first set included five models for estimating height as a function of individual tree diameter; the second set.

  3. Mean particle diameters : From statistical definition to physical understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, M.


    Mean particle diameters are important for the science of particulate systems. This thesis deals with a definition system for these mean diameters, called Moment-Ratio (M-R) definition system, and provides a general statistical and physical basis. Also, the current DIN/ISO definition system is

  4. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Oct 19, 2009 ... Using stem analysis method, the biomass, growing process and diameter structure of 21-year shady and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully region. Results showed that there were distinct difference in the indexes, tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH).

  5. Mean Normal Portal Vein Diameter Using Sonography among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Mean portal vein diameter is considered as the best indicator for portal hypertension. However, the cutoff point differs from study to study (above 10-15 mm) despite the existence of normal mean portal vein diameter between 10-15 mm in different settings.This implies the existence of limited evidence on ...

  6. Growth process and diameter structure of Pinus tabulaeformis forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using stem analysis method, the biomass, growing process and diameter structure of 21-year shady and sunny slope Pinus tabulaeformis forest were investigated in hilly loess-gully region. Results showed that there were distinct difference in the indexes, tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH) and timber volume ...

  7. Relationships between stem diameter at breast height (DBH), tree ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trees show considerable variation and flexibility in their size of crowns, height and stem diameter at breast height (dbh). Dbh has been used as predictor variables in diameter and height growth equations. Relationships between dbh, tree height, crown length, crown height and crown ratio of Vitellaria paradoxa were ...

  8. Generalized height-diameter models for Populus tremula L. stands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On average, by including stand level attributes, root mean square values were reduced by 21 cm. In the second set, the best results were obtained by the Schnute's function. In this function, dominant diameter and dominant height independent variables in addition to tree diameter were found significant at 0.01 significant ...

  9. Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationships between diameter and height of trees in natural tropical forest in Tanzania. Wilson A Mugasha, Ole M Bollandsås, Tron Eid. Abstract. The relationship between tree height (h) and tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is an important element describing forest stands. In addition, h often is a required variable in ...

  10. Influence of high intensity ultrasound with different probe diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main goal of this research is to analyze the influence of ultrasonic probe diameters (7 and 10 mm) of high-intensity ultrasound with constant frequency (30 kHz) on the degree of homogenization (variance) of cow milk. Influence of different probe diameters on the physical properties of cow milk was also tested. Changes ...

  11. Pitfalls in Root Trait Calculations: How Ignoring Diameter Heterogeneity Can Lead to Overestimation of Functional Traits. (United States)

    Rose, Laura


    Specific root length (SRL) and root tissue density (RTD) are ecologically functional traits which are calculated from root length or volume and root dry weight. Both can be converted into each other using the root diameter assuming roots are cylindrical. The calculation of volume from length or length from volume is, however, problematic because samples of roots do usually not have a constant diameter. Ignorance of the diameter heterogeneity leads to an overestimation of length and an underestimation of volume if standard formulas are used. Here I show for two datasets that SRL and RTD are overestimated on average 67% for the two analyzed datasets, but up to 150%, if calculated from each other. I further highlight that the volume values for the total sample as provided by the commonly used software WinRHIZO TM should only be used for objects with constant diameter. I recommend to use volume values provided for each diameter class of a sample if WinRHIZO TM is used. If manual methods, like the line-intersect method, are used, roots should be separated into diameter classes before length measurements if the volume is calculated from length. Trait to trait conversions for whole samples are not recommended.

  12. Change of pulmonary arterial and bronchial diameter during respiration : HRCT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sang Kyu; Kwak, Byung Kook; Kim, Young Min; Jung, Gul Ho; Lee, Shin Hyung; Lee, Chang Joon; Song, Chi Ho


    To evaluate the changes and normal ranges of the artery-bronchus ratio(ABR) during respiration We analyzed HRCT of 10 healthy adults. The HRCT findings of ten healthy adults were analysed. CT scanning was performed with 1mm collimation at 3mm intervals during full inspiration and full expiration, with a range during inspiration from 2cm to 4cm above the carina and from 4cm above to 2cm below the right hemidiaphragm. The range during expiration was from 1cm to 3cm above the carina and from 4cm above to 2cm below the right hemidiaphragm. ABiR (defined as the diameter of pulmonary artery divided by the inner diameter of the bronchus), ABoR (defined as the diameter of pulmonary artery divided by the outer diameter of the bronchus) and BLR (defined as the inner diameter of the bronchus divided by the outer diameter of the bronchus) were measured on the display console. The mean inner diameter of the bronchi was 2.04±0.73mm during inspiration and 1.68±0.51mm during expiration, while the mean diameter of the arteries was 3.95±1.03mm during inspiration and 4.37±1.09mm during expiration. The diameters of the bronchi were thus seen to increase during inspiration, and the diameters of the pulmonary arteries, to decrease. The mean thickness of the bronchial wall was 1.07±0.19mm during inspiration and 1.06±0.24mm during expiration;thus, no change in thickness was seen during respiration (p<0.05). Mean ABiR was 2.01±0.60 (range 1.15-4.58) during inspiration and 2.59±0.74(range 1.16-4.9) during expiration, and in all cases the inner diameter of the bronchus was less than that of the accompanying pulmonary artery. Mean ABoR was 0.91±0.19 during inspiration and 1.09±0.22 during expiration. While for BLR, the corresponding fingures were 0.46±0.06, and 0.44±0.09. HRCT is a useful tool for evaluating changes in the pulmonary arteries and bronchi during respiration

  13. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.A.


    The objective of the project is to detect and monitor climatically significant solar variability by accurate monitoring of the associated variability in solar shape and diameter. The observing program for this project was initiated in 1981. Solar diameter measurements have been taken and data reduction programs for these measurements have been developed. Theoretical analysis of the expected change in the intensity from the solar atmosphere to a given mechanial driving has progressed to the extent that changes in the solar diameter can be related to the associated change in the solar luminosity. An absolute calibration system for the telescope has been constructed and is currently being tested. A proposal is made for the continuation of the work in each of these areas

  14. Screw fixation diameter for fifth metatarsal jones fracture: a cadaveric study. (United States)

    Scott, Ryan T; Hyer, Christopher F; DeMill, Shyler L


    The fifth metatarsal Jones fracture is a well-documented injury occurring at the proximal diaphyseal-metaphyseal junction. Conservative versus surgical intervention has been discussed in published studies for the management of Jones fractures. Solid intramedullary fixation relies on accurate matching of the screw diameter to the intraosseous diameter. The purpose of the present cadaveric study was to determine the average intraosseous diameter of the proximal fifth metatarsal as it relates to screw size selection for Jones fracture stabilization. Twenty fresh-frozen cadaver legs were used for examination. The fifth metatarsal was completely dissected. A transverse osteotomy was performed from laterally to medially along the midline of the metatarsal. A digital caliper was used to measure the diameter of the medullary canal of the fifth metatarsal. The measurement was taken at the narrowest portion of the medullary canal just distal to the proximal metaphysis. The mean dorsal to plantar diameter of the fifth metatarsal was 6.475 ± 1.54 (range 4 to 12) mm and the mean medial to lateral diameter was 4.6 ± 0.85 (range 3 to 6) mm. Intramedullary screw fixation has shown beneficial results in the treatment protocol of fifth metatarsal Jones fractures. Our study has demonstrated that a 4.5-mm cannulated screw is the narrowest diameter screw that can be used in the average fifth metatarsal and still obtain adequate intraosseous purchase. When selecting the appropriate screw, the surgeon must be comfortable selecting the largest screw that will achieve the maximal interface with the dense cortical bone in both the medial to lateral and dorsal to plantar plane. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of spacing on the survival, frequency of diameter classes and height/diameter ratio in Eucalyptus urophylla. [In Portuguese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandi, R.M.; Couto, L.; Neto, F. de P.


    Survival of hybrid (unspecified parentage) E. urophylla in Minas Gerais after 93 months ranged from 47.1% at a spacing of 2 x 2 m to 60.5% at 3 x 4 m. Close spacing gave the largest number of trees per unit area, but with smaller average diameter Height/diameter ratio was not influenced by spacing.

  16. Automatic evaluation of vessel diameter variation from 2D X-ray angiography. (United States)

    M'hiri, Faten; Duong, Luc; Desrosiers, Christian; Dahdah, Nagib; Miró, Joaquim; Cheriet, Mohamed


    Early detection of blood vessel pathologies can be made through the evaluation of functional and structural abnormalities in the arteries, including the arterial distensibility measure. We propose a feasibility study on computing arterial distensibility automatically from monoplane 2D X-ray sequences for both small arteries (such as coronary arteries) and larger arteries (such as the aorta). To compute the distensibility measure, three steps were developed: First, the segment of an artery is extracted using our graph-based segmentation method. Then, the same segment is tracked in the moving sequence using our spatio-temporal segmentation method: the Temporal Vessel Walker. Finally, the diameter of the artery is measured automatically at each frame of the sequence based on the segmentation results. The method was evaluated using one simulated sequence and 4 patients' angiograms depicting the coronary arteries and three depicting the ascending aorta. Results of the simulated sequence achieved a Dice index of 98%, with a mean squared error in diameter measurement of [Formula: see text] mm. Results obtained from patients' X-ray sequences are consistent with manual assessment of the diameter by experts. The proposed method measures changes in diameter of a specific segment of a blood vessel during the cardiac sequence, automatically based on monoplane 2D X-ray sequence. Such information might become a key to help physicians in the detection of variations of arterial stiffness associated with early stages of various vasculopathies.

  17. Comparison of CT-Determined Pulmonary Artery Diameter, Aortic Diameter, and Their Ratio in Healthy and Diverse Clinical Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Lee

    Full Text Available The main pulmonary artery diameter (mPA, aortic diameter (Ao, and the mPA/Ao ratio, easily measured using chest computed tomography (CT, provide information that enables the diagnosis and evaluation of cardiopulmonary diseases. Here, we used CT to determine the sex- and age-specific distribution of normal reference values for mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio in an adult Korean population.Data from non-contrast, ECG-gated, coronary-calcium-scoring CT images of 2,547 individuals who visited the Health Screening Center of the Severance Hospital were analyzed. Healthy individuals (n = 813 included those who do not have hypertension, diabetes, asthma, obstructive lung disease, ischemic heart disease, stroke, smoking, obesity, and abnormal CT findings. Both mPA and Ao were measured at the level of bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery.The mean mPA and Ao were 25.9 mm and 30.0 mm in healthy participants, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. Medical conditions associated with a larger mPA were male, obesity, smoking history, hypertension, and diabetes. A larger mPA/Ao ratio was associated with female, the obese, non-smoker, normotensive, and normal serum level of lipids, while a smaller mPA/Ao ratio was associated with older age. In healthy individuals, the 90th percentile sex-specific mPA, Ao, and mPA/Ao ratio were, 31.3 mm (95% CI 29.9-32.2, 36.8 mm (95% CI 35.7-37.5, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.99-1.07 in males, and 29.6 mm (95% CI 29.1-30.2, 34.5 mm (95% CI 34.1-34.9, and 1.03 (95% CI 1.02-1.06 in females, respectively.In the Korean population, the mean mPA reference values in male and female were 26.5 mm and 25.8 mm, respectively, while the mean mPA/Ao ratio was 0.87. These values were influenced by a variety of underlying medical conditions.

  18. Through pore diameter in the cell wall of Chara corallina. (United States)

    Berestovsky, G N; Ternovsky, V I; Kataev, A A


    Determination of pore size of the cell wall of Chara corallina has been made by using the polyethylene glycol (PEG) series as the hydrophilic probing molecules. In these experiments, the polydispersity of commercial preparation of PEGs was allowed for. The mass share (gamma(p)) of polyethylene glycol preparation fractions penetrating through the pores was determined using a cellular 'ghost', i.e. fragments of internodal cell walls filled with a 25% solution of non-penetrating PEG 6000 and tied up at the ends. In water, such a 'ghost' developed a hydrostatic pressure close to the cell turgor which persisted for several days. The determination of gamma(p), for polydisperse polyethylene glycols with different average molecular mass (M) was calculated from the degree of pressure restoration after water was replaced by a 5-10% polymer solution. Pressure was recorded using a dynamometer, which measures, in the quasi-isometric mode, the force necessary for the partial compression of the 'ghost' in its small fragment. By utilizing the data on the distribution of PEG 1000, 1450, 2000, and 3350 fractions over molecular mass (M), it was found that gamma(p), for these polyethylene glycols corresponded to the upper limit of ML=800-1100 D (hydrodynamic radius of molecules, r(h)=0.85-1.05 nm). Thus, the effective diameter of the pores in the cell wall of Chara did not exceed 2.1 nm.

  19. Magnetorheology of submicron diameter iron microwires dispersed in silicone oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R C; Karli, J O; Vavreck, A N; Zimmerman, D T; Ngatu, G T; Wereley, N M


    We investigate the magnetorheological (MR) properties of suspensions containing iron microwires with 260 nm diameter and two distinct length distributions of 5.4 ± 5.2 µm and 7.6 ± 5.1 µm suspended in silicone oil (0.45 Pa s). The rheological properties of these fluids were determined using a parallel plate rheometer equipped with a variable strength electromagnet. The shear stress was measured as a function of shear rate for increasing applied magnetic fields. These results were modeled using the Bingham-plastic constitutive model to determine the apparent yield stress and viscosity as a function of increasing volume fraction and length of microwires. At a saturated magnetic flux density, the yield stress using the 5.4 µm microwires was found to be 0.65, 2.23, and 4.76 kPa for the 2, 4, and 6 vol% suspensions, respectively. For the 7.6 µm wires, the yield stress increases to 8.2 kPa for the 6 vol% suspension. Compared with conventional MR fluids employing spherical particles, the degree of settling is markedly decreased in the microwire-based fluids. At 6 vol%, conventional fluids display appreciable settling whereas the microwire-based fluids display no discernable settling. Moreover, the rod-shaped microwires are shown to increase the yield stress of the fluids and enhance the MR performance

  20. Modular Small Diameter Vascular Grafts with Bioactive Functionalities (United States)

    Neufurth, Meik; Wang, Xiaohong; Tolba, Emad; Dorweiler, Bernhard; Schröder, Heinz C.; Link, Thorben; Diehl-Seifert, Bärbel; Müller, Werner E. G.


    We report the fabrication of a novel type of artificial small diameter blood vessels, termed biomimetic tissue-engineered blood vessels (bTEBV), with a modular composition. They are composed of a hydrogel scaffold consisting of two negatively charged natural polymers, alginate and a modified chitosan, N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC). Into this biologically inert scaffold two biofunctionally active biopolymers are embedded, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) and silica, as well as gelatin which exposes the cell recognition signal, Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD). These materials can be hardened by exposure to Ca2+ through formation of Ca2+ bridges between the polyanions, alginate, N,O-CMC, and polyP (alginate-Ca2+-N,O-CMC-polyP). The bTEBV are formed by pressing the hydrogel through an extruder into a hardening solution, containing Ca2+. In this universal scaffold of the bTEBV biomaterial, polycations such as poly(l-Lys), poly(d-Lys) or a His/Gly-tagged RGD peptide (three RGD units) were incorporated, which promote the adhesion of endothelial cells to the vessel surface. The mechanical properties of the biopolymer material (alginate-Ca2+-N,O-CMC-polyP-silica) revealed a hardness (elastic modulus) of 475 kPa even after a short incubation period in CaCl2 solution. The material of the artificial vascular grafts (bTEBVs with an outer size 6 mm and 1.8 mm, and an inner diameter 4 mm and 0.8 mm, respectively) turned out to be durable in 4-week pulsatile flow experiments at an alternating pressure between 25 and 100 mbar (18.7 and 75.0 mm Hg). The burst pressure of the larger (smaller) vessels was 850 mbar (145 mbar). Incorporation of polycationic poly(l-Lys), poly(d-Lys), and especially the His/Gly-tagged RGD peptide, markedly increased the adhesion of human, umbilical vein/vascular endothelial cells, EA.HY926 cells, to the surface of the hydrogel. No significant effect of the polyP samples on the clotting of human plasma is measured. We propose that the metabolically degradable

  1. Preliminary evaluation of environmental variables affecting diameter growth of individual hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains (United States)

    W. Henry McNab; F. Thomas Lloyd


    The value of environmental variables as measures of site quality for individual tree growth models was determined for 12 common species of eastern hardwoods in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. Periodic diameter increment was modeled as a function of size, competition and environmental variables for 1,381 trees in even-aged stands of mixed-species. Resulting species...

  2. Predicting root biomass of burned and unburned white oak advance reproduction from diameter and height (United States)

    Benjamin O. Knapp; G. Geoff Wang; David H. Van Lear; Joan L. Walker


    The size, especially the root size, of advance oak (Quercus spp.) reproduction provides the best indication of the growth potential after release or top-kill. This study examined the relationship between the size of the root system and various diameter height measurements for small (

  3. Corneal diameters in infants born in two hospitals in Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To measure the horizontal corneal diameters in infants at birth and compare with values reported in other studies. Design: A cross-sectional hospital based study. Subjects: All the healthy infants born within the period of one month in these hospitals were eligible for enrolment into the study. Horizontal corneal ...

  4. The Palm-Heart Diameter: A Prospective Simple Screening Tool for Identifying Heart Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbenro Omotuyi John Fakoya


    CONCLUSION: This study establishes the correlation between the palm and heart diameters. Since the heart tissue and the upper limb share a similar embryonic origin, being the mesoderm, this study prospects the fact that heart enlargement could be preliminarily identified by measuring the size of the hand.

  5. Synthesis of very small diameter silica nanofibers using sound waves. (United States)

    Datskos, Panos; Chen, Jihua; Sharma, Jaswinder


    Silica nanofibers of an average diameter ≈30 nm and length ≈100 μm have been synthesized using an unprecedented strategy: sound waves. A new phenomenon, spinning off the nanofibers at silica rod tips, is also observed.

  6. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    /10.4314/sokjvs.v13i3.4. Observations on placentome diameters in gestating West. African dwarf does experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei. OO Leigh. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Reproduction, ...

  7. Deriving muscle fiber diameter from recorded single fiber potential. (United States)

    Zalewska, Ewa


    The aim of the study was to estimate muscle fiber diameters through analysis of single muscle fiber potentials (SFPs) recorded in the frontalis muscle of a healthy subject. Our previously developed analytical and graphic method to derive fiber diameter from the analysis of the negative peak duration and the amplitude of SFP, was applied to a sample of ten SFPs recorded in vivo. Muscle fiber diameters derived from the simulation method for the sample of frontalis muscle SFPs are consistent with anatomical data for this muscle. The results confirm the utility of proposed simulation method. Outlying data could be considered as the result of a contribution of other fibers to the potential recorded using an SFEMG electrode. Our graphic tool provides a rapid estimation of muscle fiber diameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This PDS data set represents a compilation of published diameters, optical albedos, near-infrared albedos, and beaming parameters for minor planets detected by...

  9. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit


    for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure......PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...

  10. Diferentes aferições do diâmetro abdominal sagital e do perímetro da cintura na predição do HOMA-IR Mediciones distintas del diámetro abdominal sagital y del perímetro de la cintura en la predicción del HOMA-IR Different measurements of the sagittal abdominal diameter and waist perimeter in the prediction of HOMA-IR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Junqueira Vasques


    umbilical, menor cintura, inmediatamente superior a la cresta ilíaca y punto promedio entre la cresta ilíaca y la última costilla se calcularon en cuatro locales diferentes. La resistencia a la insulina se evaluó por el índice HOMA-IR. RESULTADOS: Todas las mediciones presentaron correlación intraclase de 0,986-0,999. Tanto el diámetro abdominal sagital calculado en la menor cintura (r=0,482 y AUC=0,739±0,049 como el perímetro de la cintura calculado en el punto promedio entre la última costilla y la cresta ilíaca (r=0,464 e AUC=0,746±0,05 presentaron mayores correlaciones con el HOMA-IR, así como un mejor poder discriminante para el HOMA-IR según el análisis ROC (pBACKGROUND: The correlation between the increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance makes the sagittal abdominal diameter and the waist perimeter as potential tools for the prediction of insulin resistance. OBJECTIVE: To assess the reproducibility of different measurements of the sagittal abdominal diameter and the waist perimeter and analyze the discriminating power of the measurements when predicting insulin resistance. METHODS: A total of 190 adult males were studied. The sagittal abdominal diameter (smallest girth, larger abdominal diameter, umbilical level and midpoint between the iliac crests and the waist perimeter (umbilical level, smallest girth, immediately above the iliac crest and midpoint between the iliac crest and the last rib were measured at four different sites. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index. RESULTS: All measurements presented an intraclass correlation of 0.986-0.999. The sagittal abdominal diameter measured at the smallest girth (r=0.482 and AUC=0.739±0.049 and the waist perimeter measured at the midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest (r=0.464 and AUC=0.746±0.05 presented the highest correlations with the HOMA-IR and the best discriminating power for HOMA-IR according to the ROC analysis

  11. Valve mediated hemodynamics and their association with distal ascending aortic diameter in bicuspid aortic valve subjects. (United States)

    Raghav, Vrishank; Barker, Alex J; Mangiameli, Daniel; Mirabella, Lucia; Markl, Michael; Yoganathan, Ajit P


    Valve mediated hemodynamics have been postulated to contribute to pathology of the ascending aorta (AAo). The objective of this study is to assess the association of aortic valve morphology and hemodynamics with downstream AAo size in subjects with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease. Four-dimensional flow MRI at 1.5 or 3 Tesla was used to evaluate the hemodynamics in the proximal AAo of 52 subjects: size-matched controls with tricuspid aortic valves (n = 24, mid ascending aorta [MAA] diameter = 38.0 ± 4.9 mm) and BAV patients with aortic dilatation (n = 14 right and left coronary leaflet fusion [RL]-BAV, MAA diameter = 38.1 ± 5.3 mm; n = 14 right and noncoronary leaflet fusion [RN]-BAV, MAA diameter = 36.5 ± 6.6 mm). A validated semi-automated technique was used to evaluate hemodynamic metrics (flow angle, flow displacement, and jet quadrant) and valve morphology (orifice circularity) for all subjects. Regression analysis of these metrics to AAo diameter was performed. RN-BAV subjects displayed a stronger correlation between hemodynamic metrics in the proximal AAo with diameter in the distal AAo compared with size-matched tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) controls and RL-BAV subjects. The distal AAo diameter was found to be strongly correlated to the upstream flow displacement (R 2 adjusted = 0.75) and flow angle (R 2 adjusted = 0.66) measured at the sino-tubular junction (STJ). Orifice circularity was also strongly correlated (R 2 adjusted = 0.53) to the distal AAo diameter in RN-BAV subjects. For TAV controls and RL-BAV subjects, correlations were weaker (R 2 adjusted valve morphology metrics. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:246-254. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Catalytic growth of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (2.4 g/g catalyst, with large inner diameters were successfully synthesized through pyrolysis of methane on a Ni–Cu–Al catalyst by adding sodium carbonate into the carbon nanotubes growth system. The inner diameter of the carbon nanotubes prepared by this method is about 20–60 nm, while their outer diameter is about 40–80 nm. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were employed to investigate the morphology and microstructures of the carbon nanotubes. The analyses showed that these carbon nanotubes have large inner diameters and good graphitization. The addition of sodium carbonate into the reaction system brings about a slight decrease in the methane conversion and the yield of carbon. The experimental results showed that sodium carbonate is a mildly toxic material which influenced the catalytic activity of the Ni–Cu–Al catalyst and resulted in the formation of carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters. The growth mechanism of the carbon nanotubes with large inner diameters is discussed in this paper.

  13. Smaller Anterior Cruciate Ligament Diameter Is a Predictor of Subjects Prone to Ligament Injuries: An Ultrasound Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Suresh Mahajan


    Full Text Available Purpose. To test if diameter of normal anterior cruciate ligament (ACL can be measured by ultrasound (US, to see if there is a relationship between smaller ACL diameter and ACL injury, and to assess agreement between radiologists in measuring ACL diameter in cases and matched controls. Materials and Methods. In this ethics committee-approved study, maximum diameter of ACL near tibial insertion site was measured by static and dynamic US study in 25 normal contralateral knees of subjects who suffered noncontact ACL injury and in 25 matched control subjects. Results. ACL was visualized as a thick linear hypoechoic band inserted approximately 11 mm caudal to the tibial plateau and the intercondylar eminence. Maximum diameter of contralateral ACL near tibial insertion site among injured subjects was significantly smaller than in noninjured subjects (0.62 ± 0.07 cm versus 0.81 ± 0.06 cm; P<0.0001. In the regression analysis, the diameter of ACL near tibial insertion site was found significantly proportional to body weight and not significantly associated to height, gender, and age. Conclusion. Diameter of normal ACL near tibial insertion site can be measured by US and the maximum diameter is significantly smaller among subjects with noncontact ACL injury. US is a promising modality that can be used as an excellent screening test to detect subjects especially aspiring athletes prone to ACL injury. Very strong agreement was observed between radiologists in measuring ACL diameter.

  14. Effect of fiber blending ratios of cotton/polyester yarns on retained splice diameter (United States)

    Çelik, H. İ.; Kaynak, H. K.


    The most important performance parameters of splicing are obtaining adequate strength and appearance at the splice point for all processing requirements. The diameter of spliced portion effects not only appearance of the splice joints but also physical characteristics such as packing density, strength, specific volume of the yarn. In this study, the effect of cotton/polyester fiber blend ratios on spliced portion diameter at different slicing air pressures was investigated. For this aim, three yarn samples 100% cotton, 80-20% CO-PES and 50- 50% CO-PES were produced with 40/1 Ne. Each yarn samples was spliced at three different pressures; 4 bar, 5 bar and 6 bar. The diameters of spliced portion and retained yarns were measured by using ImageJ program and the results were analyzed statistically.

  15. Diameter control and emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown using chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaatz, F.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Provencio, P.P.; Jackson, J.L


    We grow multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via thermal chemical vapor deposition from a sputtered 4-nm-thick nickel catalyst film on a tungsten-coated silicon substrate. CNTs grow from a mixture of nitrogen and acetylene gases at temperatures ranging from 630 to 790 deg. C, resulting in CNT outer diameters of 5-350 nm. CNT diameters increase exponentially with temperature. These results define regimes for template growth fabricated in catalytically active anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with controlled pinhole sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. We measure a threshold electron emission field of 3 V/{mu}m and a field enhancement factor {beta}=5230 on randomly oriented 10-nm diameter CNTs.

  16. Diameter control and emission properties of carbon nanotubes grown using chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaatz, F.H.; Siegal, M.P.; Overmyer, D.L.; Provencio, P.P.; Jackson, J.L.


    We grow multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) via thermal chemical vapor deposition from a sputtered 4-nm-thick nickel catalyst film on a tungsten-coated silicon substrate. CNTs grow from a mixture of nitrogen and acetylene gases at temperatures ranging from 630 to 790 deg. C, resulting in CNT outer diameters of 5-350 nm. CNT diameters increase exponentially with temperature. These results define regimes for template growth fabricated in catalytically active anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) with controlled pinhole sizes ranging from 10 to 50 nm. We measure a threshold electron emission field of 3 V/μm and a field enhancement factor β=5230 on randomly oriented 10-nm diameter CNTs

  17. Spin configuration in isolated FeCoCu nanowires modulated in diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesias-Freire, Óscar; Bran, Cristina; Berganza, Eider; Mínguez-Bacho, Ignacio; Vázquez, Manuel; Asenjo, Agustina; Magén, César


    Cylindrical Fe 28 Co 67 Cu 5 nanowires modulated in diameter between 22 and 35 nm are synthesized by electroplating into the nanopores of alumina membranes. High-sensitivity MFM imaging (with a detection noise of 1 μN m −1 ) reveals the presence of single-domain structures in remanence with strong contrast at the ends of the nanowires, as well as at the transition regions where the diameter is modulated. Micromagnetic simulations suggest that curling of the magnetization takes place at these transition sites, extending over 10–20 nm and giving rise to stray fields measurable with our MFM. An additional weaker contrast is imaged, which is interpreted to arise from inhomogeneities in the nanowire diameter. (paper)

  18. Puffing and inhalation behaviour in cigarette smoking: Implications for particle diameter and dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, Colin; McGrath, Conor; Warren, Nigel; Biggs, Philip; McAughey, John, E-mail: [British American Tobacco, Group R and D Centre, Southampton, SO15 8TL (United Kingdom)


    Inhalation of tobacco smoke aerosol is a two-step process involving puffing followed by inhalation. Measured smoke deposition efficiencies in the lung (20-70%) are greater than expected for smoke particles of diameter 150 - 250 nm CMD. Various mechanisms have been put forward to explain this enhanced deposition pattern, including coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, changes in composition, or changes in inhalation behaviour. This paper represents one of a series of studies seeking to better quantify smoke chemistry, inhalation behaviour and cumulative particle growth. The studies have been conducted to better understand smoke dosimetry and links to disease as part of a wider programme defining risk and potential harm reduction. In this study, it was noted that particle deposition increased with increasing inhalation depth, and that smoke inhalation volumes were generally greater than normal tidal breathing volumes. A weak association was observed between particle diameter and puff flow, but no strong association between particle diameter and retention efficiency.

  19. Surfactant-nanotube interactions in water and nanotube separation by diameter: atomistic simulations (United States)

    Carvalho, E. J. F.; Dos Santos, M. C.


    A non-destructive sorting method to separate single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) by diameter was recently proposed. By this method, SWNTs are suspended in water by surfactant encapsulation and the separation is carried out by ultracentrifugation in a density gradient. SWNTs of different diameters are distributed according to their densities along the centrifuge tube. A mixture of two anionic surfactants, namely sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and sodium cholate (SC), presented the best performance in discriminating nanotubes by diameter. Unexpectedly, small diameter nanotubes are found at the low density part of the centrifuge tube. We present molecular dynamics studies of the water-surfactant-SWNT system to investigate the role of surfactants in the sorting process. We found that surfactants can actually be attracted towards the interior of the nanotube cage, depending on the relationship between the surfactant radius of gyration and the nanotube diameter. The dynamics at room temperature showed that, as the amphiphile moves to the hollow cage, water molecules are dragged together, thereby promoting the nanotube filling. The resulting densities of filled SWNT are in agreement with measured densities.

  20. Atomic layer deposition as pore diameter adjustment tool for nanoporous aluminum oxide injection molding masks. (United States)

    Miikkulainen, Ville; Rasilainen, Tiina; Puukilainen, Esa; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A


    The wetting properties of polypropylene (PP) surfaces were modified by adjusting the dimensions of the surface nanostructure. The nanostructures were generated by injection molding with nanoporous anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) as the mold insert. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of molybdenum nitride film was used to control the pore diameters of the AAO inserts. The original 50-nm pore diameter of AAO was adjusted by depositing films of thickness 5, 10, and 15 nm on AAO. Bis(tert-butylimido)-bis(dimethylamido)molybdenum and ammonia were used as precursors in deposition. The resulting pore diameters in the nitride-coated AAO inserts were 40, 30, and 20 nm, respectively. Injection molding of PP was conducted with the coated inserts, as well as with the non-coated insert. Besides the pore diameter, the injection mold temperature was varied with temperatures of 50, 70, and 90 degrees C tested. Water contact angles of PP casts were measured and compared with theoretical contact angles calculated from Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter theories. The highest contact angle, 140 degrees , was observed for PP molded with the AAO mold insert with 30-nm pore diameter. The Cassie-Baxter theory showed better fit than the Wenzel theory to the experimental values. With the optimal AAO mask, the nanofeatures in the molded PP pieces were 100 nm high. In explanation of this finding, it is suggested that some sticking and stretching of the nanofeatures occurs during the molding. Increase in the mold temperature increased the contact angle.

  1. Correlation between Umbilical Cord Diameter and Cross Sectional Area with Gestational Age and Foetal Anthropometric Parameters. (United States)

    Begum, K; Ahmed, M U; Rahman, M M; Hossain, M M; Begum, M; Sarkar, S K; Reza, M T; Hoshneara, M; Beg, A; Sultana, F; Begum, F; Akter, F A


    The objective of the study was to find out correlation between umbilical cord diameter, cross sectional area with gestational age and foetal anthropometric parameters. This cross sectional study was conducted among healthy women between the 24(th) and 40(th) completed weeks of a normal pregnancy in the Department of Radiology & Imaging, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital, Mymensingh during the study period, from July 2009 to June 2011. A total of 230 consecutive normal pregnancy patients were included in the study. The diameter & cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord were measured on a plane adjacent to the junction of the umbilical cord and the fetal abdomen, in cross-section, with maximum magnification of the image. The cord was manually circled, and it's cross sectional areas was automatically calculated by the ultrasonograph. The mean±SD age was 24.3±4.7 years with range from 19 to 36 years. The mean gestational age was 32.1±4.5 weeks and more than a half (56.4%) of the pregnant women were nulliparas. A positive significant (pumbilical cord diameter with bi-parietal diameter (r=0.548); head circumference (r=0.411); abdominal circumference (r=0.444); femur length (r=0.366) and gestational age gestation age (r=0.643). Similarly, a significant (pumbilical cord diameter than cross sectional area with foetal anthropometric parameters.

  2. Xylem Vessel Diameter Affects the Compartmentalization of the Vascular Pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora in Grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Pouzoulet


    Full Text Available Fungal wilt diseases are a threat to global food safety. Previous studies in perennial crops showed that xylem vessel diameter affects disease susceptibility. We tested the hypothesis that xylem vessel diameter impacts occlusion processes and pathogen compartmentalization in Vitis vinifera L. We studied the interaction between four grape commercial cultivars with the vascular wilt pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora. We used qPCR and wood necrotic lesion length to measure fungal colonization coupled with histological studies to assess differences in xylem morphology, pathogen compartmentalization, and fungal colonization strategy. We provided evidence that grape cultivar with wide xylem vessel diameter showed increased susceptibility to P. chlamydospora. The host response to pathogen included vessel occlusion with tyloses and gels, deposition of non-structural phenolic compounds and suberin in vessel walls and depletion of starch in parenchyma cells. Pathogen compartmentalization was less efficient in wide xylem vessels than in narrow diameter vessels. Large vessels displayed higher number of tyloses and gel pockets, which provided substrate for P. chlamydospora growth and routes to escape occluded vessels. We discuss in which capacity xylem vessel diameter is a key determinant of the compartmentalization process and in turn grape cultivar resistance to disease caused by P. chlamydospora.

  3. Failure Diameter of PBX 9502: Simulations with the SURFplus model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    SURFplus is a reactive burn model for high explosives aimed at modelling shock initiation and propagation of detonation waves. It utilizes the SURF model for the fast hot-spot reaction plus a slow reaction for the energy released by carbon clustering. A feature of the SURF model is that there is a partially decoupling between burn rate parameters and detonation wave properties. Previously, parameters for PBX 9502 that control shock ini- tiation had been calibrated to Pop plot data (distance-of-run to detonation as a function of shock pressure initiating the detonation). Here burn rate parameters for the high pres- sure regime are adjusted to t the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed just above the failure diameter. Simulated results are shown for an uncon ned rate stick when the 9502 diameter is slightly above and slightly below the failure diameter. Just above the failure diameter, in the rest frame of the detonation wave, the front is sonic at the PBX/air interface. As a consequence, the lead shock in the neighborhood of the interface is supported by the detonation pressure in the interior of the explosive rather than the reaction immediately behind the front. In the interior, the sonic point occurs near the end of the fast hot-spot reaction. Consequently, the slow carbon clustering reaction can not a ect the failure diameter. Below the failure diameter, the radial extent of the detonation front decreases starting from the PBX/air interface. That is, the failure starts at the PBX boundary and propagates inward to the axis of the rate stick.

  4. Does conduit artery diameter vary according to the anthropometric characteristics of children or men? (United States)

    Hopkins, N D; Green, D J; Tinken, T M; Sutton, L; McWhannell, N; Thijssen, D H J; Cable, N T; Stratton, G; George, K


    Arterial measurements are commonly undertaken to assess acute and chronic adaptations to exercise. Despite the widespread adoption of scaling practices in cardiac research, the relevance of scaling for body size and/or composition has not been addressed for arterial measures. We therefore investigated the relationships between brachial artery diameter and body composition in 129 children aged 9 to 10 yr (75 girls and 54 boys), and 50 men aged 16-49 yr. Body composition variables (total, lean, and fat mass in the whole body, arm, and forearm) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and brachial artery diameter was measured using high-resolution ultrasound. Bivariate correlations were performed, and arterial diameter was then scaled using simple ratios (y/x) and allometric approaches after log-log least squares linear regression and production of allometric exponents (b) and construction of power function ratios (y/xb). Size independence was checked via bivariate correlations (x:y/x; x:y/xb). As a result, significant correlations existed between brachial artery diameter and measures of body mass and lean mass in both cohorts (r=0.21-0.48, P0.05). In conclusion, when between- or within-group comparisons are performed under circumstances where it is important to control for differences in body size or composition, allometric scaling of artery diameter should be adopted rather than ratio scaling. Our data also suggest that scaling for lean or total mass may be more appropriate than scaling for indexes of fat mass.

  5. Effect of tube diameter on the specific energy consumption of the ice making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangthieng, C.


    One of the favorite forms of ice for consuming is tube ice, which is produced by a refrigeration unit referred to as an ice making tower. In order to redesign the tower for the energy-efficiency purpose, the aim of this paper is to numerically investigate the effect of tube diameter on the ice thickness, the cooling load, and the specific energy consumption. The mathematical model of the ice formation within the tube is developed by assuming unsteady and one-dimensional heat conduction. The governing equations are composed of the wall and the ice regions with the convective boundary condition and isothermal solidification at the interface. The governing system is transformed into a dimensionless form and numerically solved by the finite difference method. The numerical results are validated by comparing the ice thickness obtained from the numerical prediction and that obtained from the field measurement, resulting in qualitative agreement. The variations of ice thickness, cooling load, and specific energy consumption with time for four different tube diameters are presented. The result shows the location of the minimum specific energy consumption as a function of time. By comparing between different tube diameters, the value of the minimum specific energy consumption of a small diameter tube is lower than that of a large diameter one. On the other hand, the behavior of the specific energy consumption of a large diameter tube indicates the existence of a low specific energy consumption period of time beyond the minimum point. Therefore, by choosing a proper tube diameter, the minimum value of the average specific energy consumption over the entire production cycle is obtained, leading to higher energy efficiency. - Research Highlights: → The result indicates the minimum specific energy consumption as a function of time. → A smaller diameter tube has a lower value of the minimum specific energy consumption, but a large one has an extended range of low specific

  6. On the performance of small diameter gas cyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, Marcos Roberto Teixeira


    Small diameter cyclones represent a potential alternative for the removal of small diameter particles from gaseous mixtures as well as the environmental control of their emission. In order to establish feasible configurations of a small diameter cyclone applied in the separation of solid particles dispersed in a gas and considering a large quantify of experimental data in literature, neural networks were used to estimate the equipment grade efficiency and pressure drop. In order to evaluate a performance of many small diameters configurations and analysis was carried of parametrical sensibility which determines the most important variables on separation efficiency determination. A set of experimental runs was carried out in a lab-scale mini-cyclone in order to obtain the separation efficiency and pressure drop for different configurations, and evaluate the feasibility of coupling a post-cyclone device to improve the equipment overall performance. The cyclones used presented diameters of 0.03 and 0.05 m and the remaining dimensions varied proportionally about those found in Stairmand high-efficiency cyclones. Experimental separation efficiencies up to 99% were obtained in this work. These results confirm the feasibility of the experimental set-up configuration proposed. (author)

  7. AP diameter shows the strongest correlation with CTDI and DLP in abdominal and chest CT.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zarb, Francis


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among cross-sectional diameters, weight and computed tomography (CT) dose descriptors (CTDI and DLP) to identify which is best used as a measure for the establishment of DRLs in CT. Data (gender, weight, cross-sectional diameters, dose descriptors) from 56 adult patients attending for either a CT examination of the abdomen or chest was obtained from two spiral CT units using automatic milliampere modulation. The AP diameter was demonstrated as the main contributing factor influencing the dose in CT (CTDI: r(2) = 0.269, p-value < or =0.001; DLP: r(2) = 0.260, p-value < or =0.001) since it has a greater correlation with radiation dose than body weight and can thus be its substitute in dose-reduction strategies and establishment of DRLs. The advantages of using the AP diameter are that it can easily be measured prior to scanning or retrospectively from previous CT images. However, further studies on the practicality of this approach are recommended.

  8. AP diameter shows the strongest correlation with CTDI and DLP in abdominal and chest CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, F.; Rainford, L.; McEntee, M. F.


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships among cross-sectional diameters, weight and computed tomography (CT) dose descriptors (CTDI and DLP) to identify which is best used as a measure for the establishment of DRLs in CT. Data (gender, weight, cross-sectional diameters, dose descriptors) from 56 adult patients attending for either a CT examination of the abdomen or chest was obtained from two spiral CT units using automatic milli-ampere modulation. The AP diameter was demonstrated as the main contributing factor influencing the dose in CT (CTDI: r 2 = 0.269, p-value ≤0.001; DLP: r 2 = 0.260, p-value ≤0.001) since it has a greater correlation with radiation dose than body weight and can thus be its substitute in dose-reduction strategies and establishment of DRLs. The advantages of using the AP diameter are that it can easily be measured prior to scanning or retrospectively from previous CT images. However, further studies on the practicality of this approach are recommended. (authors)

  9. Diameter sensitive effect in singlewalled carbon nanotubes upon acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, S.; Borowiak-Palen, E.


    Singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) exhibit very unique properties. As an electronic system they undergo amphoteric doping effects (n-type and p-type) which can be reversed. These processes affect the optical and vibronic properties of the carbon nanotubes. The most common and widely used procedure which changes the properties of the SWCNT is acid treatment applied as a purification procedure. This effect has been widely studied but not fully understood so far. Here, we present a study, in which a diameter sensitive effect has been observed. Therefore, two kinds of SWCNT samples have been studied: (i) produced via chemical vapour deposition with a broad diameter distribution, and (ii) synthesised by the laser ablation technique which is commonly known to result in narrow diameter distribution bulk SWCNT samples. Resonance Raman spectroscopy, optical absorption spectroscopy, and Fourier transform middle-infrared spectroscopy have been applied for the characterisation of the samples.

  10. Building America Case Study: High-Velocity Small-Diameter Duct System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  11. Determination of the Tapping Part Diameter of the Thread Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Dreval'


    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency to increase the proportion of thread milling operations, among other ways of tapping, which is associated with increasing number of CNC machines, flexibility and versatility of the process.Developments presently existing in the RF and used in the thread mills deal, mainly, with the thread milling cutter designs, to process internal and external thread with straight flutes made from high-speed steel.The paper presents a technique to calculate and select the initial design parameters, i.e. the external diameter of the tapping part of thread milling cutter, which is chosen as a basic computational design. The analysis of directories of tool companies containing foreign de-signs of solid thread end-milling cutters has shown that most of them rep-resent the thread cutter designs made of solid carbide. There are solid and interlocking side milling cutters, which use a tapping part both as a single-disk and as a multi-disk one; chip flutes are made to be both as direct and as screw; solid designs of cutters are made from carbide with a diameter of up to 20 ... 25 mm; thread cutters can be left- and right-hand cutting; Designs of the combined thread mills are proposed; internal channels are used for coolant supply.It is shown that the purpose of the external diameter of the tapping part of the thread mill should take into account the effect of the thread mill diameter on the milling process performance, precision of thread profile received, taper thread, tool strength, and the volume of flutes.The analysis has shown that when choosing the external diameter of the thread mill it worth taking its maximum diameter to improve the char-acteristics of the process under the restrictions imposed on the accuracy of the formed thread.

  12. Changes in Spinal Canal Diameter and Vertebral Body Height with Age (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun


    Purpose All structures of the spine, including the spinal canal, change continuously with age. The purpose of this study was to determine how the spinal canal of the lumbar spine changes with age. The L4/5 is the most common site of spinal stenosis and has the largest flexion-extension motion, whereas the T5/6 has the least motion. Therefore, we measured the spinal canal diameter and vertebral body height at T5, T6, L4, and L5 with age. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of aged 40 to 77 years. We reviewed whole spine sagittal MRIs of 370 patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) (Group 2) and 166 herniated cervical disc (HCD) (Group 1). Each group was divided into four age groups, and demographic parameters (age, gender, height, weight, BMI), the mid-spinal canal diameter, and mid-vertebrae height at T5, T6, L4, L5 were compared. Within- and between-group comparisons were made to evaluate changes by age and correlations were carried out to evaluate the relationships between all parameters. Results Height, weight, and all radiologic parameters were significantly lower in Group 2 than Group 1. Group 1 did not show any differences, when based on age, but in Group 2, height, weight, and T6, L4, and L5 height were significantly decreased in patients in their 70's than patients in their 40's, except for spinal canal diameter. Age was associated with all parameters except spinal canal diameter. Conclusion Vertebral height decreased with age, but spinal canal diameter did not change in patients with either LSS or HCD. Mid-spinal canal diameter was not affected by aging. PMID:24142657

  13. Reduction of the Areolar Diameter After Ultrasound-Assisted Liposuction for Gynecomastia. (United States)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Sutcu, Mustafa; Hanci, Mustafa; Cigsar, Bulent


    One of the clinical aspects characterizing gynecomastia is the enlargement of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) due to hypertrophic breast glands, and the excessive fatty tissue underneath. The purpose of this study was to quantify the reduction of the areolar diameter after ultrasound-assisted liposuction (UAL) of the male breast. The horizontal diameters of the NACs of 30 men who underwent UAL were measured before surgery, 1 month after surgery and 6 months after surgery in a standard fashion. Those patients with surgical gland removals of any kind were not included in this study. The mean age of the patients was 27.9 years, and all of the patients had bilateral grade I, II, or III gynecomastia. The mean diameter of the NACs before surgery was 35.36 mm (range, 26-55 mm), and after surgery, the mean diameter of the NACs was initially reduced to 28.8 mm (range, 23-44 mm) and later to 28.57 mm (range, 23-42 mm). The mean volume of breast tissue aspirated was 382 mL per breast, and the percentage of reduction was 17.3%. The reduction of areola diameter was statistically significant after first month. A significant positive correlation was identified between the liposuction volume and areolar diameter reduction. In cases of gynecomastia, the removal of the glandular and fatty tissue underneath the areola releases the expanding forces and pressure that enlarge it. In many cases of gynecomastia, UAL alone is effective in reducing the size of the NAC and allows the surgeon to avoid placing scars on the breast.

  14. Ultrasonographic fetometry formulas of inner chorionic cavity diameter and biparietal diameter for medium-sized dogs can be used in giant breeds. (United States)

    Socha, Piotr; Janowski, Tomasz; Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of the ultrasonographic fetometry method, involving inner chorionic cavity diameter (ICC) and biparietal diameter (BP) measurements, to predict the parturition date in giant breed dogs. Overall, 30 ICC and 24 BP measurements were taken on 24 giant breed bitches. The measured values were substituted into Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches because formulas with ICC and BP to dogs with a body mass greater than 40 kg have not been defined. The accuracy of the parturition date predictions proved the method to be highly useful in the observed group of dogs. Prediction accuracy in the giants ranged between 54.16% (± 1 day, using BP) and 90% (± 2 days, using ICC), depending on the parameter measured and precision levels used. Numerically, the results obtained using ICC were better; however, no statistically significant differences between ICC and BP accuracy were found when comparing the effectiveness of the parturition date predictions. Regression lines based on the own fetometric measurements were highly convergent with the lines defined by Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized bitches. This outcome suggests a similar gestational development of fetuses in giant dogs and the possible use of Luvoni and Grioni (2000) formulas for medium-sized dogs with breeds weighing greater than 40 kg. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL.) MAST.] stands in Tunisia


    T. Sghaier; M. Tome; J. Tome; M. Sanchez-Gonzalez; I. Cañellas; R. Calama


    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived f...

  16. Lumbar spinal canal MRI diameter is smaller in herniated disc cauda equina syndrome patients. (United States)

    Korse, Nina S; Kruit, Mark C; Peul, Wilco C; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A


    Correlation between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features in cauda equina syndrome (CES) is unknown; nor is known whether there are differences in MRI spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated discs patients without CES, operated for sciatica. The aims of this study are 1) evaluating the association of MRI features with clinical presentation and outcome of CES and 2) comparing lumbar spinal canal diameters of lumbar herniated disc patients with CES versus lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated because of sciatica. MRIs of CES patients were assessed for the following features: level of disc lesion, type (uni- or bilateral) and severity of caudal compression. Pre- and postoperative clinical features (micturition dysfunction, defecation dysfunction, altered sensation of the saddle area) were retrieved from the medical files. In addition, anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spinal canal diameters of CES patients were measured at MRI. AP diameters of lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica, were measured for comparison. 48 CES patients were included. At MRI, bilateral compression was seen in 82%; complete caudal compression in 29%. MRI features were not associated with clinical presentation nor outcome. AP diameter was measured for 26 CES patients and for 31 lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica. Comparison displayed a significant smaller AP diameter of the lumbar spinal canal in CES patients (largest p = 0.002). Compared to average diameters in literature, diameters of CES patients were significantly more often below average than that of the sciatica patients (largest p = 0.021). This is the first study demonstrating differences in lumbar spinal canal size between lumbar herniated disc patients with CES and lumbar herniated disc patients without CES, operated for sciatica. This finding might imply that lumbar herniated disc patients with a


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    This paper deals with the symmetric traveling salesman polytope and contains three main theorems. The first one gives a new characterization of (non)adjacency. Based on this characterization a new upper bound for the diameter of the symmetric traveling salesman polytope (conjectured to be 2 by M.

  18. Sex determination from femoral head diameters in black Malawians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the sex of black Malawians from femoral head diameters. Design: A retrospective study on patients investigated in three x-ray departments. Setting: Radiographs were collected from the archives of Queen Elizabeth Central, Chikwawa and Balaka hospitals. Subject: X-ray films of 496 pelves of adult ...

  19. Ultrasound Assessment of Normal Portal Vein Diameter in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even if the additional use of color and spectral Doppler improves the assessment of patients suspected of having portal hypertension, gray scale assessment of portal vein diameter is corner stone in the initial evaluation. Knowing the normal portal venous dimension in a specified population is so crucial. Methods: This is a ...

  20. Pupil Center as a Function of Pupil Diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Zaheer; Mardanbegi, Diako; Hansen, Dan Witzner


    We investigate the gaze estimation error induced by pupil size changes using simulated data. We investigate the influence of pupil diameter changes on estimated gaze point error obtained by two gaze estimation models. Simulation data show that at wider viewing angles and at small eye...

  1. Individual tree diameter, height, and volume functions for longleaf pine (United States)

    Carlos A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Timothy A. Martin; Wendell P. Cropper; Lisa J. Samuelson; Daniel J. Leduc


    Currently, little information is available to estimate individual tree attributes for longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), an important tree species of the southeastern United States. The majority of available models are local, relying on stem diameter outside bark at breast height (dbh, cm) and not including stand-level parameters. We developed...

  2. Definition of Beam Diameter for Electron Beam Welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgardt, Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pierce, Stanley W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dvornak, Matthew John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    It is useful to characterize the dimensions of the electron beam during process development for electron beam welding applications. Analysis of the behavior of electron beam welds is simplest when a single number can be assigned to the beam properties that describes the size of the beam spot; this value we generically call the “beam diameter”. This approach has worked well for most applications and electron beam welding machines with the weld dimensions (width and depth) correlating well with the beam diameter. However, in recent weld development for a refractory alloy, Ta-10W, welded with a low voltage electron beam machine (LVEB), it was found that the weld dimensions (weld penetration and weld width) did not correlate well with the beam diameter and especially with the experimentally determined sharp focus point. These data suggest that the presently used definition of beam diameter may not be optimal for all applications. The possible reasons for this discrepancy and a suggested possible alternative diameter definition is the subject of this paper.

  3. Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Retinal Microvascular Diameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Jensen (Richard); X. Sim (Xueling); G.D. Smith; X. Li (Xiaohui); M. Jakobsdottir (Margret); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); J. Brody (Jennifer); M.F. Cotch (Mary Frances); B. McKnight (Barbara); R. Klein (Ronald); J.J. Wang (Jie Jin); A. Kifley (Annette); T.B. Harris (Tamara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); K.D. Taylor (Kent D.); B.E.K. Klein (Barbara); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); X. Li (Xiang); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); U. Mutlu (Unal); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); C. Liu (Chunyu); A. Kraja (Aldi); P. Mitchell (Paul); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T.Y. Wong (Tien Yin)


    textabstractBackground-There is increasing evidence that retinal microvascular diameters are associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular conditions. The shared genetic effects of these associations are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the genetic

  4. Determination of perimysial and fascicular diameters of triceps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, it was observed that all the muscles studied presented normal histomorphology of a typical skeletal muscle, it was discovered that the biceps brachii muscle from camel aged 7 years had higher and significant value for the perimysial diameter compared to that of cattle. Similarly, it was shown that there is an ...

  5. Retinal vessel diameters and risk of stroke: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, M. K.; de Jong, F. J.; Bos, M. J.; Vingerling, J. R.; Hofman, A.; Koudstaal, P. J.; de Jong, P. T. V. M.; Breteler, M. M. B.


    Retinal vessels may provide information on cerebral vascular pathology, because they share many features with cerebral vessels. A smaller ratio of the retinal arteriolar-to-venular diameters reportedly predicts the risk of stroke. It is unclear if this is due to arteriolar narrowing or venular

  6. Bipartite Diametrical Graphs of Diameter 4 and Extreme Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Al-Addasi


    in which this upper bound is attained, this graph can be viewed as a generalization of the Rhombic Dodecahedron. Then we show that for any ≥2, the graph (2,2 is the unique (up to isomorphism bipartite diametrical graph of diameter 4 and partite sets of cardinalities 2 and 2, and hence in particular, for =3, the graph (6,8 which is just the Rhombic Dodecahedron is the unique (up to isomorphism bipartite diametrical graph of such a diameter and cardinalities of partite sets. Thus we complete a characterization of -graphs of diameter 4 and cardinality of the smaller partite set not exceeding 6. We prove that the neighborhoods of vertices of the larger partite set of (2,2 form a matroid whose basis graph is the hypercube . We prove that any -graph of diameter 4 is bipartite self complementary, thus in particular (2,2. Finally, we study some additional properties of (2,2 concerning the order of its automorphism group, girth, domination number, and when being Eulerian.

  7. Height-Diameter Predictive Equations for Rubber ( Hevea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many of the resulting models and curves agreed with silvicultural expectation of sigmoidal growth functions; and can provide dependable cum flexible options of predicting heights, given dbh for many plantation species in Nigeria. Keywords: height-diameter equations, allometric models, predictive equations, sigmoidal ...

  8. Experimental study on strain sensing by small-diameter FBG (United States)

    Liu, Rong-mei; Li, Qiufeng; Zhu, Lujia; Liang, Dakai


    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were attractive in various fields for structural health monitoring. Because of their accurate performance and real time response, embedded FBG sensors are promising for strain monitoring in composite materials. As an optical fiber sensor was embedded inside a composite, interface would form around the embedded optical fiber and the host polymer composite. In order to study the influence of the embedded optical fiber to the mechanical character, finite elemental analysis was applied to study the stress distribution inside the composite. Keeping the resin rich area the same size, laminates with optical fibers in different diameters, which were 250 and 125 micrometers, were analyzed. The simulation results represent that stress singularity would occur around the embedded optical fiber. The singularity value for the laminate with optical fiber at 250 micrometer was higher than that with optical fiber at 125 micrometer. Micro- cracks would arise at the stress singularity point. Therefore, the optical fiber in smaller diameter was preferred since the mechanical strength could be higher. Four points bending test was carried out on a steel beam with a small-diameter FBG on the bottom surface. Besides, a strain gauge was stuck on bottom to validate the monitoring results by FBG sensor. The tested results indicated that the strain monitoring results by the small-diameter FBG sensor almost identical with the theoretical ones and what recorded by strain gauge. The maximum testing error for the designed FBG is less than 2% compared with the theoretical one.

  9. Study of tube diameter effect on the burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, L.L.; Lantsman, F.P.; Dedneva, E.I.


    Effect of a tube diameter d on boundary steam content Xsub(b) is experimentally investigated during unwashed liquid wall film drying in the disperse-ring flow regime. For this purpose systematical experimental investigations of the burnout of the second kind in tubes with diameters of 4, 6 and 12 mm have been carried out as well as the other data relating to burnout in tubes with diameter from 4 to 40 mm are used. The investigations have been carried out at water and steam pressures of 4.9-13.7 MPa and mass velocities from 750 to 5000 kg/m 2 xs. It is elucidated that increase in the tube diameter results in reducing the ranges of pressures and mass velocities at which Xsub(b) is independent of heat flux. Quantity dependence Xsub(b)=f(d) has been obtained as well. The best agreement with data from different experiments is observed when taking into account the effect of d on Xsub(b) by means of the following relation: Xsub(b) is proportional to dsup(-0.25). In this case divergence, as a rule, does not exceed 10% [ru

  10. Prediction and error of baldcypress stem volume from stump diameter (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol


    The need to estimate the volume of removals occurs for many reasons, such as in trespass cases, severance tax reports, and post-harvest assessments. A logarithmic model is presented for prediction of baldcypress total stem cubic foot volume using stump diameter as the independent variable. Because the error of prediction is as important as the volume estimate, the...

  11. predictive accuracy of transcerebellar diameter in comparison with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 4, 2014 ... IOMETRIC PARAMETERS FOR GESTATIONAL AGE ESTIMATION AMONG PREGNANT NIGERIAN WOMEN. A. A. Adeyekun ... Objective: To compare the predictive accuracy of foetal trans-cerebellar diameter(TCD) with those of other ... due to increased curvature of the foetus, which affects reliability of ...

  12. Percentile-based Weibull diameter distribution model for Pinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a site index equation and stem volume model developed for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines, a yield prediction system was created to predict the volume per ha (VPH) for each diameter class and, subsequently, the total volume of a stand. To evaluate the yield prediction system, the predicted mean VPH for each ...

  13. Multi-diameter pigging: factors affecting the design and selection of pigging tools for multi-diameter pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Karl [Pipeline Engineering and Supply Co. Ltd., Richmond, NY (United States)


    This paper will consider the process involved in pigging tool selection for pipelines with two or more significant internal diameters which require pigging tools capable of negotiating the different internal diameters whilst also carrying out the necessary pipeline cleaning operation. The paper will include an analysis of pipeline features that affect pigging tool selection and then go on to look at other variables that determine the pigging tool design; this will include a step by step guide outlining how the tool is designed, the development of prototype pigs and the importance of testing and validation prior to final deployment in operational pigging programmes. (author)

  14. [Development of a simultaneous strain and temperature sensor with small-diameter FBG]. (United States)

    Liu, Rong-mei; Liang, Da-kai


    Manufacture of the small diameter FBG was designed. Cross sensitivity of temperature and strain at sensing point was solved. Based on coupled-mode theory, optical properties of the designed FBG were studied. The reflection and transmission spectra of the designed FBG in small diameter were studied A single mode optical fiber, whose cladding diameter is 80 microm, was manufactured to a fiber Bragg grating (phi80FBG). According to spectrum simulation, the grating length and period were chosen as the wavelength was 1528 nm. The connector of the small diameter FBG with demodulation was designed too. In applications, the FBG measures the total deformation including strain due to forces applied to the structures as well as thermal expansion. In order to overcome this inconvenience and to measure both parameters at the same time and location, a novel scheme for simultaneous strain and temperature sensor was presented. Since the uniform strength beam has same deformation at all points, a pair of phi80 FBG was attached on a uniform strength cantilever. One of the FBG was on the upper surface, with the other one on the below. Therefore, the strains at the monitoring points were equal in magnitude but of opposite sign. The strain and temperature in sensing point could be discriminated by matrix equation. The determination of the K is not null and thus matrix inversion is well conditioned, even the values for the K elements are close. Consequently, the cross sensitivity of the FBG with temperature and strain can be experimentally solved. Experiments were carried out to study the strain discriminability of small-diameter FBG sensors. The temperature and strain were calculated and the errors were, respectively, 5% and 6%.

  15. Influence of corium droplets cut-off diameter on steam explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, M.; Ursic, M.


    Steam explosion experiments have revealed that there are important differences of behaviour between simulant and prototypical melts (the efficiency of steam explosions with prototypical melts is about one order of magnitude lower than with alumina melts), and that also with prototypical melts the fuel coolant interactions (FCI) depend on the composition of corium (eutectic corium may explode spontaneously, whereas non-eutectic corium never did). To explore the ability of global FCI codes to adequately simulate the explosion phase if the premixture conditions at triggering would be known and to establish the influence of droplets freezing on the steam explosion, a number of explosion phase simulations of KROTOS experiment K-53 were performed with the code MC3D, starting from different predefined premixture and droplets conditions. In the performed parametric analysis the premixture radius and the corium droplets cut-off diameter were varied, assuming that corium droplets with a diameter smaller than the cut-off diameter can not participate in the explosion due to solidification. It was assumed that the phases in the premixture are distributed homogeneously. The phase fractions were determined based on experimental measurements of the average void fraction and the mass of released fuel. The analysis showed that there is an important influence of droplets freezing on the strength of the steam explosion, since already a small variation of the cut-off diameter significantly changed the calculated pressure impulses. Therefore the influence of droplets freezing on the steam explosion should be considered in global FCI codes. With the best-fit cut-off diameter and premixture radius a quite good agreement of simulation results with experimental measurements could be obtained. This is an indication that at least in principle the explosion phase can be reasonably well predicted if the premixture conditions at triggering are adequately determined and if we could judge based on

  16. Nuclear criticality safety calculational analysis for small-diameter containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeTellier, M.S.; Smallwood, D.J.; Henkel, J.A.


    This report documents calculations performed to establish a technical basis for the nuclear criticality safety of favorable geometry containers, sometimes referred to as 5-inch containers, in use at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A list of containers currently used in the plant is shown in Table 1.0-1. These containers are currently used throughout the plant with no mass limits. The use of containers with geometries or material types other than those addressed in this evaluation must be bounded by this analysis or have an additional analysis performed. The following five basic container geometries were modeled and bound all container geometries in Table 1.0-1: (1) 4.32-inch-diameter by 50-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (2) 5.0-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high polyethylene bottle; (3) 5.25-inch-diameter by 24-inch-high steel can (open-quotes F-canclose quotes); (4) 5.25-inch-diameter by 15-inch-high steel can (open-quotes Z-canclose quotes); and (5) 5.0-inch-diameter by 9-inch-high polybottle (open-quotes CO-4close quotes). Each container type is evaluated using five basic reflection and interaction models that include single containers and multiple containers in normal and in credible abnormal conditions. The uranium materials evaluated are UO 2 F 2 +H 2 O and UF 4 +oil materials at 100% and 10% enrichments and U 3 O 8 , and H 2 O at 100% enrichment. The design basis safe criticality limit for the Portsmouth facility is k eff + 2σ < 0.95. The KENO study results may be used as the basis for evaluating general use of these containers in the plant

  17. Vertebral Artery Diameter and Flow: Nature or Nurture. (United States)

    Tarnoki, Adam Domonkos; Fejer, Bence; Tarnoki, David Laszlo; Littvay, Levente; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Cirelli, Carlo; Fanelli, Fabrizio; Sacconi, Beatrice; Fagnani, Corrado; Medda, Emanuela; Farina, Filippo; Meneghetti, Giorgio; Horvath, Tamas; Pucci, Giacomo; Schillaci, Giuseppe; Stazi, Maria Antonietta; Baracchini, Claudio


    In contrast with the carotid arteries, the vertebral arteries (VAs) show considerable variation in length, caliber, and vessel course. This study investigated whether the variation in diameter and flow characteristics of the VAs might be inherited. A total of 172 Italian twins from Padua, Perugia, and Terni (54 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic) recruited from the Italian Twin Registry underwent B-mode and pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasound assessment of their VAs. VA diameters, peak systolic velocity (PSV) and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were assessed at the level of a horizontal V2 segment. Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed. Fourteen percent of the sample had VA hypoplasia. Within pair correlation in monozygotic twins was higher than in dizygotics (.552 vs. .229) for VA diameter. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic effect, under the most parsimonious model, accounted for 54.7% (95% CI: 42.2-69.1%) of the variance of VA diameter, and unshared environmental effect for 45.3% (95% CI: 30.9-57.8%). No heritability was found for the PSV of VA, but shared (34.1%; 95% CI: 16.7-53.7%) and unshared (65.9%; 95% CI: 45.9-83.1%) environmental factors determined the variance. EDV of VA is moderately genetically influenced (42.4%; 95% CI: 16.1-64.9%) and also determined by the unshared environment (57.6%; 95% CI: 34.7-83.7%). The diameter of the VAs is moderately genetically determined. Different factors influence the PSV and EDV of VAs, which may highlight the complex hemodynamic background of VA flow and help to understand the vertebral flow anomalies found by ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  18. Computational identification of genes modulating stem height-diameter allometry. (United States)

    Jiang, Libo; Ye, Meixia; Zhu, Sheng; Zhai, Yi; Xu, Meng; Huang, Minren; Wu, Rongling


    The developmental variation in stem height with respect to stem diameter is related to a broad range of ecological and evolutionary phenomena in trees, but the underlying genetic basis of this variation remains elusive. We implement a dynamic statistical model, functional mapping, to formulate a general procedure for the computational identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control stem height-diameter allometry during development. Functional mapping integrates the biological principles underlying trait formation and development into the association analysis of DNA genotype and endpoint phenotype, thus providing an incentive for understanding the mechanistic interplay between genes and development. Built on the basic tenet of functional mapping, we explore two core ecological scenarios of how stem height and stem diameter covary in response to environmental stimuli: (i) trees pioneer sunlit space by allocating more growth to stem height than diameter and (ii) trees maintain their competitive advantage through an inverse pattern. The model is equipped to characterize 'pioneering' QTLs (piQTLs) and 'maintaining' QTLs (miQTLs) which modulate these two ecological scenarios, respectively. In a practical application to a mapping population of full-sib hybrids derived from two Populus species, the model has well proven its versatility by identifying several piQTLs that promote height growth at a cost of diameter growth and several miQTLs that benefit radial growth at a cost of height growth. Judicious application of functional mapping may lead to improved strategies for studying the genetic control of the formation mechanisms underlying trade-offs among quantities of assimilates allocated to different growth parts. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Determination of Nerve Fiber Diameter Distribution From Compound Action Potential: A Continuous Approach. (United States)

    Un, M Kerem; Kaghazchi, Hamed


    When a signal is initiated in the nerve, it is transmitted along each nerve fiber via an action potential (called single fiber action potential (SFAP)) which travels with a velocity that is related with the diameter of the fiber. The additive superposition of SFAPs constitutes the compound action potential (CAP) of the nerve. The fiber diameter distribution (FDD) in the nerve can be computed from the CAP data by solving an inverse problem. This is usually achieved by dividing the fibers into a finite number of diameter groups and solve a corresponding linear system to optimize FDD. However, number of fibers in a nerve can be measured sometimes in thousands and it is possible to assume a continuous distribution for the fiber diameters which leads to a gradient optimization problem. In this paper, we have evaluated this continuous approach to the solution of the inverse problem. We have utilized an analytical function for SFAP and an assumed a polynomial form for FDD. The inverse problem involves the optimization of polynomial coefficients to obtain the best estimate for the FDD. We have observed that an eighth order polynomial for FDD can capture both unimodal and bimodal fiber distributions present in vivo, even in case of noisy CAP data. The assumed FDD distribution regularizes the ill-conditioned inverse problem and produces good results.

  20. Ureteral diameter in low-risk vesicoureteral reflux in infancy and childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstroem, M.; Hjaelmaas, K.; Jacobsson, B.; Jodal, U.

    In order to improve the accuracy of the grading of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), reference values for ureteral diameter at micturition cystourethrography (MCUG) were established in infants and children with low-risk VUR. Low-risk VUR was defined as VUR not associated with infection, obstruction, calculi, duplication, malformations (except for hypospadia) or neurogenic bladder disturbances. Forty-six children (age 1 day - 14 years) were selected by examining the records of 12000 MCUG:s performed 1960-1983. Ureteral diameter was measured at the widest point of the ureter on the films from MCUG:s and urographies. Ureteral diameter was slightly larger at MCUG than at urography in the same individuals but the difference was not significant. The ureteral diameter at MCUG also correlated closely to normal values at urography in a previous study. It is proposed that the reference values obtained at MCUG in the present investigation can be used for the differentiation between dilatation and no dilatation in the grading of VUR.

  1. Transient magnetic birefringence for determining magnetic nanoparticle diameters in dense, highly light scattering media (United States)

    Köber, Mariana; Moros, Maria; Grazú, Valeria; de la Fuente, Jesus M.; Luna, Mónica; Briones, Fernando


    The increasing use of biofunctionalized magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications calls for further development of characterization tools that allow for determining the interactions of the nanoparticles with the biological medium in situ. In cell-incubating conditions, for example, nanoparticles may aggregate and serum proteins adsorb on the particles, altering the nanoparticles’ performance and their interaction with cell membranes. In this work we show that the aggregation of spherical magnetite nanoparticles can be detected with high sensitivity in dense, highly light scattering media by making use of magnetically induced birefringence. Moreover, the hydrodynamic particle diameter distribution of anisometric nanoparticle aggregates can be determined directly in these media by monitoring the relaxation time of the magnetically induced birefringence. As a proof of concept, we performed measurements on nanoparticles included in an agarose gel, which scatters light in a similar way as a more complex biological medium but where particle-matrix interactions are weak. Magnetite nanoparticles were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and the hydrodynamic diameter distribution was determined in situ. For the different particle functionalizations and agarose concentrations tested, we could show that gel electrophoresis did not yield a complete separation of monomers and small aggregates, and that the electrophoretic mobility of the aggregates decreased linearly with the hydrodynamic diameter. Furthermore, the rotational particle diffusion was not clearly affected by nanoparticle-gel interactions. The possibility to detect nanoparticle aggregates and their hydrodynamic diameters in complex scattering media like cell tissue makes transient magnetic birefringence an interesting technique for biological applications.

  2. Dynamic response of the U-tube liquid manometer with equal diameter columns (United States)

    Zahariea, D.


    The paper presents numerical solving methods using MATLAB programming language of the governing equation of the liquid oscillations in a U-tube liquid manometer with equal diameter columns. Assuming some numerical values for geometrical and functional parameters of this pressure measurement system, the dynamic behavior of the oscillating system will be analyzed using four MATLAB based computational methods: the method of the default MATLAB procedures, the Simulink method, the Simscape method and the method of the Control System Toolbox procedures. According to all these methods, in almost all the cases analyzed, the dynamic behavior of the U-tube liquid manometer with equal diameter columns corresponds to an under-damped dynamic system. The influence of some important constructive and functional parameters (the columns diameter, the manometer liquid, the capillarity action and the connection tube between the reservoir and the manometer) has been investigated. Improving the dynamic response (decreasing the overshoot and the settling time, increasing the phase and delay margins) can be achieved by increasing the connection tube length, by decreasing the columns diameter and by using a high density liquid manometer.

  3. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir


    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  4. Effects of Centrifuge Diameter and Operation on Rodent Adaptation to Chronic Centrifugation (United States)

    Fuller, Charles A.


    This study examined the responses of rats to centrifugation in a constant acceleration field (1.5 G). Centrifuge diameter (1.8m, 2.5m or 6.0m) and schedule of operation (Daily or weekly stop) varied between groups. Body mass, food consumption, water consumption and neurovestibular function were measured weekly. Body temperature and activity were continuously monitored using telemetry. A subset of subjects were videotaped (50 minutes per day) to allow for movement analysis. Exposure to a hyperdynamic field of this magnitude did cause the expected depression in the physiological variables monitored. Recovery was accomplished within a relatively rapid time frame; all variables returned to precentrifugation levels. In general, the magnitudes of the changes and the rate of recovery were similar at different centrifuge diameters and stopping frequency. There were cases, however, in which the magnitude of the response and/or the rate of recovery to a new steady-state were altered as a result of centrifuge diameter. In summary, these results indicate that stopping frequency has little, if any, effect on adaptation to chronic centrifugation. However, the angular velocity (omega), and therefore centrifuge diameter is an important consideration in the adaptation of an organism to chronic centrifugation.

  5. Evaluation of Circle Diameter by Distributed Tactile Information in Active Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nakamoto


    Full Text Available Active touch with voluntary movement on the surface of an object is important for human to obtain the local and detailed features on it. In addition, the active touch is considered to enhance the human spatial resolution. In order to improve dexterity performance of multifinger robotic hands, it is necessary to study an active touch method for robotic hands. In this paper, first, we define four requirements of a tactile sensor for active touch and design a distributed tactile sensor model, which can measure a distribution of compressive deformation. Second, we suggest a measurement process with the sensor model, a synthesis method of distributed deformations. In the experiments, a five-finger robotic hand with tactile sensors traces on the surface of cylindrical objects and evaluates the diameters. We confirm that the hand can obtain more information of the diameters by tracing the finger.

  6. Ultrasonic determination of interfacial area, void fraction and Sauter mean diameter in bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensler, Henri-Paul


    In this research thesis, the author shows that it is possible to determine, by means of a single measurement, the interface surface, the vacuum rate, and the Sauter mean diameter in a bubbly water-air flow. The developed technique relies on the measurement of the attenuation of an ultrasound beam by the two-phase medium, and on the use of broadband transducers associated with a multi-frequency screening method. Tests in standing water or in forced convection are performed in ducts with a square cross section with a side of 40, 80, or 120 mm. Values obtained with ultrasounds are compared with those determined by using photographs (interface surfaces, Sauter diameters) or by using a gauge pressure, or by using X rays (vacuum rate). This method based on ultrasound attenuation reveals to be simple and in good agreement with reference methods [fr

  7. Roentogenological study of antero-posterior diameter in developmental canal stenosis of cervical spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higo, Masaru


    Developmental canal stenosis of the cervical spine is an important underlying condition of cervical spondylotic myelopathy. However, the criteria of the degree of narrowing is different among investigators and their rationales are unclear. To clarify this point, the antero-posterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal was measured in groups of normal subjects, patients with neck-shoulder-arm syndrome and cervical spondylosis. The measured values were analyzed statistically. The antero-posterior diameter was the widest in normal individuals and the narrowest in patients with the cervical spondylotic myelopathy. The point of differentiation of developmental canal stenosis was determined as 14 mm for males and 13 mm for females using the mean +- 2SD of the values in normal subjects. Patients with values lower than this criteria comprised 82 % of those with the cervical spondylotic myelopathy. These patients could be further classified into those that also showed clear cervical spondylotic changes and those that did not.

  8. A Review of the Segmental Diameter of the Healthy Human Spinal Cord. (United States)

    Frostell, Arvid; Hakim, Ramil; Thelin, Eric Peter; Mattsson, Per; Svensson, Mikael


    Knowledge of the average size and variability of the human spinal cord can be of importance when treating pathological conditions in the spinal cord. Data on healthy human spinal cord morphometrics have been published for more than a century using different techniques of measurements, but unfortunately, comparison of results from different studies is difficult because of the different anatomical landmarks used as reference points along the craniocaudal axis for the measurements. The aim of this review was to compute population estimates of the transverse and anteroposterior diameter of the human spinal cord by comparing and combining previously published data on a normalized craniocaudal axis. We included 11 studies presenting measurements of spinal cord cross-sectional diameters, with a combined sample size ranging from 15 to 488 subjects, depending on spinal cord level. Based on five published studies presenting data on the lengths of the segments of the spinal cord and vertebral column, we calculated the relative positions of all spinal cord neuronal segments and vertebral bony segments and mapped measurements of spinal cord size to a normalized craniocaudal axis. This mapping resulted in better alignment between studies and allowed the calculation of weighted averages and standard deviations (SDs) along the spinal cord. These weighted averages were smoothed using a generalized additive model to yield continuous population estimates for transverse and anteroposterior diameter and associated SDs. The spinal cord had the largest transverse diameter at spinal cord neuronal segment C5 (13.3 ± 2.2), decreased to segment T8 (8.3 ± 2.1), and increased slightly again to 9.4 ± 1.5 at L3. The anteroposterior diameter showed less variation in size along the spinal cord at C5 (7.4 ± 1.6), T8 (6.3 ± 2.0), and L3 (7.5 ± 1.6). All estimates are presented in millimeters ± 2 SDs. We conclude that segmental transverse and anteroposterior

  9. The Diameter of the Left and Right Common Carotid Arteries in a Young Adult Population: An Imaging Based Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the most prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing and developed countries. Non-invasive measurement of arterial diameter could become imperative in identifying individuals at risk. Therefore, we aimed to determine the parietal stress and normal values of left and right common carotid arteries in a young adult population and to evaluate their correlation with anthropometric variables (weight, height, BM[, BSA, and age and also determine if sexual dimorphism exists in the values of common carotid artery diameter. Sixty (60 young adults with age range 18-35 were recruited for the study. B-Mode ultrasound was used to assess diameter of carotid arteries. Results showed that the diameter of the common carotid artery increased with age. The right common carotid artery had a larger diameter than the left (P and lt;0.05. Males had larger common carotid diameter in both RCCA and LCCA than the females. The size of the common carotid artery however does not relate to height and blood pressure. Females showed a greater parietal stress than males. The study is the first to establish normal values of diameter of carotid arteries in an African population and will be a guide to further investigations into the possible relationship between the artery and the individuals at risk of carotid aneurysm.

  10. Colour of the nucleus as a marker of nuclear hardness, diameter and central thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullapalli Vamsi


    Full Text Available Hundred and thirty patients, aged above 40 years, with senile cataract were examined. Age and colour were selected as the probable preoperative indicators of nuclear hardness. The lens material collected after manual extracapsular extraction was washed and the nucleus isolated. The diameter and central thickness of the nucleus were measured; the mean diameter and mean central thickness were 7.13 mm ± 0.76 and 3.05 mm ± 0.48, respectively. The hardness of the nucleus was measured with a lens guillotine designed by us. Regression analysis was applied to the parameters measured and these were compared with the colour and age. The parameters measured had the following relationship: Colour vs hardness (r value = 0.7569 (p < 0.001 Colour vs diameter (r value = 0.3962 (p < 0.001 Colour vs central thickness (r value = 0.4785 (p < 0.001 Age vs hardness (r value = -0.0499 (p > 0.05 Age vs diameter (r value = 0.0987 (p > 0.05 Age vs central thickness (r value = 0.1700 (p > 0.05 The values showed that colour had a statistically significant relationship with all the 3 parameters (p < 0.001, while age had no significant relationship with the same parameters. The results indicated that colour can be used more reliably to predict physical characteristics of the cataractous lens nucleus, the preoperative knowledge of which would help the surgeon in planning small-incision surgery including phacoemulsification.

  11. Sagittal abdominal diameter shows better correlation with cardiovascular risk factors than waist circumference and BMI


    de Souza, Natalia Cavalheri; de Oliveira, Erick Prado


    Background Obesity (abdominal adiposity) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and the most used methods to measure the adiposity are body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). Objective To correlate BMI, WC, and SAD with biochemical parameters and blood pressure in adults. Methods A non-experimental exploratory/descriptive and cross sectional study was developed and it was assessed 133 subjects (59 men and 74 women) aging between 18 and 87?...

  12. Air temperature sensors: dependence of radiative errors on sensor diameter in precision metrology and meteorology (United States)

    de Podesta, Michael; Bell, Stephanie; Underwood, Robin


    In both meteorological and metrological applications, it is well known that air temperature sensors are susceptible to radiative errors. However, it is not widely known that the radiative error measured by an air temperature sensor in flowing air depends upon the sensor diameter, with smaller sensors reporting values closer to true air temperature. This is not a transient effect related to sensor heat capacity, but a fluid-dynamical effect arising from heat and mass flow in cylindrical geometries. This result has been known historically and is in meteorology text books. However, its significance does not appear to be widely appreciated and, as a consequence, air temperature can be—and probably is being—widely mis-estimated. In this paper, we first review prior descriptions of the ‘sensor size’ effect from the metrological and meteorological literature. We develop a heat transfer model to describe the process for cylindrical sensors, and evaluate the predicted temperature error for a range of sensor sizes and air speeds. We compare these predictions with published predictions and measurements. We report measurements demonstrating this effect in two laboratories at NPL in which the air flow and temperature are exceptionally closely controlled. The results are consistent with the heat-transfer model, and show that the air temperature error is proportional to the square root of the sensor diameter and that, even under good laboratory conditions, it can exceed 0.1 °C for a 6 mm diameter sensor. We then consider the implications of this result. In metrological applications, errors of the order of 0.1 °C are significant, representing limiting uncertainties in dimensional and mass measurements. In meteorological applications, radiative errors can easily be much larger. But in both cases, an understanding of the diameter dependence allows assessment and correction of the radiative error using a multi-sensor technique.

  13. 100 mm diameter rod laser amplifiers made of different Nd:glasses (United States)

    Shaykin, A. A.; Kuzmin, A. A.; Shaikin, I. A.; Potemkin, A. K.; Arbuzov, V. I.; Hu, Lili; Wen, Lei; Khazanov, Е A.


    We measured the dependence of the weak signal gain of 100 mm diameter rod amplifiers on pump energy and transverse coordinates for four neodymium glass grades. The highest gain was obtained in N31-05 (China), and the highest radial gain uniformity in KGSS-0180 glass (Russia). The data obtained enable the optimal glass grade to be chosen for each specific problem by finding a compromise between maximum output energy and minimum distortion of beam profile.

  14. Pulmonary artery pulsatility and effect on vessel diameter assessment in magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariat, Masoud, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Schantz, Daryl, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yoo, Shi-Joon, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Wintersperger, Bernd J., E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Seed, Mike, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Alnafisi, Bahiyah, E-mail: [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chu, Leysia, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); MacGowan, Christopher K., E-mail: [Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Amerom, Joshua van, E-mail: [Department of Physiology and Experimental Medicine, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Grosse-Wortmann, Lars, E-mail: [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Cardiology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)


    Background: Information about thoracic vascular sizes can crucially affect clinical decision-making in cardiovascular disease. A variety of imaging techniques such as catheter angiography, contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are routinely used to measure vascular diameters. Traditionally, CMR black blood sequences were the main anatomical tool for visualization of vascular anatomy and still are in many centers. More recently, the vessel diameters are measured on multiplanar reconstructions derived from static magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). This study was performed to investigate the variation of vessel diameter measurements on different CMR techniques with respect to their data acquisition scheme. Methods: We recruited two groups of patients for this prospective study. One group included patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), with at least moderate pulmonary insufficiency and another group of patients who underwent CMR as part of a diagnostic work-up for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Additional images of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) were acquired in the double inversion recovery (DIR) black blood, cine steady state free precession (SSFP) and MRA. All images were reviewed by two CMR trained readers using the electronic caliper provided within the picture archiving and communication system package. The maximum diameter of each artery was recorded in millimeters with up to one decimal point. Paired t-tests and Bland–Altman plots were used for comparison of measurements between different sequences. Results: A total of 52 patients were recruited for this study, 26 patients in the TOF group (15 males, age 12.55 ± 2.9) and 26 patients in the ARVC group (15 males, age 15.6 ± 2.3). In both groups, the RPA sizes were not significantly different between the DIR images and diastolic cine SSFP (p > 0.05). Measurements on DIR were significantly smaller than those made on

  15. Pulmonary artery pulsatility and effect on vessel diameter assessment in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariat, Masoud; Schantz, Daryl; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Wintersperger, Bernd J.; Seed, Mike; Alnafisi, Bahiyah; Chu, Leysia; MacGowan, Christopher K.; Amerom, Joshua van; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars


    Background: Information about thoracic vascular sizes can crucially affect clinical decision-making in cardiovascular disease. A variety of imaging techniques such as catheter angiography, contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are routinely used to measure vascular diameters. Traditionally, CMR black blood sequences were the main anatomical tool for visualization of vascular anatomy and still are in many centers. More recently, the vessel diameters are measured on multiplanar reconstructions derived from static magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). This study was performed to investigate the variation of vessel diameter measurements on different CMR techniques with respect to their data acquisition scheme. Methods: We recruited two groups of patients for this prospective study. One group included patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), with at least moderate pulmonary insufficiency and another group of patients who underwent CMR as part of a diagnostic work-up for arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Additional images of the right pulmonary artery (RPA) were acquired in the double inversion recovery (DIR) black blood, cine steady state free precession (SSFP) and MRA. All images were reviewed by two CMR trained readers using the electronic caliper provided within the picture archiving and communication system package. The maximum diameter of each artery was recorded in millimeters with up to one decimal point. Paired t-tests and Bland–Altman plots were used for comparison of measurements between different sequences. Results: A total of 52 patients were recruited for this study, 26 patients in the TOF group (15 males, age 12.55 ± 2.9) and 26 patients in the ARVC group (15 males, age 15.6 ± 2.3). In both groups, the RPA sizes were not significantly different between the DIR images and diastolic cine SSFP (p > 0.05). Measurements on DIR were significantly smaller than those made on

  16. Effects of Diameter on Initial Stiffness of P-Y Curves for Large-Diameter Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Augustesen, Anders Hust


    -pile interaction. Hence, a modified expression for the p-y curves for statically loaded piles in sand is proposed in which the initial slope of the p-y curves depends on the depth below the soil surface, the pile diameter and the internal angle of friction. The evaluation is based on three-dimensional numerical...

  17. Preoperative Ultrasonographic Prediction of Hamstring Tendon Diameter for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mendez, Luis Manuel; Martinez-Ruiz, Jose de Jesus; Perez-Manzo, Ruben; Corona-Hernandez, Jorge Luis; Alcala-Zermeno, Juan Luis; Sanchez-Enriquez, Sergio


    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries is rising every year. The autologous hamstring tendon graft, using semitendinosus tendon (SMT) and gracilis tendon (GR), is a common repair technique in the management of ACL injuries due to its multiple advantages. Using a final graft with a minimum diameter of 8 mm is necessary to avoid graft failure. The aim of this study was to find a correlation between preoperative ultrasound (USG) measurement of the SMT and GR tendon diameters (SMTd and GRd) and their actual diameters measured during the grafting procedure. In the present study, 33 male patients aged between 16 and 43 years with ACL injury that required grafting were enrolled. Before the grafting procedure, we sonographically measured the SMTd, GRd, and calculated the hamstring tendon diameter (SMTd + GRd) as the sum of these two. During surgery, we obtained the SMTd, GRd, and SMTd + GRd; we also obtained the length of both tendons and the final graft diameter (FGd). We then compared the obtained values. Mean age was 25.6 ± 7.9 years in our study population. The mean SMTd, GRd, and SMTd + GRd obtained by USG versus transoperatively were 4.9 versus 4.7 mm, 4.3 versus 3.8 mm, and 9.3 versus 8.6 mm, respectively. The mean of FGd was 8.4 mm and the mean length of both tendons was 14.2 cm. The GRd obtained by USG positively correlated with SMTd, SMT tendon length, GRd, and SMTd + GRd ( r  = 0.460, 0.404, 0.411, and 0.508, respectively). USG-obtained GRd predicts a final tendon diameter tendons is a useful method to predict their transoperative diameter. GRd obtained by USG is the best predictor of transoperative GRd and SMTd + GRd. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud plantary nebulae. I. Speckle interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, P.R.; Bessell, M.S.; Dopita, M.A.


    Speckle interferometric angular diameters of Magellanic Cloud planetary nebulae are presented. The mass of ionized gas in each nebula has been derived from the angular diameter and published H-beta line fluxes; the derives masses range from less than 0.006 to more than 0.19 solar mass. The planetary nebulae observed were the brightest in the Magellanic Clouds; consequently, they are all relatively small, young, bright, and dense. They are almost certainly only partially ionized, so that the masses derived for the ionized parts of the nebula are lower limits to the total nebula mass. The properties of the Magellanic Cloud nebulae are compared with those of planetary nebulae at the galactic center. 27 references

  19. Engineering of an E. coli outer membrane protein FhuA with increased channel diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dworeck Tamara


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Channel proteins like FhuA can be an alternative to artificial chemically synthesized nanopores. To reach such goals, channel proteins must be flexible enough to be modified in their geometry, i.e. length and diameter. As continuation of a previous study in which we addressed the lengthening of the channel, here we report the increasing of the channel diameter by genetic engineering. Results The FhuA Δ1-159 diameter increase has been obtained by doubling the amino acid sequence of the first two N-terminal β-strands, resulting in variant FhuA Δ1-159 Exp. The total number of β-strands increased from 22 to 24 and the channel surface area is expected to increase by ~16%. The secondary structure analysis by circular dichroism (CD spectroscopy shows a high β-sheet content, suggesting the correct folding of FhuA Δ1-159 Exp. To further prove the FhuA Δ1-159 Exp channel functionality, kinetic measurement using the HRP-TMB assay (HRP = Horse Radish Peroxidase, TMB = 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine were conducted. The results indicated a 17% faster diffusion kinetic for FhuA Δ1-159 Exp as compared to FhuA Δ1-159, well correlated to the expected channel surface area increase of ~16%. Conclusion In this study using a simple "semi rational" approach the FhuA Δ1-159 diameter was enlarged. By combining the actual results with the previous ones on the FhuA Δ1-159 lengthening a new set of synthetic nanochannels with desired lengths and diameters can be produced, broadening the FhuA Δ1-159 applications. As large scale protein production is possible our approach can give a contribution to nanochannel industrial applications.

  20. Diameters and cross-sectional areas of branches in the human pulmonary arterial tree. (United States)

    Horsfield, K; Woldenberg, M J


    Measurements were made of the diameters of the three branches meeting at each of 1,937 bifurcations in the pulmonary arterial tree, using resin casts from two fully inflated human lungs. Cross-sectional areas of the parent branch and of the daughter branches were calculated and plotted on a log-log plot, which showed that mean cross-sectional area increases in a constant proportion of 1.0879 at bifurcations. The mean value of the ratio of daughter branch diameters at bifurcations was 0.7849. The mean value of the exponent z in the equation flow = k (diameter(z)) was found to be 2.3 +/- 0.1, which is equal to the optimal value for minimizing power and metabolic costs for fully developed turbulent flow. Although Reynolds number may exceed 2,000 in the larger branches of the pulmonary artery, turbulent flow probably does not occur, and in the peripheral branches Reynolds number is always low, excluding turbulent flow in these branches. This finding seems to be incompatible with the observed value of z. A possible explanation may be that other factors may need to be taken into account when calculating the theoretical optimum value of z for minimum power dissipation, such as the relatively short branches and the disturbances of flow occurring at bifurcations. Alternatively, higher arterial diameters reduce acceleration of the blood during systole, reduce turbulent flow, and increase the reservoir function of the larger arteries. These higher diameters result in a lower value of z.

  1. A versatile Czochralski crystal growth system with automatic diameter control (United States)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Metzl, R.; Wang, W. S.; Choi, J.


    A versatile Czochralski crystal pulling system with automatic diameter control for the growth of nonlinear optical oxide crystals is discussed. Pure and doped bulk single crystals of bismuth silicon oxide (Bi12SiO20) have been successfully grown using this system. The system consists of a regular Czochralski type pulling system with provision for continuous weighing of the growing crystal to provide feedback for power control.

  2. Cost of Czochralski wafers as a function of diameter (United States)

    Leipold, M. H.; Radics, C.; Kachare, A.


    The impact of diameter in the range of 10 to 15 cm on the cost of wafers sliced from Czochralski ingots was analyzed. Increasing silicon waste and decreasing ingot cost with increasing ingot size were estimated along with projected costs. Results indicate a small but continuous decrease in sheet cost with increasing ingot size in this size range. Sheet costs including silicon are projected to be $50 to $60/sq m (1980 $) depending upon technique used.

  3. A study of the heated length to diameter effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    An analytical and experimental investigation has been performed on the heated length-to-diameter effect on critical heat flux exit conditions. A L/D correction factor is developed by applying artificial neural network and conventional regression techniques to the KAIST CHF data base. In addition, experiment is being performed to validate the developed L/D correction factor with independent data. Assessment shows that the developed correction factor is promising for practical applications. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  4. Hitungan Diameter Pipa pada Sistem Penyediaan Air Minum sederhana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Widiyanto


    Full Text Available Drinking water sector is one of the public services which is connected tightly to poverty decrease. A small community water supply is more suitable if it uses a simple system which does not need sophisticated planning and construction. Nevertheless, hydraulics calculation should be always conducted accurately because it will influence water supply performance. In this case, pipe hydraulics needs more overview because system reliability depends on pipe capacity. This study discusses two methods of pipe diameter calculation at a simple drinking water supply system. For planning assistance, Directorate General Cipta Karya-Public Work Ministry issued Technical Guideline Book for Simple Drinking Water Construction in 2007. One of its chapters discusses about a method to find pipe diameter based on several tables available, but it is not given an explanation about basic theory of the tables so there is a doubt for planners. For the reason, comparison between the use of the tables (Juknis Method and Darcy-Weisbach Formula to calculate pipe diameter will be discussed. Data from 5 villages in Kebumen Regency will be utilized to support analysis. The result of procedure for making comparison shows that there is no significant difference (less than 4% between the result of calculation by Darcy-Weisbach Formula and Juknis Method with accurate interpolation. Both of the methods can be applied with its advantages and disadvantages. It is suggested that Darcy-Weisbach Formula is always implemented to re-check toward pipe diameter which is available in the market and will be used in the system.

  5. Diameter of the lymphoid follicles in the vermiform appendix of Bangladeshi cadaver. (United States)

    Rahman, M A; Parash, T H; Banu, L A


    Appendicitis is the most common clinical condition of the appendix. Many cases of acute appendicitis result from obstruction of the lumen of the appendix by lymphoid hyperplasia. The vermiform appendix is a worm-like, closed-ended, narrow, small tubular structure, projecting from posteromedial wall of cecum. It is an integral part of the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) system. The lymphoid follicles of the vermiform appendix vary in respect to their number, diameter and location in different ages. This study was done to measure and establish the normal diameter with age related variation of the lymphoid follicles of vermiform appendix in Bangladeshi population. This descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Anatomy, Sir Salimullah Medical College, Dhaka, from January 2008 to June 2009. Sixty (60) postmortem vermiform appendices of different age groups of Bangladeshi cadavers. For studying the diameter of lymphoid follicles in the vermiform appendix in relation to age, the collected samples were divided into five groups namely Group-A between age ranges 0-20 years, Group-B between age ranges 21-30 years, Group-C between age ranges 31-40 years, Group-D 41-50 years and Group-E age above 50 years. From each age group, six (6) fresh samples were selected for histological study. From each vermiform appendix three slides were prepared each from its base, middle part and near the tip and were stained with routine H & E stain. The normal diameter of the follicles of the vermiform appendix ranged from 0.40 mm to 0.66 mm. The highest average group diameter was 0.62±1.10mm in Group-A and the lowest value was 0.45±2.73mm in Group-E. It was obvious that the diameter decreased gradually with advancing age. The average normal diameter of the lymphoid follicles per histological section of vermiform appendix reduced with advancing age and showed a significant negative correlation with age (pvermiform appendix reduced significantly with advancing

  6. Clinical outcome of narrow diameter implants inserted into allografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Franco


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narrow diameter implants (NDI (i.e. diameter <3.75 mm are a potential solution for specific clinical situations, such as reduced interradicular bone, thin alveolar crest and replacement of teeth with small cervical diameter. NDI have been available in clinical practice since the 1990s, but only few studies have analyzed their clinical outcome and no study have investigated NDI inserted in fresh-frozen bone (FFB grafts. Thus, a retrospective study on a series of NDI placed in homologue FFB was designed to evaluate their clinical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period between December 2003 and December 2006, 36 patients (22 females and 14 males, mean age 53 years with FFB grafts were selected and 94 different NDI were inserted. The mean follow-up was 25 months. To evaluate the effect of several host-, surgery-, and implant-related factors, marginal bone loss (MBL was considered an indicator of success rate (SCR. The Kaplan Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used. RESULTS: Only 5 out of 94 implants were lost (i.e. survival rate - SVR 95.7% and no differences were detected among the studied variables. On the contrary, the Cox regression showed that the graft site (i.e. maxilla reduced MBL. CONCLUSIONS: NDI inserted in FFB have a high SVR and SCR similar to those reported in previous studies on regular and NDI inserted in non-grafted jaws. Homologue FFB is a valuable material in the insertion of NDI.

  7. Tree height–diameter allometry across the United States (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D


    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height–diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales. PMID:25859325

  8. Tree height-diameter allometry across the United States. (United States)

    Hulshof, Catherine M; Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D


    The relationship between tree height and diameter is fundamental in determining community and ecosystem structure as well as estimates of biomass and carbon storage. Yet our understanding of how tree allometry relates to climate and whole organismal function is limited. We used the Forest Inventory and Analysis National Program database to determine height-diameter allometries of 2,976,937 individuals of 293 tree species across the United States. The shape of the allometric relationship was determined by comparing linear and nonlinear functional forms. Mixed-effects models were used to test for allometric differences due to climate and floristic (between angiosperms and gymnosperms) and functional groups (leaf habit and shade tolerance). Tree allometry significantly differed across the United States largely because of climate. Temperature, and to some extent precipitation, in part explained tree allometric variation. The magnitude of allometric variation due to climate, however, had a phylogenetic signal. Specifically, angiosperm allometry was more sensitive to differences in temperature compared to gymnosperms. Most notably, angiosperm height was more negatively influenced by increasing temperature variability, whereas gymnosperm height was negatively influenced by decreasing precipitation and increasing altitude. There was little evidence to suggest that shade tolerance influenced tree allometry except for very shade-intolerant trees which were taller for any given diameter. Tree allometry is plastic rather than fixed and scaling parameters vary around predicted central tendencies. This allometric variation provides insight into life-history strategies, phylogenetic history, and environmental limitations at biogeographical scales.

  9. Estimating the Uncertainty In Diameter Growth Model Predictions and Its Effects On The Uncertainty of Annual Inventory Estimates (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Veronica C. Lessard


    Uncertainty in diameter growth predictions is attributed to three general sources: measurement error or sampling variability in predictor variables, parameter covariances, and residual or unexplained variation around model expectations. Using measurement error and sampling variability distributions obtained from the literature and Monte Carlo simulation methods, the...

  10. Diameter growth rates in tropical dry forests: contributions to the sustainable management of forests in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, L.; Villalba, R.; Peña-Claros, M.


    Growth ring variations were used to provide the rates in diameter growth for seven tree species in the Bolivian Cerrado biogeographical province. Ten to 50 trees were measured per species. Ring width measurements provided accurate data on the rates of tree growth. Variations in growth rates were

  11. Critical Diameter Study of Unconfined Australian Manufactured Composition B, Grades A and B

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swinton, R


    .... To this end, the critical diameter, which is the minimum diameter which will sustain a stable detonation, and the limiting value of the velocity of detonation at infinite charge diameter D(infinity...

  12. Determining carotid artery pressure from scaled diameter waveforms: comparison and validation of calibration techniques in 2026 subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeersch, S J; Verdonck, P R; Segers, P; Rietzschel, E R; De Buyzere, M L; Gillebert, T C; De Bacquer, D; De Backer, G; Van Bortel, L M


    Calibrated diameter distension waveforms could provide an alternative for local arterial pressure assessment more widely applicable than applanation tonometry. We compared linearly and exponentially calibrated carotid diameter waveforms to tonometry readings. Local carotid pressures measured by tonometry and diameter waveforms measured by ultrasound were obtained in 2026 subjects participating in the Asklepios study protocol. Diameter waveforms were calibrated using a linear and an exponential calibration scheme and compared to measured tonometry waveforms by examining the mean root-mean-squared error (RMSE), carotid systolic blood pressure (SBP car ) and augmentation index (AIx) of calibrated and measured pressures. Mean RMSE was 5.2(3.3) mmHg (mean(stdev)) for linear and 4.6(3.6) mmHg for exponential calibration. Linear calibration yielded an underestimation of SBP car by 6.4(4.1) mmHg which was strongly correlated to values of brachial pulse pressure (PP bra ) (R = 0.4, P car by 1.9(3.9) mmHg, independent of PP bra . AIx was overestimated by linear calibration by 1.9(10.1)%, the difference significantly increasing with increasing AIx (R = 0.25, P < 0.001) and by exponential calibration by 5.4(10.6)%, independently of the value of AIx. Properly calibrated diameter waveforms offer a viable alternative for local pressure estimation at the carotid artery. Compared to linear calibration, exponential calibration significantly improves the pressure estimation

  13. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf


    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  14. Comparison of two methods of digital imaging technology for small diameter K-file length determination. (United States)

    Maryam, Ehsani; Farida, Abesi; Farhad, Akbarzade; Soraya, Khafri


    Obtaining the proper working length in endodontic treatment is essential. The aim of this study was to compare the working length (WL) assessment of small diameter K-files using the two different digital imaging methods. The samples for this in-vitro experimental study consisted of 40 extracted single-rooted premolars. After access cavity preparation, the ISO files no. 6, 8, and 10 stainless steel K-files were inserted in the canals in the three different lengths to evaluate the results in a blinded manner: At the level of apical foramen(actual)1 mm short of apical foramen2 mm short of apical foramen A digital caliper was used to measure the length of the files which was considered as the Gold Standard. Five observers (two oral and maxillofacial radiologists and three endodontists) observed the digital radiographs which were obtained using PSP and CCD digital imaging sensors. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS 17 and Repeated Measures Paired T-test. In WL assessment of small diameter K-files, a significant statistical relationship was seen among the observers of two digital imaging techniques (Pdigital techniques in WL assessment of small diameter K-files (Pdigital imaging techniques were similar in WL assessment of canals using no. 6, 8, and 10 K-files.

  15. Observation of diameter dependent carrier distribution in nanowire-based transistors (United States)

    Schulze, A.; Hantschel, T.; Eyben, P.; Verhulst, A. S.; Rooyackers, R.; Vandooren, A.; Mody, J.; Nazir, A.; Leonelli, D.; Vandervorst, W.


    The successful implementation of nanowire (NW) based field-effect transistors (FET) critically depends on quantitative information about the carrier distribution inside such devices. Therefore, we have developed a method based on high-vacuum scanning spreading resistance microscopy (HV-SSRM) which allows two-dimensional (2D) quantitative carrier profiling of fully integrated silicon NW-based tunnel-FETs (TFETs) with 2 nm spatial resolution. The key elements of our characterization procedure are optimized NW cleaving and polishing steps, the use of in-house fabricated ultra-sharp diamond tips, measurements in high vacuum and a dedicated quantification procedure accounting for the Schottky-like tip-sample contact affected by surface states. In the case of the implanted TFET source regions we find a strong NW diameter dependence of conformality, junction abruptness and gate overlap, quantitatively in agreement with process simulations. In contrast, the arsenic doped drain regions reveal an unexpected NW diameter dependent dopant deactivation. The observed lower drain doping for smaller diameters is reflected in the device characteristics by lower TFET off-currents, as measured experimentally and confirmed by device simulations.

  16. Geometric interpretation of the ratio of overall diameter to rim crest diameter for lunar and terrestrial craters. (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Wickman, F. E.


    An empirical linear relationship has been established by Pike (1967) between the overall diameter and the rim crest diameter for rimmed, flat-floored as well as bowl-shaped, lunar and terrestrial craters formed by impact and explosion. A similar relationship for experimentally formed fluidization craters has been established by Siegal (1971). This relationship is examined in terms of the geometry of the crater and the slope angles of loose materials. The parameter varies from 1.40 to 1.65 and is found to be dependent on mean interior flat floor radius, exterior and interior rim slope angles, angle of aperture of the crater cone, and the volume fraction of crater void accounted for in the rim. The range of the observed parameter can be understood in terms of simple crater geometry by realistic values of the five parameters.

  17. Height-diameter allometry of tropical forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Feldpausch


    Full Text Available Tropical tree height-diameter (H:D relationships may vary by forest type and region making large-scale estimates of above-ground biomass subject to bias if they ignore these differences in stem allometry. We have therefore developed a new global tropical forest database consisting of 39 955 concurrent H and D measurements encompassing 283 sites in 22 tropical countries. Utilising this database, our objectives were:

    1. to determine if H:D relationships differ by geographic region and forest type (wet to dry forests, including zones of tension where forest and savanna overlap.

    2. to ascertain if the H:D relationship is modulated by climate and/or forest structural characteristics (e.g. stand-level basal area, A.

    3. to develop H:D allometric equations and evaluate biases to reduce error in future local-to-global estimates of tropical forest biomass.

    Annual precipitation coefficient of variation (PV, dry season length (SD, and mean annual air temperature (TA emerged as key drivers of variation in H:D relationships at the pantropical and region scales. Vegetation structure also played a role with trees in forests of a high A being, on average, taller at any given D. After the effects of environment and forest structure are taken into account, two main regional groups can be identified. Forests in Asia, Africa and the Guyana Shield all have, on average, similar H:D relationships, but with trees in the forests of much of the Amazon Basin and tropical Australia typically being shorter at any given D than their counterparts elsewhere. The region-environment-structure model with the lowest Akaike's information criterion and lowest deviation estimated stand-level H across all plots to within amedian −2.7 to 0.9% of the true value. Some of the plot-to-plot variability in

  18. Radial heat transfer in fixed-bed packing with small tube/particle diameter ratios (United States)

    Grah, A.; Nowak, U.; Schreier, M.; Adler, R.


    This paper presents an integrating approach to the description of radial heat transfer in catalyst packing with a flow without chemical reactions. The derived model combines the conventional αW model with the more recent λr( r) model. Particular attention is paid to small tube/particle diameter ratios. Experimental data including different tube diameters and particle shapes are used for adjustment. Spheres were used to represent a type of ordered single-size packing, and hollow cylinders to represent a type of chaotic random packing. A gradual quasi-steady experimental concept allows measurement of temperature gradients even at low flow velocities. Adjusted radial temperature profiles are compared with known approaches from literature, and correlation equations for heat transfer parameters are specified.

  19. Analytical Approach for Load Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles Using Field Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Dawood Salman


    Full Text Available An analytical approach based on field data was used to determine the strength capacity of large diameter bored type piles. Also the deformations and settlements were evaluated for both vertical and lateral loadings. The analytical predictions are compared to field data obtained from a proto-type test pile used at Tharthar –Tigris canal Bridge. They were found to be with acceptable agreement of 12% deviation. Following ASTM standards D1143M-07e1,2010, a test schedule of five loading cycles were proposed for vertical loads and series of cyclic loads to simulate horizontal loading .The load test results and analytical data of 1.95m in diameter test pile proved efficiently to carry a working load of 450 tons. The calculated lateral displacements based on a specified coefficient of subgrade reaction are compared to the measured values from dial gauges and strain gauges placed at various locations along the length of the pile.

  20. Glass molding of 3mm diameter aspheric plano-convex lens (United States)

    Sung, Hayeong; Hue, Myung sang; Lee, Giljae; Ryu, Geunman; Kim, Dongguk; Yang, Suncheol


    The many industries and research fields have demands for small scale optical systems. To satisfy the demands, many studies are conducted and the miniaturization technologies have been developed. The optical lens is directly related to the optical systems and a key component for the miniaturization. So the aspheric surface which can replace multispherical lenses is applied to the optical lens. And fabrication methods to reduce the diameter of the lens have been developed. The glass molding pressing (GMP) process is an attractive method to fabricate aspheric lens among the lens manufacturing processes. Because the GMP process has advantages of productivity, repeatability and so on. In this study, a 3 mm diameter aspheric plano-convex lens was fabricated using the GMP process. The GMP process was divided into heating, pressing, annealing and cooling. And the process was conducted using a commercial glass molding machine. Mold tools consist of an upper and a lower mold insert, an inner and an outer guide. The aspheric and the flat surfaces of the mold inserts were coated with ta-C to prevent the sticking of the glass to the mold. The surfaces of molded lens were measured by white interferometry and surface profilometer. The height and the diameter were measured using optical microscopy. As results, the aspheric surface of the lens was 5.1187 nm in Ra and 0.242 um in Pt. And the flat surface was 2.6697 nm in Ra and 0.13 um in Pt. The height and the diameter were 1.935 mm and 3.002 mm respectively.

  1. Alterations in optic nerve sheath diameter according to cerebrovascular disease sub-groups. (United States)

    Gökcen, Emre; Caltekin, İbrahim; Savrun, Atakan; Korkmaz, Hilal; Savrun, Şeyda Tuba; Yıldırım, Gökhan


    ONSD (optic nerve sheath diameter) is a method used for indirect measurement of the increased intracranial pressure. In previous studies, the relation between the increased intracranial pressure and ONSD was analyzed in the patients suffering from cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). In our study, the patients suffering from ischemic CVD were categorized into 4 subgroups according to Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification (OCSP); the relationship between each group and ONSD, and the influence on each eye were analyzed. The study included the patients over the age of 18 applying to the emergency department of Malatya State Hospital with the symptoms of stroke between the dates of 1/1/2015 and 1/9/2016. The patients diagnosed with stroke by means of clinical and neuroradiological imaging were examined in 4 subgroups according to Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project. The aim of the study is to predict the intracranial pressure (ICP) levels of the patients through ONSD measurement and CT images. In the comparison of the right and left optic nerve sheath diameters of CVD group and control group, the obtained results were found to be statistically significant (p<0.001). When the CVD subgroups were compared with the control group in terms of right and left optic nerve sheath diameters, the highest right-left optic nerve sheath diameter was detected to be in TACI (Total Anterior Circulation Infarction) group (p<0.001). In the early cases of CVD, mortality and morbidity can be decreased through the early diagnosis of the possible existence of ICP increase according to ONSD level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sharifian F. Gharekhanloo


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to define the normal range of diameter in the deep vein of the lower limb and to compare this range with diameter of the veins with acute thrombosis and of veins with chronic thrombosis by using color doppler sonography. The study was cross sectional. The vein diameter and vein to artery ratio in different levels were measured and the following results were obtained. In patients with acute thrombosis the vein diameter and vein to artery ratio were more than normal range and this difference had statistical significance so we can reliably predict acute thrombosis if the vein diameter is upper than a suggested level. In chronic thrombosis, however, the vein diameter is not a good diagnostic factor and so we can not rely on it.

  3. Radio source orientation and the angular diameter-redshift relation (United States)

    Onuora, L. I.


    The effect of a nonrandom source orientation on the angular diameter-redshift relation was considered for the 3CR sample of Laing et al., based on the 'unified' scheme of Barthel. For an inhomogeneous sample of objects displaying milliarcsecond scale structure, it was found that there was no evidence for a systematic variation for orientation angle with redshift. However, if it was assumed that quasars are closer to the line of sight than powerful extended radio galaxies, then the observed angular size-redshift relation could be interpreted in terms of source orientation, rather than linear size evolution.

  4. Digital image processing for diameter distribution evaluation of nuclear tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lira, J.; Camacho, S.; Balcazar-Garcia, M.; Peralta-Fabi, R.


    Fast reliable, and accurate evaluation of diameter distribution of nuclear tracks, etched on solid state nuclear detectors is necessary, to infer general information from the particular ions detected. To achieve this, it is primarily required to develop an on-line method, that is, a method fast enough so as the reading and information extraction processes became simultaneous. In order to accomplish this, adaptive matched filtering has been generalized to two dimensions; this lessens the noise content and the unwanted features present in the detector, and avoids distorting results significantly. (author)

  5. Bedside Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter Assessment in the Identification of Increased Intracranial Pressure in Suspected Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. (United States)

    Irazuzta, Jose E; Brown, Martha E; Akhtar, Javed


    We determined whether the bedside assessment of the optic nerve sheath diameter could identify elevated intracranial pressure in individuals with suspected idiopathic intracranial hypertension. This was a single-center, prospective, rater-blinded study performed in a freestanding pediatric teaching hospital. Patients aged 12 to 18 years scheduled for an elective lumbar puncture with the suspicion of idiopathic intracranial hypertension were eligible to participate. Optic nerve sheath diameter was measured via ultrasonography before performing a sedated lumbar puncture for measuring cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure. Abnormal measurements were predefined as optic nerve sheath diameter ≥4.5 mm and a cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure greater than 20 cmH2O. Thirteen patients participated in the study, 10 of whom had elevated intracranial pressure. Optic nerve sheath diameter was able to predict or rule out elevated intracranial pressure in all patients. Noninvasive assessment of the optic nerve sheath diameter could help to identify patients with elevated intracranial pressure when idiopathic intracranial hypertension is suspected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the diameter and surface dependent conformational changes in carbon nanotube-protein corona and the related cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xingchen; Lu, Dawei; Hao, Fang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu, Rutao, E-mail: [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, China–America CRC for Environment & Health, Jinan 250100 (China)


    Highlights: • CNT diameter and surface area govern the stability of adsorbed proteins. • More BSA was loaded and destabilized on smaller CNTs. • Protein corona reduces the cytotoxicity of CNTs - Abstract: In this work, we investigated and compared carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of different diameters regarding their interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and their ability to alter protein structure. BSA was exposed to CNT solutions, and the effects were assessed by utilizing fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), bichinchoninic acid (BCA) and zeta-potential measurement assays. We demonstrate that CNT diameter and surface area play key roles in influencing the stability of adsorbed proteins. Results showed that the secondary and tertiary structural stability of BSA decreased upon adsorption onto CNTs, with greater decrease on smaller-diametered nanotubes. Besides, more protein was loaded onto CNTs with small diameter, reducing the cytotoxicity. This study, therefore, provides fundamental information for the influence of CNT diameter and surface on protein behavior, which may be helpful to understand toxic effects of CNTs and prove beneficial for developing novel biomedical devices and safe use of nanomaterials.

  7. Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (SMILE) for Hyperopia: Optical Zone Diameter and Spherical Aberration Induction. (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Pradhan, Kishore R; Carp, Glenn I; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine; Sekundo, Walter; Khan, Raynan; Dhungana, Purushottam


    To evaluate optical zone diameter efficacy and spherical aberration change in hyperopic small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Prospective study of 60 consecutive hyperopic SMILE procedures using the VisuMax femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany) and matched LASIK procedures with the VisuMax and MEL 80 excimer (Carl Zeiss Meditec) lasers. Inclusion criteria were maximum attempted hyperopic meridian of between +1.00 and +7.00 diopters (D). For SMILE, the transition zone was 2 mm and the mean optical programmed zone was 6.37 mm (range: 6.3 to 6.7 mm). Two LASIK control groups (6.5- and 7-mm optical zone) matched for spherical equivalent treated were generated. Both tangential and axial curvature difference maps were generated for each eye at 3 months. A fixed grid and set of concentric circles were superimposed on the difference map to measure the achieved optical zone diameter. Mean attempted spherical equivalent refraction was +5.58 ± 0.95 D (range: +3.20 to +6.50 D) in the SMILE group. By tangential mapping, SMILE programmed at a mean optical zone of 6.37 mm achieved a diameter of 5.03 ± 0.30 mm, similar to 7-mm LASIK (4.96 ± 0.25 mm, P = 0.33) but larger than 6.5-mm LASIK (4.53 ± 0.25 mm, P < .001). By axial mapping, the achieved optical zone diameter was 6.75 ± 0.31 mm for 6.37-mm SMILE, larger than for both 6.5-mm (6.61 ± 0.21 mm) and 7-mm (6.92 ± 0.14 mm) LASIK (P < .01). Spherical aberration changed on average by -0.45 ± 0.22 μm for 6.37-mm SMILE, similar to 7-mm LASIK (-0.50 ± 0.21 μm, P = .29) and less than for 6.5-mm LASIK (-0.69 ± 0.22 μm, P < .001). The mean achieved optical zone diameter of hyperopic SMILE was found to be larger than the mean achieved optical zone diameter of hyperopic LASIK. Consequently, spherical aberration induction was similar for 6.37-mm SMILE and 7-mm LASIK. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(6):370-376.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Strain analysis of different diameter Morse taper implants under overloading compressive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Guimarães CASTRO


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of deformation from compression caused by different diameters of Morse taper implants and the residual deformation after load removal. Thirty Morse taper implants lacking external threads were divided into 3 groups (n = 10 according to their diameter as follows: 3.5 mm, 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm. Two-piece abutments were fixed into the implants, and the samples were subjected to compressive axial loading up to 1500 N of force. During the test, one strain gauge remained fixed to the cervical portion of each implant to measure the strain variation. The strain values were recorded at two different time points: at the maximum load (1500 N and 60 seconds after load removal. To calculate the strain at the implant/abutment interface, a mathematical formula was applied. Data were analyzed using a one-way Anova and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. The 5.0 mm diameter implant showed a significantly lower strain (650.5 μS ± 170.0 than the 4.0 mm group (1170.2 μS ± 374.7 and the 3.5 mm group (1388.1 μS ± 326.6 (p < 0.001, regardless of the load presence. The strain values decreased by approximately 50% after removal of the load, regardless of the implant diameter. The 5.0 mm implant showed a significantly lower strain at the implant/abutment interface (943.4 μS ± 504.5 than the 4.0 mm group (1057.4 μS ± 681.3 and the 3.5 mm group (1159.6 μS ± 425.9 (p < 0.001. According to the results of this study, the diameter influenced the strain around the internal and external walls of the cervical region of Morse taper implants; all diameters demonstrated clinically acceptable values of strain.

  9. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  10. Measurement of the in-pile core temperature of an EL-4 pencil element, first charge (can of type-347 stainless steel, 0.4 mm thick, UO2 fuel, 11 mm diameter). Determination of the apparent thermal conductivity integral of in-pile UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavaud, B.; Ringot, C.; Vignesoult, N.


    The core temperature of a pencil fuel element depends on the thermal conductivity of the UO 2 , and on the UO 2 -can contact. This temperature may be known accurately only if in-pile tests using the actual geometry are carried out. The test described concerns the measurement of the core- temperature of an EL-4 fuel element, first charge, having a stainless steel can. This temperature is measured at the center of the in-pile pencil element using a high-temperature thermocouple (W-Re with Ta sheath). The element is subjected to operating conditions similar to those of EL-4, both for the specific power and the can temperature and for the pressure acting on the can. The specific power is obtained in the EL-3 reactor using a slightly higher enrichment for the UO 2 than that planned for EL-4. The required can temperature and pressure are obtained using a Zircaloy-2 irradiation container filled with NaK, adapted for use in the EL-3 reactor. The core temperatures of the UO 2 , and that of the can surface are measured. The power is calculated from the heat exchanges in the container calibrated in the laboratory. The temperature drop at the UO 2 -can interface is deduced from laboratory measurements carried out under comparable heat flux conditions, and in a gas atmosphere corresponding to the beginning of the life-time of the fuel element. It is possible to draw an integral conductivity curve. It is also possible to check the temperature distribution in the oxide, as deduced from the thermal conductivity integral, by micro-graphic examination of the oxide structure. (authors) [fr

  11. Tunable engineered skin mechanics via coaxial electrospun fiber core diameter. (United States)

    Blackstone, Britani Nicole; Drexler, Jason William; Powell, Heather Megan


    Autologous engineered skin (ES) offers promise as a treatment for massive full thickness burns. Unfortunately, ES is orders of magnitude weaker than normal human skin causing it to be difficult to apply surgically and subject to damage by mechanical shear in the early phases of engraftment. In addition, no manufacturing strategy has been developed to tune ES biomechanics to approximate the native biomechanics at different anatomic locations. To enhance and tune ES biomechanics, a coaxial (CoA) electrospun scaffold platform was developed from polycaprolactone (PCL, core) and gelatin (shell). The ability of the coaxial fiber core diameter to control both scaffold and tissue mechanics was investigated along with the ability of the gelatin shell to facilitate cell adhesion and skin development compared to pure gelatin, pure PCL, and a gelatin-PCL blended fiber scaffold. CoA ES exhibited increased cellular adhesion and metabolism versus PCL alone or gelatin-PCL blend and promoted the development of well stratified skin with a dense dermal layer and a differentiated epidermal layer. Biomechanics of the scaffold and ES scaled linearly with core diameter suggesting that this scaffold platform could be utilized to tailor ES mechanics for their intended grafting site and reduce graft damage in vitro and in vivo.

  12. The Use of Narrow Diameter Implants in the Molar Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saad


    Full Text Available Implant rehabilitations in the posterior jaw are influenced by many factors such as the condition of the remaining teeth, the force factors related to the patient, the quality of the bone, the maintenance of the hygiene, the limited bone height, the type and extent of edentulism, and the nature of the opposing arch. The gold standard is to place a regular diameter implant (>3.7 mm or a wide one to replace every missing molar. Unfortunately, due to horizontal bone resorption, this option is not possible without lateral bone augmentation. In this situation, narrow diameter implant (NDI < 3.5 mm could be the alternative to lateral bone augmentation procedures. This paper presents a clinical study where NDIs were used for the replacement of missing molars. They were followed up to 11 years. Special considerations were observed and many parameters were evaluated. NDI could be used to replace missing molar in case of moderate horizontal bone resorption if strict guidelines are respected. Yet, future controlled prospective clinical trials are required to admit their use as scientific evidence.

  13. Carbon microtubes: tuning internal diameters and conical angles. (United States)

    Bhimarasetti, Gopinath; Cowley, John M; Sunkara, Mahendra K


    In this paper, we report a synthesis strategy for a new class of hollow, curved carbon morphologies, 'carbon microtubes' (CMTs), with absolute control over their conical angles and internal diameters. Our synthesis methodology employs nitrogen or oxygen dosing to change the wetting behaviour of gallium metal with the growing carbon walls to tune the conical angles. Increasing N(2) concentrations in the gas phase during growth increases the conical angles of CMTs from +25° to about -20°. A methodology using the timing of oxygen or nitrogen dosing during CMT growth is shown to tune the internal diameters anywhere from a few nanometres to a few microns. The walls of the carbon microtubes are characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy and are found to consist of aligned graphite nanocrystals (2-5 nm in size). Furthermore, dark field images of CMTs showed that the graphite nanocrystals are aligned with their c-axes perpendicular to the wall surface and that the crystals themselves are oriented with respect to the wall surface depending upon the conical angle of the CMT.

  14. Unobtrusively tracking mammographers' eye gaze direction and pupil diameter (United States)

    Barrett, James R.; deParedes, Ellen S.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III; Merickel, Michael B.; Hutchinson, Thomas E.


    We developed techniques to unobtrusively track direction and pupil diameter of radiologists reading a wide variety of films. This study concentrated on mammography since the use of mammograms is important for successful treatment of breast cancer, and we wished to determine how previous studies of eye gaze with lung films relate to the specialized field of mammography. Our objective was to identify eye gaze patterns in mammographic experts as they observe features, such as masses and microcalcification clusters: identification of these patterns could lead to improving the rate of early detection of breast cancer. Our near IR light system successfully tracked eye gaze direction and pupil diameter of mammographic experts evaluating films. The association of long eye gaze dwells with diagnostic accuracy varied with the type of object being viewed. In films with masses, false positive diagnoses were associated with long dwells: this is similar to published results of observing lung nodule diagnosis. In mammograms with microcalcifications, true positive diagnoses were associated with long dwells. The association of prolonged dwells with true positive diagnoses of microcalcifications is a new observation.

  15. Threshold Particle Diameters in Miniemulsion Reversible-Deactivation Radical Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Tobita


    Full Text Available Various types of controlled/living radical polymerizations, or using the IUPAC recommended term, reversible-deactivation radical polymerization (RDRP, conducted inside nano-sized reaction loci are considered in a unified manner, based on the polymerization rate expression, Rp = kp[M]K[Interm]/[Trap]. Unique miniemulsion polymerization kinetics of RDRP are elucidated on the basis of the following two factors: (1 A high single molecule concentration in a nano-sized particle; and (2 a significant statistical concentration variation among particles. The characteristic particle diameters below which the polymerization rate start to deviate significantly (1 from the corresponding bulk polymerization, and (2 from the estimate using the average concentrations, can be estimated by using simple equations. For stable-radical-mediated polymerization (SRMP and atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, an acceleration window is predicted for the particle diameter range, . For reversible-addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization (RAFT, degenerative-transfer radical polymerization (DTRP and also for the conventional nonliving radical polymerization, a significant rate increase occurs for . On the other hand, for  the polymerization rate is suppressed because of a large statistical variation of monomer concentration among particles.

  16. Prediction of endotracheal tube size for pediatric patients from the epiphysis diameter of radius. (United States)

    Kim, Hee Young; Cheon, Ji Hyun; Baek, Seung Hoon; Kim, Kyung Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyun


    Using a too big or a too small size of an endotracheal tube in pediatric patients would result in tracheal injury or insufficient ventilation. Determining the appropriate endotracheal tube size is important because using an inappropriate size can cause complications. This study was performed to predict the appropriate endotracheal tube size by measuring the transverse diameter of the epiphysis of the distal radius under the assumption that the growth rates of cartilages in the entire body are close to each other. Fifty-eight children aged 3 to 10 years who required general anesthesia were intubated with an uncuffed endotracheal tube. The tube size was considered to be appropriate when leaks occurred at inspiratory peak pressures between 10 to 25 mmHg. The transverse diameters of the epiphysis were measured with an ultra-sonogram at the distal radius and the proximal phalanx of the third finger and the fifth finger. Correlations and prediction probabilities of measurements were evaluated. The number needed to harm (NNH), which indicates the number of patients who need to be intubated for one patient who needs tube exchange, was investigated. The Spearman's correlation coefficient between the endotracheal tube size and the epiphysis of the distal radius was 0.814, which was the biggest coefficient. For epiphysis of the proximal phalanx of the third finger and the fifth finger, the correlation coefficient was 0.704 and 0.701, respectively. If the Cole's formula was applied for selection of the tube size, the NNH would be 7. The appropriate endotracheal tube size could be predicted by means of the epiphyseal transverse diameter of the distal radius rather than the circumference measurements of the phalanx.

  17. Effects of temperature and perch diameter on arboreal locomotion in the snake Elaphe guttata. (United States)

    Gerald, Gary W; Mackey, Mark J; Claussen, Dennis L


    Arboreality is widespread in multiple lineages of snakes and these habitats are important for foraging, escaping predators, and thermoregulation for many species. However, very little is known about factors influencing the arboreal locomotor abilities of snakes. Arboreal performance was assessed in a semi-arboreal snake (Elaphe guttata) using an artificial perch apparatus. Locomotor velocity, body posture, and balance was measured during movement on three perch diameters (3, 6, 10-cm) at three temperatures (10, 20, 30 degrees C). Velocities attained by E. guttata on perches are much slower than those of terrestrial lateral undulation and swimming and somewhat slower than concertina velocities recorded in other species across the same experimental temperatures. At higher temperatures, faster speeds were associated with a more elongated posture. At lower temperatures, snakes displayed a more looped body posture, but still fell more often than at higher temperatures. Our results suggest that temperature has a large influence on both balance and movement by snakes on perches. Although there were no differences in velocities resulting from perch diameter, snakes fell more often from thicker perches. This differs from arboreal velocities attained by limbed vertebrates, which decrease with decreasing perch diameter, suggesting that snakes have a size-relative advantage over limbed animals, such as lizards, when traversing a network of narrow branches. Future studies investigating arboreal locomotion among snakes that vary both phylogenetically and morphologically are needed to assess the potential benefits of limblessness in complex, three-dimensional environments.

  18. Effective temperatures, angular diameters, distances and linear radii for 160 O and B stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, A.B.; Divan, L.; Prevot-Burnichon, M.L.; Doazan, V.


    The significance is explained of the effective temperatures, angular diameters, distances and linear diameters which have been found from published ultraviolet spectrophotometry, visible and near infrared intermediate-band photometry and model-atmosphere fluxes for 160 O and B stars using a method which is fully explained and evaluated in the full paper which is reproduced on Microfiche MN 189/1. An appendix to the full paper presents BCD spectrophotometry for 77 of the program stars. The angular diameters are systematically the same as those measured previously, and the flux effective temperatures of the main-sequence and giant stars reproduce well the relationship established by other authors, for main-sequence and giant O and B stars. The O8 - B9 supergiants have systematically lower temperatures than do main-sequence stars of the same subtype. The Beta Cephei stars and most Be stars have the same effective temperature as normal stars of the same spectral type. The radii of O and B stars increase from main-sequence to supergiant. The late B supergiants are about twice as large as the O9 supergiants. (author)

  19. Bayesian Methods for Predicting the Shape of Chinese Yam in Terms of Key Diameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsunori Kayano


    Full Text Available This paper proposes Bayesian methods for the shape estimation of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita using a few key diameters of yam. Shape prediction of yam is applicable to determining optimal cutoff positions of a yam for producing seed yams. Our Bayesian method, which is a combination of Bayesian estimation model and predictive model, enables automatic, rapid, and low-cost processing of yam. After the construction of the proposed models using a sample data set in Japan, the models provide whole shape prediction of yam based on only a few key diameters. The Bayesian method performed well on the shape prediction in terms of minimizing the mean squared error between measured shape and the prediction. In particular, a multiple regression method with key diameters at two fixed positions attained the highest performance for shape prediction. We have developed automatic, rapid, and low-cost yam-processing machines based on the Bayesian estimation model and predictive model. Development of such shape prediction approaches, including our Bayesian method, can be a valuable aid in reducing the cost and time in food processing.

  20. Large diameter permanent-magnets-expanded plasma source for spontaneous generation of low-energy ion beam. (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Ando, Akira


    Diameter of a permanent-magnets-expanded, radiofrequency (rf) plasma source is enlarged up to ∼13 cm for an application to a space propulsion device and tested with being attached to a diffusion chamber. The source is operated at 13.56 MHz 300 W rf power in low-pressure (40 mPa) argon. Measurement of ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit shows generation of a supersonic ion beam of about 20 eV. The detailed radial measurements demonstrate that the diameter and energy of the ion beam corresponds to the source tube diameter and the potential difference between the source and downstream plasmas, and that the radial profile of the beam flux is similar to the plasma density profile in the source cavity.

  1. Impact of anthropometrical parameters on portal vein diameter and liver size in a subset of Karachi based population. (United States)

    Raza Siddiqui, Tanya; Hassan, Nuzhat; Gul, Pashmina


    The purpose was to study the impact of anthropometrical parameters on portal vein diameter and liver size by ultrasound in a subset of Karachi population. Four hundred and fifty nine apparently healthy subjects were included in this cross sectional study. After recording weight and height of each subject, Portal vein diameter and both liver lobes were measured by gray scale ultrasonography. Students T test and ANOVA were applied for statistical analyses. With increasing age, portal vein diameter and right lobe of liver increased significantly (p value Sizes of right and left liver lobes also increased with a rise in body mass index (p value size. Age and body mass index are reliable parameters to consider for avoiding false positive diagnosis of hepatomegaly and portal hypertension. Knowing the right and left liver size with respect to anthropometrical measurements also assist a clinician in selecting a subject for liver transplantation.

  2. Effects of Nozzle Diameter on Diesel Spray Flames: A numerical study using an Eulerian Stochastic Field Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Kar Mun; Jangi, Mehdi; Bai, Xue-Song


    The present numerical study aims to assess the performance of an Eulerian Stochastic Field (ESF) model in simulating spray flames produced by three fuel injectors with different nozzle diameters of 100 μm, 180 μm and 363 μm. A comparison to the measurements shows that although the simulated ignit...... serve as an important tool for the simulation of spray flames in marine diesel engines, where fuel injectors with different nozzle diameters are applied for pilot and main injections.......The present numerical study aims to assess the performance of an Eulerian Stochastic Field (ESF) model in simulating spray flames produced by three fuel injectors with different nozzle diameters of 100 μm, 180 μm and 363 μm. A comparison to the measurements shows that although the simulated...

  3. Firing of antagonist small-diameter muscle afferents reduces voluntary activation and torque of elbow flexors. (United States)

    Kennedy, David S; McNeil, Chris J; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L


    During muscle fatigue, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents can decrease voluntary activation of the fatigued muscle. However, these afferents may have a more widespread effect on other muscles in the exercising limb. We examined if the firing of fatigue-sensitive afferents from elbow extensor muscles in the same arm reduces torque production and voluntary activation of elbow flexors. In nine subjects we examined voluntary activation of elbow flexors by measuring changes in superimposed twitches evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex during brief (2-3 s) maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Inflation of a blood pressure cuff following a 2-min sustained MVC blocked blood flow to the fatigued muscle and maintained firing of small-diameter afferents. After a fatiguing elbow flexion contraction, maximal flexion torque was lower (26.0 ± 4.4% versus 67.9 ± 5.2% of initial maximal torque; means ± s.d.; P torque was also reduced (82.2 ± 4.9% versus 91.4 ± 2.3% of initial maximal torque; P = 0.007), superimposed twitches were larger (2.7 ± 0.7% versus 1.3 ± 0.2% ongoing MVC; P = 0.02) and voluntary activation lower (81.6 ± 8.2% versus 95.5 ± 6.9%; P = 0.04) with than without ischaemia. After a fatiguing contraction, voluntary drive to the fatigued muscles is reduced with continued input from small-diameter muscle afferents. Furthermore, fatigue of the elbow extensor muscles decreases voluntary drive to unfatigued elbow flexors of the same arm. Therefore, firing of small-diameter muscle afferents from one muscle can affect voluntary activation and hence torque generation of another muscle in the same limb.

  4. Cardiac Events and the Maximum Diameter of Coronary Artery Aneurysms in Kawasaki Disease. (United States)

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Tsujii, Nobuyuki; Hayama, Yosuke


    To clarify the occurrence of cardiac events based on the maximal diameter of the maximal coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) in Kawasaki disease (KD). Two hundred fourteen patients (160 male and 54 female) who had had at least 1 CAA in the selective coronary angiogram less than 100 days after the onset of KD were studied. We measured the maximal CAA diameters in the major branches of the initial coronary angiograms. Death, myocardial infarction and coronary artery revascularization were included as cardiac events in this study. We divided the patients into three groups based on the maximal CAA diameter (large ≥8.0 mm; medium ≥6.0 mm and events based on laterality of maximal CAA (bilateral, unilateral) and body surface area (BSA). Cardiac events occurred in 44 patients (21%). For BSA event-free survival in the large and medium groups was 66% (n = 38, 95% CI, 49-80) and 62% (n = 27, 95% CI, 38-81), respectively. For BSA ≥ 0.50 m 2 , that in large group was 54% (n = 58, 95% CI, 40-67). There were no cardiac events in the medium group for BSA ≥0.50 m 2 (n = 36) and the small group (n = 56). In the large analyzed group, the 30-year cardiac event-free survival in the bilateral and unilateral groups was 40% (n = 48, 95% CI, 27-55) and 78% (n = 48, 95% CI, 63-89), respectively (P events was the patient group with the maximal CAA diameter ≥6.0 mm with BSA event-free survival was about 60%. Given the high rate of cardiac events in this patient population, life-long cardiovascular surveillance is advised. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring the newborn head diameters in relation to current obstetric forceps' dimensions: A systematic review. (United States)

    T Ismail, Abdul-Qader; Yates, Derick; Chester, Jonathan; Ismail, Khaled M K


    The aim of this study was to systematically search the literature for studies that reported term neonate head size and shape, in an attempt to determine the most appropriate dimensions for the obstetric forceps. We searched the Ovid Medline, Ovid Embase and Ebscohost CINAHL databases from inception to February 2016. We predefined inclusion criteria to identify studies in which head width and length of asymptomatic, term neonates were measured soon after birth using direct, non-photographic methods A bespoke quality assessment score was used to evaluate the identified studies. Seven studies were identified which measured head width (biparietal diameter) in 551 neonates; giving a mean value of 94.0mm (range 90.7mm-95.5mm). We identified one study which measured head length (mentovertical diameter) in 38 neonates; which gave a mean value of 134.5mm (range 129mm-139mm). This data, in conjunction with measurements of Neville Barnes' and Wrigley's forceps from our previous study, indicates current obstetric forceps' blades are too long, and close together. Potentially, this could be contributing to neonatal and maternal injuries associated with operational vaginal deliveries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental investigation of commercial small diameter dental implants in porcine mandibular segments. (United States)

    Hasan, Istabrak; Heinemann, Friedhelm; Schwegmann, Monika; Keilig, Ludger; Stark, Helmut; Bourauel, Christoph


    Small diameter (mini) dental implants have become more popular in recent years as alternatives to classical implant treatment in clinical cases with critical bony situations. However, an in-depth scientific analysis of the mechanical and biomechanical effects of small diameter implants has not yet been published. The aim of the present study was to investigate experimentally different commercial mini implants by measuring their displacements under immediate loading. Twelve commercially available mini implants were measured. Implants were inserted into porcine mandibular segments and loaded by means of a predefined displacement of 0.5 mm of the loading system. The implants were loaded at an angle of 30° to the implant long axis using the self-developed biomechanical hexapod measurement system. Implant displacements were registered. The experimental results were compared to the numerical ones from a previous study. Measured implant displacements were within the range of 39-194 μm. A large variation in the displacements was obtained among the different implant systems due to the different designs and thread profiles. Comparing experimental and numerical results, the displacements that were obtained numerically were within the range of 79-347 μm. The different commercial mini implants showed acceptable primary stability and could be loaded immediately after their insertion.

  7. Transverse cerebellar diameter on cranial ultrasound scan in preterm neonates in an Australian population. (United States)

    Swaminathan, M; Davies, M; Davis, P; Betheras, F


    Fetal measurement of transverse cerebellar diameter (TCD) has been shown to correlate well with gestational age (GA), even in the presence of growth retardation. The aim of this study was to define the normal range of TCD in preterm neonates in an Australian population between 23 and 32 weeks GA. Infants admitted to the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, having routine cranial ultrasound scans (asterion using a General Electric LOGIQ 500 scanner (GE Medical Systems, Waukesha, USA) and TCD measurement was taken in the coronal plane. 106 infants < 1500 g and/or of GA measured between 1 January 1997 and 30 November 1997. Transverse cerebellar diameter and associated 95% confidence intervals are described for infants between 23 and 32 weeks GA. The linear regression equation relating TCD and GA was: TCD (mm) = -12.9 + 1.61 x GA (weeks). R2 = 0.80, P < 0.001. This is the only study of TCD measurement using cranial ultrasound in a group of preterm newborns, and forms the basis for nomograms of TCD which can be used as a tool to assist in the assessment of GA, even in growth-retarded preterm newborns, and in the diagnosis of cerebellar hypoplasia.

  8. Semi-automated tracking and continuous monitoring of inferior vena cava diameter in simulated and experimental ultrasound imaging. (United States)

    Mesin, Luca; Pasquero, Paolo; Albani, Stefano; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro


    Assessment of respirophasic fluctuations in the diameter of the inferior vena cava (IVC) is detrimentally affected by its concomitant displacements. This study was aimed at presenting and validating a method to compensate for IVC movement artifacts while continuously measuring IVC diameter in an automated fashion (with minimal interaction with the user) from a longitudinal B-mode ultrasound clip. Performance was tested on both experimental ultrasound clips collected from four healthy patients and simulations, implementing rigid IVC displacements and pulsation. Compared with traditional M-mode measurements, the new approach systematically reduced errors in caval index assessment (range over maximum diameter value) to an extent depending on individual vessel geometry, IVC movement and choice of the M-line (the line along which the diameter is computed). In experimental recordings, this approach identified both the cardiac and respiratory components of IVC movement and pulsatility and evidenced the spatial dependence of IVC pulsatility. IVC tracking appears to be a promising approach to reduce movement artifacts and to improve the reliability of IVC diameter monitoring. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of well logging neutron tube with diameter 22 mm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Kunxiang; Xiang Wei; Mei Lin; Liang Chuan


    The structure design and performance of well logging neutron tube with diameter 22 mm are introduced. The ion source of neutron tube is penning ion source, the alnico is placed in the elicitation cathode which make the ion densely and concentration in elicitation hole. The single electrode is used in ion optics and the resistor is used in target electrode, which increase the stably performances of neutron tube. The discharge current is over 200 microampere when pressure is 10 -2 Pa in ion source and the neutron output is over l.5 × lO 8 neutron per second. The well logging neutron tube has good characteristics, such as small volume, enduring high temperature, high neutron yield etc. The development neutron tube can be used in well logging in oil field. (authors)

  10. Seismic fragility test of a 6-inch diameter pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.P.; Onesto, A.T.; DeVita, V.


    This report contains the test results and assessments of seismic fragility tests performed on a 6-inch diameter piping system. The test was funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted by ETEC. The objective of the test was to investigate the ability of a representative nuclear piping system to withstand high level dynamic seismic and other loadings. Levels of loadings achieved during seismic testing were 20 to 30 times larger than normal elastic design evaluations to ASME Level D limits would permit. Based on failure data obtained during seismic and other dynamic testing, it was concluded that nuclear piping systems are inherently able to withstand much larger dynamic seismic loadings than permitted by current design practice criteria or predicted by the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods and several proposed nonlinear methods of failure analysis

  11. Integrated spectral study of small angular diameter galactic open clusters (United States)

    Clariá, J. J.; Ahumada, A. V.; Bica, E.; Pavani, D. B.; Parisi, M. C.


    This paper presents flux-calibrated integrated spectra obtained at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO, Argentina) for a sample of 9 Galactic open clusters of small angular diameter. The spectra cover the optical range (3800-6800 Å), with a resolution of ˜14 Å. With one exception (Ruprecht 158), the selected clusters are projected into the fourth Galactic quadrant (282o evaluate their membership status. The current cluster sample complements that of 46 open clusters previously studied by our group in an effort to gather a spectral library with several clusters per age bin. The cluster spectral library that we have been building is an important tool to tie studies of resolved and unresolved stellar content.

  12. Design of a hot clamp for small diameter LMFBR piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.W.; Hamel, D.


    In order to evaluate the feasibility of using a strap-type clamp on breeder reactor small diameter piping, a series of analyses were conducted to determine the thermal and mechanical stresses induced in the pipe by the clamp. The effect of using a thin layer of insulation of varying thickness between the pipe and clamp was also investigated. A thermal analysis of the pipe and clamp was conducted for each thermal transient rate. Various insulation values ranging from metal-to-metal condition to perfect insulation between the pipe and clamp were analyzed to determine the effect of insulating the pipe from the clamp. An axisymmetric finite element model was used to determine the axial thermal and stress patterns

  13. Inductive fault current limiter based on multiple superconducting rings of small diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, M R; Cabo, L; Veira, J A; Vidal, F


    We present a fault current limiter prototype based on the use of a secondary comprised of an array of magnetic cores of small sections, each one of them with several superconducting rings. The main advantage of this configuration is that it is easier to make small diameter superconducting rings which, in addition, are more homogeneous and allow better refrigeration. We then present detailed measurements that show that, in addition to these advantages, this prototype offers the same limitation performances than when using a unique core and a superconducting ring with an equivalent area as the array of small section cores

  14. Physical grounds for application of scattered gamma radiation to determine the diameter of casing columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, Yu.A.; Bernshtejn, D.A.; Khamatdinov, R.T.; Dyad'kin, I.G.


    Physical principles of the design of a gamma flow detector for precise measurement of the inside diameter of casing columns with the use of scattered gamma radiation are considered. The design parameters are estimated of a probe ensuring the preassigned (15-18 mm) depth of investigation, which allows to eliminate the effect of external corrosion of the column and that of the substance in the out-of-tube space. Calculations by the Monte Carlo method were made in order to select the optimum parameters of the probe and the radiation energy. As a result of the analysis, design recommendations are made

  15. SU-E-I-28: Introduction and Investigation of Effective Diameter Ratios as a New Patient Size Metric for Use in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamoureux, R [Gainesville, FL (United States); Sinclair, L [Portland, OR (United States); Mench, A [Salem Health, Tualatin, OR (United States); Lipnharski, I; Carranza, C; Bidari, S [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Cormack, B [UF Health, Gainesville, FL (United States); Rill, L [Univ Florida, Jacksonville Beach, FL (United States); Arreola, M [University of Florida Health Science Center, Gainesville, FL (United States)


    Purpose: To introduce and investigate effective diameter ratios as a new patient metric for use in computed tomography protocol selection as a supplement to patient-specific size parameter data. Methods: The metrics of outer effective diameter and inner effective diameter were measured for 7 post-mortem subjects scanned with a standardized chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP) protocol on a 320-slice MDCT scanner. The outer effective diameter was calculated by obtaining the anterior/posterior and lateral dimensions of the imaged anatomy at the middle of the scan range using Effective Diameter= SQRT(AP height*Lat Width). The inner effective diameter was calculated with the same equation using the AP and Lat dimensions of the anatomy excluding the adipose tissue. The ratio of outer to inner effective diameter was calculated for each subject. A relationship to BMI, weight, and CTDI conversion coefficients was investigated. Results: For the largest subject with BMI of 43.85 kg/m2 and weight of 255 lbs the diameter ratio was calculated as 1.33. For the second largest subject with BMI of 33.5 kg/m2 and weight of 192.4 lbs the diameter ratio was measured as 1.43, indicating a larger percentage of adipose tissue in the second largest subject’s anatomical composition. For the smallest subject at BMI of 17.4 kg/m2 and weight of 86 lbs a similar tissue composition was indicated as a subject with BMI of 24.2 kg/m2 and weight of 136 lbs as they had the same diameter ratios of 1.11. Conclusion: The diameter ratio proves to contain information about anatomical composition that the BMI and weight alone do not. The utility of this metric is still being examined but could prove useful for determining MDCT techniques and for giving a more in depth detail of the composition of a patient’s body habitus.

  16. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, O. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Amelink, A.


    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 mu m to 1000 mu m. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering

  17. Estimating Pinus palustris tree diameter and stem volume from tree height, crown area and stand-level parameters (United States)

    C.A. Gonzalez-Benecke; Salvador A. Gezan; Lisa J. Samuelson; Wendell P. Cropper; Daniel J. Leduc; Timothy A. Martin


    Accurate and efficient estimation of forest growth and live biomass is a critical element in assessing potential responses to forest management and environmental change. The objective of this study was to develop models to predict longleaf pine tree diameter at breast height (dbh) and merchantable stem volume (V) using data obtained from field measurements. We used...

  18. A systematic review of the effect of piston diameter in stapes surgery for otosclerosis on hearing results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegner, Inge; Verhagen, Jessica J; Stegeman, Inge; Vincent, Robert; Grolman, Wilko


    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of piston diameter in primary stapedotomy for otosclerosis patients measured by hearing outcome. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. REVIEW METHODS: A systematic search was conducted. Studies reporting original data on the effect of piston

  19. Height-diameter allometry and above ground biomass in tropical montane forests: Insights from the Albertine Rift in Africa. (United States)

    Imani, Gérard; Boyemba, Faustin; Lewis, Simon; Nabahungu, Nsharwasi Léon; Calders, Kim; Zapfack, Louis; Riera, Bernard; Balegamire, Clarisse; Cuni-Sanchez, Aida


    Tropical montane forests provide an important natural laboratory to test ecological theory. While it is well-known that some aspects of forest structure change with altitude, little is known on the effects of altitude on above ground biomass (AGB), particularly with regard to changing height-diameter allometry. To address this we investigate (1) the effects of altitude on height-diameter allometry, (2) how different height-diameter allometric models affect above ground biomass estimates; and (3) how other forest structural, taxonomic and environmental attributes affect above ground biomass using 30 permanent sample plots (1-ha; all trees ≥ 10 cm diameter measured) established between 1250 and 2600 m asl in Kahuzi Biega National Park in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Forest structure and species composition differed with increasing altitude, with four forest types identified. Different height-diameter allometric models performed better with the different forest types, as trees got smaller with increasing altitude. Above ground biomass ranged from 168 to 290 Mg ha-1, but there were no significant differences in AGB between forests types, as tree size decreased but stem density increased with increasing altitude. Forest structure had greater effects on above ground biomass than forest diversity. Soil attributes (K and acidity, pH) also significantly affected above ground biomass. Results show how forest structural, taxonomic and environmental attributes affect above ground biomass in African tropical montane forests. They particularly highlight that the use of regional height-diameter models introduces significant biases in above ground biomass estimates, and that different height-diameter models might be preferred for different forest types, and these should be considered in future studies.

  20. Evaluation of the nugget diameter in spot welded joints between two steel sheets by means of a potential drop technique (United States)

    Tohmyoh, Hironori; Ikarashi, Hidetomo; Matsui, Yoichi; Hasegawa, Yuta; Obara, Satoshi


    A potential drop technique which utilizes the electrical circuit used in resistance spot welding is reported. Spot welded samples comprising two steel sheets were inserted between the two Cu electrodes and a constant direct current was supplied between the electrodes. The potential drop between two points, one on each electrode, was determined by analysis for various values of nugget diameter and various values of the contact resistance between the Cu electrodes and the steel sheet sample. The nugget diameter of the spot welded joint could be quantitatively evaluated from the measured potential drop and the equation obtained from the analysis.

  1. A simple-beam diameter transducer for tensile testing of round specimens at constant true strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, J.N.


    A simple-beam diameter transducer was developed for tensile testing of round specimens at constant true strain rates. The design adopted consists of a pair of thin beams of spring steel bent across the specimen mid-point and hinged at their extremities. A strain gauge is bonded to the outer surface at the mid-length of one of the beams. If the hinge points and vertical centre line of the specimen lie in the same plane, the strain measured on the beam will vary linearly with the diameter of the specimen. In practice, this geometric requirement is satisfied by the method of construction, and linearity was confirmed by experiment. (author)

  2. Effect of relative humidity on the aerodynamic diameter and respiratory deposition of fungal spores (United States)

    Reponen, Tiina; Willeke, Klaus; Ulevicius, Vidmantas; Reponen, Auvo; Grinshpun, Sergey A.

    Exposure to airborne fungal spores may cause respiratory symptoms. The hygroscopicity of airborne spores may significantly affect their aerodynamic diameter, and thus change their deposition pattern in the human respiratory tract. We have investigated the change in aerodynamic diameter of five different fungal species as a function of relative humidity. Liquid and dry dispersion methods were explored for the aerosolization of the fungal spores. A new system that produces non-aggregated spore aerosol directly from a moldy surface was designed and found suitable for this study. The spores were aerosolized from a mold growth on agar by ducting dry air over the surface, and spore chains in the flow were broken up by passing the entire flow through a critical orifice. Size-spectrometric measurements with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer showed that the aerodynamic diameter of the tested fungal spores does not change significantly when the relative humidity increases from 30% to 90%. A more distinct spore size increase was found at a relative humidity of ˜ 100%. The highest change of the aerodynamic diameter was found with Cladosporium cladosporioides: it increased from 1.8 μm to 2.3 μm when the relative humidity increased from 30% to ˜ 100%. The size increase corresponds to an approximate doubling of the particle volume. In order to estimate the effect of hygroscopic growth on the respiratory deposition of spores, the mean depositions in the human respiratory tract were calculated for fungal spores with various size changes due to hygroscopic growth. A recently developed model of the International Commission of Radiological Protection was used for the respiratory deposition calculations. We found that the 27% increase in Cladosporium size results in a 20-30% increase in the respiratory deposition of these spores. We conclude that most fungal spores are only slightly hygroscopic and the hygroscopic increase does not significantly affect their respiratory deposition. Our

  3. Incorporating shape constraints in generalized additive modelling of the height-diameter relationship for Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Pya


    Full Text Available Background: Measurements of tree heights and diameters are essential in forest assessment and modelling. Tree heights are used for estimating timber volume, site index and other important variables related to forest growth and yield, succession and carbon budget models. However, the diameter at breast height (dbh can be more accurately obtained and at lower cost, than total tree height. Hence, generalized height-diameter (h-d models that predict tree height from dbh, age and other covariates are needed. For a more flexible but biologically plausible estimation of covariate effects we use shape constrained generalized additive models as an extension of existing h-d model approaches. We use causal site parameters such as index of aridity to enhance the generality and causality of the models and to enable predictions under projected changeable climatic conditions. Methods: We develop unconstrained generalized additive models (GAM and shape constrained generalized additive models (SCAM for investigating the possible effects of tree-specific parameters such as tree age, relative diameter at breast height, and site-specific parameters such as index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature during vegetation period, on the h-d relationship of forests in Lower Saxony, Germany. Results: Some of the derived effects, e.g. effects of age, index of aridity and sum of daily mean temperature have significantly non-linear pattern. The need for using SCAM results from the fact that some of the model effects show partially implausible patterns especially at the boundaries of data ranges. The derived model predicts monotonically increasing levels of tree height with increasing age and temperature sum and decreasing aridity and social rank of a tree within a stand. The definition of constraints leads only to marginal or minor decline in the model statistics like AIC. An observed structured spatial trend in tree height is modelled via 2-dimensional surface

  4. The generation of calandria tube (CT) inner diameter profiles from fuel channel (FC) inspection data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedran, P.J., E-mail: [AMEC NSS, Toronto, ON (Canada); Rankin, B., E-mail: [NB Power, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Lemire, C., E-mail: [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, QC (Canada)


    Studies of CT deformation at spacer locations, key to the development of FC deformation modelling, have been limited by the availability of gauging measurements from removed CTs. In [1], it was proposed that CT dimensional profiles could be generated using FC inspection data. Since then, the concept was investigated further by assessing: (1) the normalisation of gap measurements to the diameter of the spacer coil, (2) the validity of gap measurements from inspections of Point Lepreau and Gentilly-2, and the CT dimensional profiles generated from the inspection data.It was concluded, from the work presented in this paper, that the CT-PT gap data and the CT dimensional profiles generated using the data from the two subject inspections are reasonable. (author)

  5. Velocity profile characterization in sub-millimeter diameter tubes using molecular tagging velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynes, D.; Webb, A.R. [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Fluid flow through microtubes is of interest to many industries and there exists a need for detailed measurements of the velocity field. Velocity profile data are critical for momentum, mass, and heat transport analysis, and thus the design of devices utilizing microgeometries. This paper outlines a measurement technique that has led to time-resolved measurements of velocity profiles in microtubes (less than 1,000 {mu}m). The research program was experimental in nature and consisted of an extension of molecular tagging velocimetry to the microscale. Average velocity and rms profile data in the fully developed region, in addition to mass flow rate and pressure drop data, are presented for numerous Reynolds numbers ranging from 600 to 5,000 in a tube of diameter 705 {mu}m. (orig.)

  6. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL. MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sghaier


    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived from the base functions of Richards, Lundqvist, Hossfeld IV and Weibull were tested using the age-independent formulations of the growth functions. Both numerical and graphical analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the candidate models.Main results: Based on the analysis, the age-independent difference equation derived from the base function Richards model was selected. Two of the three parameters (growth rate and shape parameter of the retained model were related to site quality, represented by a Growth Index, stand density and the basal area in larger trees divided by diameter of the subject tree expressing the inter-tree competition.Research highlights: The proposed model can be useful for predicting the diameter growth of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia when age is not available or for trees growing in uneven-aged stands.Keywords: Age-independent growth model; difference equations; Tetraclinis articulata; Tunisia.

  7. The transverse diameter of the chest on routine radiographs reliably estimates gestational age and weight in premature infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, Kelly R. [University of Minnesota, Department of Radiology, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zhang, Lei [University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Seidel, Frank G. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)


    Prior to digital radiography it was possible for a radiologist to easily estimate the size of a patient on an analog film. Because variable magnification may be applied at the time of processing an image, it is now more difficult to visually estimate an infant's size on the monitor. Since gestational age and weight significantly impact the differential diagnosis of neonatal diseases and determine the expected size of kidneys or appearance of the brain by MRI or US, this information is useful to a pediatric radiologist. Although this information may be present in the electronic medical record, it is frequently not readily available to the pediatric radiologist at the time of image interpretation. To determine if there was a correlation between gestational age and weight of a premature infant with their transverse chest diameter (rib to rib) on admission chest radiographs. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived informed consent. The maximum transverse chest diameter outer rib to outer rib was measured on admission portable chest radiographs of 464 patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during the 2010 calendar year. Regression analysis was used to investigate the association between chest diameter and gestational age/birth weight. Quadratic term of chest diameter was used in the regression model. Chest diameter was statistically significantly associated with both gestational age (P < 0.0001) and birth weight (P < 0.0001). An infant's gestational age and birth weight can be reliably estimated by comparing a simple measurement of the transverse chest diameter on digital chest radiograph with the tables and graphs in our study. (orig.)

  8. Time course of arterial remodelling in diameter and wall thickness above and below the lesion after a spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; De Groot, Patricia C E; van den Bogerd, Arne; Veltmeijer, Matthijs; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J; Hopman, Maria T E


    Physical inactivity in response to a spinal cord injury (SCI) represents a potent stimulus for conduit artery remodelling. Changes in conduit artery characteristics may be induced by the local effects of denervation (and consequent extreme inactivity below the level of the lesion), and also by systemic adaptations due to whole body inactivity. Therefore, we assessed the time course of carotid (i.e. above lesion) and common femoral artery (i.e. below lesion) lumen diameter and wall thickness across the first 24 weeks after an SCI. Eight male subjects (mean age 35 ± 14 years) with a traumatic motor complete spinal cord lesion between T5 and L1 (i.e. paraplegia) were included. Four subjects were measured across the first 6 weeks after SCI, whilst another four subjects were measured from 8 until 24 weeks after SCI. Ultrasound was used to examine the diameter and wall thickness from the carotid and common femoral arteries. Carotid artery diameter did not change across 24 weeks, whilst femoral artery diameter stabilised after the rapid initial decrease during the first 3 weeks after the SCI. Carotid and femoral artery wall thickness showed no change during the first few weeks, but increased both between 6 and 24 weeks (P < 0.05). In conclusion, SCI leads to a rapid and localised decrease in conduit artery diameter which is isolated to the denervated and paralyzed region, whilst wall thickness gradually increases both above and below the lesion. This distinct time course of change in conduit arterial diameter and wall thickness suggests that distinct mechanisms may contribute to these adaptations.

  9. Is the biparietal diameter of fetuses in late gestation too variable to predict readiness for cesarean section in dogs? (United States)

    De Cramer, K G M; Nöthling, J O


    Correct assessment of readiness for cesarean section is essential for timing elective cesarean section during late pregnancy in the bitch. In humans, biparietal diameter is sufficiently precise and accurate and used in a clinical setting daily. The objectives of this study were to determine whether fetal biparietal diameter in late gestation in the dog could be used to predict readiness for cesarean section by having reached a minimum cut-off value and to correlate the biparietal diameter to birth weight. The biparietal diameter of 208 puppies in 34 litters from 31 English bulldog bitches and 660 puppies in 78 litters from 70 Boerboel bitches were measured immediately after delivery by cesarean section, performed at full term, using digital calipers. At the same time the birth weight of the same 208 English bulldog puppies and 494 of the same Boerboel puppies in 59 litters from 54 bitches was measured by means of an electronic scale. With a cesarean section, all the puppies in a litter are delivered simultaneously and readiness for cesarean section must be determined for a litter. The minimum, median and maximum biparietal diameter varied from 21.1 to 47.8, 32.9 to 50.0 and 34.2-58.2 mm, respectively, among English bulldog litters and from 18.4 to 48.7, 35.5 to 49.7 and 39.8-54.3 mm among Boerboel litters. This large variation suggests that biparietal diameter is too variable within and among litters to be useful as a means of determining readiness for cesarean section. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Peripapillary Retinal Vessel Diameter in Unilateral Normal-Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Un Shin


    Full Text Available Purpose. This study sought to analyze peripapillary retinal vessel diameter and evaluate its correlation with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness in patients with unilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG. Methods. This retrospective study included 37 patients with unilateral NTG and 40 healthy controls. The unilateral NTG patients were selected based on RNFL photography and unilateral visual field (VF defects from the Humphrey central 30-2 threshold test. The central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE and central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE were measured and calculated using retinal photographs and a computer-assisted calculation program. The RNFL thickness was measured using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results. The mean CRAE and CRVE were significantly narrower in the glaucomatous and fellow eyes of the unilateral NTG patients than they were in the normal subjects (p<0.001. There was no significant correlation between CRAE/CRVE and RNFL thickness. There was only a significant correlation between VF severity and RNFL thickness in unilateral NTG eyes. Conclusions. Both NTG-affected eyes and NTG-fellow eyes in the unilateral NTG patients had narrower central retinal vessel diameters than did the eyes of normal subjects. Our results show that vascular factors may play a role in the NTG pathogenesis.

  11. Migraine can be induced by sildenafil without changes in middle cerebral artery diameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Thomsen, Lars Lykke; Birk, Steffen


    CBF(mca)) was measured using SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and xenon 133 inhalation. Radial and temporal artery diameters were studied using high-frequency ultrasonography. Headache response, tenderness of pericranial muscles, blood pressure and heart rate were measured repeatedly. We found...... that migraine attack was induced by sildenafil in 10 of 12 migraine patients and by placebo in two of 12 patients (P = 0.01). V(mca) (P = 0.1) and rCBF(mca) (P = 0.93) remained unchanged after sildenafil. Temporal (P = 0.47) and radial (P = 0.87) artery diameter and pericranial tenderness (P = 0.16) were...... unaffected by sildenafil. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were unchanged but heart rate increased from a mean of 62 +/- 2 to 74 +/- 3 beats/min (P = 0.01) after sildenafil. Our results demonstrate that migraine may be induced via a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and we show for the first time...

  12. Design of supporting devices for thin pipes of large diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsault, J.J.; Dornez, R.


    When an analysis is made in accordance with ASME Code Class 1 for piping by the stress indices method (NB 3650), the stresses induced locally in the piping by the supports are not taken into account. For piping whose thickness is small in relation to its diameter, which is subject to sudden temperature changes, to seismic shocks and which also operates at high temperature, it is no longer possible to ignore these effects. This is the case with piping of the sodium circuits of fast breeder reactors for which, after performance of mechanical analyses by the Zick method and thermo-mechanical analyses on the support collars of the classic type, with all the uncertainties involved in reckoning the real forces of contact, a design was finally decided upon which corresponds to the double imperative of permitting free radial expansion of the piping while withstanding considerable loads with a minimum of local deformations in the piping. The device adopted consists of a rigid collar connected to the piping by blades which are flexible radially in relation to the pipe and rigid tangentially. These blades are attached to very short ring lugs welded on to the piping. (orig./GL)

  13. Small-Diameter PTFE Portosystemic Shunts: Portocaval vs Mesocaval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Shields


    Full Text Available Fifty-seven patients with failed sclerotherapy received a mesocaval interposition shunt with an externally supported, ringed polytetrafluoroethylene prosthesis of either 10 or 12 mm diameter. Thirty-one patients had Child-Pugh gradeA disease and 26 grade B; all had a liver volume of 1000– 2500 ml. Follow-up ranged from 16 months to 6 years 3 months. Three patients (5 per cent died in the postoperative period. There were two postoperative recurrences of variceal haemorrhage and one recurrent bleed in the second year after surgery. The cumulative shunt patency rate was 95 per cent and the incidence of encephalopathy 9 per cent; the latter was successfully managed by protein restriction and/or lactulose therapy. The actuarial survival rate for the whole group at 6 years was 78 per cent, for those with Child-Pugh grade A 88 per cent and for grade B 67 per cent. Small-lumen mesocaval interposition shunting achieves portal decompression, preserves hepatopetal flow, has a low incidence of shunt thrombosis, prevents recurrent variceal bleeding and is not associated with significant postoperative encephalopathy.

  14. Patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture SAR image formation algorithms (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.


    Synthetic aperture radar image formation algorithms typically use transform techniques that often require trading between image resolution, algorithm efficiency, and focused image scene size limits. This is due to assumptions for the data such as simplified (often straight-line) flight paths, simplified imaging geometry, and simplified models for phase functions. Many errors in such assumptions are typically untreatable due to their dependance on both data domain positions and image domain positions. The result is that large scenes often require inefficient multiple image formation iterations, followed by a mosaicking operation of the focused image patches. One class of image formation algorithms that perform favorably divides the spatial and frequency apertures into subapertures, and perhaps those subapertures into sub- subapertures, and so on, in a tiered subaperture fashion. This allows a gradual shift from data domain into image domain that allows correcting many types of errors that limit other image formation algorithms, even in a dynamic motion environment, thereby allowing large focused image patches without mosaicking. This paper presents and compared focused patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture image formation algorithms, for various numbers of tiers of subapertures. Examples are given that show orders-of-magnitude improvement in non- mosaicked focused image patch size over traditional polar format processing, and that patch size limits increase with the number of tiers of subapertures, although with diminishing returns.

  15. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    The development of offshore wind turbines has been in rapid growth since the construction of the first offshore wind farm in 1991 at Vindeby, Denmark. Developing from 11 turbines at a water depth of 2-6 m each with a capacity of 450 kW to the latest farms with up to 175 turbines each with a capac......The development of offshore wind turbines has been in rapid growth since the construction of the first offshore wind farm in 1991 at Vindeby, Denmark. Developing from 11 turbines at a water depth of 2-6 m each with a capacity of 450 kW to the latest farms with up to 175 turbines each...... with a capacity of 3.6 MW and placed at water depths beyond 25 m. Different foundation solutions have over the years been applied for offshore turbines, but monopiles are currently the most applied foundation type and are typically with a pile diameter of 4-6 m and applied up to a water depth of 25 m....... The expected development of offshore wind farms is towards larger farms, larger turbines and larger water depths. Monopiles have been applied widely and it is of interest to investigate the possibilities to further optimize the design and in particular the modelling of the soil-structure interaction...

  16. Multi-diameter silicon nanowires: Fabrication, characterization, and modeling (United States)

    Alagoz, Arif Sinan

    Nanotechnology is a rapidly expanding interdisciplinary field offering novel devices for broad range of applications. Quantum effects and surface to volume ratio of nanostructures are strongly size dependent, and redefine material properties at nanoscale. Silicon is one of the most promising materials for next generation nanostructured transistors, photonics devices, Li-ion batteries, photovoltaic solar cells, and thermoelectric energy generators. Since electrical, optical, and mechanical properties of nanostructures strongly depend on their shape, size, periodicity, and crystal structure; it is crucial to control these parameters in order to optimize device performance for targeted applications. This dissertation is intended to develop a low-cost, low-temperature, high-throughput, and large-area nanowire fabrication method that can produce well-ordered arrays of hierarchical single-crystal silicon nanowires at large scale by using nanosphere lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching. Nanowire morphology was characterized by using scanning electron microscope and optical properties of nanowire arrays were modeled with the help of finite-difference-time domain method. These novel multi-diameter silicon nanowire arrays have the potential applications in many fields including but not limited to next generation nanowire solar cells to field ionization gas sensors.

  17. Auxin and ethylene regulation of diameter growth in trees. (United States)

    Savidge, R A


    Recent studies on the phytohormonal regulation of seasonal cell-division activity in the cambium, primary-wall radial expansion of cambial derivatives, differentiation of xylem cells, and growth of the cortex in forest trees of the north temperate zone are reviewed. Indol-3-ylacetic acid (IAA, auxin) has been characterized by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the cambial region of Abies balsamea, Pinus densiflora, Pinus sylvestris and Quercus robur. All of the evidence supports the hypothesis that developing leaves and extending shoots are primary sources of IAA. The rate of ethylene emanation varies among conifer species when adjoining phloem and cambial tissues are incubated in vitro. The cambium from young cuttings of Abies balsamea produces more ethylene than that from older cuttings. Ethylene production by seven-year-old Abies balsamea cambium is substantially increased in vitro when the tissue is provided with exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and IAA. In response to elevated ethylene concentrations, cortex growth is accelerated in both hardwood and conifer seedlings. Ethrel (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) increases ray size and ray-cell number and promotes traumatic resin-canal development in xylem. In Ulmus americana, endogenous ethylene concentrations are inversely correlated with cambial activity. Ethylene decreases vessel diameter in Acer negundo, Acer platanoides and Ulmus americana. Several studies suggest that ethylene has a role in regulating reaction-wood formation in both conifers and hardwoods.

  18. Thermal-Infrared Surveys of Near-Earth Object Diameters and Albedos with Spitzer and IRTF/MIRSI (United States)

    Mommert, Michael; Trilling, David; Hora, Joseph L.; Chesley, Steven; Emery, Josh; Fazio, Giovanni; Harris, Alan W.; Moskovitz, Nick; Mueller, Michael; Smith, Howard


    More than 12000 Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) have been discovered over the past few decades and current discovery surveys find on average 4 new NEOs every night. In comparison to asteroid discovery, the physical characterization of NEOs lags far behind: measured diameters and albedos exist only for roughly 10% of all known NEOs. We describe a current and a future observing program that provide diameter and albedo measurements of a large number of NEOs.In our Spitzer Space Telescope Exploration Science program 'NEOSurvey', we are performing a fast and efficient flux-limited survey in which we measure the diameters and albedos of ~600 NEOs in a total of 710 hrs of observing time. We measure the thermal emission of our targets at 4.5 micron and combine these measurements with optical data in a thermal model. Our diameters and albedos come with highly realistic uncertainties that account for a wide range of potential asteroid properties. Our primary goal is to create a large and uniform catalog of NEO properties, including diameters, albedos, and flux density data. This catalog is publicly accessible and provides the latest results usually within 2 weeks after the observation.Starting in 2016, we will also make use of the refurbished and recommissioned MIRSI mid-infrared imaging camera on NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) to derive the diameters and albedos of up to 750 NEOs over a period of 3 yrs. MIRSI will be equipped with an optical camera that will allow for simultaneous optical imaging, which will improve our thermal modeling results. With MIRSI, we will focus on newly discovered NEOs that are close to Earth and hence relatively bright.The results from both programs, together with already exisiting diameter and albedo results from the literature, will form the largest database of NEO physical properties available to date. With this data set, we will be able to refine the size distribution of small NEOs and the corresponding impact frequency, and compare the

  19. Investigation of umbilical venous vessels anatomy and diameters as a guideline for catheter placement in newborns. (United States)

    Eifinger, F; Fuchs, Z; Koerber, F; Persigehl, T; Scaal, M


    Umbilical cord catheters (UCC) are important for the primary care of critically ill newborns. To analyze anatomical variations of the umbilical vein (UV) and its further course, we performed abdominal spiral-CT examinations on stillborns. The aim of the study was to explore the high incidence of mal-positioned UCCs and to improve their positioning. Eighteen stillborns were investigated (29.2 weeks ± 6.7 weeks (IQR)). CTs were performed using either air or contrast medium injection into the UV. We measured the diameter at the narrowest points of (i) the umbilical vein, (ii) the segmental portal vein, (iii) the left portal vein, (iv) the umbilical recess, and (v) the ductus venosus. The branching angles between (a) the umbilical vein and intrahepatic veins and (b) the ductus venosus and umbilical recess were measured. The diameter of the UV increases from 3.4 to 11 mm (median [IQR]:4.6 mm [4.2-6.9]: r 2  = 0.64). The left portal vein has a larger diameter (3.6 mm [2.6-4.55]; r 2  = 0.43) than the left segmental portal vein (2.3 mm [1.8-2.75]; r 2  = 0.23). The diameter of the ductus venosus (2.5 mm [1.6-3.4]; r 2  = 0.59) is half that of the umbilical recess (5.1 mm [3.3-6.2]; r 2  = 0.43). The most obtuse angle is formed by the junction between the umbilical recess and ductus venosus (151° [133-159]; r 2  = 0.001). The branch angle from the outgoing UV into the left portal vein is more obtuse (128° [123-144]; r 2  = 0.0001) than that of the segmental portal vein (115° [105-119]; r 2  = 0.0001). To avoid mal-positioning, our data suggest the use of a soft catheter. The UV and its extensions are wide enough to admit a 4 Fr. catheter without complete obstruction. Clin. Anat. 31:269-274, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A study on the various diameters of the heart and frontal cardiac area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Soo


    Cardiac measurement by radiographic method is the most accurate procedure by which physicians can obtain data regarding cardiac size in life. In order to determine the standard values among Koreans, cardiac mensuration by the radiographic frontal cardiac area method was carried out on 225 healthy Korean infants, 111 of whom were males and 114 were females. The results were as follows: 1. Transverse diameter at one month of age is 4.56 ± 0.12 cm in male and 5.00 ± 0.19 cm in female and at eleven months of age 7.35 ± 0.12 cm in male, 7.42 ± 0.09 cm in female. 2. Board diameter at one month of age is 3.94 ± 0.15 cm in male and 4.53 ± 0.19 cm in female and at eleven months of age 5.82 ± 0.14 cm in male, 5.94 ± 0.14 cm in female. 3. Long diameter at one month of age is 3.94 ± 0.15 cm in male and 5.30 ± 0.23 cm in female and at eleven months of age 7.67 ± 0.15 cm in male, 7.55 ± 0.11 cm in female. 4. The obliquity of the cardiac axis shows no significant difference in age and sex. The range of the measurements are between 31 .deg and 37 .deg. 5. Frontal cardiac area at one month of age is 14.36 ± 1.11 cm 2 in male and 18.97 ± 0.14 cm 2 in female and at eleven months of age 35.27 ± 1.21 cm 2 in male, 35.43 ± 0.45 cm 2 in female. 6. In every diameter and frontal cardiac area, except the obliquity of the cardiac axis, show greater value in female at the age of 1 month, but show almost same value in male as in female at the age of 11 months

  1. Thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters in a general population: MRI-based reference values and association with age and cardiovascular risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensel, Birger; Hesselbarth, Lydia; Wenzel, Michael; Kuehn, Jens-Peter; Hegenscheid, Katrin [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Doerr, Marcus [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Internal Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Voelzke, Henry [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute for Community Medicine, Greifswald (Germany); DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Greifswald (Germany); Lieb, Wolfgang [Christian Albrechts University, Institute of Epidemiology, Kiel (Germany); Lorbeer, Roberto [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)


    To generate reference values for thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and analyse their association with cardiovascular risk factors in the general population. Data from participants (n = 1759) of the Study of Health in Pomerania were used for analysis in this study. MRI measurement of thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters was performed. Parameters for calculation of reference values according to age and sex analysis were provided. Multivariable linear regression models were used for determination of aortic diameter-related risk factors, including smoking, blood pressure (BP), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). For the ascending aorta (β = -0.049, p < 0.001), the aortic arch (β = -0.061, p < 0.001) and the subphrenic aorta (β = -0.018, p = 0.004), the body surface area (BSA)-adjusted diameters were lower in men. Multivariable-adjusted models revealed significant increases in BSA-adjusted diameters with age for all six aortic segments (p < 0.001). Consistent results for all segments were observed for the positive associations of diastolic BP (β = 0.001; 0.004) and HDL (β = 0.035; 0.087) with BSA-adjusted aortic diameters and for an inverse association of systolic BP (β = -0.001). Some BSA-adjusted median aortic diameters are smaller in men than in women. All diameters increase with age, diastolic blood pressure and HDL-C and decrease as systolic BP increases. (orig.)

  2. Enhancement of Si solar cell efficiency using ZnO nanowires with various diameters (United States)

    Gholizadeh, A.; Reyhani, A.; Parvin, P.; Mortazavi, S. Z.; Mehrabi, M.


    Here, Zinc Oxide nanowires are synthesized using thermal chemical vapor deposition of a Zn granulate source and used to enhance a significant Si-solar cell efficiency with simple and low cost method. The nanowires are grown in various O2 flow rates. Those affect the shape, yield, structure and the quality of ZnO nanowires according to scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. This delineates that the ZnO nanostructure is dependent on the synthesis conditions. The photoluminescence spectroscopy of ZnO indicates optical emission at the Ultra-Violet and blue-green regions whose intensity varies as a function of diameter of ZnO nano-wires. The optical property of ZnO layer is measured by UV-visible and diffuse reflection spectroscopy that demonstrate high absorbance at 280-550 nm. Furthermore, the photovoltaic characterization of ZnO nanowires is investigated based on the drop casting on Si-solar cell. The ZnO nanowires with various diameters demonstrate different effects on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. We have shown that the reduction of the spectral reflectance and down-shifting process as well as the reduction of photon trapping are essential parameters on the efficiency of Si-solar cells. However, the latter is dominated here. In fact, the trapped photons during the electron-hole generation are dominant due to lessening the absorption rate in ZnO nano-wires. The results indicate that the mean diameters reduction of ZnO nanowires is also essential to improve the fill factor. The external and internal quantum efficiency analyses attest the efficiency improvement over the blue region which is related to the key parameters above.

  3. Submillimeter Diameter Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Vascular Graft Patency in Rabbit Model (United States)

    Cutiongco, Marie F. A.; Kukumberg, Marek; Peneyra, Jonnathan L.; Yeo, Matthew S.; Yao, Jia Y.; Rufaihah, Abdul Jalil; Le Visage, Catherine; Ho, Jackie Pei; Yim, Evelyn K. F.


    Microvascular surgery is becoming a prevalent surgical practice. Replantation, hand reconstruction, orthopedic, and free tissue transfer procedures all rely on microvascular surgery for the repair of venous and arterial defects at the millimeter and submillimeter levels. Often, a vascular graft is required for the procedure as a means to bridge the gap between native arteries. While autologous vessels are desired for their bioactivity and non-thrombogenicity, the tedious harvest process, lack of availability, and caliber or mechanical mismatch contribute to graft failure. Thus, there is a need for an off-the-shelf artificial vascular graft that has low thrombogenic properties and mechanical properties matching those of submillimeter vessels. Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA) has excellent prospects as a vascular graft due to its bioinertness, low thrombogenicity, high water content, and tunable mechanical properties. Here, we fabricated PVA grafts with submillimeter diameter and mechanical properties that closely approximated those of the rabbit femoral artery. In vitro platelet adhesion and microparticle release assay verified the low thrombogenicity of PVA. A stringent proof-of-concept in vivo test was performed by implanting PVA grafts in rabbit femoral artery with multilevel arterial occlusion. Laser Doppler measurements indicated the improved perfusion of the distal limb after implantation with PVA grafts. Moreover, ultrasound Doppler and angiography verified that the submillimeter diameter PVA vascular grafts remained patent for 2 weeks without the aid of anticoagulant or antithrombotics. Endothelial cells were observed in the luminal surface of one patent PVA graft. The advantageous non-thrombogenic and tunable mechanical properties of PVA that are retained even in the submillimeter diameter dimensions support the application of this biomaterial for vascular replacement in microvascular surgery. PMID:27376059

  4. Hair Diameter Variation in Different Vertical Regions of the Occipital Safe Donor Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Sik Yun


    Full Text Available Background Little is known concerning hair diameter variation within the safe donor area for hair transplantation surgery. Thicker or thinner hair may be needed, depending on the recipient area, hairline design, and the purpose of surgery. Methods Twenty-seven patients (7 men and 20 women; mean age, 28 years; range, 20–47 years were included in this study. The midoccipital point was used as the reference point on the horizontal plane at the upper border of the helical rim. The target area width was 15 cm (7.5 cm to the right and left of the reference point and the height was 8 cm (2 cm above and 6 cm below the reference point. The study area was divided horizontally into 3 5-cm sections (A, B, C and vertically into 4 2-cm sections (1–4, creating a total of 12 zones. Ten anagen hairs were randomly obtained from each zone and their diameters were measured. Results Hair diameter in the 4 vertical sections varied significantly, gradually decreasing from sections 1 (superior to 4 (inferior in all 3 horizontal sections (A, B, and C. Conclusions Our results suggest that sections 1 and 2 of the occipital safe donor area would be useful for obtaining thicker hair, such as in procedures to treat male- and female-pattern hair loss, whereas hair from zones 3 and 4 could be useful for transplantation surgery requiring thinner hair, such as eyebrows, eyelashes, and female hairline correction. Our results may be clinically valuable for planning hair transplant surgery and choosing the optimal donor region.

  5. Differentiation of human hair by colour and diameter using light microscopy, digital imaging and statistical analysis. (United States)

    Mills, M; Bonetti, J; Brettell, T; Quarino, L


    This research introduces and evaluates a novel method that offers the potential of providing objective criteria to forensic microscopical hair comparisons. The method combines hair diameter with numeric characterisations of red, green, and blue colour content as determined with the use of digital imaging at defined locations of the hair. Thirty hairs were collected from each of twenty participants, all with naturally coloured brown hair. The hairs were examined with an Olympus BX53® polarising light microscope and digital images were viewed with an Olympus DP72® camera under 400× magnification. Using Olympus cellSens ™ Entry software, hair diameter was measured at 1000, 1500 and 2000 μm from the base of the root. The Olympus cellSens ™ Entry software uses a red, green and blue (RGB) colour model to quantitatively define the colour of each pixel on an image based on its composition of these three principal colour components. This software was used to collect numerical characterisations of hair colour at each distance interval. The diameter and colour values for each hair were compared using discriminant analysis (DA) and principal component analysis. Although a large amount of intrapersonal variation was observed, the degree of interpersonal variation was greater and enabled the statistical model to differentiate between the hair samples from each participant. The DA model achieved sample reclassification with an error rate of 7.33%. A validation study was conducted on a subset of hair samples from which 18 of the 20 were correctly assigned to the participant from whom they originated. These results support the potential of this method to provide an objective addition to current microscopical hair comparison practices. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Factors associated with changes in vaginal length and diameter during pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer. (United States)

    Martins, Jumara; Vaz, Ana Francisca; Grion, Regina Celia; Esteves, Sérgio Carlos Barros; Costa-Paiva, Lúcia; Baccaro, Luiz Francisco


    This study reports the incidence and factors associated with vaginal stenosis and changes in vaginal dimensions after pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer. A descriptive longitudinal study with 139 women with cervical cancer was conducted from January 2013 to November 2015. The outcome variables were vaginal stenosis assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v3.0) and changes in vaginal diameter and length after the end of radiotherapy. Independent variables were the characteristics of the neoplasm, clinical and sociodemographic data. Bivariate analysis was carried out using χ 2 , Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney's test. Multiple analysis was carried out using Poisson regression and a generalized linear model. Most women (50.4%) had stage IIIB tumors. According to CTCAE v3.0 scale, 30.2% had no stenosis, 69.1% had grade 1 and 0.7% had grade 2 stenosis after radiotherapy. Regarding changes in vaginal measures, the mean variation in diameter was - 0.6 (± 1.7) mm and the mean variation in length was - 0.6 (± 1.3) cm. In the final statistical model, having tumoral invasion of the vaginal walls (coefficient + 0.73, p vaginal stenosis and lower reduction of vaginal dimensions. Advanced clinical stage (coefficient + 1.44; p = 0.02) and receiving brachytherapy/teletherapy (coefficient - 1.17, p vaginal dimensions. Most women had mild vaginal stenosis with slight reductions in both diameter and length of the vaginal canal. Women with tumoral invasion of the vagina have an increase in vaginal length soon after radiotherapy due to a reduction in tumoral volume.

  7. Correlation between pupil diameter and angle configuration in the dark room provocative test. (United States)

    Li, Dejiao; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Bingsong; Wang, Tao; Li, Shuning; Chen, Lijia; Mu, Dapeng


    To study the associations between changes in pupil diameter and in the anterior chamber angle configuration during the dark room provocative test. The study included 70 suspects of primary angle closure (study group) and 40 normal participants (control group). Using anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), we measured the anterior chamber angle configuration and pupil diameter at 3 minutes and at 1.5 hours of dark adaptation. In the study group, the mean number of closed angle segments was significantly (Pdark adaptation (3.9 ± 2.3) than at room light conditions (2.6 ± 2.2) or at 1.5 hours of dark adaptation (3.1 ± 2.1), with no statistically significant (P>0.05) difference between the 2 latter values. In the study group, the pupil diameter was significantly associated with the number of closed angle segments at 3 minutes of dark adaptation (Pdark adaptation (P=0.13). Defined as an increased number of closed angle segments, the dark room test was positive in a significantly higher number of participants at 3 minutes than at 1.5 hours of dark adaptation [44 (63%) eyes vs. 31 (44%) eyes; Pdark adaptation (r2=0.21). After short-term dark adaptation of 3 minutes, the assessment of the anterior chamber angle configuration by AS-OCT is more reliable than as if carried out after a long-term dark adaptation and may be used to identify suspects of primary angle closure.

  8. Radiographic diagnosis of mechanical obstruction in dogs based on relative small intestinal external diameters. (United States)

    Finck, Cyrielle; D'Anjou, Marc-André; Alexander, Kate; Specchi, Swan; Beauchamp, Guy


    Mechanical obstruction is a frequent cause of acute vomiting in dogs requiring prompt diagnosis to improve patient management and prognosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare small intestinal radiographic characteristics in dogs with versus without mechanical intestinal obstruction. Fifty dogs with gastrointestinal clinical signs and abdominal radiographs were recruited from hospital record archives and assigned to groups (group 1, obstructive, n = 25; group 2, nonobstructive n = 25). Abdominal radiographs were randomized and independently interpreted by three examiners who were unaware of group status. Intestinal dilation was subjectively scored based on distribution (segmental, regional or diffuse), and severity (absent, mild, moderate or severe). Small intestinal maximal diameter (SImax), L5 vertebral body height, small intestinal minimal diameter (SImin), and an estimated average of small intestinal diameters (SIave) were measured and three ratios were calculated: SImax/L5, SImax/SImin, and SImax/SIave. Segmental dilation was more prevalent in obstructed dogs for all examiners (P ≤ 0.03) and most nonobstructed dogs had no dilation (P ≤ 0.05). All ratios were higher in obstructed dogs (P dogs with SImax/L5 ≤ 1.4, SImax/SImin ≤ 2, and SImax/SIave ≤ 1.3 values are very unlikely to be mechanically obstructed; dogs with SImax/L5 ≥ 2.4, SImax/SImin ≥ 3.4 and SImax/SIave ≥ 1.9 are very likely obstructed, particularly if segmental dilation (less than 25% of the small intestine) is present. Dogs with ratios falling between these thresholds may need further testing unless other signs justify surgical exploration or endoscopy. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Dynamics of large-diameter water pipes in hydroelectric power plants (United States)

    Pavić, G.; Chevillotte, F.; Heraud, J.


    An outline is made of physical behaviour of water - filled large pipes. The fluid-wall coupling, the key factor governing the pipe dynamics, is discussed in some detail. Different circumferential pipe modes and the associated cut-on frequencies are addressed from a theoretical as well as practical point of view. Major attention is paid to the breathing mode in view of its importance regarding main dynamic phenomena, such as water hammer. Selected measurement results done at EDF are presented to demonstrate how an external, non-intrusive sensor can detect pressure pulsations of the breathing mode in a pressure pipe. Differences in the pressure measurement using intrusive and non-intrusive sensors reveal the full complexity of large-diameter pipe dynamics.

  10. Optical coherence tomography and vessel diameter changes after intravitreal bevacizumab in diabetic macular oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, W.; Vinten, M.; Sander, B.


    Purpose: To assess the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on diabetic macular oedema (DMO) and retinal vessel calibres. Methods: We performed a consecutive case series study in which 10 consecutive eyes with diffuse DMO, two of which had not previously been treated, received an intravitreal...... injection of bevacizumab 1 mg, which was followed by two more injections at 6-week intervals. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were carried out at baseline immediately before injection and at 1, 2.5 and 4 months after the first injection. Outcome measures were best corrected visual...... acuity (BCVA) in Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study letters, macular volume, foveal subfield thickness and vessel diameter measurement. Results: Intravitreal administration of bevacizumab was followed by a mean increase in BCVA of 7.3 +/- 17 (mean +/- standard deviation) letters between baseline...

  11. Dynamic fatigue properties of the dental implant-abutment interface: joint opening in wide-diameter versus standard-diameter hex-type implants. (United States)

    Hoyer, S A; Stanford, C M; Buranadham, S; Fridrich, T; Wagner, J; Gratton, D


    The clinical long-term success of single-tooth implant restorations depends, in part, on a stable connection between the prosthetic restoration and the implant body. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the fatigue life of UCLA-style abutment screws in wide-diameter versus conventionally sized dental implant restorations. Five 3.75 x 15-mm and five 6.0 x 15-mm hexed dental implants were used. Ten frameworks were fabricated, 5 with a single UCLA-style, 3.75-mm hexed gold alloy cylinder, and 5 with a single UCLA-style, 6.0-mm hexed gold alloy cylinder. To simulate a common laboratory procedure, 2 abutment interfaces were relieved with a one-quarter round bur for both diameters. The 3.75-mm implant used a Gold-Tite central abutment screw torqued to 32 Ncm, and the 6.0-mm implant used a titanium central abutment screw torqued to 25 Ncm. Frameworks were dynamically loaded ( approximately 10 Hz) with a 120 +/- 10-N, 4-mm off-axis force. Liquid metal strain gauges were used to measure joint opening. Measurements were made at intervals of 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 5x10(5) cycles. Gauge output data were converted to displacement with a conversion factor determined by calibration. Linear regression analysis then was performed. Two observations were made in this study. Two of three 3.75-mm nonadjusted specimens and all three 6.0-mm nonadjusted specimens maintained joint closure (range of opening 0-20 microm) while measured under dynamic loading. The median joint opening at 5x10(5) cycles for 3.75-mm nonadjusted specimens was 14 +/- 7 microm; for 6.0-mm specimens, it was 11 +/- 10 microm. Both 3.75-mm adjusted specimens and 1 nonadjusted specimen failed to maintain joint closure (excess joint opening >50 microm). One of the 3.75-mm adjusted specimens had abutment screw fracture. One of two 6.0-mm adjusted specimens failed to maintain joint closure because of screw fracture. The dental implant-abutment interface of 3.75-mm and 6.0-mm externally hexed implants

  12. Bark thickness related to tree diameter in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) (United States)

    H. Clay Smith


    Bark thickness for sugar maple trees in Vermont was found to be related to tree diameter at breast height (d.b.h.). The relationship was positive-as the diameter increased, the bark thickness increased.

  13. Anatomic radiological study of transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ures, S.


    The transverse diameter of abdominal aorta by computerized tomography is studied. The purpose is establish the frequent standard diameters and then diagnose early pathologies, mainly aneurisms. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Bloch-Wave Engineered Submicron Diameter Micropillars with Quality Factors Exceeding 10,000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofling, S.; Lermer, M.; Gregersen, Niels


    Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed.......Adiabatic design submicron diameter quantum-dot micropillars have been designed and implemented for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. Ultra-high experimental quality factors (>10,000) are obtained for submicron diameters and strong light-matter interaction is observed....

  15. Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Hole Diameter of Drilling Making Parts of Alluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiūnas


    Full Text Available The article researches the drilling process of an aluminium alloy. The paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of cutting speed, feed and hole depth considering hole diameter and hole surface roughness of aluminum alloy 6082 in the dry drilling process and at making empirical formulas for cutting parameters. The article also describes experimental techniques and equipment, tools and measuring devices. Experimental studies have been carried out using different cutting parameters. The obtained results have been analyzed using computer software. According to the existing techniques for measuring, surface roughness and hole diameters have been measured, empirical models have been created and the results of the conducted experiments have been inspected. The findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the work.Artcile in Lithuanian

  16. Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Hole Diameter of Drilling Making Parts of Alluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiūnas


    Full Text Available The article researches the drilling process of an aluminium alloy. The paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of cutting speed, feed and hole depth considering hole diameter and hole surface roughness of aluminum alloy 6082 in the dry drilling process and at making empirical formulas for cutting parameters. The article also describes experimental techniques and equipment, tools and measuring devices. Experimental studies have been carried out using different cutting parameters. The obtained results have been analyzed using computer software. According to the existing techniques for measuring, surface roughness and hole diameters have been measured, empirical models have been created and the results of the conducted experiments have been inspected. The findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the work.Artcile in Lithuanian

  17. Predicting past and future diameter growth for trees in the northeastern United States (United States)

    James A. Westfall


    Tree diameter growth models are widely used in forestry applications, often to predict tree size at a future point in time. Also, there are instances where projections of past diameters are needed. A relative diameter growth model was developed to allow prediction of both future and past growth rates. Coefficients were estimated for 15 species groups that cover most...

  18. 78 FR 60897 - Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1... the antidumping duty order on certain welded large diameter line pipe from Japan would likely to lead... Certain Welded Large Diameter Line Pipe from Japan: Investigation No. 731-TA-919 (Second Review). By order...

  19. Basic maneuvers for an inspection robot for small diameter gas distribution mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dertien, Edwin Christian; Stramigioli, Stefano


    This video shows the design of a mechanical structure of a miniature pipe inspection robot (MPR) capable of moving trough very small pipes (up to 41 mm inner diameter) as well as a wide range of diameters (63 to 125 mm outer diameter). The requirement to negotiate bends, T-joints and steep

  20. Relating coarse root respiration to root diameter in clonal Eucalyptus stands in the Republic of the Congo. (United States)

    Marsden, Claire; Nouvellon, Yann; Epron, Daniel


    Root respiration is an important component of the carbon balance of a forest ecosystem. We measured CO2 efflux of excised fine roots and intact coarse roots in 3-, 4- and 13-year-old Eucalyptus stands in the region of Pointe-Noire, Republic of the Congo. A transportable and adaptable closed chamber gas exchange system directly measured CO2 efflux of roots from 0.5 to 32 mm in diameter. Fluxes were corrected for measurement system leaks and normalized to a reference temperature of 30 degrees C. Mean fine root respiration rates at the reference temperature varied between 8.5 and 10.8 micromol CO2 kg(-1) s(-1) depending on the stand. Coarse root respiration was strongly negatively correlated to root diameter. We propose a model based on a radial gradient of respiratory activity within the root to simulate the exponential decrease in respiration with diameter. Although many sources of uncertainty in the measurements remain, as discussed in this paper, these results provide a basis for scaling up organ-level root respiration measurements to the tree and stand levels.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of tunnel diameters prior to revision ACL reconstruction: a comparison to computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drews, Bjoern Holger; Gulkin, Daniel; Guelke, Joachim; Gebhard, Florian [University of Ulm, Center of Surgery, Department for Orthopedic Trauma, Hand and Reconstructive Surgery, Ulm (Germany); Merz, Cornelia; Huth, Jochen; Mauch, Frieder [Sportklinik Stuttgart GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Revision ACL reconstruction is becoming more frequent because of a 10% rate of re-ruptures and insufficiencies. Currently, computed tomography (CT) represents the gold standard in detecting and measuring the tunnels of the initial ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare measurement results of CT and thin-sliced MRI sequences, which were modified to a high soft tissue-bone contrast. Prior to an ACL revision surgery, 16 consecutive patients had an MRI in addition to the standard CT scan. A dedicated 0.25-T Esaote G-Scan (Esaote Biomedica, Cologne, Germany) with a Turbo 3D T1 sequence was used for MRI. Tunnel diameters were measured at 11 defined points of interest. For the statistical evaluation, the Mann-Whitney U test for connected samples was used. Inter- and intraobserver reliability was additionally calculated. All measured diameters showed significant to highly significant correlations between both diagnostic tools (r = 0.7-0.98). In addition, there was no significant difference (p > 0.5) between the two techniques. Almost all diameters showed nearly perfect intraobserver reliability (ICC 0.8-0.97). Interobserver reliability showed an ICC of 0.91/0.92 for only one diameter in MRI and CT. Prior to ACL revision surgery, bone tunnel measurements can be done using a 3D T1-MRI sequence in low-field MRI. MRI measurements show the same accuracy as CT scans. Preoperative radiation exposure in mainly young patients could be reduced. Also the costs of an additional CT scan could be saved. (orig.)

  2. Increased Arterial Diameters in the Posterior Cerebral Circulation in Men with Fabry Disease (United States)

    Üçeyler, Nurcan; Homola, György A.; Guerrero González, Hans; Kramer, Daniela; Wanner, Christoph; Weidemann, Frank; Solymosi, László; Sommer, Claudia


    A high load of white matter lesions and enlarged basilar arteries have been shown in selected patients with Fabry disease, a disorder associated with an increased stroke risk. We studied a large cohort of patients with Fabry disease to differentially investigate white matter lesion load and cerebral artery diameters. We retrospectively analyzed cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 87 consecutive Fabry patients, 20 patients with ischemic stroke, and 36 controls. We determined the white matter lesion load applying the Fazekas score on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences and measured the diameters of cerebral arteries on 3D-reconstructions of the time-of-flight-MR-angiography scans. Data of different Fabry patient subgroups (males – females; normal – impaired renal function) were compared with data of patients with stroke and controls. A history of stroke or transient ischemic attacks was present in 4/30 males (13%) and 5/57 (9%) females with Fabry disease, all in the anterior circulation. Only one man with Fabry disease showed confluent cerebral white matter lesions in the Fazekas score assessment (1%). Male Fabry patients had a larger basilar artery (p3.2 mm distinguished between men with Fabry disease and controls (sensitivity: 87%, specificity: 86%, pFabry disease independent of disease severity. PMID:24475221

  3. The blue-eyes stereotype: do eye color, pupil diameter, and scleral color affect attractiveness? (United States)

    Gründl, Martin; Knoll, Sebastian; Eisenmann-Klein, Marita; Prantl, Lukas


    Blue eyes have been the embodiment of attractiveness not only for decades but even for centuries. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether iridal color, particularly color blue, can increase the attractiveness of a person's eye area. As a secondary aim, the study examined the impact of pupil diameter and scleral color on the attractiveness of the eye area. The stimulus material comprised images of the eye areas of 60 women ages 15-65 years. A total of 80 participants rated the attractiveness of each eye area on a 7-point Likert scale and estimated the age of the person. The color values of the iris and sclera were measured. As an additional subsample, 50% of the participants were asked what features of each eye area they found particularly appealing. Most surprisingly, no correlation was found between iridal color and rated attractiveness. However, the participants mentioned the color blue more often as a positive aspect than other iridal colors. A high inverse correlation was observed between attractiveness of the eye area and age. The larger the pupil diameter and the whiter the scleral color, the lower was the real and perceived age and the higher was the attractiveness. The data showed that the "blue-eyes stereotype" does exist. People consider blue eyes attractive, but in reality, blue is rated as attractive as other iridal colors. Bright scleral color and large pupils positively affect attractiveness because both features are significantly correlated with youthfulness.

  4. Solar variability observed through changes in solar figure and mean diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, H.A.


    The work performed on solar variability during 1990 at SCLERA is reviewed. That portion of the SCLERA research program supported by the Department of Energy has been directed toward the detection and monitoring of climatically significant solar variability by accurate measurement of the variability in solar shape and diameter. Observations were obtained in 1990 and results from analysis of earlier observations obtained. The observational evidence of systematic long-term changes in the apparent solar diameter and/or radius has been detected, and these changes continue to strongly correlated with long-term changes in solar total irradiance. Additional evidence for internal gravity modes has been found which may be important to understanding the internal structure of the Sun. Each of these findings shows promise for anticipating future changes in the solar luminosity. Progress has been made in setting up an international network based on SCLERA-type instruments to improve the coverage and quality of the observations. A proposal is made for the continuation of support from the Department of Energy for further studies relevant to solar-variability forecasting

  5. Gradient fiber electrospinning of layered scaffolds using controlled transitions in fiber diameter. (United States)

    Grey, Casey P; Newton, Scott T; Bowlin, Gary L; Haas, Thomas W; Simpson, David G


    We characterize layered, delamination resistant, tissue engineering scaffolds produced by gradient electrospinning using computational fluid dynamics, measurements of fiber diameter with respect to dynamic changes in polymer concentration, SEM analysis, and materials testing. Gradient electrospinning delivers a continuously variable concentration of polymer to the electrospinning jet, resulting in scaffolds that exhibit controlled transitions in fiber diameter across the Z-axis. This makes it possible to produce scaffolds that exhibit very different fiber sizes and material properties on opposing surfaces while eliminating the boundary layers that lead to delamination failures. In materials testing bi-layered laminated electrospun scaffolds (layer 1 = electrospinning fabricated with fibers of this type on opposing surfaces fracture and fail as unified, and mechanically integrated, structures. Gradient electrospinning also eliminates the anisotropic strain properties observed in scaffolds composed of highly aligned fibers. In burst testing, scaffolds composed of aligned fibers produced using gradient electrospinning exhibit superior material properties with respect to scaffolds composed of random or aligned fibers produced from a single polymer concentration or as bi-layered, laminated structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of Root Diameter and Soil Depth on the Xylem Anatomy of Fine- to Medium-Sized Roots of Mature Beech Trees in the Top- and Subsoil. (United States)

    Kirfel, Kristina; Leuschner, Christoph; Hertel, Dietrich; Schuldt, Bernhard


    Despite their importance for water uptake and transport, the xylem anatomical and hydraulic properties of tree roots have only rarely been studied in the field. We measured mean vessel diameter ( D ), vessel density (VD), relative vessel lumen area (lumen area per xylem area) and derived potential hydraulic conductivity ( K p ) in the xylem of 197 fine- to medium-diameter roots (1-10 mm) in the topsoil and subsoil (0-200 cm) of a mature European beech forest on sandy soil for examining the influence of root diameter and soil depth on xylem anatomical and derived hydraulic traits. All anatomical and functional traits showed strong dependence on root diameter and thus root age but no significant relation to soil depth. Averaged over topsoil and deep soil and variable flow path lengths in the roots, D increased linearly with root diameter from ∼50 μm in the smallest diameter class (1-2 mm) to ∼70 μm in 6-7 mm roots (corresponding to a mean root age of ∼12 years), but remained invariant in roots >7 mm. D never exceeded ∼82 μm in the 1-10 mm roots, probably in order to control the risk of frost- or drought-induced cavitation. This pattern was overlain by a high variability in xylem anatomy among similar-sized roots with K p showing a higher variance component within than between root diameter classes. With 8% of the roots exceeding average K p in their diameter class by 50-700%, we obtained evidence of the existence of 'high-conductivity roots' indicating functional differentiation among similar-sized roots. We conclude that the hydraulic properties of small to medium diameter roots of beech are mainly determined by root age, rendering root diameter a suitable predictor of hydraulic functioning, while soil depth - without referring to path length - had a negligible effect.

  7. Influence of Root Diameter and Soil Depth on the Xylem Anatomy of Fine- to Medium-Sized Roots of Mature Beech Trees in the Top- and Subsoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kirfel


    Full Text Available Despite their importance for water uptake and transport, the xylem anatomical and hydraulic properties of tree roots have only rarely been studied in the field. We measured mean vessel diameter (D, vessel density (VD, relative vessel lumen area (lumen area per xylem area and derived potential hydraulic conductivity (Kp in the xylem of 197 fine- to medium-diameter roots (1–10 mm in the topsoil and subsoil (0–200 cm of a mature European beech forest on sandy soil for examining the influence of root diameter and soil depth on xylem anatomical and derived hydraulic traits. All anatomical and functional traits showed strong dependence on root diameter and thus root age but no significant relation to soil depth. Averaged over topsoil and deep soil and variable flow path lengths in the roots, D increased linearly with root diameter from ∼50 μm in the smallest diameter class (1–2 mm to ∼70 μm in 6–7 mm roots (corresponding to a mean root age of ∼12 years, but remained invariant in roots >7 mm. D never exceeded ∼82 μm in the 1–10 mm roots, probably in order to control the risk of frost- or drought-induced cavitation. This pattern was overlain by a high variability in xylem anatomy among similar-sized roots with Kp showing a higher variance component within than between root diameter classes. With 8% of the roots exceeding average Kp in their diameter class by 50–700%, we obtained evidence of the existence of ‘high-conductivity roots’ indicating functional differentiation among similar-sized roots. We conclude that the hydraulic properties of small to medium diameter roots of beech are mainly determined by root age, rendering root diameter a suitable predictor of hydraulic functioning, while soil depth – without referring to path length – had a negligible effect.

  8. Pull out Strength of Dual Outer Diameter Pedicle Screws Compared to Uncemented and Cemented Standard Pedicle Screws: A Biomechanical in vitro Study. (United States)

    Lorenz, Andrea; Leichtle, Carmen I; Frantz, Sandra; Bumann, Marte; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Shiozawa, Thomas; Leichtle, Ulf G


    To analyze the potential of the dual outer diameter screw and systematically evaluate the pull-out force of the dual outer diameter screw compared to the uncemented and cemented standard pedicle screws with special regard to the pedicle diameter and the vertebra level. Sixty vertebrae of five human spines (T 6 -L 5 ) were sorted into three study groups for pairwise comparison of the uncemented dual outer diameter screw, the uncemented standard screw, and the cemented standard screw, and randomized with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebra level. The vertebrae were instrumented, insertion torque was determined, and pull-out testing was performed using a material testing machine. Failure load was evaluated in pairwise comparison within each study group. The screw-to-pedicle diameter ratio was determined and the uncemented dual outer diameter and standard screws were compared for different ratios as well as vertebra levels. Significantly increased pull-out forces were measured for the cemented standard screw compared to the uncemented standard screw (+689 N, P dual outer diameter screw (+403 N, P dual outer diameter screw to the uncemented standard screw in the total study group, a distinct but not significant increase was measured (+149 N, P = 0.114). Further analysis of these two screws, however, revealed a significant increase of pull-out force for the dual outer diameter screw in the lumbar region (+247 N, P = 0.040), as well as for a screw-to-pedicle diameter ratio between 0.6 and 1 (+ 488 N, P = 0.028). For clinical application, cement augmentation remains the gold standard for increasing screw stability. According to our results, the use of a dual outer diameter screw is an interesting option to increase screw stability in the lumbar region without cement augmentation. For the thoracic region, however, the screw-to-pedicle diameter should be checked and attention should be paid to screw cut out, if the dual outer diameter screw is considered.

  9. Study of the equivalent diameter concept for heat transfer by forced convection in annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez T, D.


    This work describes a comparative analysis between experimental values of heat transfer coefficients in fully developed turbulent flow for a concentric annular channel, and those calculated with the empirical correlations obtained for tubes by Dittus-Boelter, Sieder and Tate, a modified Colburn equation, and that proposed by Gnielinski which applies the analogy between friction and heat transfer. The coefficients were calculated by means of two different equivalent diameters: 1) The hydraulic equivalent diameter; and 2) The heated equivalent diameter. It was concluded that the hydraulic equivalent diameter gives much better results than the heated equivalent diameter. (Author)

  10. Evaluation of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta diameters by computerized tomography; Avaliacao dos diametros normais da aorta toracica e abdominal pela tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucarelli, Claudio Luiz


    The study was undertaken to evaluate, through computerized tomography, the diameters of the normal thoracic and abdominal aorta, as well as they are connected to gender, age and body surface area; and the ratio between measurements obtained at the ascending and descending limbs of the thoracic aorta, and between the abdominal aortic diameters. For that reason, we measured the widest anteroposterior diameters of the thoracic aortas at the levels of the arch, the root, the pulmonary artery, and the thoracic-abdominal transition, as well as the level of the emergence of the superior mesenteric artery, of the renal hila and just cephalad to the bifurcation of the abdominal aortas of 350 patients without cardiovascular diseases who had undergone computerized tomography of the thorax and/or abdomen for any other reasons. Observation and statistic analyses led us to conclude that: 1) both the thoracic and abdominal aortic diameters are reduced from their proximal to their distal portions; 2) the body surface influences the size of the aorta, although only extreme variations alter the vessel's caliber; 3) vessel diameter was observed to gradually increase with age; 4) men were found to have larger diameters than age matched women; 5) the ratio between the ascending and descending aortic diameters varies according to gender and age; 6) the relations between abdominal aortic diameters measured at the level of renal hila and cephalad to the bifurcation are independent from gender and age. But the relation between those measured at the level of the superior mesenteric artery and cephalad to the bifurcation are linked to gender, but not to age. (author)

  11. Anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta is higher in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Matteo Ciccone


    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Stefano Favale1, Anish Bhuva4, Pietro Scicchitano1, Vito Caragnano1, Cristina Lavopa2, Giovanni De Pergola3, Giuseppe Loverro21Department of Cardiology; 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 3Section of Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Andrology, and Metabolic Diseases, University of Bari, DETO, Italy; 4University College of London, London, UKBackground: Women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are known to be at higher risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to identify the artery that first is affected by early pre-atherosclerotic changes in PCOS. Methods: Twenty-nine women with PCOS aged 17 to 27 years and 26 healthy nonhyperandrogenic volunteers with regular menses (control women aged 16 to 28 years were enrolled. All PCOS patients were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 25. Diagnosis of PCOS was performed in line with the 2003 Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Accordingly, PCOS was defined when at least two of the following three features were present after exclusion of other etiologies: 1 oligomenorrhea and or anovulation; 2 hyperandrogenism and/or hyperandrogenemia; and 3 polycystic ovaries visible at ultrasound. Androgen excess or related disorders were excluded. The intima-media thickness (IMT of common carotid arteries and common femoral arteries and the anteroposterior diameter of the infrarenal abdominal aorta were measured by ultrasound. Lutenizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, total testosterone, androstenedione, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG serum levels were measured between the 3rd and the 6th day of spontaneous or progestin-induced menstrual cycle. Our study was performed in the absence of any medical treatment. Results: Women with PCOS showed a higher LH to FSH ratio (p < 0.01, increased fasting insulin (p < 0.001, total testosterone (p < 0.001, and androstenedione (p < 0.001 levels, and lower

  12. Anisotropic surface strain in single crystalline cobalt nanowires and its impact on the diameter-dependent Young's modulus

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Xiaohu


    Understanding and measuring the size-dependent surface strain of nanowires are essential to their applications in various emerging devices. Here, we report on the diameter-dependent surface strain and Young\\'s modulus of single-crystalline Co nanowires investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction measurements. Diameter-dependent initial longitudinal elongation of the nanowires is observed and ascribed to the anisotropic surface stress due to the Poisson effect, which serves as the basis for mechanical measurements. As the nanowire diameter decreases, a transition from the "smaller is softer" regime to the "smaller is tougher" regime is observed in the Young\\'s modulus of the nanowires, which is attributed to the competition between the elongation softening and the surface stiffening effects. Our work demonstrates a new nondestructive method capable of measuring the initial surface strain and estimating the Young\\'s modulus of single crystalline nanowires, and provides new insights on the size effect. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. The influence of the blood vessel diameter on the full scattering profile from cylindrical tissues: experimental evidence for the shielding effect. (United States)

    Feder, Idit; Duadi, Hamootal; Dreifuss, Tamar; Fixler, Dror


    Optical methods for detecting physiological state based on light-tissue interaction are noninvasive, inexpensive, simplistic, and thus very useful. The blood vessels in human tissue are the main cause of light absorbing and scattering. Therefore, the effect of blood vessels on light-tissue interactions is essential for optically detecting physiological tissue state, such as oxygen saturation, blood perfusion and blood pressure. We have previously suggested a new theoretical and experimental method for measuring the full scattering profile, which is the angular distribution of light intensity, of cylindrical tissues. In this work we will present experimental measurements of the full scattering profile of heterogenic cylindrical phantoms that include blood vessels. We show, for the first time that the vessel diameter influences the full scattering profile, and found higher reflection intensity for larger vessel diameters accordance to the shielding effect. For an increase of 60% in the vessel diameter the light intensity in the full scattering profile above 90° is between 9% to 40% higher, depending on the angle. By these results we claim that during respiration, when the blood-vessel diameter changes, it is essential to consider the blood-vessel diameter distribution in order to determine the optical path in tissues. A CT scan of the measured silicon-based phantoms. The phantoms contain the same blood volume in different blood-vessel diameters. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Influence of shoulder diameter on Temperature and Z-parameter during friction stir welding of Al 6082 alloy (United States)

    Kishore Mugada, Krishna; Adepu, Kumar


    In this research article, the effect of increasing shoulder diameter on temperature and Zener Holloman (Z)-parameter for friction stir butt welded AA6082-T6 was studied. The temperature at the Advancing side (AS) of weld was measured using the K-Type thermocouple at four different equidistant locations. The developed analytical model is utilized to predict the maximum temperature (Tpeak) during the welding. The strain, strain rate, Z- Parameter for all the shoulders at four distinct locations were evaluated. The temperature increases with increase in shoulder diameter and the maximum temperature was recorded for 24mm shoulder diameter. The computed log Z values are compared with the available process map and results shows that the values are in stable flow region and near to stir zone the values are in Dynamic recrystallization region (DRX). The axial load (Fz) and total tool torque (N-m) are found to be higher for shoulder diameter of 21 mm i.e., 6.3 kN and 56.5 N-m respectively.

  15. Effects of successive tracheal resection and anastomosis on tracheal diameter and position of lobar bronchi in dogs. (United States)

    de Mello Souza, Carlos Henrique; Reinero, Carol R


    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of successive large-segment tracheal resection and anastomosis on tracheal diameter and position of lobar bronchi in dogs. ANIMALS 5 adult Beagles. PROCEDURES Right lateral radiographs were obtained for all dogs and used to measure tracheal length. Dogs were then euthanized, and successive segmental tracheal resections (intervals of 10% from 20% to 50% of the tracheal length), each of which was followed by anastomosis, were performed in each cadaver. Tracheobronchoscopy was performed before the first tracheal resection and after each of the anastomoses to evaluate tracheal diameter and changes in position of lobar bronchi. RESULTS Tracheal diameter was minimally affected by resections up to 50% of the tracheal length. Diameter of the trachea and position of bronchi were not affected by resection of 20% of the tracheal length. Changes in the position of various lobar bronchi were detected after resection of 30% of the tracheal length. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINCIAL RELEVANCE In this study, tracheal resections of 20% of the tracheal length were accommodated, possibly as a result of stretching of the annular ligament. Resections of ≥ 30% of the tracheal length altered the position of lobar bronchi. Clinical effects, if any, attributable to these changes in bronchial position remain to be elucidated.

  16. The effects of composition, diameter and post-curing methods on the flexural properties of fiber posts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ereifej.


    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the influence of fiber composition, diameter and post-curing treatments performed at relining on flexural strength and modulus of fiber-posts. Materials and methods: Sixty posts of Reforpost® Glass Fiber [GF] and Reforpost® Carbon Fiber [CF] (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil with diameters of 1.0mm and 1.4mm were used. Each group was further subdivided into three subgroups (n=5 according to treatment received: dry-stored control group (C, oven-cured (Ov or autoclaved (Ac. A universal testing machine measured flexural strength and modulus of all specimens. Results: Post composition and post-curing treatments had no significant effects on flexural properties of specimens while post diameter had significant effects (p<0.05. The highest flexural strength and modulus (MPa (1331±95.8 and 21532±1550, respectively were obtained with Ov/GF/1.1, while lowest values (890±79.4 and 10675±952, respectively were for Ac/GF/1.5. Conclusions: 1.1mm diameter posts had better mechanical properties than 1.5mm thick posts. Neither post composition nor post-curing procedures affected the mechanical properties of relined posts.

  17. Growth discordance of monoamniotic twin because of difference of cords diameter in forked umbilical cord: Case report. (United States)

    Guo, Yongbing; Sun, Yu; Yang, Huixia


    A case of monochorionic-monoamniotic (MCMA) twin pregnancy with growth discordance because of difference of cord diameter in forked umbilical cord is reported.MCMA twins were diagnosed at 12 weeks of gestation and twin growth discordance was considered during the follow-up twice-weekly visits to the ultrasound and prenatal care units. The pregnancy was terminated at 34 weeks. Two live female babies weighing 2510 g and 1940 g were delivered. Examination of placenta and umbilical cords after birth showed that the 2 cords merged into a conjoint cord 1 cm from insertion to the placenta (forked umbilical cord). Placental color injection showed that the 2 fetuses shared the same placenta area. The diameters of the 2 cords were significantly different (1.5 vs 0.8 cm). This caused an unequal distribution of blood and nutrients, which is the real reason of twin growth discordance in this case.This case reveals that the diameter discordance of cords can be an important factor for twin growth discordance. Few relevant cases have previously been reported. Cords diameter measurement is suggested for ultrasound surveillance of twin growth discordance.

  18. Food intake in relation to pouch volume, stoma diameter, and pouch emptying after gastroplasty for morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Pedersen, B H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl


    emptying was determined as the mean transit time by a scintigraphic method. None of the measured variables was found to influence the change in food intake taking place during the first 6 months, when most of the weight loss was observed. Between 6 and 12 months, the change of stoma diameter was positively......This study investigated possible determinants of food intake change after gastroplastry. Preoperatively and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 27 morbidly obese patients were prospectively examined with 7-day food registration and radiologic measurement of pouch volume and stoma diameter. Pouch...... associated with the change of solid foods consumed (by weight, p = 0.01; by energy content, p = 0.02). The change of pouch volume was negatively associated with the change of energy from beverages (p = 0.005). In conclusion, it seems impossible to tailor the reduction of food intake through adjustments...

  19. Deterministic nonlinear characteristics of in vivo blood flow velocity and arteriolar diameter fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthimos, D; Osterloh, K; Pries, A R; Griffith, T M


    We have performed a nonlinear analysis of fluctuations in red cell velocity and arteriolar calibre in the mesenteric bed of the anaesthetized rat. Measurements were obtained under control conditions and during local superfusion with N G -nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 30 μM) and tetrabutylammonium (TBA, 0.1 mM), which suppress NO synthesis and block Ca 2+ activated K + channels (K Ca ), respectively. Time series were analysed by calculating correlation dimensions and largest Lyapunov exponents. Both statistics were higher for red cell velocity than diameter fluctuations, thereby potentially differentiating between global and local mechanisms that regulate microvascular flow. Evidence for underlying nonlinear structure was provided by analysis of surrogate time series generated from the experimental data following randomization of Fourier phase. Complexity indices characterizing time series under control conditions were in general higher than those derived from data obtained during superfusion with L-NNA and TBA

  20. Detonation Velocity-Diameter Relation in Gelled Explosive with Inert Inclusions (United States)

    Higgins, Andrew; Loiseau, Jason; Mi, Xiaocheng


    The detonation velocity is measured in a gelled explosive that has been sensitized via the addition of glass microballoons (GMBs) and additionally diluted via the inclusion of large scale (300-700 micron) inert inclusions. The base explosive is nitromethane that has been gelled via the addition of poly(methyl methacrylate) and then sensitized via hot-spot inducing glass microballoons. Inert inclusions (e.g., glass, steel beads) are then added to the explosive to make a heterogeneous explosive with heterogeneities that are at a scale disparate from those of the microballoons. This system has the potential to be a synthetic explosive that can be tuned to have the properties of more complex commercial blasting agents. The velocity-diameter relation is studied using weak confinement (polyvinyl chloride) and time-of-arrival gages. The results are also used to further explore the phenomenon of anomalous scaling between axisymmetric charges (cylinders) and two-dimensional (slab) charges.

  1. Empirical Relationships Between Optical Properties and Equivalent Diameters of Fractal Soot Aggregates at 550 Nm Wavelength. (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, Michael I.


    Soot aggregates (SAs)-fractal clusters of small, spherical carbonaceous monomers-modulate the incoming visible solar radiation and contribute significantly to climate forcing. Experimentalists and climate modelers typically assume a spherical morphology for SAs when computing their optical properties, causing significant errors. Here, we calculate the optical properties of freshly-generated (fractal dimension Df = 1.8) and aged (Df = 2.6) SAs at 550 nm wavelength using the numericallyexact superposition T-Matrix method. These properties were expressed as functions of equivalent aerosol diameters as measured by contemporary aerosol instruments. This work improves upon previous efforts wherein SA optical properties were computed as a function of monomer number, rendering them unusable in practical applications. Future research will address the sensitivity of variation in refractive index, fractal prefactor, and monomer overlap of SAs on the reported empirical relationships.

  2. Comparison of the size of artificial aortic valve with ring diameter by echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangbarnegad II


    Full Text Available In recent socio-economic state it is not possible to have different sets of prosthetic cardiac valves available in the operating room before open-heart surgery for valvular replacement. In this study the diameter of the aortic valve ring measured in 2-D echocardiography was compared with the size of the aortic prosthetic valves implanted for the patients with aortic valvular disease. The purpose was to find a logical correlation to help the surgeons to order the correct size of aortic prosthetic valve in advance of surgery. 26 patients with aortic valve disease were studied from 1972 till 1974 who underwent aortic valve replacement surgery. Now, it is possible to predict the accurate size of aortic mechanical valve prosthesis before surgery

  3. The design research of the test support structure for a large-diameter main mirror (United States)

    Shi, Jiao-hong; Luo, Shi-kui; Ren, Hai-pei; Tang, Lu; Luo, Ting-yun; Mao, Yi-feng


    The accuracy of the main mirror surface shape measurement on ground is vital because of the importance of the main mirror in a optical remote sensor. Generally speaking, the main effects of the mirror surface shape measurement accuracy are due to the optical measurement system and support structure. The aim of this thesis is researching the design of the mirror shape measurement support structure. The main mirror discussed in this paper equipped with 650mm diameter. The requirements of PV and RMS for surface shape are no more than 0.136λ and 0.017λ respectively while λ is determined as 632.8nm. At present, the on ground adjustment methods of camera lens are optical axis horizontal and gravity discharging. In order to make the same condition between camera lens adjustment and main mirror operating, the surface shape measurement of main mirror should keep optical axis horizontal condition for mirror either. The support structure of the mirror introduced in this paper is able to extremely reduce the surface shape distortion caused by the effects of support structure mostly. According to the simulating calculation, the variation of main mirror surface shape is no more than 0.001λ. The result is acceptable for camera adjustment. Based on the measurement support structure mentioned before, the main mirror could rotate 360-degree under the condition of optical axis horizontal; the four-direction measurement for mirror is achieved. Eliminate the effects of ground gravity for surface shape measurement data, the four-direction mirror shape error is controlled no more than 0.001λ on this support structure which calculated by simulation.

  4. Prediction on Droplet Sauter Mean Diameter in Gas-Liquid Mist Flow Based on Droplet Fractal Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Yi Liu


    Full Text Available We present a fractal model for droplet Sauter mean diameter in gas-liquid mist flow, based on the droplet fractal theory and the balance relationship between total droplet surface energy and total gas turbulent kinetic energy. The present model is expressed as functions of the droplet fractal dimension, gas superficial velocity, liquid superficial velocity, and other fluid characteristics. Agreement between the present model predictions and experimental measurements is obtained. Results verify the reliability of the present model.

  5. Catalyst and its diameter dependent growth kinetics of CVD grown GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Chandan; Chander, D. Sathish; Ramkumar, J.; Dhamodaran, S.


    Graphical abstract: GaN nanowires with controlled diameter and aspect ratio has been grown using a simple CVD technique. The growth kinetics of CVD grown nanowires investigated in detail for different catalysts and their diameters. A critical diameter important to distinguish the growth regimes has been discussed in detail. The results are important which demonstrates the growth of diameter and aspect ratio controlled GaN nanowires and also understand their growth kinetics. Highlights: ► Controlled diameter and aspect ratio of GaN nanowires achieved in simple CVD reactor. ► Nanowire growth kinetics for different catalyst and its diameters were understood. ► Adatoms vapor pressure inside reactor plays a crucial role in growth kinetics. ► Diffusion along nanowire sidewalls dominate for gold and nickel catalysts. ► Gibbs–Thomson effect dominates for palladium catalyst. -- Abstract: GaN nanowires were grown using chemical vapor deposition with controlled aspect ratio. The catalyst and catalyst-diameter dependent growth kinetics is investigated in detail. We first discuss gold catalyst diameter dependent growth kinetics and subsequently compare with nickel and palladium catalyst. For different diameters of gold catalyst there was hardly any variation in the length of the nanowires but for other catalysts with different diameter a strong length variation of the nanowires was observed. We calculated the critical diameter dependence on adatoms pressure inside the reactor and inside the catalytic particle. This gives an increasing trend in critical diameter as per the order gold, nickel and palladium for the current set of experimental conditions. Based on the critical diameter, with gold and nickel catalyst the nanowire growth was understood to be governed by limited surface diffusion of adatoms and by Gibbs–Thomson effect for the palladium catalyst.

  6. Using quadratic mean diameter and relative spacing index to enhance height-diameter and crown ratio models fitted to longitudinal data (United States)

    Pradip Saud; Thomas B. Lynch; Anup K. C.; James M. Guldin


    The inclusion of quadratic mean diameter (QMD) and relative spacing index (RSI) substantially improved the predictive capacity of height–diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) and crown ratio models (CR), respectively. Data were obtained from 208 permanent plots established in western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma during 1985–1987 and remeasured for the sixth time (2012–...

  7. Numerical investigation of scale effect of various injection diameters on interaction in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Qi, Yin-Yin; Liu, Wei-Lai; Xu, Bao-Jian; Ge, Jia-Ru; Xuan, Xiang-Chun; Jen, Tien-Chien


    The incident shock wave generally has a strong effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow, possibly due to its affecting the interaction between incoming flow and fuel through various operation conditions. This study is to address scale effect of various injection diameters on the interaction between incident shock wave and transversal cavity injection in a cold kerosene-fueled scramjet combustor. The injection diameters are separately specified as from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in 0.5 mm increments when other performance parameters, including the injection angle, velocity and pressure drop are all constant. A combined three dimensional Couple Level Set & Volume of Fluids (CLSVOF) approach with an improved K-H & R-T model is used to characterize penetration height, span expansion area, angle of shock wave and sauter mean diameter (SMD) distribution of the kerosene droplets with/without considering evaporation. Our results show that the injection orifice surely has a great scale effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flows. Our findings show that the penetration depth, span angle and span expansion area of the transverse cavity jet are increased with the injection diameter, and that the kerosene droplets are more prone to breakup and atomization at the outlet of the combustor for the orifice diameter of 1.5 mm. The calculation predictions are compared against the reported experimental measurements and literatures with good qualitative agreement. The simulation results obtained in this study can provide the evidences for better understanding the underlying mechanism of kerosene atomization in cold supersonic flow and scramjet design improvement.

  8. Evaluation of right atrium-to-right ventricle diameter ratio on computed tomography pulmonary angiography: Prediction of adverse outcome and 30-day mortality. (United States)

    Oz, Ibrahim Ilker; Altınsoy, Bülent; Serifoglu, Ismail; Sayın, Rasit; Buyukuysal, Mustafa Cagatay; Erboy, Fatma; Akduman, Ece Isin


    The aim of this study was to examine the association between right atrium (RA) and right ventricle (RV) diameters on computed tomography (CT) pulmonary angiography in response to acute pulmonary embolism (APE), in addition to 30-day mortality and adverse outcomes in patients with APE. This retrospective study was accepted by the institutional ethics committee. From January 2013 to March 2014, 79 hospitalized adult patients with symptomatic APE were included. Inclusion criteria were a CT pulmonary angiography positive for pulmonary embolism, availability of patient records, and a follow-up of at least 30 days. A review of patient records and images was performed. The maximum diameters of the heart chambers were measured on a reconstructed four-chamber heart view, and the vascular obstruction index was calculated on CT pulmonary angiography. There were statistically significant relationships in both the RA/RV diameter ratio and the RV/left ventricle (LV) diameter ratio between patients with and without adverse outcomes (prights reserved.

  9. A Fractal Model for the Maximum Droplet Diameter in Gas-Liquid Mist Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hua Tan


    Full Text Available Distribution characteristics of liquid droplet size are described using the fractal theory for liquid droplet size distribution in gas-liquid mist flow. Thereby, the fractal expression of the maximum droplet diameter is derived. The fractal model for maximum droplet diameter is obtained based on the internal relationship between maximum droplet diameter and the droplet fractal dimension, which is obtained by analyzing the balance between total droplet surface energy and total gas turbulent kinetic energy. Fractal model predictions of maximum droplet diameter agree with the experimental data. Maximum droplet diameter and droplet fractal dimension are both found to be related to the superficial velocity of gas and liquid. Maximum droplet diameter decreases with an increase in gas superficial velocity but increases with an increase in liquid superficial velocity. Droplet fractal dimension increases with an increase in gas superficial velocity but decreases with an increase in liquid superficial velocity. These are all consistent with the physical facts.

  10. Use of Gumbel and Weibull functions to model extreme values of diameter distributions in forest stands


    Gorgoso-Varela, J. Javier; Rojo-Alboreca, Alberto


    International audience; & Context Families of the Gumbel (type I), Fréchet (type II) and Weibull (type III) distributions can be combined in the generalized extreme value (GEV) family of distributions. Maximum and minimum values of diameters in forest stands can be used in forest modelling, mainly to define parameters of the functions used in diameter class models as well as in some practical cases, such as modelling maximum diameters for sawing and processing purposes. & Aims The purpose of ...

  11. 40 CFR Table 25 to Subpart G of... - Effective Column Diameter (Fc) (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective Column Diameter (Fc) 25 Table..., Table 25 Table 25 to Subpart G of Part 63—Effective Column Diameter (Fc) Column type Fc (feet) 9-inch by 7-inch built-up columns 1.1 8-inch-diameter pipe columns 0.7 No construction details known 1.0 ...

  12. The effect of gender and iris color on the dark-adapted pupil diameter. (United States)

    Bradley, Jay C; Bentley, Karl C; Mughal, Aleem I; Bodhireddy, Hari; Young, Rockefeller S L; Brown, Sandra M


    The aims of this study were to assess the utility of digital color sensing to quantify iris color using digital photographs and to determine whether gender or iris color affects the dark-adapted pupil diameter (DAPD). Subjects aged 18-80 years (N = 263) with no eye disease had their right DAPD measured after 2 min of dark adaptation at 1 lux using the NeurOptics pupillometer. A high-resolution digital slit lamp photograph of the iris was taken, and iris color was subjectively classified as blue, blue-green, green-brown, light brown, or dark brown. The digital photographs were objectively measured on-screen with the Minolta TV Color Analyzer II using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage system of color description. Regression analyses were performed to identify correlations between subjective iris color, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage measurements, and DAPD. Gender and iris color had no effect on the DAPD. The Minolta TV Color Analyzer could discriminate all blue eyes (blue and blue-green) from all brown eyes (light and dark) but could not distinguish between shades of blue or shades of brown. Green-brown irises had no unique chromatic properties and could not be distinguished from other colors using our technique of digital color analysis. The Minolta device was simple and efficient to use. Contrary to long-held beliefs, female patients and blue-eyed patients do not have larger DAPD. Digital color sensing is a useful technique for objectively describing iris color.

  13. Automatic segmentation and classification of gestational sac based on mean sac diameter using medical ultrasound image (United States)

    Khazendar, Shan; Farren, Jessica; Al-Assam, Hisham; Sayasneh, Ahmed; Du, Hongbo; Bourne, Tom; Jassim, Sabah A.


    Ultrasound is an effective multipurpose imaging modality that has been widely used for monitoring and diagnosing early pregnancy events. Technology developments coupled with wide public acceptance has made ultrasound an ideal tool for better understanding and diagnosing of early pregnancy. The first measurable signs of an early pregnancy are the geometric characteristics of the Gestational Sac (GS). Currently, the size of the GS is manually estimated from ultrasound images. The manual measurement involves multiple subjective decisions, in which dimensions are taken in three planes to establish what is known as Mean Sac Diameter (MSD). The manual measurement results in inter- and intra-observer variations, which may lead to difficulties in diagnosis. This paper proposes a fully automated diagnosis solution to accurately identify miscarriage cases in the first trimester of pregnancy based on automatic quantification of the MSD. Our study shows a strong positive correlation between the manual and the automatic MSD estimations. Our experimental results based on a dataset of 68 ultrasound images illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme in identifying early miscarriage cases with classification accuracies comparable with those of domain experts using K nearest neighbor classifier on automatically estimated MSDs.

  14. Effect of chord-to-diameter ratio on vertical-axis wind turbine wake development (United States)

    Parker, Colin M.; Araya, Daniel B.; Leftwich, Megan C.


    The wake structure of a vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) is strongly dependent on the tip-speed ratio, λ, or the tangential speed of the turbine blade relative to the incoming wind speed. The geometry of a turbine can influence λ, but the precise relationship among VAWT geometric parameters and VAWT wake characteristics remains unknown. To investigate this relationship, we present the results of an experiment to characterize the wakes of three VAWTs that are geometrically similar except for the ratio of the turbine diameter ( D), to blade chord ( c), which was chosen to be D/c = 3, 6, and 9. For a fixed freestream Reynolds number based on the blade chord of Re_c = 1.6× 10^3, both two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) and single-component hot-wire anemometer measurements are taken at the horizontal mid-plane in the wake of each turbine. PIV measurements are ensemble averaged in time and phase averaged with each rotation of the turbine. Hot-wire measurement points are selected to coincide with the edge of the shear layer of each turbine wake, as deduced from the PIV data, which allows for an analysis of the frequency content of the wake due to vortex shedding by the turbine.

  15. Retinal vessel diameters and reactivity in diabetes mellitus and/or cardiovascular disease. (United States)

    Heitmar, R; Lip, G Y H; Ryder, R E; Blann, A D


    Retinal vessel calibre and vascular dilation/constriction in response to flicker light provocation may provide a measure distinguishing patients suffering from diabetes mellitus and/or cardiovascular disease. One hundred and sixteen age and sex matched patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and both DM and CVD (DM + CVD) underwent systemic and intraocular pressure measurements. Retinal vessel calibres were assessed using a validated computer-based program to compute central retinal artery and vein equivalents (CRVE) from monochromatic retinal images. Vessel dilation and constriction responses to flicker light provocation were assessed by continuous retinal vessel diameter recordings. Plasma endothelial markers von Willebrand factor (vWf) and soluble E selectin (sEsel) were measured by ELISA. Retinal vessel calibres were comparable across groups but CRVE correlated significantly with disease duration in DM patients (r = 0.57, p < 0.001). Patients suffering DM only exhibited reduced arterial vasomotion at rest and reduced arterial constriction following flicker light induced vessel dilation compared to patients with CVD and those suffering both CVD + DM (p = 0.030). Patients suffering from CVD + DM exhibited significant differences between each flicker cycle in regards to arterial maximum constriction (p = 0.006) and time needed to reach arterial maximum dilation (p = 0.004), whereas the other two groups did not show such inconsistencies between individual flicker cycles. vWf was raised in CVD + DM compared to the other two groups (p ≤ 0.02), whilst sEsel was raised in CVD + DM compared to DM alone (p = 0.044). Dynamic retinal vascular calibres as obtained by continuous diameter measurements using flicker light provocation can reveal subtle differences between groups suffering from CVD with and without DM. This difference in reaction pattern and lack of arterial constriction in DM may provide a suitable marker to

  16. Spontaneous and controlled-diameter synthesis of single-walled and few-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Inoue, Shuhei; Lojindarat, Supanat; Kawamoto, Takahiro; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai


    In this study, we explored the spontaneous and controlled-diameter growth of carbon nanotubes. We evaluated the effects of catalyst density, reduction time, and a number of catalyst coating on the substrate (for multi-walled carbon nanotubes) on the diameter of single-walled carbon nanotubes and the number of layers in few-walled carbon nanotubes. Increasing the catalyst density and reduction time increased the diameters of the carbon nanotubes, with the average diameter increasing from 1.05 nm to 1.86 nm for single-walled carbon nanotubes. Finally, we succeeded in synthesizing a significant double-walled carbon nanotube population of 24%.

  17. Estimation of the fustal diameter on the central knotty cylinder in oak basal logs, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Corvalán Vera


    Full Text Available In order to determine the diameter of the central knotted cylinder both alive and dead, a total of 60 trees belonging to the upper quartile of diametric classes in unmanaged renewal of N. obliqua from the Maule foothills were sampled. It is assumed that these are determined by the lowest living and dead branch present in tree height, respectively. We analyzed the relationships between the diameter of the central knotty cylinder, and the diameters at the lower end of logs 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6 m above the stump, the normal diameter and the insertion height of the first branch. From the analysis it is deduced that: i the diameter of the live and dead central knotted cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter of the tree, ii that the diameter at the smaller end of the logs increases as it does and decreases as increases in height above the ground and iii that the fustal diameter on the dead central knotty cylinder increases linearly with the normal diameter and the insertion height of the lowest dead branch of the tree, allowing to determine the zone of occlusion of the knots of the tree.

  18. Endoscopic Dilation of Pharyngoesophageal Strictures: There Are More Dimensions than a Diameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Martins


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dysphagia due to benign pharyngoesophageal strictures (PES often requires repeated dilations; however, a uniform definition for the therapeutic efficacy of this technique has not been yet established. We aimed to assess the overall efficacy of endoscopic dilation of pharyngoesophageal anastomotic or post-radiotherapy (post-RT strictures. Methods: The data of 48 patients with post-RT (n = 29 or anastomotic PES (n = 19 submitted to endoscopic dilation during a 3-year period were retrospectively assessed. The Kochman criteria were used to determine refractoriness and recurrence. Patients were asked to answer a questionnaire determining prospectively the dilation program efficacy as (a dysphagia improvement, (b dysphagia resolution, (c need for further dilations, or (d percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG during the previous 6 months. Need for additional therapy was considered an inefficacy criterion. Results: The median number of dilations per patient was 4 (total of 296 dilations with a median follow-up of 29 months. The mean predilation dysphagia Mellow-Pinkas score was 3 and the initial stenosis diameter was 7 mm. Fifteen and 29% of patients presented with the Kochman criteria for refractory and recurrent strictures, respectively. Moreover, 96 and 60% showed dysphagia improvement and resolution, respectively. Seventy-five-percent did not require dilations during 6 months, and 89% did not require PEG. From the patients’ perspective, overall efficacy was achieved in 58% of cases. Nine additional therapies were required. Number of dilations (OR 0.7, stricture diameter (OR 2.2, and nonrecurrence criteria (OR 14.2 appeared as significant predictors of overall efficacy, whereas refractory stenosis criteria did not. Conclusions: Endoscopic dilation seems to be effective for patients with dysphagia after RT or surgery, especially when assessed as patient perception of improvement. Narrow strictures, recurrent ones, and strictures

  19. Gold Nanoparticles of Diameter 13 nm Induce Apoptosis in Rabbit Articular Chondrocytes (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Quan, Ying-yao; Wang, Xiao-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng


    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been widely used in biomedical science including antiarthritic agents, drug loading, and photothermal therapy. In this report, we studied the effects of AuNPs with diameters of 3, 13, and 45 nm, respectively, on rabbit articular chondrocytes. AuNPs were capped with citrate and their diameter and zeta potential were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Cell viability was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay after the rabbit articular chondrocytes were pre-incubated with 3, 13, and 45 nm AuNPs, respectively, for 24 h. Flow cytometry (FCM) analysis with annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) double staining and fluorescence imaging with Hoechst 33258 staining were used to determine the fashion of AuNPs-induced chondrocyte death. Further, 13 nm AuNPs (2 nM) significantly induced chondrocyte death accompanying apoptotic characteristics including mitochondrial damage, externalization of phosphatidylserine and nuclear concentration. However, 3 nm AuNPs (2 nM) and 45 nm (0.02 nM) AuNPs did not induce cytotoxicity in chondrocytes. Although 13 nm AuNPs (2 nM) increased the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, pretreatment with Nacetyl cysteine (NAC), a ROS scavenger, did not prevent the cytotoxicity induced by 13 nm AuNPs, indicating that 13 nm AuNPs (2 nM) induced ROS-independent apoptosis in chondrocytes. These results demonstrate the size-dependent cytotoxicity of AuNPs in chondrocytes, which must be seriously considered when using AuNPs for treatment of osteoarthritis (OA).

  20. Accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography in predicting the diameter of unerupted teeth. (United States)

    Nguyen, Emerald; Boychuk, Darrell; Orellana, Maria


    An accurate prediction of the mesiodistal diameter (MDD) of the erupting permanent teeth is essential in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning during the mixed dentition period. Our objective was to test the accuracy and reproducibility of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in predicting the MDD of unerupted teeth. Our secondary objective was to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of 3 viewing methods by using 2 CBCT software programs, InVivoDental (version 4.0; Anatomage, San Jose, Calif) and CBWorks (version 3.0, CyberMed, Seoul, Korea) in measuring the MDD of teeth in models simulating unerupted teeth. CBCT data were collected on the CB MercuRay (Hitachi Medical Corporation, Tokyo, Japan). Models of unerupted teeth (n = 25), created by embedding 25 tooth samples into a polydimethylsiloxane polymer with a similar density to tissues surrounding teeth, were scanned and measured by 2 investigators. Repeated MDD measurements of each sample were made by using 3 CBCT viewing methods: InVivo Section, InVivo Volume Render (both Anatomage), and CBWorks Volume Render (version 3.0, CyberMed). These measurements were then compared with the MDD physically measured by digital calipers before the teeth were embedded and scanned. All 3 of the new methods had mean measurements that were statistically significantly less (P <0.0001) than the physical method, adjusting for investigator and tooth effects. Specifically, InVivo Section measurements were 0.3 mm (95% CI, -0.4 to -0.2) less than the measurements with calipers, InVivo Volume Render measurements were 0.5 mm less (95% CI, -0.6 to -0.4) than those with calipers, and CBWorks Volume Render measurements were 0.4 mm less (95% CI, -0.4 to -0.3) than those with calipers. Overall, there were high correlation values among the 3 viewing methods, indicating that CBCT can be used to measure the MDD of unerupted teeth. The InVivo Section method had the greatest correlation with the calipers. Copyright © 2011 American

  1. Impact of competitor species composition on predicting diameter growth and survival rates of Douglas-fir trees in southwestern Oregon (United States)

    Bravo, Felipe; Hann, D.W.; Maguire, Douglas A.


    Mixed conifer and hardwood stands in southwestern Oregon were studied to explore the hypothesis that competition effects on individual-tree growth and survival will differ according to the species comprising the competition measure. Likewise, it was hypothesized that competition measures should extrapolate best if crown-based surrogates are given preference over diameter-based (basal area based) surrogates. Diameter growth and probability of survival were modeled for individual Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) trees growing in pure stands. Alternative models expressing one-sided and two-sided competition as a function of either basal area or crown structure were then applied to other plots in which Douglas-fir was mixed with other conifers and (or) hardwood species. Crown-based variables outperformed basal area based variables as surrogates for one-sided competition in both diameter growth and survival probability, regardless of species composition. In contrast, two-sided competition was best represented by total basal area of competing trees. Surrogates reflecting differences in crown morphology among species relate more closely to the mechanics of competition for light and, hence, facilitate extrapolation to species combinations for which no observations are available.

  2. Correlation between diameter and testicular sperm quality in sheep’s creole, municipality of Soracá Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Palacios Moreno


    Full Text Available This study presents the correlation between testicular diameter (TD and sperm quality in a group of native sheep in the town of Soracá Boyacá, for possible selection values , considering the importance of reproduction in the sheep-culture and the search efficiency in the selection and management of players. The evaluation procedure was carried out by testing macroscopic and microscopic semen quality and testicular size measurement over a specific measuring tape for the case of comparing the diameters testicular ultrasonography was used as complementary test. The correlation of the results with respect to DT semen parameters (macroscopic and microscopic as volume (V, sperm concentration (SC, mass motility (MM and individual motility (MI was significant, as evidenced by the coefficient correlation of 0.81 between DT and CE. The correlation coefficients between DT and V, DT and MI were low with 0.29 and 0.27 respectively, recorded the lowest correlation was present between DT and MM with 0.09. This leads to the conclusion that the greater the testicular diameter (TD better sperm quality, and their values can serve as indicators as to the fertility of native sheep breeding males in seminal samples collected by electro-ejaculator.

  3. Computational predictions of the tensile properties of electrospun fibre meshes: effect of fibre diameter and fibre orientation. (United States)

    Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Bashur, Chris A; Goldstein, Aaron S; Guelcher, Scott A; Barocas, Victor H


    The mechanical properties of biomaterial scaffolds are crucial for their efficacy in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. At the microscopic scale, the scaffold must be sufficiently rigid to support cell adhesion, spreading, and normal extracellular matrix deposition. Concurrently, at the macroscopic scale the scaffold must have mechanical properties that closely match those of the target tissue. The achievement of both goals may be possible by careful control of the scaffold architecture. Recently, electrospinning has emerged as an attractive means to form fused fibre scaffolds for tissue engineering. The diameter and relative orientation of fibres affect cell behaviour, but their impact on the tensile properties of the scaffolds has not been rigorously characterized. To examine the structure-property relationship, electrospun meshes were made from a polyurethane elastomer with different fibre diameters and orientations and mechanically tested to determine the dependence of the elastic modulus on the mesh architecture. Concurrently, a multiscale modelling strategy developed for type I collagen networks was employed to predict the mechanical behaviour of the polyurethane meshes. Experimentally, the measured elastic modulus of the meshes varied from 0.56 to 3.0 MPa depending on fibre diameter and the degree of fibre alignment. Model predictions for tensile loading parallel to fibre orientation agreed well with experimental measurements for a wide range of conditions when a fitted fibre modulus of 18 MPa was used. Although the model predictions were less accurate in transverse loading of anisotropic samples, these results indicate that computational modelling can assist in design of electrospun artificial tissue scaffolds.

  4. Determination of 137Cs and 210Pb using HPGe γ spectrometry as influenced by different sieve diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yehan; Yu Hanqing; Geng Xiaochen; Li Yong


    Standard sieve diameter is often set as 2.00 mm to determine specific activity of 137 Cs and 210 Pb in soil samples, but it is rarely reported that whether the size of the different screening will affect the accuracy of such determination. In this study, three representative soils were employed to assess the effects of different sieve sizes on measurement of 137 Cs and 210 Pb activity in soil samples by using HPGe γ spectrometer. The targeted soil samples each were screened through the four sieve diameters 2.00, 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25 mm, respectively. It was observed that the sample of 0.25 mm took less time to reach the acceptable value of 137 Cs analysis precision and higher value of the specific activity in the three soils compared to the 2.00 mm sifting sample. As for 210 Pb measurement, the decrease of sieve diameters extended to touch the acceptable value of analysis precision but showed no significant effect on the specific activity. These results played an important role in enhancing the analysis precision of the specific activity of 137 Cs and 210 Pb in soil samples using HPGe γ Spectrometry. (authors)

  5. High-thrust and low-power operation of a 30-cm-diameter mercury ion thruster (United States)

    Beattie, J. R.; Kami, S.


    An investigation of a 30-cm-diameter mercury ion thruster designed for high-thrust and low-power operation is described. Experimental results are presented which indicate that good performance and long lifetime are achieved by using a boundary magnetic field arrangement to confine the ionizing electrons. Details of advanced ion-optics designs are discussed, and performance measurements obtained with an advanced two-grid ion-optics assembly are presented. Scaling of the state-of-the-art hollow cathode for higher emission-current capability is described, and performance and lifetime measurements are presented for the scaled cathode.

  6. Change in Size of Hamstring Grafts During Preparation for ACL Reconstruction: Effect of Tension and Circumferential Compression on Graft Diameter. (United States)

    Cruz, Aristides I; Fabricant, Peter D; Seeley, Mark A; Ganley, Theodore J; Lawrence, J Todd R


    There is good consensus that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) grafts should be pretensioned to remove creep prior to implantation, but the literature contains little information on the influence of graft preparation or circumferential compression on graft size. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the size of hamstring allografts changes as they are prepared for ACL reconstruction. We hypothesized that grafts decrease in diameter as they are prepared with both tension and circumferential compression. We also investigated the interrater reliability of graft diameter measurements during each step of graft preparation. Twenty pairs of fresh-frozen human hamstring tendons obtained from an allograft supplier were prepared in a standardized fashion for ACL reconstruction (suturing followed by longitudinal tensioning followed by circumferential compression followed by relaxation). Four blinded raters measured each graft in a sequential manner after each graft preparation step. Interrater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient ICC(2,1). The mean allograft diameter at each time point was calculated and compared across all time points using repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Subjecting the grafts to both tension and circumferential compression significantly decreased their mean diameter (to 7.38 mm compared with 8.28 mm at baseline; p = 0.044). Interrater reliability revealed almost perfect agreement at each measurement interval, with the ICC ranging from 0.933 to 0.961. The average diameter of hamstring ACL grafts decreases by almost 1 mm after they are subjected to both tension and circumferential compression within a standard cylindrical sizing block. Because ACL bone tunnels are drilled in 0.5-mm increments, preparing soft-tissue grafts with circumferential compression in addition to tension may allow creation of tunnels that are one to two incremental sizes smaller. This could permit less bone removal, which may be

  7. Pengujian Tarik Dan Impak Pada Pengerjaan Pengelasan SMAW Dengan Mesin Genset Menggunakan Diameter Elektroda Yang Berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zaenal Mawahib


    Full Text Available Pengaruh hasil sumber daya listrik yang dihasilkan dari mesin genset yaitu kemungkinan terjadinya lubang cacing dan retak, dan apabila arus yang terlalu rendah akan mengakibatkan kurangnya penembusan dan kemungkinan terak terperangkap tinggi, sehingga dapat mengakibatkan kekuatan dari sambungan lasan yang rendah. Pengujian pada sambungan pengelasan  yang berbeda diameter elektroda dengan menggunakan mesin genset, akan diperoleh kekuatan tarik dan kekuatan impak maksimum dari masing-masing material uji dan dapat diketahui pemilihan diameter elektroda yang paling baik digunakan untuk masing-masing pelat. Pengelasan menggunakan jenis sambungan butt joint (single V-groove dengan sudut 600, dengan diameter elektroda 3,2 mm dan 4 mm dengan tebal masing-masing material uji 8 mm dan 10 mm. Hasil pengujian didapatkan kuat tarik dari diameter elektroda 3,2 mm tebal material 8 mm adalah rata-rata 443,747 N/mm2, diameter elektroda 3,2 mm tebal material 10 mm adalah rata-rata 435,187 N/mm2, diameter elektroda 4 mm tebal material 8 mm adalah rata-rata 447,23 N/mm2, dan diameter elektroda 4 mm tebal material 10 mm adalah rata-rata 447,07 N/mm2. Hasil penelitian, modulus elastisitas dan tegangan luluh sama-sama memiliki kenaikan nilai, serta nilai pada regangan menurun. Sedangkan hasil pengujian impak didapatkan energi impak dari diameter elektroda 3,2 mm tebal material 8 mm adalah rata-rata 90,67 Joule, diameter elektroda 3,2 mm tebal material 10 mm adalah rata-rata 295,9 Joule, diameter elektroda 4 mm tebal material 8 mm adalah rata-rata 44,91 Joule, dan diameter elektroda 4 mm tebal material 10 mm adalah rata-rata 273,83 Joule.

  8. Differences in the Diameter of Facial Nerve and Facial Canal in Bell's Palsy—A 3-Dimensional Temporal Bone Study (United States)

    Vianna, Melissa; Adams, Meredith; Schachern, Patricia; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto; Paparella, Michael Mauro; Cureoglu, Sebahattin


    Bell's palsy is hypothesized to result from virally mediated neural edema. Ischemia occurs as the nerve swells in its bony canal, blocking neural blood supply. Because viral infection is relatively common and Bell's palsy relatively uncommon, it is reasonable to hypothesize that there are anatomic differences in facial canal (FC) that predispose the development of paralysis. Measurements of facial nerve (FN) and FC as it follows its tortuous course through the temporal bone are difficult without a 3D view. In this study, 3D reconstruction was used to compare temporal bones of patients with and without history of Bell's palsy. Methods Twenty-two temporal bones (HTBs) were included in the study, 12 HTBs from patients with history of Bell's palsy and 10 healthy controls. Three-dimensional models were generated from HTB histopathologic slides with reconstruction software (Amira), diameters of the FC and FN were measured at the midpoint of each segment. Results The mean diameter of the FC and FN was significantly smaller in the tympanic and mastoid segments (p = 0.01) in the BP group than in the controls. The FN to FC diameter ratio (FN/FC) was significantly bigger in the mastoid segment of BP group, when compared with the controls. When comparing the BP and control groups, the narrowest part of FC was the labyrinthine segment in control group and the tympanic segment in the BP. Conclusion This study suggests an anatomic difference in the diameter of FC in the tympanic and mastoid segments but not in the labyrinthine segment in patients with Bell's palsy. PMID:24518410

  9. Differences in the diameter of facial nerve and facial canal in bell's palsy--a 3-dimensional temporal bone study. (United States)

    Vianna, Melissa; Adams, Meredith; Schachern, Patricia; Lazarini, Paulo Roberto; Paparella, Michael Mauro; Cureoglu, Sebahattin


    Bell's palsy is hypothesized to result from virally mediated neural edema. Ischemia occurs as the nerve swells in its bony canal, blocking neural blood supply. Because viral infection is relatively common and Bell's palsy relatively uncommon, it is reasonable to hypothesize that there are anatomic differences in facial canal (FC) that predispose the development of paralysis. Measurements of facial nerve (FN) and FC as it follows its tortuous course through the temporal bone are difficult without a 3D view. In this study, 3D reconstruction was used to compare temporal bones of patients with and without history of Bell's palsy. Twenty-two temporal bones (HTBs) were included in the study, 12 HTBs from patients with history of Bell's palsy and 10 healthy controls. Three-dimensional models were generated from HTB histopathologic slides with reconstruction software (Amira), diameters of the FC and FN were measured at the midpoint of each segment. The mean diameter of the FC and FN was significantly smaller in the tympanic and mastoid segments (p = 0.01) in the BP group than in the controls. The FN to FC diameter ratio (FN/FC) was significantly bigger in the mastoid segment of BP group, when compared with the controls. When comparing the BP and control groups, the narrowest part of FC was the labyrinthine segment in control group and the tympanic segment in the BP. This study suggests an anatomic difference in the diameter of FC in the tympanic and mastoid segments but not in the labyrinthine segment in patients with Bell's palsy.

  10. Inner capillary diameter of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of female rat increases during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortés-Sol Albertina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the endothelial cell (EC in blood flow regulation within the central nervous system has been little studied. Here, we explored EC participation in morphological changes of the anterior hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN microvasculature of female rats at two reproductive stages with different metabolic demand (virginity and lactation. We measured the inner capillary diameter (ICD of 800 capillaries from either the magnocellular or parvocellular regions. The space occupied by neural (somas, dendrites and axons and glial, but excluding vascular elements of the neurovascular compartment was also measured in 100-μm2 sample fields of both PVN subdivisions. Results The PVN of both groups of animals showed ICDs that ranged from 3 to 10 microns. The virgin group presented mostly capillaries with small ICD, whereas the lactating females exhibited a significant increment in the percentage of capillaries with larger ICD. The space occupied by the neural and glial elements of the neurovascular compartment did not show changes with lactation. Conclusions Our findings suggest that during lactation the microvasculature of the PVN of female rats undergoes dynamic, transitory changes in blood flow as represented by an increment in the ICD through a self-cytoplasmic volume modification reflected by EC changes. A model of this process is proposed.

  11. A Numerical Simulation of Base Shear Forces and Moments Exerted by Waves on Large Diameter Pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-liang Cheng


    Full Text Available To solve the problem of the dynamic variation of wave force diameter of pile foundation for offshore wind turbines, wave force and moment of large diameter pile foundation can be calculated. In this paper, simulation technique is used to calculate the wave force and moment of different large diameter pile foundation, and the base shear force and moment of the interval 20-degree phase angle are obtained by the base line of the pile. Under the action of a certain load, the complete stress variation of the pile foundation is obtained. According to the basic principle of diffraction theory, the process curve of large diameter pile, and analysis of wave force, diffraction force changes in a certain period of time interval. The results show that the wave after the large diameter pile formed around the vortex, large diameter pile base shear, and moment dynamic change is nonlinear in a complete cycle, the diameter of the pile increases by 0.5 m, and the wave force increases by about 5%, the results show that it provides certain reference value for the offshore pile foundation pile with large diameter primary site. Some significant results for practical application are discussed.

  12. Influence of tube and particle diameter on heat transport in packed beds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borkink, J.G.H.; Borkink, J.G.H.; Westerterp, K.R.


    Influence of the tube and particle diameter and shape, as well as their ratio, on the radial heat transport in packed beds has been studied. Heat transport experiments were performed with four different packings in three wall-cooled tubes, which differed in inner diameter only. Experimental values

  13. Computing Diameter in the Streaming and Sliding-Window Models (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Kannan, Sampath; Zhang, Jian


    We investigate the diameter problem in the streaming and sliding-window models. We show that, for a stream of n points or a sliding window of size n, any exact algorithm for diameter requires Omega(n) bits of space...

  14. Board-Foot and Diameter Growth of Yellow-Poplar After Thinning (United States)

    Donald E. Beck; Lino Della-Bianca


    Board-foot growth and yield of thinned yellow-poplar stands (Liriodendron tulipifera L.)is related to age, site index, residual basal area, and residual quadratic mean stand diameter after thinning. Diameter growth of individual trees is increased considerably by thinning. Equations describing growth and yield are based on data from 141 natura1 yellow-poplar stands in...

  15. Carotid flow velocity/diameter ratio is a predictor of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellinazzi, Vera R; Cipolli, José A; Pimenta, Marcio V


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of common carotid artery diameter, flow velocity and flow velocity/artery diameter ratio as predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in a sample of hypertensive patients. METHODS: A cohort of 403 hypertensive patien...

  16. Production and cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter (< 5 inches) trees for energy (United States)

    Fei Pan; Han-Sup Han; Leonard R. Johnson; William J. Elliot


    Dense, small-diameter stands generally require thinning from below to improve fire-tolerance. The resulting forest biomass can be used for energy production. The cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting small-diameter trees often exceeds revenues due to high costs associated with harvesting and transportation and low market values for forest biomass....

  17. Effect of the fiber diameter and porosity of non-woven PET fabrics on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshitake; Tabata, Yasuhiko


    The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) was investigated in three-dimensional non-woven fabrics prepared from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber with different diameters. When seeded into the fabrics of cell scaffold, more MSC attached in the fabric of thicker PET fibers than that of thinner ones, irrespective of the fabric porosity. The morphology of cells attached became more spreaded with an increase in the fiber diameter of fabrics. The rate of MSC proliferation depended on the PET fiber diameter and porosity of fabrics: the bigger the fiber diameter of fabrics with higher porosity, the higher their proliferation rate. When the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin content of MSC cultured in different types of fabrics was measured to evaluate the ostegenic differentiation, they became maximum for the non-woven fabrics with a fiber diameter of 9.0 microm, although the values of low-porous fabrics were significantly high compared with those of high porous fabrics. We concluded that the attachment, proliferation and bone differentiation of MSC was influenced by the fiber diameter and porosity of non-woven fabrics as the scaffold.

  18. Analysis of pressurized resistance vessel diameter changes with a low cost digital image processing device. (United States)

    Fischer, J G; Mewes, H; Hopp, H H; Schubert, R


    A low cost digital image processing device (frame grabber) together with a program running under MS_WINDOWS for automatic on-line analysis of diameter changes of in vitro pressurized blood vessels with an inner diameter of 80-400 microns is presented. The frame grabber is designed to receive light microscopic images either from a video camera or from a VCR and to present the digitized image on the computer monitor. The special software allows to manipulate the image, e.g. filtering, calibrating, storing of vessel images, and detects the outer and inner border of the two vessel walls with a new, simple algorithm. The inner diameter and the vessel wall thickness are calculated and the diameter is presented in a diameter versus time diagram on the monitor screen. Further, these data are stored in an ASCII-file for later import into calculation and presentation programs like MS-EXCEL.

  19. Observation of Ureteric Diameter in Negative Intravenous Urogram in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (United States)

    Wong, Siong Lung; Abdul Hamid, Hamzaini


    Background: This study observed the widest ureteric diameter in negative intravenous urogram (IVU) examinations using low osmolar contrast media. Methods: We reviewed a total of one hundred and eighty four ureters from 92 negative IVUs. Results: The results show a mean diameter for the abdominal ureter of 4.19 mm with an SD of 1.27 mm and a mean pelvic ureteric diameter of 4.45 mm with an SD of 1.37 mm. The upper limits for abdominal ureter and pelvic ureter based on a confidence interval of 95% were 4.37 mm and 4.64 mm, respectively. Conclusions: There was no significant difference between the right and left ureteric diameter in both female and male subjects. There was no significant correlation between ureteric diameters and the age of subjects, from the second to the eighth decades. PMID:22135531

  20. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume of black poplar clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrašev Siniša


    Full Text Available A method of diameter structure modeling was applied in the calculation of plantation (stand volume of two black poplar clones in the section Aigeiros (Duby: 618 (Lux and S1-8. Diameter structure modeling by Weibull function makes it possible to calculate the plantation volume by volume line. Based on the comparison of the proposed method with the existing methods, the obtained error of plantation volume was less than 2%. Diameter structure modeling and the calculation of plantation volume by diameter structure model, by the regularity of diameter distribution, enables a better analysis of the production level and assortment structure and it can be used in the construction of yield and increment tables.