WorldWideScience

Sample records for sporadic surface mobilization

  1. Surface mobilities on solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binh, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Surface Mobilities on Solid Materials held in France in 1981. The goal of the two-week meeting was to review up-to-date knowledge on surface diffusion, both theoretical and experimental, and to highlight those areas in which much more knowledge needs to be accumulated. Topics include theoretical aspects of surface diffusion (e.g., microscopic theories of D at zero coverage; statistical mechanical models and surface diffusion); surface diffusion at the atomic level (e.g., FIM studies of surface migration of single adatoms and diatomic clusters; field emission studies of surface diffusion of adsorbates); foreign adsorbate mass transport; self-diffusion mass transport (e.g., different driving forces for the matter transport along surfaces; measurements of the morphological evolution of tips); the role of surface diffusion in some fundamental and applied sciences (e.g. adatomadatom pair interactions and adlayer superstructure formation; surface mobility in chemical reactions and catalysis); and recent works on surface diffusion (e.g., preliminary results on surface self-diffusion measurements on nickel and chromium tips)

  2. Airport Surface Access and Mobile Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Martin-Domingo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Airport Surface Access faces two main opposite issues: (1 cars, being the main transport mode, contribute to the increasing level of congestion and pollution of cities; and (2 simultaneously, parking fees are one important source of airports commercial revenue, creating a dilemma for airports when facing the problem. Following the recent trend of air passengers travelling with Smartphone (78% in 2013, the purpose of this paper is to monitor the adoption of mobile Applications (Apps by airports and to analyze if the information and functions provided in those Apps can help to overcome the above two issues. Design/methodology/approach: 31 iPhone App of some of the largest European airports were evaluated in the lab using the evaluation model of Destinations Mobile Applications (Scolari and Fernández-Cavia 2014 adapted for for the Airport Surface Access on Airport Apps Findings and Originality/value: The Apps evaluated provided a very limited functionality to help passengers to plan and book their trips to/from the airports on public transports and gave high priority to parking information and services. Originality/value: Although Airport Surface Access has been a widely researched, the originality of this paper is the analysis of airport mobile Apps as a potential tool for airports to deal with the surface airport access problems.Access, Airports, Mobile Internet, Commercial Revenues

  3. Mobile-phone radiation-induced perturbation of gene-expression profiling, redox equilibrium and sporadic-apoptosis control in the ovary of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manta, Areti K; Papadopoulou, Deppie; Polyzos, Alexander P; Fragopoulou, Adamantia F; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Thanos, Dimitris; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2017-04-03

    The daily use by people of wireless communication devices has increased exponentially in the last decade, begetting concerns regarding its potential health hazards. Drosophila melanogaster four days-old adult female flies were exposed for 30 min to radiation emitted by a commercial mobile phone at a SAR of 0.15 W/kg and a SAE of 270 J/kg. ROS levels and apoptotic follicles were assayed in parallel with a genome-wide microarrays analysis. ROS cellular contents were found to increase by 1.6-fold (x), immediately after the end of exposure, in follicles of pre-choriogenic stages (germarium - stage 10), while sporadically generated apoptotic follicles (germarium 2b and stages 7-9) presented with an averaged 2x upregulation in their sub-population mass, 4 h after fly's irradiation with mobile device. Microarray analysis revealed 168 genes being differentially expressed, 2 h post-exposure, in response to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field-radiation exposure (≥1.25x, P mobile-phone radiation for 30 min has an immediate impact on ROS production in animal's ovary, which seems to cause a global, systemic and non-targeted transcriptional reprogramming of gene expression, 2 h post-exposure, being finally followed by induction of apoptosis 4 h after the end of exposure. Conclusively, this unique type of pulsed radiation, mainly being derived from daily used mobile phones, seems capable of mobilizing critical cytopathic mechanisms, and altering fundamental genetic programs and networks in D. melanogaster.

  4. The Electrophoretic Mobility of Proteins near Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Perumal; Singh, Avtar; Rafailovich, Miriam; Sokolov, Jonathan

    2004-03-01

    We have attempted to apply the methods developed for surface DNA electrophoresis (1) for proteomics. Droplets of FITC stained Abumin, Poly- L-Lysine, or Casein purchased from Sigma were deposited on glass cover slips. The droplets were then place in contact with a TBE buffer solution contained in a cell molded from PDMS. Pt electrodes were inserted into the cell and a voltage was a applied. The motion of the protein was then imaged with a Leica Confocal microscope as a function of buffer concentration, distance from the surface, and applied voltage. The mobilities were then compared with those of uncharged one micron florescent Polystyrene beads. References: 1)Henzel WJ, Watanabe C, Stults JT., !0 Protein Identification: The Origins of Peptide Mass Fingerprinting. !1 J. American Society for Mass Spectrometry. 14 (September 2003): 931-942 2)Mathesius U, Imin N, Natera SH, Rolfe BG., !0 Proteomics as a functional genomics tool. !1 Methods of Molecular Biology 236: 395-414. *Work supported in part by the NSF-MRSEC program

  5. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel Petri net based approach for safe and flexible control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration...

  6. Flexible and Safe Control of Mobile Surface Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary innovation of this work is a novel approach for flexible and safe control of highly capable mobile surface systems, such as long-duration science rovers,...

  7. On the mobility of exchangeable cations on clay surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimmi, T.; Kosakowski, G.; Glaus, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The diffusive mobility of radionuclides in buffer materials and potential host rocks is an important topic in the safety analysis for underground waste repositories. Many of the radionuclides are cations. Accordingly, the diffusion and retention of cations in compacted clay minerals and clay rocks is of central interest. The retention properties of the clay minerals originate from their negative surface charges. These are compensated by un-specifically sorbed cations that are located on planar surfaces or in interlayers (exchangeable cations) and by cations that are more specifically sorbed for instance to edge sites. In general, sorbed cations are considered as immobile with respect to diffusive transport. Whereas this may be correct for specifically sorbed cations, this is probably not the case for un-specifically sorbed exchangeable cations. They can easily exchange with cations in the pore solution, even if they are located- at low hydration states-in very narrow interlayers. For such exchange a certain mobility in the sorbed state is required. This is in line with the observations that many experimentally derived cation diffusion coefficients are larger than expected when compared with those of water tracers. This and the dependence of effective diffusion coefficients on the external salt concentration can be explained with so-called surface diffusion, that is, a movement of sorbed cations. Unfortunately, no direct proof of this phenomenon is available, and parameters like surface diffusion coefficients or surface mobilities are largely unknown. We compiled a large number of published cation diffusion coefficients for various clay minerals and clay rocks. We showed that by an appropriate scaling of the cation diffusion coefficients, it is possible to estimate the average surface mobility of the cation in each experiment. We define the surface mobility as the surface diffusion coefficient of a cation on a flat

  8. The alterations of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sporadic Parkinson's disease from the Han population of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Deng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD can’t be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD. Results showed that a significantly shrunk volume, thinned thickness and enlarged or reduced surface of cortex in some specific brain regions were closely associated with sPD, but all cortical densities were not different. The majority of morphometric alteration of hemisphere cortex was symmetric, but that in the left hemisphere was more significant. The cortical morphometric alterations in the frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and limbic lobe, cerebellum, caudate and thalamus were closely related to the clinical neural dysfunction (Clinical manifestations of sPD. Our data indicated that the deficits of extensive brain regions involved in the development of sPD, resulted in a series of correspondent complex clinical manifestations in the disease.

  9. Mobile colloid generation induced by a cementitious plume: mineral surface-charge controls on mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dien; Kaplan, Daniel I; Roberts, Kimberly A; Seaman, John C

    2012-03-06

    Cementitious materials are increasingly used as engineered barriers and waste forms for radiological waste disposal. Yet their potential effect on mobile colloid generation is not well-known, especially as it may influence colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. Whereas previous papers have studied the introduction of cement colloids into sediments, this study examined the influence of cement leachate chemistry on the mobilization of colloids from a subsurface sediment collected from the Savannah River Site, USA. A sharp mobile colloid plume formed with the introduction of a cement leachate simulant. Colloid concentrations decreased to background concentrations even though the aqueous chemical conditions (pH and ionic strength) remained unchanged. Mobile colloids were mainly goethite and to a lesser extent kaolinite. The released colloids had negative surface charges and the mean particle sizes ranged primarily from 200 to 470 nm. Inherent mineralogical electrostatic forces appeared to be the controlling colloid removal mechanism in this system. In the background pH of ~6.0, goethite had a positive surface charge, whereas quartz (the dominant mineral in the immobile sediment) and kaolinite had negative surface charges. Goethite acted as a cementing agent, holding kaolinite and itself onto the quartz surfaces due to the electrostatic attraction. Once the pH of the system was elevated, as in the cementitious high pH plume front, the goethite reversed to a negative charge, along with quartz and kaolinite, then goethite and kaolinite colloids were mobilized and a sharp spike in turbidity was observed. Simulating conditions away from the cementitious source, essentially no colloids were mobilized at 1:1000 dilution of the cement leachate or when the leachate pH was ≤ 8. Extreme alkaline pH environments of cementitious leachate may change mineral surface charges, temporarily promoting the formation of mobile colloids.

  10. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  11. A surface diffuse scattering model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical model for the mobility of electrons in surface charge coupled devices is studied on the basis of the results previously obtained, considering a surface diffuse scattering; the importance of the results obtained for a better understanding of the influence of the fringing field in surface charge coupled devices is discussed. (author)

  12. Effect of sporadic destratification, seasonal overturn and artificial mixing on CH4 emissions at the surface of a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, Lao PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, F.; Deshmukh, C.; Labat, D.; Pighini, S.; Vongkhamsao, A.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Godon, A.; Chanudet, V.; Descloux, S.; Serça, D.

    2015-07-01

    Inland waters in general and specifically freshwater reservoirs are recognized as source of CH4 to the atmosphere. Although the diffusion at the air-water interface is the most studied pathway, its spatial and temporal variations are poorly documented. We measured fortnightly CH4 concentrations and physico-chemical parameters at nine stations in a subtropical monomictic reservoir which was flooded in 2008 (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, Lao PDR). Based on these results, we quantified CH4 storage in the water column and diffusive fluxes from June 2009 to December 2012. We also compared emissions with aerobic methane oxidation calculated from Deshmukh et al. (2015). In this monomictic reservoir, the seasonal variations of CH4 concentration and storage were highly dependant of the thermal stratification. Hypolimnic CH4 concentration and CH4 storage reached their maximum in the warm dry season (WD) when the reservoir was stratified. They decreased during the warm wet (WW) season and reached its minimum after the reservoir overturned in the cool dry season (CD). The sharp decreases of the CH4 storage were concomitant with sporadic extreme diffusive fluxes (up to 200 mmol m-2 d-1). These hot moments of emissions occurred mostly in the inflow region in the WW season and during the overturn in the CD season in the area of the reservoir that has the highest CH4 storage. Although they corresponded to less than 10 % of the observations, these CH4 extreme emissions (> 5 mmol m-2 d-1) contributed up to 50 % of total annual emissions by diffusion. Based on our fortnightly monitoring, we determined that accurate estimation of the emissions can be determined from measurements made at least at a monthly frequency. During the transition between the WD and WW seasons, a new hotspot of emissions was identified upstream of the water intake where diffusive fluxes peaked at 600 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2010 down to 200 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2012. In the CD season, diffusive fluxes from this area were the

  13. Centaur: a mobile dexterous humanoid for surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehnmark, Fredrik; Ambrose, Robert O.; Goza, S. Michael; Junkin, Lucien; Neuhaus, Peter D.; Pratt, Jerry E.

    2005-05-01

    Future human and robotic planetary expeditions could benefit greatly from expanded Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities supporting a broad range of multiple, concurrent surface operations. Risky, expensive and complex, conventional EVAs are restricted in both duration and scope by consumables and available manpower, creating a resource management problem. A mobile, highly dexterous Extra-Vehicular Robotic (EVR) system called Centaur is proposed to cost-effectively augment human astronauts on surface excursions. The Centaur design combines a highly capable wheeled mobility platform with an anthropomorphic upper body mounted on a three degree-of-freedom waist. Able to use many ordinary handheld tools, the robot could conserve EVA hours by relieving humans of many routine inspection and maintenance chores and assisting them in more complex tasks, such as repairing other robots. As an astronaut surrogate, Centaur could take risks unacceptable to humans, respond more quickly to EVA emergencies and work much longer shifts. Though originally conceived as a system for planetary surface exploration, the Centaur concept could easily be adapted for terrestrial military applications such as de-mining, surveillance and other hazardous duties.

  14. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  15. Study of the mobility, surface area, and sintering behavior of agglomerates in the transition regime by tandem differential mobility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kuk; Hogan, Christopher J.; Biswas, Pratim

    2007-01-01

    The surface area of nanosized agglomerates is of great importance as the reactivity and health effects of such particles are highly dependent on surface area. Changes in surface area through sintering during nanoparticle synthesis processes are also of interest for precision control of synthesised particles. Unfortunately, information on particle surface area and surface area dynamics is not readily obtainable through traditional particle mobility sizing techniques. In this study, we have experimentally determined the mobility diameter of transition regime agglomerates with 3, 4, and 5 primary particles. Agglomerates were produced by spray drying well-characterised polystyrene latex particles with diameters of 55, 67, 76, and 99 nm. Tandem differential mobility analysis was used to determine agglomerate mobility diameter by selecting monodisperse agglomerates with the same number of primary particles in the first DMA, and subsequently completely sintering the agglomerates in a furnace aerosol reactor. The size distribution of the completely sintered particles was measured by an SMPS system, which allowed for the determination of the number of primary particles in the agglomerates. A simple power law regression was used to express mobility diameter as a function of primary particle size and the number of primary particles, and had an excellent correlation (R 2 = 0.9971) with the experimental data. A scaling exponent was determined from the experimental data to relate measured mobility diameter to surface area for agglomerates. Using this relationship, the sintering characteristics of agglomerates were also examined for varying furnace temperatures and residence times. The sintering data agreed well with the geometric sintering model (GSM) model proposed by Cho and Biswas (2006a) as well as with the model proposed Koch and Friedlander (1990) for sintering by viscous flow

  16. Electron mobility on the surface of liquid Helium: influence of surface level atoms and depopulation of lowest subbands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, P. D.; Dyugaev, A. M.; Lebedeva, E. V.

    2008-01-01

    The temperature dependence of electron mobility is examined. We calculate the contribution to the electron scattering rate from the surface level atoms (SLAs), proposed in [10]. This contribution is substantial at low temperatures T < 0.5, when the He vapor concentration is exponentially small. We also study the effect of depopulation of the lowest energy subband, which leads to an increase in the electron mobility at high temperature. The results explain certain long-standing discrepancies between the existing theory and experiment on electron mobility on the surface of liquid helium

  17. Decoupling single nanowire mobilities limited by surface scattering and bulk impurity scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanal, D. R.; Levander, A. X.; Wu, J.; Yu, K. M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate the isolation of two free carrier scattering mechanisms as a function of radial band bending in InN nanowires via universal mobility analysis, where effective carrier mobility is measured as a function of effective electric field in a nanowire field-effect transistor. Our results show that Coulomb scattering limits effective mobility at most effective fields, while surface roughness scattering only limits mobility under very high internal electric fields. High-energy α particle irradiation is used to vary the ionized donor concentration, and the observed decrease in mobility and increase in donor concentration are compared to Hall effect results of high-quality InN thin films. Our results show that for nanowires with relatively high doping and large diameters, controlling Coulomb scattering from ionized dopants should be given precedence over surface engineering when seeking to maximize nanowire mobility.

  18. Isolation frequency of Candida present on the surfaces of mobile phones and handsx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordecka, Anna; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Łukaszuk, Cecylia; Kraszyńska, Bogumiła; Kułak, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    It is known that mobile phones may play a role in microorganism transmission. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the number of Candida genera/species isolated from samples collected from the surfaces of mobile phones and the hands of the staff as well as the preferred health-related behavior. The mycological evaluation included 175 mobile telephones and the hands of staff members at the University Hospital in Białystok, Poland. We used the Count-Tact(TM) applicator, with CandiSelect (Bio-Rad). Self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on mobile phones disinfection practices. Assessment of the preferred health-related behavior was based on The Multidemensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC). Out of 175 mobile phones, 131 (74.9 %) were colonized. Candida glabrata, C. albicans and C.krusei were isolated more frequently from the hand as well as phone surface. The mean number of Candida colonies was higher in samples collected from hand surfaces than mobile phone surfaces. No significant correlation was found between the preferred health-related behavior and the frequency of washing hands, the way of using a mobile phone, the number of colonies or the isolation frequency for the fungi collected from the surface of the phones and hands of their owners. Only 19.4 % of the participants cleaned the surface of their phones. The prevalence of mobile phone contamination by Candida is high in the University Hospital in Białystok, Poland. Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei were the dominant species in the samples collected from mobile phones and hands. These results pose the need to develop guidelines for mobile phone disinfection.

  19. Equilibrium without Friction of a Particle on a Mobile Surface with Bilateral Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae–Doru Stănescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will study the equilibrium of a particle on a mobile surface in the case characterized by bilateral constraints between the particle and the surface, and the absence of friction. Based on our previous work, the conditions for the equilibrium are obtained. We prove that the positions of equilibrium on a mobile surface are no longer the same with those obtained for a fixed surface, the system could have either other equilibrium positions, completely different, or some more equilibrium positions, or no equilibrium position.

  20. A STUDY OF DEAD-RECKONING ALGORITHM FOR MECANUM WHEEL BASED MOBILE ROBOT UNDER VARIOUS TYPES OF ROAD SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    上町, 亮介; KAMMACHI, Ryosuke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we describe about a study of dead-reckoning algorithm for mecanum wheel based mobile robot under various types of road surface. Because of mecanum wheel based mobile robot can move omni-direction by utilizing tire-road surface friction. Therefore depending on road surface condition, it is difficult to estimate accurate self-position by applying conventional dead-reckoning method. In order to overcome inaccuracy of conventional dead-reckoning method for mecanum wheel based mobil...

  1. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and environmental degradation. The spaces and territories marked by mobilities as well as the sites marked by the bypassing of such are explored. Moreover, the architectural and technological dimensions to infrastructures and sites of mobilities will be included as well as the issues of power, social exclusion...... for all students and scholars with an interest in the ‘mobilities turn’ and its contributions to a deeper understanding of the contemporary and mobile world. The entries chosen all are amongst the most creative, thought provoking, and thoughtful of this diverse field of analysis and thought. The selection...

  2. Effects of Micromachining Processes on Electro-Osmotic Flow Mobility of Glass Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihisa Miki

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Silica glass is frequently used as a device material for micro/nano fluidic devices due to its excellent properties, such as transparency and chemical resistance. Wet etching by hydrofluoric acid and dry etching by neutral loop discharge (NLD plasma etching are currently used to micromachine glass to form micro/nano fluidic channels. Electro-osmotic flow (EOF is one of the most effective methods to drive liquids into the channels. EOF mobility is affected by a property of the micromachined glass surfaces, which includes surface roughness that is determined by the manufacturing processes. In this paper, we investigate the effect of micromaching processes on the glass surface topography and the EOF mobility. We prepared glass surfaces by either wet etching or by NLD plasma etching, investigated the surface topography using atomic force microscopy, and attempted to correlate it with EOF generated in the micro-channels of the machined glass. Experiments revealed that the EOF mobility strongly depends on the surface roughness, and therefore upon the fabrication process used. A particularly strong dependency was observed when the surface roughness was on the order of the electric double layer thickness or below. We believe that the correlation described in this paper can be of great help in the design of micro/nano fluidic devices.

  3. Finite-elements modeling of radiant heat transfers between mobile surfaces; Modelisation par elements finis de transferts radiatifs entre surfaces mobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daurelle, J.V.; Cadene, V.; Occelli, R. [Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the numerical modeling of thermal industrial problems, radiant heat transfers remain difficult to take into account and require important computer memory and long computing time. These difficulties are enhanced when radiant heat transfers are coupled with finite-elements diffusive heat transfers because finite-elements architecture is complex and requires a lot of memory. In the case of radiant heat transfers along mobile boundaries, the methods must be optimized. The model described in this paper concerns the radiant heat transfers between diffuse grey surfaces. These transfers are coupled with conduction transfers in the limits of the diffusive opaque domain. 2-D and 3-D geometries are analyzed and two configurations of mobile boundaries are considered. In the first configuration, the boundary follows the deformation of the mesh, while in the second, the boundary moves along the fixed mesh. Matter displacement is taken into account in the term of transport of the energy equation, and an appropriate variation of the thermophysical properties of the transition elements between the opaque and transparent media is used. After a description of the introduction of radiative limit conditions in a finite-elements thermal model, the original methods used to optimize calculation time are explained. Two examples of application illustrate the approach used. The first concerns the modeling of radiant heat transfers between fuel rods during a reactor cooling accident, and the second concerns the study of heat transfers inside the air-gap of an electric motor. The method of identification of the mobile surface on the fixed mesh is described. (J.S.) 12 refs.

  4. Adult onset sporadic ataxias: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with adult onset non-familial progressive ataxia are classified in sporadic ataxia group. There are several disease categories that may manifest with sporadic ataxia: toxic causes, immune-mediated ataxias, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases, degenerative disorders and even genetic conditions. Considering heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of sporadic ataxias, the correct diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. In this review, the different disease categories that lead to sporadic ataxia with adult onset are discussed with special emphasis on their clinical and neuroimaging features, and diagnostic criteria.

  5. Micrometer-sized TPM emulsion droplets with surface-mobile binding groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Casper; van de Stolpe, Guido L.; Verweij, Ruben W.; Kraft, Daniela J.

    2018-03-01

    Colloids coated with lipid membranes have been widely employed for fundamental studies of lipid membrane processes, biotechnological applications such as drug delivery and biosensing, and more recently, for self-assembly. The latter has been made possible by inserting DNA oligomers with covalently linked hydrophobic anchors into the membrane. The lateral mobility of the DNA linkers on micrometer-sized droplets and solid particles has opened the door to creating structures with unprecedented structural flexibility. Here, we investigate micro-emulsions of TPM (3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate) as a platform for lipid monolayers and further functionalization with proteins and DNA oligonucleotides. TPM droplets can be produced with a narrow size distribution and are polymerizable, thus providing supports for model lipid membranes with controlled size and curvature. With fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, we observed that droplet-attached lipids, NeutrAvidin proteins, as well as DNA oligonucleotides all show mobility on the surface. We explored the assembly of micron-sized particles on TPM-droplets by exploiting either avidin-biotin interactions or double-stranded DNA with complementary single-stranded end groups. While the single molecules are mobile, the particles that are attached to them are not. We propose that this is caused by the heterogeneous nature of emulsified TPM, which forms an oligomer network that limits the collective motion of linkers, but allows the surface mobility of individual molecules.

  6. Observation of a distinct surface molecular orientation in films of a high mobility conjugated polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuettfort, Torben; Thomsen, Lars; McNeill, Christopher R

    2013-01-23

    The molecular orientation and microstructure of films of the high-mobility semiconducting polymer poly(N,N-bis-2-octyldodecylnaphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis-dicarboximide-2,6-diyl-alt-5,5-2,2-bithiophene) (P(NDI2OD-T2)) are probed using a combination of grazing-incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering (GIWAXS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine-structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. In particular a novel approach is used whereby the bulk molecular orientation and surface molecular orientation are simultaneously measured on the same sample using NEXAFS spectroscopy in an angle-resolved transmission experiment. Furthermore, the acquisition of bulk-sensitive NEXAFS data enables a direct comparison of the information provided by GIWAXS and NEXAFS. By comparison of the bulk-sensitive and surface-sensitive NEXAFS data, a distinctly different molecular orientation is observed at the surface of the film compared to the bulk. While a more "face-on" orientation of the conjugated backbone is observed in the bulk of the film, consistent with the lamella orientation observed by GIWAXS, a more "edge-on" orientation is observed at the surface of the film with surface-sensitive NEXAFS spectroscopy. This distinct edge-on surface orientation explains the high in-plane mobility that is achieved in top-gate P(NDI2OD-T2) field-effect transistors (FETs), while the bulk face-on texture explains the high out-of-plane mobilities that are observed in time-of-flight and diode measurements. These results also stress that GIWAXS lacks the surface sensitivity required to probe the microstructure of the accumulation layer that supports charge transport in organic FETs and hence may not necessarily be appropriate for correlating film microstructure and FET charge transport.

  7. Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    will cover diverse topics such as theories, concepts, methods, and approaches as well as it will explore various modes of mobilities and the relationship to everyday life practices. The selection also covers the ‘politics of mobilities’ from local urban planning schemes to geopolitical issues of refugees...

  8. The Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor II environmental radiological characterization utilizing GPS/GIS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, M.A.

    1993-05-01

    Time, cost, and most importantly quality of data are the three factors to measure the success of field radiological characterizations. The application of coupling radiation detection instrumentation to a GPS receiver has dramatically increased the data quality achievable compared to traditional environmental radiological survey methods. Improvements in verifying adequate spatial coverage of an area while collecting data and at,the same time reducing field time requirements can be realized. Data acquired during the recent implementation of the Mobile Surface Contamination Monitor 11 (MSCM-11) will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of this system over traditional radiological survey methods. The comparison will include time and manpower requirements. Linking the complimentary GPS, GIS and radiation detection technologies on a mobile tractor based platform has provided a tool to provide radiological characterization data faster, cheaper, and better to assist in the Environmental Restoration Mission of the Hanford Site

  9. Mobility of chemisorbed molecules and surface regeneration of active centers during dehydration of isopropanol on aluminium oxide and aluminosilicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlis, L.A.; Vasserberg, V.Eh.

    1976-01-01

    By a differential isotope method involving 14 C the authors have investigated the surface mobility of chemisorbed molecules of isopropanol during its dehydration in an adsorption layer on aluminium oxide and aluminosilicate. The chemisorbed alcohol molecules possess marked surface mobility which plays a decisive part in the mechanism of surface regeneration of the active catalyst centers in the process of dehydration. The cessation of the reaction long before the adsorbed alcohol is completely used up is explained by the hypothesis that there is local overpopulation of the active sectors by water formed by the reaction; this hinders further surface regeneration and repetition of the elementary events of dehydration

  10. Acidity-Facilitated Mobilization of Surface Clay Colloid from Natural Sand Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Wang, C.; Mohanty, B. P.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid mobilization and migration in a soil system has attracted increasing scrutiny for its role in facilitating colloid-borne transport of contaminants in the environments. In many previous studies, pH was evoked as a major factor in mobilizing surface colloids through inducing favorable surface charge and electrostatic conditions. The possible direct role of acidity with H+ as a chemical agent has remained largely obscured behind the indirect role of pH. In this study, we demonstrated through column flow-through tests that cyclical elution of natural sand media with weak acid and base solutions can greatly facilitate detachment and transport of surface clay colloids. We found that while elevating pH to an alkaline condition helped release the loosely-attached surface clays, a pretreatment with H+ could facilitate the mobilization of chemically-bonded clay colloids through lysing of labile Ca and Mg ions. A quantitative relation was observed that 1 mmol H+ could lyse about 0.5 mmol Ca2+ and Mg2+ and subsequently resulted in a release of about 1,200 mg clay during base elution when repulsive force between particles dominated. Natural organic acids such as citric acid and acetic acid in environment-relevant low concentrations (pH>5.0) were as effective as HCl with a stronger acidic condition. The small mass ratio of Ca and Mg over colloid released and the nature of weak acid used suggest that the mobilization was less likely due to dissolution of cement casing than lysing of labile interstitial Ca and Mg by H+, which severed Ca and Mg bridging bonds between particles. Natural acidity is generated in abundance from various bio- and geochemical processes; e.g., many plants produce citric acid through citric acid cycle metabolism; biodegradation of dead organic matter forms humic acids. We postulate that natural proton dynamics in tendon with pH oscillation accompanied with various soil biogeochemical processes could play a major role in subsurface clay transport

  11. Mobile Agents: A Distributed Voice-Commanded Sensory and Robotic System for Surface EVA Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Alena, Rick; Crawford, Sekou; Dowding, John; Graham, Jeff; Kaskiris, Charis; Tyree, Kim S.; vanHoof, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    A model-based, distributed architecture integrates diverse components in a system designed for lunar and planetary surface operations: spacesuit biosensors, cameras, GPS, and a robotic assistant. The system transmits data and assists communication between the extra-vehicular activity (EVA) astronauts, the crew in a local habitat, and a remote mission support team. Software processes ("agents"), implemented in a system called Brahms, run on multiple, mobile platforms, including the spacesuit backpacks, all-terrain vehicles, and robot. These "mobile agents" interpret and transform available data to help people and robotic systems coordinate their actions to make operations more safe and efficient. Different types of agents relate platforms to each other ("proxy agents"), devices to software ("comm agents"), and people to the system ("personal agents"). A state-of-the-art spoken dialogue interface enables people to communicate with their personal agents, supporting a speech-driven navigation and scheduling tool, field observation record, and rover command system. An important aspect of the engineering methodology involves first simulating the entire hardware and software system in Brahms, and then configuring the agents into a runtime system. Design of mobile agent functionality has been based on ethnographic observation of scientists working in Mars analog settings in the High Canadian Arctic on Devon Island and the southeast Utah desert. The Mobile Agents system is developed iteratively in the context of use, with people doing authentic work. This paper provides a brief introduction to the architecture and emphasizes the method of empirical requirements analysis, through which observation, modeling, design, and testing are integrated in simulated EVA operations.

  12. New insights into proton surface mobility processes in PEMFC catalysts using isotopic exchange methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Aparicio, Paloma

    2009-09-01

    The surface chemistry and the adsorption/desorption/exchange behavior of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst are analyzed as a case study for the development of tailor-made support materials of enhanced performance and stability. By using H2, D2, and CO as probe molecules, the relevance of some surface functional groups of the catalyst support on several diffusion processes taking place during the adsorption is shown. Sulfonic groups associated with the vulcanized carbon black surface have been detected by means of spectroscopic techniques (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and by analysis of the desorbed products during temperature-programmed desorption tests by mass spectrometry. Such hydrophilic species have been observed to favor proton surface mobility and exchange with Pt-adsorbed deuterium even in the presence of adsorbed CO. This behavior is relevant both for the proper characterization of these kinds of catalysts using adsorption probes and for the design of new surface-modified carbon supports, enabling alternative proton-transfer pathways throughout the catalytic layers toward the membrane.

  13. Risk of post-fire metal mobilization into surface water resources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Joji; Dowling, Kim; Florentine, Singarayer

    2017-12-01

    One of the significant economic benefits to communities around the world of having pristine forest catchments is the supply of substantial quantities of high quality potable water. This supports a saving of around US$ 4.1 trillion per year globally by limiting the cost of expensive drinking water treatments and provision of unnecessary infrastructure. Even low levels of contaminants specifically organics and metals in catchments when in a mobile state can reduce these economic benefits by seriously affecting the water quality. Contamination and contaminant mobility can occur through natural and anthropogenic activities including forest fires. Moderate to high intensity forest fires are able to alter soil properties and release sequestered metals from sediments, soil organic matter and fragments of vegetation. In addition, the increase in post-fire erosion rate by rainfall runoff and strong winds facilitates the rapid transport of these metals downslope and downstream. The subsequent metal deposition in distal soil and water bodies can influence surface water quality with potential impacts to the larger ecosystems inclusive of negative effects on humans. This is of substantial concern as 4 billion hectares of forest catchments provide high quality water to global communities. Redressing this problem requires quantification of the potential effects on water resources and instituting rigorous fire and environmental management plans to mitigate deleterious effects on catchment areas. This paper is a review of the current state of the art literature dealing with the risk of post-fire mobilization of the metals into surface water resources. It is intended to inform discussion on the preparation of suitable management plans and policies during and after fire events in order to maintain potable water quality in a cost-effective manner. In these times of climate fluctuation and increased incidence of fires, the need for development of new policies and management frameworks

  14. Robust Locally Weighted Regression For Ground Surface Extraction In Mobile Laser Scanning 3D Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nurunnabi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new robust way for ground surface extraction from mobile laser scanning 3D point cloud data is proposed in this paper. Fitting polynomials along 2D/3D points is one of the well-known methods for filtering ground points, but it is evident that unorganized point clouds consist of multiple complex structures by nature so it is not suitable for fitting a parametric global model. The aim of this research is to develop and implement an algorithm to classify ground and non-ground points based on statistically robust locally weighted regression which fits a regression surface (line in 2D by fitting without any predefined global functional relation among the variables of interest. Afterwards, the z (elevation-values are robustly down weighted based on the residuals for the fitted points. The new set of down weighted z-values along with x (or y values are used to get a new fit of the (lower surface (line. The process of fitting and down-weighting continues until the difference between two consecutive fits is insignificant. Then the final fit represents the ground level of the given point cloud and the ground surface points can be extracted. The performance of the new method has been demonstrated through vehicle based mobile laser scanning 3D point cloud data from urban areas which include different problematic objects such as short walls, large buildings, electric poles, sign posts and cars. The method has potential in areas like building/construction footprint determination, 3D city modelling, corridor mapping and asset management.

  15. Tracking cell surface mobility of GPCRs using α-bungarotoxin-linked fluorophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Saad; Wilkins, Megan E; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G

    2013-01-01

    GABA(B) receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Cell surface mobility of GABA(B) receptors is a key determinant of the efficacy of slow and prolonged synaptic inhibition initiated by GABA. Therefore, experimentally monitoring receptor mobility and how this can be regulated is of primary importance for understanding the roles of GABA(B) receptors in the brain, and how they may be therapeutically exploited. Unusually for a GPCR, heterodimerization between the R1 and R2 subunits is required for the cell surface expression and signaling by prototypical GABA(B) receptors. Here, we describe a minimal epitope-tagging method, based on the incorporation of an α-bungarotoxin binding site (BBS) into the GABA(B) receptor, to study receptor internalization in live cells using a range of imaging approaches. We demonstrate how this technique can be adapted by modifying the BBS to monitor the simultaneous movement of both R1 and R2 subunits, revealing that GABA(B) receptors are internalized as heteromers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mobility of Yield-Stress Fluids on Lubricant-Impregnated Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Leonid; Solomon, Brian; Varanasi, Kripa; Varanasi Research Group Team

    2017-11-01

    Assuring the flow of yield-stress fluids is an essential problem for various industries such as consumer products, health care, and energy. Elimination of wall-induced pinning forces can potentially save power and cleaning costs as well as enable the flow of yield-stress fluids in channels previously considered too narrow. Lubricant-Impregnated Surfaces (LIS) have been demonstrated to change the dynamic behavior of yield-stress fluids and enable them to move as bulk without shearing at all. However, despite the wide applicability of this technology and its general appeal, the fundamental principles governing the performance of yield stress fluids on LIS have not yet been fully explained. In this work, we explore the mobility of yield stress fluids on a wide range of LIS, and explain the connection between macroscale behavior and the microscale properties of the LIS. Specifically, we show a striking difference in mobility between an LIS that contains a lubricant which fully spreads on the rough micro-features of the surface, and an LIS that contains a lubricant which only imbibes these features but does spread over them

  17. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry

  18. Theory of activated glassy relaxation, mobility gradients, surface diffusion, and vitrification in free standing thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirigian, Stephen, E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com; Schweizer, Kenneth S., E-mail: kschweiz@illinois.edu, E-mail: smirigian@gmail.com [Departments of Materials Science and Chemistry, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    We have constructed a quantitative, force level, statistical mechanical theory for how confinement in free standing thin films introduces a spatial mobility gradient of the alpha relaxation time as a function of temperature, film thickness, and location in the film. The crucial idea is that relaxation speeds up due to the reduction of both near-surface barriers associated with the loss of neighbors in the local cage and the spatial cutoff and dynamical softening near the vapor interface of the spatially longer range collective elasticity cost for large amplitude hopping. These two effects are fundamentally coupled. Quantitative predictions are made for how an apparent glass temperature depends on the film thickness and experimental probe technique, the emergence of a two-step decay and mobile layers in time domain measurements, signatures of confinement in frequency-domain dielectric loss experiments, the dependence of film-averaged relaxation times and dynamic fragility on temperature and film thickness, surface diffusion, and the relationship between kinetic experiments and pseudo-thermodynamic measurements such as ellipsometry.

  19. Reduced PDZ Interactions of Rescued ΔF508CFTR Increases Its Cell Surface Mobility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Cathleen D.; Lukacs, Gergely L.; Verkman, Alan S.; Haggie, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Deletion of phenylalanine 508 (ΔF508) in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) plasma membrane chloride channel is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF). Though several maneuvers can rescue endoplasmic reticulum-retained ΔF508CFTR and promote its trafficking to the plasma membrane, rescued ΔF508CFTR remains susceptible to quality control mechanisms that lead to accelerated endocytosis, ubiquitination, and lysosomal degradation. To investigate the role of scaffold protein interactions in rescued ΔF508CFTR surface instability, the plasma membrane mobility of ΔF508CFTR was measured in live cells by quantum dot single particle tracking. Following rescue by low temperature, chemical correctors, thapsigargin, or overexpression of GRASP55, ΔF508CFTR diffusion was more rapid than that of wild-type CFTR because of reduced interactions with PDZ domain-containing scaffold proteins. Knock-down of the plasma membrane quality control proteins CHIP and Hsc70 partially restored ΔF508CFTR-scaffold association. Quantitative comparisons of CFTR cell surface diffusion and endocytosis kinetics suggested an association between reduced scaffold binding and CFTR internalization. Our surface diffusion measurements in live cells indicate defective scaffold interactions of rescued ΔF508CFTR at the cell surface, which may contribute to its defective peripheral processing. PMID:23115232

  20. Mobile depth profiling and sub-surface imaging techniques for historical paintings—A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfeld, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.alfeld@desy.de [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Groenenbrogerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Broekaert, José A.C., E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de [University of Hamburg, Department of Chemistry, Martin-Luther-King Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Hidden, sub-surface paint layers and features contain valuable information for the art-historical investigation of a painting's past and for its conservation for coming generations. The number of techniques available for the study of these features has been considerably extended in the last decades and established techniques have been refined. This review focuses on mobile non-destructive subsurface imaging and depth profiling techniques, which allow for the in-situ investigation of easel paintings, i.e. paintings on a portable support. Among the techniques discussed are: X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography, which are long established methods and are in use for several decades. Their capabilities of element/species specific imaging have been extended by the introduction of energy/wavelength resolved measurements. Scanning macro-X-ray fluorescence analysis made it for the first time possible to acquire elemental distribution images in-situ and optical coherence tomography allows for the non-destructive study the surface paint layers in virtual cross-sections. These techniques and their variants are presented next to other techniques, such as Terahertz imaging, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance depth profiling and established techniques for non destructive testing (thermography, ultrasonic imaging and laser based interference methods) applied in the conservation of historical paintings. Next to selected case studies the capabilities and limitations of the techniques are discussed. - Highlights: • All mobile sub-surface and depth-profiling techniques for paintings are reviewed. • The number of techniques available has increased considerably in the last years. • X-ray radiography and infrared reflectography are still the most used techniques. • Scanning macro-XRF and optical coherence tomography begin to establish. • Industrial non destructive testing techniques support the preservation of paintings.

  1. Sporadic lymphoplasmacytic cholecystitis: a clinicopathologic entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Suntrea T G; Appelman, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    To describe a sporadic form of lymphoplasmacytic cholecystitis (LPC), a condition known to occur in patients with chronic biliary tract disease. One year's worth of cholecystectomies was reviewed for sporadic cases of LPC. Histologic, radiologic, and clinical findings were reviewed and compared with noninflamed controls. Sporadic cases were also compared histologically with obstructive LPC cases. Sporadic LPC made up 7% of cholecystectomies, had a male predominance (54.2%), and more often presented with clinical signs of acute inflammation compared with controls. Radiologic findings identified gallstones in 71.4% of patients. The second most common finding was unexplained extrahepatic biliary dilation. There were no unique histologic findings to separate sporadic cases from those associated with pancreatobiliary disease. While obstructive LPC is traditionally described as acalculous, chronic cholecystitis, we show this inflammatory pattern occurs both in the presence of gallstones and outside of previously described disease categories. In addition, LPC occurs in a unique patient demographic (older men), often presenting similarly to acute cholecystitis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  2. Automatic Extraction of Road Surface and Curbstone Edges from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraliakbari, A.; Hahn, M.; Sok, S.

    2015-05-01

    We present a procedure for automatic extraction of the road surface from geo-referenced mobile laser scanning data. The basic assumption of the procedure is that the road surface is smooth and limited by curbstones. Two variants of jump detection are investigated for detecting curbstone edges, one based on height differences the other one based on histograms of the height data. Region growing algorithms are proposed which use the irregular laser point cloud. Two- and four-neighbourhood growing strategies utilize the two height criteria for examining the neighborhood. Both height criteria rely on an assumption about the minimum height of a low curbstone. Road boundaries with lower or no jumps will not stop the region growing process. In contrast to this objects on the road can terminate the process. Therefore further processing such as bridging gaps between detected road boundary points and the removal of wrongly detected curbstone edges is necessary. Road boundaries are finally approximated by splines. Experiments are carried out with a ca. 2 km network of smalls streets located in the neighbourhood of University of Applied Sciences in Stuttgart. For accuracy assessment of the extracted road surfaces, ground truth measurements are digitized manually from the laser scanner data. For completeness and correctness of the region growing result values between 92% and 95% are achieved.

  3. Distinguishibility of Oxygen Desorption From the Surface Region with Mobility Dominant Effects in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraf, Laxmikant V; Shutthanandan, V; Zhang, Yanwen; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Wang, Chong M; El-Azab, Anter; Baer, Donald R

    2004-11-15

    We present an investigation of oxygen (18Ο) uptake measurements in 1 μm thick nanocrystalline ceria films grown on single crystal Al₂O₃ (0001) by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Oxygen uptake measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 200°C-600°C at a background 18O pressure of 4.0 x 10-6 Torr. Average grain-size in the as-grown films, synthesized by sol-gel process was ~ 3 nm confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. From the diffusion depth profiles, changes in intensity and slopes in surface and interface regions indicate dominating oxygen mobility effects. Oxygen desorption is clearly distinguishable in the film surface region as a result of shift in the oxygen peak intensity. It is argued that high defect density in nanocrystalline ceria which is associated with nano-grain surface combined with intermediate temperature reducing environment triggers multiple processes like diffusion, desorption and exchange interaction. The promising nature of NRA is realized as an effective tool to acquire the depth-dependent information regarding such complex reactions that exists in nanocrystalline environment.

  4. MASCOT—The Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout Onboard the Hayabusa2 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tra-Mi; Baturkin, Volodymyr; Grimm, Christian; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hobbie, Catherin; Ksenik, Eugen; Lange, Caroline; Sasaki, Kaname; Schlotterer, Markus; Talapina, Maria; Termtanasombat, Nawarat; Wejmo, Elisabet; Witte, Lars; Wrasmann, Michael; Wübbels, Guido; Rößler, Johannes; Ziach, Christian; Findlay, Ross; Biele, Jens; Krause, Christian; Ulamec, Stephan; Lange, Michael; Mierheim, Olaf; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Maier, Maximilian; Reill, Josef; Sedlmayr, Hans-Jürgen; Bousquet, Pierre; Bellion, Anthony; Bompis, Olivier; Cenac-Morthe, Celine; Deleuze, Muriel; Fredon, Stephane; Jurado, Eric; Canalias, Elisabet; Jaumann, Ralf; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Glassmeier, Karl Heinz; Hercik, David; Grott, Matthias; Celotti, Luca; Cordero, Federico; Hendrikse, Jeffrey; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2017-07-01

    On December 3rd, 2014, the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched successfully the Hayabusa2 (HY2) spacecraft to its journey to Near Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu. Aboard this spacecraft is a compact landing package, MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid surface SCOuT), which was developed by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in collaboration with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Similar to the famous predecessor mission Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, will also study an asteroid and return samples to Earth. This time, however, the target is a C-type asteroid which is considered to be more primitive than (25143) Itokawa and provide insight into an even earlier stage of our Solar System.

  5. Experimental investigations of sensor-based surface following tasks by a mobile manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.; Baker, J.E.; Pin, F.G.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses experimental investigations of the feasibility and requirements of simultaneous external-sensor-based-control of the wheeled platform and the manipulator of a mobile robot. The experiments involve 3-D arbitrary surface following by the manipulator while the platform moves along a predefined trajectory. A variety of concave and convex surfaces were used in the experiments, during which target and measured values of the platform and arm positions and orientations, together with the surface absolute location and normal estimates, were logged at 10 Hz. For all experiments, the data logs showed significant noise, at high frequency, in the calculated surface normal values despite smooth tracking of their target values by the arm and the platform, with typical closed loop delays between target and achieved values of the order of 100 msec. This high-frequency noise in the calculated values is conjectured to result mainly from the arm`s transmission cables compliance and backlash in the spherical wrist gears. On the other hand, the end-effector distance to the surface showed some low frequency errors of the order of {plus_minus}20%The two major sources of these low frequency errors appeared to reside respectively in the low values of the velocity bound and gain parameters utilized to filter the high frequency noise in the calculated normal values prior to using them as input to the arm control, and in the rolling contact of the platform`s rubber-coated wheels on the ground where significant errors in the platform`s positions and orientations can accumulate.

  6. EVALUATION MODEL FOR PAVEMENT SURFACE DISTRESS ON 3D POINT CLOUDS FROM MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Aoki

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pavement surface distress for maintenance planning of road pavement using 3D point clouds from Mobile Mapping System (MMS. The issue on maintenance planning of road pavement requires scheduled rehabilitation activities for damaged pavement sections to keep high level of services. The importance of this performance-based infrastructure asset management on actual inspection data is globally recognized. Inspection methodology of road pavement surface, a semi-automatic measurement system utilizing inspection vehicles for measuring surface deterioration indexes, such as cracking, rutting and IRI, have already been introduced and capable of continuously archiving the pavement performance data. However, any scheduled inspection using automatic measurement vehicle needs much cost according to the instruments’ specification or inspection interval. Therefore, implementation of road maintenance work, especially for the local government, is difficult considering costeffectiveness. Based on this background, in this research, the methodologies for a simplified evaluation for pavement surface and assessment of damaged pavement section are proposed using 3D point clouds data to build urban 3D modelling. The simplified evaluation results of road surface were able to provide useful information for road administrator to find out the pavement section for a detailed examination and for an immediate repair work. In particular, the regularity of enumeration of 3D point clouds was evaluated using Chow-test and F-test model by extracting the section where the structural change of a coordinate value was remarkably achieved. Finally, the validity of the current methodology was investigated by conducting a case study dealing with the actual inspection data of the local roads.

  7. The impact of surface-roughness scattering on the low-field electron mobility in nano-scale Si MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Gokula; Vasileska, Dragica

    2017-09-01

    A state-of-the-art simulator for the calculation of low-field mobility in inversion layers is presented in this work that accounts for the collisional broadening of the electronic states via the solution of the Dyson equation for the retarded Green's function. The self-consistent Born approximation is used for the calculation of the self-energy contributions due to Coulomb, surface-roughness, acoustic, and non-polar optical phonon scattering. The simulated mobility results for three generations of MOSFET devices are in agreement with the experimental data. At nanoscale dimensions, surface-roughness scattering dominates the collisional broadening of the states and the renormalization of the spectrum.

  8. The influence of surfaces on the transient terahertz conductivity and electron mobility of GaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, Hannah J; Baig, Sarwat A; Parkinson, Patrick; Davies, Christopher L; Boland, Jessica L; Herz, Laura M; Johnston, Michael B; Tan, H Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2017-01-01

    Bare unpassivated GaAs nanowires feature relatively high electron mobilities (400–2100 cm 2 V −1 s −1 ) and ultrashort charge carrier lifetimes (1–5 ps) at room temperature. These two properties are highly desirable for high speed optoelectronic devices, including photoreceivers, modulators and switches operating at microwave and terahertz frequencies. When engineering these GaAs nanowire-based devices, it is important to have a quantitative understanding of how the charge carrier mobility and lifetime can be tuned. Here we use optical-pump–terahertz-probe spectroscopy to quantify how mobility and lifetime depend on the nanowire surfaces and on carrier density in unpassivated GaAs nanowires. We also present two alternative frameworks for the analysis of nanowire photoconductivity: one based on plasmon resonance and the other based on Maxwell–Garnett effective medium theory with the nanowires modelled as prolate ellipsoids. We find the electron mobility decreases significantly with decreasing nanowire diameter, as charge carriers experience increased scattering at nanowire surfaces. Reducing the diameter from 50 nm to 30 nm degrades the electron mobility by up to 47%. Photoconductivity dynamics were dominated by trapping at saturable states existing at the nanowire surface, and the trapping rate was highest for the nanowires of narrowest diameter. The maximum surface recombination velocity, which occurs in the limit of all traps being empty, was calculated as 1.3  ×  10 6 cm s −1 . We note that when selecting the optimum nanowire diameter for an ultrafast device, there is a trade-off between achieving a short lifetime and a high carrier mobility. To achieve high speed GaAs nanowire devices featuring the highest charge carrier mobilities and shortest lifetimes, we recommend operating the devices at low charge carrier densities. (paper)

  9. Evaluation of surface charge density and surface potential by electrophoretic mobility for solid lipid nanoparticles and human brain-microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yung-Chih; Chen, I-Chun

    2007-09-27

    Electrophoretic mobility, zeta potential, surface charge density, and surface potential of cacao butter-based solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and human brain-microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) were analyzed in this study. Electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential were determined experimentally. Surface charge density and surface potential were evaluated theoretically via incorporation of ion condensation theory with the relationship between surface charge density and surface potential. The results revealed that the lower the pH value, the weaker the electrostatic properties of the negatively charged SLN and HBMEC. A higher content of cacao butter or a slower stirring rate yielded a larger SLN and stronger surface electricity. On the contrary, storage led to instability of SLN suspension and weaker electrical behavior because of hydrolysis of ionogenic groups on the particle surfaces. Also, high H+ concentration resulted in excess adsorption of H+ onto HBMEC, rendering charge reversal and cell death. The largest normalized discrepancy between surface potential and zeta potential occurred at pH = 7. For a fixed biocolloidal species, the discrepancy was nearly invariant at high pH value. However, the discrepancy followed the order of electrical intensity for HBMEC system at low pH value because mammalian cells were sensitive to H+. The present study provided a practical method to obtain surface charge properties by capillary electrophoresis.

  10. Genetic instability in inherited and sporadic leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Henning D; Bohlander, Stefan K

    2010-12-01

    Genetic instability due to increased DNA damage and altered DNA repair is of central significance in the initiation and progression of inherited and sporadic human leukemias. Although very rare, some inherited DNA repair insufficiency syndromes (e.g., Fanconi anemia, Bloom's syndrome) have added substantially to our understanding of crucial mechanisms of leukemogenesis in recent years. Conversely, sporadic leukemias account for the main proportion of leukemias and here DNA damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role. Although the exact mechanisms of increased ROS production remain largely unknown and no single pathway has been detected thus far, some oncogenic proteins (e.g., the activated tyrosine kinases BCR-ABL1 and FLT3-ITD) seem to play a key role in driving genetic instability by increased ROS generation which influences the disease course (e.g., blast crisis in chronic myeloid leukemia or relapse in FLT3-ITD positive acute myeloid leukemia). Of course other mechanisms, which promote genetic instability in leukemia also exist. A newly emerging mechanism is the genome-wide alteration of epigenetic marks (e.g., hypomethylation of histone H3K79), which promotes chromosomal instability. Taken together genetic instability plays a critical role both in inherited and sporadic leukemias and emerges as a common theme in both inherited and sporadic leukemias. Beyond its theoretical impact, the analysis of genetic instability may lead the way to the development of innovative therapy strategies. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Endogenic Origin of Ceres' Surface as an Outcome of Mobile-Lid Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J. C.; Choukroun, M.; Hodyss, R. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Raymond, C. A.; Rivkin, A.

    2011-12-01

    Until recently, the interest generated by large wet asteroids was primarily due to their status of protoplanets, i.e., their intermediate stage between planetesimals and fully-developed planets [1]. This picture changed a few years ago, when it was suggested that these objects contain a lot of free water [2]. Such an idea was recently substantiated by the detection of ice and organics at the surface of large outer main belt asteroids (24 Themis and 65 Cybele) [3, 4]. This discovery sheds a new light on these asteroids, which now represent astrobiological targets accessible within NASA's Discovery program. Ceres' place in this picture is especially compelling as ground-based observations have shown that that object bears on its surface materials that are formed in alkaline hydrothermal environments [5], and it is the third planetary body on which carbonates have been detected. Large wet asteroids are akin to medium-sized outer planet satellites in terms of global internal structure and geophysical processes, but they benefit from far more heat [6]. Icy satellites are subject to tidal heating, supplied in the deep interior (in most cases), with an intensity function of the time-dependent dynamical state of these objects. The main heat source available at asteroids is solar energy, a permanent source that has been increasing with time. The contrast in surface temperature between the two classes of objects implies very different settings for endogenic and geological activity. Indeed the contrast in viscosity across icy satellite icy shells is at least ten orders of magnitude, while that contrast is only three to five orders of magnitude in the case of asteroids. This results preferentially in stagnant-lid convection in the former situation. On the other hand, we have demonstrated that Ceres could be subject to mobile-lid convection for at least part of its history [7]. Whether this regime is occurring nowadays depends on a number of unconstrained parameters. However

  12. High electron mobility recovery in AlGaN/GaN 2DEG channels regrown on etched surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Silvia H.; Keller, Stacia; Tahhan, Maher; Li, Haoran; Romanczyk, Brian; DenBaars, Steven P.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports high two-dimensional electron gas mobility attained from the regrowth of the AlGaN gating layer on ex situ GaN surfaces. To repair etch-damaged GaN surfaces, various pretreatments were conducted via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, followed by a regrown AlGaN/GaN mobility test structure to evaluate the extent of recovery. The developed treatment process that was shown to significantly improve the electron mobility consisted of a N2 + NH3 pre-anneal plus an insertion of a 4 nm or thicker GaN interlayer prior to deposition of the AlGaN gating layer. Using the optimized process, a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was fabricated which exhibited a high mobility of 1450 cm2 V-1 s-1 (R sh = 574 ohm/sq) and low dispersion characteristics. The additional inclusion of an in situ Al2O3 dielectric into the regrowth process for MOS-HEMTs still preserved the transport properties near etch-impacted areas.

  13. High electron mobility recovery in AlGaN/GaN 2DEG channels regrown on etched surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Silvia H; DenBaars, Steven P; Keller, Stacia; Tahhan, Maher; Li, Haoran; Romanczyk, Brian; Mishra, Umesh K

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports high two-dimensional electron gas mobility attained from the regrowth of the AlGaN gating layer on ex situ GaN surfaces. To repair etch-damaged GaN surfaces, various pretreatments were conducted via metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, followed by a regrown AlGaN/GaN mobility test structure to evaluate the extent of recovery. The developed treatment process that was shown to significantly improve the electron mobility consisted of a N 2  + NH 3 pre-anneal plus an insertion of a 4 nm or thicker GaN interlayer prior to deposition of the AlGaN gating layer. Using the optimized process, a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was fabricated which exhibited a high mobility of 1450 cm 2 V −1 s −1 (R sh  = 574 ohm/sq) and low dispersion characteristics. The additional inclusion of an in situ Al 2 O 3 dielectric into the regrowth process for MOS-HEMTs still preserved the transport properties near etch-impacted areas. (paper)

  14. Warpage optimization on a mobile phone case using response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X. N.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shazzuan, S.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic injection moulding is a popular manufacturing method not only it is reliable, but also efficient and cost saving. It able to produce plastic part with detailed features and complex geometry. However, defects in injection moulding process degrades the quality and aesthetic of the injection moulded product. The most common defect occur in the process is warpage. Inappropriate process parameter setting of injection moulding machine is one of the reason that leads to the occurrence of warpage. The aims of this study were to improve the quality of injection moulded part by investigating the optimal parameters in minimizing warpage using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Subsequent to this, the most significant parameter was identified and recommended parameters setting was compared with the optimized parameter setting using RSM. In this research, the mobile phone case was selected as case study. The mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time were selected as variables whereas warpage in y-direction was selected as responses in this research. The simulation was carried out by using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2012. In addition, the RSM was performed by using Design Expert 7.0. The warpage in y direction recommended by RSM were reduced by 70 %. RSM performed well in solving warpage issue.

  15. A comparison of two systems for lunar surface remote and mobile power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Otting, W.D.; Hunt, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is now being developed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) and NASA-LeRC for space power applications. Some conceptualizations of an isotope powered FPSE have been proposed. The performance characteristics of the proposed 2.5-kWe Stirling Isotope Power (STIP) system were developed for lunar surface remote and mobile applications. The Stirling system configuration uses a nonredundant power conversion system coupled to an annular heat source assembly (HSA) using an array of sodium heat pipes which transfer energy from the annular general-purpose heat source (GPHS) stack within the HSA to the Stirling heater head. The Stirling engine uses a dual-opposed piston design with heater head coupling. The engine coolers are connected to a single-pumped coolant loop, which rejects the cycle's waste heat to a radiator. Quantitative information, such as mass, area, and efficiency, are reported for the system. The results of a qualitative evaluation of the proposed STIP system against the desirable attributes of a lunar-based isotope power system are presented. Alternate configurations are also presented

  16. Floor Covering and Surface Identification for Assistive Mobile Robotic Real-Time Room Localization Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gillham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Assistive robotic applications require systems capable of interaction in the human world, a workspace which is highly dynamic and not always predictable. Mobile assistive devices face the additional and complex problem of when and if intervention should occur; therefore before any trajectory assistance is given, the robotic device must know where it is in real-time, without unnecessary disruption or delay to the user requirements. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel robust method for determining room identification from floor features in a real-time computational frame for autonomous and assistive robotics in the human environment. We utilize two inexpensive sensors: an optical mouse sensor for straightforward and rapid, texture or pattern sampling, and a four color photodiode light sensor for fast color determination. We show how data relating floor texture and color obtained from typical dynamic human environments, using these two sensors, compares favorably with data obtained from a standard webcam. We show that suitable data can be extracted from these two sensors at a rate 16 times faster than a standard webcam, and that these data are in a form which can be rapidly processed using readily available classification techniques, suitable for real-time system application. We achieved a 95% correct classification accuracy identifying 133 rooms’ flooring from 35 classes, suitable for fast coarse global room localization application, boundary crossing detection, and additionally some degree of surface type identification.

  17. Effect of surface coating composition on quantum dot mobility in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yonggang; Zhu, Huiguang; Becker, Matthew D.; Englehart, Jessica; Abriola, Linda M.; Colvin, Vicki L.; Pennell, Kurt D.

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have received considerable attention due to their unique optical and electrical properties. Although substantial research has focused on the potential applications and toxicological impacts of QDs, far less effort has been directed toward understanding their fate and transport in the environment. In this work, the effect of four coatings, polyethylene glycol functionalized polymer (PEGP), carboxyl derivatized polymer (COOHP), linoleic acid (LA), and polyacrylic acid-octylamine (PAA-OA), on the transport and retention of QDs in porous media were evaluated under environmentally relevant conditions. Aqueous QD suspensions (ca. 10 nM) were introduced into water-saturated columns packed with 40–50 mesh Ottawa sand at a pore-water velocity of 7.6 m/day. At an ionic strength (IS) of 3 mM and pH of 7, PEGP-coated QDs were completely retained within the column, while more than 60 % of COOHP-coated QDs were transported through a column run under identical conditions. When PAA-OA and LA were used as coatings, effluent QD recoveries increased to more than 65 and 89 % of the injected mass, respectively. Additionally, a decrease in pH from 9.5 to 5.0, or an increase of IS from 0 to 30 mM reduced the eluted mass of PAA-OA-coated QDs by more than 2 and 15 times, respectively. The relative mobility of coated QDs (LA > PAA-OA > COOHP > PEGP) was consistent with total interaction energy profiles between QDs and sand surfaces calculated based on Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory. At an IS of 3 mM (NaCl) and pH 7, a linear correlation was obtained between the fraction of eluted QDs and the magnitude of the primary interaction energy barrier. These findings demonstrate the strong dependence of QD transport on coating type and indicate that interaction energies based on DLVO theory can be used to predict the relative mobility of QDs in porous media

  18. The driver landscape of sporadic chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Young, Matthew D; Martincorena, Inigo; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Farndon, Sarah J; Guzzo, Charlotte; Hardy, Claire; Latimer, Calli; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Shlien, Adam; Futreal, P Andrew; Shah, Sohrab; Bashashati, Ali; Jamshidi, Farzad; Nielsen, Torsten O; Huntsman, David; Baumhoer, Daniel; Brandner, Sebastian; Wunder, Jay; Dickson, Brendan; Cogswell, Patricia; Sommer, Josh; Phillips, Joanna J; Amary, M Fernanda; Tirabosco, Roberto; Pillay, Nischalan; Yip, Stephen; Stratton, Michael R; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Campbell, Peter J

    2017-10-12

    Chordoma is a malignant, often incurable bone tumour showing notochordal differentiation. Here, we defined the somatic driver landscape of 104 cases of sporadic chordoma. We reveal somatic duplications of the notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T) in up to 27% of cases. These variants recapitulate the rearrangement architecture of the pathogenic germline duplications of T that underlie familial chordoma. In addition, we find potentially clinically actionable PI3K signalling mutations in 16% of cases. Intriguingly, one of the most frequently altered genes, mutated exclusively by inactivating mutation, was LYST (10%), which may represent a novel cancer gene in chordoma.Chordoma is a rare often incurable malignant bone tumour. Here, the authors investigate driver mutations of sporadic chordoma in 104 cases, revealing duplications in notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T), PI3K signalling mutations, and mutations in LYST, a potential novel cancer gene in chordoma.

  19. A mobile laboratory for surface and subsurface imaging in geo-hazard monitoring activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchia, Carmela; Bavusi, Massimo; Loperte, Antonio; Pergola, Nicola; Pignatti, Stefano; Ponzo, Felice; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    tomographic images. The main components are a fully automatic resistivity meter for DC electrical surveys (resistivity) and Induced Polarization, a Ground Penetrating Radar with antennas covering range for 400 MHz to 1.5 GHz and a gradiometric magnetometric system. All the sensors can be installed on a mobile van and remotely controlled using wi-fi technologies. An all-time network connection capability is guaranteed by a self-configurable satellite link for data communication, which allows to transmit in near-real time experimental data coming from the field surveys and to share other geospatial information. This ICT facility is well suited for emergency response activities during and after catastrophic events. Sensor synergy, multi-temporal and multi-scale resolutions of surface and sub-surface imaging are the key technical features of this instrumental facility. Finally, in this work we shortly present some first preliminary results obtained during the emergence phase of Abruzzo earthquake (Central Italy).

  20. Comparison Between Sporadic and Misdiagnosed Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiongfei; Yu, Yingxin; Zhao, Zhiru; Xu, Jiaping

    2015-06-01

    Definite accurate diagnosis for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) depends on neuropathologic examination of brain biopsy or autopsy. However, transmissible nature makes the invasive examination dangerous. This study was set to determine that the clinical features are for the diagnosis of CJD through a comparison study. We compared clinical features of two cases with initial diagnosis of sporadic CJD. One case was finally diagnosed as definite sporadic CJD. According to World Health Organization diagnosis criteria, the other one, which had been diagnosed as probable sporadic CJD, was confirmed as limbic encephalitis after long-term follow-up. Compared with the case of definite sporadic CJD, the misdiagnosed case did not present typical electroencephalogram (EEG) and diffusion-weighted in magnetic resonance images (DWI) of CJD. However, cerebrospinal fluid in the misdiagnosed patient showed 14-3-3 protein positivity. The patient conditions improved after treatment. Through this case comparison, we conclude that EEG and DWI are necessary for accurate diagnosis of sporadic CJD. Further, long-term follow-up is crucial to diagnosis and treatment of CJD.

  1. Risk factors for sporadic ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Vysotsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of the literature on the problems of sporadic ovarian cancer details the present views of its disputable risk factors, such as dietary habits, body weight, contraception, and labor, and age of commencing a sexual activity. It discusses the dietary and sexual behavior model that has changed since the Neolithic, as well as the number of menses and ovulations throughout the reproductive peri- od. The works by authors dealing with the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of ovarian cancer are analyzed.

  2. Hydrophobic dielectric surface influenced active layer thickness effect on hysteresis and mobility degradation in organic field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padma, N.

    2016-02-01

    Effect of active layer thickness, influenced by the hydrophobic dielectric surface, on the performance of copper phthalocyanine based organic field effect transistors (OFETs) was studied. While charge carrier mobility was found to be highest for an optimum thickness of 30 nm, hysteresis and threshold voltage shift were found to be minimum for 15 nm thick film which is attributed to the excess availability of photogenerated carriers, especially close to the dielectric/semiconductor interface, as this thickness is within the exciton quenching length in organic semiconductors. But prolonged bias stress resulted in larger decay in drain current for higher thickness indicating the dominant role played by the larger grain boundary density in the increased volume. These results were found to be different from that on unmodified SiO2 dielectric with higher surface energy and were suggested to be caused by the 3D growth mode of CuPc films on the hydrophobic surface. Mobility degradation at higher gate voltages also exhibited a dependence on the active layer thickness which was tuned by the hydrophobic surface induced growth mode at the dielectric/semiconductor interface.

  3. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  4. Surface complexation modeling of groundwater arsenic mobility: Results of a forced gradient experiment in a Red River flood plain aquifer, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Three surface complexation models (SCMs) developed for, respectively, ferrihydrite, goethite and sorption data for a Pleistocene oxidized aquifer sediment from Bangladesh were used to explore the effect of multicomponent adsorption processes on As mobility in a reduced Holocene floodplain aquifer...

  5. SURFACE SITES AND MOBILITIES OF IN ATOMS ON A STEPPED CU(100) SURFACE STUDIED AT LOW COVERAGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREEMAN, M; DORENBOS, G; BOERMA, DO

    The various surface sites of In atoms deposited to a coverage of 0.013 monolayer (ML) onto a stepped Cu(100) surface were determined with low-energy ion scattering (LEIS) as a function of deposition temperature. From the fractions of In atoms occupying different sites, observed in the temperature

  6. Surface potential based modeling of charge, current, and capacitances in DGTFET including mobile channel charge and ambipolar behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-08-01

    We present a surface potential based analytical model for double gate tunnel field effect transistor (DGTFET) for the current, terminal charges, and terminal capacitances. The model accounts for the effect of the mobile charge in the channel and captures the device physics in depletion as well as in the strong inversion regime. The narrowing of the tunnel barrier in the presence of mobile charges in the channel is incorporated via modeling of the inverse decay length, which is constant under channel depletion condition and bias dependent under inversion condition. To capture the ambipolar current behavior in the model, tunneling at the drain junction is also included. The proposed model is validated against TCAD simulation data and it shows close match with the simulation data.

  7. Enhancing Electron Mobility at the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 Interface by Surface Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yanwu; Bell, Christopher; Hikita, Yasuyuki; Harashima, Satoshi; Hwang, Harold Y.

    2013-07-15

    Mobility of electrons confined at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is significantly enhanced by surface control using surface charges and adsorbates, reaching a low temperature value more than 20 000 cm2 V-1s-1. A uniform trend that mobility increases with decreasing sheet carrier density is observed.

  8. Tumour suppressor genes in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Ganesan, Trivadi S

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological malignancies in the western world, and sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer is its most predominant form. The aetiology of sporadic ovarian cancer remains unknown. Genetic studies have enabled a better understanding...... of the evolution of tumour progression. A major focus of research has been to identify tumour suppressor genes implicated in sporadic ovarian cancer over the past decade. Several tumour suppressor genes have been identified by strategies such as positional cloning and differential expression display. Further...... research is warranted to understand fully their contribution to the pathogenesis of sporadic ovarian cancer....

  9. Experimental investigations of sensor-based surface following performed by a mobile manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.; Baker, J.E.; Pin, F.G.

    1994-10-01

    We discuss a series of surface following experiments using a range finder mounted on the end of an arm that is mounted on a vehicle. The goal is to keep the range finder at a fixed distance from an unknown surface and to keep the orientation of the range finder perpendicular to the surface. During the experiments, the vehicle moves along a predefined trajectory while planning software determines the position and orientation of the arm. To keep the range finder perpendicular to the surface, the planning software calculates the surface normal for the unknown surface. We assume that the unknown surface is a cylinder (the surface depends on x and y but does not depend on z). To calculate the surface normal, the planning software must calculate the locations (x,y) of points on the surface in world coordinates. The calculation requires data on the position and orientation of the vehicle, the position and orientation of the arm, and the distance from the range finder to the surface. We discuss four series of experiments. During the first series of experiments, the calculated surface normal values had large high frequency random variations. A filter was used to produce an average value for the surface normal and we limited the rate of change in the yaw angle target for the arm. We performed the experiment for a variety of concave and convex surfaces. While the experiments were qualitative successes, the measured distance to the surface was significantly different than the target. The distance errors were systematic, low frequency, and had magnitudes up to 25 mm. During the second series of experiments, we reduced the variations in the calculated surface normal values. While reviewing the data collected while following the surface of a barrel, we found that the radius of the calculated surface was significantly different than the measured radius of the barrel.

  10. A Mobile System for Measuring Water Surface Velocities Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement technologies for velocity of river flow are divided into intrusive and nonintrusive methods. Intrusive method requires infield operations. The measuring process of intrusive methods are time consuming, and likely to cause damages of operator and instrument. Nonintrusive methods require fewer operators and can reduce instrument damages from directly attaching to the flow. Nonintrusive measurements may use radar or image velocimetry to measure the velocities at the surface of water flow. The image velocimetry, such as large scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) accesses not only the point velocity but the flow velocities in an area simultaneously. Flow properties of an area hold the promise of providing spatially information of flow fields. This study attempts to construct a mobile system UAV-LSPIV by using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with LSPIV to measure flows in fields. The mobile system consists of a six-rotor UAV helicopter, a Sony nex5T camera, a gimbal, an image transfer device, a ground station and a remote control device. The activate gimbal helps maintain the camera lens orthogonal to the water surface and reduce the extent of images being distorted. The image transfer device can monitor the captured image instantly. The operator controls the UAV by remote control device through ground station and can achieve the flying data such as flying height and GPS coordinate of UAV. The mobile system was then applied to field experiments. The deviation of velocities measured by UAV-LSPIV of field experiments and handhold Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is under 8%. The results of the field experiments suggests that the application of UAV-LSPIV can be effectively applied to surface flow studies.

  11. MRI of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, A.; Vliet, A. Van der.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The key MRI findings in five cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are illustrated with four 'definite' and one 'probable' according to World Health Organization criteria. Close attention to fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences are important for diagnosis, noting especially restricted diffusion in cortical and deep grey matter. Our study and those of others show predominant cortical, caudate and thalamic involvement. This pattern is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis. Fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging signal abnormality becomes progressively more extensive and bilateral as disease progresses, but may become less pronounced in end-stage disease because of atrophy.

  12. Atmospheric characterization through fused mobile airborne and surface in situ surveys: methane emissions quantification from a producing oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Leifer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 inventory uncertainties are large, requiring robust emission derivation approaches. We report on a fused airborne–surface data collection approach to derive emissions from an active oil field near Bakersfield, central California. The approach characterizes the atmosphere from the surface to above the planetary boundary layer (PBL and combines downwind trace gas concentration anomaly (plume above background with normal winds to derive flux. This approach does not require a well-mixed PBL; allows explicit, data-based, uncertainty evaluation; and was applied to complex topography and wind flows. In situ airborne (collected by AJAX – the Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment and mobile surface (collected by AMOG – the AutoMObile trace Gas – Surveyor data were collected on 19 August 2015 to assess source strength. Data included an AMOG and AJAX intercomparison transect profiling from the San Joaquin Valley (SJV floor into the Sierra Nevada (0.1–2.2 km altitude, validating a novel surface approach for atmospheric profiling by leveraging topography. The profile intercomparison found good agreement in multiple parameters for the overlapping altitude range from 500 to 1500 m for the upper 5 % of surface winds, which accounts for wind-impeding structures, i.e., terrain, trees, buildings, etc. Annualized emissions from the active oil fields were 31.3 ± 16 Gg methane and 2.4 ± 1.2 Tg carbon dioxide. Data showed the PBL was not well mixed at distances of 10–20 km downwind, highlighting the importance of the experimental design.

  13. Dietary factors and microsatellite instability in sporadic colon carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in 10-20% of the sporadic colon carcinomas and appears to be primarily due to alterations in hMLH1 and hMSH2. Little is known about the role of diet in MSI-related colon carcinogenesis. We used data from a Dutch population-based case-control study on sporadic

  14. In Situ Studies of Surface Mobility on Noble Metal Model Catalysts Using STM and XPS at Ambient Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, Derek Robert [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-06-01

    are present on the Pt(100) hex reconstructed phase, but not the (100)-(1x1) surface. The increase in ethylene pressure caused the adsorbate interactions to dominate the crystal morphology and imposed a surface layer structure that matched the ethylidyne binding geometry. The STM results also showed that the surface was reversibly deformed during imaging due to increases in Pt mobility at high pressure. The size dependence on the activity and surface chemistry of Rh nanoparticles was studied using AP-XPS. The activity was found to increase with particle size. The XPS spectra show that in reaction conditions the particle surface has an oxide layer which is chemically distinct from the surface structure formed by heating in oxygen alone. This surface oxide which is stabilized in the catalytically active CO oxidation conditions was found to be more prevalent on the smaller nanoparticles. The reaction-induced surface segregation behavior of bimetallic noble metal nanoparticles was observed with APXPS. Monodisperse 15 nm RhPd and PdPt nanoparticles were synthesized with well controlled Rh/Pd and Pd/Pt compositions. In-situ XPS studies showed that at 300 C in the presence of an oxidizing environment (100 mTorr NO or O2) the surface concentration of the more easily oxidized element (Rh in RhPd and Pd in PdPt) was increased. Switching the gas environment to more reducing conditions (100 mTorr NO and 100 mTorr CO) caused the surface enrichment of the element with the lowest surface energy in its metallic state. Using in-situ characterization, the redox chemistry and the surface composition of bimetallic nanoparticle samples were monitored in reactive conditions. The particle surfaces were shown to reversibly restructure in response to the gas environment at high temperature. The oxidation behavior of the Pt(110) surface was studied using surface sensitive in-situ characterization by APXPS and STM. In the presence of 500 mTorr O2 and temperatures between 25

  15. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic aurorae observed in the United States

  16. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic

  17. Reliable Autonomous Surface Mobility (RASM) in Support of Human Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop rover-autonomy technologies into Reliable Autonomous Surface...

  18. Reliable Autonomous Surface Mobility (RASM) in Support of Human Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ProtoInnovations, LLC and Carnegie Mellon University have formed a partnership to commercially develop rover-autonomy technologies into Reliable Autonomous Surface...

  19. Study of lysozyme mobility and binding free energy during adsorption on a graphene surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, C. Masato; Ma, Heng; Wei, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Understanding protein adsorption is a key to the development of biosensors and anti-biofouling materials. Hydration essentially controls the adsorption process on hydrophobic surfaces, but its effect is complicated by various factors. Here, we present an ideal model system to isolate hydration effects—lysozyme adsorption on a flat hydrophobic graphene surface. Our all-atom molecular dynamics and molecular-mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area computation study reveal that lysozyme on graphene displays much larger diffusivity than in bulk water. Protein's hydration free energy within the first hydration shell is dominated by the protein-water electrostatic interactions and acts as an energy barrier for protein adsorption. On the other hand, the surface tension, especially that from the hydrophobic graphene, can effectively weaken the barrier to promote adsorption

  20. Study of lysozyme mobility and binding free energy during adsorption on a graphene surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, C. Masato [Flintridge Preparatory School, La Canada Flintridge, California 91011 (United States); Ma, Heng; Wei, Tao, E-mail: twei@lamar.edu [Dan F. Smith Department of Chemical Engineering, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas 77710 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Understanding protein adsorption is a key to the development of biosensors and anti-biofouling materials. Hydration essentially controls the adsorption process on hydrophobic surfaces, but its effect is complicated by various factors. Here, we present an ideal model system to isolate hydration effects—lysozyme adsorption on a flat hydrophobic graphene surface. Our all-atom molecular dynamics and molecular-mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area computation study reveal that lysozyme on graphene displays much larger diffusivity than in bulk water. Protein's hydration free energy within the first hydration shell is dominated by the protein-water electrostatic interactions and acts as an energy barrier for protein adsorption. On the other hand, the surface tension, especially that from the hydrophobic graphene, can effectively weaken the barrier to promote adsorption.

  1. ANALYSIS OF ROAD SURFACE TEMPERATURE VARIATION ALONG THE ROAD SEGMENTATION USING MOBILE THERMAL SENSOR

    OpenAIRE

    Dukgeun Yun; Jaehong Park

    2016-01-01

    According to the road accidents statistics of Korea, 33% of fatalities occurred in winter. As many factors can be the causes of the accidents in winter season, road freezing is the most important factor among them. Even though the road surface temperature is more important than air temperature, generally the drivers and road manager get the air temperature from the weather forecast. If a road manager has information or can predict the road surface condition or temperature, the accidents relat...

  2. Metals on graphene and carbon nanotube surfaces: From mobile atoms to atomtronics to bulk metals to clusters and catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Sarkar, Santanu C.

    2014-01-14

    In this Perspective, we present an overview of recent fundamental studies on the nature of the interaction between individual metal atoms and metal clusters and the conjugated surfaces of graphene and carbon nanotube with a particular focus on the electronic structure and chemical bonding at the metal-graphene interface. We discuss the relevance of organometallic complexes of graphitic materials to the development of a fundamental understanding of these interactions and their application in atomtronics as atomic interconnects, high mobility organometallic transistor devices, high-frequency electronic devices, organometallic catalysis (hydrogen fuel generation by photocatalytic water splitting, fuel cells, hydrogenation), spintronics, memory devices, and the next generation energy devices. We touch on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene grown on metals, the reactivity of its surface, and its use as a template for asymmetric graphene functionalization chemistry (ultrathin Janus discs). We highlight some of the latest advances in understanding the nature of interactions between metals and graphene surfaces from the standpoint of metal overlayers deposited on graphene and SWNT thin films. Finally, we comment on the major challenges facing the field and the opportunities for technological applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. High-resolution peptide mapping separations with MS-friendly mobile phases and charge-surface-modified C18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Matthew A; Koza, Stephan M; McCall, Scott A; Alden, Bonnie A; Iraneta, Pamela C; Fountain, Kenneth J

    2013-07-16

    Ionic analytes, such as peptides, can be challenging to separate by reverse-phase chromatography with optimal efficiency. They tend, for instance, to exhibit poor peak shapes, particularly when eluted with mobile phases preferred for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We demonstrate that a novel charged-surface C18 stationary phase alleviates some of the challenges associated with reverse-phase peptide separations. This column chemistry, known as CSH (charged-surface hybrid) C18, improves upon an already robust organosilica hybrid stationary phase, BEH (ethylene-bridged hybrid) C18. Based on separations of a nine-peptide standard, CSH C18 was found to exhibit improved loadability, greater peak capacities, and unique selectivity compared to BEH C18. Its performance was also seen to be significantly less dependent on TFA-ion pairing, making it ideal for MS applications where high sensitivity is desired. These performance advantages were evaluated through application to peptide mapping, wherein CSH C18 was found to aid the development of a high-resolution, high-sensitivity LC-UV-MS peptide mapping method for the therapeutic antibody, trastuzumab. From these results, the use of a C18 stationary phase with a charged surface, such as CSH C18, holds significant promise for facilitating challenging peptide analyses.

  4. Development and Comparison of Air Pollution Exposure Surfaces Derived from On-Road Mobile Monitoring and Short-Term Stationary Sidewalk Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Laura; Liu, Rick; Valois, Marie-France; Xu, Junshi; Weichenthal, Scott; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2018-03-06

    Land-use regression (LUR) models of air pollutants are frequently developed on the basis of short-term stationary or mobile monitoring approaches, which raises the question of whether these two data collection protocols lead to similar exposure surfaces. In this study, we measured ultrafine particles (UFP) and black carbon (BC) concentrations in Toronto during summer 2016, using two short-term data collection approaches: mobile, involving 3023 road segments sampled on bicycles, and stationary, involving 92 sidewalk locations. We developed four LUR models and exposure surfaces, for the two pollutants and measurement protocols. Coefficients of determination ( R 2 ) varied from 0.434 to 0.525. Various small-scale traffic variables were included in the mobile LUR. Pearson correlation coefficients between the mobile and stationary surfaces were 0.23 for UFP and 0.49 for BC. We also compared the two surfaces using personal exposures from a panel study in Toronto conducted during the same period. The personal exposures differed from the outdoor exposures derived from the combination of GPS information and exposure surfaces. For UFP, the median for personal outdoor exposure was 26 344 part/cm 3 , while the cycling and stationary surfaces predicted medians of 31 201 and 19 057 part/cm 3 . Similar trends were observed for BC, with median exposures of 1764 (personal), 1799 (cycling), and 1469 ng/m 3 (stationary).

  5. Correlation studies between surface tension energy and ionic mobility in silicone - Dammar thin film for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, R.; Ahmad, A. H.; Taib, M. F. Mohamad; Hassan, O. H.; Yahya, M. Z. A.; Ali, A. M. M.

    2017-09-01

    Organic thin film system consisting of Silicone-dammar (SD) polymer resin was prepared and studied with respect to their electrochemical properties. Dammar which is a local plant resin (Dipterocaupacea sp) was mixed with silicone in various compositions and the two components were modified by using a solvent. A thin film layered on glass slaid was obtained by Doctor Blade method and cured at room temperature. Silicone-dammar with a composition ratio of 80:20 (SD20) showed the highest non-wetting angle at 90.13 degrees however the sample with a composition ratio of 90:10 (SD10) showed the highest surface tension energy at 179.80 J in the contact angle test. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis was done to investigate the electron transport and it was found that the SD10 sample provides a good medium for ionic mobility.

  6. Enhanced polystyrene surface mobility under carbon dioxide at low temperature for nanoparticle embedding control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Qiuyan; Xu, Qun; Loos, Katja

    2015-01-01

    The surface properties of polystyrene (PS) films under carbon dioxide (CO2) were studied via a particle embedding technique at quite a low temperature range (308 to 323 K) in which polystyrene is typically considered to be in a glassy state without CO2. Atomic force microscope (AFM) technique with a

  7. The evolving genetic risk for sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Summer B; Downie, Jonathan M; Tsetsou, Spyridoula; Feusier, Julie E; Figueroa, Karla P; Bromberg, Mark B; Jorde, Lynn B; Pulst, Stefan M

    2017-07-18

    To estimate the genetic risk conferred by known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes to the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (SALS) using variant allele frequencies combined with predicted variant pathogenicity. Whole exome sequencing and repeat expansion PCR of C9orf72 and ATXN2 were performed on 87 patients of European ancestry with SALS seen at the University of Utah. DNA variants that change the protein coding sequence of 31 ALS-associated genes were annotated to determine which were rare and deleterious as predicted by MetaSVM. The percentage of patients with SALS with a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene was calculated. An odds ratio analysis was performed comparing the burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS vs 324 normal controls. Nineteen rare nonsynonymous variants in an ALS-associated gene, 2 of which were found in 2 different individuals, were identified in 21 patients with SALS. Further, 5 deleterious C9orf72 and 2 ATXN2 repeat expansions were identified. A total of 17.2% of patients with SALS had a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene. The genetic burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS as predicted by MetaSVM was significantly higher than in normal controls. Previous analyses have identified SALS-predisposing variants only in terms of their rarity in normal control populations. By incorporating variant pathogenicity as well as variant frequency, we demonstrated that the genetic risk contributed by these genes for SALS is substantially lower than previous estimates. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...

  9. Reducing Aircraft Down for Lack of Parts with Sporadic Demand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bachman, Tovey

    2004-01-01

    .... Because of their sporadic demand, it is difficult to decide when to buy these items and in what quantities. As systems become more reliable and failure rates decrease, the number of these infrequently demanded parts is likely to grow...

  10. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, K.; Summers, D. M.; Romero, C.; Taratuto, A.; Heinemann, U.; Breithaupt, M.; Varges, D.; Meissner, B.; Ladogana, A.; Schuur, M.; Haik, S.; Collins, S. J.; Jansen, Gerard H.; Stokin, G. B.; Pimentel, J.; Hewer, E.; Collie, D.; Smith, P.; Roberts, H.; Brandel, J. P.; van Duijn, C.; Pocchiari, M.; Begue, C.; Cras, P.; Will, R. G.; Sanchez-Juan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distinct sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease molecular subtypes and thus might contribute to the earlier identification of the whole spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. This multi-centre international study aimed to provide a rationale for the amendment of the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging were recruited from 12 countries. Patients referred as ‘suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease’ but with an alternative diagnosis after thorough follow up, were analysed as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for signal changes according to a standard protocol encompassing seven cortical regions, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated in 436 sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients and 141 controls. The pattern of high signal intensity with the best sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was identified. The optimum diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of rapid progressive dementia was obtained when either at least two cortical regions (temporal, parietal or occipital) or both caudate nucleus and putamen displayed a high signal in fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging. Based on our analyses, magnetic

  11. Clinical Significance of Microsatellite Instability in Sporadic Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Bo-Sung; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Wun; Nam, Eun-Ji; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Wook; Kim, Sunghoon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the expression of microsatellite instability (MSI) in sporadic ovarian tumors using 5 standard and 9 new MSI markers to determine the clinical significance of MSI in sporadic epithelial ovarian tumors. Materials and Methods MSI was examined in 21 borderline and 25 malignant ovarian tumors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using the 5 markers recommended by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for colon cancer and 9 additional markers. MSI was determined using ...

  12. A molecular smart surface for spatio-temporal studies of cell mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-ju; Luo, Wei; Chan, Eugene W L; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2015-01-01

    Active migration in both healthy and malignant cells requires the integration of information derived from soluble signaling molecules with positional information gained from interactions with the extracellular matrix and with other cells. How a cell responds and moves involves complex signaling cascades that guide the directional functions of the cytoskeleton as well as the synthesis and release of proteases that facilitate movement through tissues. The biochemical events of the signaling cascades occur in a spatially and temporally coordinated manner then dynamically shape the cytoskeleton in specific subcellular regions. Therefore, cell migration and invasion involve a precise but constantly changing subcellular nano-architecture. A multidisciplinary effort that combines new surface chemistry and cell biological tools is required to understand the reorganization of cytoskeleton triggered by complex signaling during migration. Here we generate a class of model substrates that modulate the dynamic environment for a variety of cell adhesion and migration experiments. In particular, we use these dynamic substrates to probe in real-time how the interplay between the population of cells, the initial pattern geometry, ligand density, ligand affinity and integrin composition affects cell migration and growth. Whole genome microarray analysis indicates that several classes of genes ranging from signal transduction to cytoskeletal reorganization are differentially regulated depending on the nature of the surface conditions.

  13. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 3. Estimating Surface Area Exposure by Deuterium Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX), collision cross section (CCS) measurement, and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) techniques were utilized to develop and compare three methods for estimating the relative surface area exposure of separate peptide chains within bovine insulin ions. Electrosprayed [M - 3H]3- and [M - 5H]5- insulin ions produced a single conformer type with respective collision cross sections of 528 ± 5 Å2 and 808 ± 2 Å2. [M - 4H]4- ions were comprised of more compact (Ω = 676 ± 3 Å2) and diffuse (i.e., more elongated, Ω = 779 ± 3 Å2) ion conformer types. Ions were subjected to HDX in the drift tube using D2O as the reagent gas. Collision-induced dissociation was used to fragment mobility-selected, isotopically labeled [M - 4H]4- and [M - 5H]5- ions into the protein subchains. Deuterium uptake levels of each chain can be explained by limited inter-chain isotopic scrambling upon collisional activation. Using nominal ion structures from MDS and a hydrogen accessibility model, the deuterium uptake for each chain was correlated to its exposed surface area. In separate experiments, the per-residue deuterium content for the protonated and deprotonated ions of the synthetic peptide KKDDDDDIIKIIK were compared. The differences in deuterium content indicated the regional HDX accessibility for cations versus anions. Using ions of similar conformational type, this comparison highlights the complementary nature of HDX data obtained from positive- and negative-ion analysis.

  14. Mobile Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (MGIPF) for In Situ Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of Planetary Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhöfer, G.; Romstedt, J.; Henkel, H.; Michaelis, H.; Brückner, J.; D'Uston, C.

    A first order requirement for any spacecraft mission to land on a solid planetary or moon surface is instrumentation for in-situ mineralogical and chemical analysis 2 Such analysis provide data needed for primary classification and characterization of surface materials present We will discuss a mobile instrument package we have developed for in-situ investigations under harsh environmental conditions like on Mercury or Mars This Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility is a compact box also called payload cab containing three small advanced geochemistry mineralogy instruments the chemical spectrometer APXS the mineralogical M o ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II 3 and a textural imager close-up camera The payload cab is equipped with two actuating arms with two degrees of freedom permitting precision placement of all instruments at a chosen sample This payload cab is the central part of the small rover Nanokhod which has the size of a shoebox 1 The Nanokhod rover is a tethered system with a typical operational range of sim 100 m Of course the payload cab itself can be attached by means of its arms to any deployment device of any other rover or deployment device 1 Andre Schiele Jens Romstedt Chris Lee Sabine Klinkner Rudi Rieder Ralf Gellert G o star Klingelh o fer Bodo Bernhardt Harald Michaelis The new NANOKHOD Engineeering model for extreme cold environments 8th International symposium on Artificial Intelligence Robotics and Automation in Space 5 - 9 September 2005

  15. Aluminum solubility and mobility in relation to organic carbon in surface soils affected by six tree species of the northeastern United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, F.A.; Fitzhugh, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    We compared Al solubility and mobility in surface soils among six tree species (sugar maple [Acer saccharum], white ash [Fraxinus americana], red maple [Acer rubrum, L.], American beech [Fagus grandifolia, Ehrh.], red oak [Quercus rubra, L.], and hemlock [Tsuga canadensis, Carr.]) in a mixed

  16. A mobile sensing system for real-time 3D weld pool surface measurement in manual GTAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei Jie; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Yu Ming

    2016-01-01

    An innovative mobile sensing system has been developed to non-intrusively monitor the manual pipe gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process. The system consists of a projective torch held by a welder, and a sensory helmet on the welder’s head. The three-dimensional (3D) weld pool surface is effectively measured in real-time as the welder performs the weld despite the movements of the torch and the helmet. In this study, the sensing system is first analyzed by numerical simulations in which the adjustment boundaries of the torch and helmet, i.e. their translation and orientation ranges, for effective sensing have been determined. Then, the sensing system is further evaluated using a simulation platform in which the movements of the helmet/welder’s head is mimicked by a tripod head with 6 degree-of-freedom (DOF), and a convex spherical mirror with a comparable size of a typical weld pool in a GTAW process is applied as a weld pool substitute. The effectiveness of the proposed system is validated by successfully capturing laser reflections from the mirror without great constraints on the welder’s movements of the torch and the helmet. Based on the analysis of the spatial relations among the torch, the helmet and the weld pool, an innovative real-time algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the 3D weld pool surface. The effectiveness and robustness of the algorithm have been verified by accurately reconstructing the convex spherical mirror surface despite the movements of the torch and the helmet in the simulation platform. (paper)

  17. Measuring sporadic gastrointestinal illness associated with drinking water - an overview of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, John; Toljander, Jonas; Lysén, Maria; Rasti, Niloofar; Engqvist, Jannes; Simonsson, Magnus

    2017-06-01

    There is an increasing awareness that drinking water contributes to sporadic gastrointestinal illness (GI) in high income countries of the northern hemisphere. A literature search was conducted in order to review: (1) methods used for investigating the effects of public drinking water on GI; (2) evidence of possible dose-response relationship between sporadic GI and drinking water consumption; and (3) association between sporadic GI and factors affecting drinking water quality. Seventy-four articles were selected, key findings and information gaps were identified. In-home intervention studies have only been conducted in areas using surface water sources and intervention studies in communities supplied by ground water are therefore needed. Community-wide intervention studies may constitute a cost-effective alternative to in-home intervention studies. Proxy data that correlate with GI in the community can be used for detecting changes in the incidence of GI. Proxy data can, however, not be used for measuring the prevalence of illness. Local conditions affecting water safety may vary greatly, making direct comparisons between studies difficult unless sufficient knowledge about these conditions is acquired. Drinking water in high-income countries contributes to endemic levels of GI and there are public health benefits for further improvements of drinking water safety.

  18. Earth's influx of different populations of sporadic meteoroids from photographic and television data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceplecha, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Precise photographic and television double- and multi-station data on 3624 sporadic meteors in the mass range from 2 x 10 -5 grams to 2 x 10 7 grams form the basis of this paper. The applied classification criteria and procedures are defined and described. A survey of 7 different populations of sporadic meteoroids known so far is presented. The total numbers and masses of meteoroids as a function of mass are given for individual groups and for all sporadic meteors. The absolute calibration of the influx to the Earth was carried out by comparison with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The comparison with the visual and cratering data revealed good agreement in the narrow ''visual'' interval of masses, and disagreement in the extrapolated parts of the visual and cratering flux curves. The slope of the cumulative number curve for the meteorite-dropping fireballs (type I) with masses larger than 1 kg was found as -0.69 in perfect agreement with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The final mass scale derived in this paper is situated between the scale of McCrosky and the scale of Halliday. The relative significance of the different groups of meteoroids changes with the mass quite dramatically. The total influx of sporadic meteoroids in the mass interval of 12 orders from 2 x 10 7 to 2 x 10 -5 grams resulted in 5 x 10 9 grams per year for the entire Earth's surface. Most of this mass comes in the form of larger meteoroids. Bulk densities and ablation coefficient are presented for the individual meteor groups depending on different ablation models of several authors and some extreme concepts of this problem are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 6 tabs., 38 refs

  19. Implementation of a multi-modal mobile sensor system for surface and subsurface assessment of roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Birken, Ralf; Shahini Shamsabadi, Salar

    2015-03-01

    There are more than 4 million miles of roads and 600,000 bridges in the United States alone. On-going investments are required to maintain the physical and operational quality of these assets to ensure public's safety and prosperity of the economy. Planning efficient maintenance and repair (M&R) operations must be armed with a meticulous pavement inspection method that is non-disruptive, is affordable and requires minimum manual effort. The Versatile Onboard Traffic Embedded Roaming Sensors (VOTERS) project developed a technology able to cost- effectively monitor the condition of roadway systems to plan for the right repairs, in the right place, at the right time. VOTERS technology consists of an affordable, lightweight package of multi-modal sensor systems including acoustic, optical, electromagnetic, and GPS sensors. Vehicles outfitted with this technology would be capable of collecting information on a variety of pavement-related characteristics at both surface and subsurface levels as they are driven. By correlating the sensors' outputs with the positioning data collected in tight time synchronization, a GIS-based control center attaches a spatial component to all the sensors' measurements and delivers multiple ratings of the pavement every meter. These spatially indexed ratings are then leveraged by VOTERS decision making modules to plan the optimum M&R operations and predict the future budget needs. In 2014, VOTERS inspection results were validated by comparing them to the outputs of recent professionally done condition surveys of a local engineering firm for 300 miles of Massachusetts roads. Success of the VOTERS project portrays rapid, intelligent, and comprehensive evaluation of tomorrow's transportation infrastructure to increase public's safety, vitalize the economy, and deter catastrophic failures.

  20. Rode's iterative calculation of surface optical phonon scattering limited electron mobility in N-polar GaN devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Krishnendu; Singisetti, Uttam

    2015-01-01

    N-polar GaN channel mobility is important for high frequency device applications. Here, we report theoretical calculations on the surface optical (SO) phonon scattering rate of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in N-polar GaN quantum well channels with high-k dielectrics. Rode's iterative calculation is used to predict the scattering rate and mobility. Coupling of the GaN plasmon modes with the SO modes is taken into account and dynamic screening is employed under linear polarization response. The effect of SO phonons on 2DEG mobility was found to be small at >5 nm channel thickness. However, the SO mobility in 3 nm N-polar GaN channels with HfO 2 and ZrO 2 high-k dielectrics is low and limits the total mobility. The SO scattering for SiN dielectric on GaN was found to be negligible due to its high SO phonon energy. Using Al 2 O 3 , the SO phonon scattering does not affect mobility significantly only except the case when the channel is too thin with a low 2DEG density

  1. Neutrophil mobilization by surface-glycan altered Th17-skewing bacteria mitigates periodontal pathogen persistence and associated alveolar bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra P Settem

    Full Text Available Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.

  2. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Femi; Knauff, Erik A H; Niermeijer, Martinus F; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Laven, Joop S E; Lambalk, Cornelius B; Fauser, Bart C J M; Goverde, Angelique J

    2010-07-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases. POF may originate from different genes and various gene-environment interactions. The aim of this study was to identify possible differences in phenotype comparing women with familial and women with sporadic POF. A multicenter study was initiated in the Netherlands using standardized phenotyping. For each woman, medical history, menstrual cycle, and fertility and smoking status were assessed and a standardized examination was performed. Based on a detailed three-generation family history, women were identified as having either familial (defined as having at least one relative with POF) or sporadic POF. A total of 58 familial cases and 142 sporadic cases of POF were identified. Maternal age at menopause was significantly lower in the women with familial compared with the women with sporadic POF (41.0 +/- 7.5 and 49.7 +/- 2.6 y, respectively; P hormone-binding globulin concentration was significantly higher in the women with familial than in the women with sporadic POF (73.6 +/- 37.1 and 55.2 +/- 26.9 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.002). All other characteristics, such as parity, bone mineral density, and serum follicle-stimulating hormone and lipid levels were similar, as was the incidence of autoimmunity and cytogenetic abnormalities. Familial and sporadic POF do not differ in phenotype except for maternal menopause age and sex hormone-binding globulin concentration. Future studies are needed to unravel the genotype-phenotype interactions in POF.

  3. RHEED studies of the nucleation, growth, and mobility of Ag atoms on the Si(111)7 x 7 surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, Kelly Ryan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The low temperature and flux dependent growth of ultrathin Ag films on the Si(111)7x7 surface is studied with Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED). The grazing incidence geometry of RHEED allows for an incident molecular beam normal to the surface, and makes it an ideal surface probe for studying ultrathin film growth in real time. Short-lived oscillations in the diffracted intensity are observed during Ag deposition at 150 K, indicating quasi-layer-by-layer growth mediated by adatom mobility. When the 150 K growth is performed over a wide range of deposition rates F, the peak intensity is observed to scale, i.e. I(Ft) depends only on the total amount deposited, which implies thermally activated diffusion is absent at 150 K. Scaling is not obeyed at higher temperatures (T≥473 K) for the growth of the √3x√3 R30° (√3) superstructure. Testing for scaling of the diffracted intensity constitutes a new experimental method which can be applied generally to determine if thermal diffusion is active at a particular temperature. Scaling is consistent with a constant diffusion length R0, independent of substrate temperature and deposition rate. The presence of a non-thermal diffusion mechanism (responsible for the constant diffusion length R0) is confirmed by monitoring the flux dependence of the √3 superstructure growth during deposition at T≥473 K. At these temperatures the total diffusion length R is given by R=R0+(4Dt)1/2, where (4Dt)1/2 is the thermal component. A non-zero intercept R0 is found by plotting the peak intensity Ip1/2 (a measure of the average domain size) vs. deposition rate F-1/2 (F-1 is proportional to the available diffusion time.) From the FWHM of a low coverage (0.2 ML) √3 spot, an estimation of 50 Å is made for a lower bound of the magnitude of R0.

  4. RHEED studies of the nucleation, growth, and mobility of Ag atoms on the Si(111)7 x 7 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    The low temperature and flux dependent growth of ultrathin Ag films on the Si(111)7x7 surface is studied with Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED). The grazing incidence geometry of RHEED allows for an incident molecular beam normal to the surface, and makes it an ideal surface probe for studying ultrathin film growth in real time. Short-lived oscillations in the diffracted intensity are observed during Ag deposition at 150 K, indicating quasi-layer-by-layer growth mediated by adatom mobility. When the 150 K growth is performed over a wide range of deposition rates F, the peak intensity is observed to scale, i.e. I(Ft) depends only on the total amount deposited, which implies thermally activated diffusion is absent at 150 K. Scaling is not obeyed at higher temperatures (T≥473 K) for the growth of the √3x√3 R30 degrees (√3) superstructure. Testing for scaling of the diffracted intensity constitutes a new experimental method which can be applied generally to determine if thermal diffusion is active at a particular temperature. Scaling is consistent with a constant diffusion length R 0 , independent of substrate temperature and deposition rate. The presence of a non-thermal diffusion mechanism (responsible for the constant diffusion length R 0 ) is confirmed by monitoring the flux dependence of the √3 superstructure growth during deposition at T≥473 K. At these temperatures the total diffusion length R is given by R=R 0 +(4Dt) 1/2 , where (4Dt) 1/2 is the thermal component. A non-zero intercept R 0 is found by plotting the peak intensity I p 1/2 (a measure of the average domain size) vs. deposition rate F -1/2 (F -1 is proportional to the available diffusion time.) From the FWHM of a low coverage (0.2 ML) √3 spot, an estimation of 50 angstrom is made for a lower bound of the magnitude of R 0

  5. SnO2 promoted by alkali metal oxides for soot combustion: The effects of surface oxygen mobility and abundance on the activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Cheng; Shen, Jiating; Wang, Fumin; Peng, Honggen; Xu, Xianglan; Zhan, Hangping; Fang, Xiuzhong; Liu, Jianjun; Liu, Wenming; Wang, Xiang

    2018-03-01

    In this study, SnO2-based catalysts promoted by different alkali metal oxides with a Sn/M (M = Li, Na, K, Cs) molar ratio of 9/1 have been prepared for soot combustion. In comparison with the un-modified SnO2 support, the activity of the modified catalysts has been evidently enhanced, following the sequence of CsSn1-9 > KSn1-9 > NaSn1-9 > LiSn1-9 > SnO2. As testified by Raman, H2-TPR, soot-TPR-MS, XPS and O2-TPD results, the incorporation of various alkali metal oxides can induce the formation of more abundant and mobile oxygen species on the surface of the catalysts. Moreover, quantified results have proved that the amount of the surface active oxygen species is nearly proportional to the activity of the catalysts. CsSn1-9, the catalyst promoted by cesium oxide, owns the largest amount of surface mobile oxygen species, thus having the highest activity among all the studied catalysts. It is concluded that the amount of surface active and mobile oxygen species is the major factor determining the activity of the catalysts for soot combustion.

  6. Enhanced electron mobility at the two-dimensional metallic surface of BaSnO3 electric-double-layer transistor at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Kohei; Nishihara, Kazuki; Shiogai, Junichi; Tsukazaki, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    Wide-bandgap oxides exhibiting high electron mobility hold promise for the development of useful electronic and optoelectronic devices as well as for basic research on two-dimensional electron transport phenomena. A perovskite-type tin oxide, BaSnO3, is currently one of such targets owing to distinctly high mobility at room temperature. The challenge to overcome towards the use of BaSnO3 thin films in applications is suppression of dislocation scattering, which is one of the dominant scattering origins for electron transport. Here, we show that the mobility of the BaSnO3 electric-double-layer transistor reaches 300 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 50 K. The improved mobility indicates that charged dislocation scattering is effectively screened by electrostatically doped high-density charge carriers. We also observed metallic conduction persisting down to 2 K, which is attributed to the transition to the degenerate semiconductor. The experimental verification of bulk-level mobility at the densely accumulated surface sheds more light on the importance of suppression of dislocation scattering by interface engineering in doped BaSnO3 thin films for transparent electrode applications.

  7. Use pattern of pesticides and their predicted mobility into shallow groundwater and surface water bodies of paddy lands in Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinna, Piyal; Priyantha, Namal; Pitawala, Amarasooriya; Yatigammana, Sudharma K

    2017-01-02

    Pesticides applied on agricultural lands reach groundwater by leaching, and move to offsite water bodies by direct runoff, erosion and spray drift. Therefore, an assessment of the mobility of pesticides in water resources is important to safeguard such resources. Mobility of pesticides on agricultural lands of Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka has not been reported to date. In this context, the mobility potential of 32 pesticides on surface water and groundwater was assessed by widely used pesticide risk indicators, such as Attenuation Factor (AF) index and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) with some modifications. Four surface water bodies having greater than 20% land use of the catchment under agriculture, and shallow groundwater table at 3.0 m depth were selected for the risk assessment. According to AF, carbofuran, quinclorac and thiamethoxam are three most leachable pesticides having AF values 1.44 × 10 -2 , 1.87 × 10 -3 and 5.70 × 10 -4 , respectively. Using PIRI, offsite movement of pesticides by direct runoff was found to be greater than with the erosion of soil particles for the study area. Carbofuran and quinclorac are most mobile pesticides by direct runoff with runoff fractions of 0.01 and 0.08, respectively, at the studied area. Thiamethoxam and novaluron are the most mobile pesticides by erosion with erosion factions of 1.02 × 10 -4 and 1.05 × 10 -4 , respectively. Expected pesticide residue levels in both surface and groundwater were predicted to remain below the USEPA health advisory levels, except for carbofuran, indicating that pesticide pollution is unlikely to exceed the available health guidelines in the Mahaweli river basin in Sri Lanka.

  8. Sporadic potassium layers and their connection to sporadic E layers in the mesopause region at Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A double-laser beam lidar to measure potassium (K layer at Beijing (40.5° N, 116.2° E was successfully developed in 2010. The parameters of sporadic Ks layers and their distributions were given. The seasonal distribution of Ks occurrence frequency was obtained, with two maxima in July and January. The seasonal distributions of sporadic Es layer occurrence frequency over Beijing differ from those of Ks. However, the good correlation between Es and Ks in the case-by-case studies supports the mechanism of neutralization of metal ions in a descending Es layer.

  9. [Spatial and temporal variations of near surface atmospheric CO2 with mobile measurements in fall and spring in Xiamen, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Li; Xing, Zhen-Yu; Mu, Chao; Du, Ke

    2014-05-01

    The study on the spatial distribution of near surface air pollutants carbon dioxide (CO2) and particulate matters (PM) is essential for understanding the pollution characteristics with mobile measurements. Near surface concentrations of CO2, PM and meteorological parameters were measured in Xiamen city, China along the route passing through different functional areas using the mobile laboratory during different time periods of the day [09:00- 12: 00, 13 :00- 16 : 00, 22 : 00-01 : 00 (local time) ] in spring (April) and fall (November), 2013. Carbon dioxide, PM and meteorological parameters data were analyzed for the spatial distribution of CO2 in different functional areas and the relationship of CO2, and PM2.5. During the study period, the measurements started at the northern part of the city, across the suburban area and ended at about 60 km in the southern Xiamen. The spatial distribution of CO2 along the road showed a high CO2 level in the central area of the city and low values in the outlying areas. Different CO2 concentrations were observed at different functional areas because of the differences in emissions from traffic and industry, the emission and absorption by vegetation, and meteorological conditions. The concentrations of CO, at different areas fell into the following order: areas with heavy traffic (477.33 micromol.mol-1 +/- 6. 11 micromol.mol-1 ) > commercial residential area (454. 95 micromol.mol-1 +/- 5.45 micromol.mol-1 ) > the naturalscenic spot (441.01 micromol.mol-1 +/- 6.24 micromol.mol-1 ) >cultivated land (436.79 micromol.mol-1 +/- 1.87 micromol.mol-1 ) > mountain woodlands (434.06 micromol.mol-1 +/-0.31 micromol.mol-1 ). The average CO, concentration in spring 2013 was measured to be 452.04 micromol mol -1 +/- 20.24 micro.mol. mol-1 with the maximum value of 533.10 micromol.mol-1 at the heavy traffic area in downtown Jiahe on April 12, 2013 and the minimum value of 413.25 micromol.mol-1 on April 10, 2013 at the mountain woodland, which is

  10. Deploying response surface methodology (RSM) and glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) in optimizing warpage on a mobile phone cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, X. N.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.; Shazzuan, S.

    2017-09-01

    Plastic injection moulding is a popular manufacturing method not only it is reliable, but also efficient and cost saving. It able to produce plastic part with detailed features and complex geometry. However, defects in injection moulding process degrades the quality and aesthetic of the injection moulded product. The most common defect occur in the process is warpage. Inappropriate process parameter setting of injection moulding machine is one of the reason that leads to the occurrence of warpage. The aims of this study were to improve the quality of injection moulded part by investigating the optimal parameters in minimizing warpage using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Glowworm Swarm Optimization (GSO). Subsequent to this, the most significant parameter was identified and recommended parameters setting was compared with the optimized parameter setting using RSM and GSO. In this research, the mobile phone case was selected as case study. The mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time were selected as variables whereas warpage in y-direction was selected as responses in this research. The simulation was carried out by using Autodesk Moldflow Insight 2012. In addition, the RSM was performed by using Design Expert 7.0 whereas the GSO was utilized by using MATLAB. The warpage in y direction recommended by RSM were reduced by 70 %. The warpages recommended by GSO were decreased by 61 % in y direction. The resulting warpages under optimal parameter setting by RSM and GSO were validated by simulation in AMI 2012. RSM performed better than GSO in solving warpage issue.

  11. MS2 and Qβ bacteriophages reveal the contribution of surface hydrophobicity on the mobility of non-enveloped icosahedral viruses in SDS-based capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautrey, Guillaume; Brié, Adrien; Gantzer, Christophe; Walcarius, Alain

    2018-01-01

    SDS is commonly employed as BGE additive in CZE analysis of non-enveloped icosahedral viruses. But the way by which SDS interacts with the surface of such viruses remains to date poorly known, making complicate to understand their behavior during a run. In this article, two related bacteriophages, MS2 and Qβ, are used as model to investigate the migration mechanism of non-enveloped icosahedral viruses in SDS-based CZE. Both phages are characterized by similar size and surface charge but significantly different surface hydrophobicity (Qβ > MS2, where '>' means 'more hydrophobic than'). By comparing their electrophoretic mobility in the presence or not of SDS on both sides of the CMC, we show that surface hydrophobicity of phages is a key factor influencing their mobility and that SDS-virus association is driven by hydrophobic interactions at the surface of virions. The CZE analyses of heated MS2 particles, which over-express hydrophobic domains at their surface, confirm this finding. The correlations between the present results and others from the literature suggest that the proposed mechanism might not be exclusive to the bacteriophages examined here. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Brain sonography in African infants with complicated sporadic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the structural findings in brain sonography of African infants with complicated sporadic bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective assessment of medical records of patients who underwent brain sonography on account of complicated bacterial meningitis. The brain sonography ...

  13. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Zerr; K. Kallenberg; D.M. Summers; C. Romero; A. Taratuto; U. Heinemann; M. Breithaupt; D. Varges; B. Meissner; A. Ladogana (Anna); M. Schuur (Maaike); S. Haik; S.J. Collins (Steven); G.H. Jansen (Gerard); G.B. Stokin; J. Pimentel; E. Hewer; D. Collie; P. Smith; H. Roberts; J.P. Brandel; P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); M. Pocchiari (Maurizio); C. Begue; P. Cras (Patrick); R.G. Will; P. Sanchez-Juan (Pascual)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSeveral molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications

  14. Comparing Sporadic and Outbreak-associated Foodborne Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-04

    Dr. Eric Ebel, a veterinarian and risk analyst with USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service, discusses his article on sporadic and outbreak-associated cases of foodborne illness.  Created: 11/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/4/2016.

  15. Prevalence of Abnormal Cervical Smears from Sporadic Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of abnormal smears in an unscreened population of sexually active women attending a gynaecological clinic. “Pap” smears were taken sporadically for cytological examination from sexually active women attending gynaecological clinics at the Federal Medical Centre Gombe.

  16. Legionnaires’ Disease: Clinicoradiological Comparison of Sporadic Versus Outbreak Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Rizwan Talib Hashmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2015, New York City experienced the worst outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the history of the city. We compare patients seen during the 2015 outbreak with sporadic cases of Legionella during the past 5 years. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 90 patients with Legionnaires’ disease, including sporadic cases of Legionella infection admitted from 2010 to 2015 (n = 55 and cases admitted during the 2015 outbreak (n = 35. Results: We saw no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding demographics, smoking habits, alcohol intake, underlying medical disease, or residence type. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with sporadic case of Legionella had a longer stay in the hospital and intensive care unit as well as an increased stay in mechanical ventilation. Short-term mortality, discharge disposition, and most clinical parameters did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Conclusions: We found no specific clinicoradiological characteristics that could differentiate sporadic from epidemic cases of Legionella . Early recognition and high suspicion for Legionnaires’ disease are critical to provide appropriate treatment. Cluster of cases should increase suspicion for an outbreak.

  17. Cyclin D1 genotype and expression in sporadic hemangioblastomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Sprenger, S.H.E.; Franke, B.; Wesseling, P.; Jeuken, J.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas are highly-vascularized tumors occurring in sporadic form or as a manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). The VHL protein (pVHL) regulates various target genes, one of which is the CCND1 gene, encoding cyclin D1, a protein that plays a

  18. Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria: Report of a sporadic case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hands and feet, with no family history of similar lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by the typical histologic finding of basal hyperpigmentation with normal number of melanocytes and absence of melanin incontinence from a hyperpigmented lesion. Keywords: DyschromatosisSymmetricaHereditaria, Nigerian, Sporadic ...

  19. Interpretation of electrodiagnostic findings in sporadic progressive muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; de Visser, M.; van den Berg-Vos, R. M.; van den Berg, L. H.; Wokke, J. H. J.; de Jong, J. M. B. V.; Franssen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We present the electrophysiologic data at baseline of 37 patients who were included in our prospective study on sporadic adult-onset progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). The aim was to correlate electrophysiological. signs of lower motor neuron (LMN) loss with clinical signs of LMN loss,

  20. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  1. [The practice guideline 'Dermatomyositis, polymyositis and sporadic inclusion body myositis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk, J.E.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Lindeman, E.J.M.; Royen-Kerkhof, A. van; Rie, M.A. de; Visser, M. de; Jennekens, F.G.I.

    2005-01-01

    This guideline presents recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of dermatomyositis, polymyositis and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) according to the best available evidence. Characteristic skin abnormalities can be sufficient for the diagnosis of dermatomyositis. In case of doubt, a

  2. Staphylococcus aureus surface contamination of mobile phones and presence of genetically identical strains on the hands of nursing personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuse Kanayama, Akiko; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Intetsu

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the genetic relatedness of Staphylococcus aureus isolates recovered from mobile phones and palms and fingers of users. Genetically identical isolates were detected from mobile phones and their user and multiple users, which is consistent with mobile phones serving as reservoirs of infection in the health care environment. These findings reinforce the need for hand hygiene prior to patient contact as the most effective intervention for preventing health care-associated infection. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  4. Mobility of major and trace elements in a coupled groundwater-surface water system: Merced River, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, R. A.; Domagalski, J. L.; Hering, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Trace element transport in coupled surface water/groundwater systems is controlled not only by advective flow, but also by redox reactions that affect the partitioning of various elements between mobile and immobile phases. These processes have been examined in the context of a field project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. The Merced River flows out of Yosemite National Park and the Sierra Nevada foothills and into California's Central Valley, where it joins the San Joaquin River. Our field site is approximately twenty river kilometers from the confluence with the San Joaquin River. This deep alluvial plain has minimal topography. Agricultural development characterizes the land surrounding this reach of river; consequently, the hydrology is heavily influenced by irrigation. Riverbed groundwater samples were collected from ten wells aligned in two transects across the river located approximately 100 m apart. The wells were sampled from depths of 0.5 m, 1 m, and 3 m below the sediment-water interface. Groundwater flowpath samples were taken from wells positioned on a path perpendicular to the river and located 100 m, 500 m, and 1000 m from the river. The saturated groundwater system exists from 7 to 40 m below the surface and is confined below by a clay layer. Each well location samples from 3-5 depths in this surface aquifer. Samples were collected in December 2003, March-April, June-July, and October 2004. This served to provide an evenly-spaced sampling frequency over the course of a year, and also to allow observation of trends coinciding with the onset of winter, the spring runoff, and early and late summer irrigation. An initial survey of the elements in the riverbed samples was conducted using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Elements for further study were selected based on variability in this survey, either with respect to depth or location, as well as to

  5. Low-resistance gateless high electron mobility transistors using three-dimensional inverted pyramidal AlGaN/GaN surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Hongyun; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, three-dimensional gateless AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) were demonstrated with 54% reduction in electrical resistance and 73% increase in surface area compared with conventional gateless HEMTs on planar substrates. Inverted pyramidal AlGaN/GaN surfaces were microfabricated using potassium hydroxide etched silicon with exposed (111) surfaces and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of coherent AlGaN/GaN thin films. In addition, electrical characterization of the devices showed that a combination of series and parallel connections of the highly conductive two-dimensional electron gas along the pyramidal geometry resulted in a significant reduction in electrical resistance at both room and high temperatures (up to 300 °C). This three-dimensional HEMT architecture can be leveraged to realize low-power and reliable power electronics, as well as harsh environment sensors with increased surface area

  6. Using shallow seismic tomography to characterize patterns of near-surface weathering and the mobile-immobile regolith transition: Implications for the erodibility and morphology of hillslopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, B. A.; Kirby, E.; Burbank, D. W.; West, N.

    2014-12-01

    We use 2D tomography of P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs), based on seismic refraction and surface wave analyses, to characterize subsurface architecture and erodibility of hillslopes. Calibrating the seismic imagery with direct field observations allows us to quantify mechanical properties, image depth-dependent variations in weathering intensity, and identify the mobile-immobile regolith transition and differences in transport efficiency of mobile layers. We conducted a cross-CZO comparison of N- and S-facing slopes at Boulder Creek and Shale Hills CZOs (BcCZO and SSHCZO) to investigate how near-surface weathering and hillslope morphology are influenced by differences in regional geology and climatic as well as local variations in aspect-controlled microclimate. Niwot Ridge (BcCZO) is a high alpine site with minimal soil/veg cover, characterized by steeper S-facing hillslopes; whereas, SSHCZO is a temperate, densely-forested, soil-mantled site with steeper N-facing slopes. On Niwot Ridge, the depth of the weathering front and thickness of mobile regolith are substantially greater on shallower N-facing slopes; however, velocity-based estimates of transport efficiency are higher on S-facing slopes. Although, thin mobile regolith on S-facing slopes may be weaker (slower V), the lower gradient of N-facing slopes and southward asymmetry of the ridge divide, suggests greater transport efficiency on N-facing aspects. This can be explained by the dominance of frost/freeze process on N-facing slopes, which can efficiently develop and transport the thick mobile regolith. At SSHCZO, depths of weathering fronts are invariant with slope aspect, suggesting that aspect control is not a predominant mechanism driving regolith production. Mobile regolith thickness, however, is more than 2-fold greater on N-facing slopes. Additionally, mobile regolith on both slope aspects is primarily composed of well-developed soils. N-facing soils are thicker with greater cohesion, moisture, and

  7. Improved surface-roughness scattering and mobility models for multi-gate FETs with arbitrary cross-section and biasing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizzit, D.; Badami, O.; Specogna, R.; Esseni, D.

    2017-06-01

    We present a new model for surface roughness (SR) scattering in n-type multi-gate FETs (MuGFETs) and gate-all-around nanowire FETs with fairly arbitrary cross-sections, its implementation in a complete device simulator, and the validation against experimental electron mobility data. The model describes the SR scattering matrix elements as non-linear transformations of interface fluctuations, which strongly influences the root mean square value of the roughness required to reproduce experimental mobility data. Mobility simulations are performed via the deterministic solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for a 1D-electron gas and including the most relevant scattering mechanisms for electronic transport, such as acoustic, polar, and non-polar optical phonon scattering, Coulomb scattering, and SR scattering. Simulation results show the importance of accounting for arbitrary cross-sections and biasing conditions when compared to experimental data. We also discuss how mobility is affected by the shape of the cross-section as well as by its area in gate-all-around and tri-gate MuGFETs.

  8. Mobile marketing for mobile games

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Giang

    2016-01-01

    Highly developed mobile technology and devices enable the rise of mobile game industry and mobile marketing. Hence mobile marketing for mobile game is an essential key for a mobile game success. Even though there are many articles on marketing for mobile games, there is a need of highly understanding mobile marketing strategies, how to launch a mobile campaign for a mobile game. Besides that, it is essential to understand the relationship between mobile advertising and users behaviours. There...

  9. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean

  10. MAJOR MOLECULAR GENETIC DRIVERS IN SPORADIC PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is primarily due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma but multi-gland disease, parathyroid carcinoma, and ectopic parathyroid hormone production can occur. Although primary hyperparathyroidism mostly presents sporadically, strong familial predispositions also exist. Much is known about heritable genetic mutations responsible for these syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Acquired mutations in common sporadic hyperparathyroidism have also been discovered. Here we focus on the most common and well-established genetic drivers: 1) involvement of the oncogene cyclin D1 in human neoplasia was first established in parathyroid adenomas, followed by recognition of its importance in other tumor types including breast cancer and B-lymphoid malignancy; and 2) somatic mutation of the MEN1 gene, first identified as the source of pathogenic germline mutations in patients with familial endocrinopathies, is found in a substantial fraction of non-familial parathyroid adenomas.

  11. Systematic comparison of sporadic and syndromic pancreatic islet cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlic, Zoran; Ploeckinger, Ursula; Cascon, Alberto; Hoffmann, Michael M; von Duecker, Laura; Winter, Aurelia; Kammel, Gerit; Bacher, Janina; Sullivan, Maren; Isermann, Berend; Fischer, Lars; Raffel, Andreas; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Schott, Matthias; Baumann, Tobias; Schaefer, Oliver; Keck, Tobias; Baum, Richard P; Milos, Ioana; Muresan, Mihaela; Peczkowska, Mariola; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Cupisti, Kenko; Tönjes, Anke; Fasshauer, Mathias; Langrehr, Jan; von Wussow, Peter; Agaimy, Abbas; Schlimok, Günter; Lamberts, Regina; Wiech, Thorsten; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Weber, Alexander; Nunez, Mercedes; Robledo, Mercedes; Eng, Charis; Neumann, Hartmut P H

    2010-12-01

    Pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) occur as sporadic neoplasias or as a manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Molecular classification of ICTs is mandatory for timely diagnosis and surveillance. Systematic comparison of VHL-ICTs and sporadic ICTs has been lacking. Our registry-based approaches used the German NET-Registry with 259 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), who were primarily diagnosed with NETs, and the German VHL-Registry with 485 molecular genetically confirmed patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the abdomen. All patients provided blood DNA for testing of the MEN1 and VHL genes for intragenic mutations and large deletions. In the NET-Registry, 9/101 patients (8.9%) with ICTs had germline mutations, 8 in MEN1 and 1 in VHL. In the VHL-Registry, prevalence of NETs was 52/487 (10.6%), and all were ICTs. Interestingly, of those with VHL p.R167W, 47% developed ICTs, compared to 2% of those with p.Y98H. In total, there were 92 truly sporadic, i.e. mutation-negative ICT patients. Comparing these with the 53 VHL-ICT patients, the statistically significant differences were predominance of female gender (P=0.01), multifocal ICTs (P=0.0029), and lower malignancy rate (PICTs compared to sporadic cases. VHL was prevalent in ICTs, which are rarely the first presentation. Patients with NETs should not be subjected to genetic testing of the VHL gene, unless they have multifocal ICTs, other VHL-associated tumors, and/or a family history for VHL.

  12. The Role of Iron In Sporadic E Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrak, T.; Woodcock, K. R. I.; Plane, J. M. C.

    Sporadic E layers in the lower thermosphere are mostly composed of metallic ions, of which Fe+ is the most abundant. Because dielectric recombination (Fe+ + elec- tron) is very slow, the lifetime of Fe+ above about 100 km is at least several days. However, below this height molecular ions such as FeO+, FeO2+ and FeN2+ form in- creasingly rapidly through reactions with O3, O2 and N2, respectively. These undergo rapid dissociative recombination with electrons, causing Fe+ to be neutralised increas- ingly rapidly as a sporadic E layer descends. Indeed, this is the most likely mechanism for the formation of the sporadic neutral Fe layers that are observed by lidar. However, atomic O plays a very important role in reducing these molecular ions back to Fe+, competing with dissociative recombination and thus slowing the rate at which Fe+ is neutralised and a sporadic E layer dissipates. This paper will discuss a laboratory and modelling study of the reactions of FeO+, FeO2+ and FeN2+ with atomic O. These reactions were studied (for the first time) in a fast flow tube, using the pulsed laser ablation of a rotating iron rod as the source of Fe+ ions in the upstream section of the tube. Reactants were then added to produce molecular ions, and atomic O further downstream through a movable injector. Fe+ and the molecular ions were detected at the downstream end of the tube using a two-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. The spectroscopy of the FeO+ ion, observed by laser induced fluorescence, will also be discussed as a candidate for future ground-based lidar studies of the ion chemistry of the lower thermosphere.

  13. Measurements of the ionization heights of sporadic radio-meteors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggaley, W.J.; Webb, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    The echo heights and echo point ionization densities of 4587 sporadic radio-meteors have been determined using a calibrated interferometric height-finding system. Over the height interval 92 to 96 km no association was found between height and ionization but, for radio-meteors ablating above and below this region, significant and opposite trends exist in the data. It is suggested that this could be evidence for the influx of two distinct meteoroid populations. (author)

  14. Screening of hypoxia-inducible genes in sporadic ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Genetic variations in two hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes, VEGF and ANG, have been linked with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). Common variations in these genes may reduce the levels or functioning of their products. VEGF and ANG belong to a larger group of angiogenic genes that are up-regulated under hypoxic conditions. We hypothesized that common genetic variation across other members of this group may also predispose to sporadic ALS. To screen other hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes for association with SALS, we selected 112 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tgSNPs) that captured the common genetic variation across 16 VEGF-like and eight ANG-like hypoxia-inducible genes. Screening for association was performed in 270 Irish individuals with typical SALS and 272 ethnically matched unrelated controls. SNPs showing association in the Irish phase were genotyped in a replication sample of 281 Swedish sporadic ALS patients and 286 Swedish controls. Seven markers showed association in the Irish. The one modest replication signal observed in the Swedish replication sample, at rs3801158 in the gene inhibin beta A, was for the opposite allele vs. the Irish cohort. We failed to detect association of common variation across 24 candidate hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes with SALS.

  15. Next generation sequencing in sporadic retinoblastoma patients reveals somatic mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, Sara; Marozza, Annabella; Somma, Serena; Imperatore, Valentina; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; De Francesco, Sonia; Toti, Paolo; Galimberti, Daniela; Meloni, Ilaria; Cetta, Francesco; Piu, Pietro; Di Marco, Chiara; Dosa, Laura; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Carignani, Giulia; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    In about 50% of sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, no constitutive RB1 mutations are detected by conventional methods. However, recent research suggests that, at least in some of these cases, there is somatic mosaicism with respect to RB1 normal and mutant alleles. The increased availability of next generation sequencing improves our ability to detect the exact percentage of patients with mosaicism. Using this technology, we re-tested a series of 40 patients with sporadic retinoblastoma: 10 of them had been previously classified as constitutional heterozygotes, whereas in 30 no RB1 mutations had been found in lymphocytes. In 3 of these 30 patients, we have now identified low-level mosaic variants, varying in frequency between 8 and 24%. In 7 out of the 10 cases previously classified as heterozygous from testing blood cells, we were able to test additional tissues (ocular tissues, urine and/or oral mucosa): in three of them, next generation sequencing has revealed mosaicism. Present results thus confirm that a significant fraction (6/40; 15%) of sporadic retinoblastoma cases are due to postzygotic events and that deep sequencing is an efficient method to unambiguously distinguish mosaics. Re-testing of retinoblastoma patients through next generation sequencing can thus provide new information that may have important implications with respect to genetic counseling and family care.

  16. Stable and sporadic symbiotic communities of coral and algal holobionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eric R; Barott, Katie L; Nulton, Jim; Vermeij, Mark JA; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-01-01

    Coral and algal holobionts are assemblages of macroorganisms and microorganisms, including viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, protists and fungi. Despite a decade of research, it remains unclear whether these associations are spatial–temporally stable or species-specific. We hypothesized that conflicting interpretations of the data arise from high noise associated with sporadic microbial symbionts overwhelming signatures of stable holobiont members. To test this hypothesis, the bacterial communities associated with three coral species (Acropora rosaria, Acropora hyacinthus and Porites lutea) and two algal guilds (crustose coralline algae and turf algae) from 131 samples were analyzed using a novel statistical approach termed the Abundance-Ubiquity (AU) test. The AU test determines whether a given bacterial species would be present given additional sampling effort (that is, stable) versus those species that are sporadically associated with a sample. Using the AU test, we show that coral and algal holobionts have a high-diversity group of stable symbionts. Stable symbionts are not exclusive to one species of coral or algae. No single bacterial species was ubiquitously associated with one host, showing that there is not strict heredity of the microbiome. In addition to the stable symbionts, there was a low-diversity community of sporadic symbionts whose abundance varied widely across individual holobionts of the same species. Identification of these two symbiont communities supports the holobiont model and calls into question the hologenome theory of evolution. PMID:26555246

  17. Impact of recess etching and surface treatments on ohmic contacts regrown by molecular-beam epitaxy for AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joglekar, S.; Azize, M.; Palacios, T. [Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Beeler, M.; Monroy, E. [Université Grenoble-Alpes, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA Grenoble, INAC-PHELIQS, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2016-07-25

    Ohmic contacts fabricated by regrowth of n{sup +} GaN are favorable alternatives to metal-stack-based alloyed contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors. In this paper, the influence of reactive ion dry etching prior to regrowth on the contact resistance in AlGaN/GaN devices is discussed. We demonstrate that the dry etch conditions modify the surface band bending, dangling bond density, and the sidewall depletion width, which influences the contact resistance of regrown contacts. The impact of chemical surface treatments performed prior to regrowth is also investigated. The sensitivity of the contact resistance to the surface treatments is found to depend upon the dangling bond density of the sidewall facets exposed after dry etching. A theoretical model has been developed in order to explain the observed trends.

  18. Structure, Mobility, and Composition of Transition Metal Catalyst Surfaces. High-Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Zhongwei [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-12-06

    Surface structure, mobility, and composition of transition metal catalysts were studied by high-pressure scanning tunneling microscopy (HP-STM) and ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (AP-XPS) at high gas pressures. HP-STM makes it possible to determine the atomic or molecular rearrangement at catalyst surfaces, particularly at the low-coordinated active surface sites. AP-XPS monitors changes in elemental composition and chemical states of catalysts in response to variations in gas environments. Stepped Pt and Cu single crystals, the hexagonally reconstructed Pt(100) single crystal, and Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size, shape and composition, were employed as the model catalysts for experiments in this thesis.

  19. A field guide to pandemic, epidemic and sporadic clones of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monecke, Stefan

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a truly global challenge. In addition to the long-known healthcare-associated clones, novel strains have also emerged outside of the hospital settings, in the community as well as in livestock. The emergence and spread of virulent clones expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an additional cause for concern. In order to provide an overview of pandemic, epidemic and sporadic strains, more than 3,000 clinical and veterinary isolates of MRSA mainly from Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, Australia, Trinidad & Tobago as well as some reference strains from the United States have been genotyped by DNA microarray analysis. This technique allowed the assignment of the MRSA isolates to 34 distinct lineages which can be clearly defined based on non-mobile genes. The results were in accordance with data from multilocus sequence typing. More than 100 different strains were distinguished based on affiliation to these lineages, SCCmec type and the presence or absence of PVL. These strains are described here mainly with regard to clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance- and virulence-associated markers, but also in relation to epidemiology and geographic distribution. The findings of the study show a high level of biodiversity among MRSA, especially among strains harbouring SCCmec IV and V elements. The data also indicate a high rate of genetic recombination in MRSA involving SCC elements, bacteriophages or other mobile genetic elements and large-scale chromosomal replacements.

  20. A Field Guide to Pandemic, Epidemic and Sporadic Clones of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Stefan; Coombs, Geoffrey; Shore, Anna C.; Coleman, David C.; Akpaka, Patrick; Borg, Michael; Chow, Henry; Ip, Margaret; Jatzwauk, Lutz; Jonas, Daniel; Kadlec, Kristina; Kearns, Angela; Laurent, Frederic; O'Brien, Frances G.; Pearson, Julie; Ruppelt, Antje; Schwarz, Stefan; Scicluna, Elizabeth; Slickers, Peter; Tan, Hui-Leen; Weber, Stefan; Ehricht, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have become a truly global challenge. In addition to the long-known healthcare-associated clones, novel strains have also emerged outside of the hospital settings, in the community as well as in livestock. The emergence and spread of virulent clones expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is an additional cause for concern. In order to provide an overview of pandemic, epidemic and sporadic strains, more than 3,000 clinical and veterinary isolates of MRSA mainly from Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland, France, Malta, Abu Dhabi, Hong Kong, Australia, Trinidad & Tobago as well as some reference strains from the United States have been genotyped by DNA microarray analysis. This technique allowed the assignment of the MRSA isolates to 34 distinct lineages which can be clearly defined based on non-mobile genes. The results were in accordance with data from multilocus sequence typing. More than 100 different strains were distinguished based on affiliation to these lineages, SCCmec type and the presence or absence of PVL. These strains are described here mainly with regard to clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance- and virulence-associated markers, but also in relation to epidemiology and geographic distribution. The findings of the study show a high level of biodiversity among MRSA, especially among strains harbouring SCCmec IV and V elements. The data also indicate a high rate of genetic recombination in MRSA involving SCC elements, bacteriophages or other mobile genetic elements and large-scale chromosomal replacements. PMID:21494333

  1. Observational Data Analysis and Numerical Model Assessment of the Seafloor Interaction and Mobility of Sand and Weathered Oil Agglomerates (Surface Residual Balls) in the Surf Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, S.; Long, J.; Plant, N. G.; Penko, A.; Calantoni, J.; Thompson, D.; Mclaughlin, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    When weathered oil is transported ashore, such as during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, it can mix with suspended sediment in the surf zone to create heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates in the form of mats several centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Broken off pieces of these mats and smaller agglomerates formed in situ (called Surface Residual Balls, SRBs) can cause beach re-oiling months to years after the initial spill. The physical dynamics of these SRBs in the nearshore, where they are larger (cm-scale) and less dense than natural sediment, are poorly understood. In the current study, SRB mobility and seafloor interaction is investigated through a combination of laboratory and field experiments with pseudo-SRBs developed to be physically stable proxies for genuine agglomerates. Formulations for mobility prediction based on comparing estimated shear stress to the critical Shields and modified Shields parameters developed for mixed sediment beds are assessed against observations. Processes such as burial, exhumation, and interaction with bedforms (e.g., migrating ripples) are also explored. The observations suggest that incipient motion estimates based on a modified Shields parameter have some skill in predicting SRB movement, but that other forcing mechanisms such as pressure gradients may be important under some conditions. Additionally, burial and exhumation due to the relatively high mobility of sand grains are confirmed as key processes controlling SRB dynamics in the surf zone. This work has broad implications for understanding surf zone sediment transport at the short timescale associated with mobilizing sand grains and SRBs as well as at the longer timescales associated with net transport patterns, sediment budgets, and bed elevation changes.

  2. Application of quantitative DTI metrics in sporadic CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Caverzasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion Weighted Imaging is extremely important for the diagnosis of probable sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease, the most common human prion disease. Although visual assessment of DWI MRI is critical diagnostically, a more objective, quantifiable approach might more precisely identify the precise pattern of brain involvement. Furthermore, a quantitative, systematic tracking of MRI changes occurring over time might provide insights regarding the underlying histopathological mechanisms of human prion disease and provide information useful for clinical trials. The purposes of this study were: 1 to describe quantitatively the average cross-sectional pattern of reduced mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, atrophy and T1 relaxation in the gray matter (GM in sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease, 2 to study changes in mean diffusivity and atrophy over time and 3 to explore their relationship with clinical scales. Twenty-six sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease and nine control subjects had MRIs on the same scanner; seven sCJD subjects had a second scan after approximately two months. Cortical and subcortical gray matter regions were parcellated with Freesurfer. Average cortical thickness (or subcortical volume, T1-relaxiation and mean diffusivity from co-registered diffusion maps were calculated in each region for each subject. Quantitatively on cross-sectional analysis, certain brain regions were preferentially affected by reduced mean diffusivity (parietal, temporal lobes, posterior cingulate, thalamus and deep nuclei, but with relative sparing of the frontal and occipital lobes. Serial imaging, surprisingly showed that mean diffusivity did not have a linear or unidirectional reduction over time, but tended to decrease initially and then reverse and increase towards normalization. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between worsening of patient clinical function (based on modified Barthel score and increasing mean diffusivity.

  3. Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in sporadic pheochromocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Lindor, N.M.; Honchel, R. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have recently been demonstrated in kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B. Both of these autosomal dominant disorders are characterized by the development of neoplasia in cell lines of neural crest origin, such as medullary throid carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Individuals with MEN 2B have, in addition, ganglioneuromas of the lips, tongue and colon, a marfanoid habitus, and corneal nerve thickening. Approximately 90% of patients with MEN 2A have a germline mutation in exons 10 or 11, while 95% of patients with MEN 2B have a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 of exon 16. In this study, pheochromocytomas from 29 individuals who had no clinical evidence of MEN 2A or 2B (sporadic) were examined for the presence of either germline or somatic mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Of the 29 tumors examined, 3 (10%) were found to have a mutation in one of the three exons. One tumor had a G{yields}A transition in codon 609 (exon 10), another had a 6 bp deletion encompassing codons 632 & 633 (exon 11), and the final tumor had a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 (exon 16). These mutations were not found in the corresponding normal DNA from these individuals, indicating that the mutation were somatic in origin. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of mutations in other regions of the RET proto-oncogene, our data suggests that: (1) individuals presenting with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas are not likely to have undiagnosed MEN 2A or 2B; and (2) somatic mutations in the RET proto-oncogene contribute to the process of tumorigenesis in a small percentage of sporadic pheochromocytomas.

  4. Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim - Azali Alamdari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC, hypobaric control (HC, normobaric exercise (NE and hypobaric exercise (HE groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal heart rate reserve (HRRmax interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P<0.05. Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P<0.05.it can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.  

  5. Imaging and clinical characteristics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Shun-chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD presented rapidly progressive dementia which were subacute onset from 1 to 4 months. Among these cases, periodic synchronous discharge (PSD of electroencephalography (EEG was seen in 2 patients. Besides, 4 patients obtained positive results in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis for 14-3-3 protein. The cranial MRI examination showed symmetrical or asymmetrical colored-ribbon-shaped high signals in cerebral cortex or basal ganglia by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, suggesting that DWI had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sCJD as a preferred method in the clinical examination of sCJD.

  6. Diffusion MR imaging in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Cakir Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare dementing disease and is thought to caused by a prion. It is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia, myoclonus, akinetic mutism and eventual death. Brain biopsy or autopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis of CJD. Diffusion-weighted imaging became an important tool for early diagnosis of CJD because of the high sensitivity. We present 59-year-old female patient diagnosed as sporadic CJD with typical MR imagings. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 880-883

  7. The monster sporadic group and a theory underlying superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.

    1996-09-01

    The pattern of duality symmetries acting on the states of compactified superstring models reinforces an earlier suggestion that the Monster sporadic group is a hidden symmetry for superstring models. This in turn points to a supersymmetric theory of self-dual and anti-self-dual K3 manifolds joined by Dirac strings and evolving in a 13 dimensional spacetime as the fundamental theory. In addition to the usual graviton and dilaton this theory contains matter-like degrees of freedom resembling the massless states of the heterotic string, thus providing a completely geometric interpretation for ordinary matter. 25 refs

  8. Slower Dynamics and Aged Mitochondria in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargini, Ricardo; García, Esther; Perry, George

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients. The analysis of mitochondrial network disruption using CCCP indicates that the patients' fibroblasts exhibit slower dynamics and mitochondrial membrane potential recovery. These defects lead to strong accumulation of aged mitochondria in Alzheimer's fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of autophagy and mitophagy involved genes in the patients demonstrates a downregulation indicating that the recycling mechanism of these aged mitochondria might be impaired. Our data reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the key early events of the disease intimately related with aging. PMID:29201274

  9. Off-state leakage current reduction in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by combining surface treatment and post-gate annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xing; Jiang, Huaxing; Liu, Chao; Zou, Xinbo; Lau, Kei May

    2016-05-01

    We report on the reduction of off-state leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by a two-step process combining pre-gate surface treatment and post-gate annealing (PGA), which suppressed the two leakage paths, namely, lateral surface leakage and vertical tunneling leakage, separately. The lateral surface leakage current, which was mainly induced by the high-density trap states generated during the device isolation etching process, was significantly reduced by a low power O2-plasma and HCl surface treatment process. The PGA process reduced the vertical tunneling leakage current by improving the Schottky contact quality of the transistor gate. Consequently, the device off-state leakage current was decreased by about 7 orders of magnitude and no degradation was introduced to the on-state performance, leading to a high on/off current ratio of 1010 and steep subthreshold slope (SS) of 62 mV/dec. The origin and leakage suppression mechanisms are also investigated and discussed in detail.

  10. Off-state leakage current reduction in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors by combining surface treatment and post-gate annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xing; Jiang, Huaxing; Liu, Chao; Zou, Xinbo; Lau, Kei May

    2016-01-01

    We report on the reduction of off-state leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) by a two-step process combining pre-gate surface treatment and post-gate annealing (PGA), which suppressed the two leakage paths, namely, lateral surface leakage and vertical tunneling leakage, separately. The lateral surface leakage current, which was mainly induced by the high-density trap states generated during the device isolation etching process, was significantly reduced by a low power O 2 -plasma and HCl surface treatment process. The PGA process reduced the vertical tunneling leakage current by improving the Schottky contact quality of the transistor gate. Consequently, the device off-state leakage current was decreased by about 7 orders of magnitude and no degradation was introduced to the on-state performance, leading to a high on/off current ratio of 10 10 and steep subthreshold slope (SS) of 62 mV/dec. The origin and leakage suppression mechanisms are also investigated and discussed in detail. (paper)

  11. Husbandry Emissions at the Sub-Facility Scale by Fused Mobile Surface In Situ and Airborne Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifer, I.; Melton, C.; Tratt, D. M.; Hall, J. L.; Buckland, K. N.; Frash, J.; Leen, J. B.; Lundquist, T.; Vigil, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Husbandry methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) are strong climate and air pollution drivers. Husbandry emission factors have significant uncertainty and can differ from lab estimates as real-world practices affect emissions including where and how husbandry activities occur, their spatial and temporal relationship to micro-climate (winds, temperature, insolation, rain, and lagoon levels, which vary diurnally and seasonally), and animal care. Research dairies provide a unique opportunity to combine insights on sub-facility scale emissions to identify best practices. Two approaches with significant promise for quantifying husbandry emissions are airborne remote sensing and mobile in situ trace gas with meteorological measurements. Both capture snapshot data to allow deconvolution of temporal and spatial variability, which challenges stationary measurements, while also capturing micro-scale processes, allowing connection of real-world practices to emissions. Mobile in situ concentration data on trace gases and meteorology were collected by AMOG (AutoMObile trace Gas) Surveyor on 10 days spanning 31 months at the California Polytechnic State University Research Dairy, San Luis Obispo, CA. AMOG Surveyor is a commuter vehicle modified for atmospheric science. CH4, NH3, H2O, COS, CO, CO2, H2S, O3, NO, NO2, SO2, NOX, solar spectra, temperature, and winds were measured. The airborne hyperspectral thermal infrared sensor, Mako, collected data on 28 Sept. 2015. Research dairies allow combining insights on sub-facility scale emissions to identify best practices holistically - i.e., considering multiple trace gases. In situ data were collected while transecting plumes, approximately orthogonal to winds. Emission strength and source location were estimated by Gaussian plume inversion, validated by airborne data. Good agreement was found on source strength and location at meter length-scales. Data revealed different activities produced unique emissions with distinct trace gas

  12. BRCAness profile of sporadic ovarian cancer predicts disease recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Z Wysham

    Full Text Available The consequences of defective homologous recombination (HR are not understood in sporadic ovarian cancer, nor have the potential role of HR proteins other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 been clearly defined. However, it is clear that defects in HR and other DNA repair pathways are important to the effectiveness of current therapies. We hypothesize that a subset of sporadic ovarian carcinomas may harbor anomalies in HR pathways, and that a BRCAness profile (defects in HR or other DNA repair pathways could influence response rate and survival after treatment with platinum drugs. Clinical availability of a BRCAness profile in patients and/or tumors should improve treatment outcomes.To define the BRCAness profile of sporadic ovarian carcinoma and determine whether BRCA1, PARP, FANCD2, PTEN, H2AX, ATM, and P53 protein expression correlates with response to treatment, disease recurrence, and recurrence-free survival.Protein microarray analysis of ovarian cancer tissue was used to determine protein expression levels for defined DNA repair proteins. Correlation with clinical and pathologic parameters in 186 patients with advanced stage III-IV and grade 3 ovarian cancer was analyzed using Chi square, Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazard model, and cumulative incidence function.High PARP, FANCD2 and BRCA1 expressions were significantly correlated with each other; however, elevated p53 expression was associated only with high PARP and FANCD2. Of all patients, 9% recurred within the first year. Among early recurring patients, 41% had high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and P53, compared to 19.5% of patients without early recurrence (p = 0.04. Women with high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and/or P53 had first year cumulative cancer incidence of 17% compared with 7% for the other groups (P = 0.03.Patients with concomitantly high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and P53 protein expression are at increased risk of early ovarian cancer recurrence and platinum resistance.

  13. Aberrant gene promoter methylation associated with sporadic multiple colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gonzalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-concept of an underlying epigenetic defect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined a total of 47 synchronous/metachronous primary CRC from 41 patients, and 41 gender, age (5-year intervals and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors. Exclusion criteria were polyposis syndromes, Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. DNA methylation at the promoter region of the MGMT, CDKN2A, SFRP1, TMEFF2, HS3ST2 (3OST2, RASSF1A and GATA4 genes was evaluated by quantitative methylation specific PCR in both tumor and corresponding normal appearing colorectal mucosa samples. Overall, patients with multiple lesions exhibited a higher degree of methylation in tumor samples than those with solitary tumors regarding all evaluated genes. After adjusting for age and gender, binomial logistic regression analysis identified methylation of MGMT2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.97; p = 0.008 and RASSF1A (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.13; p = 0.047 as variables independently associated with tumor multiplicity, being the risk related to methylation of any of these two genes 4.57 (95% CI, 1.53 to 13.61; p = 0.006. Moreover, in six patients in whom both tumors were available, we found a correlation in the methylation levels of MGMT2 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, SFRP1 (r = 0.83, 0.06, HPP1 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, 3OST2 (r = 0.83, p = 0.06 and GATA4 (r = 0.6, p = 0.24. Methylation in normal appearing colorectal mucosa from patients with multiple and solitary CRC showed no relevant

  14. Transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor with SiN passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xue-Feng; Fan, Shuang; Chen, Yong-He; Kang, Di; Zhang, Jian-Kun; Wang, Chong; Mo, Jiang-Hui; Li, Liang; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue

    2015-02-01

    The transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in the AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistor (HEMT) becomes one of the most important reliability issues with the downscaling of feature size. In this paper, the research results show that the reverse surface leakage current in AlGaN/GaN HEMT with SiN passivation increases with the enhancement of temperature in the range from 298 K to 423 K. Three possible transport mechanisms are proposed and examined to explain the generation of reverse surface leakage current. By comparing the experimental data with the numerical transport models, it is found that neither Fowler-Nordheim tunneling nor Frenkel-Poole emission can describe the transport of reverse surface leakage current. However, good agreement is found between the experimental data and the two-dimensional variable range hopping (2D-VRH) model. Therefore, it is concluded that the reverse surface leakage current is dominated by the electron hopping through the surface states at the barrier layer. Moreover, the activation energy of surface leakage current is extracted, which is around 0.083 eV. Finally, the SiN passivated HEMT with a high Al composition and a thin AlGaN barrier layer is also studied. It is observed that 2D-VRH still dominates the reverse surface leakage current and the activation energy is around 0.10 eV, which demonstrates that the alteration of the AlGaN barrier layer does not affect the transport mechanism of reverse surface leakage current in this paper. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61334002, 61106106, and 61474091), the Opening Project of Science and Technology on Reliability Physics and Application Technology of Electronic Component Laboratory, China (Grant No. ZHD201206), the New Experiment Development Funds for Xidian University, China (Grant No. SY1213), the 111 Project, China (Grant No. B12026), the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars

  15. Effective surface treatment for GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors using HF plus N2 plasma prior to SiN passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chien; Trinh, Hai-Dang; Dai, Gu-Ming; Huang, Chung-Kai; Dee, Chang-Fu; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin; Biswas, Dhrubes; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-01-01

    An effective surface cleaning technique is demonstrated for the GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) passivation process. In this study, dilute HF solution and in situ N2 plasma treatments were adopted to remove the native oxide and recover the nitrogen-vacancy defects at the GaN surface before device passivation. To investigate the correlation between the properties of the SiN/GaN interface and the device performance, the GaN MIS-HEMTs were characterized using current-voltage (I-V) measurement, capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. With the application of this surface treatment technique, the device exhibits improved I-V characteristics with low leakage current, low dynamic ON-resistance, and good C-V response with a steep slope. Overall, the results reveal that the oxide-related bonds and nitrogen-vacancy defects at the SiN/GaN interface are the root cause of the GaN MIS-HEMTs performance degradation.

  16. The subcatchment- and catchment-scale hydrology of a boreal headwater peatland complex with sporadic permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, O.; Helbig, M.; Connon, R.; Hould Gosselin, G.; Ryu, Y.; Karoline, W.; Hanisch, J.; Moore, T. R.; Quinton, W. L.

    2017-12-01

    The permafrost region of the Northern Hemisphere has been experiencing twice the rate of climate warming compared to the rest of the Earth, resulting in the degradation of the cryosphere. A large portion of the high-latitude boreal forests of northwestern Canada grows on low-lying organic-rich lands with relative warm and thin isolated, sporadic and discontinuous permafrost. Along this southern limit of permafrost, increasingly warmer temperatures have caused widespread permafrost thaw leading to land cover changes at unprecedented rates. A prominent change includes wetland expansion at the expense of Picea mariana (black spruce)-dominated forest due to ground surface subsidence caused by the thawing of ice-rich permafrost leading to collapsing peat plateaus. Recent conceptual advances have provided important new insights into high-latitude boreal forest hydrology. However, refined quantitative understanding of the mechanisms behind water storage and movement at subcatchment and catchment scales is needed from a water resources management perspective. Here we combine multi-year daily runoff measurements with spatially explicit estimates of evapotranspiration, modelled with the Breathing Earth System Simulator, to characterize the monthly growing season catchment scale ( 150 km2) hydrological response of a boreal headwater peatland complex with sporadic permafrost in the southern Northwest Territories. The corresponding water budget components at subcatchment scale ( 0.1 km2) were obtained from concurrent cutthroat flume runoff and eddy covariance evapotranspiration measurements. The highly significant linear relationships for runoff (r2=0.64) and evapotranspiration (r2=0.75) between subcatchment and catchment scales suggest that the mineral upland-dominated downstream portion of the catchment acts hydrologically similar to the headwater portion dominated by boreal peatland complexes. Breakpoint analysis in combination with moving window statistics on multi

  17. A Unifying Hypothesis for Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole J. Proctor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterised by the aggregation of two quite different proteins, namely, amyloid-beta (Aβ, which forms extracellular plaques, and tau, the main component of cytoplasmic neurofibrillary tangles. The amyloid hypothesis proposes that Aβ plaques precede tangle formation but there is still much controversy concerning the order of events and the linkage between Aβ and tau alterations is still unknown. Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool for generating and evaluating hypotheses involving complex systems. We have therefore used this approach to discover the most probable pathway linking Aβ and tau. The model supports a complex pathway linking Aβ and tau via GSK3β, p53, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the pathway contains a cycle with multiple points of entry. It is this property of the pathway which enables the model to be consistent with both the amyloid hypothesis for familial AD and a more complex pathway for sporadic forms.

  18. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, self-reported physical function, functional capacity, and isolated muscle function were investigated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients. METHODS: The 36-item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey and 2-min walk test (2MWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and 30-s...... chair stand performance were evaluated. In addition, patients were tested for knee extensor muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer) and leg extension power (Nottingham power rig). RESULTS: TUG performance was the strongest predictor of self-reported physical function (r(2) = 0.56, P ... to sensitively predict self-perceived physical function in sIBM patients. Notably, between-limb asymmetry in lower limb muscle strength had a substantial negative impact on motor tasks involving gait function. Muscle Nerve, 2017....

  19. Sporadic Insulinoma Presenting as Early Morning Night Terrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisang, Daniel; Forlenza, Gregory P; Luquette, Mark; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie

    2017-06-01

    A 16-year-old boy with a recent diagnosis of night terrors was evaluated for recurrent early morning hypoglycemia after an early morning seizure. Evaluation in clinic with critical laboratories identified hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Additional investigation revealed a sporadic insulinoma as the etiology of his hypoglycemia and all symptoms were resolved after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The importance of obtaining critical laboratory samples is highlighted and appropriate radiologic, medical, and pathologic testing is discussed. We additionally review the medical and surgical management of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. A discussion of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 associated insulinomas is included as well. This case highlights the importance of considering hypoglycemia in the evaluation of night terrors and new-onset seizures. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Cathepsin D polymorphism in Italian sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Silvia; Nacmias, Benedetta; Tedde, Andrea; Guarnieri, Bianca Maria; Cellini, Elena; Ciantelli, Monica; Petruzzi, Concetta; Bartoli, Antonella; Ortenzi, Luigi; Serio, Antonio; Sorbi, Sandro

    2002-08-16

    A recent study has shown that a genetic variation in the Cathepsin D (catD) gene is a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). CatD is an intracellular aspartyl protease involved in neurodegeneration. A C-->T (Ala-->Val) transition at position 224 has been associated with altered intracellular maturation. Recently, a significant overrepresentation of the T allele of the catD gene in AD patients compared with controls was reported. However, this finding has not yet been confirmed. We analyzed the distribution of catD and apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in Italian patients with sporadic and familial AD (FAD). Our studies revealed that the distribution of catD polymorphism did not differ in AD and FAD patients and controls. Thus, our data do not support a role for the catD gene as a genetic risk factor in the development of AD.

  1. Effect of surface passivation by SiN/SiO{sub 2} of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrate by deep level transient spectroscopy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gassoumi, Malek, E-mail: malek.gassoumi@fsm.rnu.tn; Mosbahi, Hana; Zaidi, Mohamed Ali [Universite deMonastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectroniques et Nanostructures, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia); Gaquiere, Christophe [Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Institut d' Electronique de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie IEMN, Departement hyperfrequences et Semiconducteurs (France); Maaref, Hassen [Universite deMonastir, Laboratoire de Micro-Optoelectroniques et Nanostructures, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir (Tunisia)

    2013-07-15

    Device performance and defects in AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors have been correlated. The effect of SiN/SiO{sub 2} passivation of the surface of AlGaN/GaN high-electron mobility transistors on Si substrates is reported on DC characteristics. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements were performed on the device after the passivation by a (50/100 nm) SiN/SiO{sub 2} film. The DLTS spectra from these measurements showed the existence of the same electron trap on the surface of the device.

  2. Mobile Learning Using Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The participation in mobile learning programs is conditioned by having/using mobile communication technology. Those who do not have or use such technology cannot participate in mobile learning programs. This study evaluates who are the most likely participants of mobile learning programs by examining the demographic profile and mobile phone usage…

  3. Anisotropic Fermi Surface and Quantum Limit Transport in High Mobility Three-Dimensional Dirac Semimetal Cd_{3}As_{2}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfei Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional topological Dirac semimetals have a linear dispersion in 3D momentum space and are viewed as the 3D analogues of graphene. Here, we report angle-dependent magnetotransport on the newly revealed Cd_{3}As_{2} single crystals and clearly show how the Fermi surface evolves with crystallographic orientations. Remarkably, when the magnetic field lies in the [112] or [441[over ¯

  4. Sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers at mid-latitudes: Simultaneous observations and implications for their formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the observations of 188 sporadic layers of either Ca atoms and/or Ca ions that we have observed during 112 nights of lidar soundings of Ca, and 58 nights of Ca+ soundings, at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. The Ca+ soundings have been performed simultaneously and in a common volume with the Ca soundings by two separate lidars. Correlations between sporadic neutral and ionized metal layers are demonstrated through four case studies. A systematic study of the variations of occurrence of sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers reveals that neutral and ionized Ca layers are not as closely correlated as expected earlier: (a The altitude distribution shows the simultaneous occurrence of both sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers to be most likely only in the narrow altitude range between 90 and 95 km. Above that region, in the lower thermosphere, the sporadic ion layers are much more frequent than atom layers. Below 90 km only very few sporadic layers have been observed; (b The seasonal variation of sporadic Ca layers exhibits a minimum of occurrence in summer, while sporadic Ca+ layers do not show a significant seasonal variation (only the dense Ca+ layers appear to have a maximum in summer. At mid-latitudes sporadic Ca layers are more frequent than sporadic layers of other atmospheric metals like Na or K. For the explanation of our observations new formation mechanisms are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  5. Suppression of surface-originated gate lag by a dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deen, David A., E-mail: david.deen@alumni.nd.edu; Storm, David F.; Scott Katzer, D.; Bass, R.; Meyer, David J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Electronics Science and Technology Division, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2016-08-08

    A dual-channel AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) architecture is demonstrated that leverages ultra-thin epitaxial layers to suppress surface-related gate lag. Two high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) channels are utilized in an AlN/GaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure wherein the top 2DEG serves as a quasi-equipotential that screens potential fluctuations resulting from distributed surface and interface states. The bottom channel serves as the transistor's modulated channel. Dual-channel AlN/GaN heterostructures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on free-standing hydride vapor phase epitaxy GaN substrates. HEMTs fabricated with 300 nm long recessed gates demonstrated a gate lag ratio (GLR) of 0.88 with no degradation in drain current after bias stressed in subthreshold. These structures additionally achieved small signal metrics f{sub t}/f{sub max} of 27/46 GHz. These performance results are contrasted with the non-recessed gate dual-channel HEMT with a GLR of 0.74 and 82 mA/mm current collapse with f{sub t}/f{sub max} of 48/60 GHz.

  6. Surface complexation modeling of groundwater arsenic mobility: Results of a forced gradient experiment in a Red River flood plain aquifer, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Søren; Postma, Dieke; Larsen, Flemming; Nhan, Pham Quy; Hoa, Le Quynh; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Long, Tran Vu; Viet, Pham Hung; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    2012-12-01

    Three surface complexation models (SCMs) developed for, respectively, ferrihydrite, goethite and sorption data for a Pleistocene oxidized aquifer sediment from Bangladesh were used to explore the effect of multicomponent adsorption processes on As mobility in a reduced Holocene floodplain aquifer along the Red River, Vietnam. The SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite yielded very different results. The ferrihydrite SCM favors As(III) over As(V) and has carbonate and silica species as the main competitors for surface sites. In contrast, the goethite SCM has a greater affinity for As(V) over As(III) while PO43- and Fe(II) form the predominant surface species. The SCM for Pleistocene aquifer sediment resembles most the goethite SCM but shows more Si sorption. Compiled As(III) adsorption data for Holocene sediment was also well described by the SCM determined for Pleistocene aquifer sediment, suggesting a comparable As(III) affinity of Holocene and Pleistocene aquifer sediments. A forced gradient field experiment was conducted in a bank aquifer adjacent to a tributary channel to the Red River, and the passage in the aquifer of mixed groundwater containing up to 74% channel water was observed. The concentrations of As (SCM correctly predicts desorption for As(III) but for Si and PO43- it predicts an increased adsorption instead of desorption. The goethite SCM correctly predicts desorption of both As(III) and PO43- but failed in the prediction of Si desorption. These results indicate that the prediction of As mobility, by using SCMs for synthetic Fe-oxides, will be strongly dependent on the model chosen. The SCM based on the Pleistocene aquifer sediment predicts the desorption of As(III), PO43- and Si quite superiorly, as compared to the SCMs for ferrihydrite and goethite, even though Si desorption is still somewhat under-predicted. The observation that a SCM calibrated on a different sediment can predict our field results so well suggests that sediment based SCMs may be a

  7. Mobility management in mobile IP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Golshani, Forouzan

    2002-07-01

    There is an emerging interest in integrating mobile wireless communication with the Internet based on the Ipv6 technology. Many issues introduced by the mobility of users arise when such an integration is attempted. This paper addresses the problem of mobility management, i.e., that of tracking the current IP addresses of mobile terminals and sustaining active IP connections as mobiles move. The paper presents some architectural and mobility management options for integrating wireless access to the Internet. We then present performance results for Mobile IPv4, route optimization and Mobile IPv6.

  8. Dissolved organic carbon and major and trace elements in peat porewater of sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zones of western Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Raudina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC and related trace elements (TEs from the frozen peat to surface waters in the permafrost zone is expected to enhance under ongoing permafrost thaw and active layer thickness (ALT deepening in high-latitude regions. The interstitial soil solutions are efficient tracers of ongoing bio-geochemical processes in the critical zone and can help to decipher the intensity of carbon and metals migration from the soil to the rivers and further to the ocean. To this end, we collected, across a 640 km latitudinal transect of the sporadic to continuous permafrost zone of western Siberia peatlands, soil porewaters from 30 cm depth using suction cups and we analyzed DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, and 40 major elements and TEs in 0.45 µm filtered fraction of 80 soil porewaters. Despite an expected decrease in the intensity of DOC and TE mobilization from the soil and vegetation litter to the interstitial fluids with the increase in the permafrost coverage and a decrease in the annual temperature and ALT, the DOC and many major and trace elements did not exhibit any distinct decrease in concentration along the latitudinal transect from 62.2 to 67.4° N. The DOC demonstrated a maximum of concentration at 66° N, on the border of the discontinuous/continuous permafrost zone, whereas the DOC concentration in peat soil solutions from the continuous permafrost zone was equal to or higher than that in the sporadic/discontinuous permafrost zone. Moreover, a number of major (Ca, Mg and trace (Al, Ti, Sr, Ga, rare earth elements (REEs, Zr, Hf, Th elements exhibited an increasing, not decreasing, northward concentration trend. We hypothesize that the effects of temperature and thickness of the ALT are of secondary importance relative to the leaching capacity of peat, which is in turn controlled by the water saturation of the peat core. The water residence time in peat pores also plays a role in enriching the

  9. Dissolved organic carbon and major and trace elements in peat porewater of sporadic, discontinuous, and continuous permafrost zones of western Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudina, Tatiana V.; Loiko, Sergey V.; Lim, Artyom G.; Krickov, Ivan V.; Shirokova, Liudmila S.; Istigechev, Georgy I.; Kuzmina, Daria M.; Kulizhsky, Sergey P.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.

    2017-07-01

    Mobilization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and related trace elements (TEs) from the frozen peat to surface waters in the permafrost zone is expected to enhance under ongoing permafrost thaw and active layer thickness (ALT) deepening in high-latitude regions. The interstitial soil solutions are efficient tracers of ongoing bio-geochemical processes in the critical zone and can help to decipher the intensity of carbon and metals migration from the soil to the rivers and further to the ocean. To this end, we collected, across a 640 km latitudinal transect of the sporadic to continuous permafrost zone of western Siberia peatlands, soil porewaters from 30 cm depth using suction cups and we analyzed DOC, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and 40 major elements and TEs in 0.45 µm filtered fraction of 80 soil porewaters. Despite an expected decrease in the intensity of DOC and TE mobilization from the soil and vegetation litter to the interstitial fluids with the increase in the permafrost coverage and a decrease in the annual temperature and ALT, the DOC and many major and trace elements did not exhibit any distinct decrease in concentration along the latitudinal transect from 62.2 to 67.4° N. The DOC demonstrated a maximum of concentration at 66° N, on the border of the discontinuous/continuous permafrost zone, whereas the DOC concentration in peat soil solutions from the continuous permafrost zone was equal to or higher than that in the sporadic/discontinuous permafrost zone. Moreover, a number of major (Ca, Mg) and trace (Al, Ti, Sr, Ga, rare earth elements (REEs), Zr, Hf, Th) elements exhibited an increasing, not decreasing, northward concentration trend. We hypothesize that the effects of temperature and thickness of the ALT are of secondary importance relative to the leaching capacity of peat, which is in turn controlled by the water saturation of the peat core. The water residence time in peat pores also plays a role in enriching the fluids in some elements

  10. Predictors of Preoperative Tinnitus in Unilateral Sporadic Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Naros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNearly two-thirds of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS are reporting a significantly impaired quality of life due to tinnitus. VS-associated tinnitus is attributed to an anatomical and physiological damage of the hearing nerve by displacing growth of the tumor. In contrast, the current pathophysiological concept of non-VS tinnitus hypothesizes a maladaptive neuroplasticity of the central nervous system to a (hidden hearing impairment resulting in a subjective misperception. However, it is unclear whether this concept fits to VS-associated tinnitus. This study aims to determine the clinical predictors of VS-associated tinnitus to ascertain the compatibility of both pathophysiological concepts.MethodsThis retrospective study includes a group of 478 neurosurgical patients with unilateral sporadic VS evaluated preoperatively regarding the occurrence of ipsilateral tinnitus depending on different clinical factors, i.e., age, gender, tumor side, tumor size (T1–T4 according to the Hannover classification, and hearing impairment (Gardner–Robertson classification, GR1–5, using a binary logistic regression.Results61.8% of patients complain about a preoperative tinnitus. The binary logistic regression analysis identified male gender [OR 1.90 (1.25–2.75; p = 0.002] and hearing impairment GR3 [OR 1.90 (1.08–3.35; p = 0.026] and GR4 [OR 8.21 (2.29–29.50; p = 0.001] as positive predictors. In contrast, patients with large T4 tumors [OR 0.33 (0.13–0.86; p = 0.024] and complete hearing loss GR5 [OR 0.36 (0.15–0.84; p = 0.017] were less likely to develop a tinnitus. Yet, 60% of the patients with good clinical hearing (GR1 and 25% of patients with complete hearing loss (GR5 suffered from tinnitus.ConclusionThese data are good accordance with literature about non-VS tinnitus indicating hearing impairment as main risk factor. In contrast, complete hearing loss appears a negative predictor for tinnitus. For the first

  11. SDHAF2 mutations in familial and sporadic paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Jean-Pierre; Kunst, Henricus P M; Cascon, Alberto; Sampietro, Maria Lourdes; Gaal, José; Korpershoek, Esther; Hinojar-Gutierrez, Adolfo; Timmers, Henri J L M; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Hermsen, Mario A; Suárez, Carlos; Hussain, A Karim; Vriends, Annette H J T; Hes, Frederik J; Jansen, Jeroen C; Tops, Carli M; Corssmit, Eleonora P; de Knijff, Peter; Lenders, Jacques W M; Cremers, Cor W R J; Devilee, Peter; Dinjens, Winand N M; de Krijger, Ronald R; Robledo, Mercedes

    2010-04-01

    Paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumours associated frequently with germline mutations of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB. Previous studies have shown the imprinted SDHAF2 gene to be mutated in a large Dutch kindred with paragangliomas. We aimed to identify SDHAF2 mutation carriers, assess the clinical genetic significance of SDHAF2, and describe the associated clinical phenotype. We undertook a multicentre study in Spain and The Netherlands in 443 apparently sporadic patients with paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas who did not have mutations in SDHD, SDHC, or SDHB. We analysed DNA of 315 patients for germline mutations of SDHAF2; a subset (n=200) was investigated for gross gene deletions. DNA from a group of 128 tumours was studied for somatic mutations. We also examined a Spanish family with head and neck paragangliomas with a young age of onset for the presence of SDHAF2 mutations, undertook haplotype analysis in this kindred, and assessed their clinical phenotype. We did not identify any germline or somatic mutations of SDHAF2, and no gross gene deletions were noted in the subset of apparently sporadic patients analysed. Investigation of the Spanish family identified a pathogenic germline DNA mutation of SDHAF2, 232G-->A (Gly78Arg), identical to the Dutch kindred. SDHAF2 mutations do not have an important role in phaeochromocytoma and are rare in head and neck paraganglioma. Identification of a second family with the Gly78Arg mutation suggests that this is a crucial residue for the function of SDHAF2. We conclude that SDHAF2 mutation analysis is justified in very young patients with isolated head and neck paraganglioma without mutations in SDHD, SDHC, or SDHB, and in individuals with familial antecedents who are negative for mutations in all other risk genes. Dutch Cancer Society, European Union 6th Framework Program, Fondo Investigaciones Sanitarias, Fundación Mutua Madrileña, and Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Cáncer. 2010

  12. Sporadic cases of adult measles: a research article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratna, Ranjan; Luke, Nathasha; Perera, Harsha; Gunathilake, Mahesh; Amarasena, Pubudu; Chandrasena, T G A Nilmini

    2017-01-10

    Measles caused by a paramyxovirus, characterized by fever, malaise, cough, coryza conjunctivitis, a maculopapular rash is known to result in pneumonia, encephalitis and death. Fatal cases of measles in Sri Lanka are rare after implementation of the National Immunization Programme in 1984. Thereafter 0.1% case fatality rate was observed during October 1999-June 2000 which is a very low figure compared to other regional countries. Immunization guidelines were further revised in 2001, 2011 and in 2012 when additional immunization was recommended to age group 4-21 years; who are likely to have inadequate immunization, in order to achieve elimination of Measles by 2020. However, in 2013-2014, 4690 cases were reported and the majority were children less than 1 year of age. The occurrence in adults is hard to retrieve in published epidemiological reports, however had been 38% (out of 1008 patients) in the 3rd quarter of 2013. During this outbreak 73/101 (72%) reported from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka had been more than 12 years of age with 50% being more than 29 years. 14 Sri lankan adult patients [median age 32 years (range 25-48)] who presented sporadically from June 2014 to March 2016, with confirmed measles infection were enrolled retrospectively after informed consent. Details with regards to their clinical presentation, immunization and other relevant areas were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire or using patient management records. The patients presented with high fever, headache, severe body aches, sore throat, dry cough, intense tearing, red eyes and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy over 3-5 days duration. Later they developed discrete maculopapular rash helping the diagnosis. They had a variable degree of leucopenia, lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia and derangements in the liver functions mimicking any other acute febrile illnesses such as dengue, chikungunya, leptospirosis or Zika virus infection. At least a 3-5

  13. Mobile Election

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Elena; Lovitskii, Vladimir; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David

    2009-01-01

    Mobile phones have the potential of fostering political mobilisation. There is a significant political power in mobile technology. Like the Internet, mobile phones facilitate communication and rapid access to information. Compared to the Internet, however, mobile phone diffusion has reached a larger proportion of the population in most countries, and thus the impact of this new medium is conceivably greater. There are now more mobile phones in the UK than there are people (ave...

  14. Mobile Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Alamuri, Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this project was to get an understanding of how companies adopt mobile as an advertising medium. The literature review aided in framing a draft of the factors that affect mobile advertising adoption and possible forms of mobile advertising. Considering the scope of the thesis work, branding strategy, service costs, personalization and privacy and platform were considered to be the factors that could affect the mobile advertising adoption. A few possible forms on mobile device we...

  15. Potentially mobile of heavy metals on the surface sediments in tropical hyper-saline and positive estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS A. RAMOS E SILVA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Estuarine sediments represent important pools of trace metals, released from both anthropogenic and natural sources. Fluctuations in the water column physicochemical conditions, on the other hand, may transfer metals from solid to liquid compartment and resulting in contamination of the surrounding environment. The present research was carried out to evaluate the weakly bounded heavy metal levels in tropical hyper-saline and positive estuaries, in order to quantify its potentially availability. The monitoring includes five metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn and cover nine estuaries in Rio Grande do Norte state/Brazil, including four hypersaline and five true estuaries. 50 surface sediment samples were collected in each estuary. At the same time, organic matter concentrations were evaluated in order to help explaining possible local variations in heavy metal levels. Organic matter results (0.7% - 7.3% suggest the positive Potengi estuary as the most critical environmental quality situation. On the other hand, according to heavy metals levels, both Conchas and Potengi estuaries registered the higher concentrations of Cr. The highest concentrations were observed in the hyper-saline estuaries, with the exception of the Zn. The present study revealed that the watershed occupation has significantly influenced the heavy metal concentrations in the estuaries.

  16. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.

  17. Radiosurgical treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannomas: A prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel V, Freddy; Iniguez S, Rodrigo; Venencia M, Daniel; Tagle M, Patricio; Besa D, Pelayo; Lorenzoni S, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the preliminary experience of radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. Material and methods: The first 17 patients with sporadic Vestibular Schwannomas treated by radiosurgery at our institution are reported. The marginal dose used was 12 to 12.5 Gy. prescribed at the 70 or 80 isodose fine. Patients were controlled at 6, 12 and 24 months with magnetic resonance, audiometric study and clinical examination. Results: In all of the 17 patients treated a decrease tumor enhancement on MR was demonstrated. In 16 patients (94%) a pattern of central tumor necrosis was observed during the firs year Actuarial useful hearing was maintained in 62.5% at 2 year after treatment. Facial nerve function was maintained in all of the 15 patients with normal function at treatment (100%). Trigeminal function was maintained in ah of the 14 patients (100%) with previous normal trigeminal function. The mean time to return to work or normal activities was 11.5 days after treatment. Conclusions: These preliminary results are comparable with results published in the literature and reinforce the demonstrate role of radiosurgery in the management of vestibular schwannomas

  18. A review of drug therapy for sporadic fatal insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaee Damavandi, Pardis; Dove, Martin T; Pickersgill, Richard W

    2017-09-03

    Sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) is a rapid progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual to perpetual insomnia, followed by dysautonomia, coma and death. 1 The cause of sFI was recently mapped to a mutation in a protein, the prion, found in the human brain. It is the unfolding of the prion that leads to the generation of toxic oligomers that destroy brain tissue and function. Recent studies have confirmed that a methionine mutation at codon 129 of the human Prion is characteristic of sFI. Current treatment slows down the progression of the disease, but no cure has been found, yet. We used Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics simulation methods, to study the toxic Fatal-Insomnia-prion conformations at local unfolding. The idea was to determine these sites and to stabilise these regions against unfolding and miss-folding, using a small ligand, based on a phenothiazine "moiety". As a result we here discuss current fatal insomnia therapy and present seven novel possible compounds for in vitro and in vivo screening.

  19. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  20. [Lung transplantation in sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis: study of 7 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansótegui Barrera, Emilio; Mancheño Franch, Nuria; Peñalver Cuesta, Juan Carlos; Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Padilla Alarcón, José

    2013-10-19

    Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (S-LAM) is a rare disease that affects only women. It is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature smooth muscle cells (LAM cells) that grow in an aberrant manner in the airway, parenchymal lung lymph and blood vessels, determining the onset of pulmonary cystic lesions. The disease has no treatment, progressing to respiratory failure, and lung transplantation (LT) may be a treatment option at this stage. Our goal was to study 7 patients undergoing LT for S-LAM. We studied a series of clinical and demographic characteristics, diagnostic modality and post-transplant outcomes. We performed a descriptive analysis of the series. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. The mean age of onset of symptoms was 35 years, the diagnosis of 37 years and that of LT 38 years. The most common symptom was dyspnea. Four patients had a history of pneumothorax and pleural effusion. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second was 32.7% and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was 29%. All patients were subjected to LT and survival was 100, 85.7 and 57.1% at one, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Three died of bronchiolitis obliterans and 2 necropsies did not show evidence of disease recurrence. LT is a therapeutic option in patients with S-LAM with an advanced respiratory functional impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Thyroid Sporadic Goiter with Adult Heterotopic Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid heterotopic bone formation (HBF in goiter is a rare finding. Five thyroid resection specimens were analyzed for HBF. The results were correlated with clinicomorphological features. All patients were women (33–82 years. The preoperative diagnosis was thyroid goiter or nodule. Treatment consisted in thyroidectomy and lobectomy (3 and 2, resp.. Microscopy showed sporadic nodular goiter. Malformative blood vessels and vascular calcifications were seen in intra- and extrathyroid location (5 and 3, resp.. The number and size of HBFs (total: 28 ranged between 1 and 23/thyroid gland (one bilateral and 1 and 10 mm, respectively. Twelve HBFs were in contact with the thyroid capsule. Most were extranodular (21, versus 6 intranodular. The medical history was positive for dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, renal dysfunction, and hyperuricemia (2, 3, and 3 cases and 1 case, resp. without any parathyroid abnormality. In conclusion, thyroid HBF may be characterized by subcapsular or extranodular location, various size (usually ≥2 mm, and vascular calcifications and malformations. Features of metabolic syndrome and renal dysfunction may be present, but their exact role in the pathogenesis of HBFs remains to be elucidated.

  2. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    that of ‘mobilities design’. The book revolves around the following research question: How are design decisions and interventions staging mobilities? It builds upon the Staging Mobilities model (Jensen 2013) in an explorative inquiry into the problems and potentials of the design of mobilities. The exchange value...... between mobilities and design research is twofold. To mobilities research this means getting closer to the ‘material’, and to engage in the creative, explorative and experimental approaches of the design world which offer new potentials for innovative research. Design research, on the other hand, might...... enter into a fruitful relationship with mobilities research, offering a relational and mobile design thinking and a valuable base for a reflective design practice around the ubiquitous structures, spaces and systems of mobilities....

  3. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...... designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design...

  4. BP1, an Isoform of DLX4 Homeoprotein, Negatively Regulates BRCA1 in Sporadic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluk, Brian J.; Fu, Yebo; Formolo, Trina A.; Zhang, Lei; Hindle, Anne K.; Man, Yan-gao; Siegel, Robert S.; Berg, Patricia E.; Deng, Chuxia; McCaffrey, Timothy A.; Fu, Sidney W.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Several lines of evidence point to an important role for BP1, an isoform of DLX4 homeobox gene, in breast carcinogenesis and progression. BRCA1 is a well-known player in the etiology of breast cancer. While familial breast cancer is often marked by BRCA1 mutation and subsequent loss of heterozygosity, sporadic breast cancers exhibit reduced expression of wild type BRCA1, and loss of BRCA1 expression may result in tumor development and progression. Methods: The Cister algorithm and Genomatix program were used to identify potential BP1 binding sites in BRCA1 gene. Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to verify the expression of BRCA1 and BP1 in cell lines and breast cancer tissues. Double-stranded siRNA transfection was carried out for silencing BP1 expression. ChIP and EMSA were used to confirm that BP1 specifically binds to BRCA1. Results: A putative BP1 binding site was identified in the first intron of BRCA1, which was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipiation and electrophoresis mobility shift assay. BP1 and BRCA1 expression were inversely correlated in breast cancer cell lines and tissues, suggesting that BP1 may suppress BRCA1 transcription through consensus sequence binding. Conclusions: BP1 homeoprotein represses BRCA1 expression through direct binding to its first intron, which is consistent with a previous study which identified a novel transcriptional repressor element located more than 500 base pairs into the first intron of BRCA1, suggesting that the first intron plays an important role in the negative regulation of BRCA1. Although further functional studies are necessary to confirm its repressor activity towards BRCA1, the elucidation of the role of BP1 in breast tumorigenesis holds great promise in establishing BP1 as a novel target for drug therapy. PMID:20877436

  5. Facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and unknown bacteria on mobile phone touch surfaces/computer keyboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, T. Ranjeth Kumar; Kim, Hyun-Joong

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the development of novel metallic nanoparticles using various top-down and bottom-up synthesis techniques. Kenaf is a huge biomass product and a potential component for industrial applications. In this work, we investigated the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by using kenaf ( Hibiscus cannabinus) cellulose extract and sucrose, which act as stabilizing and reducing agents in solution. With this method, by changing the pH of the solution as a function of time, we studied the optical, morphological and antibacterial properties of the synthesized AgNPs. In addition, these nanoparticles were characterized by Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field-emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). As the pH of the solution varies, the surface plasmon resonance peak also varies. A fast rate of reaction at pH 10 compared with that at pH 5 was identified. TEM micrographs confirm that the shapes of the particles are spherical and polygonal. Furthermore, the average size of the nanoparticles synthesized at pH 5, pH 8 and pH 10 is 40.26, 28.57 and 24.57 nm, respectively. The structure of the synthesized AgNPs was identified as face-centered cubic (fcc) by XRD. The compositional analysis was determined by EDX. FTIR confirms that the kenaf cellulose extract and sucrose act as stabilizing and reducing agents for the silver nanoparticles. Meanwhile, these AgNPs exhibited size-dependent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and two other unknown bacteria from mobile phone screens and computer keyboard surfaces.

  6. Investigation of UHPLC/travelling-wave ion mobility/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for fast profiling of fatty acids in the high Arctic sea surface microlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rad, Farshid Mashayekhy; Leck, Caroline; Ilag, Leopold L; Nilsson, Ulrika

    2018-03-09

    Fatty acids are enriched in the ocean surface microlayer (SML) and have as a consequence been detected worldwide in sea spray aerosols. In searching for a relationship between the properties of the atmospheric aerosol and its ability to form cloud condensation nuclei and to promote cloud droplet formation over remote marine areas, the role of surface active fatty acids sourced from the SML is of interest to be investigated. Here is presented a fast method for profiling of major fatty acids in SML samples collected in the high Arctic (89 °N, 1 °W) in the summer of 2001. UHPLC/travelling-wave ion mobility spectrometry (TWIMS)/time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) for profiling was evaluated and compared with UHPLC/TOFMS. No sample preparation, except evaporation and centrifugation, was necessary to perform prior to the analysis. TOFMS data on accurate mass, isotopic ratios and fragmentation patterns enabled identification of the fatty acids. The TWIMS dimension added to the selectivity by extensive reduction of the noise level and the entire UHPLC/TWIMS/TOFMS method provided a fast profiling of the acids, ranging from C 8 to C 24 . Hexadecanoic and octadecanoic acids were shown to yield the highest signals among the fatty acids detected in a high Arctic SML sample, followed by the unsaturated octadecenoic and octadecadienoic acids. The predominance of signal from even-numbered carbon chains indicates a mainly biogenic origin of the detected fatty acids. This study presents a fast alternative method for screening and profiling of fatty acids, which has the advantage of not requiring any complicated sample preparation thus limiting the loss of analytes. Almost no manual handling, together with the very small sample volumes needed, is certainly beneficial for the determination of trace amounts and should open up the field of applications to also include atmospheric aerosol and fog. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Mobile load simulators - A tool to distinguish between the emissions due to abrasion and resuspension of PM10 from road surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, R.; Zeyer, K.; Bukowiecki, N.; Lienemann, P.; Poulikakos, L. D.; Furger, M.; Buchmann, B.

    2010-12-01

    Mechanically produced abrasion particles and resuspension processes are responsible for a significant part of the PM10 emissions of road traffic. However, specific differentiation between PM10 emissions due to abrasion and resuspension from road pavement is very difficult due to their similar elemental composition and highly correlated variation in time. In this work Mobile Load Simulators were used to estimate PM10 emission factors for pavement abrasion and resuspension on different pavement types for light and heavy duty vehicles. From the experiments it was derived that particle emissions due to abrasion from pavements in good condition are quite low in the range of only a few mg·km -1 per vehicle if quantifiable at all. Considerable abrasion emissions, however, can occur from damaged pavements. Resuspension of deposited dust can cause high and extremely variable particle emissions depending strongly on the dirt load of the road surface. Porous pavements seem to retain deposited dust better than dense pavements, thus leading to lower emissions due to resuspension compared to pavements with a dense structure (e.g. asphalt concrete). Tyre wear seemed not to be a quantitatively significant source of PM10 emissions from road traffic.

  8. AlN Surface Passivation of GaN-Based High Electron Mobility Transistors by Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, An-Jye; Chu, Kuo-Hsiung; Lin, I.-Feng; Østreng, Erik; Fang, Yung-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Peng; Wu, Bo-Wei; Shen, Chang-Hong; Shieh, Jia-Ming; Yeh, Wen-Kuan; Chang, Chun-Yen; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2017-04-01

    We report a low current collapse GaN-based high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with an excellent thermal stability at 150 °C. The AlN was grown by N2-based plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and shown a refractive index of 1.94 at 633 nm of wavelength. Prior to deposit AlN on III-nitrides, the H2/NH3 plasma pre-treatment led to remove the native gallium oxide. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectroscopy confirmed that the native oxide can be effectively decomposed by hydrogen plasma. Following the in situ ALD-AlN passivation, the surface traps can be eliminated and corresponding to a 22.1% of current collapse with quiescent drain bias ( V DSQ) at 40 V. Furthermore, the high temperature measurement exhibited a shift-free threshold voltage ( V th), corresponding to a 40.2% of current collapse at 150 °C. The thermal stable HEMT enabled a breakdown voltage (BV) to 687 V at high temperature, promising a good thermal reliability under high power operation.

  9. Mobile Workforce, Mobile Technology, Mobile Threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies' introduction into the world of safeguards business processes such as inspection creates tremendous opportunity for novel approaches and could result in a number of improvements to such processes. Mobile applications are certainly the wave of the future. The success of the application ecosystems has shown that users want full fidelity, highly-usable, simple purpose applications with simple installation, quick responses and, of course, access to network resources at all times. But the counterpart to opportunity is risk, and the widespread adoption of mobile technologies requires a deep understanding of the threats and vulnerabilities inherent in mobile technologies. Modern mobile devices can be characterized as small computers. As such, the threats against computing infrastructure apply to mobile devices. Meanwhile, the attributes of mobile technology that make it such an obvious benefit over traditional computing platforms all have elements of risk: pervasive, always-on networking; diverse ecosystems; lack of centralized control; constantly shifting technological foundations; intense competition among competitors in the marketplace; the scale of the installation base (from millions to billions); and many more. This paper will explore the diverse and massive environment of mobile, the number of attackers and vast opportunities for compromise. The paper will explain how mobile devices prove valuable targets to both advanced and persistent attackers as well as less-skilled casual hackers. Organized crime, national intelligence agencies, corporate espionage are all part of the landscape. (author)

  10. Clinical Perspective of Oxidative Stress in Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Santella, Regina M.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is one of the most devastating neurological diseases; most patients die within 3 to 4 years after symptom onset. Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance favoring the pro-oxidative state. Autopsy and laboratory studies in ALS indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in motor neuron degeneration and astrocyte dysfunction. Oxidative stress biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine, are elevated, suggesting that abnormal oxidative stress is generated outside of the central nervous system. Our review indicates that agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, military service, professional sports, excessive physical exertion, chronic head trauma, and certain foods might be modestly associated with ALS risk, with a stronger association between risk and smoking. At the cellular level, these factors are all involved in generating oxidative stress. Experimental studies indicate that a combination of insults that induce modest oxidative stress can exert additive deleterious effects on motor neurons, suggesting multiple exposures in real-world environments are important. As the disease progresses, nutritional deficiency, cachexia, psychological stress, and impending respiratory failure may further increase oxidative stress. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that ALS is possibly a systemic disease. Laboratory, pathologic, and epidemiologic evidence clearly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is central in the pathogenic process, particularly in genetically susceptive individuals. If we are to improve ALS treatment, well-designed biochemical and genetic epidemiological studies, combined with a multidisciplinary research approach, are needed and will provide knowledge crucial to our understanding of ALS etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis. PMID:23797033

  11. MTHFR polymorphisms as prognostic factors in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osian, Gelu; Procopciuc, Lucia; Vlad, Liviu

    2007-09-01

    Theoretically, individuals having at least one mutant allele present a modified activity of the MTHFR enzyme and low methylation, DNA synthesis-repair respectively, which could imply a higher risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations of these mutations with the clinico-pathological aspects of colorectal cancer. The study included 69 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. The relative risk in homozygous patients with a normal allele and for mutations C667T and A1298C, in heterozygous patients with one normal and one mutant allele, and for homozygous patients for the mutant allele was calculated. C667T and A1298C mutations represent a risk factor for colorectal cancer with an OR (odds ratio) = 2.13 (CI (0.51-8.91)) and 3 (CI(0.3-29.58), respectively, in homozygous patients. These mutations are associated with a more frequent location of lesions at the colon level, OR=2.3 and 2.15 respectively. The incidence of the A1298C mutation was more frequent in stage N0 than N+ (p<0.05), pT2 vs. pT3 (p<0.05), as well as in Dukes stages B and D vs. A or C (p<0.05). The results obtained support the hypothesis of an increased colorectal cancer prevalence in patients with one of the MTHFR gene mutations. These patients develop colon cancer more frequently, they present lymph node invasion more rarely, and develop more often distant metastases.

  12. Upregulated Genes In Sporadic, Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Magdi H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate further the pathogenesis of sporadic, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH and identify potential therapeutic avenues, differential gene expression in IPAH was examined by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH. Methods Peripheral lung samples were obtained immediately after removal from patients undergoing lung transplant for IPAH without familial disease, and control tissues consisted of similarly sampled pieces of donor lungs not utilised during transplantation. Pools of lung mRNA from IPAH cases containing plexiform lesions and normal donor lungs were used to generate the tester and driver cDNA libraries, respectively. A subtracted IPAH cDNA library was made by SSH. Clones isolated from this subtracted library were examined for up regulated expression in IPAH using dot blot arrays of positive colony PCR products using both pooled cDNA libraries as probes. Clones verified as being upregulated were sequenced. For two genes the increase in expression was verified by northern blotting and data analysed using Student's unpaired two-tailed t-test. Results We present preliminary findings concerning candidate genes upregulated in IPAH. Twenty-seven upregulated genes were identified out of 192 clones examined. Upregulation in individual cases of IPAH was shown by northern blot for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 and decorin (P Conclusion Four of the up regulated genes, magic roundabout, hevin, thrombomodulin and sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase-1 are expressed specifically by endothelial cells and one, muscleblind-1, by muscle cells, suggesting that they may be associated with plexiform lesions and hypertrophic arterial wall remodelling, respectively.

  13. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Genotype and phenotype analysis of patients with sporadic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chih-Chien; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lo, Yi-Fen; Lin, Mei-Shan; Yang, Sung-Sen; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Sporadic periodic paralysis (SPP), the second leading cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) in Asia, has a presentation similar to that of familial periodic paralysis (FPP) and is caused by gene mutations in the calcium (Ca(2+)) (CACNA1S) and sodium (Na(+)) (SCN4A) channels of skeletal muscle. The authors determined whether SPP shares similar genotype and phenotype with FPP. Sixty SPP patients who did not have a family history of paralysis, abnormal thyroid function tests and other identifiable causes of HPP, and 8 FPP patients were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes of all SPP and FPP patients. Genetic analysis of whole S4 segment in CACNA1S and SCN4A was performed. Phenotypic analysis included clinical presentations, laboratory data and precipitating events. All FPP patients had mutations in either CACNA1S or SCN4A, but only 4 SPP patients had de novo mutations in CACNA1S (R1239H) and SCN4A (R669×2, R1135H). SPP patients with de novo mutations manifested a phenotype indistinguishable from that of FPP patients except a later age of onset. SPP patients without mutations also had a later age of onset, significantly fewer attacks of paralysis than FPP patients, and unidentifiable precipitating factors. A minority of SPP patients had de novo CACNA1S or SCN4A mutations and may have a variant of FPP. The majority of SPP patients, those without mutations in CACNA1S and SCN4A, represent a unique subgroup of HPP patients, and this form of SPP usually manifests at a later age, is associated with fewer attacks and lacks apparent triggering factors.

  15. Identification of epigenetically altered genes in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Figueroa-Romero

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a terminal disease involving the progressive degeneration of motor neurons within the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Most cases are sporadic (sALS with unknown causes suggesting that the etiology of sALS may not be limited to the genotype of patients, but may be influenced by exposure to environmental factors. Alterations in epigenetic modifications are likely to play a role in disease onset and progression in ALS, as aberrant epigenetic patterns may be acquired throughout life. The aim of this study was to identify epigenetic marks associated with sALS. We hypothesize that epigenetic modifications may alter the expression of pathogenesis-related genes leading to the onset and progression of sALS. Using ELISA assays, we observed alterations in global methylation (5 mC and hydroxymethylation (5 HmC in postmortem sALS spinal cord but not in whole blood. Loci-specific differentially methylated and expressed genes in sALS spinal cord were identified by genome-wide 5mC and expression profiling using high-throughput microarrays. Concordant direction, hyper- or hypo-5mC with parallel changes in gene expression (under- or over-expression, was observed in 112 genes highly associated with biological functions related to immune and inflammation response. Furthermore, literature-based analysis identified potential associations among the epigenes. Integration of methylomics and transcriptomics data successfully revealed methylation changes in sALS spinal cord. This study represents an initial identification of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in sALS which may improve our understanding of sALS pathogenesis for the identification of biomarkers and new therapeutic targets.

  16. Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusters by season and locality reveal a striking epidemiological overlap between sporadic schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS. As the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodid ticks, a meta analysis has been performed between all neuropsychiatric birth excesses including MS and the epidemiology of spirochaetal infectious diseases. Results The prevalence of MS and schizophrenic birth excesses entirely spares the tropical belt where human treponematoses are endemic, whereas in more temperate climates infection rates of Borrelia garinii in ticks collected from seabirds match the global geographic distribution of MS. If the seasonal fluctuations of Lyme borreliosis in Europe are taken into account, the birth excesses of MS and those of schizophrenia are nine months apart, reflecting the activity of Ixodes ricinus at the time of embryonic implantation and birth. In America, this nine months' shift between MS and schizophrenic births is also reflected by the periodicity of Borrelia burgdorferi transmitting Ixodes pacificus ticks along the West Coast and the periodicity of Ixodes scapularis along the East Coast. With respect to Ixodid tick activity, amongst the neuropsychiatric birth excesses only amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS shows a similar seasonal trend. Conclusion It cannot be excluded at present that maternal infection by Borrelia burgdorferi poses a risk to the unborn. The seasonal and geographical overlap between schizophrenia, MS and neuroborreliosis rather emphasises a causal relation that derives from exposure to a flagellar virulence factor at conception and delivery. It is hoped that the pathogenic correlation of spirochaetal virulence to temperature and heat shock proteins (HSP might encourage a new direction of research in molecular epidemiology.

  17. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  18. Visual art therapy in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rajeet; Trauger-Querry, Barbara; Loughrin, Athena; Appleby, Brian S

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the diagnostic and treatment utility of visual art therapy in a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Visual art therapy was compared longitudinally with clinical and neuroimaging data over five-month period in an autopsy-confirmed case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of MM2-cortical subtype. Art therapy sessions and content were useful in ascertaining neuropsychiatric symptoms during the course of her illness. Art therapy offered a unique emotional and cognitive outlet as illness progressed. Patients and families affected by sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may benefit from art therapy despite the rapidly progressive nature of the illness. Art therapy can also be useful for assessment of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by healthcare professionals.

  19. Genetic architecture of sporadic frontotemporal dementia and overlap with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Wang, Yunpeng; Vandrovcova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical, pathological and genetic overlap between sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested; however, the relationship between these disorders is still not well understood. Here we evaluated genetic overlap betwee...

  20. Building a Hybrid Experimental Platform for Mobile Botnet Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Malatras

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobile botnets are an emerging security threat that aims at exploiting the wide penetration of mobile devices and systems and their vulnerabilities in the same spirit of traditional botnets. Mobile botmasters take advantage of infected mobile devices and issue command and control operations on them to extract personal information, cause denial of service or gain financially. To date, research on countering such attacks or studying their effects has been conducted in a sporadic manner that hinders the repetition of experiments and thus limits their validity. We present here our work on a hybrid experimental platform for mobile botnets that supports the execution and monitoring of related scenarios concerning their infection, attack vectors, propagation, etc. The platform is based on principles of flexibility, extensibility and facilitates the setup of scalable experiments utilising both real and emulated mobile systems. We also discuss a novel method of estimating the active bot population in a botnet and illustrate its deployment on the experimental platform.

  1. RET single nucleotide polymorphism in Indonesians with sporadic Hirschsprung’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saryono

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The tyrosine kinase receptor RET, which is the protein product of the RET gene, is involved in the development of the mammalian nervous system that causes Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR. RETs are cell surface molecules that are expressed in cells derived from the neural crest. The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the RET gene in HSCR in the Yogyakarta population. Genomic DNA was extracted from surgically removed bowel tissues of 54 unrelated HSCR patients. Exon 2 of the RET gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Molecular results were compared with clinical performance of Hirschsprung patients. RET polymorphism was detected in exon 2 in all of the 54 Indonesian HSCR patients. The allelic distribution of the c135GàA polymorphism in the RET exon 2 indicated that the A allele was more frequent in patients than in control individuals (chi-square test, p= 0.001. Thus the RET variant allele A is over-represented in patients affected with the HSCR phenotype. Polymorphism of exon 2 of the RET gene was found in sporadic Hirschsprung’s disease in the Yogyakarta population, which suggests that the RET gene plays important roles in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  2. RET single nucleotide polymorphism in Indonesians with sporadic Hirschsprung’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saryono Saryono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tyrosine kinase receptor RET, which is the protein product of the RET gene, is involved in the development of the mammalian nervous system that causes Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR. RETs are cell surface molecules that are expressed in cells derived from the neural crest. The purpose of this study was to investigate the polymorphism of the RET gene in HSCR in the Yogyakarta population. Genomic DNA was extracted from surgically removed bowel tissues of 54 unrelated HSCR patients. Exon 2 of the RET gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. Molecular results were compared with clinical performance of Hirschsprung patients. RET polymorphism was detected in exon 2 in all of the 54 Indonesian HSCR patients. The allelic distribution of the c135GàA polymorphism in the RET exon 2 indicated that the A allele was more frequent in patients than in control individuals (chi-square test, p= 0.001. Thus the RET variant allele A is over-represented in patients affected with the HSCR phenotype. Polymorphism of exon 2 of the RET gene was found in sporadic Hirschsprung’s disease in the Yogyakarta population, which suggests that the RET gene plays important roles in the pathogenesis of HSCR.

  3. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  4. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gause, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  5. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Within the so-called ‘mobilities turn’ (Adey 2010; Cresswell 2006; Urry 2007) much research has taken place during the last decade bringing mobilities into the centre of sociological analysis. However, the materiality and spatiality of artefacts, infrastructures, and sites hosting mobilities are ......: motorway ecologies, bicycle systems design, urban shopping malls and a train transit hub....

  6. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon; Jensen, Ole B.

    2017-01-01

    utilitarian transport from A to B; they constitute a rich societal phenomenon with, for example, social, cultural, sensorial, emotional, and material dimensions. The article proposes two fruitful links between the mobilities turn and the designerly examination of mobilities spaces. First, the mobilities turn...

  7. Subversive Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The article approaches mobility through a cultural history of urban conflict. Using a case of “The Copenhagen Trouble,“ a series of riots in the Danish capital around 1900, a space of subversive mobilities is delineated. These turn-of-the-century riots points to a new pattern of mobile gathering...

  8. Intensive mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vannini, Phillip; Bissell, David; Jensen, Ole B.

    which relate to transport, housing and employment. Yet we argue that the experiential dimensions of long distance mobilities have not received the attention that they deserve within geographical research on mobilities. This paper combines ideas from mobilities research and contemporary social theory...

  9. Serum uric acid and lipid profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; He, Shuang; Shang, Jun-Kui; Ma, Ming-Ming; Xu, Chang-Shui; Shi, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jie-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, rapidly progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. Brain lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in the disease pathogenesis. But little was known whether serum lipids and uric acid (a natural antioxidant) levels changed in patients with prion disease. Here we retrospectively reviewed and compared the serum lipids and uric acid levels of 19 probable sporadic CJD patients and 26 healthy control subjects. We found that the serum uric acid levels in sporadic CJD patients were significantly lower than that in controls (P=0.01). Serum triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were similar in sporadic CJD patients and controls. However, LDL/HDL ratio was lower in sporadic CJD patients (P=0.003). The low serum uric acid and LDL/HDL ratio levels in sporadic CJD indicate that dysfunction in the lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress is associated with sporadic prion disease. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Prion Protein Preference of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Subtypes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Helen M. J.; Welton, Jeremy M.; Masters, Colin L.; Klug, Genevieve M.; Boyd, Alison; Hill, Andrew F.; Collins, Steven J.; Lawson, Victoria A.

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most prevalent manifestation of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases affecting humans. The disease encompasses a spectrum of clinical phenotypes that have been correlated with molecular subtypes that are characterized by the molecular mass of the protease-resistant fragment of the disease-related conformation of the prion protein and a polymorphism at codon 129 of the gene encoding the prion protein. A cell-free assay of prion protein misfolding was used to investigate the ability of these sporadic CJD molecular subtypes to propagate using brain-derived sources of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). This study confirmed the presence of three distinct sporadic CJD molecular subtypes with PrPC substrate requirements that reflected their codon 129 associations in vivo. However, the ability of a sporadic CJD molecular subtype to use a specific PrPC substrate was not determined solely by codon 129 as the efficiency of prion propagation was also influenced by the composition of the brain tissue from which the PrPC substrate was sourced, thus indicating that nuances in PrPC or additional factors may determine sporadic CJD subtype. The results of this study will aid in the design of diagnostic assays that can detect prion disease across the diversity of sporadic CJD subtypes. PMID:22930754

  11. Sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The heretofore made morphological studies of sporadic-E and spread-F as the typical irregularities of electron density are reviewed. These phenomena have close correlation with other geophysical phenomena which occur in the atmosphere of superhigh altitude in high latitude region. Many of these phenomena occur from same causes. Although the quantitative data are insufficient, the sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region are supposed to be caused by the precipitating charged particles falling from magnetosphere. A system, which can observe such phenomena simultaneously using the measuring instruments carried by satellites in the atmosphere of high altitude over high latitude region, is desirable to solve such problems. In detail, the morphological study on sporadic-E obtained from the observation of vertically projected ionosphere and the morphological study on sporadic-E from the observation of forward scattering and slanting entrance are reviewed. The correlation of the occurrence frequency of sporadic-E with solar activity, geomagnetic activity and other phenomena was studied. The morphological study on spread-F occurrence is reviewed. The observation of the spread-F in high latitude region by the application of top side sounding is reviewed. The correlation of the sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region with other geophysical phenomena is discussed. Finally, the discrete phenomenon and the diffuse phenomenon are discussed too. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Mobile Probes in Mobile Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Blomhøj, Ulla; Duvaa, Uffe

    In this paper experiences from using mobile probes in educational design of a mobile learning application is presented. The probing process stems from the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. In the project, the mobile phone was not only acting...... as an agent for acquiring empirical data (as the situation in hitherto mobile probe settings) but was also the technological medium for which data should say something about (mobile learning). Consequently, not only the content of the data but also the ways in which data was delivered and handled, provided...... a valuable dimension for investigating mobile use. The data was collected at the same time as design activities took place and the collective data was analysed based on user experience goals and cognitive processes from interaction design and mobile learning. The mobile probe increased the knowledge base...

  13. Mobile Semiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to understand the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The chapter explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. What takes place...... is a ‘mobile sense making’ where signs and materially situated meanings connect to the moving human body and thus create particular challenges and complexities of making sense of the world. The chapter includes notions of mobility systems and socio-technical networks in order to show how a ‘semiotic layer’ may...... work to afford or restrict mobile practices....

  14. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Users are already mobile, but the question is to which extent knowledge-based dictionary apps are designed for the mobile user situation. The objective of this article is to analyse the characteristics of the mobile user situation and to look further into the stationary user situation...... and the mobile user situation. The analysis is based on an empirical survey involving ten medical doctors and a monolingual app designed to support cognitive lexicographic functions, cf. (Tarp 2006:61-64). In test A the doctors looked up five medical terms while sitting down at a desk and in test B the doctors......:565), and it was found that the information access success of the mobile user situation is lower than that of the stationary user situation, primarily because users navigate in the physical world and in the mobile device at the same time. The data also suggest that the mobile user situation is not fully compatible...

  15. Sporadic colorectal cancer: Studying ways to an end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Paulo; Filipe, Bruno; Albuquerque, Cristina; Fonseca, Ricardo; Chaves, Paula; Pereira, António D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although colorectal cancer (CRC) has often been regarded as a single entity, different pathways may lead to macroscopically similar cancers. These pathways may evolve into a patchy colonic field defect that we aimed to study in consecutive CRC patients. Methods In a single-center, observational, prospective study, consecutive CRC patients were included if surgery and a perioperative colonoscopy were planned. Personal and familial history data were collected. Tumors were studied for microsatellite instability (MSI) status, DNA repair protein expression (DRPE) and presence of BRAF and/or APC mutations. Macroscopically normal mucosa samples were tested for APC mutations. Presence and location of synchronous and metachronous adenomas and patient follow-up were analyzed. The association of two categorical variables was tested through the Fisher’s exact test (SPSS 19). Results Twenty-four patients (12 male, mean age 69 years) were studied. High-grade MSI (MSI-H) was found in eight tumors—these were significantly more common in the right colon (p = 0.047) and more likely to have an altered DRPE (p = 0.007). BRAF mutation was found in two of six tested MSI-H tumors. APC gene mutations were found in nine of 16 non-MSI-H tumors and absent in normal mucosa samples. There was a nonsignificant co-localization of CRC and synchronous adenomas and a significant co-localization (p = 0.05) of synchronous and metachronous adenomas. Discussion Sporadic CRCs evolve through distinct pathways, evidenced only by pathological and molecular analysis, but clinically relevant both for patients and their families. In non-MSI-H tumors, the expected APC gene mutations were not detected by the most commonly used techniques in a high number of cases. More studies are needed to fully characterize these tumors and to search for common early events in normal mucosa patches, which might explain the indirect evidence found here for a field defect in the colon. PMID:27087959

  16. Transformation of zinc-concentrate in surface and subsurface environments: Implications for assessing zinc mobility/toxicity and choosing an optimal remediation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I; Yang, Jung-Seok; Lee, Seunghak; Hwang, Yun Ho; Lee, Ju Yeon; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Kemner, Kenneth M

    2017-07-01

    Zinc contamination in near- and sub-surface environments is a serious threat to many ecosystems and to public health. Sufficient understanding of Zn speciation and transport mechanisms is therefore critical to evaluating its risk to the environment and to developing remediation strategies. The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of contaminated soils in the vicinity of a Zn ore transportation route were thoroughly investigated using a variety of analytical techniques (sequential extraction, XRF, XRD, SEM, and XAFS). Imported Zn-concentrate (ZnS) was deposited in a receiving facility and dispersed over time to the surrounding roadside areas and rice-paddy soils. Subsequent physical and chemical weathering resulted in dispersal into the subsurface. The species identified in the contaminated areas included Zn-sulfide, Zn-carbonate, other O-coordinated Zn-minerals, and Zn species bound to Fe/Mn oxides or clays, as confirmed by XAFS spectroscopy and sequential extraction. The observed transformation from S-coordinated Zn to O-coordinated Zn associated with minerals suggests that this contaminant can change into more soluble and labile forms as a result of weathering. For the purpose of developing a soil washing remediation process, the contaminated samples were extracted with dilute acids. The extraction efficiency increased with the increase of O-coordinated Zn relative to S-coordinated Zn in the sediment. This study demonstrates that improved understanding of Zn speciation in contaminated soils is essential for well-informed decision making regarding metal mobility and toxicity, as well as for choosing an appropriate remediation strategy using soil washing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structure-function relationships in human testis-determining factor SRY: an aromatic buttress underlies the specific DNA-bending surface of a high mobility group (HMG) box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Joseph D; Chen, Yen-Shan; Maloy, James D; Wickramasinghe, Nalinda; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2014-11-21

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY, a Y-encoded architectural transcription factor. Mutations in SRY cause 46 XY gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype (Swyer syndrome) and confer a high risk of malignancy (gonadoblastoma). Such mutations cluster in the SRY high mobility group (HMG) box, a conserved motif of specific DNA binding and bending. To explore structure-function relationships, we constructed all possible substitutions at a site of clinical mutation (W70L). Our studies thus focused on a core aromatic residue (position 15 of the consensus HMG box) that is invariant among SRY-related HMG box transcription factors (the SOX family) and conserved as aromatic (Phe or Tyr) among other sequence-specific boxes. In a yeast one-hybrid system sensitive to specific SRY-DNA binding, the variant domains exhibited reduced (Phe and Tyr) or absent activity (the remaining 17 substitutions). Representative nonpolar variants with partial or absent activity (Tyr, Phe, Leu, and Ala in order of decreasing side-chain volume) were chosen for study in vitro and in mammalian cell culture. The clinical mutation (Leu) was found to markedly impair multiple biochemical and cellular activities as respectively probed through the following: (i) in vitro assays of specific DNA binding and protein stability, and (ii) cell culture-based assays of proteosomal degradation, nuclear import, enhancer DNA occupancy, and SRY-dependent transcriptional activation. Surprisingly, however, DNA bending is robust to this or the related Ala substitution that profoundly impairs box stability. Together, our findings demonstrate that the folding, trafficking, and gene-regulatory function of SRY requires an invariant aromatic "buttress" beneath its specific DNA-bending surface. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration......We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  19. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix; Wind, Simon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we identify the nexus between design (architecture, urban design, service design, etc.) and mobilities as a new and emerging research field. In this paper, we apply a “situational mobilities” perspective and take point of departure in the pragmatist question: “What design decisions...... and interventions affords this particular mobile situation?” The paper presents the contours of an emerging research agenda within mobilities research. The advent of “mobilities design” as an emerging research field points towards a critical interest in the material as well as practical consequences of contemporary......-making. The paper proposes that increased understanding of the material affordances facilitated through design provides important insight to planning and policymaking that at times might be in risk of becoming too detached from the everyday life of the mobile subject within contemporary mobilities landscapes....

  20. Mobil marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Engelová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  1. µE: Electrophoretic mobility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. µE: Electrophoretic mobility. µE: Electrophoretic mobility. E: Intensity of electric field. H: Total height. h: Distance from the top surface of bottom chamber (slug height). N: Cell concentration × Volume of the chamber.

  2. Mobile Semiotics - signs and mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper is about how to comprehend the mobile condition of contemporary life with a particular view to the signifying dimension of the environment and its ‘readability’. The paper explores the potentials of semiotics and its relationship to the new mobilities literature. The theoretical scope...... is therefore an attempt to mobilize semiotics by drawing on a central body of theory within and adjacent to the discipline. For instance the founding works of C. S. Peirce will be related to the contemporary notions of ‘geosemiotics’ by Scollon & Scollon. The paper’s theoretical claim is that semiotics hold...... a potential for mobilities studies if the awareness of seeing the environment as a semiotic layer and system can be sensitized to the insights of the ‘mobilities turn’. Empirically the paper tentatively explores the usefulness of a mobile semiotics approach to cases such as street signage, airport design...

  3. Mobile phones and mobile communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Donner, Jonathan

    With staggering swiftness, the mobile phone has become a fixture of daily life in almost every society on earth. In 2007, the world had over 3 billion mobile subscriptions. Prosperous nations boast of having more subscriptions than people. In the developing world, hundreds of millions of people who...... could never afford a landline telephone now have a mobile number of their own. With a mobile in our hand many of us feel safer, more productive, and more connected to loved ones, but perhaps also more distracted and less involved with things happening immediately around us. Written by two leading...... researchers in the field, this volume presents an overview of the mobile telephone as a social and cultural phenomenon. Research is summarized and made accessible though detailed descriptions of ten mobile users from around the world. These illustrate popular debates, as well as deeper social forces at work...

  4. Mobile Usability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2013-01-01

    In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones...

  5. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  6. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic abnormalities in sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, H.G.; Coley, S.C.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Griffiths, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the proton MR spectroscopic findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) (sporadic and variant). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging and proton MR spectra were acquired in two patients with sporadic CJD (biopsy proven) and one patient with variant CJD. RESULTS: The two patients with sporadic CJD demonstrated MR signal change within the basal ganglia and thalami and reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA):creatine ratios. The patient with variant CJD showed characteristic signal change within the pulvinar of the thalami and a markedly reduced N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratio. CONCLUSION: All three patients with CJD demonstrated evidence of reduced N-acetylaspartate: creatine ratios on MR spectroscopy. These changes imply that neuronal loss and/or dysfunction is a consistent finding in established CJD. Pandya H. G., et al (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 148--153

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic abnormalities in sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, H.G.; Coley, S.C.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Griffiths, P.D

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To study the proton MR spectroscopic findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) (sporadic and variant). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging and proton MR spectra were acquired in two patients with sporadic CJD (biopsy proven) and one patient with variant CJD. RESULTS: The two patients with sporadic CJD demonstrated MR signal change within the basal ganglia and thalami and reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA):creatine ratios. The patient with variant CJD showed characteristic signal change within the pulvinar of the thalami and a markedly reduced N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratio. CONCLUSION: All three patients with CJD demonstrated evidence of reduced N-acetylaspartate: creatine ratios on MR spectroscopy. These changes imply that neuronal loss and/or dysfunction is a consistent finding in established CJD. Pandya H. G., et al (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 148--153.

  9. Hospital Admissions, Biological Therapy, and Surgery in Familial and Sporadic Cases of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier Moller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke; Andersson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Easily accessible predictors of disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scarce, and it remains largely unknown whether a family history of IBD predicts the course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to compare the course of disease in familial...... and sporadic cases of IBD. However, patients with familial CD had significantly higher risk of major surgery than sporadic CD cases after 2 years of disease duration (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.07). Also, sensitivity analysis suggested a slightly reduced time from diagnosis to first......-related hospitalization, biological treatment, and surgery in familial versus sporadic cases of IBD. RESULTS: A total of 27,886 IBD cases, including 1006 IBD-relative pairs, were followed-up for up to 16 years, totaling 164,979 person-years. We observed no difference in risk of hospital admissions between familial...

  10. The genetics of radiation-induced and sporadic osteosarcoma: a unifying theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, Michael; Kuosaite, Virginija; Nathrath, Michaela; Atkinson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of the genome, with the neoplastic phenotype being passed from one cell generation to the other. Radiation-induced cancer has often been considered to represent a unique entity amongst neoplasia, with the energy deposition being held responsible for both direct (gene mutations) and indirect (bystander effects, induced instability etc) alterations to the cellular genome. However, radiogenic tumours in man and experimental animals appear to be physiologically and genetically indistinguishable from their sporadic counterparts, suggesting that the aetiologies of these two tumour types are in fact closely related. We have conducted a general screen of the genetic alterations in radiation-induced mouse osteosarcoma, a tumour that is histopathologically indistinguishable from human sporadic osteosarcoma. Comparison of the two tumour types indicates the existence of a common set of genetic changes, providing additional evidence to support the concept that the molecular pathology of radiation-induced malignancy is no different to that of sporadic cancers. (author)

  11. BRCA 1/2-Mutation Related and Sporadic Breast and Ovarian Cancers: More Alike than Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Melissa; Puhalla, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and sporadic breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, sporadic TNBCs, and sporadic ovarian cancers. We will also review Phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology. PMID:24579064

  12. Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannfelt, L.; Lilius, L.; Viitanen, M.; Winblad, B.; Basun, H.; Houlden, H.; Rossor, M.; Hardy, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer's disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are thought to be sporadic and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in sporadic cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British sporadic Alzheimer's disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.)

  13. Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank; Katz, Marcos

    users in very different ways and for various purposes. The book provides many stimulating examples of resource-sharing applications. Enabling technologies for mobile clouds are also discussed, highlighting the key role of network coding. Mobile clouds have the potential to enhance communications...... examples of mobile clouds applications, based on both existing commercial initiatives as well as proof-of-concept test-beds. Visions and prospects are also discussed, paving the way for further development. As mobile networks and social networks become more and more reliant on each other, the concept...... of resource sharing takes a wider and deeper meaning, creating the foundations for a global real-time multidimensional resource pool, the underlying infrastructure for shareconomy. Above all, this is an inspiring book for anyone who is concerned about the future of wireless and mobile communications networks...

  14. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and li......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments...

  15. Mobilities Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lanng, Ditte Bendix

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is marked and defined by the ways in which mobile goods, bodies, vehicles, objects, and data are organized, moved and staged. On the backgound of the ‘mobilities turn’ (for short review paper on this see; Sheller 2011, Vannini 2010) this paper proposes a further development....... There is a need for research targeting the material, physical and design-oriented dimensions of the multiple mobilities from the local to the global. Despite its cross-disciplinary identity the ‘mobilities turn’ has not sufficiently capitalized from the potential in exploring issues of material design...... of life’ for billions of people in the everyday life. This paper is structured in three parts. After the general introduction we present the mobilities theory perspective of ‘staging mobilities’ and connects this to the empirical phenomenon of parking lots and their design. The paper ends in section three...

  16. Mobile Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køhler Simonsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    are already mobile – but lexicography is not yet fully ready for the mobile challenge, mobile users and mobile user situations. The article is based on empirical data from two surveys comprising 10 medical doctors, who were asked to look up five medical substances with the medical dictionary app Medicin.......dk and five students, who were asked to look up five terms with the dictionary app Gyldendal Engelsk-Dansk. The empirical data comprise approximately 15 hours of recordings of user behavior, think-aloud data and interview data. The data indicate that there is still much to be done in this area...... and that lexicographic innovation is needed. A new type of users, new user situations and new access methods call for new lexicographic solutions, and this article proposes a six-pointed hexagram model, which can be used during dictionary app design to lexicographically calibrate the six dimensions in mobile...

  17. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...... level. This paper is an initial investigation of how the mobile probes process proved to engage teachers in their efforts to improve teaching. It also highlights some of the barriers emerging when applying mobile probes as a scaffold for learning.......A project investigating the effectiveness of a collection of online resources for teachers' professional development used mobile probes as a data collection method. Teachers received questions and tasks on their mobile in a dialogic manner while in their everyday context as opposed...

  18. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  19. Restricted Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette; Lassen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    communities and shopping centres through mobility lenses. The article shows how different mobility systems enable and restrict the public access to private-public spaces, and it points out that proprietary communities create an unequal potential for human movement and access in the city. The main argument......Privatisation of public spaces in the contemporary city has increased during the last decades but only few studies have approached this field from a mobility perspective. Therefore the article seeks to rectify this by exploring two Australian examples of private spaces in the city; gated...... and stratification mechanisms. In conclusion the article therefore suggests that future urban research and planning also needs a mobile understanding of spaces in the cities and how different mobility systems play an important role to sustain the exclusiveness that often characterises the private/public spaces...

  20. Neuropathological and biochemical criteria to identify acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease among presumed sporadic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Parchi, Piero; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    As an experimental model of acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we performed transmission studies of sporadic CJD using knock-in mice expressing human prion protein (PrP). In this model, the inoculation of the sporadic CJD strain V2 into animals homozygous for methionine at polymorphic codon 129 (129 M/M) of the PRNP gene produced quite distinctive neuropathological and biochemical features, that is, widespread kuru plaques and intermediate type abnormal PrP (PrP(Sc) ). Interestingly, this distinctive combination of molecular and pathological features has been, to date, observed in acquired CJD but not in sporadic CJD. Assuming that these distinctive phenotypic traits are specific for acquired CJD, we revisited the literature and found two cases showing widespread kuru plaques despite the 129 M/M genotype, in a neurosurgeon and in a patient with a medical history of neurosurgery without dura mater grafting. By Western blot analysis of brain homogenates, we revealed the intermediate type of PrP(Sc) in both cases. Furthermore, transmission properties of brain extracts from these two cases were indistinguishable from those of a subgroup of dura mater graft-associated iatrogenic CJD caused by infection with the sporadic CJD strain V2. These data strongly suggest that the two atypical CJD cases, previously thought to represent sporadic CJD, very likely acquired the disease through exposure to prion-contaminated brain tissues. Thus, we propose that the distinctive combination of 129 M/M genotype, kuru plaques, and intermediate type PrP(Sc) , represents a reliable criterion for the identification of acquired CJD cases among presumed sporadic cases. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  1. Mutation analysis for DJ-1 in sporadic and familial parkinsonism: screening strategy in parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Kubo, Shin-Ichiro; Toda, Tatsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2009-05-22

    DJ-1 mutations cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism (ARP). Although some reports of DJ-1 mutations have been published, there is lack of information on the prevalence of these mutations in large-scale studies of both familial and sporadic parkinsonism. In this genetic screening study, we analyzed the distribution and frequency of DJ-1 mutations by direct nucleotide sequencing of coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of DJ-1, in 386 parkin-negative parkinsonism patients (371 index cases: 67 probands of autosomal recessive parkinsonism families, 90 probands of autosomal dominant parkinsonism families, 201 patients with sporadic parkinsonism, and 13 with unknown family histories) from 12 countries (Japan 283, China 27, Taiwan 22, Korea 22, Israel 16, Turkey 5, Philippines 2, Bulgaria 2, Greece 2, Tunisia 1, USA 2, Ukraine 1, unknown 1). None had causative mutation in DJ-1, suggesting DJ-1 mutation is very rare among patients with familial and sporadic parkinsonism from Asian countries and those with other ethnic background. This is in contrast to the higher frequencies and worldwide distribution of parkin- and PINK1-related parkinsonism in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism. Thus, after obtaining clinical information, screening for mutations in (1) parkin, (2) PINK1, (3) DJ-1, (4) ATP13A2 should be conducted in that order, in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, based on their reported frequencies. In addition, haplotype analysis should be employed to check for homozygosity of 1p36, which harbors a cluster of causative genes for ARP such as DJ-1, PINK1 and ATP13A2 in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, especially in parkinsonism with consanguinity.

  2. Simultaneous observation of sporadic E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency coherent backscatter radar. Sporadic E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs and blanketing (fbEs frequencies, the layer height (h'Es, and the width of the range spread of sporadic E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP and continuous coherent backscatter echoes. A close relationship was found between the appearance of QP echoes in the RTI plots and the level of spatial inhomogeneity in sporadic E plasma, signified here by the difference between foEs and fbEs. During QP echo events, foEs increased while fbEs decreased, so that the difference foEs-fbEs was enhanced, indicating the development of strong spatial structuring in electron density within a sporadic E-layer. On the other hand, increases in sporadic E range spreading also correlated with the occurrence of QP echoes but the degree of correlation varied from event to event. Continuous radar echoes were observed in association with low altitude sporadic E-layers, located well below 100 km and at times as low as 90 km. During the continuous echo events, both foEs and fbEs were less variable, and the difference foEs-fbEs was small and not as dynamic as in the QP echoes. On the other hand, the Es-layer spread intensified during continuous echoes, which means that some patchiness or corrugation in those low altitude layers is also necessary for the continuous backscatter echoes to take place.

  3. Simultaneous observation of sporadic E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency coherent backscatter radar. Sporadic E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs and blanketing (fbEs frequencies, the layer height (h'Es, and the width of the range spread of sporadic E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP and continuous coherent backscatter echoes. A close relationship was found between the appearance of QP echoes in the RTI plots and the level of spatial inhomogeneity in sporadic E plasma, signified here by the difference between foEs and fbEs. During QP echo events, foEs increased while fbEs decreased, so that the difference foEs-fbEs was enhanced, indicating the development of strong spatial structuring in electron density within a sporadic E-layer. On the other hand, increases in sporadic E range spreading also correlated with the occurrence of QP echoes but the degree of correlation varied from event to event. Continuous radar echoes were observed in association with low altitude sporadic E-layers, located well below 100 km and at times as low as 90 km. During the continuous echo events, both foEs and fbEs were less variable, and the difference foEs-fbEs was small and not as dynamic as in the QP echoes. On the other hand, the Es-layer spread intensified during continuous echoes, which means that some patchiness or corrugation in those low altitude layers is also necessary for the continuous backscatter echoes to take place.

  4. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))

    2011-04-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  5. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O.; Plato, Brian M; Parker, John

    2011-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  6. Sporadic Endolymphatic Sac Tumor-A Very Rare Cause of Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Dizziness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Didde Trærup; Kiss, Katalin; Hansen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor is a very rare neoplasm. It is low malignant, locally destructive and expansive, but non-metastasizing. The tumor is very rare in the sporadic form, but more often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 65-year old man with left sided tinnitus and hearing loss......-operative freeze-microscopy showed inflammation tissue, whereas subsequent microscopy showed papillary-cystic endolymphatic sac tumor. Endolymphatic sac tumor is a rare neoplasm. The tumor may present with asymmetrically sensory neural hearing loss with or without tinnitus, dizziness and facial nerve paresis...

  7. Patterns of Weakness, Classification of Motor Neuron Disease, and Clinical Diagnosis of Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statland, Jeffrey M; Barohn, Richard J; McVey, April L; Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M

    2015-11-01

    When approaching a patient with suspected motor neuron disease (MND), the pattern of weakness on examination helps distinguish MND from other diseases of peripheral nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or muscle. MND is a clinical diagnosis supported by findings on electrodiagnostic testing. MNDs exist on a spectrum, from a pure lower motor neuron to mixed upper and lower motor neuron to a pure upper motor neuron variant. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive mixed upper and lower motor neuron disorder, most commonly sporadic, which is invariably fatal. This article describes a pattern approach to identifying MND and clinical features of sporadic ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging movement-related activity in medicated Parkin-associated and sporadic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Eimeren, Thilo; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buhmann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Treatment-related motor complications such as dyskinesias are a major problem in the long-term management of Parkinson's disease (PD). In sporadic PD, a relatively early onset of the disease is known to be associated with an early development of dyskinesias. Although linked with early onset...... selected movements. Patients with Parkin-associated and sporadic PD showed no difference in movement-related activation patterns. Moreover, the covariates 'age' and 'disease duration' similarly influenced brain activation in both patient groups. The present finding suggests that a stable long-term motor...

  9. Reactive GTS Allocation Protocol for Sporadic Events Using the IEEE 802.15.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Azeem

    2014-01-01

    by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed control protocol ensures that a given offline sporadic schedule can be adapted online in a timely manner such that the static periodic schedule has not been disturbed and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard compliance remains intact. The proposed protocol is simulated in OPNET. The simulation results are analyzed and presented in this paper to prove the correctness of the proposed protocol regarding the efficient real-time sporadic event delivery along with the periodic event propagation.

  10. Going Mobile?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tallon, Loic; Froes, Isabel Cristina G.

    2011-01-01

    If the future is mobile, how is the museum community developing within that future? What are the challenges museums face within it? In which directions should we be seeking to evolve our collective knowledge share? It was to gain observations on questions such as these that the 2011 Museums...... & Mobile survey was developed: 660 museum professionals responded. In this paper the authors highlight nine survey observations that they believe are important to the museum community’s increased understanding of and continued progress within mobile interpretation....

  11. Accentual mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olander, Thomas Kristoffer

    slaviske mobile accentparadigmer i høj grad stemmer overens med hinanden, er det sandsynligt at accentmobiliteten i de to sproggrupper går tilbage til et fælles udgangspunkt. Formålet med afhandlingen er at bestemme den urindoeuropæiske baggrund for de baltoslaviske mobile accentparadigmer. I de...... paradigmatiske accent i urbaltoslavisk på grundlag af materiale fra de tre baltiske sprog og urslavisk. I kapitel IV foretages af en undersøgelse af den foreslåede accentlov ud fra en sammenligning af de rekonstruerede urindoeuropæiske endelser og de tilsvarende former i de urbaltoslaviske mobile...

  12. Differential response of idiopathic sporadic tumoral calcinosis to bisphosphonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthik Balachandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tumoral calcinosis is a disorder of phosphate metabolism characterized by ectopic calcification around major joints. Surgery is the current treatment of choice, but a suboptimal choice in recurrent and multicentric lesions. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of bisphosphonates for the management of tumoral calcinosis on optimized medical treatment. Settings and Design: The study was done in the endocrine department of a tertiary care hospital in South India. We prospectively studied two patients with recurrent tumoral calcinosis who had failed therapy with phosphate lowering measures. Materials and Methods: After informed consent, we treated both patients with standard age adjusted doses of bisphosphonates for 18 months. The response was assessed by X ray and whole body 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan at the beginning of therapy and at the end of 1 year. We also estimated serum phosphate levels and urinary phosphate to document serial changes. Results: Two patients (aged 19 and 5 years with recurrent idiopathic hyperphosphatemic tumoral calcinosis, following surgery were studied. Both patients had failed therapy with conventional medical management − low phosphate diet and phosphate binders. They had restriction of joint mobility. Both were given standard doses of oral alendronate and parenteral pamidronate respectively for more than a year, along with phosphate lowering measures. At the end of 1 year, one of the patients had more than 95% and 90% reduction in the size of the lesions in right and left shoulder joints respectively with total improvement in range of motion. In contrast, the other patient (5-year-old had shown no improvement, despite continuing to maintain normophosphatemia following treatment. Conclusions: Bisphosphonate therapy in tumoral calcinosis is associated with lesion resolution and may be used as a viable alternative to surgery, especially in cases with multicentric recurrence or treatment failure to other

  13. Staying Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most appropriate aid(s). Mobility aids can: Make shopping trips manageable and visits to a museum or ... Association for Driver Rehabilitation Specialists (ADED) Provides an online search tool to locate rehabilitation specialists, certified driver ...

  14. Mobile museology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Rikke Haller

    Drawing together perspectives from museology, digital culture studies and fashion theory, this thesis considers changes in and challenges for current - day museums as related to ‘mobile museology’. This concept is developed for and elucidated in the thesis to describe an orientation towards...... the fashionable, the ephemeral, and towards an (ideal) state of change and changeability. This orientation is characterised with the triplet concepts of mobile, mobility, and mobilisation, as related to mobile media and movability; to ‘trans - museal’ mediation; and to the mobilisation of collections, audiences...... and institutional mindsets. The research project’s transdisciplinary and exploratory approach takes inspiration from critical design, minding Latour’s (2004a) call for rethink ing critical approaches in the humanities. Through a creative process, focused on designs for framing fashion in everyday contexts...

  15. Mobile Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Enache

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile commerce, or m-commerce, refers to the use of wireless digital devices to enable transactions on the Web. Described more fully in Chapter 3, m-commerce involves the use of wireless networks to connect cell phones, handheld devices such Blackberries, and personal computers to the Web. Once connected, mobile consumers can conduct transactions, including stock trades, in-store price comparisons, banking, travel reservations, and more.

  16. Higher cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression in familial than in sporadic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klauke, M.L.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Budczies, J.; Bult, P.; Prinzler, J.; Radke, C.; van Krieken, J.H.; Dietel, M.; Denkert, C.; Muller, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) is a key element of the single-base excision pathway for repair of DNA single-strand breaks. To compare the cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) expression between familial (BRCA1, BRCA2, or non BRCA1/2) and sporadic breast cancer, we investigated 39 sporadic

  17. A randomized trial comparing levothyroxine with radioactive iodine in the treatment of sporadic nontoxic goiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesche, M. F.; Tiel-V Buul, M. M.; Lips, P.; Smits, N. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed in consecutive patients with sporadic nontoxic nodular goiter to compare efficacy and side effects of iodine-131 ((131)I) therapy with suppressive levothyroxine (L-thyroxine) treatment. Sixty-four patients were randomized after stratification for sex and

  18. CSF Neurofilament Proteins Levels are Elevated in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; van Everbroeck, Bart; Abdo, W. Farid; Kremer, Berry P. H.; Verbeek, Marcel M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease

  19. Health professions and risk of sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease, 1965 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Alcalde-Cabero; J. Almazán-Isla; J-P. Brandel (Jean-Philippe); M. Breithaupt; J. Catarino; S.J. Collins (Steven); J. Haybäck; R. Höftberger (Romana); E. Kahana; G.G. Kovacs (Gabor); A. Ladogana (Anna); E. Mitrová (Eva); A. Molesworth; Y. Nakamura; M. Pocchiari (Maurizio); M. Popovic; M. Ruiz-Tovar; A. Taratuto; C. van Duin; M. Yamada; R.G. Will (Robert); I. Zerr (Inga); J. de Pedro-Cuesta (Jesús)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn 2009, a pathologist with sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease (sCJD) was reported to the Spanish registry. This case prompted a request for information on health-related occupation in sCJD cases from countries participating in the European Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Surveillance network

  20. Detection of infectivity in blood of persons with variant and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean Yves; Zafar, Saima; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Lacroux, Caroline; Lugan, Séverine; Aron, Naima; Cassard, Herve; Ponto, Claudia; Corbière, Fabien; Torres, Juan Maria; Zerr, Inga; Andreoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of infectivity in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and plasma of 1 person with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in the plasma of 2 in 4 persons whose tests were positive for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The measured infectivity levels were comparable to those reported in various animals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

  1. CT and MRI in iatrogenic and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: as far as imaging perseives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Santos, J.M. [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, HU Dr. Morales Meseguer, Murcia (Spain)]|[Section of Neuroradiology, HU Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain); Lopez Corbalan, J.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, HU Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain); Martinez-Lage, J.F. [Service of Neurosurgery, HU Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain); Sicilis Guillen, J. [Service of Neurology, HU Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain)

    1996-04-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), an invariably fatal dementing illness, affects patients in middle and old age (sporadic form). However, the association of CJD with certain treatments (iatrogenic form) has been described in younger patients. The clinical onset of the two forms seems to differ; in the iatrogenic form a high frequency of the ataxic CJD variant has been reported. Nowadays, a definitive diagnosis of CJD is exclusively histological. We present five cases of CJD, one sporadic and the others iatrogenic, following dura mater grafts and analyse their CT and MRI features. CT typically demonstrates brain atrophy, generally progressive, but in sporadic CJD midfield MRI also showed abnormal signal, with predominant deep grey matter involvement. The use of narrow windows with proton-density sequences may reveal subtle cortical signal abnormalities not clearly visible with conventional windows. The early demonstration of these changes, in the appropriate clinical context, may suggest CJD and this supports the use of mid- or high magnetic fields in the diagnosis of CJD and other forms of dementia. In our cases of iatrogenic CJD, low-field MRI did not reveal more than the progressive atrophy displayed by CT, and raises the question on the one hand of possible differences, based on imaging, from the sporadic form, and on the other of the lack of sensitivity of low-field magnets to signal changes in CJD. (orig.)

  2. CT and MRI in iatrogenic and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: as far as imaging perseives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Santos, J.M.; Lopez Corbalan, J.A.; Martinez-Lage, J.F.; Sicilis Guillen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), an invariably fatal dementing illness, affects patients in middle and old age (sporadic form). However, the association of CJD with certain treatments (iatrogenic form) has been described in younger patients. The clinical onset of the two forms seems to differ; in the iatrogenic form a high frequency of the ataxic CJD variant has been reported. Nowadays, a definitive diagnosis of CJD is exclusively histological. We present five cases of CJD, one sporadic and the others iatrogenic, following dura mater grafts and analyse their CT and MRI features. CT typically demonstrates brain atrophy, generally progressive, but in sporadic CJD midfield MRI also showed abnormal signal, with predominant deep grey matter involvement. The use of narrow windows with proton-density sequences may reveal subtle cortical signal abnormalities not clearly visible with conventional windows. The early demonstration of these changes, in the appropriate clinical context, may suggest CJD and this supports the use of mid- or high magnetic fields in the diagnosis of CJD and other forms of dementia. In our cases of iatrogenic CJD, low-field MRI did not reveal more than the progressive atrophy displayed by CT, and raises the question on the one hand of possible differences, based on imaging, from the sporadic form, and on the other of the lack of sensitivity of low-field magnets to signal changes in CJD. (orig.)

  3. Diet-gene interactions in sporadic and hereditary colorectal carcinogenesis : epidemiological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, D.

    1999-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is known to develop by accumulation of alterations in regulatory genes. Both familial and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of colorectal cancer and its adenomatous precursor lesions. This thesis examines diet-gene interactions in sporadic and hereditary

  4. A large-scale international meta-analysis of paraoxonase gene polymorphisms in sporadic ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wills, A-M.; Cronin, S.; Slowik, A.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Van Es, M. A.; Morahan, J. M.; Valdmanis, P. N.; Meininger, V.; Melki, J.; Shaw, C. E.; Rouleau, G. A.; Fisher, E. M. C.; Shaw, P. J.; Morrison, K. E.; Pamphlett, R.; Van den Berg, L. H.; Figlewicz, D. A.; Andersen, P. M.; Al-Chalabi, A.; Hardiman, O.; Purcell, S.; Landers, J. E.; Brown, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Six candidate gene studies report a genetic association of DNA variants within the paraoxonase locus with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, several other large studies, including five genome-wide association studies, have not duplicated this finding. Methods: We

  5. Ophthalmoscopy for congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in patients with sporadic colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, A; Myrhøj, T; Bülow, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the frequency of congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in sporadic colorectal cancer, ophthalmoscopy was carried out in 34 patients with colorectal carcinoma without known familial disposition. CHRPE is one of the most frequent extracolonic...

  6. Mechanism for the formation of sporadic-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, M.N.; Mishin, E.V.; Telegin, V.A.

    1980-09-01

    A model of the collective interaction of precipitating electrons and the ionospheric plasma is used to explain the formation of short-duration sporadic-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere. The changes produced in electron density by this collective interaction mechanism are considered.

  7. Interrelationships between age, thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid function in patients with sporadic nontoxic goiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.; Touber, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that during the natural history of sporadic nontoxic goiter (SNG), a diffuse goiter precedes a multinodular goiter with gradual development of autonomous thyroid function. A cross-sectional survey of 102 consecutive patients with SNG (seven male, 95 female) was performed.

  8. Sporadic minute medullary thyroid carcinoma with a double RET mutation: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Jun; Chiba, Tomohiro; Nakazato, Yoko; Hirano, Kouichi; Kamma, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    We describe a 74-year-old man with a nodular goiter accompanied by an incidental sporadic minute medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Histopathologically, the MTC was a well-defined 1.7 mm tumor in the upper one-third right lobe, with solid cell nests (SCNs) adjacent to the MTC. C-cells were scattered mainly around the SCNs, but C-cell hyperplasia was not evident in the background thyroid. The MTC cell phenotype was immunohistochemically identical to background C-cells, but was completely different from the SCN main cells. Direct DNA analyses of isolated MTC paraffin-embedded specimens revealed two RET proto-oncogene missense point mutations in exon 11 (i.e., C630R and C634W). The non-tumor thyroid tissue did not reveal any mutations. This study reports the smallest case of sporadic MTC with a double RET somatic mutation, substantiating that RET mutations can occur during a very early stage of carcinogenesis. The combined presence of C630R and C634W represent a novel somatic mutation in sporadic MTC. The present case indicates that the sporadic MTC originated from the surrounding C-cells of the SCNs without C-cell hyperplasia and that the SCN main cells may not be able to develop into an MTC. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Analysis of FGGY as a risk factor for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, M.A. van; Vught, P.W. van; Veldink, J.H.; Andersen, P.M.; Birve, A.; Lemmens, R.; Cronin, S.; Kooi, A.J. van der; Visser, M. de; Schelhaas, H.J.; Hardiman, O.; Ragoussis, I.; Lambrechts, D.; Robberecht, W.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Ophoff, R.A.; Berg, L.H. van den

    2009-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using pooled DNA samples from 386 sporadic ALS patients and 542 controls from the USA, identified genetic variation in FGGY (FLJ10986) as a risk factor, as well as 66 additional candidate SNPs. Considering the large number of hypotheses that are tested in GWAS,

  10. Medical and environmental risk factors for sporadic frontotemporal dementia: a retrospective case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rosso (Sonia); E.J. Landweer; M. Houterman; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Donker Kaat (Laura)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA retrospective case-control study was carried out on 80 patients with sporadic frontotemporal dementia and 124 age, sex, and surrogate informant matched controls with respect to various medical and environmental risk factors. Head trauma was associated with an odds ratio of 3.3 (95%

  11. Glycoform-selective prion formation in sporadic and familial forms of prion disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, X.; Yuan, J.; Haïk, S.; Cali, I.; Zhan, Y.; Moudjou, M.; Li, B.; Laplanche, J.L.; Laude, H.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Gambetti, P.

    2013-01-01

    The four glycoforms of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) variably glycosylated at the two N-linked glycosylation sites are converted into their pathological forms (PrP(Sc)) in most cases of sporadic prion diseases. However, a prominent molecular characteristic of PrP(Sc) in the recently identified

  12. The clinical phenotype of hereditary versus sporadic prostate cancer: HPC definition revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, I.M. van; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The definition of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) is based on family history and age at onset. Intuitively, HPC is a serious subtype of prostate cancer but there are only limited data on the clinical phenotype of HPC. Here, we aimed to compare the prognosis of HPC to the sporadic form

  13. ATM down-regulation is associated with poor prognosis in sporadic breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, R C; Canevari, R A; Villacis, R A R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene downexpression has been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas (BC); however, the prognostic value and mechanisms of ATM deregulation remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ATM and miRNAs (miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-203, miR-421, miR-664, miR-576-5p...

  14. Sporadic nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: A consecutive series of 8 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Bin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Discussion: These cases confirm that sporadic NFLE closely resembles familial NFLE, and comprises a set of distinct clinical manifestations, with variable intensity, and variable scalp EEG epileptiform abnormalities across sleep and wakefulness, which have previously been identified in Caucasian patients from Europe and North America.

  15. S182 and STM2 gene missense mutations in sporadic alzheimer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Susumu; Matsushita, Sachio; Hasegawa, Yoshio; Muramatsu, Taro [Kurihama National Hospital, Yokosuka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    The linkage of genes S182 and STM2 to early-onset or late-onset sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) was not found in a group of 97 clinically-diagnosed AD patients and 46 autopsy-confirmed AD cases, using PCR-RFLP methods. 7 refs.

  16. Variation of sporadic meteor activity during the 23. cycle of solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcan, V.; Zigo, P.; Cevolani, G.; Rozboril, J.; Pupillo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of the influence of solar activity on sporadic meteor counts based on visual and radar meteor observations present rather contradictory results, indicating a possible variation of the sporadic meteor counts with a solar activity, with the maximum in observed meteor rates occurring from zero up to about five years after the solar activity maximum. With this perspective, in the present paper observations of the sporadic meteor background, obtained by a forward-scatter radio system for meteor observation operating along the Bologna (Italy)-Modra (Slovakia) baseline in 1996-2007, are analysed and discussed. The activity curves of all echoes and their variations indicate a correlation with solar activity in the 23. solar cycle represented by the solar relative number R (corr. coef. 0.71), as well as with the solar coronal index C1 (corr. coef. 0.73). The mass distribution exponent s and its variations (with corr. coef. against R and C1, 0.12 and 0.25, respectively) does not show a correlation consistent with solar activity and, from the viewpoint of s, suggest the existence of a relatively stable population of sporadic background meteoroids in the surroundings of the Earth's orbit during the investigated period.

  17. Clinical characteristics of familial and sporadic age-related macular degeneration: differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saksens, N.T.M.; Kersten, E.; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Grinsven, M.J.J.P. van; Ven, J.P.H. van de; Sanchez, C.I.; Schick, T.; Fauser, S.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.; Boon, C.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We describe the differences and similarities in clinical characteristics and phenotype of familial and sporadic patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: We evaluated data of 1828 AMD patients and 1715 controls enrolled in the European Genetic Database. All subjects

  18. KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation: A Novel disguised genetic predisposition in sporadic pediatric adrenocortical tumors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, Mark; Alders, Mariëlle; Zwaan, Christian M.; Wagner, Anja; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric adrenal tumors, other than neuroblastoma, are rare and can be associated with a genetic predisposition. In this report we describe two patients with an isolated and apparently sporadic adrenocortical tumor; one girl with a carcinoma, the other girl with an adenoma. In both patients genetic

  19. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are ...... provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.......BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas...... was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p

  20. Mutation analysis of the RET gene in individuals with sporadic and familial pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, S.; Sirugo, G.; Bale, A.E. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is common to many familial cancer syndromes including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and neurofibromatosis (NF). Although sporadic cases of pheochromocytoma have been examined for mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16 of the RET gene, only one case with a mutation in exon 16 has been reported thus far. We are performing systematic examination of exons of the RET gene, which has previously been associated with mutation in both MEN2 A and B, to determine the role RET may play in the etiology of pheochromocytoma. Seventeen cases of sporadic pheochromocytoma and 3 cases of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma were obtained from the pathology archives. Histopathology of all specimens was confirmed to be either pheochromocytoma or medullary thyroid carcinoma before DNA was extracted from 0.5{mu} thin sections of paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA from familial pheochromocytoma patients was also available for analysis. All sporadic and familial cases were amplified for exons 2, 6 and 16 of the RET gene. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed for exons 2 and 6. On finding a variation in the SSCP pattern in the pheochromocytoma kindred we sequenced all the samples for exon 2. A single base pair variation was found, which did not segregate with pheochromocytoma in the family. No variant SSCP patterns have been observed with the exon 6 PCR products thus far. Exon 16 PCR products were subjected to DNA restriction analysis with Fok I. This enzyme detects a single base pair change associated with MEN2 B. With the exception of one sample with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma, all samples showed the normal pattern on DNA restriction analysis. Thus we can exclude exons 2 and 6 of the RET gene in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma. SSCP analyses with other exons in the RET gene are underway.

  1. BRCA promoter methylation in sporadic versus BRCA germline mutation-related breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Shoko; Moelans, Cathy Beatrice; van Diest, Paul Joannes

    2017-05-31

    In breast cancer, BRCA promoter hypermethylation and BRCA germline mutations are said to occur together rarely, but this property has not yet been translated into a clinical test. Our aim in this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of BRCA1/2 methylation in distinguishing breast carcinomas of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers from sporadic breast carcinomas using a recently developed BRCA methylation assay based on methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). MS-MLPAs were performed to assess BRCA1 and BRCA2 methylation in breast carcinoma tissues from 39 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 germline mutation carriers, 80 patients with sporadic breast cancer, and normal breast tissues from 5 BRCA1 and 4 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 5 nonmutation carriers. Methylation frequencies varied considerably between CpG sites across the BRCA1 and BRCA2 promoters. Some CpG sites were methylated more frequently in BRCA1/2-related than in sporadic carcinomas, whereas other CpG sites were methylated more frequently in sporadic carcinomas, with large variances in sensitivity and specificity as a consequence. The diagnostic value of BRCA promoter methylation analysis in distinguishing BRCA1/2-related from sporadic breast carcinomas seems to be considerably dependent on the targeted CpG sites. These findings are important for adequate use of BRCA methylation analysis as a prescreening tool for BRCA germline genetic testing or to identify BRCAness patients who may benefit from targeted therapies such as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors.

  2. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kimmich, Okka

    2012-02-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  3. Characteristics of epidemic and sporadic strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in Abu Dhabi hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnevend, Agnes; Ghazawi, Akela; Al Munthari, Noura; Pitout, Martin; Hamadeh, Mohammad Baraa; Hashmey, Rayhan; Girgis, Safinaz Khaleel; Sheikh, Farrukh Amin; Al Haj, Mohamed; Nagelkerke, Nico; Pál, Tibor

    2013-04-01

    We compared the antibiotic susceptibility, clonal lineages and resistance genes of singleton Acinetobacter baumannii strains to those of isolates representing repeatedly encountered molecular types in five Abu Dhabi hospitals. One hundred and ten clinically relevant, non-repeat strains were typed by blaOXA-51-like allele sequencing and by PFGE, and selected isolates also by MLST. Resistance was assessed by MIC determinations and by disc diffusion. Genotyping was carried out by PCR, targeting 28 genes. The 80 epidemic strains belonged to worldwide lineages 1, 2 and 7, representing 11 pulsotypes and 9 genotypes, while the 30 sporadic isolates exhibited a high level of genetic variability and, with the exception of a small subgroup, were not associated with any recognized epidemic lineages. All epidemic subtypes carried the ISAba1-linked blaOXA-23 gene, and harboured the int, the blaPER and the armA genes significantly more frequently than their sporadic counterparts. They were all multi-drug resistant, including non-susceptibility to carbepenems, and were often extensively drug resistant, a phenomenon rarely seen among sporadic strains. Epidemic strains represented 78.8 % of intensive care unit isolates, causing more respiratory infections, while sporadic strains were more frequently isolated from wound and soft tissue infections. The study showed that among strains collected at the same time and from the same region, the very heterogeneous, sensitive sporadic strains, with the exception of a few non-susceptible singleton isolates, clearly differed from the highly resistant epidemic ones, which belonged to multiple pulsotypes and genotypes clustered into three worldwide clonal lineages carrying blaOXA-64, blaOXA-66 and blaOXA-69, respectively.

  4. A genome-wide investigation of copy number variation in patients with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrine Bendjilali

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM are clusters of abnormal blood vessels, with shunting of blood from the arterial to venous circulation and a high risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage. Most BAVMs are sporadic, but also occur in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a Mendelian disorder caused by mutations in genes in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling pathway.To investigate whether copy number variations (CNVs contribute to risk of sporadic BAVM, we performed a genome-wide association study in 371 sporadic BAVM cases and 563 healthy controls, all Caucasian. Cases and controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. CNVs were called using the PennCNV and Birdsuite algorithms and analyzed via segment-based and gene-based approaches. Common and rare CNVs were evaluated for association with BAVM.A CNV region on 1p36.13, containing the neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 1 gene (NBPF1, was significantly enriched with duplications in BAVM cases compared to controls (P = 2.2×10(-9; NBPF1 was also significantly associated with BAVM in gene-based analysis using both PennCNV and Birdsuite. We experimentally validated the 1p36.13 duplication; however, the association did not replicate in an independent cohort of 184 sporadic BAVM cases and 182 controls (OR = 0.81, P = 0.8. Rare CNV analysis did not identify genes significantly associated with BAVM.We did not identify common CNVs associated with sporadic BAVM that replicated in an independent cohort. Replication in larger cohorts is required to elucidate the possible role of common or rare CNVs in BAVM pathogenesis.

  5. Design and Development of a Mechanical Carrier for Mobile Robot (with rough surface/terrain movement features)- Extension of KINPOE Robot Project for Application at K-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H. W.

    2012-01-01

    During plant (KANUPP) operation, it is difficult or nearly impossible to access and monitor (high) radiation areas where some abnormal condition has to be detected or mitigated. Presence of a surveillance mobile robot will be very useful for such a scenario. This project work is an effort towards the development of a mobile robot that can be used for remote surveillance. A four DOF (degree of freedom) articulated robotic arm, and mobile base is developed. Manipulator is designed using Autodesk inventor, and then fabricated in PIEAS Fabrication Shop. All joints of the manipulator are revolute joints. Maxon DC motors have been used to empower the joints with the help of gears. Spur gear and planetary gear head have been used to increase the torque at joints and to reduce the speed. The report provides complete detail about mechanical design, moreover some casting procedures are also discussed at the end to cast main parts of robot, problems that were faced during the project and their solutions are also discussed in the report. (author)

  6. Mobility and bioavailability of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn in surface runoff sediments in the urban catchment area of Guwahati, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Upama; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G.

    2018-03-01

    The sediments in stormwater runoff are recognised as the major sink of the heavy metals and affect the soil quality in the catchment. The runoff sediments are also important in the management of contaminant transport to receiving water bodies. In the present work, stormwater during several major rain events was collected from nine principal locations of Guwahati, India. The solid phase was separated from the liquid phase and was investigated for the total contents of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn as well as their distribution among the prominent chemical phases. Sequential extraction procedure was used for the chemical fractionation of the metals that contains five steps. The total metal concentration showed the trend, Cd mobile and high-risk fractions. Co with medium mobility was also found to be in the high-risk category. On the other hand, the mobilities of Cu and Zn were relatively low and these were, therefore, the least bioavailable metals in the runoff sediments falling in medium-risk category.

  7. Land cover change in the zone of sporadic permafrost causes shift in landscape-scale turbulent energy fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, M.; Wischnewski, K.; Kljun, N.; Chasmer, L.; Quinton, W. L.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.

    2015-12-01

    Boreal forests in the sporadic permafrost zone have been shown to decline at the expense of wetlands following permafrost disappearance. These land cover changes cause shifts in ecosystem properties and affect biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The goal of our study is to examine the effects of permafrost disappearance on landscape-scale sensible (H) and latent heat fluxes (LE) and related potential feedbacks on regional air temperatures (Ta) We use a combination of nested eddy covariance flux towers, flux footprint and planetary boundary layer (PBL) dynamic modelling, and MOderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing products to resolve spatio-temporal dynamics in H and LE at the landscape scale at Scotty Creek, NWT (61º18' N; 121º18' W) and in radiometric land surface temperatures (LST) at the regional scale across the southern Taiga Plains in the sporadic permafrost zone of northwestern Canada. The heterogeneous landscape comprises boreal forests with permafrost and permafrost-free wetlands. Our results show that H above the heterogeneous landscape was about twice as high as above a nearby treeless, permafrost-free bog. In contrast, landscape-scale LE was only about 50 % of LE over the bog. These differences were primarily driven by higher heat transfer efficiency of the aerodynamically rougher forest and lower albedo of the forest compared to the bog (about 10 % lower during summer and about 40 % lower during late winter). Aerodynamic LST increased with the fraction of forest in the flux footprints. This effect was strongest (r2 = 0.55, slope = 0.06 K per % forest) at the end of winter when contrasts in albedo are largest. Bulk surface conductance increased with the fraction of wetlands in the footprints. On a regional scale, radiometric MODIS LST increased with tree cover during the snow cover period (0.06 K per % tree cover), but decreased during the summer (-0.04 K per % tree cover). Modelling results showed that a shift from the

  8. Polymorphisms of the SIPA1 gene and sporadic breast cancer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Szu-Min; Smith, Robert A; Lintell, Nicholas A; Hunter, Kent W; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2009-01-01

    The novel breast cancer metastasis modulator gene signal-induced proliferation-associated 1 (Sipa1) underlies the breast cancer metastasis efficiency modifier locus Mtes 1 and has been shown to influence mammary tumour metastatic efficiency in the mouse, with an ectopically expressing Sipa1 cell line developing 1.5 to 2 fold more surface pulmonary metastases. Sipa1 encodes a mitogen-inducible GTPase activating (GAP) protein for members of the Ras-related proteins; participates in cell adhesion and modulates mitogen-induced cell cycle progression. Germline SIPA1 SNPs showed association with positive lymph node metastasis and hormonal receptor status in a Caucasian cohort. We hypothesized that SIPA1 may also be correlated to breast carcinoma incidence as well as prognosis. Therefore, this study investigated the potential relationship of SIPA1 and human breast cancer incidence by a germline SNP genotype frequency association study in a case-control Caucasian cohort in Queensland, Australia. The SNPs genotyped in this study were identified in a previous study and the genotyping assays were carried out using TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assays. The data were analysed with chi-square method and the Monte Carlo style CLUMP analysis program. Results indicated significance with SIPA1 SNP rs3741378; the CC genotype was more frequently observed in the breast cancer group compared to the disease-free control group, indicating the variant C allele was associated with increased breast cancer incidence. This observation indicates SNP rs3741378 as a novel potential sporadic breast cancer predisposition SNP. While it showed association with hormonal receptor status in breast cancer group in a previous pilot study, this exonic missense SNP (Ser (S) to Phe (F)) changes a hydrophilic residue (S) to a hydrophobic residue (F) and may significantly alter the protein functions of SIPA1 in breast tumourgenesis. SIPA1 SNPs rs931127 (5' near gene), and rs746429 (synonymous (Ala (A) to Ala (A

  9. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    竹安, 数博; Takeyasu, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  10. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...... the symposium collects six articles written by authors who all presented papers at the event. Contributing authors: Ditte Bendix Lanng, Ole B. Jensen, David Pinder, Magnus Rönn, Jani Tartia, Anne Tietjen, Anne Elisabeth Toft, Even Smith Wergeland, Simon Wind...

  11. The Heterogeneity Between Lynch-Associated and Sporadic MMR Deficiency in Colorectal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Chen; Liu, Ran-Yi; Yan, Jun-Ping; An, Xin; Jiang, Wu; Ling, Yi-Hong; Chen, Jie-Wei; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zuo, Xiao-Yu; Cai, Mu-Yan; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zuo, Zhi-Xiang; Liu, Ji-Hong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2018-02-20

    Previous studies demonstrated that prognosis of germline deficiency in mismatch repair protein (dMMR) was different from that of sporadic dMMR. The underlying mechanism has not been studied. From a prospectively maintained database, we collected dMMR colorectal cancer (CRC) patients identified by postoperative immunohistochemistry screening. According to genetic test, patients were grouped as Lynch-associated or sporadic dMMR. We compared the clinical-pathological features, prognosis, and immunoreactive differences between the two groups. By whole-exome sequencing and neoantigen detection pipeline, mutational frequencies and neoantigen burdens were also compared. All statistical tests were two-sided. Sixty-seven sporadic dMMR and 85 Lynch-associated CRC patients were included in the study. Sporadic dMMR patients were older (P < .001) and their tumors were poorly differentiated (P = .03). The survival was better in the Lynch-associated group (P = .001). After adjustment, the difference still remained statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.09 to 0.95, P = .04). The scores of Crohn's-like reaction (CRO; P < .001), immunoreactions in the invasive margin (IM; P = .01), tumor stroma (TS; P = .009), and cancer nest (CN; P = .02) of the Lynch-associated group were statistically significantly higher. The numbers of CD3+, CD8+, Foxp3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in IM; CD3+, CD4+ TILs in TS; and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ TILs in CN were statistically significantly higher in Lynch-associated dMMR patients. Based on the 16 patients who under went whole-exome sequencing, there were also more somatic mutations and neoantigen burdens in the Lynch-associated group compared with the sporadic dMMR group (439/pt vs 68/pt, P = .006; 628/pt vs 97/pt, P = .009). There are heterogeneities in dMMR CRCs. Lynch-associated dMMR patients present with more somatic mutations and neoantigens compared with sporadic dMMR, which probably results in stronger

  12. Mobile 3D Viewer Supporting RFID System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. J.; Yang, S. W.; Choi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    As hardware capabilities of mobile devices are being rapidly enhanced, applications based upon mobile devices are also being developed in wider areas. In this paper, a prototype mobile 3D viewer with the object identification through RFID system is presented. To visualize 3D engineering data such as CAD data, we need a process to compute triangulated data from boundary based surface like B-rep solid or trimmed surfaces. Since existing rendering engines on mobile devices do not provide triangulation capability, mobile 3D programs have focused only on an efficient handling with pre-tessellated geometry. We have developed a light and fast triangulation process based on constrained Delaunay triangulation suitable for mobile devices in the previous research. This triangulation software is used as a core for the mobile 3D viewer on a PDA with RFID system that may have potentially wide applications in many areas

  13. Can the TLR-4-Mediated Signaling Pathway Be “A Key Inflammatory Promoter for Sporadic TAA”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ruvolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aorta shows with advancing age various changes and a progressive deterioration in structure and function. As a result, vascular remodeling (VR and medial degeneration (MD occur as pathological entities responsible principally for the sporadic TAA onset. Little is known about their genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms. Recent evidence is proposing the strong role of a chronic immune/inflammatory process in their evocation and progression. Thus, we evaluated the potential role of Toll like receptor- (TLR- 4-mediated signaling pathway and its polymorphisms in sporadic TAA. Genetic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were assessed. Interestingly, the rs4986790 TLR4 polymorphism confers a higher susceptibility for sporadic TAA (OR=14.4, P=0.0008 and it represents, together with rs1799752 ACE, rs3918242 MMP-9, and rs2285053 MMP-2 SNPs, an independent sporadic TAA risk factor. In consistency with these data, a significant association was observed between their combined risk genotype and sporadic TAA. Cases bearing this risk genotype showed higher systemic inflammatory mediator levels, significant inflammatory/immune infiltrate, a typical MD phenotype, lower telomere length, and positive correlations with histopatological abnormalities, hypertension, smoking, and ageing. Thus, TLR4 pathway should seem to have a key role in sporadic TAA. It might represent a potential useful tool for preventing and monitoring sporadic TAA and developing personalized treatments.

  14. Immunohistochemistry for annexin A10 can distinguish sporadic from Lynch syndrome-associated microsatellite-unstable colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Reetesh K; Shadrach, Bonnie L; Carver, Paula; Heald, Brandie; Moline, Jessica; Church, James; Kalady, Matthew F; Burke, Carol A; Plesec, Thomas P; Lai, Keith K; Gonzalo, David H; Pai, Rish K

    2014-04-01

    Differentiating sporadic microsatellite-unstable colorectal carcinoma due to MLH1 promoter hypermethylation from Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated tumors due to mutations in mismatch-repair proteins is time consuming, cost intensive, and requires advanced laboratory testing. A mutation in BRAF has been shown to be highly specific for sporadic tumors; however, a significant proportion of sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors lack BRAF mutations. MLH1 promoter methylation analysis is subsequently used to differentiate LS and sporadic tumors, but both tests require specialized laboratories and are costly. Through previous gene expression profiling of serrated polyps, we identified annexin A10 as a protein highly expressed in sessile serrated adenomas/polyps. As these polyps give rise to the majority of sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors, we evaluated the ability of annexin A10 expression to discriminate between LS and sporadic tumors. A marked increase in annexin A10 mRNA was observed in sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors compared with LS tumors (378-fold increase, Pimmunohistochemistry, annexin A10 was expressed in 23/53 (43%) BRAF-mutated and 9/22 (41%) BRAF wild-type sporadic tumors. In contrast, only 3/56 (5%) LS tumors were positive for annexin A10 (Pimmunohistochemistry. Only 1/28 (4%) LS tumors with loss of MLH1 was positive for annexin A10. This patient did not have a deleterious MLH1 mutation but rather germline promoter hypermethylation of MLH1. On the basis of these results, immunohistochemistry for annexin A10 may be a useful marker to distinguish sporadic from LS-associated microsatellite-unstable colon cancer.

  15. Sustainable Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærulff, Aslak Aamot

    This paper combines strands of mobilities theory and planning theory, and develops a qualitative approach to look across emerging planning practices. By actively following 8 Danish urban and transport planners, over the course of 2 years, we learn how their practices have changed, inspired...

  16. Mobile IP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijenk, Geert; Sallent, S.; Pras, Aiko

    1999-01-01

    The Internet is growing exponentially, both in the amount of traffic carried, and in the amount of hosts connected. IP technology is becoming more and more important, in company networks (Intranets), and also in the core networks for the next generation mobile networks. Further, wireless access to

  17. MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Correlation with clinical and neuropathological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Klisch, J.; Brechtelsbauer, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wolf, H.K. [Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Gass, S. [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    To ascertain whether increased grey matter signal intensity on T2-weighted images in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) corresponds to the stage and severity of this disease, we correlated MRI findings in four of our own and previously reported patients with sporadic CJD with the clinical variants, neuropathological changes at autopsy, duration of the disease and survival time after MRI examination. Of 15 patients with the extrapyramidal type of CJD, 10 showed increased signal in the basal ganglia on T2-weighted images. One of seven patients with the Heidenhain variant had increased signal in the occipital cortex. Patients without increased grey matter signal intensity had a longer overall duration of CJD (P = 0.035). Although the interval between onset of neurological symptoms and MRI was not different, patients without increased grey matter signal also survived longer after MRI examination (P = 0.022). (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 23 refs.

  18. MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Correlation with clinical and neuropathological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L.; Klisch, J.; Brechtelsbauer, D.; Wolf, H.K.; Gass, S.

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain whether increased grey matter signal intensity on T2-weighted images in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) corresponds to the stage and severity of this disease, we correlated MRI findings in four of our own and previously reported patients with sporadic CJD with the clinical variants, neuropathological changes at autopsy, duration of the disease and survival time after MRI examination. Of 15 patients with the extrapyramidal type of CJD, 10 showed increased signal in the basal ganglia on T2-weighted images. One of seven patients with the Heidenhain variant had increased signal in the occipital cortex. Patients without increased grey matter signal intensity had a longer overall duration of CJD (P = 0.035). Although the interval between onset of neurological symptoms and MRI was not different, patients without increased grey matter signal also survived longer after MRI examination (P = 0.022). (orig.)

  19. Prion-Seeding Activity Is widely Distributed in Tissues of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormally folded prion proteins in the central nervous system. These proteins can be detected using the quaking-induced conversion assay. Compared with other bioassays, this assay is extremely sensitive and was used in the present study to determine prion distribution in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients at autopsy. Although infectivity of the sporadic form is thought to be restricted within the central nervous system, results showed that prion-seeding activities reach 106/g from a 50% seeding dose in non-neuronal tissues, suggesting that prion-seeding activity exists in non-neural organs, and we suggested that non-neural tissues of 106/g SD50 did not exist the infectivity.

  20. Prion-Seeding Activity Is widely Distributed in Tissues of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, Hanae; Fuse, Takayuki; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Mihara, Ban; Takao, Masaki; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Murayama, Shigeo; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Satoh, Katsuya

    2016-10-01

    Human prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormally folded prion proteins in the central nervous system. These proteins can be detected using the quaking-induced conversion assay. Compared with other bioassays, this assay is extremely sensitive and was used in the present study to determine prion distribution in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients at autopsy. Although infectivity of the sporadic form is thought to be restricted within the central nervous system, results showed that prion-seeding activities reach 10 6 /g from a 50% seeding dose in non-neuronal tissues, suggesting that prion-seeding activity exists in non-neural organs, and we suggested that non-neural tissues of 10 6 /g SD50 did not exist the infectivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. CHCH10 mutations in an Italian cohort of familial and sporadic ALS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiò, Adriano; Mora, Gabriele; Sabatelli, Mario; Caponnetto, Claudia; Traynor, Bryan J.; Johnson, Janel O.; Nalls, Mike A.; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Borghero, Giuseppe; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; La Bella, Vincenzo; Volanti, Paolo; Simone, Isabella; Salvi, Fabrizio; Logullo, Francesco O.; Nilo, Riva; Battistini, Stefania; Mandrioli, Jessica; Tanel, Raffaella; Murru, Maria Rita; Mandich, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Conforti, Francesca L.; Brunetti, Maura; Barberis, Marco; Restagno, Gabriella; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in CHCHD10 have recently been described as a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) co-morbid with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and clinical characteristics of CHCHD10 mutations in Italian patients diagnosed with familial (n = 64) and apparently sporadic ALS (n = 224). Three apparently sporadic patients were found to carry c.100C>T (p.Pro34Ser) heterozygous variant in the exon 2 of CHCHD10. This mutation had been previously described in two unrelated French patients with FTD-ALS. However, our patients had a typical ALS, without evidence of FTD, cerebellar or extrapyramidal signs, or sensorineural deficits. We confirm that CHCHD10 mutations account for ∼1% of Italian ALS patients and are a cause of disease in subject without dementia or other atypical clinical signs. PMID:25726362

  2. Data on inflammasome gene polymorphisms of patients with sporadic malignant melanoma in a Brazilian cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Cardoso da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data related to our another article entitled, Genotyping and differential expression analysis of inflammasome genes in sporadic malignant melanoma reveal novel contribution of CARD8, IL1B and IL18 in melanoma susceptibility and progression (W.C. Silva, T.M. Oshiro, D.C. Sá, D.D.G.S. Franco, C. Festa Neto, A. Pontillo, 2016 [2]. Data presented here refers to the distribution of selected inflammasome SNPs in a Brazilian case/control cohort. We have identified 4 inflammasome related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for CARD8 (rs6509365; IL1B (rs1143643 and IL18 (rs5744256 and rs1834481 related to melanoma susceptibility/protection. This data can serve as a potential prognostic marker in sporadic malignant melanoma.

  3. Source attribution of human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosos using a systematic review of studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    . Identifying the most important sources of human disease is essential for prioritizing food safety interventions and setting public health goals. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic infections of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis have been published. These studies investigate a variety of potential...... or statistical analysis of data, and conclusions. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for human sporadic salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, we performed a SR of case-control studies and meta-analysis of the obtained results. From 1,295 identified references, 132 passed...... the relevance screening, 73 passed the quality assessment stage, and data was extracted from 72. Of these studies, 34 investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis and 37 focused on campylobacteriosis. Heterogeneity between the studies and possible sources of bias were assessed. Information on exposures...

  4. Sporadic sodium and E layers observed during the summer 2002 MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Williams

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available On 5 July 2002, a MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically payload launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, observed narrow enhanced layers of electron density that were nearly coincident with sporadic sodium layers measured by the Weber sodium lidar at the nearby ALOMAR Observatory. We investigate the formation mechanism of these layers using the neutral wind and temperature profiles measured directly by the lidar and the vertical motion deduced from the sodium mixing ratio. Through comparisons of the lidar data to the sporadic E in situ data, we find support for the concentration and downward motion of ions to an altitude where chemical models predict the rapid conversion of sodium ions to neutral sodium.

  5. Energy Efficient Scheduling for Mobile Push Notifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utku Acer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Push notifications are small and succinct messages used by mobile applications to inform users of new events and updates. These notifications are pushed to the user devices by a set of dedicated notification servers (e.g., Apple Push Notification Server, Google Cloud Messaging Server, etc. as they arrive from the content providers of the mobile applications. However, due to their intrinsic small size and sporadic nature, the transfer of these messages is not power efficient, especially on cellular networks. To address this, we propose a network centric scheduling mechanism that delays the delivery of these messages as appropriate by sensing and predicting users' cellular network activities. A trace based evaluation with 60 users' cellular network logs of 30 days shows that we can reduce the energy consumption of mobile devices by 10% for an average delay of 150 seconds in notification delivery. As a network based system that does not require any modifications to user devices, scheduling push notifications opens up interesting opportunities for mobile operators to provide value added and differentiating services, especially considering the sharp rise of non-critical push notification messages.

  6. Post-and prenatal testing for FSHD: Diagnostic approach for sporadic and familial cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, E.; Wielen, M.J.R. van der; Losekoot, M. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder. A major locus for FSHD was localized at the distal part of chromosome 4q. More recently, a disease associated DNA rearrangement was detected with the polymorphic probe p13E-11 (D4F104S1). In most FSHD patients, a shortened (< 28 kb instead of 50-300 kb) allele was detected. In sporadic patients a de novo deletion was found to be associated with the occurrence of FSHD. Diagnostically there were a number of problems to overcome. (1) About 5% of families show no linkage to chromosome 4q35. (2) Some 10% normal individuals show a shortened p13E11 allele, which is located at chromosome 10q. Our diagnostic strategy is as follows: If in sporadic patients a shortened p13E-11 allele is detected and neither parent shows this allele, then a de novo deletion has occurred and FSHD is proven. If no shortened allele is detected FSHD is less likely. In case one of the parents shows a shortened allele then clinical investigations and linkage studies are performed for both chromosome 4 and 10 markers. In familial cases both p13E-11 and polymorphic markers are tested. A shortened p13E-11 allele and/or chromosome 4 haplotype segregating with FSHD can be used for presymptomatic and prenatal diagnosis. Up to now, 45 sporadic cases and 21 families were referred for diagnosis. In 22 sporadic cases a shortened allele was detected, 13 were proven de novo. The first prenatal test was recently performed. The index patient was a de novo case with a shortened allele; the fetus had inherited this allele.

  7. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene Mutations Screening In Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients In Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur R. Akilzhanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of distinct mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been reported worldwide, but little is known regarding the role of these inherited susceptibility genes in breast cancer risk among Kazakhstan women. Aim: To evaluate the role of BRCA1/2 mutations in Kazakhstan women presenting with sporadic breast cancer. Methods: We investigated the distribution and nature of polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding regions in 156 Kazakhstan sporadic breast cancer cases and 112 age-matched controls using automatic direct sequencing. Results: We identified 22 distinct variants, including 16 missense mutations and 6 polymorphisms in BRCA1/2 genes. In BRCA1, 9 missense mutations and 3 synonymous polymorphisms were observed. In BRCA2, 7 missense mutations and 3 polymorphisms were detected. There was a higher prevalence of observed mutations in Caucasian breast cancer cases compared to Asian cases (p<0.05; higher frequencies of sequence variants were observed in Asian controls. No recurrent or founder mutations were observed in BRCA1/2 genes. There were no statistically significant differences in age at diagnosis, tumor histology, size of tumor, and lymph node involvement between women with breast cancer with or without the BRCA sequence alterations. Conclusions: Considering the majority of breast cancer cases are sporadic, the present study will be helpful in the evaluation of the need for the genetic screening of BRCA1/2 mutations and reliable genetic counseling for Kazakhstan sporadic breast cancer patients. Evaluation of common polymorphisms and mutations and breast cancer risk in families with genetic predisposition to breast cancer is ongoing in another current investigation. 

  8. Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; David, F.; Berriche, S. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Reims (France)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls for {epsilon}4 allele frequencies). These data support the involvement of ApoE {epsilon}4 allele as a very important risk factor for the clinical expression of AD. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. High-risk population in sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma: guidelines for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenderman, Elizabeth H; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most deadly forms of cancer in the United States, with an annual incidence to death ratio of 0.92 because of the late stage at diagnosis. Identification of high-risk individuals (HRIs) that would be ideal for screening is needed to identify precursor lesions and small early stage disease. Those with a genetic predisposition have largely been identified, but little is known about those at high-risk for sporadic PC. This study asserts that a high-risk population does exist in sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and proposes simple guidelines for screening. A systematic review was conducted of the literature regarding identification of and screening in high-risk groups. Those with the highest genetic risk of developing PC include those with hereditary pancreatitis (87 times more likely at age 55), Peutz-Jehgers syndrome (132 times more likely at age 50), p16-Leiden mutations (48 times more likely), and familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) kindreds (32 times more likely). Those with the highest risk of developing sporadic PC include those with new-onset diabetes older than 50 y and smoking history. Given that sporadic PC is the single largest patient population effected with this devastating disease, some form of screening should be initiated. Currently, the medical community does nothing to attempt early detection of PC. However, sufficient evidence now exists to begin a screening protocol in a high-risk cohort, which would be patients with new-onset diabetes older than 50 y and a smoking history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Absence of RET proto-oncogene abnormalities in sporadic parathyroid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausova, Z.; Janicic, N.; Konrad, E. [McGill Univ. and Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Parathyroid tumors can occur either sporadically or as a part of inherited cancer syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A. Recently, development of this syndrome has been shown to be related to specific mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, a putative receptor tyrosine kinase. Activation of this proto-oncogene has been demonstrated not only in tumors of the MEN 2A syndrome, but also in other neoplasia of neuroectoderm origin, namely papillary thyroid carcinoma where a rearrangement of the RET proto-oncogene has been found. In the present study, a role of the RET proto-oncogene in the development of sporadic parathyroid tumors was investigated by analyzing DNA samples obtained from 13 parathyroid adenomas and 6 parathyroid hyperplasias. Southern blot, using BamHI restricted DNA, did not reveal any gross alteration of the gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was then employed to amplify DNA fragments corresponding to exons 10 and 11 in which all MEN 2A mutations have been identified. Amplified DNA fragments were all of expected size (exon 10, 182 bp; exon 11, 233 bp). Since a single point mutation at codon 634 has been found to be associated in close to 90% of cases with development of parathyroid tumors in patients with the MEN 2A syndrome, exon 11, containing this codon, was further examined by direct sequence analysis. Sequences obtained from all tumors tested, however, did not differ from the wild type sequence. Therefore, the mutation of the RET proto-oncogene commonly associated with parathyroid neoplasias in MEN 2A is uncommon in sporadic parathyroid tumors. This suggests that the pathogenesis of parathyroid tumors occurring sporadically may be different from those occurring in patients with the MEN 2A syndrome.

  11. Height and critical frequency variations of the sporadic-E layer at midlatitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauli, Petra; Bourdillon, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 15 (2008), s. 1904-1910 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420704 Grant - others:European Union(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Sporadic E * Planetary waves * Tidal waves * Mid-latitude ionosphere * Wavelet transform Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008

  12. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Birla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.

  13. Correlation of RET somatic mutations with clinicopathological features in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, M M; Cavaco, B M; Pinto, A E; Domingues, R; Santos, J R; Cid, M O; Bugalho, M J; Leite, V

    2009-01-01

    Screening of REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene mutations has been carried out in different series of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). RET-positive tumours seem to be associated to a worse clinical outcome. However, the correlation between the type of RET mutation and the patients' clinicopathological data has not been evaluated yet. We analysed RET exons 5, 8, 10–16 in fifty-one sporadic MTC, and found somatic mutations in thirty-three (64.7%) tumours. Among the RET-positive cases, exon 16 was the most frequently affected (60.6%). Two novel somatic mutations (Cys630Gly, c.1881del18) were identified. MTC patients were divided into three groups: group 1, with mutations in RET exons 15 and 16; group 2, with other RET mutations; group 3, having no RET mutations. Group 1 had higher prevalence (P=0.0051) and number of lymph node metastases (P=0.0017), and presented more often multifocal tumours (P=0.037) and persistent disease at last control (P=0.0242) than group 2. Detectable serum calcitonin levels at last screening (P=0.0119) and stage IV disease (P=0.0145) were more frequent in group 1, than in the other groups. Our results suggest that, among the sporadic MTC, cases with RET mutations in exons 15 and 16 are associated with the worst prognosis. Cases with other RET mutations have the most indolent course, and those with no RET mutations have an intermediate risk. PMID:19401695

  14. Down-regulation of BRCA1 in chronic pancreatitis and sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Carmela; Ramadani, Marco; Meyer, Stephan; Leder, Gerd; Krüger, Martin; Welte, Karl; Gansauge, Frank; Beger, Hans G

    2004-06-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are considered to be breast cancer susceptibility genes that may also contribute to pancreatic cancer development because family studies revealed mutation carriers to have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. However, as demonstrated for breast and ovarian cancer, inactivation of BRCA in sporadic diseases is based on alteration in gene expression or functional alteration. To study a potential correlation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to chronic pancreatitis and development of sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we have analyzed the expression of these genes by quantitative PCR and performed immunohistochemical analyses in normal pancreatic tissues, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer specimens. BRCA1 expression was down-regulated in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, in particular on the RNA level. Furthermore, our data indicate suppressed BRCA1 expression in pancreatic cancer on both the RNA and protein levels. Quantitative analysis of BRCA1 protein expression demonstrated regular staining in 50% of tumor specimens tested and reduced staining in 50% of tumor specimens tested. Correlation with the clinical outcome revealed a significantly better 1-year overall survival for patients with BRCA1-regular as compared with BRCA1-reduced or BRCA1-absent tumors. In contrast, no substantial differences in BRCA2 expression were found in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer samples. Our data demonstrate alteration of BRCA1 expression in chronic pancreatitis and sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We, for the first time, provide evidence for a role of BRCA1 in pancreatic carcinogenesis of noninherited tumors and for clinical outcome.

  15. Sporadic nesting reveals long distance colonisation in the philopatric loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Carlos; Pascual, Marta; Tomás, Jesús; Marco, Adolfo; Hochscheid, Sandra; Castillo, Juan José; Gozalbes, Patricia; Parga, Mariluz; Piovano, Susanna; Cardona, Luis

    2018-01-23

    The colonisation of new suitable habitats is crucial for species survival at evolutionary scale under changing environmental conditions. However, colonisation potential may be limited by philopatry that facilitates exploiting successful habitats across generations. We examine the mechanisms of long distance dispersal of the philopatric loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) by analysing 40 sporadic nesting events in the western Mediterranean. The analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA and 7 microsatellites of 121 samples from 18 of these nesting events revealed that these nests were colonising events associated with juveniles from distant populations feeding in nearby foraging grounds. Considering the temperature-dependent sex determination of the species, we simulated the effect of the incubation temperature and propagule pressure on a potential colonisation scenario. Our results indicated that colonisation will succeed if warm temperature conditions, already existing in some of the beaches in the area, extend to the whole western Mediterranean. We hypothesize that the sporadic nesting events in developmental foraging grounds may be a mechanism to overcome philopatry limitations thus increasing the dispersal capabilities of the species and the adaptability to changing environments. Sporadic nesting in the western Mediterranean can be viewed as potential new populations in a scenario of rising temperatures.

  16. Investigation of VSX1 sequence variants in South Indian patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anshuman; Das, Manoranjan; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V; Sundaresan, Periasamy

    2013-03-18

    The involvement of VSX1 gene for the genetic basis of keratoconus is unclear and controversial. The genetic screening of VSX1 from different ethnic populations can enlighten this subject. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of VSX1 gene in patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus from South India. The VSX1 gene coding regions, including exon-intron boundaries were screened by direct sequencing analysis in 117 sporadic cases of keratoconus. The identified variations were also analyzed in 108 ethnic matched healthy blood donors. In the VSX1 gene screening, no pathogenic mutation was identified, whereas we could find the presence of four reported single nucleotide polymorphisms; c.546A>G (rs12480307), c.627+23G>A (rs6138482), c.627+84T>A (rs56157240) and c.504-24C>T (IVS3-24C). These variations were observed in similar frequency between cases and controls. The lack of VSX1 pathogenic variations in a large number of unrelated sporadic keratoconus patients tend to omit its role, and corroborate the involvement of other genetic, environmental or behavioural factors in the development of this complex disorder.

  17. Clinical and genetic characteristics of sporadic adult-onset degenerative ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Ilaria; Harmuth, Florian; Jacobi, Heike; Paap, Brigitte; Vielhaber, Stefan; Machts, Judith; Schöls, Ludger; Synofzik, Matthis; Sturm, Marc; Tallaksen, Chantal; Wedding, Iselin M; Boesch, Sylvia; Eigentler, Andreas; van de Warrenburg, Bart; van Gaalen, Judith; Kamm, Christoph; Dudesek, Ales; Kang, Jun-Suk; Timmann, Dagmar; Silvestri, Gabriella; Masciullo, Marcella; Klopstock, Thomas; Neuhofer, Christiane; Ganos, Christos; Filla, Alessandro; Bauer, Peter; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Klockgether, Thomas

    2017-09-05

    To define the clinical phenotype and natural history of sporadic adult-onset degenerative ataxia and to identify putative disease-causing mutations. The primary measure of disease severity was the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). DNA samples were screened for mutations using a high-coverage ataxia-specific gene panel in combination with next-generation sequencing. The analysis was performed on 249 participants. Among them, 83 met diagnostic criteria of clinically probable multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C) at baseline and another 12 during follow-up. Positive MSA-C criteria (4.94 ± 0.74, p 10 years were designated sporadic adult-onset ataxia of unknown etiology/non-MSA (SAOA/non-MSA). Compared with MSA-C, SAOA/non-MSA patients had lower SARA scores (13.6 ± 6.0 vs 16.0 ± 5.8, p = 0.0200) and a slower annual SARA increase (1.1 ± 2.3 vs 3.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.0013). In 11 of 194 tested participants (6%), a definitive or probable genetic diagnosis was made. Our study provides quantitative data on the clinical phenotype and progression of sporadic ataxia with adult onset. Screening for causative mutations with a gene panel approach yielded a genetic diagnosis in 6% of the cohort. NCT02701036. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Sporadic isolated congenital asplenia with fulminant pneumococcal meningitis: a case report and updated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Shigeo

    2017-12-18

    Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is a rare and life-threatening condition that predisposes patients to severe bacterial infections. Most of the reported cases are familial and the mode of inheritance is usually autosomal dominant. Here, we report a case of sporadic isolated asplenia and review the literature while focusing on sporadic cases. We report the case of an 11-month-old female infant who developed fulminant pneumococcal meningitis. The pneumococcal vaccine-unimmunized patient was hospitalized with fever, irritability, and purpura, and was diagnosed as having meningitis, septic shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from both cerebrospinal fluid and blood. She was successfully treated with prompt antibiotic therapy. During hospitalization, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography findings, scintigraphy results, and Howell-Jolly body-containing red blood cells indicated the presence of asplenia without any visceroarterial anomalies. Moreover, the findings of peripheral blood smears and spleen ultrasonographic examinations of her parents were normal. Majority of sporadic ICA cases were detected only after the onset of overwhelming infection and had a high mortality. In cases of severe invasive pneumococcal disease, a systematic search for Howell-Jolly bodies on blood smears and the presence of asplenia on abdominal imaging are essential for detecting ICA even in the absence of any family history. After the diagnosis of ICA, patient and parent education, vaccinations, antibiotic prophylaxis, and prompt empiric treatment of febrile episode should be provided.

  19. Fruit and vegetable intake during pregnancy and risk for development of sporadic retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Manuela A; Titievsky, Lina; Liu, Xinhua; Ramirez-Ortiz, Marco; Ponce-Castaneda, Veronica; Lecona, Evelia; Molina, Evelyn; Beaverson, Katherine; Abramson, David H; Mueller, Nancy E

    2005-06-01

    Little is known about the causes of sporadic (noninherited) retinoblastoma. Rates seem to be somewhat higher among poorer populations in Mexico. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of carotenoids and folate. We examined whether decreased gestational maternal intake of fruits and vegetables may contribute to development of sporadic retinoblastoma. At the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria in Mexico City, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate prenatal maternal diet. We examined dietary intake of fruits and vegetables of mothers of 101 children with retinoblastoma and 172 control children using a dietary recall questionnaire and published food nutrient content tables. The reported number of mean daily servings of fruits and vegetables was lower among case mothers when compared with control mothers [vegetables: 2.28 in controls, 1.75 in cases (P vegetables and fruits was higher in controls (103 microg) than in cases (48 microg; P vegetables [odds ratios (OR), 3.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.0-6.0] or with a low intake of folate (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.3), or lutein/zeaxanthin (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6) derived from fruits and vegetables. Decreased intake of vegetables and fruits during pregnancy and the consequent decreased intake of nutrients such as folate and lutein/zeaxanthin, necessary for DNA methylation, synthesis, and retinal function, may increase risk for having a child with sporadic retinoblastoma.

  20. Expression of the Circadian Clock Genes Pert, Per2 in Sporadic, Familial Breast Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Winter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence implicating aberrant circadian clock expression in the development of cancer. Based on our initial experiments identifying a putative interaction between BRCA1, the clock proteins Per1, Per2, as well as the reported involvement of the circadian clock in the development of cancer, we have performed an expression analysis of the circadian clock genes Per1, Per2 in both sporadic, familial primary breast tumors, normal breast tissues using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significantly decreased levels of Per1 were observed between sporadic tumors, normal samples (P < .00001, as well as a further significant decrease between familial, sporadic breast tumors for both Per1 (P < .00001, Per2 (P < .00001. Decreased Per1 was also associated with estrogen receptor negativity (53% vs 15%, P = .04. These results suggest a role for both Perl, Per2 in normal breast function, show for the first time that deregulation of the circadian clock may be an important factor in the development of familial breast cancer. Aberrant expression of circadian clock genes could have important consequences on the transactivation of downstream targets that control the cell cycle, on the ability of cells to undergo apoptosis, potentially promoting carcinogenesis.

  1. Occurrence of the blanketing sporadic E layer during the recovery phase of the October 2003 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Resende, Laysa Cristina Araújo; Moro, Juliano; Chen, Sony Su

    2016-05-01

    We have routinely monitored the total frequency ( ftEs) and the blanketing frequency ( fbEs) of sporadic E layers with the digital sounder under the magnetic equator in the Brazilian sector. Sporadic layers appear in the equatorial region (Esq) at heights between 90 and 130 km, mainly due to irregularities in the equatorial electrojet current. However, during the recovery phase of the October 2003 superstorm, an anomalous intensification of the ionospheric density that exceeded the normal ambient background values for local time and location was observed. The parameter fbEs rose to almost 7.5 MHz during this event, due to a type "c" blanketing sporadic layer (Esc), which is driven by wind shear. This result is discussed in terms of the atmosphere dynamics based on magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet current using magnetometer data. Also, using data measured by sensors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 10 we analyze the possible influence of the solar flare-associated X-ray flux as an additional source of ionization.

  2. Performance of D-Parameters in Isolating Meteor Showers from the Sporadic Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea

    2016-01-01

    It is often necessary to draw a division between meteor showers and the sporadic meteor complex in order to study these components of the meteoroid environment. Meteor showers persist for less than a season and are composed of members with a greater-than-average degree of orbital similarity. The level of orbital similarity is often quantified using so-called D-parameters; a D-parameter cutoff may be employed to define or extract a shower. Depending on the study, this cutoff value may be chosen based on the size of the data-set, the percentage of sporadic meteors within the data-set, or the inclination of the shower in question. We argue that the cutoff value should also reject the strength of the shower compared to the local sporadic background. We therefore present a method for determining, on a per-shower basis, the D-parameter cutoff that limits the false-positive rate to an acceptable percentage. If the false-positive rate exceeds this percentage regardless of cutoff value, we deem the shower to be undetectable in our data. We apply this method to optical meteor observations from the NASA All-Sky and Southern Ontario Meteor Networks and present the detectable meteor showers and their characteristics.

  3. Mobile Customer Relationship Management and Mobile Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanayei, Ali; Mirzaei, Abas

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, in order to guarantee a coherent discussion about mobile customer relationship management (mCRM), this paper presents a conceptualization of mCRM delineating its unique characteristics because of Among the variety of mobile services, considerable attention has been devoted to mobile marketing and in particular to mobile customer relationship management services. Second, the authors discusses the security risks in mobile computing in different level(user, mobile device, wireless network,...) and finally we focus on enterprise mobile security and it's subgroups with a series of suggestion and solution for improve mobile computing security.

  4. Small Body Hopper Mobility Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Lee, Dave E.; Crues, E. Zack; Dexter, Dan E.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Chappell, Steve P.; Nguyen, Hung T.

    2015-01-01

    A propellant-saving hopper mobility system was studied that could help facilitate the exploration of small bodies such as Phobos for long-duration human missions. The NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) has proposed a mission to the moons of Mars as a transitional step for eventual Mars surface exploration. While a Mars transit habitat would be parked in High-Mars Orbit (HMO), crew members would visit the surface of Phobos multiple times for up to 14 days duration (up to 50 days at a time with logistics support). This paper describes a small body surface mobility concept that is capable of transporting a small, two-person Pressurized Exploration Vehicle (PEV) cabin to various sites of interest in the low-gravity environment. Using stored kinetic energy between bounces, a propellant-saving hopper mobility system can release the energy to vector the vehicle away from the surface in a specified direction. Alternatively, the stored energy can be retained for later use while the vehicle is stationary in respect to the surface. The hopper actuation was modeled using a variety of launch velocities, and the hopper mobility was evaluated using NASA Exploration Systems Simulations (NExSyS) for transit between surface sites of interest. A hopper system with linear electromagnetic motors and mechanical spring actuators coupled with Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG) for attitude control will use renewable electrical power, resulting in a significant propellant savings.

  5. Urban Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...... discursive perceptions of the concept would foster greater insight into and understanding of both the challenges and potentials that it represents. It focused on some of the key themes currently facing cities and the urban: the transformation of the city and our built environment; migration; rural decline......; the interaction between city, architecture, and inhabitants; the role of architects and architecture in the creation of democratic and sustainable urban contexts; the city and its representation; the politics of intervention; and the actions of governing and developing. This proceedings publication from...

  6. The African Mobile Story

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks......This book identifies the factors that has enabled the growth of mobile telephony in Africa. The book covers the regulatory factors, the development and usage of mobile application, mobile security and sustainable power source for mobile networks...

  7. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  8. Case study of inclined sporadic E layers in the Earth's ionosphere observed by CHAMP/GPS radio occultations: Coupling between the tilted plasma layers and internal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubenko, Vladimir N.; Pavelyev, A. G.; Kirillovich, I. A.; Liou, Y.-A.

    2018-04-01

    We have used the radio occultation (RO) satellite data CHAMP/GPS (Challenging Minisatellite Payload/Global Positioning System) for studying the ionosphere of the Earth. A method for deriving the parameters of ionospheric structures is based upon an analysis of the RO signal variations in the phase path and intensity. This method allows one to estimate the spatial displacement of a plasma layer with respect to the ray perigee, and to determine the layer inclination and height correction values. In this paper, we focus on the case study of inclined sporadic E (Es) layers in the high-latitude ionosphere based on available CHAMP RO data. Assuming that the internal gravity waves (IGWs) with the phase-fronts parallel to the ionization layer surfaces are responsible for the tilt angles of sporadic plasma layers, we have developed a new technique for determining the parameters of IGWs linked with the inclined Es structures. A small-scale internal wave may be modulating initially horizontal Es layer in height and causing a direction of the plasma density gradient to be rotated and aligned with that of the wave propagation vector k. The results of determination of the intrinsic wave frequency and period, vertical and horizontal wavelengths, intrinsic vertical and horizontal phase speeds, and other characteristics of IGWs under study are presented and discussed.

  9. Establishment, characterization and chemosensitivity of three mismatch repair deficient cell lines from sporadic and inherited colorectal carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maletzki

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC represents a morphologic and molecular heterogenic disease. This heterogeneity substantially impairs drug effectiveness and prognosis. The subtype of mismatch repair deficient (MMR-D CRCs, accounting for about 15% of all cases, shows particular differential responses up to resistance towards currently approved cytostatic drugs. Pre-clinical in vitro models representing molecular features of MMR-D tumors are thus mandatory for identifying biomarkers that finally help to predict responses towards new cytostatic drugs. Here, we describe the successful establishment and characterization of three patient-derived MMR-D cell lines (HROC24, HROC87, and HROC113 along with their corresponding xenografts. METHODOLOGY: MMR-D cell lines (HROC24, HROC87, and HROC113 were established from a total of ten clinicopathological well-defined MMR-D cases (120 CRC cases in total. Cells were comprehensively characterized by phenotype, morphology, growth kinetics, invasiveness, and molecular profile. Additionally, response to clinically relevant chemotherapeutics was examined in vitro and in vivo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two MMR-D lines showing CIMP-H derived from sporadic CRC (HROC24: K-ras(wt, B-raf(mut, HROC87: K-ras(wt, B-raf(mut, whereas the HROC113 cell line (K-ras(mut, B-raf(wt was HNPCC-associated. A diploid DNA-status could be verified by flow cytometry and SNP Array analysis. All cell lines were characterized as epithelial (EpCAM(+ tumor cells, showing surface tumor marker expression (CEACAM(+. MHC-class II was inducible by Interferon-γ stimulation. Growth kinetics as well as invasive potential was quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Besides, MMR-D cell lines exhibited distinct responsiveness towards chemotherapeutics, even when comparing in vitro and in vivo sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS: These newly established and well-characterized, low-passage MMR-D cell lines provide a useful tool for future investigations on the

  10. Structural Mobility, Exchange Mobility and Subgroup Consistent Mobility Measurement – US–German Mobility Measurements Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    C. SCHLUTER; D. VAN DE GAER

    2008-01-01

    We formalize the concept of structural mobility and use the framework of subgroup consistent mobility measurement to derive a relative and an absolute measure of mobility that is increasing both in upward structural mobility and exchange mobility. In our empirical illustration, we contribute substantively to the ongoing debate about mobility rankings between the USA and Germany.

  11. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof of principle study with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jie; Li, Yaping; Lyon, Kenneth; Camps, Jordi; Dalton, Stephen; Ried, Thomas; Zhao, Shaying

    2013-01-01

    Herein we report a proof of principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver–passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human- and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 drive...

  12. Allele doses of apolipoprotein E type {epsilon}4 in sporadic late-onset Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; Aouizerate, A.; Gerard, N. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Apoliprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE-{epsilon}4) is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD). We have found that the cumulative probability of remaining unaffected over time decreases for each dose of ApoE-{epsilon}4 in sporadic, late-onset French AD. The effect of genotypes on age at onset of AD was analyzed using the product limit method, to compare unaffected groups during aging. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Sporadic early-onset colorectal cancer is a specific sub-type of cancer: a morphological, molecular and genetics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Kirzin

    Full Text Available Sporadic early onset colorectal carcinoma (EOCRC which has by definition no identified hereditary predisposition is a growing problem that remains poorly understood. Molecular analysis could improve identification of distinct sub-types of colorectal cancers (CRC with therapeutic implications and thus can help establish that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct entity. From 954 patients resected for CRC at our institution, 98 patients were selected. Patients aged 45-60 years were excluded to help define "young" and "old" groups. Thirty-nine cases of sporadic EOCRC (patients ≤ 45 years with microsatellite stable tumors were compared to both microsatellite stable tumors from older patients (36 cases, patients>60 years and to groups of patients with microsatellite instability. Each group was tested for TP53, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations and the presence of a methylator phenotype. Gene expression profiles were also used for pathway analysis. Compared to microsatellite stable CRC from old patients, sporadic EOCRC were characterized by distal location, frequent synchronous metastases and infrequent synchronous adenomas but did not have specific morphological characteristics. A familial history of CRC was more common in sporadic EOCRC patients despite a lack of identified hereditary conditions (p = 0.013. Genetic studies also showed the absence of BRAF mutations (p = 0.022 and the methylator phenotype (p = 0.005 in sporadic EOCRC compared to older patients. Gene expression analysis implicated key pathways such as Wnt/beta catenin, MAP Kinase, growth factor signaling (EGFR, HGF, PDGF and the TNFR1 pathway in sporadic EOCRC. Wnt/beta catenin signaling activation was confirmed by aberrant nuclear beta catenin immunostaining (p = 0.01. This study strongly suggests that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct clinico-molecular entity presenting as a distal and aggressive disease associated with chromosome instability. Furthermore, several signaling pathways including the

  14. Novel Genetic Variants of Sporadic Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) in a Chinese Population Identified by Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Cao, Yu; Li, Yaxiong; Lei, Dongyun; Li, Lin; Hou, Zong Liu; Han, Shen; Meng, Mingyao; Shi, Jianlin; Zhang, Yayong; Wang, Yi; Niu, Zhaoyi; Xie, Yanhua; Xiao, Benshan; Wang, Yuanfei; Li, Xiao; Yang, Lirong; Wang, Wenju; Jiang, Lihong

    2018-03-05

    BACKGROUND Recently, mutations in several genes have been described to be associated with sporadic ASD, but some genetic variants remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use whole-exome sequencing (WES) combined with bioinformatics analysis to identify novel genetic variants in cases of sporadic congenital ASD, followed by validation by Sanger sequencing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five Han patients with secundum ASD were recruited, and their tissue samples were analyzed by WES, followed by verification by Sanger sequencing of tissue and blood samples. Further evaluation using blood samples included 452 additional patients with sporadic secundum ASD (212 male and 240 female patients) and 519 healthy subjects (252 male and 267 female subjects) for further verification by a multiplexed MassARRAY system. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to identify novel genetic variants associated with sporadic ASD. RESULTS From five patients with sporadic ASD, a total of 181,762 genomic variants in 33 exon loci, validated by Sanger sequencing, were selected and underwent MassARRAY analysis in 452 patients with ASD and 519 healthy subjects. Three loci with high mutation frequencies, the 138665410 FOXL2 gene variant, the 23862952 MYH6 gene variant, and the 71098693 HYDIN gene variant were found to be significantly associated with sporadic ASD (PASD (PASD, and supported the use of WES and bioinformatics analysis to identify disease-associated mutations.

  15. High prevalence of exon 8 G533C mutation in apparently sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarika, H L; Papathoma, A; Garofalaki, M; Vasileiou, V; Vlassopoulou, B; Anastasiou, E; Alevizaki, M

    2012-12-01

    Genetic screening for ret mutation has become routine practice in the evaluation of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Approximately 25% of these tumours are familial, and they occur as components of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes (MEN 2A and 2B) or familial MTC. In familial cases, the majority of mutations are found in exons 10, 11, 13, 14 or 15 of the ret gene. A rare mutation involving exon 8 (G533C) has recently been reported in familial cases of MTC in Brazil and Greece; some of these cases were originally thought to be sporadic. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate a series of sporadic cases of MTC, with negative family history, and screen them for germline mutations in exon 8. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral lymphocytes in 129 unrelated individuals who had previously been characterized as 'sporadic' based on the negative family history and negative screening for ret gene mutations. Samples were analysed in Applied Biosystems 7500 real-time PCR and confirmed by sequencing. The G533C exon 8 mutation was identified in 10 of 129 patients with sporadic MTC. Asymptomatic gene carriers were subsequently identified in other family members. In our study, we found that 7·75% patients with apparently sporadic MTC do carry G533C mutation involving exon 8 of ret. We feel that there is now a need to include exon 8 mutation screening in all patients diagnosed as sporadic MTC, in Greece. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  17. Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    movements of people, goods, and information 'from A to B'. Accordingly, the way people, goods, and information moves shapes the way we understand our built environment, other consociates, and ourselves. The book contributes with a new and critical-creative gaze on what might seem to be trivial and mundane...... acts of moving in the city. 'Designing Mobilities' is based on more than a decade of academic research by Professor of Urban Theory, Ole B. Jensen and a must-read for students and scholars with an interest in urban studies, urban design, architecture, urban planning, transport planning and geography...

  18. Downwardly mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    P & H Mining Equipment has produced the 250XP rotary blasthole drill, its first `clean sheet` drill after eight years of upgrading the line of large rotaries it acquired from Gardner Denver in 1991. A prototype has been working on an Australian coal mine since June 1998. A further two units of the 250XP are being erected at a diamond mine in Botswana for start-up in January 1999 and another will begin drilling at a Wyoming, USA coal mine in February. The drill is a highly mobile, heavy duty, highly reliable diesel/hydraulic drill weighing 113,500 kg and can drill holes at angles up to 30 degrees.

  19. Influence of Poly(ethylene glycol) Degradation on Voiding Sporadically Occurring in Solder Joints with Electroplated Cu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafula, F.; Yin, L.; Borgesen, P.; Andala, D.; Dimitrov, N.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive study of the effect of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) degradation on the void formation known to take place sporadically at the interface between electroplated Cu and Pb-free solder. Thorough chemical analysis of our plating solution, carried out at different times of the deposition process by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, reveals a dramatic shift in the peaks to lower mass range with time. Scanning electron microscopy cross-sectional images of solder joints with Cu samples that have been plated at different times in the course of solution aging show a decrease in void formation. A decreasing magnitude of the deposition overpotential also seen during aging suggests that, breaking down to lower-molecular-weight fragments, PEG loses its suppression effect and likely has lower impact on the voiding propensity. This indirect correlation is confirmed further by the use of plating solutions containing PEG with preselected molecular weight. We also report on the effect of the surface area-to-solution volume ratio on PEG degradation studied by comparative experiments performed in a 50-mL bath with a rotating disc electrode and in a larger cell (Hull cell) with volume of 267 mL. The results show that, at fixed charge per unit volume, PEG degrades at a greatly accelerated rate in the Hull cell featuring higher electrode surface-to-solution volume ratio. Analysis of solder joints with accordingly grown Cu layers suggests that the voiding decreases faster with the accelerated rate of PEG degradation.

  20. Electrokinetics on superhydrophobic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Periklis; Deng Xu; Vollmer, Doris; Butt, Hans-Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    On a superhydrophobic surface a liquid is exposed to a large air-water interface. The reduced wall friction is expected to cause a higher electro-osmotic mobility. On the other hand, the low charge density of a superhydrophobic surface reduces the electro-osmotic mobility. Due to a lack of experimental data it has not been clear so far whether the reduced wall friction or the reduced charge density dominate the electrokinetic mobilities. To separate the relative contributions of electrophoresis and electro-osmosis, the mobilities of colloids on a negatively charged hydrophilic, a superhydrophobic (Cassie) and a partially hydrophilized superhydrophobic (Cassie composite) coating were measured. To vary the charge density as well as its sign with respect to those of the colloids the partially hydrophilized surfaces were coated with polyelectrolytes. We analyzed the electrokinetic mobilities of negatively charged polystyrene colloids dispersed in aqueous medium on porous hydrophilic and superhydrophobic surfaces by confocal laser scanning electron microscopy. In all cases, the external electric field was parallel to the surface. The total electrokinetic mobilities on the superhydrophobic (Cassie) and negatively charged partially hydrophilized (Cassie composite) surfaces were similar, showing that electro-osmosis is small compared to electrophoresis. The positively charged Cassie composite surfaces tend to ‘trap’ the colloids due to attracting electrostatic interactions and rough morphology, reducing the mobility. Thus, either the charge density of the coatings in the Cassie composite state or its slip length is too low to enhance electro-osmosis.

  1. Genomic variants in the FTO gene are associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Greek patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Merkouri Papadima, Eleni; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Balasopoulou, Angeliki; Charalampidou, Kyriaki; Galani, Vasiliki; Zafeiri, Krystallia-Vassiliki; Dardiotis, Efthymios; Ralli, Styliani; Deretzi, Georgia; John, Anne; Kydonopoulou, Kyriaki; Papadopoulou, Elpida; di Pardo, Alba; Akcimen, Fulya; Loizedda, Annalisa; Dobričić, Valerija; Novaković, Ivana; Kostić, Vladimir S; Mizzi, Clint; Peters, Brock A; Basak, Nazli; Orrù, Sandro; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Cooper, David N; Gerou, Spyridon; Drmanac, Radoje; Bartsakoulia, Marina; Tsermpini, Evangelia-Eirini; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Ali, Bassam R; Katsila, Theodora; Patrinos, George P

    2017-12-08

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease whose complex pathology has been associated with a strong genetic component in the context of both familial and sporadic disease. Herein, we adopted a next-generation sequencing approach to Greek patients suffering from sporadic ALS (together with their healthy counterparts) in order to explore further the genetic basis of sporadic ALS (sALS). Whole-genome sequencing analysis of Greek sALS patients revealed a positive association between FTO and TBC1D1 gene variants and sALS. Further, linkage disequilibrium analyses were suggestive of a specific disease-associated haplotype for FTO gene variants. Genotyping for these variants was performed in Greek, Sardinian, and Turkish sALS patients. A lack of association between FTO and TBC1D1 variants and sALS in patients of Sardinian and Turkish descent may suggest a founder effect in the Greek population. FTO was found to be highly expressed in motor neurons, while in silico analyses predicted an impact on FTO and TBC1D1 mRNA splicing for the genomic variants in question. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present a possible association between FTO gene variants and the genetic etiology of sALS. In addition, the next-generation sequencing-based genomics approach coupled with the two-step validation strategy described herein has the potential to be applied to other types of human complex genetic disorders in order to identify variants of clinical significance.

  2. Seasonal variability and descent of mid-latitude sporadic E layers at Arecibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Christakis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic E layers (Es follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, which are determined primarily by the vertical tidal wind shears in the lower thermosphere. In the present study a large set of sporadic E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR measurements are analyzed. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ~18° N; Magnetic Dip ~50° over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering evenly all seasons. A new methodology is applied, in which both weak and strong layers are clearly traced by using the vertical electron density gradient as a function of altitude and time. Taking a time base equal to the 24-h local day, statistics were obtained on the seasonal behavior of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variability and altitude descent patterns of sporadic E at Arecibo. The diurnal tide, most likely the S(1,1 tide with a vertical wavelength around 25 km, controls fully the formation and descent of the metallic Es layers at low altitudes below 110 km. At higher altitudes, there are two prevailing layers formed presumably by vertical wind shears associated mainly with semidiurnal tides. These include: 1 a daytime layer starting at ~130 km around midday and descending down to 105 km by local midnight, and 2 a less frequent and weaker nighttime layer which starts prior to midnight at ~130 km, descending downwards at somewhat faster rate to reach 110 km by sunrise. The diurnal and semidiurnal-like pattern prevails, with some differences, in all seasons. The differences in occurrence, strength and descending speeds between the daytime and nighttime upper layers are not well understood from the present data alone and require further study.

  3. Transarterial ethanol ablation for sporadic and non-hemorrhaging angiomyolipoma in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebayashi, Shigeo [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57, Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama 232-0024 (Japan)], E-mail: take2922@urahp.yokohama-cu.ac.jp; Horikawa, Ayumi; Arai, Mito; Iso, Shinichiroh [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57, Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama 232-0024 (Japan); Noguchi, Kazumi [Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy and side effects of transarterial ethanol ablation in sporadic and non-hemorrhaging angiomyolipomas (AMLs) in the kidney. Material and Methods: A total of 10 patients with solitary and sporadic AMLs underwent selective transarterial absolute ethanol ablation for prophylaxis against hemorrhage. We confirmed the ratio areas of tumor vessel on angiogram, those of infraction on post-ablation computed tomography (CT) and those of tumor reduction in a 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up CT. Results: Once or twice a single infusion of 1 or 2 ml absolute ethanol achieved in a total occlusion of 22 feeding arteries which consisted of 7 proximal interlobar arteries, 12 distal interlobar arteries and 3 renal capsular arteries. Nontarget occlusion did not occur by ethanol reflux in any cases but occurred causing spasms provoked by repeated inflation and deflation of the balloon in one case. Total occlusion of tumor vessels was observed in 7 patients and 92-95% occlusion in 3. Ethanol ablation produced 1.8-22.5% (mean 8.4 {+-} 6.8%) areas of infarctions but the outcome was not serious in all cases. Mean percentage areas of tumor reduction were 29.4 {+-} 10.6% in a 3-month follow-up, 45.7 {+-} 11.9% in a 6-month and 59.3 {+-} 11.5% in a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: Absolute ethanol ablation for sporadic and non-hemorrhaging AML is safe and effective in reducing majority of tumor area in a 1-year follow-up.

  4. Prevalence of mitochondrial DNA mutations in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Chen, Jia; Li, Ying; Lin, Peng-Fang; He, Jian-Guo; Yang, Bei-Bei

    2016-01-01

    Several mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported to be associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss in several families. However, little is known about the prevalence of these mutations in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of our study was to investigate the incidence of these mitochondrial DNA mutations in such population. A total of 178 sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood sample. We employed the SNaPshot(®) sequencing method to detect five mitochondrial DNA mutations, including A1555G and A827G in 12S rRNA gene and A7445G, 7472insC, and T7511C in tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene. Meanwhile, we used polymerase chain reaction and sequenced the products to screen GJB2 gene mutations in patients carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations. We failed to detect the presence of A1555G mutation in 12S rRNA gene, and of A7445G, 7472insC, T7511C mutations in tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene in our population. However, we found that 6 patients (3.37%) were carriers of a homozygous A827G mutation and one of them also carried homozygous GJB2 235delC mutation. Our findings in the present study indicate that even in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss, mitochondrial DNA mutations might also contribute to the clinical phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Exome-wide association study reveals novel susceptibility genes to sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Esslinger

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is an important cause of heart failure with a strong familial component. We performed an exome-wide array-based association study (EWAS to assess the contribution of missense variants to sporadic DCM.116,855 single nucleotide variants (SNVs were analyzed in 2796 DCM patients and 6877 control subjects from 6 populations of European ancestry. We confirmed two previously identified associations with SNVs in BAG3 and ZBTB17 and discovered six novel DCM-associated loci (Q-value<0.01. The lead-SNVs at novel loci are common and located in TTN, SLC39A8, MLIP, FLNC, ALPK3 and FHOD3. In silico fine mapping identified HSPB7 as the most likely candidate at the ZBTB17 locus. Rare variant analysis (MAF<0.01 demonstrated significant association for TTN variants only (P = 0.0085. All candidate genes but one (SLC39A8 exhibit preferential expression in striated muscle tissues and mutations in TTN, BAG3, FLNC and FHOD3 are known to cause familial cardiomyopathy. We also investigated a panel of 48 known cardiomyopathy genes. Collectively, rare (n = 228, P = 0.0033 or common (n = 36, P = 0.019 variants with elevated in silico severity scores were associated with DCM, indicating that the spectrum of genes contributing to sporadic DCM extends beyond those identified here.We identified eight loci independently associated with sporadic DCM. The functions of the best candidate genes at these loci suggest that proteostasis regulation might play a role in DCM pathophysiology.

  6. Comparative analysis of copy number variations in ulcerative colitis associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumar, B. M.; Chakrabarty, Sanjiban; Rotti, Harish; Seenappa, Venu; Rao, Lakshmi; Geetha, Vasudevan; Tantry, B. V.; Kini, Hema; Dharamsi, Rajesh; Pai, C. Ganesh; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of and mortality from colorectal cancers (CRC) can be reduced by early detection. Currently there is a lack of established markers to detect early neoplastic changes. We aimed to identify the copy number variations (CNVs) and the associated genes which could be potential markers for the detection of neoplasia in both ulcerative colitis-associated neoplasia (UC-CRN) and sporadic colorectal neoplasia (S-CRN). We employed array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) to identify CNVs in tissue samples of UC nonprogressor, progressor and sporadic CRC. Select genes within these CNV regions as a panel of markers were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) method along with the microsatellite instability (MSI) in an independent cohort of samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was also performed. Integrated analysis showed 10 overlapping CNV regions between UC-Progressor and S-CRN, with the 8q and 12p regions showing greater overlap. The qRT-PCR based panel of MYC, MYCN, CCND1, CCND2, EGFR and FNDC3A was successful in detecting neoplasia with an overall accuracy of 54 % in S-CRN compared to that of 29 % in UC neoplastic samples. IHC study showed that p53 and CCND1 were significantly overexpressed with an increasing frequency from pre-neoplastic to neoplastic stages. EGFR and AMACR were expressed only in the neoplastic conditions. CNVs that are common and unique to both UC-associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasm could be the key players driving carcinogenesis. Comparative analysis of CNVs provides testable driver aberrations but needs further evaluation in larger cohorts of samples. These markers may help in developing more effective neoplasia-detection strategies during screening and surveillance programs. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2303-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  7. Seasonal variability and descent of mid-latitude sporadic E layers at Arecibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Christakis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic E layers (Es follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, which are determined primarily by the vertical tidal wind shears in the lower thermosphere. In the present study a large set of sporadic E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR measurements are analyzed. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ~18° N; Magnetic Dip ~50° over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering evenly all seasons. A new methodology is applied, in which both weak and strong layers are clearly traced by using the vertical electron density gradient as a function of altitude and time. Taking a time base equal to the 24-h local day, statistics were obtained on the seasonal behavior of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variability and altitude descent patterns of sporadic E at Arecibo. The diurnal tide, most likely the S(1,1 tide with a vertical wavelength around 25 km, controls fully the formation and descent of the metallic Es layers at low altitudes below 110 km. At higher altitudes, there are two prevailing layers formed presumably by vertical wind shears associated mainly with semidiurnal tides. These include: 1 a daytime layer starting at ~130 km around midday and descending down to 105 km by local midnight, and 2 a less frequent and weaker nighttime layer which starts prior to midnight at ~130 km, descending downwards at somewhat faster rate to reach 110 km by sunrise. The diurnal and semidiurnal-like pattern prevails, with some differences, in all seasons. The differences in occurrence, strength and descending speeds between the daytime and nighttime upper layers are not well understood from the present data alone and require further study.

  8. Searching for possible effects on midlatitude sporadic E layer, caused by tropospheric lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Veronika; Haldoupis, Christos; Sátori, Gabriella; Buresova, Dalia

    2016-07-01

    Thunderstorms in the troposphere may affect the overlying ionosphere through electrodynamic and/or neutral atmosphere wave coupling processes. For example, it is well known that lightning discharges may impact upper atmosphere through quasi-electrostatic fields and strong electromagnetic pulses, leading to transient luminous phenomena, such as sprites and elves, along with electron heating and ionization changes in the upper D and lower E-region ionosphere that have been detected in VLF transmissions propagating in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. On the other hand, mechanical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere may be caused by neutral atmosphere gravity waves which are known to have their origin in massive thunderstorms. The effects of troposphere-ionosphere coupling during thunderstorms, are not yet fully established and understood, therefore there is need for more correlative studies, for example by using concurrent ionospheric and lightning observations. In the present work an effort is made to investigate a possible relationship between tropospheric lighting and sporadic E layer, which are known to dominate at bottomside ionosphere and at middle latitudes during summer. For this, a correlative analysis was undertaken using lightning data obtained with the LINET lightning detection network in Central Europe, and E region ionospheric parameters (fmin, foE, foEs, fbEs) measured with the Pruhonice (50° N, 14.5° E) DPS-4D digisonde in the summer of 2009. For direct correlation with the digisonde data, the lightning activity was quantified every 15 minutes in coincidence with the measured ionogram parameters. In the search for relation between lightning and sporadic E, the digisonde observations during lightning were also compared with those taken during a number of tropospheric storm-free days in Pruhonice. The results of this correlative study did not provide evidence of significance that favors a relationship between tropospheric lightning and

  9. Mineral surface processes responsible for the decreased retardation (or enhanced mobilization) of 137Cs from HLW tank discharges. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, P.M.; Zachara, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    'Cesium (137) is a major component of high level weapons waste. At Hanford, single shell tanks (SST''s) with high level wastes (HLW) have leaked supernate containing over 10 6 Ci of 137 Cs and other co-contaminants into the vadose zone. In select locations, 137 Cs has migrated further than expected from retardation experiments and performance assessment calculations. Deep 137 Cs migration has been observed beneath the SX tank farm at Hanford with REDOX wastes as the carrier causing regulatory and stakeholder concern. The causes for expedited migration are unclear. This research is investigating how the sorption chemistry of Cs on Hanford vadose zone sediments changes after contact with solutions characteristic of HLW. The central scientific hypothesis is that the high Na concentration of HLW will suppress surface-exchange reactions of Cs, except those to highly-selective frayed edge sites (FES) of the micaceous fraction. The authors further speculate that the concentrations, ion selectivity, and structural aspects of the FES will change after contact with HLW and that these changes will be manifest in the macroscopic sorption behavior of Cs. The authors believe that migration predictions of Cs can be improved substantially if such changes are understood and quantified. The research has three objectives: (1.) identify how the multi-component surface exchange behavior of Cs on Hanford sediments changes after contact with HLW simulants that span a range of relevant chemical (Na, OH, Al, K) and temperature conditions (23-80 C); (2) reconcile changes in sorption chemistry with microscopic and molecular changes in site distribution, chemistry, mineralogy, and surface structure of the micaceous fraction; (3) integrate mass-action-solution exchange measurements with changes in the structure/site distribution of the micaceous fraction to yield a multicomponent exchange model relevant to high ionic strength and hydroxide for prediction of environmental Cs sorption.'

  10. The diagnostic efficiency of biomarkers in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, J.M.; Heegaard, N.H.; Falkenhorst, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory markers have a prominent place among the diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Here we investigate the capability of protein 14-3-3, total-tau (t-tau), threonin-181-phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF......) together with the prion protein gene genotype to discriminate patients with sCJD (n=21) from neurological controls (n=164) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n=49). Low p-tau/t-tau ratio was the best single marker for sCJD with 90% specificity against neurological controls at 86% sensitivity whilst NSE...

  11. Analysis of wave-like oscillations in parameters of sporadic E layer and neutral atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mošna, Zbyšek; Koucká Knížová, Petra

    90-91, SI (2012), s. 172-178 ISSN 1364-6826. [IAGA/ICMA/CAWSES-II TG4 Workshop on Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System /4./. Prague, 14.02.2011-18.02.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420704 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Sporadic E * Planetary waves * Tidal waves * Mid-latitude ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682612001186

  12. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE INFECTION IN CHILDREN DURING SPORADIC MORBIDITY: CLINICAL CASES WITH DIFFERENT (FAVORABLE OR FATAL OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii A. Kharchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae infection in children is detected as sporadic cases and is characterized by polymorphism of clinical symptoms (rhinopharyngitis, purulent meningitis, acute epiglottitis, panniculitis, etc., which complicates an early diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. In young children, Haemophilus influenzae infection (type b often occurs in generalized forms and may result in death. The article presents  literature data and the results of own clinical observations  of Haemophilus influenzae cases that occurred with an aspect of purulent meningitis and panniculitis in young children. The tactics of a complex therapy and ways to prevent Haemophilus in fluenzae infection are discussed.

  13. Searching for effects caused by thunderstorms in midlatitude sporadic E layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barta, V.; Haldoupis, C.; Sátori, G.; Burešová, Dalia; Chum, Jaroslav; Pozoga, M.; Berényi, K. A.; Bór, J.; Popek, Martin; Kis, Á.; Bencze, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 161, August (2017), s. 150-159 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-07281J; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : atmospheric gravity waves * ionosphere coupling * lightning * sporadic E layer * sprites * thunderstorm Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.00270

  14. Congenital terminal transverse deformity of upper limb: clinical and radiological findings in a sporadic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sajid; Afzal, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Congenital transverse limb anomalies are rare, which affect upper and/or lower limbs and may accompany several syndromic malformations. We present a sporadic male subject with congenital, unilateral transverse arrest of the left hand. The affected arm was observed to be short with reduced zeugopod and truncated palm. Fingers were represented by five bead-like nubbins. Roentgenographic examination revealed short radius and ulna with hypoplastic distal heads, absent carpals/metacarpals, and a hypoplastic bony island in each nubbin. Consanguinity was denied, and the subject had no symptoms in the orofacial, neurological and skeletal systems. Detailed clinical data with literature survey is presented.

  15. New application of intelligent agents in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies unexpected specific genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penco, Silvana; Buscema, Massimo; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Marocchi, Alessandro; Grossi, Enzo

    2008-05-30

    Few genetic factors predisposing to the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified, but the pathology itself seems to be a true multifactorial disease in which complex interactions between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors take place. The purpose of this study was to approach genetic data with an innovative statistical method such as artificial neural networks to identify a possible genetic background predisposing to the disease. A DNA multiarray panel was applied to genotype more than 60 polymorphisms within 35 genes selected from pathways of lipid and homocysteine metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, coagulation, inflammation, cellular adhesion and matrix integrity, in 54 sporadic ALS patients and 208 controls. Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis. An unexpected discovery of a strong genetic background in sporadic ALS using a DNA multiarray panel and analytical processing of the data with advanced artificial neural networks was found. The predictive accuracy obtained with Linear Discriminant Analysis and Standard Artificial Neural Networks ranged from 70% to 79% (average 75.31%) and from 69.1 to 86.2% (average 76.6%) respectively. The corresponding value obtained with Advanced Intelligent Systems reached an average of 96.0% (range 94.4 to 97.6%). This latter approach allowed the identification of seven genetic variants essential to differentiate cases from controls: apolipoprotein E arg158cys; hepatic lipase -480 C/T; endothelial

  16. The diagnostic efficiency of biomarkers in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Justyna Maria Czarna; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg; Falkenhorst, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    ) together with the prion protein gene genotype to discriminate patients with sCJD (n=21) from neurological controls (n=164) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n=49). Low p-tau/t-tau ratio was the best single marker for sCJD with 90% specificity against neurological controls at 86% sensitivity whilst NSE......Laboratory markers have a prominent place among the diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Here we investigate the capability of protein 14-3-3, total-tau (t-tau), threonin-181-phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF...

  17. Sporadic and genetic forms of paediatric somatotropinoma: a retrospective analysis of seven cases and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozières Cécile

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatotropinoma, a pituitary adenoma characterised by excessive production of growth hormone (GH, is extremely rare in childhood. A genetic defect is evident in some cases; known genetic changes include: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1; Carney complex; McCune-Albright syndrome; and, more recently identified, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP. We describe seven children with somatotropinoma with a special focus on the differences between genetic and sporadic forms. Methods Seven children who presented in our regional network between 1992 and 2008 were included in this retrospective analysis. First-type therapy was somatostatin (SMS analogues or transsphenoidal surgery. Control was defined as when insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels were within the normal range for the patient's age at 6 months after therapy, associated with decreasing tumour volume. Results Patients were aged 5-17 years and the majority (n = 6 were male. Four patients had an identified genetic mutation (McCune-Albright syndrome: n = 1; MEN1: n = 1; AIP: n = 2; the remaining three cases were sporadic. Accelerated growth rate was reported as the first clinical sign in four patients. Five patients presented with macroadenoma; invasion was noted in four of them (sporadic: n = 1; genetic: n = 3. Six patients were treated with SMS analogues; normalisation of IGF-1 occurred in one patient who had a sporadic intrasellar macroadenoma. Multiple types of therapy were necessary in all patients with an identified genetic mutation (4 types: n = 1; 3 types: n = 2; 2 types: n = 1, whereas two of the three patients with sporadic somatotropinoma required only one type of therapy. Conclusions This is the first series that analyzes the therapeutic response of somatotropinoma in paediatric patients with identified genetic defects. We found that, in children, genetic somatotropinomas are more invasive than sporadic somatotropinomas. Furthermore

  18. Different swimming behaviors of sterlet (Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa close to solid and free surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boryshpolets, S; Cosson, J; Bondarenko, V; Gillies, E; Rodina, M; Dzyuba, B; Linhart, O

    2013-01-01

    Spermatozoa tend to swim near surfaces. Such attraction toward surface vicinity was approximated by the force-dipole theoretical approach and hydrodynamic modeling, but the physical parameters of surfaces have not usually been included in these models and their effect on sperm mobility remains unknown. In spermatozoa, changes in wave parameters, together with rotation around their longitudinal axis and circling appear when movement takes place close to surfaces. Here we show, by analysis of microscopy images (including high-speed video), a strong influence of the liquid-solid interface on sterlet spermatozoa motility characteristics compared with motility near the liquid-gas interface. Sperm cells swam at 16% lower velocity near a liquid-solid interface, rotating at a stable frequency of 25 Hz, each 180° rotation corresponding to one beat cycle and circling clockwise (when observed from top). In case of spermatozoa close to a water-air interface, rotation and circling were sporadic and irregular. Sterlet spermatozoa movement near a surface affects their velocity and possibly causes rotation. These behaviors are highly dependent on the level of suppleness of the interface, as has been previously predicted by modeling. Our results enhance the understanding of how surfaces influence fish spermatozoa motility. These insights on the effects of surfaces on fish spermatozoa motility imply that widely used methods rating sperm motility, such as computer-assisted sperm analysis, might lead to erroneous results. Further study of sperm motility near surfaces is urgently needed to correct our rating methods and better understand sperm behavior in natural conditions. Improved evaluation of sperm motility behavior near surfaces could be used to determine physical properties of aquatic interfaces with various surfaces composed of different materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Advertising on mobile applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolevsky, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the new method of mobile advertising. Advertising in mobile applications - a subspecies of mobile marketing, where advertising is distributed using mobile phones and smartphones. Ad placement is going on inside of applications and games for smartphones. It has a high potential due to the large number of mobile phone users (over 6.5 billion in 2013).

  20. Mobile video with mobile IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    Minoli, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil

  1. Modular Cryogenic Hydraulics for Legged Mobility

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The desire to explore the surfaces of icy moons, such as Europa, will require the development of a new generation of planetary mobility technologies. Wheeled and...

  2. Mobile Misfortune

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigh, Henrik Erdman

    2015-01-01

    part looks at the predicament of youth and the hope of migration in Bissau, the second illuminates the anguish of deportation and the despair of being forcefully ‘displaced back home.’ Following in the footsteps of the young men that seek to navigate the cocaine trade, in order to obtain better lives...... for themselves and their families, it shows how involvement in the cocaine trade is both a curse and a catalyst. Though trading the drug may facilitate migration and mobility, generating social being and worth in the process, it is an activity that is haunted by the threat of deportation and the termination...... migration from the global South often has negative potentiality as an end-point via the ascription of illegality and condition of deportability that shade it....

  3. MobiLED: mobile-led and leading via mobile

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ford, M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 250 million. China also has some 600 million cell phone subscribers so the potential for the mobile internet is enormous. Last year Google’s president in China, announced that Google was redesigning its products for a market where “most Chinese... browser [10]. Hadeda is a spelling "drill and practice" system that was developed as part of MobilED to investigate the use of the mobile web in education. Hadeda allows teachers and parents to create spelling lists using either a web browser or mobile...

  4. A stroller ethnography of mobilities design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    atmospheres, embodied practices and social encounters. The pram is approached as a significant, yet largely overlooked, everyday object that affords urban mobility, and in the creative vein of mobilities design, the paper experiments with a new style of visual ethnography to help unravel the consequential...... properties and experiential effects of urban surfaces. In this process, I relate pram mobility to questions of urban accessibility issues and discuss urban design interventions, not as transient inconveniencies, but enduring predicaments for wheeled-based mobility in the contemporary city....

  5. Sporadic-E associated with the Leonid meteor shower event of November 1998 over low and equatorial latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chandra

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid radio soundings were made over Ahmedabad, a low latitude station during the period 16–20 November 1998 to study the sporadic-E layer associated with the Leonid shower activity using the KEL Aerospace digital ionosonde. Hourly ionograms for the period 11 November to 24 November were also examined during the years from 1994 to 1998. A distinct increase in sporadic-E layer occurrence is noticed on 17, 18 and 19 November from 1996 to 1998. The diurnal variations  of  f0Es and fbEs also show significantly enhanced values for the morning hours of 18 and 19 November 1998. The ionograms clearly show strong sporadic-E reflections at times of peak shower activity with multiple traces in the altitude range of 100–140 km in few ionograms. Sporadic-E layers with multiple structures in altitude are also seen in some of the ionograms (quarter hourly at Thumba, situated near the magnetic equator. Few of ionograms recorded at Kodaikanal, another equatorial station, also show sporadic- E reflections in spite of the transmitter power being significantly lower. These new results highlighting the effect of intense meteor showers in the equatorial and low latitude E-region are presented.Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere – Radio science (ionospheric physics

  6. Sporadic-E associated with the Leonid meteor shower event of November 1998 over low and equatorial latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Chandra

    Full Text Available Rapid radio soundings were made over Ahmedabad, a low latitude station during the period 16–20 November 1998 to study the sporadic-E layer associated with the Leonid shower activity using the KEL Aerospace digital ionosonde. Hourly ionograms for the period 11 November to 24 November were also examined during the years from 1994 to 1998. A distinct increase in sporadic-E layer occurrence is noticed on 17, 18 and 19 November from 1996 to 1998. The diurnal variations 
    of  f0Es and fbEs also show significantly enhanced values for the morning hours of 18 and 19 November 1998. The ionograms clearly show strong sporadic-E reflections at times of peak shower activity with multiple traces in the altitude range of 100–140 km in few ionograms. Sporadic-E layers with multiple structures in altitude are also seen in some of the ionograms (quarter hourly at Thumba, situated near the magnetic equator. Few of ionograms recorded at Kodaikanal, another equatorial station, also show sporadic- E reflections in spite of the transmitter power being significantly lower. These new results highlighting the effect of intense meteor showers in the equatorial and low latitude E-region are presented.

    Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere – Radio science (ionospheric physics

  7. Advanced atherosclerosis is associated with increased medial degeneration in sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paul T; Segura, Ana Maria; Liu, Guanghui; Minard, Charles G; Coselli, Joseph S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shen, Ying H; LeMaire, Scott A

    2014-02-01

    The pathogenesis of non-familial, sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms (SAAA) is poorly understood, and the relationship between ascending aortic atherosclerosis and medial degeneration is unclear. We evaluated the prevalence and severity of aortic atherosclerosis and its association with medial degeneration in SAAA. Atherosclerosis was characterized in ascending aortic tissues collected from 68 SAAA patients (mean age, 62.9 ± 12.0 years) and 15 controls (mean age, 56.6 ± 11.4 years [P = 0.07]) by using a modified American Heart Association classification system. Upon histologic examination, 97% of SAAA patients and 73% of controls showed atherosclerotic changes. Most SAAA samples had intermediate (types 2 and 3, 35%) or advanced atherosclerosis (types ≥ 4; 40%), whereas most control samples showed minimal atherosclerosis (none or type 1, 80%; P atherosclerosis grade. Advanced atherosclerosis was associated with higher grades of smooth muscle cell depletion (P atherosclerosis than in patients with minimal (P = 0.04) or intermediate atherosclerosis (P = 0.04). Immunostaining showed marked CD3+ T-cell and CD68+ macrophage infiltration, MMP-2 and MMP-9 production, and cryopyrin expression in the medial layer adjacent to atherosclerotic plaque. SAAA tissues exhibited advanced atherosclerosis that was associated with severe medial degeneration and increased aortic diameter. Our findings suggest a role for atherosclerosis in the progression of sporadic ascending aortic aneurysms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The ‘Pokemon’ (ZBTB7) Gene: No Evidence of Association with Sporadic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Antonio; Vega, Ana; Milne, Roger L.; García-Magariños, Manuel; Ruibal, Álvaro; Benítez, Javier; Carracedo, Ángel

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that the excess of familiar risk associated with breast cancer could be explained by the cumulative effect of multiple weakly predisposing alleles. The transcriptional repressor FBI1, also known as Pokemon, has recently been identified as a critical factor in oncogenesis. This protein is encoded by the ZBTB7 gene. Here we aimed to determine whether polymorphisms in ZBTB7 are associated with breast cancer risk in a sample of cases and controls collected in hospitals from North and Central Spanish patients. We genotyped 15 SNPs in ZBTB7, including the flanking regions, with an average coverage of 1 SNP/2.4 Kb, in 360 sporadic breast cancer cases and 402 controls. Comparison of allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies between cases and controls did not reveal associations using Pearson’s chi-square test and a permutation procedure to correct for multiple test. In this, the first study of the ZBTB7 gene in relation to, sporadic breast cancer, we found no evidence of an association. PMID:21892298

  9. Are there tumor suppressor genes on chromosome 4p in sporadic colorectal carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hai-Tao; Jiang, Li-Xin; Lv, Zhong-Chuan; Li, Da-Peng; Zhou, Chong-Zhi; Gao, Jian-Jun; He, Lin; Peng, Zhi-Hai

    2008-01-07

    To study the candidate tumor suppressor genes (TSG) on chromosome 4p by detecting the high frequency of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in sporadic colorectal carcinoma in Chinese patients. Seven fluorescent labeled polymorphic microsatellite markers were analyzed in 83 cases of colorectal carcinoma and matched normal tissue DNA by PCR. PCR products were electrophoresed on an ABI 377 DNA sequencer. Genescan 3.7 and Genotype 3.7 software were used for LOH scanning and analysis. The same procedure was performed by the other six microsatellite markers spanning D4S3013 locus to make further detailed deletion mapping. Comparison between LOH frequency and clinicopathological factors was performed by c2 test. Data were collected from all informative loci. The average LOH frequency on 4p was 24.25%, and 42.3% and 35.62% on D4S405 and D4S3013 locus, respectively. Adjacent markers of D4S3013 displayed a low LOH frequency (4p15.2) and D4S405 (4p14) locus are detected. Candidate TSG, which is involved in carcinogenesis and progression of sporadic colorectal carcinoma on chromosome 4p, may be located between D4S3017 and D4S2933 (about 1.7 cm).

  10. Unconsidered sporadic sources of carbon dioxide emission from soils in taiga forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, D V; Zamolodchikov, D G; Isaev, A S

    2017-07-01

    Long-term monitoring in the Russian taiga zone has shown that all known extreme destructive effects resulting in the weakening and death of tree stands (windfalls, pest attacks, drought events, etc.) can be sporadic, but significant sources of CO 2 soil emission. Among them are (i) a recently found effect of the multiyear CO 2 emission from soil at the bottom of deadwood of spruce trees that died due to climate warming and subsequent pest outbreaks, (ii) increased soil CO 2 emissions due to to the fall of tree trunks during massive windfalls, and (iii) pulse CO 2 emission as a result of the so-called Birch effect after drought events in the taiga zone. According to the modeling, while depending on the spatial and temporal scales of their manifestation, the impact of these sporadic effects on the regional and global soil respiration fluxes could be significant and should be taken into consideration. This is due to continuing Climate Change, and further increase of local, regional and Global human impacts on the atmospheric greenhouse gases balance, and land use, as well.

  11. Hierarchical imputation of systematically and sporadically missing data: An approximate Bayesian approach using chained equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolani, Shahab

    2018-03-01

    In health and medical sciences, multiple imputation (MI) is now becoming popular to obtain valid inferences in the presence of missing data. However, MI of clustered data such as multicenter studies and individual participant data meta-analysis requires advanced imputation routines that preserve the hierarchical structure of data. In clustered data, a specific challenge is the presence of systematically missing data, when a variable is completely missing in some clusters, and sporadically missing data, when it is partly missing in some clusters. Unfortunately, little is known about how to perform MI when both types of missing data occur simultaneously. We develop a new class of hierarchical imputation approach based on chained equations methodology that simultaneously imputes systematically and sporadically missing data while allowing for arbitrary patterns of missingness among them. Here, we use a random effect imputation model and adopt a simplification over fully Bayesian techniques such as Gibbs sampler to directly obtain draws of parameters within each step of the chained equations. We justify through theoretical arguments and extensive simulation studies that the proposed imputation methodology has good statistical properties in terms of bias and coverage rates of parameter estimates. An illustration is given in a case study with eight individual participant datasets. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Gene expression profiles of sporadic canine hemangiosarcoma are uniquely associated with breed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Tamburini

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The role an individual's genetic background plays on phenotype and biological behavior of sporadic tumors remains incompletely understood. We showed previously that lymphomas from Golden Retrievers harbor defined, recurrent chromosomal aberrations that occur less frequently in lymphomas from other dog breeds, suggesting spontaneous canine tumors provide suitable models to define how heritable traits influence cancer genotypes. Here, we report a complementary approach using gene expression profiling in a naturally occurring endothelial sarcoma of dogs (hemangiosarcoma. Naturally occurring hemangiosarcomas of Golden Retrievers clustered separately from those of non-Golden Retrievers, with contributions from transcription factors, survival factors, and from pro-inflammatory and angiogenic genes, and which were exclusively present in hemangiosarcoma and not in other tumors or normal cells (i.e., they were not due simply to variation in these genes among breeds. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 (VEGFR1 was among genes preferentially enriched within known pathways derived from gene set enrichment analysis when characterizing tumors from Golden Retrievers versus other breeds. Heightened VEGFR1 expression in these tumors also was apparent at the protein level and targeted inhibition of VEGFR1 increased proliferation of hemangiosarcoma cells derived from tumors of Golden Retrievers, but not from other breeds. Our results suggest heritable factors mold gene expression phenotypes, and consequently biological behavior in sporadic, naturally occurring tumors.

  13. Prognostic impact of changes in base excision repair machinery in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azambuja, Daniel B; Leguisamo, Natalia M; Gloria, Helena C; Kalil, Antonio Nocchi; Rhoden, Ernani; Saffi, Jenifer

    2018-01-01

    to evaluate the prognostic value of base excision repair proteins in sporadic colorectal cancer. Pre-treatment tumor samples from 72 patients with sporadic colorectal adenocarcinoma were assessed for APC, MPG, Polβ, XRCC1 and Fen1 expression by immunohistochemistry. The associations of molecular data were analyzed in relation to clinical features and TNM staging as a prognosis predictor and disease-free survival. Higher levels of MPG, Polβ and XRCC1, but not Fen1, were associated with unfavorable pathological outcomes, such as poor cellular differentiation, advanced TNM stages, presence of lymphatic and perineural invasions and metastatic lymph nodes. MPG and Polβ overexpression were associated with right-sided CRC. However, only MPG high expression is associated with shorter disease-free survival in CRC patients. Our results suggest that increased expression of MPG, Polβ and XRCC1 are more likely to evolve to poor pathological outcomes, but only the elevated expression of MPG protein predicts recurrence. The BER proteins appear to be suitable candidates to refine the TNM current staging of colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Onset and spreading patterns of lower motor neuron involvements predict survival in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura-Kiyono, Chieko; Kimura, Fumiharu; Ishida, Simon; Nakajima, Hideto; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Sugino, Masakazu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2011-11-01

    To define patterns of spread through the order of lower motor neuron involvement (first, second or third order), relationships between interval or sites of affected areas from onset to involvement of a second region, and prognosis, including 5 year survival, normal preservation of motor function at onset of respiratory symptoms and cumulative occurrence of each region and direction of spread. 150 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) underwent follow-up at 3 month intervals until the appearance of respiratory symptoms. Symptom appearances were determined using the revised version of the ALS Functional Rating Scale. Median survival with combined type onset (two regions simultaneously) was shorter (18 months) than with bulbar onset (26 months, p=0.01). The interval from onset to involvement of the second region correlated significantly with survival, independent of particular combinations. 5 year survival rate was 21% for lower limb onset, 18% for upper limb onset and 16% for bulbar onset. No patient with a rapid spread pattern (two regions within 3 months from onset) survived >5 years. Early manifestations of bulbar symptoms within 1 year were associated with worse survival (pspread longitudinally to adjacent regions. Bulbar function remained preserved in 27%, lower limb function in 10% and upper limb function in 2.7%. The interval between onset and involvement of the second region is an important predictor of survival. The data support the contiguous anatomical propagation of lower motor neuron involvement in sporadic ALS.

  15. Gene Expression Profiles of Sporadic Canine Hemangiosarcoma Are Uniquely Associated with Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburini, Beth A.; Trapp, Susan; Phang, Tzu Lip; Schappa, Jill T.; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Modiano, Jaime F.

    2009-01-01

    The role an individual's genetic background plays on phenotype and biological behavior of sporadic tumors remains incompletely understood. We showed previously that lymphomas from Golden Retrievers harbor defined, recurrent chromosomal aberrations that occur less frequently in lymphomas from other dog breeds, suggesting spontaneous canine tumors provide suitable models to define how heritable traits influence cancer genotypes. Here, we report a complementary approach using gene expression profiling in a naturally occurring endothelial sarcoma of dogs (hemangiosarcoma). Naturally occurring hemangiosarcomas of Golden Retrievers clustered separately from those of non-Golden Retrievers, with contributions from transcription factors, survival factors, and from pro-inflammatory and angiogenic genes, and which were exclusively present in hemangiosarcoma and not in other tumors or normal cells (i.e., they were not due simply to variation in these genes among breeds). Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 1 (VEGFR1) was among genes preferentially enriched within known pathways derived from gene set enrichment analysis when characterizing tumors from Golden Retrievers versus other breeds. Heightened VEGFR1 expression in these tumors also was apparent at the protein level and targeted inhibition of VEGFR1 increased proliferation of hemangiosarcoma cells derived from tumors of Golden Retrievers, but not from other breeds. Our results suggest heritable factors mold gene expression phenotypes, and consequently biological behavior in sporadic, naturally occurring tumors. PMID:19461996

  16. The 2-min walk test is sufficient for evaluating walking abilities in sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, L N; Lowes, L P; Dvorchik, I; Yin, H; Maus, E G; Flanigan, K M; Mendell, J R

    2014-03-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis causes progressive functional loss due to declining muscle strength. Although the underlying cause is unknown, clinical trials are underway to improve strength and function. Selection of appropriate outcome measures is critical for the success of these trials. The 6-min walk test has been the de facto standard for assessing function in neuromuscular disease; however, the optimal walking test has not been determined in this disease. In this study, 67 individuals with sporadic inclusion body myositis completed a battery of quantitative strength and functional tests including timed walking tests, patient-reported outcomes, and other tasks. The 2-min and 6-min walk tests are highly correlated to each other (r=0.97, pwalk test, but 7% of subjects were unable to walk the full 6-min of the 6-min walk test due to fatigue. The 2-min walk test demonstrates similar correlation to all outcomes compared to the 6-min walk test, is less fatiguing and better tolerated. Results suggest that the 2-min walk test is a better alternative to tests of longer duration. Further research is needed to determine longitudinal changes on this outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal evolution of the HF-enhanced plasma line in sporadic E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuth, F.T.; Gonzales, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The high-power, high-frequency (HF) facility at Arecibo, Puerto Rico, has been used to study the excitation of Langmuir waves in mid-latitude sporadic E. Measurements of the temporal evolution of so-called HF-enhanced plasma line (HFPL) were made using the Arecibo 430-MHz radar. After HF turn-on in the plasma the HFPL exhibits a rapid growth phase followed by a quick overshoot. During periods of strong HFPL excitation the e-folding growth time of the HFPL power is typically approx-lt 20 μs, and the total overshoot period is ∼1 ms. On the basis of the current observations, mode conversion of the HF wave into Langmuir waves near HF reflection appears to be a promising mechanism for the production of Langmuir waves in sporadic E. Caviton formation at the critical layer is expected to accompany this process, and there is some evidence that the 430-MHz radar is probing the plasma in a region where density cavities of this nature form. While no specific explanation is offered for the HFPL overshoot, it appears that this phenomenon is fundamental to the Langmuir wave excitation process

  18. [Microsatellite alterations on chromosome 9p21-22 in sporadic colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Lai, M

    1999-12-01

    To study whether alteration of p16 plays an important role in the development of colorectal carcinomas and the relationship between the molecular changes of 9p21-22 chromosome subregion in sporadic colorectal cancers. To detect microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) by PCR, denatured-polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis and silver staining (microsatellite DNA-PCR-silver staining method) and to compare the results with the clinopathological parameters. Between MSI positive and negative cases and the clinopathological findings, some evidences found in the MSI positive group were as follows: (1) tendency towards younger patients (usually < 50 years in age, P < 0.05); (2) more frequently seen in mucoid carcinomas (P < 0.01). Microsatellite DNA-PCR-silver staining method is very sensitive in detecting even a tiny change of a single base. MSI occured in the selected microsatellite loci of different subregions and different chromosomes might be different in significance, therefore, a right choice of the suitable loci for studying the microsatellite changes is important. Since the frequency of loss of heterozygosity at 9p21-22 is low (merely 8.42%), it is considered that p16 is not closely associated with the development of sporadic colorectal cancer.

  19. Angiotensin converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism in sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacmias, Benedetta; Bagnoli, Silvia; Tedde, Andrea; Cellini, Elena; Bessi, Valentina; Guarnieri, Biancamaria; Ortensi, Luigi; Piacentini, Silvia; Bracco, Laura; Sorbi, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    A recent, large meta-analysis has reproposed the role of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To further investigate the proposed association and to better clarify the role of ACE as a risk factor for AD, we analyzed the genotype and allele frequency distribution of ACE I/D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphisms in 235 Italian patients with sporadic AD, 153 with familial AD (FAD), 192 healthy controls and 111 centenarians. Patients with AD were consecutively gathered from among the outpatients from the Neurology Department at the University of Florence. All 691 subjects were genotyped for ACE and APOE polymorphisms. There were no significant differences in ACE genotypes or allele frequencies in all the studied groups, even after stratification for APOE epsilon4 carrier status. Centenarians show the highest allele D frequency, although the value is not significant, thus suggesting a possible implication of the D allele as an epistatic allele that has pleiotropic age-dependent effects. In conclusion, our data suggest that the ACE allelic variant is not a susceptibility factor in sporadic and familial AD (FAD), nor does it mitigate the effect of the APOE epsilon4 allele in the risk of developing AD. Moreover, our data do not suggest a possible involvement of the D allele in longevity.

  20. Early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer: strategic map for innovation--a white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J; Chari, Suresh T; Cleeter, Deborah F; Go, Vay Liang W

    2015-07-01

    Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

  1. Micro Mobility Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hosbond, Jens Henrik; Skov, Mikael B.

    2008-01-01

    Mobile marketing refers to marketing of services or goods using mobile technology and mobile marketing holds potentially great economical opportunities. Traditionally, mobile marketing has been viewed as mobility in the large taking place virtually anywhere, anytime. Further, research shows...... considerable number of studies on push-based SMS mobile marketing campaigns. This paper explores a related yet different form of mobile marketing namely micro mobility marketing. Micro mobility marketing denotes mobility in the small, meaning that promotion of goods takes place within a circumscribed location......, in our case a medium-sized retail supermarket. Two prototypes based on push and pull marketing strategies are implemented and evaluated. Taking outset in a synthesis of central issues in contemporary research on mobile marketing, we discuss their role in micro mobility marketing to point to similarities...

  2. MOBILITY: A SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola I. Striuk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive study on the problem of mobility in the socio-educational and technical systems was carried out: the evolution of the concept of mobility in scientific sources of XIX–XXI centuries was analyzed and the new sources on the issue of mobility introduced into scientific circulation, the interrelation of the types of mobility in the socio-pedagogical and technical systems are theoretically grounded, an integrative model of mobility in the information society is proposed. The major trends in academic mobility are identified (the transition from student mobility to mobility programs and educational services providers, the new mobility programs (franchising, double/joint degrees, combinations, nostrification etc. are characterized. The new types of mobility providers are reviewed and attention is focused on virtual universities that are now the basis of virtual mobility of students and activities which are based on the use of new ICT in higher education, especially – the Internet and mobile learning environments.

  3. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  4. Trends in Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Chocholová, Petra

    2010-01-01

    The principal aim of this thesis is to assess the state of the mobile marketing as of the first quarter of 2011 and to discuss various scenarios of the future development. This thesis defines the terms "mobile marketing" and "mobile advertising" and identifies the main players in the industry. It explores the main categories of mobile advertising such as mobile messaging, in-content and mobile internet advertising. Later, it analyzes the latest trends in the industry and describes in detail t...

  5. Mobile Search and Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Lovitskii, Vladimir; McCaffery, Colin; Thrasher, Michael; Traynor, David; Wright, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mobile advertising is a rapidly growing sector providing brands and marketing agencies the opportunity to connect with consumers beyond traditional and digital media and instead communicate directly on their mobile phones. Mobile advertising will be intrinsically linked with mobile search, which has transported from the internet to the mobile and is identified as an area of potential growth. The result of mobile searching show that as a general rule such search result exceed 1...

  6. Urban pram strolling: a mobilities design perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores a neglected mode of mobility through an ethnographic study of pram strollers in Copenhagen. I illustrate the analytic advantages of mobilities design thinking to explore how pram strolling is shaped by material designs and experienced through affective atmospheres, embodied...... practices and social encounters. In so doing, the pram is seen as a significant, yet largely overlooked, designed artifact that affords urban mobility. In the creative vein of mobilities design, the paper experiments with a new style of visual ethnography, surface ethnography, to help unravel...... the affordances of surfaces. In this process, I relate pram strolling to questions of urban accessibility issues, and more generally, reflect on the future applications and potentials of mobilities design thinking....

  7. The Potential Mutation of GAK Gene in the Typical Sporadic Parkinson's Disease from the Han Population of Chinese Mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Hanyi; Zhu, Lei; Deng, Libing; Fang, Xin; Deng, Xia; Liang, Huiting; Tang, Chunyan; Cao, Xuebing; Lu, Yi; Li, Jiao; Ren, Xiao; Zuo, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiong; Xu, Renshi

    2016-12-01

    The genetic factors about the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is not completely clear at present; therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study, high-throughput sequencing analysis (HTPSA) of all cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) exons, loss-of-function assessment, and sorting intolerant from tolerant analysis of HTPSA data in 250 typical sPD and 250 controls, which found 55 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To further explore these SNPs, we sequenced the 30 most strongly associated SNPs in the 460 typical sPD cases and the 525 controls. All subjects were from the Han population of Chinese mainland and excluded the toxic exposure, the heavy coffee drinking, and the early- and late-onset sPD. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) at c.3824T>G, c.3794T>C, and c.3819G>A were higher in the control. The TG of c.3824T>G, the TC of c.3794T>C, and the AG of c.3819G>A were associated with the decreased risk of sPD. The subjects carrying the minor C allele of c.3794T>C or the minor A allele of c.3819G>A exhibited a decreased risk of sPD. c.3824T>G negatively affected the binding affinity of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). c.3794T>C increased the surface area exposed to substrates. c.3819G>A most likely reduced the expression level of GAK. Our data suggest that the multiple SNPs of GAK synergistically participate in the pathogenesis of sPD through multiple pathways.

  8. Source attribution of human campylobacteriosis using a meta-analysis of case-control studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    important sources of human disease is essential for prioritizing food safety interventions and setting public health goals. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic infections of campylobacteriosis have been published. These studies investigated a variety of potential risk factors for disease, often using......, and conclusions. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for human sporadic campylobacteriosis, we performed a SR of case-control studies of human sporadic cases and a meta-analysis of the obtained results. A combined SR focusing on Salmonella and Campylobacter studies was performed...... and the results analysed separately. From 1295 identified references, 131 passed the relevance screening, 73 passed the quality assessment stage, and data was extracted from 72 studies. Of these, 38 focused on campylobacteriosis. Information on exposures of cases and controls, and estimated odds ratios...

  9. Establishment of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a 57-year old patient with sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ochalek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were collected from a clinically characterised 57-year old woman with sporadic Alzheimer's disease. The PMBCs were reprogrammed with the human OSKM transcription factors using the Sendai-virus delivery system. The transgene-free iPSC showed pluripotency verified by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and differentiated spontaneously towards the 3 germ layers in vitro. Furthermore, the iPSC line showed normal karyotype. Our model might offer a good platform to further study the pathomechanism of sporadic AD, to identify early biomarkers and also for drug testing and gene therapy studies.

  10. Sporadic hemiplegic migraine with normal imaging as the initial manifestation of CADASIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Cecília; Barros, José; Taipa, Ricardo; Pereira-Monteiro, José

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) can be present with negative family history and, especially in younger patients, with normal brain magnetic resonance. For this reason, those CADASIL patients that present only with migraine may be misdiagnosed. In the case of migraine with motor aura, sporadic hemiplegic migraine (SHM) is one of the possible misdiagnoses. We present a case of a patient who, in the first years of her disease, met the clinical criteria for SHM. A diagnosis of CADASIL was considered only when her sister presented with headache and an unknown leukoencephalopathy. This case illustrates the need for a careful review of the clinical and family history during the follow-up of primary headaches.

  11. Long-term preclinical magnetic resonance imaging alterations in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanusso, Gianluigi; Camporese, Giulia; Ferrari, Sergio; Santelli, Luca; Bongianni, Matilde; Fiorini, Michele; Monaco, Salvatore; Manara, Renzo; Cagnin, Annachiara

    2016-10-01

    An asymptomatic 74-year-old woman, on follow-up for a carotid body tumor, showed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) focal restricted diffusion confined to the left temporal and occipital cortices. Thirteen months later, diffusion-weighted images revealed a bilateral cortical ribbon sign involving all lobes. After 1 month, the patient developed gait instability and cognitive decline rapidly evolving to severe dementia and death within 3 months. Prion protein gene sequence, molecular, and neuropathological studies confirmed the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) MM1 subtype. Here we show the kinetics of MRI changes and prion spreading in preclinical sCJD MM1. Ann Neurol 2016;80:629-632. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  12. Association between the PRNP 1368 polymorphism and the occurrence of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratosiewicz-Wąsik, Jolanta; Smoleń-Dzirba, Joanna; Rozemuller, Annemieke J.; Jansen, Casper; Spliet, Wim; Jansen, Gerard H.; Wąsik, Tomasz J.; Liberski, Paweł P.

    2012-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare transmissible neurodegenerative disorder. The etiology of sporadic form of CJD remains unsolved. In addition to the codon 129 polymorphism, polymorphisms in the non-coding region of PRNP are considered as important factors in sCJD development. To assess a possible association between PRNP 1368 SNP and sCJD, we compared the genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of the 1368 SNP among 46 sCJD patients of Dutch origin with the respective frequencies in healthy controls. We detected a significant association between sCJD and 1368T/T genotype. A significant difference was also observed in 1368 alleles’ distribution. In the haplotype analysis, haplotype 1368C-129G was associated with decreased risk of sCJD in Dutch population. Our findings support the hypothesis that genetic variations in the regulatory region of the PRNP gene may influence the pathogenesis of sCJD. PMID:22895088

  13. MRI manifestation for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Yonggang; Qi Ji; Xia Shuang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the MRI features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Methods: Three patients with clinically diagnosed sCJD underwent MR study, including SE T 1 WI, FSE T 2 WI, and DWI sequences. The MR imaging features were analyzed. Results: The lesions were not definite either in SE T 1 WI or in FSE T 2 WI, but were prominent in DWI. Abnormal hyperintensive signal appeared in the cerebral cortex, with the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes being the mostly involved region. The subcortical white matter was normal. The bilateral caudate nuclei and thalami could also be involved. The abnormal signal could be either symmetrical or asymmetrical. There was diffuse atrophy of the brain parenchyma in the late phase of disease, especially in the cortex. Conclusion: With the application of MR study, especially the DWI, combined with its characteristic clinical manifestation, the diagnosis of sCJD can be made definitely. (authors)

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid tau levels are a marker for molecular subtype in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, André; Hermann, Peter; Ponto, Claudia; Schmitz, Matthias; Arora, Amandeep; Zafar, Saima; Llorens, Franc; Müller-Heine, Annika; Zerr, Inga

    2015-05-01

    The molecular subtype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) is an important prognostic marker for patient survival. However, subtype determination is not possible during lifetime. Because the rate of disease progression is associated with the molecular subtype, this study aimed at investigating if total tau, a marker of neuronal death, allows premortem diagnosis of molecular subtype when codon 129 genotype is known. Two hundred ninety-six sCJD patients were tested for their cerebrospinal fluid total tau level at the time of diagnosis and were investigated for their sCJD subtype postmortem. There was a significant association between tau levels and the prion protein type in patients with codon 129 MM (p disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endplate Structure and Parameters of Neuromuscular Transmission in Sporadic Centronuclear Myopathy Associated with Myasthenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liewluck, Teerin; Shen, Xin-Ming; Milone, Margherita; Engel, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Centronuclear myopathy is a pathologically diagnosed congenital myopathy. The disease genes encode proteins with membrane modulating properties (MTM1, DNM2, and BIN1) or alter excitation-contraction coupling (RYR1). Some patients also have myasthenic symptoms but electrodiagnostic and endplate studies in these are limited. A sporadic patient had fatigable weakness and a decremental EMG response. Analysis of centronuclear myopathy disease- and candidate- genes identified no mutations. Quantitative endplate structure and in vitro microelectrode studies revealed simplified postsynaptic regions, endplate remodeling with normal nerve terminal size, normal synaptic vesicle density, and mild acetylcholine receptor deficiency. The amplitude of the miniature endplate potential was decreased to 60% of normal. Quantal release by nerve impulse was reduced to 40% of normal due to a decreased number of releasable quanta. The safety margin of neuromuscular transmission is compromised by decreased quantal release by nerve impulse and by a reduced postsynaptic response to the released quanta. PMID:21482111

  16. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome as a rare phenotype of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielewicz, Joanna; Szczepańska-Szerej, Anna; Ogórek, Magdalena; Dropko, Piotr; Wojtal, Katarzyna; Rejdak, Konrad

    2018-02-09

    We reported the case of a patient with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKs) as an early clinical manifestation of sporadic Creutzfeld-Jakob disease (sCJD). The 66-year-old female complained of dizziness and imbalance which mostly occurred while walking. A neurological examination revealed a triad of symptoms characteristic for WKs such as gaze paresis, ataxia of limbs and trunk as well as memory disturbances with confabulations. The disturbances increased during the course of the disease, which led to the death of the patient four months after the appearance of the signs. The patient was finally diagnosed with sCJD disease. The most useful ancillary examination results supporting sCJD diagnosis were brain diffusion DWI MRI (diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging) and the presence of 14-3-3 protein in CSF (cerebrospinal fluid). Since that manifestation of sCJD is very unique other causes should be taken into consideration while making a final diagnosis.

  17. High-resolution analysis of DNA copy number alterations in patients with isolated sporadic keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Hellani, Ali M; Al Mansouri, Sameer M; Kalantan, Hatem; Al-Muammar, Abdulrahman M

    2011-03-30

    To determine whether patients with sporadic, non-familial keratoconus and no pathogenic mutations in the visual system homeobox 1 (VSX1) gene have evidence of chromosomal copy number alterations. Twenty Saudi Arabian patients with isolated keratoconus, no family history of the disease and no mutations in VSX1 were recruited. Additionally, 10 ethnically-matched healthy controls were also recruited for this study. We screened patients for chromosomal copy number aberrations using the Agilent Human Genome CGH 244A Oligo Microarray Chip. None of the keratoconus patients screened had evidence of chromosomal copy number alterations when compared to normal ethnically matched controls. Chromosomal deletions and/or duplications were not detected in any of the patients tested here. Other chromosomal imbalances such as translocations, inversions, and some ploidies cannot be detected by current array CGH technology and other nuclear genetic or epigenetic factors cannot be excluded as a possible contributing factor to keratoconus pathogenesis.

  18. Primary sporadic Burkitt lymphoma of the orbit, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Sofiene; Said, Imed Ben; Yedeas, Mohamed Dahmani; Abderrahmen, Khansa; Maatar, Nidhal; Boubaker, Adnen; Kallel, Jalel; Jemel, Hafedh

    2016-03-01

    Involvement of the orbit with Burkitt's lymphoma is a very rare presentation of extra-nodal lymphoma. We report a case of a 2-year-old female presented an unusual location of sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma arising in the orbital region. Diagnostic magnetic resonance imagining identified an oval-shaped mass on the lateral rectus of the right orbit that caused dislocation of eyeball, for which she underwent a biopsy from the periorbital swellings. The mass was histologically confirmed as Burkitt's lymphoma, and postoperative aggressive chemotherapy was initiated. We describe clinical diagnosis, histological aspects, radiological features, and current management of this rapidly growing malignant tumor. Because of the rapid progression of Burkitt lymphoma, and considering that it responds well to treatment, early recognition and appropriate management are important factors for survival and to preserve visual function.

  19. Primary generalized familial and sporadic glucocorticoid resistance (Chrousos syndrome) and hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmandari, Evangelia; Kino, Tomoshige; Chrousos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Familial or sporadic primary generalized glucocorticoid resistance or Chrousos syndrome is a rare genetic condition characterized by generalized, partial, target-tissue insensitivity to glucocorticoids and a consequent hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Primary generalized glucocorticoid hypersensitivity (PGGH) represents the mirror image of the former, and is characterized by generalized, partial, target-tissue hypersensitivity to glucocorticoids, and compensatory hypoactivation of the HPA axis. The molecular basis of both conditions has been ascribed to mutations in the human glucocorticoid receptor (hGR) gene, which impair the molecular mechanisms of hGR action and alter tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, molecular mechanisms and clinical aspects of Chrousos syndrome and PGGH. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raitila, A; Georgitsi, M; Karhu, A

    2007-01-01

    . Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing. No somatic mutations were identified. However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X...... as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age. Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1...... (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC). Genes underlying MEN1 and CNC are rarely mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas, but more often in other lesions contributing to these two syndromes. Thus far, the occurrence of somatic AIP mutations has not been studied in endocrine tumors other than pituitary adenomas...

  1. Spread Direction and Prognostic Factors in Limb-Onset Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fangfang; Jin, Jiaoting; Jia, Rui; Xiang, Li; Qi, Huaguang; Chen, Xin; Dang, Jingxia

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the spread direction and prognostic factors in limb-onset sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS). Medical records of 128 patients with sALS were reviewed. Variables studied were age at symptom onset, gender, region and lateralization of onset, onset to diagnosis interval (ODI), progression direction, bulbar-involved, time from onset to bulbar-involved, ALSFRS-r, upper motor neuron (UMN) signs and progression rate. First, the horizontal and vertical directions are major spreading directions in limb-onset sALS. Second, in crossed and interposed groups, while ODI is shorter, the progression rate is faster and UMN signs are more pronounced (p spread directions in limb-onset sALS. Except for ALSFRS-r and ODI, bulbar-involved is an adverse factor for ALS progression, and progression rate is related to the time from onset symptoms to bulbar-involved. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Loss of p27 expression and microsatellite instability in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarli, Leopoldo; Bottarelli, Lorena; Azzoni, Cinzia; Campanini, Nicoletta; Di Cola, Gabriella; Barilli, Angela Luciana; Marchesi, Federico; Mazzeo, Antonio; Salvemini, Carlo; Morari, Silvia; Di Mauro, Davide; Donadei, Enrico; Necchi, Fransesca; Roncoroni, Luigi; Bordi, Cesare

    2006-08-01

    The role of the loss of p27 protein expression in the oncogenesis of colorectal cancer is still in debate. In this study, we prospectively examined the immunohistochemical expression of p27 in 108 consecutive colorectal cancers, and we analysed the relationship with the results, the clinicopathological data, microsatellite instability (MSI) and other genetic alterations of tumours. Unselected patients (108) who underwent curative colorectal resection for sporadic colorectal cancer in a three-year period were evaluated for MSI using 6 microsatellite markers, and for the presence of p27, p53, Fhit, Mlh1 and Msh2 proteins by means of immunostaining. The relationships between these markers were analysed. p27 protein expression was examined for association with disease recurrences and survival. Lack of p27 expression was noted in 33 out of 108 (30.5%) colorectal cancer cases (Pcancers (Pcancers with MSI (Pcancers.

  3. Four Sporadic Pediatric Cases of Yersinia enterocolitica O:8 Infection in a Rural Area of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Kisei; Yasuda, Ryu; Terakawa, Runa; Koike, Yumi; Takeuchi, Koichi; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Horiuchi, Ayaka; Kubota, Noriko; Hidaka, Eiko; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2017-03-24

    In the spring of 2015, we experienced a cluster of 4 sporadic cases of yersiniosis in children in Nagano prefecture, a rural area of Japan. Two patients developed appendicitis-like episodes; one had acute gastroenteritis, and the other had bacteremia associated with liver abscess. The causative agent of these infections was Yersinia enterocolitica serogroup O:8. None of the patients had an underlying illness, and all have recovered completely. The patients were neither socially nor geographically related to each other. These 4 consecutive cases suggest that Y. enterocolitica O:8 has spread substantially in the middle part of Japan, and that this virulent strain might be more common than previously reported in our country.

  4. Influence of Coding Variability in APP-Aβ Metabolism Genes in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste Sassi

    Full Text Available The cerebral deposition of Aβ42, a neurotoxic proteolytic derivate of amyloid precursor protein (APP, is a central event in Alzheimer's disease (AD(Amyloid hypothesis. Given the key role of APP-Aβ metabolism in AD pathogenesis, we selected 29 genes involved in APP processing, Aβ degradation and clearance. We then used exome and genome sequencing to investigate the single independent (single-variant association test and cumulative (gene-based association test effect of coding variants in these genes as potential susceptibility factors for AD, in a cohort composed of 332 sporadic and mainly late-onset AD cases and 676 elderly controls from North America and the UK. Our study shows that common coding variability in these genes does not play a major role for the disease development. In the single-variant association analysis, the main hits, none of which statistically significant after multiple testing correction (1.9e-4sporadic AD.

  5. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Other Pathogens are Key Causative Factors in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Steven A; Harris, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on research in epidemiology, neuropathology, molecular biology, and genetics regarding the hypothesis that pathogens interact with susceptibility genes and are causative in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sporadic AD is a complex multifactorial neurodegenerative disease with evidence indicating coexisting multi-pathogen and inflammatory etiologies. There are significant associations between AD and various pathogens, including Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Cytomegalovirus, and other Herpesviridae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, spirochetes, Helicobacter pylori, and various periodontal pathogens. These pathogens are able to evade destruction by the host immune system, leading to persistent infection. Bacterial and viral DNA and RNA and bacterial ligands increase the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and activate the innate and adaptive immune systems. Evidence demonstrates that pathogens directly and indirectly induce AD pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation, phosphorylation of tau protein, neuronal injury, and apoptosis. Chronic brain infection with HSV-1, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and spirochetes results in complex processes that interact to cause a vicious cycle of uncontrolled neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Infections such as Cytomegalovirus, Helicobacter pylori, and periodontal pathogens induce production of systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines that may cross the blood-brain barrier to promote neurodegeneration. Pathogen-induced inflammation and central nervous system accumulation of Aβ damages the blood-brain barrier, which contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. Apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) enhances brain infiltration by pathogens including HSV-1 and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. ApoE4 is also associated with an increased pro-inflammatory response by the immune system. Potential antimicrobial treatments for AD are discussed, including the rationale for antiviral and antibiotic clinical trials.

  6. Mutation analysis by direct and whole exome sequencing in familial and sporadic tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Alessandro; Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Ferrari, Lia; De Petro, Giuseppina; Borsani, Giuseppe; Majorana, Alessandra

    2016-11-01

    Dental agenesis is one of the most common congenital craniofacial abnormalities. Dental agenesis can be classified, relative to the number of missing teeth (excluding third molars), as hypodontia (1 to 5 missing teeth), oligodontia (6 or more missing teeth), or anodontia (lack of all teeth). Tooth agenesis may occur either in association with genetic syndromes, based on the presence of other inherited abnormalities, or as a non-syndromic trait, with both familiar and sporadic cases reported. In this study, we enrolled 16 individuals affected by tooth agenesis, prevalently hypodontia, and we carried out direct Sanger sequencing of paired box 9 (PAX9) and Msh homeobox 1 (MSX1) genes in 9 subjects. Since no mutations were identified, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) in the members of 5 families to identify causative gene mutations either novel or previously described. Three individuals carried a known homozygous disease mutation in the Wnt family member 10A (WNT10A) gene (rs121908120). Interestingly, two of these individuals were siblings and also carried a heterozygous functional variant in EDAR-associated death domain (EDARADD) (rs114632254), another disease causing gene, generating a combination of genetic variants never described until now. The analysis of exome sequencing data in the members of other 3 families highlighted new candidate genes potentially involved in tooth agenesis and considered suitable for future studies. Overall, our study confirmed the major role played by WNT10A in tooth agenesis and the genetic heterogeneity of this disease. Moreover, as more genes are shown to be involved in tooth agenesis, WES analysis may be an effective approach to search for genetic variants in familiar or sporadic tooth agenesis, at least in more severe clinical manifestations.

  7. Seizures in E200K familial and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, S; Chapman, J; Cohen, O S; Rosenmann, H; Nitsan, Z; Blatt, I

    2015-03-01

    Although seizures (other than myoclonus) are frequently reported in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), their frequency, clinical manifestations, and effect on the disease course is unknown. To characterize the frequency of seizures in E200K familial and sporadic CJD, to describe its semiology, EEG and MRI findings. In this retrospective study, we reviewed all patients with CJD who were seen in the Sheba Medical Center between the years 2003-2012 and underwent clinical evaluation, genetic testing, EEG and MRI studies. The diagnosis of seizures was carried out based on documentation of episodes consistent with seizures or episode of unresponsiveness correlated with ictal activity in EEG. Sixty-four probable patients with CJD were included in the study, 57 (89%) with E200K familial (fCJD) and 7 (11%) with sporadic (sCJD). Seizures occurred in 8 patients: 3 of 7 (43%) in patients with sCJD compared to 5/57 (9%) in patients with E200K fCJD (P = 0.04, chi-square test). Two of E200K fCJD patients with seizures had other non-prion etiologies for seizures (brain metastasis, known history of temporal lobe epilepsy which started 44 years before the diagnosis of CJD). Seizures occurred late in the course of the disease with an average of 12 days between the onset of seizures and death. Seizures in E200K fCJD were infrequent and occurred late in the disease course. This difference suggests that E200K fCJD represents a separate subtype of the disease with distinct clinical characteristics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prevalence of BRCA1 mutations in familial and sporadic greek ovarian cancer cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra V Stavropoulou

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes contribute to approximately 18% of hereditary ovarian cancers conferring an estimated lifetime risk from 15% to 50%. A variable incidence of mutations has been reported for these genes in ovarian cancer cases from different populations. In Greece, six mutations in BRCA1 account for 63% of all mutations detected in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of BRCA1 mutations in a Greek cohort of 106 familial ovarian cancer patients that had strong family history or metachronous breast cancer and 592 sporadic ovarian cancer cases. All 698 patients were screened for the six recurrent Greek mutations (including founder mutations c.5266dupC, p.G1738R and the three large deletions of exon 20, exons 23-24 and exon 24. In familial cases, the BRCA1 gene was consequently screened for exons 5, 11, 12, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24. A deleterious BRCA1 mutation was found in 43/106 (40.6% of familial cancer cases and in 27/592 (4.6% of sporadic cases. The variant of unknown clinical significance p.V1833M was identified in 9/698 patients (1.3%. The majority of BRCA1 carriers (71.2% presented a high-grade serous phenotype. Identifying a mutation in the BRCA1 gene among breast and/or ovarian cancer families is important, as it enables carriers to take preventive measures. All ovarian cancer patients with a serous phenotype should be considered for genetic testing. Further studies are warranted to determine the prevalence of mutations in the rest of the BRCA1 gene, in the BRCA2 gene, and other novel predisposing genes for breast and ovarian cancer.

  9. Regional neuronal network failure and cognition in late-onset sporadic Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S F; Embleton, K V; Anton-Rodriguez, J M; Burns, A; Ralph, M A L; Herholz, K

    2014-06-01

    The severe cognitive deficits in Alzheimer disease are associated with structural lesions in gray and white matter in addition to changes in synaptic function. The current investigation studied the breakdown of the structure and function in regional networks involving the Papez circuit and extended neocortical association areas. Cortical volumetric and diffusion tensor imaging (3T MR imaging), positron-emission tomography with (18)F fluorodeoxyglucose on a high-resolution research tomograph, and comprehensive neuropsychological assessments were performed in patients with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer disease, those with mild cognitive impairment, and elderly healthy controls. Atrophy of the medial temporal lobes was the strongest and most consistent abnormality in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease. Atrophy in the temporal, frontal, and parietal regions was most strongly related to episodic memory deficits, while deficits in semantic cognition were also strongly related to reductions of glucose metabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex and temporoparietal regions. Changes in fractional anisotropy within white matter tracts, particularly in the left cingulum bundle, uncinate fasciculus, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, were significantly associated with the cognitive deficits in multiple regression analyses. Posterior cingulate and orbitofrontal metabolic deficits appeared to be related to microstructural changes in projecting white matter tracts. Many lesioned network components within the Papez circuit and extended neocortical association areas were significantly associated with cognitive dysfunction in both mild cognitive impairment and late-onset sporadic Alzheimer disease. Hippocampal atrophy was the most prominent lesion, with associated impairment of the uncinate and cingulum white matter microstructures and hippocampal and posterior cingulate metabolic impairment. © 2014 by American

  10. Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet pattern scores and risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Kristine A; McCullough, Marji; Flanders, W Dana; Hartman, Terryl J; Judd, Suzanne; Bostick, Roberd M

    2014-12-01

    The Western dietary pattern is associated with higher risk of colorectal neoplasms. Evolutionary discordance could explain this association. We investigated associations of scores for 2 proposed diet patterns, the "Paleolithic" and the Mediterranean, with incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas in a case-control study of colorectal polyps conducted in Minnesota (1991-1994). Persons with no prior history of colorectal neoplasms completed comprehensive questionnaires prior to elective, outpatient endoscopy; of these individuals, 564 were identified as cases and 1,202 as endoscopy-negative controls. An additional group of community controls frequency-matched on age and sex (n = 535) was also recruited. Both diet scores were calculated for each participant and categorized into quintiles, and associations were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios comparing persons in the highest quintiles of the Paleolithic and Mediterranean diet scores relative to the lowest quintiles were, respectively, 0.71 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.50, 1.02; Ptrend = 0.02) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.03; Ptrend = 0.05) when comparing cases with endoscopy-negative controls and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.26; Ptrend = 0.14) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.53, 1.11; Ptrend = 0.13) when comparing cases with community controls. These findings suggest that greater adherence to the Paleolithic diet pattern and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern may be similarly associated with lower risk of incident, sporadic colorectal adenomas. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sporadic versus Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma: A Comparative Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 48 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are aggressive tumors of vascular endothelial origin, occurring sporadically or in association with prior radiotherapy. We compared clinicopathologic and biologic features of sporadic angiosarcomas (SA and radiation-associated angiosarcomas (RAA. Methods. From a University of Michigan institutional database, 37 SA and 11 RAA were identified. Tissue microarrays were stained for p53, Ki-67, and hTERT. DNA was evaluated for TP53 and ATM mutations. Results. Mean latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of RAA was 11.9 years: 6.7 years for breast RAA versus 20.9 years for nonbreast RAA (P=0.148. Survival after diagnosis did not significantly differ between SA and RAA (P=0.590. Patients with nonbreast RAA had shorter overall survival than patients with breast RAA (P=0.03. The majority of SA (86.5% and RAA (77.8% were classified as high-grade sarcomas (P=0.609. RAA were more likely to have well-defined vasoformative areas (55.6% versus 27%, P=0.127. Most breast SA were parenchymal in origin (80%, while most breast RAA were cutaneous in origin (80%. TMA analysis showed p53 overexpression in 25.7% of SA and 0% RAA, high Ki-67 in 35.3% of SA and 44.4% RAA, and hTERT expression in 100% of SA and RAA. TP53 mutations were detected in 13.5% of SA and 11.1% RAA. ATM mutations were not detected in either SA or RAA. Conclusions. SA and RAA are similar in histology, immunohistochemical markers, and DNA mutation profiles and share similar prognosis. Breast RAA have a shorter latency period compared to nonbreast RAA and a significantly longer survival.

  12. Mendelian Genes and Risk of Intracerebral Hemorrhage and Small-Vessel Ischemic Stroke in Sporadic Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Michael; O'Donnell, Martin; Thijs, Vincent; Dans, Antonio; López-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gómez-Arbeláez, Diego; Mondo, Charles; Czlonkowska, Anna; Skowronska, Marta; Oveisgharan, Shahram; Yusuf, Salim; Paré, Guillaume

    2017-08-01

    Mendelian strokes are rare genetic disorders characterized by early-onset small-vessel stroke. Although extensively studied among families with syndromic features, whether these genes affect risk among sporadic cases is unknown. We sequenced 8 genes responsible for Mendelian stroke in a case-control study of sporadic stroke cases (≤70 years). Participants included 1251 primary stroke cases of small-vessel pathology (637 intracerebral hemorrhage and 614 small-vessel ischemic stroke cases) and 1716 controls from the INTERSTROKE study (Study of the Importance of Conventional and Emerging Risk Factors of Stroke in Different Regions and Ethnic Groups of the World). Overall, the prevalence of canonical disease-causing mutations was 0.56% in cases and 0.23% in controls (odds ratio=1.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-7.57; P =0.33). CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathies with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathies) mutations were more frequent among cases (0.48%) than controls (0.23%) but were not significantly associated with stroke risk (odds ratio=2.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.58-8.02; P =0.27). Next, we included all rare nonsynonymous mutations to investigate whether other types of mutations may contribute to stroke risk. Overall, 13.5% of cases and 14.2% of controls were carriers of at least one rare nonsynonymous mutation among the 8 Mendelian stroke genes. Mutation carriers were not at elevated risk of stroke (odds ratio=0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.16; P =0.55). In the absence of syndromic features and family history of stroke, screening for Mendelian mutations among small-vessel stroke patients is unlikely to have high diagnostic utility. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Next generation mobile broadcasting

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez-Barquero, David

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Mobile Broadcasting provides an overview of the past, present, and future of mobile multimedia broadcasting. The first part of the book-Mobile Broadcasting Worldwide-summarizes next-generation mobile broadcasting technologies currently available. This part covers the evolutions of the Japanese mobile broadcasting standard ISDB-T One-Seg, ISDB-Tmm and ISDB-TSB; the evolution of the South Korean T-DMB mobile broadcasting technology AT-DMB; the American mobile broadcasting standard ATSC-M/H; the Chinese broadcasting technologies DTMB and CMMB; second-generation digital terrestrial

  14. Evolution of Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongtraychack Anachack

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, we can see the rapid evolution of mobile technology, which involves mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software. Features of mobile phones largely depend on software. In contemporary information and communication age [1–4], mobile application is one of the most concerned and rapidly developing areas. At the same time, the development of mobile application undergoes great changes with the introduction of new software, service platforms and software development kits (SDK. These changes lead to appearance of many new service platforms such as Google with Android and Apple with iOS. This article presents the information about the evolution of mobile application, gives some statistical data on the past and present situation, demonstrates how individual users of mobile devices can benefit, and shows how mobile applications affect society from the ethical perspective.

  15. Effect of sporadic destratification, seasonal overturn, and artificial mixing on CH4 emissions from a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Frédéric; Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Labat, David; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Guédant, Pierre; Rode, Wanidaporn; Godon, Arnaud; Chanudet, Vincent; Descloux, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    Inland waters in general and freshwater reservoirs specifically are recognized as a source of CH4 into the atmosphere. Although the diffusion at the air-water interface is the most studied pathway, its spatial and temporal variations are poorly documented. We measured temperature and O2 and CH4 concentrations every 2 weeks for 3.5 years at nine stations in a subtropical monomictic reservoir which was flooded in 2008 (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, Lao PDR). Based on these results, we quantified CH4 storage in the water column and diffusive fluxes from June 2009 to December 2012. We compared diffusive emissions with ebullition from Deshmukh et al. (2014) and aerobic methane oxidation and downstream emissions from Deshmukh et al. (2016). In this monomictic reservoir, the seasonal variations of CH4 concentration and storage were highly dependent on the thermal stratification. Hypolimnic CH4 concentration and CH4 storage reached their maximum in the warm dry season (WD) when the reservoir was stratified. Concentration and storage decreased during the warm wet (WW) season and reached its minimum after the reservoir overturned in the cool dry (CD) season. The sharp decreases in CH4 storage were concomitant with extreme diffusive fluxes (up to 200 mmol m-2 d-1). These sporadic emissions occurred mostly in the inflow region in the WW season and during overturn in the CD season in the area of the reservoir that has the highest CH4 storage. Although they corresponded to less than 10 % of the observations, these extreme CH4 emissions (> 5 mmol m-2 d-1) contributed up to 50 % of total annual emissions by diffusion. During the transition between the WD and WW seasons, a new emission hotspot was identified upstream of the water intake where diffusive fluxes peaked at 600 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2010 down to 200 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2012. The hotspot was attributed to the mixing induced by the water intakes (artificial mixing). Emissions from this area contributed 15-25 % to total annual emissions

  16. Mobile platform security

    CERN Document Server

    Asokan, N; Dmitrienko, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Recently, mobile security has garnered considerable interest in both the research community and industry due to the popularity of smartphones. The current smartphone platforms are open systems that allow application development, also for malicious parties. To protect the mobile device, its user, and other mobile ecosystem stakeholders such as network operators, application execution is controlled by a platform security architecture. This book explores how such mobile platform security architectures work. We present a generic model for mobile platform security architectures: the model illustrat

  17. Nosocomial transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: results from a risk-based assessment of surgical interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Mahillo-Fernández, Ignacio; Rábano, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of surgical transmission of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) remains debatable in part due to misclassification of exposure levels. In a registry-based case-control study, the authors applied a risk-based classification of surgical interventions to determine the association...

  18. Identification of chromosome aberrations in sporadic microsatellite stable and unstable colorectal cancers using array comparative genomic hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Dyrsø; Li, Jian; Wang, Kai

    2011-01-01

    cancers constitute approximately 85% of sporadic cases, whereas microsatellite unstable (MSI) cases constitute the remaining 15%. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to identify genomic hotspot regions that harbor recurrent copy number changes. The study material...

  19. Multifactorial analysis of differences between sporadic breast cancers and cancers involving BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakhani, S. R.; Jacquemier, J.; Sloane, J. P.; Gusterson, B. A.; Anderson, T. J.; van de Vijver, M. J.; Farid, L. M.; Venter, D.; Antoniou, A.; Storfer-Isser, A.; Smyth, E.; Steel, C. M.; Haites, N.; Scott, R. J.; Goldgar, D.; Neuhausen, S.; Daly, P. A.; Ormiston, W.; McManus, R.; Scherneck, S.; Ponder, B. A.; Ford, D.; Peto, J.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Bignon, Y. J.; Struewing, J. P.; Spurr, N. K.; Bishop, D. T.; Klijn, J. G.; Devilee, P.; Cornelisse, C. J.; Lasset, C.; Lenoir, G.; Barkardottir, R. B.; Egilsson, V.; Hamann, U.; Chang-Claude, J.; Sobol, H.; Weber, B.; Stratton, M. R.; Easton, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that breast cancers associated with inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations differ from each other in their histopathologic appearances and that each of these types differs from breast cancers in patients unselected for family history (i.e., sporadic

  20. Mutational analysis using Sanger and next generation sequencing in sporadic spindle cell hemangiomas: A study of 19 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, R.W. ten; Bekers, E.M.; Leng, W.W.J. de; Strengman, E.; Tops, B.B.J.; Kutzner, H.; Leeuwis, J.W.; Gorp, J.M. van; Creytens, D.H.; Mentzel, T.; Diest, P.J. van; Eijkelenboom, A.; Flucke, U.

    2017-01-01

    Spindle cell hemangioma (SCH) is a distinct vascular soft-tissue lesion characterized by cavernous blood vessels and a spindle cell component mainly occurring in the distal extremities of young adults. The majority of cases harbor heterozygous mutations in IDH1/2 sporadically or rarely in

  1. Frequent germ-line succinate dehydrogenase subunit D gene mutations in patients with apparently sporadic parasympathetic paraganglioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Dannenberg (Hilde); W.N.M. Dinjens (Winand); M. Abbou; H. van Urk (Hero); B.K. Pauw; D. Mouwen; W.J. Mooi (Wolter); R.R. de Krijger (Ronald)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: Recently, familial paraganglioma (PGL) was shown to be caused bymutations in the gene encoding succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD). However, the prevalence of SDHD mutations in apparently sporadic PGL is unknown. We studied the frequency and spectrum of

  2. Predictors of future growth of sporadic vestibular schwannomas obtained by history and radiologic assessment of the tumor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artz, J.C.; Timmer, F.C.A.; Mulder, J.J.S.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Graamans, K.

    2009-01-01

    Management of a sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) is still a subject of controversy, mainly due to distinct and unpredictable growth patterns. To embark on an appropriate therapy it is necessary to dispose of a reliable prediction about tumor progression. This study aims to design a risk profile

  3. Genetic determinants for cadmium and arsenic resistance among Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b isolates from sporadic human listeriosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b from sporadic listeriosis, heavy metal resistance was primarily encountered in certain clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa). All arsenic-resistant isolates harbored the arsenic resistance cassette previously identified in pLI100; ECIa harbored additional arsenic resi...

  4. Large-scale screening in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies genetic modifiers in C9orf72 repeat carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Annelot M.; Seelen, Meinie; van Doormaal, Perry T. C.; van Rheenen, Wouter; Bothof, Reinoud J. P.; van Riessen, Tim; Brands, William J.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; Voermans, Nicol C.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; van Es, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is considered to be a complex disease with multiple genetic risk factors contributing to the pathogenesis. Identification of genetic risk factors that co-occur frequently could provide relevant insight into underlying mechanisms of motor neuron

  5. When does ALS start? ADAR2-GluA2 hypothesis for the etiology of sporadic ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto eHideyama

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease. More than 90% of ALS cases are sporadic, and the majority of sporadic ALS patients do not carry mutations in genes causative of familial ALS; therefore, investigation specifically targeting sporadic ALS is needed to discover the pathogenesis. The motor neurons of sporadic ALS patients express unedited GluA2 mRNA at the Q/R site in a disease-specific and motor neuron-selective manner. GluA2 is a subunit of the AMPA receptor, and it has a regulatory role in the Ca2+-permeability of the AMPA receptor after the genomic Q codon is replaced with the R codon in mRNA by adenosine-inosine conversion, which is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2. Therefore, ADAR2 activity may not be sufficient to edit all GluA2 mRNA expressed in the motor neurons of ALS patients. To investigate whether deficient ADAR2 activity plays pathogenic roles in sporadic ALS, we generated genetically modified mice (AR2 in which the ADAR2 gene was conditionally knocked out in the motor neurons. AR2 mice showed an ALS-like phenotype with the death of ADAR2-lacking motor neurons. Notably, the motor neurons deficient in ADAR2 survived when they expressed only edited GluA2 in AR2/GluR-BR/R (AR2res mice, in which the endogenous GluA2 alleles were replaced by the GluR-BR allele that encoded edited GluA2. In heterozygous AR2 mice with only one ADAR2 allele, approximately 20% of the spinal motor neurons expressed unedited GluA2 and underwent degeneration, indicating that half-normal ADAR2 activity is not sufficient to edit all GluA2 expressed in motor neurons. It is likely therefore that the expression of unedited GluA2 causes the death of motor neurons in sporadic ALS. We hypothesize that a progressive downregulation of ADAR2 activity plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS and that the pathological process commences when motor neurons express unedited GluA2.

  6. The survival of patients with Stage III Colon Cancer is improved in HNPCC compared with sporadic cases. A Danish registry based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Line Merrild; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Bülow, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) seem to have a better prognosis than those with sporadic colon cancer (CC)s. The aim was to compare survival after stage III CC in patients with HNPCC with those having sporadic CC. METHOD: 230 patients with hereditary cancer...... history of cancer. Patient characteristics, geographic differences and survival data were analyzed. RESULTS: The overall survival (OS) was better in HNPCC patients compared to sporadic CC after stratification for sex and age (p=0.02; CI 1.04-1.7). The 5-year survival was 70% in HNPCC patients compared...... from The Danish HNPCC-Register and 3557 patients with sporadic CC from The Danish Colorectal Cancer Database, diagnosed during May 2001-December 2008 were included. HNPCC patients were classified according to Mismatch Repair mutation status and family pedigree. Sporadic cases had no known family...

  7. Abrechnung mobiler Dienste im Mobile-Payment-Referenzmodell

    OpenAIRE

    Pousttchi, Key; Wiedemann, Dietmar Georg

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyze mobile payments in the mobile commerce scenario. Therefore, we first classify the mobile payment in the mobile commerce scenario by explaining general offer models, charging concepts, and intermediaries. Second, we describe the mobile payment reference model, especially, the mobile payment reference organization model and different mobile payment standard types. Finally, we conclude our findings.

  8. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce...

  9. Mobile Portal Implementation Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Ping; Damsgaard, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Mobile portal plays an important role in mobile commerce market. Current literature focuses on static analysis on the value chain of mobile portals. This article provides a dynamic perspective on mobile portal strategy. Drawing upon network economics, we describe mobile portal implementation...... as a fourphase process. In different phase, a portal provider has various challenges to overcome and adopt diverse strategies, and correspondingly the regulator has different foci. The conceptual framework proposed in this article offers a basis for further analyses on the market dynamics of mobile commerce......, and can be generalized to studying other networked technologies...

  10. Head First Mobile Web

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Lyza; Grigsby, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Despite the huge number of mobile devices and apps in use today, your business still needs a website. You just need it to be mobile. Head First Mobile Web walks you through the process of making a conventional website work on a variety smartphones and tablets. Put your JavaScript, CSS media query, and HTML5 skills to work-then optimize your site to perform its best in the demanding mobile market. Along the way, you'll discover how to adapt your business strategy to target specific devices. Navigate the increasingly complex mobile landscapeTake both technical and strategic approaches to mobile

  11. Proximity to Parental Symptom Onset and Amyloid-β Burden in Sporadic Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Sylvia; Vogel, Jacob W; Gonneaud, Julie; Pichet Binette, Alexa; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Gauthier, Serge; Bateman, Randall J; Fagan, Anne M; Morris, John C; Benzinger, Tammie L S; Johnson, Sterling C; Breitner, John C S; Poirier, Judes

    2018-02-26

    Alzheimer disease (AD) develops during several decades. Presymptomatic individuals might be the best candidates for clinical trials, but their identification is challenging because they have no symptoms. To assess whether a sporadic parental estimated years to symptom onset calculation could be used to identify information about amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in asymptomatic individuals with a parental history of AD dementia. This cohort study analyzed Aβ1-42 in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens from 101 cognitively normal individuals who had a lumbar puncture as part of the Presymptomatic Evaluation of Novel or Experimental Treatments for Alzheimer Disease (PREVENT-AD) cohort from September 1, 2011, through November 30, 2016 (374 participants were enrolled in the cohort during this period). The study estimated each participant's proximity to his/her parent's symptom onset by subtracting the index relative's onset age from his/her current age. The association between proximity to parental symptom onset and Aβ levels was then assessed using apolipoprotein E ε4 (APOE4) status and sex as interactive terms. These analyses were performed again in 2 independent cohorts using CSF and Pittsburgh compound B carbon 11-labeled positron emission tomography (PIB-PET) Aβ biomarkers: the Adult Children Study (ACS) and the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer Prevention (WRAP) cohorts. The association between proximity to parental symptom onset and Aβ burden in asymptomatic individuals with a parental history of sporadic AD. The present analysis included a subset of 101 PREVENT-AD individuals (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [5.1] years; 30 [29.7%] male), 128 ACS participants (112 participants underwent CSF measurement: mean [SD] age, 63.4 [5.1] years; 31 [27.7%] male; and 107 underwent PIB-PET: mean [SD] age, 64.6 [5.3] years; 27 [25.2%] male), and 135 WRAP participants (85 participants underwent CSF measurement: mean [SD] age, 59.9 [6.0] years; 27 [31.8%] male; and 135 underwent PIB-PET: mean

  12. Glycoform-Selective Prion Formation in Sporadic and Familial Forms of Prion Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangzhu; Yuan, Jue; Haïk, Stéphane; Cali, Ignazio; Zhan, Yian; Moudjou, Mohammed; Li, Baiya; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Laude, Hubert; Langeveld, Jan; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Kong, Qingzhong; Brandel, Jean-Philippe; Cobb, Brian A.; Petersen, Robert B.; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2013-01-01

    The four glycoforms of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) variably glycosylated at the two N-linked glycosylation sites are converted into their pathological forms (PrPSc) in most cases of sporadic prion diseases. However, a prominent molecular characteristic of PrPSc in the recently identified variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is the absence of a diglycosylated form, also notable in familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), which is linked to mutations in PrP either from Val to Ile at residue 180 (fCJDV180I) or from Thr to Ala at residue 183 (fCJDT183A). Here we report that fCJDV180I, but not fCJDT183A, exhibits a proteinase K (PK)-resistant PrP (PrPres) that is markedly similar to that observed in VPSPr, which exhibits a five-step ladder-like electrophoretic profile, a molecular hallmark of VPSPr. Remarkably, the absence of the diglycosylated PrPres species in both fCJDV180I and VPSPr is likewise attributable to the absence of PrPres glycosylated at the first N-linked glycosylation site at residue 181, as in fCJDT183A. In contrast to fCJDT183A, both VPSPr and fCJDV180I exhibit glycosylation at residue 181 on di- and monoglycosylated (mono181) PrP prior to PK-treatment. Furthermore, PrPV180I with a typical glycoform profile from cultured cells generates detectable PrPres that also contains the diglycosylated PrP in addition to mono- and unglycosylated forms upon PK-treatment. Taken together, our current in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that sporadic VPSPr and familial CJDV180I share a unique glycoform-selective prion formation pathway in which the conversion of diglycosylated and mono181 PrPC to PrPSc is inhibited, probably by a dominant-negative effect, or by other co-factors. PMID:23527023

  13. SEEK-2 (Sporadic-E Experiment over Kyushu 2 − Project Outline, and Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pfaff

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available SEEK-2 (Sporadic-E Experiment over Kyushu 2 is an observation campaign to study the spatial structure of the field-aligned irregularity (FAI and sporadic-E(Es-layer by means of two sounding rockets and a ground-based observation network with radars and optical instruments. The experiment was successfully conducted on 3 August 2002, with successive launches of two sounding rockets from the Uchinoura Space Center (USC of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA. The timing of the experiment was carefully selected, while intense quasi-periodic (QP echoes were observed with two radars in Tanegashima. The main Es-layer, with its double-layered structure, was observed at altitudes of 103–105 km, the presence of which was well accounted for by the ion accumulation due to neutral-wind shear. Several minor peaks were detected in the electron density profiles at altitudes of up to 130 km. The intensity of the electric field was 5–10 mV/m and showed intense fluctuations below 110 km. Wave-like variation of the electric field was seen above 110 km. From radar experiments, we found that QP echoes appeared around 105 km, which agreed well with the main Es-layer height. The QP echoes propagated to the west-northwest, with frontal structures elongated from north-northeast to south-southwest. Radar observations conduced throughout the SEEK-2 period, on the other hand, showed that frontal structures of the QP echoes were most frequently propagated to the southeast. This result was consistent with the direction of gravity-wave propagation observed with the OH imager during the same period. The rocket beacon experiment with the Es-layers revealed the spatial structure of the plasma densities. On the basis of these results and those from SEEK-1 in 1996, we examined the structures of the nighttime mid-latitude E-region. We concluded that the QP echoes reflect the horizontal structures of the main Es-layers. The source of the structures was not clearly

  14. Mapping of gene expression reveals CYP27A1 as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekstra, Frank P; Saris, Christiaan G J; van Rheenen, Wouter; Franke, Lude; Jansen, Ritsert C; van Es, Michael A; van Vught, Paul W J; Blauw, Hylke M; Groen, Ewout J N; Horvath, Steve; Estrada, Karol; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Robberecht, Wim; Andersen, Peter M; Melki, Judith; Meininger, Vincent; Hardiman, Orla; Landers, John E; Brown, Robert H; Shatunov, Aleksey; Shaw, Christopher E; Leigh, P Nigel; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Ophoff, Roel A; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. ALS is considered to be a complex trait and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a few susceptibility loci. However, many more causal loci remain to be discovered. Since it has been shown that genetic variants associated with complex traits are more likely to be eQTLs than frequency-matched variants from GWAS platforms, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide screening for eQTLs associated with ALS. In addition, we applied an eQTL analysis to finemap association loci. Expression profiles using peripheral blood of 323 sporadic ALS patients and 413 controls were mapped to genome-wide genotyping data. Subsequently, data from a two-stage GWAS (3,568 patients and 10,163 controls) were used to prioritize eQTLs identified in the first stage (162 ALS, 207 controls). These prioritized eQTLs were carried forward to the second sample with both gene-expression and genotyping data (161 ALS, 206 controls). Replicated eQTL SNPs were then tested for association in the second-stage GWAS data to find SNPs associated with disease, that survived correction for multiple testing. We thus identified twelve cis eQTLs with nominally significant associations in the second-stage GWAS data. Eight SNP-transcript pairs of highest significance (lowest p = 1.27 × 10(-51)) withstood multiple-testing correction in the second stage and modulated CYP27A1 gene expression. Additionally, we show that C9orf72 appears to be the only gene in the 9p21.2 locus that is regulated in cis, showing the potential of this approach in identifying causative genes in association loci in ALS. This study has identified candidate genes for sporadic ALS, most notably CYP27A1. Mutations in CYP27A1 are causal to cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis which can present as a clinical mimic of ALS with progressive upper motor neuron loss, making it a plausible susceptibility gene for

  15. Mapping of gene expression reveals CYP27A1 as a susceptibility gene for sporadic ALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank P Diekstra

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of upper and lower motor neurons. ALS is considered to be a complex trait and genome-wide association studies (GWAS have implicated a few susceptibility loci. However, many more causal loci remain to be discovered. Since it has been shown that genetic variants associated with complex traits are more likely to be eQTLs than frequency-matched variants from GWAS platforms, we conducted a two-stage genome-wide screening for eQTLs associated with ALS. In addition, we applied an eQTL analysis to finemap association loci. Expression profiles using peripheral blood of 323 sporadic ALS patients and 413 controls were mapped to genome-wide genotyping data. Subsequently, data from a two-stage GWAS (3,568 patients and 10,163 controls were used to prioritize eQTLs identified in the first stage (162 ALS, 207 controls. These prioritized eQTLs were carried forward to the second sample with both gene-expression and genotyping data (161 ALS, 206 controls. Replicated eQTL SNPs were then tested for association in the second-stage GWAS data to find SNPs associated with disease, that survived correction for multiple testing. We thus identified twelve cis eQTLs with nominally significant associations in the second-stage GWAS data. Eight SNP-transcript pairs of highest significance (lowest p = 1.27 × 10(-51 withstood multiple-testing correction in the second stage and modulated CYP27A1 gene expression. Additionally, we show that C9orf72 appears to be the only gene in the 9p21.2 locus that is regulated in cis, showing the potential of this approach in identifying causative genes in association loci in ALS. This study has identified candidate genes for sporadic ALS, most notably CYP27A1. Mutations in CYP27A1 are causal to cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis which can present as a clinical mimic of ALS with progressive upper motor neuron loss, making it a plausible

  16. Mobile Health Information System: A Mobile App

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steve

    mobile phones in delivering vital health information and effective fieldwork reporting is of significance. This project ..... Improving the Self-Care Process for Caribbean Patients with Diabetes through Mobile. Learning. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication. Technologies ...

  17. Mobile systems development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Kristiansen, Martin Lund; Kammersgaard, Marc N.

    2007-01-01

    Development of mobile software is Surrounded by much uncertainty. Immature software platforms on mobile clients, a highly competitive market calling for innovation, efficiency and effectiveness in the development life cycle, and lacking end-user adoption are just some of the realities facing...... development teams in the mobile software industry. By taking a process view on development of mobile systems we seek to explore the strengths and limitations of eXtreme Programming (XP) in the context of mobile software development. Following an experimental approach a mobile systems development project...... running for four months is conducted. Experiences from the project are used for analysis and discussion of the fit of XP in mobile systems development. First, requirements for mobile systems development projects are proposed. Second, these are analysed and compared to the prescribed principles suggested...

  18. Innovative island mobile vet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Dan

    2016-06-11

    One of the UK's first mobile veterinary clinics was recently awarded a Queen's Award for Innovation. Mobile Vet was launched on the Isle of Wight in 2013 by Dan Forster and his wife Kirsty, a veterinary nurse. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  20. Mobile Informal Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Börner, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Börner, D. (2009). Mobile Informal Learning. Presented at Mobile Learning in Context Symposium at the Open University of the Netherlands. September, 11, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  1. Ion mobility sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Watson, David B.; Whitten, William B.

    2013-01-22

    An ion mobility sensor system including an ion mobility spectrometer and a differential mobility spectrometer coupled to the ion mobility spectrometer. The ion mobility spectrometer has a first chamber having first end and a second end extending along a first direction, and a first electrode system that generates a constant electric field parallel to the first direction. The differential mobility spectrometer includes a second chamber having a third end and a fourth end configured such that a fluid may flow in a second direction from the third end to the fourth end, and a second electrode system that generates an asymmetric electric field within an interior of the second chamber. Additionally, the ion mobility spectrometer and the differential mobility spectrometer form an interface region. Also, the first end and the third end are positioned facing one another so that the constant electric field enters the third end and overlaps the fluid flowing in the second direction.

  2. Seasonality, mobility, and livability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Signature project 4a, Seasonality, Mobility, and Livability investigated the effects of weather, season, built environment, community amenities, attitudes, and demographics on mobility and quality of life (QOL). A four season panel survey exami...

  3. Making Everyday Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Simon

    Based upon a qualitative PhD study of 11 families everyday mobility, this paper inquiries into the everyday mobility of families with children in the Greater Copenhagen Area and the role mobility plays in contributing to coping in the families’ everyday life. Drawing on Mobilities theory (Jensen...... 2013; Urry 2007) and family theory (Holdsworth 2013; Morgan 2011), it is argued that family mobility is far from only an instrumental phenomenon, displacing family members back and forth between activities and doings, but also a type of family practice (Morgan, 2011) carrying social and emotional...... repercussions. Moreover, family mobility does not simply happen, rather the successful performance of everyday mobility is a creative process that requires labour, skill and knowledge (Vannini 2012). It is proposed that families cope with everyday life through the on-going making and performance of mobility...

  4. Mobile IP: Security & application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuquerres, G.; Salvador, M.R.; Sprenkels, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As required in the TGS Mobile IP Advanced Module, this paper presents a survey of common security threats which mobile IP networks are exposed to as well as some proposed solutions to deal with such threats.

  5. Staging interrail mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg; Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    This article applies the multiscalar ‘staging mobilities’ framework from the emergent subfield of mobilities design to analyse an enduring European rail travel phenomenon, interrail. This discussion extends and contributes to tourism mobilities research. Second, the article enriches previous...

  6. Mechanisms controlling radionuclide mobility in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, B.; Kruyts, N.; Maes, E.; Agapkina, G.I.; Kliashtorin, A.; Bunzl, K.; Rafferty, B.

    1996-01-01

    Soil processes strongly influence the radionuclide mobility in soils. The mobility of radionuclides in forest soils is governed by several processes involving both abiotic and biotic factors. The sorption-desorption process chiefly governs the activity of radionuclides in the soil solution, hence thereby their mobility and biological availability. Radiocaesium exhibits a very low mobility in mineral soils. Both mobility and bioavailability however increase as the thickness of organic layers and their content in organic matter increases. Clay minerals of micaceous origin strongly act as slinks for radiocaesium in forest soils. The magnitude of cesium mineral fixation in topsoils is expected to be the highest in mineral soils of Eutric cambisol type, and, to a lesser extent, of type of Distric cambisol and Podzoluvisol. A low mobility of radiocaesium in the surface horizons of forest soils may also be partially explained by a biological mobilization: fungi absorb radiocaesium and transport it to upper layers, thereby contributing to constantly recycle the radioelement in the organic horizons. This mechanism is probably important in soils with thick organic layers (Podsol, Histosol, and, to a lesser extent, Distric cambisol and Podzoluvisol). Radionuclides can be associated with soluble organic anions in the soil solution of forest acid soils. Such associations are highly mobile: they are stable in conditions of poor biological activity (low temperatures, acid soil infertility, water excess, etc.). Their magnitude is expected to be the highest in thick acid organic layers (soils of type Podzol and Histosol)

  7. Mobile Energy Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mingqing; Xiong, Mingliang; Deng, Hao; Liu, Qingwen; Wu, Jun; Xia, Pengfei

    2018-01-01

    Similar to the evolution from wired Internet to mobile Internet (MI), the growing demand of power delivery anywhere and anytime appeals for power grid transformation from wired to mobile domain. We propose here the next generation of power delivery network -- mobile energy internet (MEI) for wireless energy transfer within a mobile range from several meters to tens of meters. MEI will be a significant complement for Internet of things (IoT), because battery charging is one of the biggest head...

  8. Mobile Marketing in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Noah H. N. Lynn; Paul D. Berger

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the state of mobile marketing in Japan. We consider the various aspects of mobile marketing in Japan and what has led to the overwhelming adoption by Japanese youth, and to a degree Japanese society as a whole, of social media and associated activities. This growth of mobile marketing has dramatic, positive implications for marketing, in general, as well as for the sale of selected product classes. We also consider markers for suggesting what the future of mobile mar...

  9. Ion mobility spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eiceman, GA

    2005-01-01

    Key Developments for Faster, More Precise Detection Capabilities Driven by the demand for the rapid and advanced detection of explosives, chemical and biological warfare agents, and narcotics, ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) undergone significant refinements in technology, computational capabilities, and understanding of the principles of gas phase ion chemistry and mobility. Beginning with a thorough discussion of the fundamental theories and physics of ion mobility, Ion Mobility Spectrometry, Second Edition describes the recent advances in instrumentation and newly

  10. Fixed mobile convergence handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ahson, Syed A

    2010-01-01

    From basic concepts to future directions, this handbook provides technical information on all aspects of fixed-mobile convergence (FMC). The book examines such topics as integrated management architecture, business trends and strategic implications for service providers, personal area networks, mobile controlled handover methods, SIP-based session mobility, and supervisory and notification aggregator service. Case studies are used to illustrate technical and systematic implementation of unified and rationalized internet access by fixed-mobile network convergence. The text examines the technolo

  11. SARC006: Phase II Trial of Chemotherapy in Sporadic and Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated Chemotherapy-Naive Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. Higham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worse chemotherapy response for neurofibromatosis type 1- (NF1- associated compared to sporadic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST has been reported. Methods. We evaluated the objective response (OR rate of patients with AJCC Stage III/IV chemotherapy-naive NF1 MPNST versus sporadic MPNST after 4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, 2 cycles of ifosfamide/doxorubicin, and 2 cycles of ifosfamide/etoposide. A Simon optimal two-stage design was used (target response rate 40%. Results. 34 NF1 (median age 33 years and 14 sporadic (median age 40 years MPNST patients enrolled. Five of 28 (17.9% evaluable NF1 MPNST patients had a partial response (PR, as did 4 of 9 (44.4% patients with sporadic MPNST. Stable disease (SD was achieved in 22 NF1 and 4 sporadic MPNST patients. In both strata, results in the initial stages met criteria for expansion of enrollment. Only 1 additional PR was observed in the expanded NF1 stratum. Enrollment was slower than expected and the trial closed before full accrual. Conclusions. This trial was not powered to detect differences in response rates between NF1 and sporadic MPNST. While the OR rate was lower in NF1 compared to sporadic MPNST, qualitative responses were similar, and disease stabilization was achieved in most patients.

  12. Burden of rare variants in ALS genes influences survival in familial and sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shirley Yin-Yu; Hsu, Jacob Shujui; Teo, Kay-Cheong; Li, Yan; Kung, Michelle H W; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Chan, Danny; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Li, Miaoxin; Sham, Pak-Chung; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2017-10-01

    Genetic variants are implicated in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it is unclear whether the burden of rare variants in ALS genes has an effect on survival. We performed whole genome sequencing on 8 familial ALS (FALS) patients with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutation and whole exome sequencing on 46 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients living in Hong Kong and found that 67% had at least 1 rare variant in the exons of 40 ALS genes; 22% had 2 or more. Patients with 2 or more rare variants had lower probability of survival than patients with 0 or 1 variant (p = 0.001). After adjusting for other factors, each additional rare variant increased the risk of respiratory failure or death by 60% (p = 0.0098). The presence of the rare variant was associated with the risk of ALS (Odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.03-3.61, p = 0.03), and ALS patients had higher rare variant burden than controls (MB, p = 0.004). Our findings support an oligogenic basis with the burden of rare variants affecting the development and survival of ALS. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Defining sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease strains and their transmission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew T.; Will, Robert G.; Manson, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    The biological determinants of the phenotypic variation in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) are unknown. To categorize sCJD cases, the prion protein (PrP) codon 129 genotype and the biochemical characteristics of the disease-associated form of PrP (PrPSc) can be combined to form six subgroups (MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1, and VV2). This classification largely correlates with the known variation in the clinical and pathological features of sCJD, with the MM1 and MV1 cases representing the “classic” phenotype of sCJD. To address how this classification relates to different strains of sCJD we have inoculated each subgroup of sCJD to a panel of mice expressing different forms of the human PRNP gene (129MM, 129VV, and 129MV). We have established that all subtypes are transmissible to at least one genotype of mouse, and both agent and host factors determine transmission efficiency and the form of PrPSc deposited in the brain. Moreover, we have identified four distinct strains of sCJD using our in vivo strain typing panel. PMID:20547859

  14. Regulation of human cerebrospinal fluid malate dehydrogenase 1 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Llorens, Franc; Pracht, Alexander; Thom, Tobias; Correia, Ângela; Zafar, Saima; Ferrer, Isidre; Zerr, Inga

    2016-11-14

    The identification of reliable diagnostic biomarkers in differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases is an ongoing topic. A previous two-dimensional proteomic study on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed an elevated level of an enzyme, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1), in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Here, we could demonstrate the expression of MDH1 in neurons as well as in the neuropil. Its levels are lower in sCJD brains than in control brains. An examination of CSF-MDH1 in sCJD patients by ELISA revealed a significant elevation of CSF-MDH1 levels in sCJD patients (independently from the PRNP codon 129 MV genotype or the prion protein scrapie (PrP Sc ) type) in comparison to controls. In combination with total tau (tau), CSF-MDH1 detection exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy for sCJD diagnosis with a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 95.6%. A correlation study of MDH1 level in CSF with other neurodegenerative marker proteins revealed a significant positive correlation between MDH1 concentration with tau, 14-3-3 and neuron specific enolase level. In conclusion, our study indicated the potential of MDH1 in combination with tau as an additional biomarker in sCJD improving diagnostic accuracy of tau markedly.

  15. Psychiatric symptoms in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnianski, Anna; Bohling, Geeske T; Harden, Markus; Zerr, Inga

    2015-09-01

    Psychiatric symptoms in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) are still not sufficiently evaluated. To describe psychiatric symptoms in sCJD with respect to molecular subtype. Patients in this retrospective study were classified according to established diagnostic criteria. 248 sCJD patients with known molecular subtype were recruited from January 1993 to December 2004 and investigated. Psychiatric symptoms were defined according to Möller and colleagues and the AMDP system (Study Group for Methods and Documentation in Psychiatry) and were collected by direct examination by study physicians or extracted from medical documentation. Our data were compared with published data on variant CJD (vCJD). Psychiatric symptoms were common in sCJD patients (90%) and mostly found already at the disease onset (agitation in 64% of the patients, hallucinations in 45%, anxiety in 50%, depression in 37%). All psychiatric symptoms but illusions were found early in the disease course. Psychiatric symptoms in sCJD were less frequent than in vCJD. We provide the first detailed analysis of psychiatric symptoms in a large group of patients with sCJD with respect to differences concerning frequency and time point of occurrence of psychiatric symptoms between molecular subtypes. These data suggest that psychiatric symptoms occurring early in the disease course are common not only in vCJD but also in other CJD types. © Copyright 2015 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  16. Sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease with cerebellar ataxia at onset in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, S A; Murray, K L; Heath, C A; Will, R G; Knight, R S G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To determine the frequency, in the UK, of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease (sCJD) with a cerebellar ataxic onset, and to describe the clinical features of the syndrome. Methods A retrospective review of autopsy‐proved cases of sCJD cases in the UK, 1990–2005, identifying those presenting with cerebellar features without early cognitive decline. Results 29 of 618 (5%) patients with sCJD had an isolated cerebellar onset. Mean illness duration was 9 months. Subsequently, 21 (72%) developed myoclonus and 23 (79%) developed pyramidal features. Magnetic resonance imaging showed high signal in the basal ganglia in 11 of 14 (79%) patients. 7 of 15 (47%) patients were valine homozygotic at prion protein gene (PRNP)‐129. Only 8 (28%) cases were referred to the surveillance unit after death. Conclusion A better definition of sCJD presenting with an isolated cerebellar syndrome might improve future case recognition and contribute to the determination of its cause. PMID:16835290

  17. Towards an age-dependent transmission model of acquired and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Mahillo-Fernandez, Ignacio; Calero, Miguel; Rábano, Alberto; Cruz, Mabel; Siden, Åke; Martínez-Martín, Pablo; Laursen, Henning; Ruiz-Tovar, María; Mølbak, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) might be transmitted by surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential susceptibility to sCJD from surgery at juvenile age and in early adulthood. From Danish and Swedish national registries we identified 167 definite and probable sCJD cases with onset from 1987 through 2003, and 835 age-, sex- and residence-matched controls along with their surgical histories. Main, anatomically or etiologically classified surgical procedures followed by a ≥20-year lag were analyzed using logistic regression, and stratified by age at first-registered surgical discharge. The risk of having a diagnosis of CJD depended strongly on age at first surgery with odds ratio (OR) of 12.80 (95% CI 2.56-64.0) in patients <30 years, 3.04 (95% 1.26-7.33) in 30-39 years, and 1.75 (95% CI 0.89-3.45) in ≥40 years, for anatomically classified surgical procedures. Similar figures were obtained for etiologically classified surgical procedures. Risk of surgical-acquired sCJD depends on age at exposure; this pattern is similar to age-specific profiles reported for CJD accidentally transmitted by human pituitary-derived growth hormone and susceptibility curves for variant CJD estimated after adjustment for dietary exposure to bovine spongiform encephalopathy. There might be an age-at-exposure-related susceptibility to acquire all CJD forms, including sCJD from routine surgery.

  18. Subtype and regional regulation of prion biomarkers in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Franc; Zafar, Saima; Ansoleaga, Belén; Shafiq, Mohsin; Blanco, Rosi; Carmona, Marga; Grau-Rivera, Oriol; Nos, Carlos; Gelpí, Ellen; Del Río, José Antonio; Zerr, Inga; Ferrer, Isidre

    2015-08-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapid progressive neurological disease leading to dementia and death. Prion biomarkers are altered in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of CJD patients, but the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these alterations are still unknown. The present study examined prion biomarker levels in the brain and CSF of sporadic CJD (sCJD) cases and their correlation with neuropathological lesion profiles. The expression levels of 14-3-3, Tau, phospho-Tau and α-synuclein were measured in the CSF and brain of sCJD cases in a subtype- and region-specific manner. In addition, the activity of prion biomarker kinases, the expression levels of CJD hallmarks and the most frequent neuropathological sCJD findings were analysed. Prion biomarkers levels were increased in the CSF of sCJD patients; however, correlations between mRNA, total protein and their phosphorylated forms in brain were different. The observed downregulation of the main Tau kinase, GSK3, in sCJD brain samples may help to explain the differential phospho-Tau/Tau ratios between sCJD and other dementias in the CSF. Importantly, CSF biomarkers levels do not necessarily correlate with sCJD neuropathological findings. Present findings indicate that prion biomarkers levels in sCJD tissues and their release into the CSF are differentially regulated following specific modulated responses, and suggest a functional role for these proteins in sCJD pathogenesis. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  19. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a native Puerto Rican patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cali, Ignazio; Chapas, Javier; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Puoti, Gianfranco; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Nobo, Ulises

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is often a challenge for most physicians given its extremely low incidence and different clinico-pathological presentations. We report the case of a 56-year old patient native to Puerto Rico suspected of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCD). The symptoms at onset were notorious for bilateral cortical blindness followed by rapidly progressive cognitive decline, visual deficit, increased levels of CSF 14-3-3 and tau along with positive brain MRI and EEG, are highly indicative of CJD. The definite diagnosis was confirmed by the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Lack of genetic mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene, widespread histopathological changes and the accumulation of scrapie PrP (PrPSc) in the brain confirmed the diagnosis of sCJD. The patient, admitted to our institution in 2011, represents the first detailed report of sCJD in a native Puerto Rican patient living in Puerto Rico.

  20. Case series of probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from Eastern India

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    Atanu Biswas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rapidly progressive, fatal, transmissible neurodegenerative disorder caused by prion protein. It is still considered rare in countries like India. This is probably due to nonavailability of autopsy studies in majority of the center. The recent European diagnostic criterion for sporadic CJD (sCJD is useful for making an early diagnosis. Objective: To report a series of patients of probable sCJD from a neurology institute of eastern India. Materials and Methods: Patients of rapidly developing dementia fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for sCJD were included. All were investigated in detail to find out any possible treatable cause including electroencephalography (EEG, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of brain, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Results: A total 10 patients of probable sCJD diagnosed using the European diagnostic criterion between December 2011 and January 2013. The clinical features are consistent with other reported series. While 60% of patients had the classical EEG findings, 100% had typical MRI features. Eight patients died within a mean duration of 4.56 months from the disease onset. Conclusions: The clinical features are similar to other reported series. Our observation raises question about the prevalence of this disease in India which needs more elaborate studies.

  1. Comparative Study of Prions in Iatrogenic and Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangzhu; Yuan, Jue; Qing, Liuting; Cali, Ignazio; Mikol, Jacqueline; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Zeng, Liang; Abouelsaad, Mai; Gazgalis, Dimitris; Martinez, Manuel Camacho; Wang, Gong-Xian; Brown, Paul; Ironside, James W.; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Kong, Qingzhong; Zou, Wen-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Differentiating iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) from sporadic CJD (sCJD) would be useful for the identification and prevention of human-to-human prion transmission. Currently, the diagnosis of iCJD depends on identification of a recognized source of contamination to which patients have been exposed, in addition to fulfilling basic requirements for the establishment of diagnosis of CJD. Attempts to identify differences in clinical manifestations, neuropathological changes and pathological prion protein (PrPSc) between iCJD and sCJD have been unsuccessful. In the present study, using a variety of more sophisticated methods including sucrose step gradient sedimentation, conformational stability immunoassay, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA), fragment-mapping, and transmission study, we show no significant differences in gel profiles, oligomeric state, conformational stability and infectivity of PrPSc between iCJD and sCJD. However, using PMCA, we find that convertibility and amplification efficiency of PrPSc is greater in iCJD than in sCJD in a polymorphism-dependent manner. Moreover, two protease-resistant PrP C-terminal fragments (termed PrP-CTF12/13) were detected in all 9 cases of sCJD but not in 6 of 8 cases of iCJD tested in this study. The use of fragment mapping- and PMCA-based assays thus provides a means to distinguish most cases of iCJD from sCJD. PMID:25419482

  2. Medical Procedures and Risk for Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, Japan, 1999–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Nozaki, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Sato, Takeshi; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2009-01-01

    To elucidate the association between medical procedures and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), we analyzed medical procedures (any surgical procedure, neurosurgery, ophthalmic surgery, and blood transfusion) for patients registered by the CJD Surveillance Committee in Japan during 1999–2008. We conducted an age-stratified case–control study with 753 sCJD patients and 210 controls and a study of patients who underwent neurosurgical or ophthalmic surgical procedures at the same hospital. Although the control group was relatively small, no evidence was found that prion disease was transmitted through the investigated medical procedures before onset of sCJD. After onset of sCJD, 4.5% of the sCJD patients underwent operations, including neurosurgical for 0.8% and ophthalmic for 1.9%; no special precautions against transmission of prion diseases were taken. Fortunately, we have not identified patients with prion disease attributed to these operations. Our findings indicate that surgical procedures or blood transfusion had little effect on the incidence of sCJD. PMID:19193271

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid markers in the differentiation of molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitterová, K; Heinemann, U; Krasnianski, A; Gawinecka, J; Zerr, I

    2016-06-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis supports the clinical diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) when applied within an adequate clinical context. A diagnostic potential has been attributed to CSF proteins such as 14-3-3, but also tau protein, phosphorylated tau (181P) (p-tau) protein, amyloid β1-42 , S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE). There has been only limited information available about the contribution of CSF analysis in the differentiation of various molecular sCJD subtypes. The CSF levels of the aforementioned proteins from 73 sCJD patients with distinct molecular subtypes were determined. Differences in tau values were significant amongst the homozygous patients (MM and VV genotype) compared to the heterozygous group (P = 0.07 and P = 0.02 respectively). Significantly higher CSF tau levels (P = 0.003) and NSE (P = 0.02) but lower p-tau/tau ratio (P = 0.01) were observed in MM1 compared to MM2 patients. The p-tau/tau ratio enabled the differentiation of MV genotype with higher levels in PrP(sc) type 2 (P = 0.04). Elevation of S100B (P disease duration and clinical stage influenced the test sensitivity in all proteins. Cerebrospinal fluid protein levels might be useful in the pre-mortem differentiation of molecular sCJD subtypes when the codon 129 genotype is known. © 2016 EAN.

  4. Laminar Distribution of the Pathological Changes in Sporadic and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

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    R. A. Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The laminar distributions of the pathological changes in the cerebral cortex were compared in the prion diseases sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD and variant CJD (vCJD. First, in some cortical regions, the vacuolation (“spongiform change” was more generally distributed across the cortex in sCJD. Second, there was greater neuronal loss in the upper cortex in vCJD and in the lower cortex in sCJD. Third, the “diffuse” and “florid” prion protein (PrPsc deposits were more frequently distributed in the upper cortex in vCJD and the “synaptic” deposits in the lower cortex in sCJD. Fourth, there was a significant gliosis mainly affecting the lower cortex of both disorders. The data suggest that the pattern of cortical degeneration is different in sCJD and vCJD which may reflect differences in aetiology and the subsequent spread of prion pathology within the brain.

  5. Factors influencing the survival period in Japanese patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Akagi, Akio; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari

    2015-10-15

    Although Japanese cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) generally involve longer survival periods compared to those from other countries, details regarding the factors influencing survival are unclear. To determine the influence of certain factors on survival, we retrospectively assessed 51 Japanese MM1-type sCJD patients with respect to background, clinical course, and disease management. No significant differences were found between men and women, tracheotomy and nontracheotomy patients, or patients treated in public and other types of hospitals. Although the survival period of tube-fed patients was significantly longer than that of patients who were not tube fed, survival of patients fed via a nasal tube did not differ significantly from that of gastrostomy-fed patients. The proportion of tube-fed patients was 68.6% (35/51). Disease duration was not significantly associated with age or year of onset. However, it was associated with time from onset to first recognition of myoclonus, first recognition of periodic sharp-wave complexes on electroencephalogram, and progression to the akinetic mutism state. Mechanical ventilation was not performed for any patient. Because the total disease duration increased in cases with a slowly progressive clinical course as a natural outcome, we concluded that the most crucial factor contributing to the prolonged survival of Japanese sCJD patients was tube feeding once the akinetic mutism state had been reached. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. LGI1 antibody encephalopathy overlapping with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boaz; Yoo, Patrick; Sutherland, Tom; Boyd, Alison; Stehmann, Christiane; McLean, Catriona

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report a rare case of leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibody–mediated autoimmune encephalopathy clinically overlapping with pathologically confirmed sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Methods: The patient was investigated with repeated brain MRI, EEG, CSF examination, whole-body fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography, genetic analysis of the prion protein gene (PRNP), and extensive serologic screening for paraneoplastic and autoimmune encephalopathy markers. Written informed consent was obtained from the patient's next of kin for access to clinical files for research purposes and for publication. Results: The patient was a 77-year-old man who presented with faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) secondary to LGI1 antibody–mediated autoimmune encephalopathy, with suggestive MRI findings and a complete response to treatment with combinatorial immunosuppression. Stereotactic biopsy of a nonenhancing T1 hyperintense basal ganglia lesion during the initial FBDS phase, albeit following immunosuppression, did not disclose evidence of lymphocytic inflammation. Following full remission of the FBDS, the patient manifested a rapidly progressive dementia associated with gross motor decline confirmed to be CJD at autopsy (molecular subtype VV3), with no evidence of a pathogenic PRNP mutation. Conclusions: Our patient highlights that these rare diseases are not invariably mutually exclusive and underscores the benefits of comprehensive neuropathologic examination of the brain to achieve an accurate diagnosis, especially in complex cases when the clinical trajectory dramatically deviates and a concomitant disease may need to be conscientiously considered to best explain the new clinical course. PMID:27354985

  7. Neuropsychological Symptoms in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnianski, Anna; Bohling, Geeske T; Heinemann, Uta; Varges, Daniela; Meissner, Bettina; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Reif, Andreas; Zerr, Inga

    2017-01-01

    The polymorphism at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP) and the PrPSc types 1 and 2 belong to a molecular classification of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) that correlates well with the clinical and neuropathological phenotype of sCJD. The aim of the study was to perform the first detailed evaluation of neuropsychological deficits in a large group of definite sCJD patients with known molecular subtype. We analyzed neuropsychological symptoms in a cohort of 248 sCJD patients with known M129 V polymorphism of PRNP and prion protein type. Neuropsychological symptoms were very frequent in our patients (96%) and occurred as early as in the first third of the disease course. Besides amnesia and impaired attention (89% each), frontal lobe syndrome (75%), aphasia (63%), and apraxia (57%) were the most common neuropsychological deficits. There was no statistically significant difference with regard to frequency of neuropsychological symptoms between the subtypes. In MV2 and VV2 patients, the onset of neuropsychological symptoms was significantly later than in all other subtypes. We provide the first detailed analysis of neuropsychological symptoms in a large group of sCJD patients with known M129 V genotype and prion protein type. We suggest that the rate of progression of neuropsychological symptoms is subtype-specific. These data may improve the diagnosis in atypical sCJD subtypes.

  8. Peripheral Tissue Involvement in Sporadic, Iatrogenic, and Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Mark W.; Ritchie, Diane; Smith, Nadine; McLoughlin, Victoria; Nailon, William; Samad, Sazia; Masson, Stephen; Bishop, Matthew; McCardle, Linda; Ironside, James W.

    2004-01-01

    Human prion diseases are rare fatal neurodegenerative conditions that occur as acquired, familial, or idiopathic disorders. A key event in their pathogenesis is the accumulation of an altered form of the prion protein, termed PrPSc, in the central nervous system. A novel acquired human prion disease, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is thought to result from oral exposure to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent. This disease differs from other human prion diseases in its neurological, neuropathological, and biochemical phenotype. We have used immunohistochemistry and Western blot techniques to analyze the tissue distribution and biochemical properties of PrPSc in peripheral tissues in a unique series of nine cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have compared this with the distribution and biochemical forms found in all of the major subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in a case of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with growth hormone therapy. The results show that involvement of the lymphoreticular system is a defining feature of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, but that the biochemical isoform of PrPSc found is influenced by the cell type in which it accumulates. PMID:14695328

  9. Increased sporadic extremes decrease the intraseasonal variability in the Indian summer monsoon rainfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Nirupam; Chakraborty, Arindam; Nanjundiah, Ravi S

    2017-08-10

    The Indian summer monsoon (ISM) shows quasi-rhythmic intraseasonal oscillations (ISO) manifested as alternate 'active' phases of copious rainfall and quiescent phases of 'break'. Within these periodic phases, the daily rainfall shows large variability and exhibits spatiotemporally sporadic extreme rainfall events. The recent decades have witnessed a significant increase in the number of these extreme rainfall events, especially in the quiescent phases. This increase is accompanied by a decreasing trend in the mean monsoon rainfall and a weakening variance of its low-frequency ISO (LF-ISO) cycle. However, any physical link between this apparent paradox of increased extreme rainfall events and weakened slower-time-scale components is not yet reported. Here, using observations and numerical model simulations, we show that the occurrence of extreme rainfall events, primarily in the break phase of an LF-ISO cycle, reduce the intensity of the following active phase by stabilizing the atmosphere. We found that extreme events in a monsoon break leads to a reduction in the vertical shear of zonal winds and an increase in the static stability of the atmosphere in the following break-to-active transition and active phases. These conditions oppose the initiation and development of an active phase and lessen its intensity. This reduces the LF-ISO intensity and mean ISM rainfall.

  10. Insulin-Resistant Brain State: the culprit in sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Sónia C.; Santos, Renato X.; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Moreira, Paula I.; Smith, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Severe abnormalities in brain glucose/energy metabolism and insulin signaling have been documented to take a pivotal role in early sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (sAD) pathology. Indeed, the “insulin-resistant brain state” has been hypothesized to form the core of the neurodegenerative events that occur in sAD. In this vein, intracerebroventricular administration of subdiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats can induce an insulin-resistant brain state, which is proposed as a suitable experimental model of sAD. This review highlights the involvement of disturbed brain insulin metabolism in sAD etiopathogenesis. Furthermore, current knowledge demonstrates that central STZ administration produces brain pathology and behavioral changes that resemble changes found in sAD patients. The STZ-intracerebroventricularly treated rat represents a promising experimental tool in this field by providing new insights concerning early brain alterations in sAD, which can be translated in novel etiopathogenic and therapeutic approaches in this disease. PMID:21262392

  11. A common BACE1 polymorphism is a risk factor for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

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    Olga Calero

    Full Text Available The β site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1 is the rate-limiting β-secretase enzyme in the amyloidogenic processing of APP and Aβ formation, and therefore it has a prominent role in Alzheimer's disease (AD pathology. Recent evidence suggests that the prion protein (PrP interacts directly with BACE1 regulating its β-secretase activity. Moreover, PrP has been proposed as the cellular receptor involved in the impairment of synaptic plasticity and toxicity caused by Aβ oligomers. Provided that common pathophysiologic mechanisms are shared by Alzheimer's and Creutzfeldt-Jakob (CJD diseases, we investigated for the first time to the best of our knowledge a possible association of a common synonymous BACE1 polymorphism (rs638405 with sporadic CJD (sCJD. Our results indicate that BACE1 C-allele is associated with an increased risk for developing sCJD, mainly in PRNP M129M homozygous subjects with early onset. These results extend the very short list of genes (other than PRNP involved in the development of human prion diseases; and support the notion that similar to AD, in sCJD several loci may contribute with modest overall effects to disease risk. These findings underscore the interplay in both pathologies of APP, Aβ oligomers, ApoE, PrP and BACE1, and suggest that aging and perhaps vascular risk factors may modulate disease pathologies in part through these key players.

  12. [Sporadic case of non-progressive neurogenic muscular atrophy localized in both calf muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenju; Tateyama, Maki; Suzuki, Naoki; Shibano, Ken; Tanaka, Keiko; Ishiguro, Hideaki

    2013-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of difficulty in standing on her toes. Neurological examination showed muscle weakness in both calf muscles. Her serum creatine kinase (CK) level was slightly elevated. MRI revealed hyper-intense signals localized in both the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Histological examinations of biopsied muscle specimens showed a marked variation in fiber size, small angular fibers, and hypertrophic and splitting fibers, but no muscle fiber necrosis or regeneration or inflammatory cell infiltration. ATPase stained sections showed small grouped atrophy of type 1 fibers. NADH-TR stained sections showed target/targetoid fibers predominantly in type 1 fibers. Dysferlin immunoreactivity was normal. Follow-up clinical evaluation for one year showed no progression. This patient was diagnosed as having an unknown type of spinal muscular atrophy or benign calf amyotrophy. Sporadic cases characterized by elderly-onset, neurogenic muscular atrophy localized in both calf muscles, and non-progressive course are extremely rare in Japan.

  13. Seasonal correlation of sporadic schizophrenia to Ixodes ticks and Lyme borreliosis

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    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born in winter and spring is considered one of the most robust epidemiological risk factors for schizophrenia. The aetiology and exact timing of this birth excess, however, has remained elusive so far. Since during phylogeny, Borrelia DNA has led to multiple germ-line mutations within the CB1 candidate gene for schizophrenia, a meta analysis has been performed of all papers on schizophrenic birth excesses with no less than 3000 cases each. All published numerical data were then plotted against the seasonal distributions of Ixodes ticks worldwide. Results In the United States, Europe and Japan the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodes ticks nine months earlier at the time of conception. South of the Wallace Line, which limits the spread of Ixodes ticks and Borrelia burgdorferi into Australia, seasonal trends are less significant, and in Singapore, being non-endemic for Ixodes ticks and Lyme disease, schizophrenic birth excesses are absent. Conclusion At present, it cannot be excluded that prenatal infection by B. burgdorferi is harmful to the implanting human blastocyst. The epidemiological clustering of sporadic schizophrenia by season and locality rather emphasises the risk to the unborn of developing a congenital, yet preventable brain disorder later in life.

  14. Carotid, aorta and renal arteries intima-media thickness in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism

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    Deshraj Meena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alteration in homeostasis of calcium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH predispose to vascular calcification that increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The data on this aspect are scarce in patients with sporadic idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (SIH. Objective: The aim was to assess the effect of altered calcium, phosphate and PTH homeostasis in patients with SIH on intima media thickness (IMT, a surrogate marker of increased vascular risk. Methods: In this case-control study, we measured carotid IMT (CIMT, aortic IMT (AIMT and renal arteries IMT (RIMT in 30 consecutive patients with SIH, and compared with healthy subjects. IMT was measured by ultrasound by a single operator blinded to subject′s details. Results: CIMT, AIMT, RIMT values in patients with SIH were significantly more than healthy subjects (0.60 ± 0.08 mm vs. 0.52 ± 0.09 mm, P = 0.001; 0.73 ± 0.09 mm vs. 0.65 ± 0.10, P = 0.004; and 0.34 ± 0.04 mm vs. 0.30 ± 0.05, P = 0.003, respectively. Clinical or biochemical parameters did not correlate with CIMT, AIMT and RIMT in patients with SIH. Conclusion: The vascular risk is increased in patients with SIH as assessed by CIMT, AIMT, and RIMT.

  15. Sporadic Hirschsprung`s disease due to a novel nonsense mutation in the RET protooncogene

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    Carlson, K.M.; Donis-Keller, H.; Langer, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR, aganglionic megacolon) is characterized by a lack of ganglion cells along variable lengths of the hindgut. This is most likely due to a failure of the progenitor cells (that are destined to become the ganglion cells of the submucosal and myenteric plexuses) to complete their distal migration in the colon. Recently, mutations in the RET protoocogene have been reported in association with HSCR. We report a novel nonsense mutation resulting in a severely truncated protein. Germline DNA from a panel of 6 HSCR patients was analyzed by SSCP for 20 exons of RET. Eight exons were also directly sequenced. We identified a novel mutation within RET exon 2. The mutation (TAC{sub 36}{yields}TAG{sub 36}), which occurs at nucleotide position 108, involves the replacement of tyrosine with a stop codon and results in a truncated 35 amino acid protein. This mutation is the most 5{prime} nonsense mutation reported thus far. Interestingly, the patient has no prior family history of HSCR and was also diagnosed with multiple developmental anomalies including dysplastic kidney. Recent gene targeting studies with mouse models have shown that RET is essential for normal renal development. However, a parallel phenotype has not been seen in other reported HSCR patients with RET mutations. The observations reported here provide evidence that RET plays a role in human renal development. Ongoing studies will determine the extent of RET involvement in sporadic cases of HSCR.

  16. Patients with sporadic and familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis found value in genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karin N; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Allain, Dawn C; Quick, Adam; Kolb, Stephen J; Roggenbuck, Jennifer

    2017-12-20

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is increasingly recognized as a genetic disease. There is no consensus, however, as to the role of genetic testing in the care of the ALS patient. We conducted a survey to study patient access, attitudes, and experience with ALS genetic testing among patients enrolled in a US ALS registry. Among 449 survey respondents, 156 (34.7%) were offered testing and 105 of 156 (67.3%) completed testing. The majority of respondents with familial ALS (fALS) (31/45, 68.9%) were offered testing, while a minority of respondents with sporadic ALS (sALS) (111/404, 27.5%) were offered testing (p = .00001). Comparison of mean test experience scores between groups revealed that respondents with fALS were no more likely to report a favorable experience with genetic testing than those with sALS (p = .51). Respondents who saw a genetic counselor did not have significantly different test experience scores, compared to those who did not (p = .14). In addition, no differences in test experience scores were observed between those who received positive or negative genetic test results (p = .98). These data indicate that patients with ALS found value in clinical genetic testing. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. © 2013 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lympho-vascular invasion in BRCA related breast cancer compared to sporadic controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Wall Elsken

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 gene predispose to the development of breast cancer, exhibiting a specific histological phenotype. Identification of possible hallmarks of these tumors is important for selecting patients for genetic screening and provides inside in carcinogenetic pathways. Since BRCA1-associated breast cancers have pushing borders that prevent them from easily reaching vessels and are often of the medullary (like type that is known to have a low rate of lympho-vascular invasion (LVI, we hypothesized that absence of LVI could characterize BRCA1 related breast cancer. Methods A population of 68 BRCA1 related invasive breast cancers was evaluated for LVI by an experienced breast pathologist blinded to mutation status, and compared to a control group matched for age, grade and tumor type. Results LVI was present in 25.0% of BRCA1 related cases, compared to 20.6% of controls (P = 0.54, OR = 1.29, CI 0.58-2.78. Conclusion LVI is frequent in BRCA1 germline mutation related breast cancers, but seems to occur as often in sporadic controls matched for age, grade and tumor type. Apparently, these hereditary cancers find their way to the blood and lymph vessels despite their well demarcation and often medullary differentiation.

  19. Computed tomographic features of 23 sporadic cases with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Hui [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Higa, Futoshi; Hibiya, Kenji; Furugen, Makoto [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Sato, Yoko [Tomishiro Chuo Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Shinzato, Takashi [Nakagami General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Haranaga, Shusaku; Yara, Satomi; Tateyama, Masao [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Fujita, Jiro, E-mail: fujita@med.u-ryukyu.ac.j [Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Control and Prevention of Infectious Diseases (First Department of Internal Medicine), Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Li, Huiping [Department of Respiratory Diseases, Shanghai Pneumology Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China)

    2010-06-15

    Objective: To describe the chest computed tomographic (CT) findings of Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Methods: CT scans obtained from 23 sporadic cases of L. pneumophila pneumonia were retrospectively reviewed. Chest CT findings were analyzed with regard to the patterns and distributions of pulmonary abnormalities. We also analyzed the histopathology of lungs from guinea pigs with experimentally induced L. pneumophila pneumonia. Results: Consolidation and ground-glass opacity (GGO) were the main findings of CT scans in L. pneumophila pneumonia. The distribution of opacities was categorized as non-segmental (n = 20) and segmental (n = 4). Non-segmental distribution may follow an onset of segmental distribution. Pleural effusion was observed in 14 (58.3%) patients, of which 13 were accompanied with non-segmental distribution. Abscess formation was observed in only one immunocompromised patient. In the animal pneumonia model, the lesions comprised of terminal bronchioles, alveolar spaces, and interstitia. Small bacilli were observed to be contained by many macrophages within the alveoli. Conclusion: Non-segmental distribution was significantly more frequent than segmental distribution in L. pneumophila pneumonia. It is possible that L. pneumophila infection initially results in segmental pneumonia, which progresses to typical non-segmental distribution.

  20. Maxillary sporadic Burkitt′s lymphoma associated with neuro-orbital involvement in an Indian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Manne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkitt′s lymphoma (BL is the fastest growing malignancy of the lymphoreticular system to affect humans and has a potential ability to double in size every day. A case of maxillary sporadic BL (sBL associated with neuro-orbital involvement in an Indian male is presented. sBL initially presented as maxillary swelling with no obvious dental and periodontal changes. Histological specimen from incisional biopsy revealed a round cell malignant tumor and immunohistochemistry reactions favored nonHodgkin′s lymphoma consistent with BL. Four weeks later, patient presented with orbital involvement as diplopia, sixth cranial nerve palsy, and medial rectus palsy. Chemotherapy regimen according to LMB 89 protocol was started. During chemotherapy regimen patient showed bradycardia and Babinski response, suggestive of central nervous system involvement. sBL associated with orbital involvement is extremely rare and only seven cases have been reported. Our case showed unusual presentation; despite the aggressive tumor did not show any common clinical, radiological, and hematological findings. We also discussed the role of oral medicine specialist, importance of early diagnosis, and prompt referral in management of maxillary sBL.

  1. Epidemiological trends and clinicopathological features of cutaneous melanoma in sporadic and xeroderma pigmentosum Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naouali, Chokri; Jones, Meriem; Nabouli, Imen; Jerbi, Manel; Tounsi, Haifa; Ben Rekaya, Mariem; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Messaoud, Olfa; Khaled, Aida; Zghal, Mohamed; Abdelhak, Sonia; Boubaker, Samir; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological features and trends of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in North-African populations remain unclear. Those populations are of particular interest as they belong to a mosaic of various other origins (sub-Saharan, European Ancestry, and North-African Berbers). The aim of this study is to draw epidemiological profile and clinicopathological features of CM in the Tunisian population. Incidence analyses were based on data from regional cancer registries. Clinical data were collected from dermatological departments and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) referral centers and provided CM clinicopathological characteristics and progression. Statistical analyses were achieved using R packages and SPSS 20.0. The incidence of CM in Tunisia is relatively low (0.5-0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants per year). Gender differences were observed regarding anatomical distribution (P = 0.004). Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most frequent histological subtype (32.3%); however, nodular melanoma (NM) was the most aggressive and responsible for 54.8% of deaths. CM in XP patients develops at a median age that is 42 years earlier than sporadic cases, with preferential localization on the head and neck (P melanoma features in Tunisia are closer to those of non-Caucasians, even though gender differences that are similar to those observed in Caucasians were uncovered. This study also emphasizes the aggressiveness of NM and its effect on melanoma patient deaths. Xeroderma pigmentosum stands as the major predisposing host factor. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  2. SMARCB1/INI1 germline mutations contribute to 10% of sporadic schwannomatosis

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    Bourdon Violaine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schwannomatosis is a disease characterized by multiple non-vestibular schwannomas. Although biallelic NF2 mutations are found in schwannomas, no germ line event is detected in schwannomatosis patients. In contrast, germline mutations of the SMARCB1 (INI1 tumor suppressor gene were described in familial and sporadic schwannomatosis patients. Methods To delineate the SMARCB1 gene contribution, the nine coding exons were sequenced in a series of 56 patients affected with a variable number of non-vestibular schwannomas. Results Nine variants scattered along the sequence of SMARCB1 were identified. Five of them were classified as deleterious. All five patients carrying a SMARCB1 mutation had more multiple schwannomas, corresponding to 10.2% of patients with schwannomatosis. They were also diagnosed before 35 years of age. Conclusions These results suggest that patients with schwannomas have a significant probability of carrying a SMARCB1 mutation. Combined with data available from other studies, they confirm the clinical indications for genetic screening of the SMARCB1 gene.

  3. SMARCB1/INI1 germline mutations contribute to 10% of sporadic schwannomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Guillaume; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Bourdon, Violaine; Sobol, Hagay; Olschwang, Sylviane

    2011-01-24

    Schwannomatosis is a disease characterized by multiple non-vestibular schwannomas. Although biallelic NF2 mutations are found in schwannomas, no germ line event is detected in schwannomatosis patients. In contrast, germline mutations of the SMARCB1 (INI1) tumor suppressor gene were described in familial and sporadic schwannomatosis patients. To delineate the SMARCB1 gene contribution, the nine coding exons were sequenced in a series of 56 patients affected with a variable number of non-vestibular schwannomas. Nine variants scattered along the sequence of SMARCB1 were identified. Five of them were classified as deleterious. All five patients carrying a SMARCB1 mutation had more multiple schwannomas, corresponding to 10.2% of patients with schwannomatosis. They were also diagnosed before 35 years of age. These results suggest that patients with schwannomas have a significant probability of carrying a SMARCB1 mutation. Combined with data available from other studies, they confirm the clinical indications for genetic screening of the SMARCB1 gene.

  4. Microsatellite analysis of sporadic and hereditary gynaecological cancer in routine diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libera, Laura; Sahnane, Nora; Carnevali, Ileana Wanda; Cimetti, Laura; Cerutti, Roberta; Chiaravalli, Anna Maria; Riva, Cristina; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Sessa, Fausto; Furlan, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) testing is tricky in gynaecological cancers (GC). Thus, we aimed to describe the instability patterns to improve MSI test interpretation in sporadic and hereditary GCs. Ninety-five cases, including uterine and ovarian cancers, with known genetic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features, were analysed for MSI by a mononucleotide repeats pentaplex (MRP). We identified 13 ambiguous cases that did not fully meet MSI criteria ('borderline' cases, B-MSI), which were mainly represented by MSH2/MSH6-deficient and Lynch syndrome cases. Also, we evaluated nine additional loci of candidate MSI markers that did not improve the detection of MSI cases, but might be useful for discordant or borderline samples. In conclusion, although MSI and IHC test are highly concordant, a subset of ambiguous MSI cases deserves a careful interpretation in particular when MSH2/MSH6 are involved. RPL22 and SRPR testing may be useful to integrate MRP panel for the analysis of critical cases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Disease progression and regression in sporadic small vessel disease-insights from neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leijsen, Esther M C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik; Tuladhar, Anil M

    2017-06-01

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is considered the most important vascular contributor to the development of dementia. Comprehensive characterization of the time course of disease progression will result in better understanding of aetiology and clinical consequences of SVD. SVD progression has been studied extensively over the years, usually describing change in SVD markers over time using neuroimaging at two time points. As a consequence, SVD is usually seen as a rather linear, continuously progressive process. This assumption of continuous progression of SVD markers was recently challenged by several studies that showed regression of SVD markers. Here, we provide a review on disease progression in sporadic SVD, thereby taking into account both progression and regression of SVD markers with emphasis on white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes and microbleeds. We will elaborate on temporal dynamics of SVD progression and discuss the view of SVD progression as a dynamic process, rather than the traditional view of SVD as a continuous progressive process, that might better fit evidence from longitudinal neuroimaging studies. We will discuss possible mechanisms and clinical implications of a dynamic time course of SVD, with both progression and regression of SVD markers. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Regulation of human cerebrospinal fluid malate dehydrogenase 1 in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Matthias; Llorens, Franc; Pracht, Alexander; Thom, Tobias; Correia, Ângela; Zafar, Saima; Ferrer, Isidre; Zerr, Inga

    2016-01-01

    The identification of reliable diagnostic biomarkers in differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases is an ongoing topic. A previous two-dimensional proteomic study on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed an elevated level of an enzyme, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 (MDH1), in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) patients. Here, we could demonstrate the expression of MDH1 in neurons as well as in the neuropil. Its levels are lower in sCJD brains than in control brains. An examination of CSF-MDH1 in sCJD patients by ELISA revealed a significant elevation of CSF-MDH1 levels in sCJD patients (independently from the PRNP codon 129 MV genotype or the prion protein scrapie (PrPSc) type) in comparison to controls. In combination with total tau (tau), CSF-MDH1 detection exhibited a high diagnostic accuracy for sCJD diagnosis with a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 95.6%. A correlation study of MDH1 level in CSF with other neurodegenerative marker proteins revealed a significant positive correlation between MDH1 concentration with tau, 14-3-3 and neuron specific enolase level. In conclusion, our study indicated the potential of MDH1 in combination with tau as an additional biomarker in sCJD improving diagnostic accuracy of tau markedly. PMID:27852982

  7. Anesthetic Considerations of Sporadic Inclusion Body Myositis in an Elderly Man With Orthopedic Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Dominik T; Choi, Christine; Gollapudy, Suneeta; Pagel, Paul S

    2016-04-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis (IBM) is an inflammatory myopathy characterized by progressive asymmetric extremity weakness, oropharyngeal dysphagia, and the potential for exaggerated sensitivity to neuromuscular blockers and respiratory compromise. The authors describe their management of a patient with IBM undergoing urgent orthopedic surgery. An 81-year-old man with IBM suffered a left intertrochanteric femoral fracture after falling down stairs. His IBM caused progressive left proximal lower extremity, bilateral distal upper extremity weakness (left > right), and oropharyngeal dysphagia (solid food, pills). He denied dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and a history of aspiration. Because respiratory insufficiency resulting from diaphragmatic dysfunction and prolonged duration of action of neuromuscular blockers may occur in IBM, the authors avoided using a neuromuscular blocker. After applying cricoid pressure, anesthesia was induced using intravenous lidocaine, propofol, remifentanil followed by manual ventilation with inhaled sevoflurane in oxygen. Endotracheal intubation was accomplished without difficulty; anesthesia was then maintained using remifentanil and sevoflurane. The fracture was repaired with a trochanteric femoral nail. The patient was extubated without difficulty and made an uneventful recovery. In summary, there is a lack of consensus about the use of neuromuscular blockers in patients with IBM. The authors avoided these drugs and were able to easily secure the patient's airway and maintain adequate muscle relaxation using a balanced sevoflurane-remifentanil anesthetic. Clinical trials are necessary to define the pharmacology of neuromuscular blockers in patients with IBM and determine whether use of these drugs contributes to postoperative respiratory insufficiency in these vulnerable patients.

  8. Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Sporadic Non-Medullar Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Rumjanzeva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of somatic mutations in sporadic thyroid cancer is unclear today. Probably they coming out as aetiological factors in carcinogenesis as well as, respectfully to many authors, can to participate in TC pathogenesis and to determine the clinical course and prognosis of the disease. For today as main oncogenes taking part in initiation of thyroid malignant tumors are considered: RET/PTC, TRK, PTEN, P53, RAS, MET, PPARγ. By means of genetic investigations scientists are trying to solve problems with thyroid cancer differentiated diagnostics (cytokeratin-19, cytokeratin-20, mesothelial cells antigen (Hector Battifora MEsotelial (cell or HBME-1, loss of heterozigitoty (LOH in short arm of 3 chromosome (gene VHL -von Hippel Lindau, 3р26. Recently in foreign literature appeared reports of activated mutations in gene BRAF which most frequently are occurred in melanoma and papillary TC. Prognosis of thyroid cancer may reflected by the LOH as a biological breakage as well as changes of tumor suppressive gene P53 which fraught with decrease of disease prognosis. Thus, both researchers and clinicians have many questions concerning the role of genome, particularly in order to precise of genetic abnormality influence on tumor growth and therefore for assessment of clinical prognosis and with aim to chose adequate treatment tactic in each case.

  9. 3D tomography of midlatitude sporadic-E in Japan from GNSS-TEC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muafiry, Ihsan Naufal; Heki, Kosuke; Maeda, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We studied ionospheric irregularities caused by midlatitude sporadic-E ( Es) in Japan using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data from a dense GNSS array, GEONET, with a 3D (three-dimensional) tomography technique. Es is a thin layer of unusually high ionization that appears at altitudes of 100 km. Here, we studied five cases of Es irregularities in 2010 and 2012, also reported in previous studies, over the Kanto and Kyushu Districts. We used slant TEC residuals as the input and estimated the number of electron density anomalies of more than 2000 small blocks with dimensions of 20-30 km covering a horizontal region of 300 × 500 km. We applied a continuity constraint to stabilize the solution and performed several different resolution tests with synthetic data to assess the accuracy of the results. The tomography results showed that positive electron density anomalies occurred at the E region height, and the morphology and dynamics were consistent with those reported by earlier studies.

  10. Energetics and structure of the lower E region associated with sporadic E layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-I. Oyama

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron temperature (Te, electron density (Ne, and two components of the electric field were measured from the height of 90 km to 150 km by one of the sounding rockets launched during the SEEK-2 campaign. The rocket went through sporadic E layer (Es at the height of 102 km–109 km during ascent and 99 km–108 km during decent, respectively. The energy density of thermal electrons calculated from Ne and Te shows the broad maximum in the height range of 100–110 km, and it decreases towards the lower and higher altitudes, which implies that a heat source exists in the height region of 100 km–110 km. A 3-D picture of Es, that was drawn by using Te, Ne, and the electric field data, corresponded to the computer simulation; the main structure of Es is projected to a higher altitude along the magnetic line of force, thus producing irregular structures of Te, Ne and electric field in higher altitude.

  11. Whole-exome sequencing improves the diagnosis yield in sporadic infantile spasm syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimassi, S; Labalme, A; Ville, D; Calender, A; Mignot, C; Boutry-Kryza, N; de Bellescize, J; Rivier-Ringenbach, C; Bourel-Ponchel, E; Cheillan, D; Simonet, T; Maincent, K; Rossi, M; Till, M; Mougou-Zerelli, S; Edery, P; Saad, A; Heron, D; des Portes, V; Sanlaville, D; Lesca, G

    2016-02-01

    Infantile spasms syndrome (ISs) is characterized by clinical spasms with ictal electrodecrement, usually occurring before the age of 1 year and frequently associated with cognitive impairment. Etiology is widely heterogeneous, the cause remaining elusive in 40% of patients. We searched for de novo mutations in 10 probands with ISs and their parents using whole-exome sequencing (WES). Patients had neither consanguinity nor family history of epilepsy. Common causes of ISs were excluded by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), metabolic screening, array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and testing for mutations in CDKL5, STXBP1, and for ARX duplications. We found a probably pathogenic mutation in four patients. Missense mutations in SCN2A (p.Leu1342Pro) and KCNQ2 (p.Ala306Thr) were found in two patients with no history of epilepsy before the onset of ISs. The p.Asn107Ser missense mutation of ALG13 had been previously reported in four females with ISs. The fourth mutation was an in-frame deletion (p.Phe110del) in NR2F1, a gene whose mutations cause intellectual disability, epilepsy, and optic atrophy. In addition, we found a possibly pathogenic variant in KIF3C that encodes a kinesin expressed during neural development. Our results confirm that WES improves significantly the diagnosis yield in patients with sporadic ISs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prokineticin 1 protein expression is a useful new prognostic factor for human sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Goi, Takanori; Hirono, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Akio

    2015-05-01

    Hematogenous metastasis, regarded as closely related to angiogenic growth factors, is associated with colorectal cancer prognosis. The angiogenic growth factor prokineticin 1 (PROK1) has been cloned from endocrine cells. However, its protein expression in human malignant tumors has not been studied. The current study established the anti-PROK1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and examined the relationship between the expression of PROK1 protein and human colorectal cancer. The expression of PROK1 protein was assessed in 620 resected sporadic colorectal cancer tissue samples by immunohistochemical staining with in-house-developed human PROK1 mAb to investigate the relationship of PROK1 expression to clinicopathologic factors, recurrence, and survival rate and to evaluate its prognostic significance. The expression of PROK1 protein was detected in 36 % (223/620) of human primary colorectal cancer lesions but no in the healthy mucosa adjacent to the colorectal cancer lesions. According to the clinicopathologic examinations, the frequency of positive PROK1 expression was significantly higher in cases with serosal invasion, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, liver metastasis, hematogenous metastasis, and higher stage disease. The recurrence rate and prognosis for patients with PROK1 expression-positive lesions were significantly worse. In the Cox proportional hazard model, PROK1 expression was an independent prognostic factor. The expression of PROK1 protein was identified for the first time as a new prognostic factor in colorectal cancer.

  13. Marketing mobile imaging services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, P

    1987-09-01

    Competition in the mobile imaging arena has put radiologists, radiology directors, and other health care professionals in the unfamiliar position of being marketing agents for their services. Mobile imaging is being promoted through consumer advertising as well as through the traditional route of physician referral. This article offers some of the marketing lessons being learned in the mobile arena.

  14. Mobility Charters and Manifestos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    and ‘geosemiotics’ with mobility studies in order to present a framework for understanding the meaning of mobility manifestos and charters. Empirically the paper explore different cases of mobility manifestos such as the ‘Guidelines for the Pastoral Care of the Road’ published by the Vatican in 2007, the English...

  15. Mobile Student Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asif, Muhammad; Krogstie, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A mobile student information system (MSIS) based on mobile computing and context-aware application concepts can provide more user-centric information services to students. The purpose of this paper is to describe a system for providing relevant information to students on a mobile platform. Design/methodology/approach: The research…

  16. Multilocus analysis of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum isolates from sporadic and outbreak-related human cases and C. parvum isolates from sporadic livestock cases in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, Francesca; Mallon, Marianne E; Smith, Huw V; Tait, Andy; McLauchlin, Jim

    2007-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium hominis isolates from sporadic, drinking water-associated, and intrafamilial human cases together with C. parvum isolates from sporadic cases in livestock were collected in the United Kingdom between 1995 and 1999. The isolates were characterized by analysis of three microsatellite markers (ML1, GP15, and MS5) using PCR amplification. Within C. hominis, four alleles were detected within the GP15 and MS5 loci, and a single type was detected with ML1. C. parvum was more polymorphic; 12 alleles were detected with GP15, 6 were detected with MS5, and 3 were detected with ML1. Multilocus analysis of polymorphisms within the three microsatellite loci was combined with those reported previously for an extrachromosomal small double-stranded RNA. Forty multilocus types were detected within these two species: 9 were detected in C. hominis, and 31 were detected in C. parvum. In C. hominis, heterogeneity was almost exclusively found in samples from sporadic cases. Similarity analysis identified three main groups within C. parvum, and the group that predominated in human infection was also found in livestock. Multilocus types of C. parvum previously identified only in humans were not detected in livestock. Isolates of both C. hominis and C. parvum from separate waterborne outbreaks were genetically homogeneous, suggesting preferential or point source transmission of certain types of these two species of parasites.

  17. High signal of the striatum in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: sequential change on T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, A.; O'uchi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Yashiro, N.

    2002-01-01

    The object of this study is to describe the sequential change of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Three cases of autopsy-proven sporadic CJD and a total of 18 serial MR images are included in this study. The degree of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists and divided into four grades by mutual agreement. Initial MRI of all three cases showed a slightly high signal of the bilateral striatum, and the conspicuity of the high signal became more prominent as the disease progressed. In each case the pathological change of striatum and globus pallidus was compared with the high signal on the last MR image. (orig.)

  18. High signal of the striatum in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: sequential change on T2-weighted MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uemura, A.; O' uchi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Yashiro, N. [Department of Radiology, Kameda Medical Center, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The object of this study is to describe the sequential change of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Three cases of autopsy-proven sporadic CJD and a total of 18 serial MR images are included in this study. The degree of high signal of the striatum on T2-weighted MRI was evaluated by two neuroradiologists and divided into four grades by mutual agreement. Initial MRI of all three cases showed a slightly high signal of the bilateral striatum, and the conspicuity of the high signal became more prominent as the disease progressed. In each case the pathological change of striatum and globus pallidus was compared with the high signal on the last MR image. (orig.)

  19. Electric field measurements of DC and long wavelength structures associated with sporadic-E layers and QP radar echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ohtsuki

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric field and plasma density data gathered on a sounding rocket launched from Uchinoura Space Center, Japan, reveal a complex electrodynamics associated with sporadic-E layers and simultaneous observations of quasi-periodic radar echoes. The electrodynamics are characterized by spatial and temporal variations that differed considerably between the rocket's upleg and downleg traversals of the lower ionosphere. Within the main sporadic-E layer (95–110 km on the upleg, the electric fields were variable, with amplitudes of 2–4 mV/m that changed considerably within altitude intervals of 1–3 km. The identification of polarization electric fields coinciding with plasma density enhancements and/or depletions is not readily apparent. Within this region on the downleg, however, the direction of the electric field revealed a marked change that coincided precisely with the peak of a single, narrow sporadic-E plasma density layer near 102.5 km. This shear was presumably associated with the neutral wind shear responsible for the layer formation. The electric field data above the sporadic-E layer on the upleg, from 110 km to the rocket apogee of 152 km, revealed a continuous train of distinct, large scale, quasi-periodic structures with wavelengths of 10–15 km and wavevectors oriented between the NE-SW quadrants. The electric field structures had typical amplitudes of 3–5 mV/m with one excursion to 9 mV/m, and in a very general sense, were associated with perturbations in the plasma density. The electric field waveforms showed evidence for steepening and/or convergence effects and presumably had mapped upwards along the magnetic field from the sporadic-E region below. Candidate mechanisms to explain the origin of these structures include the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and the Es-layer instability. In both cases, the same shear that formed the sporadic-E layer would provide the energy to generate the km-scale structures. Other possibilities

  20. Forecasting of Sporadic Demand Patterns with Seasonality and Trend Components: An Empirical Comparison between Holt-Winters and (SARIMA Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Gamberini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Items with irregular and sporadic demand profiles are frequently tackled by companies, given the necessity of proposing wider and wider mix, along with characteristics of specific market fields (i.e., when spare parts are manufactured and sold. Furthermore, a new company entering into the market is featured by irregular customers' orders. Hence, consistent efforts are spent with the aim of correctly forecasting and managing irregular and sporadic products demand. In this paper, the problem of correctly forecasting customers' orders is analyzed by empirically comparing existing forecasting techniques. The case of items with irregular demand profiles, coupled with seasonality and trend components, is investigated. Specifically, forecasting methods (i.e., Holt-Winters approach and (SARIMA available for items with seasonality and trend components are empirically analyzed and tested in the case of data coming from the industrial field and characterized by intermittence. Hence, in the conclusions section, well-performing approaches are addressed.