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Sample records for sporadic parkinson disease

  1. A Tangled Web - Tau and Sporadic Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Wray

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD represents a major challenge for health care systems around the world: it is the most common degenerative movement disorder of old age, affecting over 100,000 people in the UK alone. A great deal of progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of PD by taking advantage of advances in genetics, initially by the identification of genes responsible for rare mendellian forms of PD (outlined in table one, and more recently by applying genome wide association studies (GWAS to the sporadic form of the disease. Several such GWAS have now been carried out, with a meta-analysis currently under way. Using over 6000 cases and 10000 controls, two of these studies have identified variation at a number of loci as being associated with an increased risk of disease. Three genes stand out as candidates from these studies – the SNCA gene, coding for α -synuclein, the LRRK2 gene, coding for leucine rich repeat kinase 2, and MAPT, coding for the microtubule associated protein tau. Point mutations in α -synuclein, along with gene multiplication events, result in autosomal dominant PD, often with a significant dementia component. In addition to this, α -synuclein is the principle component of the main pathological hallmark of PD, the Lewy body. Mutations in LRRK2 are the most common genetic cause of PD, and so again were a likely candidate for a susceptibility locus for the sporadic form of disease. More surprising, perhaps, was the identification of tau as a susceptibility factor for Parkinson's. In this review we will outline the role of tau in neurodegeneration and in different forms of parkinsonism, and speculate as to what the functional basis of this association might be.

  2. Association between rs6812193 polymorphism and sporadic Parkinson's disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Qiang; Li, Tao; Zhao, Peiqing; Wang, Lianqing

    2015-08-01

    Recently, the association of a single nucleotide polymorphism rs6812193 C/T with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) susceptibility has been widely evaluated, but the results remained inconsistent. This association should be clarified because of the importance of it on human health and quality of life. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis to evaluate the association between the rs6812193 polymorphism and sporadic PD. PubMed was used to retrieve articles published up to June 2014 for all studies evaluating the rs6812193 polymorphism and PD in humans. Ethnicity-specific subgroup analysis was also performed based on ethnicity susceptibility. A total of 17 independent study samples (15 Caucasians and 2 Asians) including 17,956 cases and 52,751 controls were used in the presented study. The MAFT (minor allele T frequency) in PD patients of European descent is obviously higher than Asian cases (p susceptibility among overall samples (OR 0.882, 95 % CI 0.856-0.908) and Caucasian population (OR 0.881, 95 % CI 0.856-0.907), but not in Asian samples (OR 0.918, 95 % CI 0.721-1.168). No evidence of publication bias was observed. Throughout our analysis, the rs6812193 polymorphism is significantly associated with sporadic PD susceptibility in Caucasian samples, and ethnicity might be the key point of inconsistency in rs6812193 studies. Further studies are warranted to re-examine the observed associations, especially in different ethnicities.

  3. Genetic architecture of sporadic frontotemporal dementia and overlap with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Wang, Yunpeng; Vandrovcova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical, pathological and genetic overlap between sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested; however, the relationship between these disorders is still not well understood. Here we evaluated genetic overlap between...

  4. Imaging movement-related activity in medicated Parkin-associated and sporadic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Eimeren, Thilo; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buhmann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Treatment-related motor complications such as dyskinesias are a major problem in the long-term management of Parkinson's disease (PD). In sporadic PD, a relatively early onset of the disease is known to be associated with an early development of dyskinesias. Although linked with early onset...... selected movements. Patients with Parkin-associated and sporadic PD showed no difference in movement-related activation patterns. Moreover, the covariates 'age' and 'disease duration' similarly influenced brain activation in both patient groups. The present finding suggests that a stable long-term motor...

  5. Dopamine-dependent neurodegeneration in Drosophila models of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayersdorfer, Florian; Voigt, Aaron; Schneuwly, Stephan; Botella, José A

    2010-10-01

    Parkinson's disease has been found to be caused by both, genetic and environmental factors. Despite the diversity of causes involved, a convergent pathogenic mechanism might underlie the special vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in different forms of Parkinsonism. In recent years, a number of reports have proposed dopamine as a common player responsible in the loss of dopaminergic neurons independent of its etiology. Using RNAi lines we were able to generate flies with drastically reduced dopamine levels in the dopaminergic neurons. Combining these flies with a chemically induced Parkinson model (rotenone) and a familial form of Parkinson (mutant alpha-synuclein) we were able to show a strong reduction of neurotoxicity and a protection of the dopaminergic neurons when cellular dopamine levels were reduced. These results show that dopamine homeostasis plays a central role for the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to environmental and genetic factors in in vivo models of Parkinson disease. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation of an integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-43 from a patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marote

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line was generated from a 36-year-old patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line (CSC-43 exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to study the mechanisms underlying the development of PD.

  7. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-42 from a patient with sporadic form of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Savchenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin fibroblasts were collected from a 44-year-old patient with sporadic case of Parkinson's disease (PD. The non-integrating Sendai virus vector encoding OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was used to reprogram fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Generated iPSCs had normal karyotypes, expressed common stem cell markers, and were capable of differentiating into all three germ layers. Generated line could be used for PD modeling to understand the mechanisms that influence the disorder.

  8. Single-Cell RNA-Seq of Mouse Dopaminergic Neurons Informs Candidate Gene Selection for Sporadic Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Paul W; McClymont, Sarah A; Cannon, Gabrielle H; Law, William D; Morton, A Jennifer; Goff, Loyal A; McCallion, Andrew S

    2018-03-01

    Genetic variation modulating risk of sporadic Parkinson disease (PD) has been primarily explored through genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, like many other common genetic diseases, the impacted genes remain largely unknown. Here, we used single-cell RNA-seq to characterize dopaminergic (DA) neuron populations in the mouse brain at embryonic and early postnatal time points. These data facilitated unbiased identification of DA neuron subpopulations through their unique transcriptional profiles, including a postnatal neuroblast population and substantia nigra (SN) DA neurons. We use these population-specific data to develop a scoring system to prioritize candidate genes in all 49 GWAS intervals implicated in PD risk, including genes with known PD associations and many with extensive supporting literature. As proof of principle, we confirm that the nigrostriatal pathway is compromised in Cplx1-null mice. Ultimately, this systematic approach establishes biologically pertinent candidates and testable hypotheses for sporadic PD, informing a new era of PD genetic research. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  9. May the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and sporadic Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Emilio; García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José

    2014-11-20

    The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum α-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (pdisease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (pthyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum α-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor.

  10. Integrated molecular landscape of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemann, C.J.H.M.; Martens, G.J.; Sharma, M.; Martens, M.B.; Isacson, O.; Gasser, T.; Visser, J.E.; Poelmans, G.J.V.

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is caused by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Although a number of independent molecular pathways and processes have been associated with familial Parkinson's disease, a common mechanism underlying especially sporadic Parkinson's disease is still largely

  11. The Potential Mutation of GAK Gene in the Typical Sporadic Parkinson's Disease from the Han Population of Chinese Mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Hanyi; Zhu, Lei; Deng, Libing; Fang, Xin; Deng, Xia; Liang, Huiting; Tang, Chunyan; Cao, Xuebing; Lu, Yi; Li, Jiao; Ren, Xiao; Zuo, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiong; Xu, Renshi

    2016-12-01

    The genetic factors about the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is not completely clear at present; therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study, high-throughput sequencing analysis (HTPSA) of all cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) exons, loss-of-function assessment, and sorting intolerant from tolerant analysis of HTPSA data in 250 typical sPD and 250 controls, which found 55 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To further explore these SNPs, we sequenced the 30 most strongly associated SNPs in the 460 typical sPD cases and the 525 controls. All subjects were from the Han population of Chinese mainland and excluded the toxic exposure, the heavy coffee drinking, and the early- and late-onset sPD. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) at c.3824T>G, c.3794T>C, and c.3819G>A were higher in the control. The TG of c.3824T>G, the TC of c.3794T>C, and the AG of c.3819G>A were associated with the decreased risk of sPD. The subjects carrying the minor C allele of c.3794T>C or the minor A allele of c.3819G>A exhibited a decreased risk of sPD. c.3824T>G negatively affected the binding affinity of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). c.3794T>C increased the surface area exposed to substrates. c.3819G>A most likely reduced the expression level of GAK. Our data suggest that the multiple SNPs of GAK synergistically participate in the pathogenesis of sPD through multiple pathways.

  12. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find your local chapter Join our online community Parkinson's Disease Dementia Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment ... disease. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  16. Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age of onset of Parkinson's disease is about 65 years, with a median time of 9 years between diagnosis and death. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of fetal cell or stem cell......-derived therapy in people with Parkinson's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to September 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from...

  17. The alterations of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sporadic Parkinson's disease from the Han population of Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Deng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD can’t be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD. Results showed that a significantly shrunk volume, thinned thickness and enlarged or reduced surface of cortex in some specific brain regions were closely associated with sPD, but all cortical densities were not different. The majority of morphometric alteration of hemisphere cortex was symmetric, but that in the left hemisphere was more significant. The cortical morphometric alterations in the frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and limbic lobe, cerebellum, caudate and thalamus were closely related to the clinical neural dysfunction (Clinical manifestations of sPD. Our data indicated that the deficits of extensive brain regions involved in the development of sPD, resulted in a series of correspondent complex clinical manifestations in the disease.

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  19. Parkinson's Disease

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    ... a long and relatively healthy life. What Causes Parkinson's Disease? In the very deep parts of the brain, there is a collection of nerve cells that help control movement, known as the basal ganglia (say: BAY-sul GAN-glee-ah). In a ...

  20. Mutation analysis for DJ-1 in sporadic and familial parkinsonism: screening strategy in parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Kubo, Shin-Ichiro; Toda, Tatsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2009-05-22

    DJ-1 mutations cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism (ARP). Although some reports of DJ-1 mutations have been published, there is lack of information on the prevalence of these mutations in large-scale studies of both familial and sporadic parkinsonism. In this genetic screening study, we analyzed the distribution and frequency of DJ-1 mutations by direct nucleotide sequencing of coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of DJ-1, in 386 parkin-negative parkinsonism patients (371 index cases: 67 probands of autosomal recessive parkinsonism families, 90 probands of autosomal dominant parkinsonism families, 201 patients with sporadic parkinsonism, and 13 with unknown family histories) from 12 countries (Japan 283, China 27, Taiwan 22, Korea 22, Israel 16, Turkey 5, Philippines 2, Bulgaria 2, Greece 2, Tunisia 1, USA 2, Ukraine 1, unknown 1). None had causative mutation in DJ-1, suggesting DJ-1 mutation is very rare among patients with familial and sporadic parkinsonism from Asian countries and those with other ethnic background. This is in contrast to the higher frequencies and worldwide distribution of parkin- and PINK1-related parkinsonism in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism. Thus, after obtaining clinical information, screening for mutations in (1) parkin, (2) PINK1, (3) DJ-1, (4) ATP13A2 should be conducted in that order, in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, based on their reported frequencies. In addition, haplotype analysis should be employed to check for homozygosity of 1p36, which harbors a cluster of causative genes for ARP such as DJ-1, PINK1 and ATP13A2 in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, especially in parkinsonism with consanguinity.

  1. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis in siblings and monozygotic twins discordant for sporadic Parkinson's disease revealed different epigenetic patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaut, Oliver; Schmitt, Ina; Tost, Jörg; Busato, Florence; Liu, Yi; Hofmann, Per; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Fröhlich, Holger; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have elucidated the genetics of Parkinson's disease; however, the aetiology of the majority of sporadic cases has not yet been resolved. We hypothesized that epigenetic variations could be associated with PD and evaluated the DNA methylation pattern in PD patients compared to brothers or twins without PD. The methylation of DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 62 discordant siblings including 24 monozygotic twins was characterized with Illumina DNA Methylation 450K bead arrays and subsequently validated in two independent cohorts: 221 PD vs. 227 healthy individuals (cohort 1) applying Illumina's VeraCode and 472 PD patients vs. 487 controls (cohort 2) using pyrosequencing. We choose a delta beta of >15 % and selected 62 differentially methylated CpGs in 51 genes from the discordant siblings. Among them, three displayed multiple CpGs per gene: microRNA 886 (MIR886, 10 CpGs), phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D, 2 CpGs) and tripartite motif-containing 34 (TRIM34, 2 CpGs). PDE4D was confirmed in both cohorts (p value 2.44e-05). In addition, for biomarker construction, we used the penalized logistic regression model, resulting in a signature of eight CpGs with an AUC of 0.77. Our findings suggest that a distinct level of PD susceptibility stems from individual, epigenetic modifications of specific genes. We identified a signature of CpGs in blood cells that could separate control from disease with a reasonable discriminatory power, holding promise for future epigenetically based biomarker development.

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  1. Parkinson disease - discharge

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    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may ...

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  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  12. Parkinson's disease and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, K; Bennett, G

    2001-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...

  13. There is no Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, William J

    2008-06-01

    The term Parkinson disease defines a specific clinical condition characterized by a typical history and characteristic signs. This review examines the historical evolution of the concept of Parkinson disease and how the misunderstanding of Parkinson disease may be hindering clinical research trials. It is proposed that this syndrome be called Parkinson diseases or parkinsonism type 1 through infinity.

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  17. Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Parkinson disease Parkinson disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous ...

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

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  1. Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The disease leads to shaking ( tremors ) and trouble walking and moving . ... include: Difficulty starting movement, such as starting to walk or ... are not moving. This is called resting tremor. Occur when your ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... live productive lives and maintain mobility. How is Parkinson's Diagnosed? There are no blood or laboratory tests ...

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  16. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Xenotransplantation in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by loss of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta and subsequent shortage of dopamine in the striatum of the these patients causing the well known symptoms first described by James Parkinson in 1817. In this

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... library Topic Type Living Alone: Home Safety and Management in PD Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What ... Managing Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Why We Walk at ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Library Search library Topic Type Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What Do We Really Know? Nurse ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's Disease: Financial, Legal and Medical Planning Tips for Care Partners Nurse Webinars: Nursing ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Swallowing: Part 1 How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect Memory? What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive ... What Does a Caregiver Need to Know About Cognitive Impairment? How Do I Manage Non-Motor Problems ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Managing Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Ask the Helpline: What Is a Movement Disorder Specialist? What Are Some Strategies for Problems with Urination? How Do I Know ...

  13. Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Riederer, Peter; Lange, Klaus W.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of genetic aspects, ageing, environmental factors, head trauma, defective mitochondrial respiration, altered iron metabolism, oxidative stress and glutamatergic overactivity of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered in this review.

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... About Cognitive Impairment? How Do I Manage Non-Motor Problems Such as Hypersexuality? Are There Any Interactions With Non-Parkinson's Disease Medications? What to Expect Emotionally What are some ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... library Topic Type Living Alone: Home Safety and Management in PD Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What ... Program: Step by Step OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Ask the Helpline: What ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Library Search library Topic Type Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What Do We Really Know? Nurse ... Have Similar Symptoms? How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect Memory? How Does Depression Affect the Patient's Family and ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... the Urinary System? What Are the Risks and Benefits of DBS Surgery? NPF Caregiver Summit 2016: Tools ... Depression and Parkinson's Disease? What Are the Neuroprotective Benefits of Exercise for PD Patients? Hallucinations and Delusions ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Bringing Care to You Expert Care Programs Professional Education Expert Care Research shows people with Parkinson’s who ... Psychosis: Hallucinations, Delusions and Paranoia Nurse Webinars: Interdisciplinary Education on Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Getting Around: Transportation ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... A You are here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Nursing Solutions: Improving Caregiver Strain through Science and Model Interventions Expert Briefings: Parkinson's Disease Psychosis: ...

  20. Learning about Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Parkinson's Disease Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and what treatment options are available. ... your gift takes, you can be confident that it goes toward providing crucial resources for those affected ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Walk at Moving Day OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety ... Summit 2016: Maintaining Dignity & Identity Why Is It Important to Continue Self-Care ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Side Effect of PD Medications? CareMAP: Challenges and Rewards of Caregiving Why Dance for PD? What Are ... Caregivers How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect the Urinary System? How Can Caregivers Help with Freezing Episodes? OHSU - ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... library Topic Type Living Alone: Home Safety and Management in PD Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What ... What Is the Helpline? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis How Does Speech Therapy ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Swallowing: Part 2 What Is the Relationship Between Depression and Parkinson's Disease? What Is Patient-Centered Care? Hallucinations and Delusions Dealing with Dementia CareMAP: Medicamentos ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... What Do We Really Know? Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Caregiver Strain through Science and Model Interventions ... Psychosis: Hallucinations, Delusions and Paranoia Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Understanding Fatigue and Apathy in Parkinson's Disease Nurse ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... library Topic Type Living Alone: Home Safety and Management in PD Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What ... a Brother: Donna’s Story OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Ask Expert Briefings: Physical Therapy & PD: What You Need to Know Expert Briefings: What's Missing? Communication and the PD Partnership Expert Briefings: Fatigue, Sleep Disorders and Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: What's in ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... When Is It Time to Get Help? Unconditional Love CareMAP: Rest and Sleep: Part 1 What Are ... Around the House: Part 2 What Is the Relationship Between Depression and Parkinson's Disease? Hallucinations and Delusions ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... library Topic Type Living Alone: Home Safety and Management in PD Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What ... la Deglución, Parte 2 OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... library Topic Type Living Alone: Home Safety and Management in PD Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What ... con todos los presentadores OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Is Compulsive Behavior a ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Marijuana and PD: What Do We Really Know? Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Caregiver Strain through Science ... Briefings: Parkinson's Disease Psychosis: Hallucinations, Delusions and Paranoia Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Understanding Fatigue and Apathy in ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... you can do to maintain and improve your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. ... a lower risk of complications and have better quality of life. Learn More Research Research We Fund ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... library Topic Type Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What Do We Really Know? Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Caregiver Strain through Science and Model Interventions Expert Briefings: Parkinson's Disease Psychosis: ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Education on Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Getting Around: Transportation and Travel with PD Expert Briefings: Sleep and ... for PD: Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis CareMAP: Travel and Transportation: Part 2 Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Gene and Cell Therapies Expert Briefings: Dealing with Dementia in PD Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease ... 1 What Is Patient-Centered Care? Dealing with Dementia CareMAP: Life Beyond This Life What Are Some ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... library Topic Type Living Alone: Home Safety and Management in PD Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What ... la Deglución, Parte 2 OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Caregiver Summit 2016: The ...

  18. Nondipping in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sita Sommer; Billur Aral-Becher; Wolfgang Jost

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to identify patients with Parkinson's disease who showed loss or decrease of nocturnal blood pressure fall (nondipper patients) as a marker of autonomic dysfunction. Presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension was considered to investigate whether alterations in circadian blood pressure pattern are associated with posture-related dysregulation of blood pressure. Methods. 40 patients with Parkinson's disease underwent 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. 2...

  19. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we...... consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR)....

  20. Therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joseph; Poewe, Werner

    2012-08-01

    This review examines currently available therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease, emphasizing evidence-based data as well as a patient-centered approach to the treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although clinical trials of disease-modifying approaches have been thus far disappointing, steady advances are being made in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we focus on recent studies with monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (selegiline and rasagiline), coenzyme Q10, creatine, and exercise in early Parkinson's disease. We also discuss the relative merits and disadvantages of delaying the initiation of levodopa therapy, the role of dopamine agonists, particularly ropinirole and pramipexole, and management of motor and behavioral complications, such as fluctuations, dyskinesias and impulse-control disorders. Novel formulations and delivery approaches for conventional and new drugs are also discussed. Finally, we review recent studies of surgical treatments of Parkinson's disease, such as deep brain stimulation. Numerous clinical trials have provided evidence that health-related quality of life can be substantially improved with early diagnosis and institution of exercise and other physical measures, appropriate timing of dopaminergic therapy, and strategies to delay and treat levodopa-related motor complications and nonmotor Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

  1. Motor assessment in Parkinson`s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Józef; Małecki, Andrzej; Małecka, Elżbieta; Socha, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of most disabling disorders of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, postural instability and difficulty with walking and gait, are difficult to measure. When disease symptoms become more pronounced, the patient experiences difficulties with hand function and walking, and is prone to falls. Baseline motor impairment and cognitive impairment are probable predictors of more rapid motor decline and disability. An additional difficulty is the variability of the symptoms caused by adverse effects of drugs, especially levodopa. Motor assessment of Parkinson`s Disease can be divided into clinimetrics, assessment of balance and posture, arm and hand function, and gait/walking. These are many clinimetric scales used in Parkinson`s Disease, the most popular being the Hoehn and Yahr stages of progression of the disease and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Balance and posture can be assessed by clinimetric scales like the Berg BS, Tinetti, Brunel BA, and Timed Up and Go Test, or measured by posturometric platforms. Among skill tests, the best known are: the Purdue Pegboard Test, Nine-Hole Peg Test, Jebsen and Taylor test, Pig- Tail Test, Frenchay Arm Test, Action Research Arm Test, Wolf FMT and Finger-Tapping Test. Among motricity scales, the most popular are: the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment Scale and Södring Motor Evaluation. Gait and walking can also be assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Recently, the most popular is three-dimensional analysis of movement. This review article presents the current possibilities of motor assessment in Parkinson`s disease.

  2. Diabetes mellitus and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Polychronis, Sotirios; Wilson, Heather; Giordano, Beniamino; Ferrara, Nicola; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2018-05-08

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is associated with Parkinson-like pathology in people without Parkinson disease and to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on markers of Parkinson pathology and clinical progression in drug-naive patients with early-stage Parkinson disease. We compared 25 patients with Parkinson disease and diabetes mellitus to 25 without diabetes mellitus, and 14 patients with diabetes mellitus and no Parkinson disease to 14 healthy controls (people with no diabetes mellitus or Parkinson disease). The clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by 2 consecutive fasting measurements of serum glucose levels >126 mL/dL. Over a 36-month follow-up period, we then investigated in the population with Parkinson disease whether the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression or cognitive decline. The presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with higher motor scores ( p Parkinson disease. In patients with diabetes but without Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with lower striatal dopamine transporter binding ( p Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression (hazard ratio = 4.521, 95% confidence interval = 1.468-13.926; p Parkinson-like pathology, and when present in patients with Parkinson disease, can induce a more aggressive phenotype. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... the House: Part 1 What Are the Neuroprotective Benefits of Exercise for PD Patients? Are There Any Ways to Control the Rate of Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Disease Affect the Urinary System? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress CareMAP: End-of-Life Care CareMAP: Thinking Changes: ... Rest and Sleep: Part 2 What Are the Causes of Parkinson's Disease? Are There Disorders That Have ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Swallowing: Part 1 How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect Memory? What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive ... Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story When and What Type of Treatment Is Initiated After Diagnosis? CareMAP: Las ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... and Benefits of DBS Surgery? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress Caregiver Summit 2016: Embracing The Challenge: A Panel ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Panel de Expertos: Sesión ...

  7. Kinesiotherapy of Parkinson`s disease and Parkinson`s syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Zechovská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Author: Lenka Zechovská Institution: Rehabilitation Clinic, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové Title: Kinesiotherapy of Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's syndrome Supervisor: Mgr. Ivana Vondráková Number of pages: 115 Number of attachments: 8 Year of defence: 2013 Keywords: Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia, tremor, rigidity, hypokinesia Bachelor thesis deals with the problems of Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's syndrome. The theoretical part includes the basal ganglia pathophysiolog...

  8. Parkinson Disease and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Kramberger, Milica G

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present. This review provides an update on current knowledge of PDD including aspects of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Pharmacotherapy for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jack J; Swope, David M

    2007-12-01

    The available pharmacotherapies for Parkinson's disease address symptomatology because no agent has been demonstrated to provide definite neuroprotection against the disease. Choice of pharmacotherapy must include consideration of short-term benefits as well as long-term consequences. Patients with mild Parkinson's disease often function adequately without symptomatic treatment. However, recent data suggest that initiation of treatment with a well-tolerated agent (e.g., the monoamine oxidase [MAO]-B inhibitor rasagiline) in the absence of functional impairment is associated with improved long-term outcomes. Consideration should also be given to many patient-specific factors, including patient expectations, level of disability, employment status, functional as well as chronologic age, expected efficacy and tolerability of drugs, and response to previous Parkinson's disease therapies. Increasingly, initial monotherapy begins with a nondopaminergic agent or, if the patient is considered functionally young, a dopamine agonist. Since Parkinson's disease is a progressive disorder, adjustments to pharmacotherapy must be expected over time. When greater symptomatic relief is desired, or in the more frail elderly patient, levodopa therapy should be considered. If motor fluctuations develop, addition of a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor or MAO-B inhibitor should be considered. For management of levodopa-induced dyskinesias, addition of amantadine is an option. Surgery may be considered when patients need additional symptomatic control or are experiencing severe motor complications despite pharmacologically optimized therapy.

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Education on Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Getting Around: Transportation and Travel with PD Expert Briefings: Sleep and ... for PD: Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis CareMAP: Travel and Transportation: Part 2 CareMAP: Bathroom: Part 1 ¿Cómo Se ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... many things you can do to maintain and improve your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. ... a Depression Diagnosis? What Are Some Strategies to Improve the Quality of Community Care for PD Patients? CareMAP: Ayudando ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Needs of the Caregiver How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect the Urinary System? CareMAP: Putting Things in Place CareMAP: Thinking Changes: Part 2 NPF Caregiver Summit 2016: Tools For Family Caregivers: Caremap and Caring & Coping CareMAP: ... Preparing Paid Caregivers CareMAP: La Alimentación ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Care: Real Stories What Are the Risks and Benefits of DBS Surgery? Is Depression Under-Diagnosed in Patients with Parkinson's Disease? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress CareMAP: Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 2 CareMAP: End-of-Life Care Caregiver Summit 2016: Maintaining Dignity & Identity CareMAP: ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... you can do to maintain and improve your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers of Excellence Bringing Care to You Expert Care Programs Professional Education Expert Care Research shows people with Parkinson’s who ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Spouse About Sexual Dysfunction? Attachment: consultation.jpg OHSU - Therapeutic Approaches for PD: Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Is the Relationship Between Depression and Parkinson's Disease? CareMAP: Travel and Transportation: Part 2 Hallucinations and Delusions CareMAP: ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... to Give There are many ways you can support the fight against Parkinson’s. Whatever form your gift takes, you can be confident that it goes toward ... Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease NY Nightly News with Chuck ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Communication and the PD Partnership Expert Briefings: Fatigue, Sleep Disorders and Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: What's in the ... and Scheduling: Part 2 What Are the Common Sleep Disorders Encountered in Patients with PD? CareMAP: Planear y ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... A A You are here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What Do We Really Know? Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Caregiver Strain through Science and Model Interventions Expert Briefings: Parkinson's Disease Psychosis: ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Americans living with Parkinson’s disease. Learn more Ways to Give Donate Make a Tribute Gift Support a Moving ... Parkinson's Champion Bequests & Planned Giving Shop More Ways to Give Ways to Give There are many ways you ...

  2. Nondipping in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to identify patients with Parkinson's disease who showed loss or decrease of nocturnal blood pressure fall (nondipper patients as a marker of autonomic dysfunction. Presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension was considered to investigate whether alterations in circadian blood pressure pattern are associated with posture-related dysregulation of blood pressure. Methods. 40 patients with Parkinson's disease underwent 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. 21 patients were diagnosed with arterial hypertension and received anti-hypertensive drugs. Nondipper patients were defined as having nocturnal decrease of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure less than 10%. Presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension was determined by Schellong's test. Results. We identified 35 nondipper patients (88%. Nondipping was detected in 20 patients with orthostatic hypotension (95% and in 15 patients without orthostatic hypotension (79%. 18 patients with hypertensive and 22 patients with normal blood pressure values were detected. Conclusions. In conclusion 24-hour blood pressure monitoring showed a high prevalence of nondipping in 40 patients with Parkinson's disease with and without orthostatic hypotension independent of coexisting arterial hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. 24-hour blood pressure monitoring may be useful to identify non-dipping as a marker of autonomic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... in Patients with Parkinson's Disease? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress CareMAP: Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 2 CareMAP: End-of-Life Care Caregiver Summit 2016: Maintaining Dignity & Identity CareMAP: ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... area About Shop A A You are here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Expert Briefings: ... How Is Parkinson's Disease Diagnosed? CareMAP: Activities at Home CareMAP: Getting Dressed CareMAP: Caring for Someone with ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Parkinson's Disease Patients with a Depression Diagnosis? CareMAP: Thinking Changes: Part 2 CareMAP: Ayudando a una Persona ... Life Care When Should Medications Be Adjusted? CareMAP: Thinking Changes: Part 1 CareMAP: Planear y Fijar Horarios, ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Expert Briefings: What's Missing? Communication and the PD Partnership Expert Briefings: Fatigue, Sleep Disorders and Parkinson's Disease ... Rewards of Caregiving What Are the Risks and Benefits of DBS Surgery? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress CareMAP: ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... How Does Depression Affect the Patient's Family and Social Network? CareMAP: Where to Find Help CareMAP: Peace ... Day? How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect the Urinary System? CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 What ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Movement and Falls: Part 1 What Is the Relationship Between Depression and Parkinson's Disease? CareMAP: Plans and Scheduling: Part 2 Hallucinations and Delusions What Are the Common Sleep Disorders Encountered in Patients with PD? CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Disease? How Is It Treated? CareMAP: Rest and Sleep: Part 2 What Are the Causes of Parkinson's ... Dealing with Dementia Unconditional Love CareMAP: Rest and Sleep: Part 1 CareMAP: The Caregiving Journey When and ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior in a Loved One with PD? Aware in Care: Real Stories How Do I Manage Non-Motor Problems Such as Hypersexuality? Are There Any Interactions With Non-Parkinson's Disease Medications? Is Depression Under-Diagnosed in Patients with ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... CareMAP: Dealing with Dementia OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis CareMAP: Cambios en el ... to Know? Why Is Comprehensive Care or Team Approach Important? What Is the Relationship Between Depression and ...

  13. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Satoko; Morita, Akihiko; Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED) are common symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson's Disease Ra...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... What Is the Helpline? Unconditional Love How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: Rest and Sleep: ... Parkinson's Mid-Stride: A Treatment Guide to Parkinson's Speech and Swallowing Psychosis: A Mind Guide to Parkinson's ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Care Partners CareMAP: Preparing Paid Caregivers How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? What Are Some Tips ... Parkinson's Mid-Stride: A Treatment Guide to Parkinson's Speech and Swallowing Psychosis: A Mind Guide to Parkinson's ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Moving Day Walker Support a Parkinson's Champion Bequests & Planned Giving Shop More Ways to Give Ways to ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... a Fundraiser Understanding Parkinson's What Is Parkinson's? Causes & Statistics Early Signs Movement Symptoms Non-Movement Symptoms Diagnosis ... Solutions: Innovations in PD Nurse Education CareMAP: Managing Advanced Parkinson's Website Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Parkinson's ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Landis What are the risk factors for developing Parkinson's? The clearest risk factor is age. In addition, ...

  19. MRI of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, A.; Vliet, A. Van der.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The key MRI findings in five cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are illustrated with four 'definite' and one 'probable' according to World Health Organization criteria. Close attention to fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences are important for diagnosis, noting especially restricted diffusion in cortical and deep grey matter. Our study and those of others show predominant cortical, caudate and thalamic involvement. This pattern is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis. Fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging signal abnormality becomes progressively more extensive and bilateral as disease progresses, but may become less pronounced in end-stage disease because of atrophy.

  20. The genetic basis of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tappakhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a multifactorial disease that develops in the presence of both genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, there has been sufficient information on the role of genetic predisposition in the development of not only familial cases, but also sporadic ones. A hereditary burden in PD may not be traced in cases of recessive inheritance with a low gene penetrance, as well as in a patient's death before the onset of the disease. Active introduction of molecular genetic methods, including next generation sequencing, can annually identify new gene mutations that underlie sporadic PD cases. This paper provides an overview of the current literature on the genetic aspects of PD with emphasis on the ethnic characteristics of the disease.

  1. Primary skin fibroblasts as a model of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auburger, G.; Klinkenberg, M.; Droste, J.A.H.; Marcus, K.; Morales-Gordo, B.; Kunz, W.S.; Brandt, U.; Broccoli, V.; Reichmann, H.; Gispert, S.; Jendrach, M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. While most cases occur sporadic mutations in a growing number of genes including Parkin (PARK2) and PINK1 (PARK6) have been associated with the disease. Different animal models and cell models like patient skin fibroblasts

  2. The skin in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A

    1977-09-01

    The characteristic oily skin in individuals with parkinsonism has long been observed by clinicians. The oiliness seems to be associated with periods when the disease is most active. This seborrhea has been observed particularly in post-encephalitic parkinsonism, as well as in idiopathic paralysis agitans. It also occurs in phenothiazine-induced parkinsonism.

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... HELPLINE 1-800-4PD-INFO (473-4636) helpline@parkinson.org Search Our Site General Gift Tribute Gift Moving Day Support a Fundraiser Understanding Parkinson's What Is Parkinson's? Causes & Statistics Early Signs Movement ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior in a Loved One with PD? CareMAP: Planear ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for ... Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's CareMAP: When Is It Time to Get Help? Ask the Helpline: Why Does ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Skills for Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: What's New in Genetics and Parkinson's? Expert Briefings: Understanding the ... Miami, FL 33131 NY: 1359 Broadway, Suite 1509, New York, NY 10018 contact@parkinson.org Press Room ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... options are available. Learn More Living with Parkinson's Managing Parkinson's In Your Area Resources & Support PD Library ... otra canción” Expert Briefings: Diagnosis PD, Now What? Managing the First Few Years with Parkinson's Expert Briefings: ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert ... Non-Motor Symptoms Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? How Does Parkinson's ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... Prioritizing Health Needs of the Caregiver Is Compulsive Behavior a Side Effect of PD Medications? CareMAP: Preparing ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert ... Expert Briefings: Driving and Parkinson's: Balancing Independence and Safety Expert Briefings: Caring for a Person with Late ...

  11. Diagnosis (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With Us Local Resources Find an Event My PD Story Volunteer ... Support a Moving Day Walker Support a Parkinson's Champion Bequests & Planned ...

  12. What Is Parkinson's Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With Us Local Resources Find an Event My PD Story Volunteer ... Support a Moving Day Walker Support a Parkinson's Champion Bequests & Planned ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Foundation News

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With Us Local Resources Find an Event My PD Story Volunteer ... Support a Moving Day Walker Support a Parkinson's Champion Bequests & Planned ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior in a Loved One with PD? How Do ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... y Respuestas con todos los presentadores Is Compulsive Behavior a Side Effect of PD Medications? ¿Cómo Se ...

  16. Lateralisation in Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riederer, P.; Jellinger, K. A.; Kolber, P.

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson’s disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes...... for this striking clinicopathological feature are not yet fully understood. There is increasing evidence that lateralisation of disease is due to a complex interplay of hereditary and environmental factors that are reflected not only in the concept of dominant hemispheres and handedness but also in specific...

  17. Vitamin D receptor gene variants in Parkinson's disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin D plays an important role in neurodegenerative disorders as a crucial neuro-immunomodulator. Accumulating data provide evidences that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is a candidate gene for susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD). Aim: To find out whether the risk of the development of sporadic ...

  18. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Borm, George F.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eshuis, Silvia; Booij, Jan; Dluzen, Dean E.; Horstink, Martin W. I. M.

    Objective: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists ( disease duration Results: Age at onset

  19. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, C.A.; Bloem, B.R.; Borm, G.F.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Leenders, K.L.; Eshuis, S.; Booij, J.; Dluzen, D.E.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We

  20. Gender differences in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Borm, George F.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Leenders, Klaus L.; Eshuis, Silvia; Booij, Jan; Dluzen, Dean E.; Horstink, Martin W. I. M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate gender differences in basic disease characteristics, motor deterioration and nigrostriatal degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We studied 253 consecutive PD patients who were not receiving levodopa or dopamine agonists (disease duration < or = 10 years). We

  1. Oxysterols and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkhem, Ingemar; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Leoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    Oxysterols are important for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain and may be affected in neurodegenerative diseases. The levels of the brain-derived oxysterol 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH) have been reported to be markedly reduced in the circulation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) (Lee...... et al., Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11 (2009) 407-420). The finding is surprising in view of the fact that other neurodegenerative diseases are associated with relatively modest effects on the circulating levels of 24S-OH. We determined the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 24S-OH and 27......-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH) in patients with PD with different disease duration using a highly accurate method based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. All the patients had plasma levels of the different oxysterols within the normal range. When analyzing CSF, 10% of the PD patients were found to have levels of 24...

  2. Psychosis in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ffytche, Dominic H; Aarsland, Dag

    2017-01-01

    Although illusions, hallucinations and delusions did not play a prominent role in James Parkinson's original clinical descriptions, the longitudinal view of disease progression he advocated has important lessons for the study of such symptoms today. A focus on longitudinal progression rather than individual symptoms led to the concept of PD psychosis-a spectrum of positive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. The publication of criteria for PD psychosis in 2007 helped unify the disparate set of symptoms, raising their profile and resulting in a rapid expansion of literature focussing on clinical aspects, mechanisms, and treatment. Here we review this literature and the evolving view of PD psychosis. Adding to previous evidence of a prospective risk for dementia and the move to supervised care, key recent developments include: recognition of prevalence increase with disease duration; a broadening of symptoms included in PD psychosis; better characterization of higher visual and cognitive dysfunction risk factors; structural, functional, and neurotransmitter imaging biomarker evidence; and approval of pimavanserin in the United States for the treatment of PD psychosis. The accumulating evidence raises novel questions and directions for future research that promise a better understanding of the clinical management of PD psychosis and its role as a biomarker for PD stage and progression. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Presymptomatic detection of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, P

    1993-01-01

    Presymptomatic detection of Parkinson's disease is necessary if neuroprotective therapies are to be utilized in its treatment. Various methods (PET, electrophysiology, enzyme assays, olfactory function) may be applicable but none has been rigorously evaluated. Other possible approaches are now considered. Plasma HVA levels (pHVA) in the presence of debrisoquine may reflect cerebral dopamine function. However, there are no detectable differences in pHVA between newly diagnosed and untreated parkinsonian patients and control subjects. Compensatory increases in dopamine turnover may mask a decrease in pHVA in the early stages of the disease. So, at present this technique could not be used as a diagnostic tool. Post-mortem studies of brain in Parkinson's disease may provide clues to biochemical markers indicative of nigral pathology. Mitochondrial complex I activity is reduced in substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease and it was reported also to be markedly reduced in blood platelets. However, subsequent studies suggest that the difference in platelet complex I activity is too small to be diagnostic of Parkinson's disease. There are also selective reductions in brain glutathione levels in Parkinson's disease restricted to substantia nigra, which do not occur in other neurodegenerative disorders and are not due to drug treatment. Importantly, in incidental Lewy body disease (preclinical Parkinson's disease) nigral glutathione levels are reduced to the same degree as in advanced Parkinson's disease. So, some peripheral index of altered glutathione function may be valuable in the early detection of the disease process.

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Motor Symptoms Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? What Are the Causes ... Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Why Is It Important to Continue Self-Care Between Appointments? OHSU - Overview ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Early Signs Movement Symptoms Non-Movement Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Understanding Parkinson's There is a lot to know ... about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and what treatment options are available. Learn More Living with Parkinson's ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Miami, FL 33131 NY: 1359 Broadway, Suite 1509, New York, NY 10018 contact@parkinson.org Press Room Ask ... Miami, FL 33131 NY: 1359 Broadway, Suite 1509, New York, NY 10018 contact@parkinson.org

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... for Swallowing Problems? What Are the Risks and Benefits of DBS Surgery? CareMAP: Cambios para Realizar en ... for People with Parkinson's? What Are the Neuroprotective Benefits of Exercise for PD Patients? How Does Parkinson's ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert ... Sleep: Part 2 Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? What Are the ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis PD, Now What? Managing the First Few Years with Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Pain in PD Expert ... Salud en General, Parte 2 CareMAP: Life Beyond This Life Dra. Claudia Martinez, MAPC - Parkinson- Pasion, Positivismo ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert ... Care Facility Needed? Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? CareMAP: Movement and ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Library Search library Topic Type Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What Do We Really Know? Nurse ... Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: What's New in Genetics and Parkinson's? Expert Briefings: Understanding the Progression of ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: What's New in Genetics and Parkinson's? Expert Briefings: Understanding the Progression of ... org Press Room Ask a Doctor Sign In Privacy & Terms Contact Us Connect With Us: Press Room ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... care that bring hope to the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's ... Are Some Strategies to Improve the Quality of Community Care for PD Patients? CareMAP: Bathroom: Part 2 ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Parkinson Conference: Lessons Learned CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 2 How Does the DBS Device Work? ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? CareMAP: Cambios para ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Partners Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Innovations in PD Nurse Education CareMAP: Managing Advanced Parkinson's Website Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Parkinson's Care Everywhere CareMAP: ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert ... Thinking Changes: Part 2 CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 2 ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? CareMAP: ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Son las Causas del Parkinson? ¿Existen Otros Trastornos que Tienen Síntomas Similares? CareMAP: Advice for Caregivers from ... las diferentes formas y etapas del Parkinson? ¿Cómo es la progresión del Parkinson? Caregiver Summit 2016: The ...

  18. Lysosomal impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehay, Benjamin; Martinez-Vicente, Marta; Caldwell, Guy A; Caldwell, Kim A; Yue, Zhenyue; Cookson, Mark R; Klein, Christine; Vila, Miquel; Bezard, Erwan

    2013-06-01

    Impairment of autophagy-lysosomal pathways (ALPs) is increasingly regarded as a major pathogenic event in neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD). ALP alterations are observed in sporadic PD brains and in toxic and genetic rodent models of PD-related neurodegeneration. In addition, PD-linked mutations and post-translational modifications of α-synuclein impair its own lysosomal-mediated degradation, thereby contributing to its accumulation and aggregation. Furthermore, other PD-related genes, such as leucine-rich repeat kinase-2 (LRRK2), parkin, and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), have been mechanistically linked to alterations in ALPs. Conversely, mutations in lysosomal-related genes, such as glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and lysosomal type 5 P-type ATPase (ATP13A2), have been linked to PD. New data offer mechanistic molecular evidence for such a connection, unraveling a causal link between lysosomal impairment, α-synuclein accumulation, and neurotoxicity. First, PD-related GBA deficiency/mutations initiate a positive feedback loop in which reduced lysosomal function leads to α-synuclein accumulation, which, in turn, further decreases lysosomal GBA activity by impairing the trafficking of GBA from the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi to lysosomes, leading to neurodegeneration. Second, PD-related mutations/deficiency in the ATP13A2 gene lead to a general lysosomal impairment characterized by lysosomal membrane instability, impaired lysosomal acidification, decreased processing of lysosomal enzymes, reduced degradation of lysosomal substrates, and diminished clearance of autophagosomes, collectively contributing to α-synuclein accumulation and cell death. According to these new findings, primary lysosomal defects could potentially account for Lewy body formation and neurodegeneration in PD, laying the groundwork for the prospective development of new neuroprotective/disease-modifying therapeutic strategies

  19. Coffee, Genetic Variants, and Parkinson's Disease: Gene–Environment Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada-Fowler, Naomi; Söderkvist, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gene–environment interactions may help us to understand the disease mechanisms of common and complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Sporadic PD, the common form of PD, is thought to be a multifactorial disorder caused by combinations of multiple genetic factors and environmental or life-style exposures. Since one of the most extensively studied life-style factors in PD is coffee/caffeine intake, here, the studies of genetic polymorphisms with life-style interactions of ...

  20. Comparison Between Sporadic and Misdiagnosed Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiongfei; Yu, Yingxin; Zhao, Zhiru; Xu, Jiaping

    2015-06-01

    Definite accurate diagnosis for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) depends on neuropathologic examination of brain biopsy or autopsy. However, transmissible nature makes the invasive examination dangerous. This study was set to determine that the clinical features are for the diagnosis of CJD through a comparison study. We compared clinical features of two cases with initial diagnosis of sporadic CJD. One case was finally diagnosed as definite sporadic CJD. According to World Health Organization diagnosis criteria, the other one, which had been diagnosed as probable sporadic CJD, was confirmed as limbic encephalitis after long-term follow-up. Compared with the case of definite sporadic CJD, the misdiagnosed case did not present typical electroencephalogram (EEG) and diffusion-weighted in magnetic resonance images (DWI) of CJD. However, cerebrospinal fluid in the misdiagnosed patient showed 14-3-3 protein positivity. The patient conditions improved after treatment. Through this case comparison, we conclude that EEG and DWI are necessary for accurate diagnosis of sporadic CJD. Further, long-term follow-up is crucial to diagnosis and treatment of CJD.

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... have better quality of life. Learn More Research Research We Fund Parkinson's Outcomes Project Grant Opportunities Science News & Progress Patient Engagement Research Our research has ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Medical Planning Tips for Care Partners Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Innovations in PD Nurse Education CareMAP: Managing Advanced Parkinson's Website Nurse Webinars: Nursing ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Caregiver Strain through Science and Model Interventions Expert Briefings: Parkinson's ... Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 2 Caregiver ...

  4. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, K.; Summers, D. M.; Romero, C.; Taratuto, A.; Heinemann, U.; Breithaupt, M.; Varges, D.; Meissner, B.; Ladogana, A.; Schuur, M.; Haik, S.; Collins, S. J.; Jansen, Gerard H.; Stokin, G. B.; Pimentel, J.; Hewer, E.; Collie, D.; Smith, P.; Roberts, H.; Brandel, J. P.; van Duijn, C.; Pocchiari, M.; Begue, C.; Cras, P.; Will, R. G.; Sanchez-Juan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distinct sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease molecular subtypes and thus might contribute to the earlier identification of the whole spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. This multi-centre international study aimed to provide a rationale for the amendment of the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging were recruited from 12 countries. Patients referred as ‘suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease’ but with an alternative diagnosis after thorough follow up, were analysed as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for signal changes according to a standard protocol encompassing seven cortical regions, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated in 436 sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients and 141 controls. The pattern of high signal intensity with the best sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was identified. The optimum diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of rapid progressive dementia was obtained when either at least two cortical regions (temporal, parietal or occipital) or both caudate nucleus and putamen displayed a high signal in fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging. Based on our analyses, magnetic

  5. Parkinson disease and positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.

    1984-10-01

    Physiopathologic investigations of Parkinson disease and parkinsonian syndrome using positron tomography are briefly reviewed: study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism; effects of L-DOPA; study of dopaminergic receptors and of 18 F-Fluoro-L-DOPA incorporation [fr

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert Briefings: ... Is Comprehensive Care or Team Approach Important? OHSU - Therapeutic Approaches for PD: Depression, Anxiety & ... Bathroom: Part 1 CareMAP: Cambios en el ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Parkinson Conference: Lessons Learned CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 How Does the DBS Device Work? ... Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners CareMAP: Prioritizing Health Needs of the Caregiver Caregiver Summit 2016: Coping ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... About Depression? CareMAP: Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 1 ¿Cuáles Son las Causas del Parkinson? ¿Existen Otros Trastornos que Tienen ... or Delusions? CareMAP: Plans and Scheduling: Part 1 ¿Cuáles son las diferentes formas y etapas del Parkinson? ¿Cómo es ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Caregivers Need to Know? CareMAP: Ayudando a una Persona con la Enfermedad de Parkinson Why Is Comprehensive Care or Team Approach ... el Sueño, Parte 2 Panel de Expertos: Sesión de Preguntas y Respuestas con todos los ... Se Trata el Parkinson? CareMAP: Cambios para Realizar en Casa, ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... 1-800-4PD-INFO (473-4636) helpline@parkinson.org Search Our Site General Gift Tribute Gift Moving ... Suite 1509, New York, NY 10018 contact@parkinson.org Press Room Ask a Doctor Sign In Privacy & ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... in Care: Real Stories CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 What Is Patient-Centered Care? Dealing ... Parkinson Conference: Lessons Learned CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 2 ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? CareMAP: ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Education CareMAP: Managing Advanced Parkinson's Website Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Parkinson's Care Everywhere CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 1 Expert Briefings: Apathy or Depression: Which One Is It? CareMAP: El Descanso y ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Research We Fund Parkinson's Outcomes Project Grant Opportunities Science News & Progress Patient Engagement Research Our research has led to breakthroughs in treatment and improved care that bring hope to the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving ...

  14. Pain in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With ... by a physical therapist Get active and keep moving. Exercise helps ... 30-45 minutes daily. Walking, swimming, yoga, tai chi, dancing, etc. are all ...

  15. Mobility (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With ... might seem counterintuitive, but to increase your confidence moving, you have to ... as you are able. Walk with a friend or family member. Exercise does ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert ... Building Blocks for Creative Caregiving CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress Why We Walk at Moving Day CareMAP: End- ...

  17. Nutraceuticals in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Liting; Basil, Adeline Henry; Lim, Kah-Leong

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacological strategies for Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common neurological movement disorder worldwide, are predominantly symptom relieving and are often plagued with undesirable side effects after prolonged treatment. Despite this, they remain as the mainstay treatment for PD due to the lack of better alternatives. Nutraceuticals are compounds derived from natural food sources that have certain therapeutic value and the advent of which has opened doors to the use of alternative strategies to tackle neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Notably, nutraceuticals are able to position themselves as a "safer" strategy due to the fact that they are naturally derived compounds, therefore possibly having less side effects. Significant efforts have been put into better comprehending the role of nutraceuticals in PD, and we will look at some of them in this review. Broadly speaking, these compounds execute their positive effects via modulating signalling pathways, inhibiting oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, as well as regulating mitochondrial homoeostasis. Importantly, we will highlight how a component of green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), confers neuroprotection in PD via its ability to activate AMP kinase and articulate how its beneficial effects in PD are possibly due to enhancing mitochondrial quality control.

  18. Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease: hypersensitivity to X-rays in cultured cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J H; Otsuka, Fujio; Tarone, R E; Polinsky, R J; Nee, L E; Brumback, R A

    1985-09-01

    Fibroblast and/or lymphoblastoid lines from patients with several inherited primary neuronal degenerations are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, lymphoblastoid lines were irradiated from patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mean survival values of the eight Parkinson's disease and of the six Alzheimer's disease lines, but not of the five amyotrophic lateral sclerosis lines, were less than that of the 28 normal lines. Our results with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease cells can be explained by a genetic defect arising as a somatic mutation during embryogenesis, causing defective repair of the X-ray type of DNA damage. Such a DNA repair defect could cause an abnormal accumulation of spontaneously occurring DNA damage in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease neurons in vivo, resulting in their premature death.

  19. Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease: hypersensitivity to X-rays in cultured cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.H.; Otsuka, Fujio; Tarone, R.E.; Polinsky, R.J.; Nee, L.E.; Brumback, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Fibroblast and/or lymphoblastoid lines from patients with several inherited primary neuronal degenerations are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, lymphoblastoid lines were irradiated from patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mean survival values of the eight Parkinson's disease and of the six Alzheimer's disease lines, but not of the five amyotrophic lateral sclerosis lines, were less than that of the 28 normal lines. Our results with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease cells can be explained by a genetic defect arising as a somatic mutation during embryogenesis, causing defective repair of the X-ray type of DNA damage. Such a DNA repair defect could cause an abnormal accumulation of spontaneously occurring DNA damage in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease neurons in vivo, resulting in their premature death. (author)

  20. Therapeutic Dancing for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenna Pryscia Carvalho Aguiar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dancing has been advocated as an effective adjunct to conventional physical therapies for people living with Parkinson's disease (PD. This systematic review evaluates studies on the outcomes of different dance genres on mobility and quality of life in PD. We searched databases including CINHAL (1982–2015, Medline (1922–2015, Scopus (1996–2015, Web of Science (2002–2015, Embase (2007–2015, PEDro (1999–2015 and the Cochrane Library (1996–2015. The key words were: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson*, Parkinsonism, dance, dance therapy, dance genres, safety, feasibility, and quality of life. Two independent investigators reviewed the texts. Only randomized controlled trials, quasirandomized controlled trials, and case series studies were included. There was emerging evidence that therapeutic dance can be safe and feasible for people with mild to moderately severe PD, with beneficial effects on walking, freezing of gait, and health related quality of life.

  1. Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Denyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic improvements to those suffering from this incurable degenerative neurological disorder, but none of these has convincingly shown effects on disease progression. Novel approaches based on gene therapy have several potential advantages over conventional treatment modalities. These could be used to provide more consistent dopamine supplementation, potentially providing superior symptomatic relief with fewer side effects. More radically, gene therapy could be used to correct the imbalances in basal ganglia circuitry associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or to preserve or restore dopaminergic neurons lost during the disease process itself. The latter neuroprotective approach is the most exciting, as it could theoretically be disease modifying rather than simply symptom alleviating. Gene therapy agents using these approaches are currently making the transition from the laboratory to the bedside. This paper summarises the theoretical approaches to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease and the findings of clinical trials in this rapidly changing field.

  2. Noradrenaline and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eDelaville

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine (DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and motor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor at rest. These symptoms are manifest when around 70% of striatal DA is lost. In addition to motor deficits, PD is also characterized by the manifestation of non-motor symptoms. However, depletion of DA alone in animal models has failed to simultaneously elicit both the motor and non-motor deficits of PD because the disease is a multi-system disorder that features a profound loss of other neurotransmitter systems. There is growing evidence that additional loss of noradrenaline (NA neurons of the locus coeruleus, the principal source of NA in the brain, could be involved in the clinical expression of motor as well as in non-motor deficits. In the present review, we analyzed the latest data obtained from animal models of parkinsonism and from parkinsonian patients providing evidence for the implication of NA in the pathophysiology of PD. Recent studies have shown that NA depletion alone or combined with DA depletion resulted in motor as well as in non-motor dysfunctions. In addition, by using selective agonists and antagonists of alpha receptors we, and others, have shown that α2 receptors are implicated in the control of motor activity and that α2 receptor antagonists can improve PD motor symptoms as well as L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia. Here we provide arguments that the loss of NA neurons in PD has an impact on all PD symptoms and that the association of NAergic agents to dopaminergic medication can be beneficial in the treatment of the disease.

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... of Exercise for PD Patients? Jose Maria Lobo: Musica en vivo con Lobo! Are There Any Ways ... Cómo Se Trata el Parkinson? Jose Maria Lobo: Música en vivo con Lobo! How Do I Talk ...

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    Full Text Available ... Library Search library Topic Type Living Alone: Home Safety and Management in PD Expert Briefings: Marijuana and ... Expert Briefings: Driving and Parkinson's: Balancing Independence and Safety Expert Briefings: Caring for a Person with Late ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... who seek skilled care are at a lower risk of complications and have better quality of life. Learn More Research Research We Fund Parkinson's Outcomes Project Grant Opportunities Science News & Progress Patient Engagement Research ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Tips for Care Partners Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Innovations in PD Nurse Education CareMAP: Managing Advanced Parkinson's ... y el Comportamiento, Parte 2 What Are Some Strategies for Problems with Urination? Jose Maria Lobo: Musica ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Cómo Se Trata el Parkinson? Jose Maria Lobo: Música en vivo con Lobo! How Do PD and ... of Exercise for PD Patients? Jose Maria Lobo: Musica en vivo con Lobo! Are There Any Ways ...

  12. Dysphagia in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttrup, Inga; Warnecke, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    More than 80 % of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop dysphagia during the course of their disease. Swallowing impairment reduces quality of life, complicates medication intake and leads to malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia, which is a major cause of death in PD. Although the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood, it has been shown that dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the development of dysphagia in PD. Clinical assessment of dysphagia in PD patients is challenging and often delivers unreliable results. A modified water test assessing maximum swallowing volume is recommended to uncover oropharyngeal dysphagia in PD. PD-specific questionnaires may also be useful to identify patients at risk for swallowing impairment. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and videofluoroscopic swallowing study are both considered to be the gold standard for evaluation of PD-related dysphagia. In addition, high-resolution manometry may be a helpful tool. These instrumental methods allow a reliable detection of aspiration events. Furthermore, typical patterns of impairment during the oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal swallowing phase of PD patients can be identified. Therapy of dysphagia in PD consists of pharmacological interventions and swallowing treatment by speech and language therapists (SLTs). Fluctuating dysphagia with deterioration during the off-state should be treated by optimizing dopaminergic medication. The methods used during swallowing treatment by SLTs shall be selected according to the individual dysphagia pattern of each PD patient. A promising novel method is an intensive training of expiratory muscle strength. Deep brain stimulation does not seem to have a clinical relevant effect on swallowing function in PD. The goal of this review is giving an overview on current stages of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PD-associated dysphagia, which might be helpful for neurologists

  13. Managing Parkinson's disease with continuous dopaminergic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Erik; Lees, Andrew J.; Volkmann, Jens; van Laar, Teus; Hovestadt, Ad

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. This causes resting tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. Most current treatments for Parkinson's disease aim to restore

  14. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaudhuri, K. Ray

    2009-01-01

    ... dysfunction of Parkinson's disease 95 Daisy L. Whitehead and Richard. G. Brown 9 Depression, anxiety and apathy in Parkinson's disease 107 David A. Gallagher and Anette Schrag 10 Dementia in Pa...

  15. Neuregulins, Neuroprotection and Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yurek, David M; Seroogy, Kim B

    2006-01-01

    ... s disease, in primary neuronal cultures of midbrain dopamine cells, and in a dopaminergic cell line. Overall, results from these studies may form the basis for the therapeutic application of neuregulins to the treatment of neurotoxin-induced neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease.

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Young Onset Parkinson Conference: Lessons Learned How Does the DBS Device Work? CareMAP: Cambios para Realizar en Casa, Parte 1 CareMAP: Mealtime and Swallowing: Part 1 What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Expert Briefings: Caring for a Person with Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in ... Surgery? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress CareMAP: End-of-Life Care Natalie Diaz, MD, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center: “ ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Tips for Care Partners Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Innovations in PD Nurse Education CareMAP: Managing Advanced Parkinson's ... Medications? What to Expect Emotionally What are some strategies to prevent falls in PD patients? CareMAP: Mealtime ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Caregiver Stress CareMAP: Getting Dressed CareMAP: End-of-Life Care CareMAP: Thinking Changes: Part 1 Adolfo Diaz, PTA, NPF - National Parkinson Foundation CareMAP: Challenges and Rewards of Caregiving What Are the Risks ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... What Does a Caregiver Need to Know About Cognitive Impairment? CareMAP: Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 1 How ... CareMAP: Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 2 Expert Briefings: Cognitive Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Caregiver Summit ...

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    Full Text Available ... Bringing Care to You Expert Care Programs Professional Education Expert Care Research shows people with Parkinson’s who seek skilled care are at a lower risk of complications and have better quality of life. Learn More Research Research We Fund Parkinson's Outcomes ...

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  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 CareMAP: Las Actividades en Casa What ... la Enfermedad de Parkinson CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 2 CareMAP: El Descanso y el Sueño, ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Improving Parkinson's Care Everywhere CareMAP: El Descanso y el Sueño, Parte 1 CareMAP: La Alimentación y la Deglución, ... and Swallowing: Part 2 CareMAP: El Descanso y el Sueño, Parte 2 What Does a Caregiver Need to ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics Early Signs Movement Symptoms Non-Movement Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Understanding Parkinson's There is a lot to ... Soy el compas de otra canción” Expert Briefings: Diagnosis PD, Now What? Managing the First Few Years ...

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  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... 2 ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? CareMAP: Prioritizing Health Needs of the Caregiver What Is the Impact of PD Medications on Excessive Daytime Sleepiness? Is Compulsive Behavior a Side Effect of PD Medications? CareMAP: Preparing Paid Caregivers What ...

  8. Role of rasagiline in treating Parkinson?s disease: Effect on disease progression

    OpenAIRE

    Malaty, Irene A; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2009-01-01

    Rasagiline is a second generation, selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitor. It has demonstrated efficacy in monotherapy for early Parkinson?s disease (PD) patients in one large randomized, placebo-controlled trial (TVP-1012 in Early Monotherapy for Parkinson?s Disease Outpatients), and has shown ability to reduce off time in more advanced PD patients with motor fluctuations in two large placebo-controlled trials (Parkinson?s Rasagiline: Efficacy and Safety in the Tr...

  9. Metabolic Imaging in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne K; Teune, Laura K; de Jong, Bauke M; Dierckx, Rudi A; Leenders, Klaus L

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on recent human 18 F-FDG PET studies in Parkinson disease. First, an overview is given of the current analytic approaches to metabolic brain imaging data. Next, we discuss how 18 F-FDG PET studies have advanced understanding of the relation between distinct brain regions and associated symptoms in Parkinson disease, including cognitive decline. In addition, the value of 18 F-FDG PET studies in differential diagnosis, identifying prodromal patients, and the evaluation of treatment effects are reviewed. Finally, anticipated developments in the field are addressed. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  10. MRI in Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the magnetic resonance (MR) image of midbrain and striatum in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 10 patients with vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and 10 age-matched control subjects. Studies were performed on a high field strength (1.5 tesla) MRI unit. T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR 2500 ms/TE 40 ms) was used. Intensity profiles of a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus were made on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of intensity representing the red nucleus and the crus cerebri-pars reticulata complex and used this as an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 2.7 mm in the PD group and 4.3 mm in controls. The difference between the means was highly significant (p<0.01). While not significant statistically, there was a trend toward narrowing of the width of pars compacta signal of substantia nigra in the PD group as the Yahr's grade or disease duration progressed. In hemiparkinsonism, MRI revealed significant narrowing of the pars compacta signal on the contra-lateral side to the clinical predominant side. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 3.9 mm in the VP group, but the decrease was not significant. MRI in VP group showed multiple high intensity area in the basal ganglia and the white matter, and periventricular hyperintensity area (PVHIA). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of restoration of the signal intensity in the lateral portion of the substantia nigra among PD, VP and control groups. The low signal intensity in the posterolateral putamen was not found in the 3 groups. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal has been attributed either to atrophy of the pars compacta or to increased deposition of iron in this region. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal reflected pathophysiology of PD. (J.P.N.)

  11. Legionnaires’ Disease: Clinicoradiological Comparison of Sporadic Versus Outbreak Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Rizwan Talib Hashmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2015, New York City experienced the worst outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the history of the city. We compare patients seen during the 2015 outbreak with sporadic cases of Legionella during the past 5 years. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 90 patients with Legionnaires’ disease, including sporadic cases of Legionella infection admitted from 2010 to 2015 (n = 55 and cases admitted during the 2015 outbreak (n = 35. Results: We saw no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding demographics, smoking habits, alcohol intake, underlying medical disease, or residence type. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with sporadic case of Legionella had a longer stay in the hospital and intensive care unit as well as an increased stay in mechanical ventilation. Short-term mortality, discharge disposition, and most clinical parameters did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Conclusions: We found no specific clinicoradiological characteristics that could differentiate sporadic from epidemic cases of Legionella . Early recognition and high suspicion for Legionnaires’ disease are critical to provide appropriate treatment. Cluster of cases should increase suspicion for an outbreak.

  12. Genetic overlap between apparently sporadic motor neuron diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Vlam, Lotte; van Es, Michael A.; van der Pol, W.-Ludo; Hennekam, Eric A. M.; Dooijes, Dennis; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; Veldink, Jan H.; van den Berg, Leonard H.

    2012-01-01

    Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are devastating motor neuron diseases (MNDs), which result in muscle weakness and/or spasticity. We compared mutation frequencies in genes known to be associated with MNDs between patients with apparently sporadic PMA and

  13. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Zerr; K. Kallenberg; D.M. Summers; C. Romero; A. Taratuto; U. Heinemann; M. Breithaupt; D. Varges; B. Meissner; A. Ladogana (Anna); M. Schuur (Maaike); S. Haik; S.J. Collins (Steven); G.H. Jansen (Gerard); G.B. Stokin; J. Pimentel; E. Hewer; D. Collie; P. Smith; H. Roberts; J.P. Brandel; P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); M. Pocchiari (Maurizio); C. Begue; P. Cras (Patrick); R.G. Will; P. Sanchez-Juan (Pascual)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSeveral molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications

  14. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  15. Skin disorders in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Astrid-Helene; Thyssen, Jacob P; Egeberg, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by a symptom triad comprising resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia. In addition, non-motor symptoms of PD are well recognized and often precede the overt motor manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations...

  16. Genetic predisposition to Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic variants of CYP2D6 and HFE are more frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared with controls in a population where the prevalence of these variants and PD are increased. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 79 PD patients and 154...

  17. Pancreatic Polypeptide in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karoline; Hartmann, Bolette; Fedorova, Tatyana D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience several non-motor symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract that may partly be caused by parasympathetic deficiency. The pancreas is densely innervated by the vagus nerve, which mediates early meal-induced secretion...

  18. Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... effects of levodopa called dyskinesias. Additional Information on Parkinson's Web Links MedlinePlus: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/ ...

  19. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean

  20. Driving safety in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, T A; Cimino, C R; Malek, A R; Gardner, N; Leaverton, P L; Dunne, P B; Hauser, R A

    2002-12-10

    In this study, 39 patients with PD and 25 control subjects without neurologic disease completed testing in a driving simulator. PD patients had more total collisions on the driving simulator than control subjects (t = -3.7, p < 0.01). In PD patients, collisions were associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage (chi(2) = 12.4, p = 0.006) and correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.5, p < 0.01).

  1. PRKAG3 polymorphisms associated with sporadic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome among a Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ken-Pen; Yuh, Yeong-Seng; Huang, Shih-Hui; Hsiao, Hsiang-Chiang; Wu, Huang-Wei; Chien, Jen-Hung; Chen, Bo-Hau; Huang, Shih-Ming; Chien, Kuang-Jen; Ger, Luo-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether mutation in AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) subunit genes (PRKAG3-230) is associated with sporadic, isolated Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. This study consisted of 87 patients with symptomatic WPW syndrome and 93 healthy controls. PRKAG3-230 genotypes were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Genotype and allele frequencies of PRKAG3-230 between patients with WPW syndrome and healthy controls were ascertained using chi-square test or Fisher exact test when appropriate. PRKAG3-230 were genotyped in 87 patients (53 men and 34 women; age=24.4±18.0 years) with WPW syndrome and 93 healthy controls (57 men and 36 women; age=16.8±4.2 years). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age and sex. The patients with CG and CG+CC genotypes had a significantly increased risk of WPW syndrome compared with those with GG genotype [odds ratio (OR)=1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.01-3.89, p=0.045; OR=1.99, 95% CI=1.04-3.78, p=0.037, respectively]. The allelic types were not associated with the risk of WPW syndrome. The patients with manifest type with CG and CG+CC genotypes had a significantly increased risk of WPW syndrome compared with those with GG genotype (OR=2.86, 95% CI=1.16-7.05, p=0.022; OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.19-6.80, p=0.019, respectively). The patients with right-side accessory pathways with CG and CG+CC genotypes had a significantly increased risk of WPW syndrome compared with those with GG genotype (OR=3.07, 95% CI=1.25-7.51, p=0.014; OR=2.84, 95% CI=1.19-6.80, p=0.019, respectively). The allelic types were not associated with the risk of WPW types and locations. This study shows that PRKAG3-230 may be associated with sporadic WPW syndrome among a Taiwanese population. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the role of mutations in AMPK subunit genes other than PRKAG3-230 in sporadic WPW syndrome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  2. [Physical therapy for parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, M

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurologic and progressive incapacitating disease. Parkinson's disease severely threatens the quality of live and the number of patients worldwide is expected to rise considerably in the coming decade due to aging of the population. Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients are faced with progressively increasing impairments (e.g. in speech, mental and movement related functions), and restrictions in participation (e.g. domestic life and social activities). Physical therapy is often prescribed next to medical treatment but there is a lack of uniform treatment. A systematic literature search for guidelines, systematic reviews, trials, and expert opinions lead to a better understanding. The key question: Is physiotherapy able to optimally treat the Parkinson's disease symptoms? In which way, how and on which scientific bases can the physiotherapist participate to improve autonomy and to help them living independently and avoid, as long as possible, institutionalization? This article has integrated clinical research findings to provide clinicians with an overview to physical therapist management of disorders in people with Parkinson's disease. An Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Guideline providing practice recommendations was developed by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF). Evidence from research was supplemented with clinical expertise and patients values. Randomized clinical trials reflect specific core areas of physical therapy, that is, transfer, posture, balance, reaching and grasping, gait and physical condition. Another aspect is that of educating patients (as well as their partners and family) about the disease process and the benefits of exercise therapy. Alternative therapies can be helpful like Tai Chi, virtual games, dancing, yoga, ball games for example.

  3. Impact of specialist palliative care on coping with Parkinson's disease: patients and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Nathan J; Frizelle, Dorothy; Adams, Debi; Johnson, Miriam J

    2018-01-09

    UK guidelines recommend palliative care access for people with Parkinson's disease; however, this remains sporadic, and it is unknown whether specialist palliative care helps patients and carers cope with this distressing condition. This study aimed to explore whether, and how, access to specialist palliative care services affected patients' and carers' coping with Parkinson's disease. Semistructured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and verbatim transcribed. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants were patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n=3), and carers of people with Parkinson's disease (n=5, however, one diagnosis was reviewed) receiving care from an integrated specialist palliative care and Parkinson's disease service in North East England. Access to specialist palliative care helped participants cope with some aspects of advanced Parkinson's disease. Three superordinate themes were developed:' managing uncertainty', 'impacts on the self' and 'specialist palliative care maintaining a positive outlook'. Specialist palliative care helped patients and carers cope with advanced Parkinson's disease. Specialist palliative care is a complex intervention that acknowledges the complex and holistic nature of Parkinson's disease, enabling health in some domains despite continued presence of pathology. These exploratory findings support the utility of this approach for people living with Parkinson's disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Living Well with Parkinson's Disease Is an Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Living Well with Parkinson's Disease is an Art Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents What ... More "Living Well with Parkinson's Disease is an Art" Articles Living Well with Parkinson's Disease is an ...

  5. Swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolar Andrés, Sandra; Santamarina Rabanal, María Liliana; Granda Membiela, Carla María; Fernández Gutiérrez, María José; Sirgo Rodríguez, Paloma; Álvarez Marcos, César

    Parkinson's disease is a type of chronic neurodegenerative pathology with a typical movement pattern, as well as different, less studied symptoms such as dysphagia. Disease-related disorders in efficacy or safety in the process of swallowing usually lead to malnutrition, dehydration or pneumonias. The aim of this study was identifying and analyzing swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease. The initial sample consisted of 52 subjects with Parkinson's disease to whom the specific test for dysphagia SDQ was applied. Nineteen participants (36.5%) with some degree of dysphagia in the SDQ test were selected to be evaluated by volume-viscosity clinical exploration method and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were detected in 94.7% of the selected sample. With regards to efficiency, disorders were found in food transport (89.5%), insufficient labial closing (68.4%) and oral residues (47.4%), relating to duration of ingestion. Alterations in security were also observed: pharynx residues (52.7%), coughing (47.4%), penetration (31.64%), aspiration and decrease of SaO 2 (5.3%), relating to the diagnosis of respiratory pathology in the previous year. The SDQ test detected swallowing disorders in 36.5% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were demonstrated in 94.7% of this subset. Disorders of efficiency were more frequent than those of safety, establishing a relationship with greater time in ingestion and the appearance of respiratory pathology and pneumonias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  6. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing YUAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease cognitive impairment (PD-CI is one of the major non-motor symtoms (NMS of PD, including Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD - MCI and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD. Executive dysfunction is relatively prominent, but other cognitive domains as visuospatial ability, memory and language can also be affected. Main risk factors for PD-CI include male gender, advanced age, low education, severe motor symptoms, low baseline cognitive function and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Lewy bodies are main pathological changes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD related pathological changes can also be seen. The application value of decreased α?synuclein (α-Syn and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as biomarkers remains controversial. There are few related research and no defined pathogenic genes currently. Both dopaminergic pathway and acetylcholinergic pathway are involved in the occurrence of PD - CI as demonstrated in PET studies. Cortical and subcortical atrophy are associated with PD - CI as observed in MRI studies. Olfactory dysfunction may be one of the predictors of cognitive impairment. PDD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB share common biological characteristics, therefore the differential diagnosis sometimes is difficult. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs and memantine help to improve clinical symptoms, but treatment decision should be made with individualization. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT has potential clinical value and should be investigated by more studies. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.004

  7. [Behavioral impairments in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Kenichi

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral impairments in parkinsonian patients include agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movement, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, REM sleep behavioral disorder, and restless legs syndrome. Dementia, psychoses, and emotional disorders, such as depression and anxiety/panic disorder, also impair behavior. Symptoms may be produced by dysfunction of the central nervous system, medication, and/or the psychosocial problems associated with Parkinson's disease. Treatment therefore should be based on the cause of the symptoms seen. In some cases, the reduction or change of antiparkinsonian drugs, or both, may be effective. Treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including motor fluctuations, may reduce the risk of panic attacks being evoked in the 'off' period. Use of antidepressants, sedatives, and neuroleptics may often be effective. Physicians should identify the causes of the symptoms of behavioral impairment and select appropriate treatments.

  8. Addictive behaviors and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjas, T; Eusebio, A; Fluchère, F; Azulay, J-P

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the dopaminergic system and the longstanding exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) may cause, in a group of vulnerable patients, dysregulation of the brain reward system. These patients develop DRT-related compulsions, which include addiction to levodopa or dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs or behavioral addiction reported in Parkinson's disease include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying and binge eating. Although the underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood, these behaviors are linked by their reward-based and repetitive nature. Such behaviors may result in devastating psychosocial impairment for the patients and are often hidden. The recognition of these behaviors is important and allows a better clinical management. Although the limited data do not permit particular therapeutic strategies, some approaches are worth considering: DRT reduction, trials of non-dopaminergic medications and subthalamic chronic stimulation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Fajardo, Humberto; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Llorens-Arenas, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Bermudez, Jesús; Ruiz-Chow, Ángel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for the management of depression and/or psychosis refractory to drug therapy in patients with Parkinson disease.Methods A retrospective study was carried out including patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy during the period between 2002 and 2013. A review of the literature was performed.Results A total of 27 patients were included. In regards to the neuropsychiatric diagnosis, 14 patients had major depression, 12 patients had both psychosis and depression, and only one patient had isolated psychosis. The mean number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions was 12 ± 2.8. After electroconvulsive therapy, all patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (reduction of 52% points) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (reduction of 50% points) independent of the presence of psychosis, depression or both.Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy is effective for the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  10. What lysosomes actually tell us about Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdenx, Mathieu; Dehay, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder of unknown origin mainly characterized by the loss of neuromelanin-containing dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and the presence of intraneuronal proteinaceous inclusions called Lewy bodies. Lysosomes are dynamic organelles that degrade, in a controlled manner, cellular components delivered via the secretory, endocytic, autophagic and phagocytic membrane-trafficking pathways. Increasing amounts of evidence suggest a central role of lysosomal impairment in PD aetiology. This review provides an update on how genetic evidence support this connection and highlights how the neuropathologic and mechanistic evidence might relate to the disease process in sporadic forms of Parkinson's disease. Finally, we discuss the influence of ageing on lysosomal impairment and PD aetiology and therapeutic strategies targeting lysosomal function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular pathogenesis of sporadic prion diseases in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Jiri G.

    2012-01-01

    The yeast, fungal and mammalian prions determine heritable and infectious traits that are encoded in alternative conformations of proteins. They cause lethal sporadic, familial and infectious neurodegenerative conditions in man, including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), kuru, sporadic fatal insomnia (SFI) and likely variable protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr). The most prevalent of human prion diseases is sporadic (s)CJD. Recent advances in amplification and detection of prions led to considerable optimism that early and possibly preclinical diagnosis and therapy might become a reality. Although several drugs have already been tested in small numbers of sCJD patients, there is no clear evidence of any agent’s efficacy. Therefore, it remains crucial to determine the full spectrum of sCJD prion strains and the conformational features in the pathogenic human prion protein governing replication of sCJD prions. Research in this direction is essential for the rational development of diagnostic as well as therapeutic strategies. Moreover, there is growing recognition that fundamental processes involved in human prion propagation – intercellular induction of protein misfolding and seeded aggregation of misfolded host proteins – are of far wider significance. This insight leads to new avenues of research in the ever-widening spectrum of age-related human neurodegenerative diseases that are caused by protein misfolding and that pose a major challenge for healthcare. PMID:22421210

  12. How Is Parkinson's Disease Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With Us Local Resources Find an Event My PD Story Volunteer ... Support a Moving Day Walker Support a Parkinson's Champion Bequests & Planned ...

  13. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider p...

  14. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around.

  15. [Parkinson's disease(s): recent insight into genetic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Scheffer, H.; Heutink, P.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, 5 genes have been identified that are unambiguously associated with genetic forms of Parkinson's disease. These genes probably explain less than 10% of all cases of Parkinson's disease. Clinically, these genetic forms can closely resemble idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Mutation

  16. Diffusion MR imaging in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Cakir Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare dementing disease and is thought to caused by a prion. It is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia, myoclonus, akinetic mutism and eventual death. Brain biopsy or autopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis of CJD. Diffusion-weighted imaging became an important tool for early diagnosis of CJD because of the high sensitivity. We present 59-year-old female patient diagnosed as sporadic CJD with typical MR imagings. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 880-883

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for PD Patients? Are There Any Ways to Control the Rate of Progression of the Disease? What ... 2 What Are Some Strategies to Improve the Quality of Community Care for PD Patients? Dra. Claudia ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: Thinking Changes: Part ... Affect the Patient's Family and Social Network? What Is the Impact of PD Medications ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... who seek skilled care are at a lower risk of complications and have better quality of life. ... Disease Affect the Urinary System? What Are the Risks and Benefits of DBS Surgery? NPF Caregiver Summit ...

  20. Cell transplantation for Parkinson's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Liu; Hongyun Huang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved by cell transplantation,which has caught general attention from the field of the therapy for PD recently. In this paper, we summarize the cell-based therapy for PD.DATA SOURCES: A search for English literature related to the cellular transplantation of PD from January 1979to July 2006 was conducted in Medline with the key words of "Parkinson's disease, cell transplantation,embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells".STUDY SELECTTON: Data were checked in the first trial, and literatures about PD and cell transplantation were selected. Inclusive criteria: ① PD; ② Cell transplantation. Exclusive criteria: repetitive researches.DATA EXTRACTTON: A total of 100 papers related to cellular transplant and PD were collected and 41literatures were in accordance with the inclusive criteria.DATA SYNTHESIS: PD is a neural degeneration disease that threatens the health of the aged people, and most traditional therapeusis cannot delay its pathological proceeding. Cell transplantation is becoming popular as a new therapeutic tool, and the cells used to transplant mainly included dopamine-secreting cells, fetal ventral mesencephalic cells, embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells up to now. Animal experiment and clinical test demonstrate that cell transplantation can relieve the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease obviously, but there are some problems need to be solved.CONCLUSTON: Cell transplantation has visible therapeutic efficacy on PD. Following the improvement of technique, and we have enough cause to credit that cell therapy may cure PD in the future.

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Does a Caregiver Need to Know About Cognitive Impairment? How Do I Manage Non-Motor Problems ... en vivo con Lobo! What Medications Help with Cognitive Impairment? Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: ...

  2. Circadian dysregulation in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Videnovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects over one million individuals in the US alone. PD is characterized by a plethora of motor and non-motor manifestations, resulting from a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and disbalance of several other neurotransmitters. A growing body of evidence points to significant alterations of the circadian system in PD. This is not surprising given the pivotal role that dopamine plays in circadian regulation as well as the role of circadian influences in dopamine metabolism. In this review we present basic and clinical investigations that examined the function of the circadian system in PD.

  3. Nonmotor symptoms in genetic Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD.......To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD....

  4. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalf, J.G.; Munneke, M.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  5. NIH Research: Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. NIH Research: Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Story ... Photo courtesy of NIH Advances in Parkinson's Disease Research Story Landis, Ph.D., has been Director of ...

  6. Parkinson's disease: piecing together a genetic jigsaw.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.J. Dekker (Marieke); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe role of genetics in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease has been subject to debate for decades. In recent years, the discovery of five genes and several more loci has provided important insight into its molecular aetiology. Some Parkinson's disease genes possibly cause

  7. Imaging and clinical characteristics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Shun-chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD presented rapidly progressive dementia which were subacute onset from 1 to 4 months. Among these cases, periodic synchronous discharge (PSD of electroencephalography (EEG was seen in 2 patients. Besides, 4 patients obtained positive results in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis for 14-3-3 protein. The cranial MRI examination showed symmetrical or asymmetrical colored-ribbon-shaped high signals in cerebral cortex or basal ganglia by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, suggesting that DWI had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sCJD as a preferred method in the clinical examination of sCJD.

  8. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, T; Noguchi, S; Nishitani, H [National Sanatorium of Utano, Kyoto (Japan); Kitano, H; Ikegami, Y

    1981-04-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs.

  9. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tetsuro; Noguchi, Sadako; Nishitani, Hiroshi; Kitano, Haruo; Ikegami, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs. (author)

  10. I-123 IMP SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Kyudai; Sugita, Minoru

    1990-01-01

    To examine semiquantitatively regional cerebral blood flow, SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) was undertaken in 17 patients with Parkinson's disease. Seven patients with Alzheimer's disease and 9 senile control subjects were also imaged for comparison. Both the Parkinson's disease group and the Alzheimer's disease group had a decreased uptake of I-123 IMP in the frontal lobe, in comparison with the control group. A remarkably decreased uptake was seen in the lateral and parietal lobes in the group of Parkinson's disease associated with dementia, as well as in the Alzheimer's disease group. A significantly decreased uptake was observed in the frontal lobe, lateral lobe, thalamus, and basal ganglia in the Parkinson's disease group, irrespective of the presence or absence of dementia. For Parkinson's disease associated with dementia, there was much more significant decrease in I-123 IMP uptake. The pattern of regional cerebral blood flow in the Alzheimer's disease group was analogous to that in the Parkinson's disease group associated with dementia. This supports the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease may be somewhat involved in the occurrence of dementia for Parkinson's disease. (N.K.)

  11. Imaging biomarkers in Parkinson?s disease and Parkinsonian syndromes: current and emerging concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Usman; Compagnone, Jordana; Aviv, Richard I.; Strafella, Antonio P.; Black, Sandra E.; Lang, Anthony E.; Masellis, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Two centuries ago in 1817, James Parkinson provided the first medical description of Parkinson?s disease, later refined by Jean-Martin Charcot in the mid-to-late 19th century to include the atypical parkinsonian variants (also termed, Parkinson-plus syndromes). Today, Parkinson?s disease represents the second most common neurodegenerative disorder with an estimated global prevalence of over 10 million. Conversely, atypical parkinsonian syndromes encompass a group of relatively heterogeneous d...

  12. Parkinson's disease associated with impaired oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterer, J.; Jarius, C.; Baumgartner, M.

    2001-01-01

    Parkinson's disease may be due to primary or secondary oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects. In a 76-year-old man with Parkinson's disease since 1992, slightly but recurrently elevated creatine phosphokinase, recurrently elevated blood glucose, thickening of the left ventricular myocardium, bifascicular block and hypacusis were found. Cerebral MRI showed atrophy, periventricular demyelination, multiple, disseminated, supra- and infratentorial lacunas, and haemosiderin deposits in both posterior horns. Muscle biopsy showed typical features of an OXPHOS defect. Whether the association of Parkinson's disease and impaired OXPHOS was causative or coincidental remains unknown. Possibly, the mitochondrial defect acted as an additional risk factor for Parkinson's disease or the OXPHOS defect worsened the preexisting neurological impairments by a cumulative or synergistic mechanism. In conclusion, this case shows that Parkinson's disease may be associated with a mitochondrially or nuclearly encoded OXPHOS defect, manifesting as hypacusis, myopathy, axonal polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy and recurrent subclinical ischaemic strokes and haemorrhages. (orig.)

  13. Slower Dynamics and Aged Mitochondria in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargini, Ricardo; García, Esther; Perry, George

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients. The analysis of mitochondrial network disruption using CCCP indicates that the patients' fibroblasts exhibit slower dynamics and mitochondrial membrane potential recovery. These defects lead to strong accumulation of aged mitochondria in Alzheimer's fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of autophagy and mitophagy involved genes in the patients demonstrates a downregulation indicating that the recycling mechanism of these aged mitochondria might be impaired. Our data reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the key early events of the disease intimately related with aging. PMID:29201274

  14. Pragmatic communication is impaired in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Deborah; Ouyang, Bichun; Lonnquist, Eryn; Newcombe, Jill

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether severity of disease, cognitive function, age, gender, or amount of social interaction were associated with pragmatic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. No studies have previously been done to investigate variables that may be associated with pragmatic dysfunction in Parkinson disease. A case-control study was conducted with 17 Parkinson disease patients and 17 convenience controls. Each Parkinson disease patient and a control were interviewed, and their pragmatic skills were evaluated using a scale of pragmatic communication skills. Correlation analysis was used to determine what factors were associated with pragmatic dysfunction in the Parkinson disease patients. Cases scored lower on the pragmatic scale with a mean of 29.7 compared with 38.9 in the controls (p communication skills had moderate to strong correlations with the MMSE (r = .81, p = .002), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = -.71, p = .002), and duration of disease (r = -.53, p = .03). These results show that Parkinson disease patients have impaired pragmatic function compared with controls on both verbal and nonverbal sections, and this impairment correlates with mental state, duration, and severity of disease.

  15. Diet and Nutrition (Parkinson's Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition 1. Maintain Health 2. Ease PD Symptoms 3. ... your team Seek reliable information about diet and nutrition from your medical team and local resources. Please ...

  16. Technology in Parkinson's disease: Challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espay, A.J.; Bonato, P.; Nahab, F.B.; Maetzler, W.; Dean, J.M.; Klucken, J.; Eskofier, B.M.; Merola, A.; Horak, F.; Lang, A.E.; Reilmann, R.; Giuffrida, J.; Nieuwboer, A.; Horne, M.; Little, M.A.; Litvan, I.; Simuni, T.; Dorsey, E.R.; Burack, M.A.; Kubota, K.; Kamondi, A.; Godinho, C.; Daneault, J.F.; Mitsi, G.; Krinke, L.; Hausdorff, J.M.; Bloem, B.R.; Papapetropoulos, S.

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization, sophistication, proliferation, and accessibility of technologies are enabling the capture of more and previously inaccessible phenomena in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, more information has not translated into a greater understanding of disease complexity to satisfy

  17. Dopamine Receptors and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive extrapyramidal motor disorder. Pathologically, this disease is characterized by the selective dopaminergic (DAergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Correcting the DA deficiency in PD with levodopa (L-dopa significantly attenuates the motor symptoms; however, its effectiveness often declines, and L-dopa-related adverse effects emerge after long-term treatment. Nowadays, DA receptor agonists are useful medication even regarded as first choice to delay the starting of L-dopa therapy. In advanced stage of PD, they are also used as adjunct therapy together with L-dopa. DA receptor agonists act by stimulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors. Despite the usefulness, they could be causative drugs for valvulopathy and nonmotor complication such as DA dysregulation syndrome (DDS. In this paper, physiological characteristics of DA receptor familyare discussed. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and specific adverse effects of pharmaceutical DA receptor agonist.

  18. Premotor Diagnosis of Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heinz Reichmann

    2017-01-01

    Typical Parkinsonian symptoms consist of bradykinesia plus rigidity and/or resting tremor.Some time later postural instability occurs.Pre-motor symptoms such as hyposmia,constipation,REM sleep behavior disorder and depression may antecede these motor symptoms for years.It would be ideal,if we had a biomarker which would allow to predict who with one or two of these pre-motor symptoms will develop the movement disorder Parkinson's disease (PD).Thus,it is interesting to learn that biopsies of the submandibular gland or colon biopsies may be a means to predict PD,if there is a high amout of abnormally folded alpha-synuclein and phosphorylated alpha-synuclein.This would be of relevance if we would have available means to stop the propagation of abnormal alpha-synuclein which is otherwise one of the reasons of this spreading disease PD.

  19. Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penko, Amanda L.; Hirsch, Joshua R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Martin, Philip E.; Blackburn, Gordon; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease [1] which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this study is to examine the lower extremity coordination patterns of Parkinson's patients during cycling. Methods Twenty five participants, ages 44-72, with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in an exercise test on a cycle ergometer that was equipped with pedal force measurements. Crank torque, crank angle and power produced by right and left leg were measured throughout the test to calculate Symmetry Index at three stages of exercise (20 Watt, 60 Watt, maximum performance). Findings Decreases in Symmetry Index were observed for average power output in Parkinson's patients as workload increased. Maximum power Symmetry Index showed a significant difference in symmetry between performance at both the 20 Watt and 60 Watt stage and the maximal resistance stage. Minimum power Symmetry Index did not show significant differences across the stages of the test. While lower extremity asymmetries were present in Parkinson's patients during pedaling, these asymmetries did not correlate to postural instability and gait dysfunction Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. Interpretation This pedaling analysis allows for a more sensitive measure of lower extremity function than the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and may help to provide unique insight into current and

  20. Recent developments in biomarkers in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer disease, and current demographic trends indicate a life-time risk approaching 4% and predict a doubling of prevalence by 2030. Strategies are being developed to apply recent advances in our understanding of the cause of Parkinson disease to the development of biomarkers that will enable the identification of at-risk individuals, enable early diagnosis and reflect the progression of disease. The latter will be particularly important for the testing of disease-modifying therapies. This review summarizes recent advances in Parkinson disease biomarker development. Recent findings Recent reports continue to reflect the application of a variety of clinical, imaging or biochemical measurements, alone or in combination, to general Parkinson disease populations. Probably the most promising is the assay of alpha-synuclein in the diagnosis and evolution of Parkinson disease. At present, detection techniques are still being refined, but once accurate and reproducible assays are available, it will be important to define the relationship of these to early diagnosis and progression. Alpha-synuclein concentrations may also be modulated by certain disease-modifying agents in development and so may represent a measure of their efficacy. It has to be accepted that no single measure currently fulfils all the necessary criteria for a biomarker in Parkinson disease, but combinations of measures are more likely to deliver benefit. Summary The Parkinson disease biomarker field is approaching a stage when certain combinations of clinical, imaging and biochemical measures may identify a proportion of individuals at risk for developing the disease. However, their general applicability may be limited. Attention is now turning to stratification of Parkinson disease into certain at-risk groups defined by genotype. The application of multimodal screening to these populations may be more

  1. Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Parkinson`s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Peixinho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease affects about 1% of the world population older than 65 years. It’s most frequently considered a movement disorder, but the neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with the disease and/or its treatment may be of equal or greater significance in some patients. We will discuss briefly the epidemiology, physiopathology and diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, highlighting the neuropsychiatric manifestations: depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, sleep disorders, dopamine dysregulation syndrome.

  2. Electroconvulsive Therapy Intervention for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Puneet; Glowacki, Anna; Lippmann, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy is an established means to improve function in a variety of psychiatric and neurologic conditions, particularly for patients who remain treatment-refractory. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that sometimes does not respond well to conventional pharmacotherapies. Reports have indicated that electroconvulsive therapy may be an effective and safe treatment for those patients with Parkinson's disease who are not optimally responding to first-line treatments. Despite these reports, however, electroconvulsive therapy is not often used by clinicians in patients with treatment-resistant Parkinson's disease, perhaps due to stigma, lack of knowledge regarding its safety and efficacy, and/or inability to predict the duration of therapeutic benefit. Our objective was to determine if the available literature on ECT supports it as a safe and effective treatment option in patients with treatment-refractory Parkinson's disease. Motoric improvement induced by electroconvulsive therapy has been documented for decades in persons with Parkinson's disease. Efficacy and safety are reported following electroconvulsive therapy in people with Parkinson's disease who have sub-optimal response to medicines or experience the "on/off" phenomenon to L-dopa. Electroconvulsive therapy is an effective option for acute and maintenance treatment of Parkinson's disease in select patients. Inability to predict how long the beneficial effects of ECT therapy will last in patients with Parkinson's disease may be a reason why this treatment is underutilized by clinicians. More research is warranted to clarify parameters for application and duration of therapeutic benefit in individuals with difficult-to-treat Parkinson's disease.

  3. Bipolar disorder, a precursor of Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M.S. Novaretti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly resulting from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Some psychiatric disorders may have dopaminergic dysfunction as their substrate. We describe a well-documented case of Parkinson's disease associated with Bipolar Disorder. Although there is some knowledge about the association between these diseases, little is known about its pathophysiology and correlation. We believe that among various hypotheses, many neurotransmitters are linked to this pathophysiology.

  4. Parkinson disease and smoking revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Lassen, Christina F

    2014-01-01

    patients with PD than controls ever established a smoking habit. Among former smokers, those with greater difficulty quitting or using nicotine substitutes were less likely to develop PD, with the risk being lowest among those reporting "extremely difficult to quit" compared with "easy to quit." Nicotine......OBJECTIVE: To assess whether being able to quit smoking is an early marker of Parkinson disease (PD) onset rather than tobacco being "neuroprotective," we analyzed information about ease of quitting and nicotine substitute use. METHODS: For this case-control study, we identified 1,808 patients...... substitute usage was strongly associated with quitting difficulty and duration of smoking, i.e., most strongly among current smokers, followed by former smokers who had used nicotine substitutes, and less strongly among former smokers who never used substitutes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the notion...

  5. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Keane

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive, neurodegenerative condition that has increasingly been linked with mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of the electron transport chain. This inhibition leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of cellular energy levels, which can consequently cause cellular damage and death mediated by oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. A number of genes that have been shown to have links with inherited forms of PD encode mitochondrial proteins or proteins implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, supporting the central involvement of mitochondria in PD. This involvement is corroborated by reports that environmental toxins that inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain have been shown to be associated with PD. This paper aims to illustrate the considerable body of evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction with neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc of PD patients and to highlight the important need for further research in this area.

  6. Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indo, Toshikatsu

    1986-01-01

    Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between 64 cases with Parkinson's disease and 25 cases with vascular Parkinsonism was carried out. The rate of abnormality of CT scan findings, either ventricular dilatation or widening of sulci, in vascular Parkinsonism was strikingly high compared with Parkinson's disease. Patients could be divided into three groups according to the degree of overall abnormalities of CT scan findings (group A: markedly abnormal, group B: mildly abnormal, group C: normal). Incidences of group A were 9.4 % in Parkinson's disease and 52 % in vascular Parkinsonism, whereas those of group C were 56 % in the former and 28 % in the latter. All patients of group A were over 65 years of age in Parkinson's disease, but one-third of patients in group A were under 59 years of age in vascular Parkinsonism. Moreover, in vascular Parkinsonism, the level of disability was directly proportional to the abnormality of CT scan findings. The rate of predementia and dementia classified by Hasegawa's intelligence scale was 12.5 % in Parkinson's disease and 48 % in vascular Parkinsonism. No difference was found between the mean values of intelligence scale and background factors in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly low in proportion to the poverty of L-dopa effect in vascular Parkinsonism. From these results, the abnormality of CT scan findings and intellectual impairment were probably related to the cerebral pathological process in vascular Parkinsonism, but these relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  7. Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indo, Toshikatsu

    1986-01-01

    Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between 64 cases with Parkinson's disease and 25 cases with vascular Parkinsonism was carried out. The rate of abnormality of CT scan findings, either ventricular dilatation or widening of sulci, in vascular Parkinsonism was strikingly high compared with Parkinson's disease. Patients could be divided into three groups according to the degree of overall abnormalities of CT scan findings (group A: markedly abnormal, group B: mildly abnormal, group C: normal). Incidences of group A were 9.4 % in Parkinson's disease and 52 % in vascular Parkinsonism, whereas those of group C were 56 % in the former and 28 % in the latter. All patients of group A were over 65 years of age in Parkinson's disease, but one-third of patients in group A were under 59 years of age in vascular Parkinsonism. Moreover, in vascular Parkinsonism, the level of disability was directly proportional to the abnormality of CT scan findings. The rate of predementia and dementia classified by Hasegawa's intelligence scale was 12.5 % in Parkinson's disease and 48 % in vascular Parkinsonism. No difference was found between the mean values of intelligence scale and background factors in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly low in proportion to the poverty of L-dopa effect in vascular Parkinsonism. From these results, the abnormality of CT scan findings and intellectual impairment were probably related to the cerebral pathological process in vascular Parkinsonism, but these relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease.

  8. Environmental Exposures and Parkinson?s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nandipati, Sirisha; Litvan, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects millions around the world. The Braak hypothesis proposes that in PD a pathologic agent may penetrate the nervous system via the olfactory bulb, gut, or both and spreads throughout the nervous system. The agent is unknown, but several environmental exposures have been associated with PD. Here, we summarize and examine the evidence for such environmental exposures. We completed a comprehensive review of human epidemiologic studies of pesticides, selected industr...

  9. Incidence, Risk and Prognosis of Parkinson Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M.L. de Lau (Lonneke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractParkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and is clinically characterized by resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural imbalance. These typical motor symptoms result from a selective degeneration of dopamine-producing neurons in the

  10. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  11. Neurophysiology of Drosophila Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    West, Ryan J. H.; Furmston, Rebecca; Williams, Charles A. C.; Elliott, Christopher J. H.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an insight into the role Drosophila has played in elucidating neurophysiological perturbations associated with Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related genes. Synaptic signalling deficits are observed in motor, central, and sensory systems. Given the neurological impact of disease causing mutations within these same genes in humans the phenotypes observed in fly are of significant interest. As such we observe four unique opportunities provided by fly nervous system models of Parkinson's ...

  12. LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease ? drawing the curtain of penetrance: a commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Kr?ger, Rejko

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and affects about 2% of the population over the age of 60 years. In 2004, mutations in the LRRK2 gene were first described and turned out to be the most frequent genetic cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease and may account for up to 40% of patients in distinct populations. Based on these findings, Latourelle and colleagues show that the penetrance of the most common LRRK2 mutation is higher in pa...

  13. Genetic perspective on the role of the autophagy-lysosome pathway in Parkinson disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gan-Or, Ziv; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD), once considered as a prototype of a sporadic disease, is now known to be considerably affected by various genetic factors, which interact with environmental factors and the normal process of aging, leading to PD. Large studies determined that the hereditary component of PD is at least 27%, and in some populations, single genetic factors are responsible for more than 33% of PD patients. Interestingly, many of these genetic factors, such as LRRK2, GBA, SMPD1, SNCA, PARK2...

  14. Dopaminreceptorscintigraphy in Parkinson's disease - Clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklund Aahlstroem, K.E.; Hietala, S.-O.; Johansson, F.

    2002-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a severe, progressive neuro degenerative disorder which is characterised by a degeneration of the dopamine containing cells and loss of dopamine transporters (DA) in substantia nigra. Earlier 123 I-β-CIT SPECT studies have demonstrated this loss of DA content in Parkinson's disease. Recently a new radioligand 123 I-FP-CIT, with faster kinetics than b-CIT became available for imaging of the DA transporter. The applicability of this radioligand was tested in a large clinical material with early and advanced Parkinson's disease using a one day protocol. 123 I-FP-CIT uptake was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease and this was seen three hours after injection of the radioligand. In the Parkinson's disease group the uptake in the putamen was reduced more than in the caudate nucleus. Specific to non-specific striatal uptake ratios correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr stage. It appeared that 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT allows a significant discrimination between patients with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. The scintigraphic observations were correlated to clinical findings. The results will be presented and discussed

  15. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-08-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson's disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson's disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson's disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Swallowing Dysfunctions in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Janine A

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is a very frequent and highly relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) for quality of life, morbidity, and remaining lifetime, which is unfortunately widely underdiagnosed and underestimated regarding patients' centered care. Especially in early stages, the causal association between disease and swallowing disabilities remains unnoticed, which may be accounted for by the inability of caregivers and physicians to detect subtle swallowing problems and by the low self-awareness among PD patients. In order to prevent patients from serious negative consequences for health issues (e.g., aspiration pneumonia or malnutrition) as well as for negative impact on their quality of life, it is on the highest importance of managing dysphagia timely and working closely together in a multidisciplinary team, who all are involved in the patients' care system. This chapter includes background information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of swallowing disorders in PD. This is followed by a summary of the clinical course and health treats, adequate diagnostic procedures for early identification of dysphagia as well as effective treatment strategies. The conclusion provides recommendations for clinical practice routine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cognitive decline in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsland, Dag; Creese, Byron; Politis, Marios; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; ffytche, Dominic H.; Weintraub, Daniel; Ballard, Clive

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a frequent problem encountered in advanced stages of Parkinson disease (PD). In recent years, research has focused on the pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in PD, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Several longitudinal studies have shown that MCI is a harbinger of dementia in PD, although the course is variable, and stabilization of cognition — or even reversal to normal cognition — is not uncommon. In addition to limbic and cortical spread of Lewy pathology, several other mechanisms are likely to contribute to cognitive decline in PD, and a variety of biomarker studies, some using novel structural and functional imaging techniques, have documented in vivo brain changes associated with cognitive impairment. The evidence consistently suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid-β42, a marker of comorbid Alzheimer disease (AD), predict future cognitive decline and dementia in PD. Emerging genetic evidence indicates that in addition to the APOE*ε4 allele (an established risk factor for AD), GBA mutations and SCNA mutations and triplications are associated with cognitive decline in PD, whereas the findings are mixed for MAPT polymorphisms. Cognitive enhancing medications have some effect in PD dementia, but no convincing evidence that progression from MCI to dementia can be delayed or prevented is available, although cognitive training has shown promising results. PMID:28257128

  18. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  19. Initial treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarsy, Daniel

    2006-05-01

    Initial treatment of early idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) begins with diagnosis based on clinical evaluation supplemented by laboratory studies and brain imaging to exclude causes of secondary parkinsonism. In most cases, testing is normal and the diagnosis of PD rests on clinical criteria. In patients with mild symptoms and signs, the diagnosis of PD may not initially be apparent, and follow-up evaluation is needed to arrive at a diagnosis. Once the diagnosis is made, pharmacologic treatment may not be the first step. First, patient education is essential, especially because PD is a high-profile disease for which information and misinformation are readily available to patients and families. Counseling concerning prognosis, future symptoms, future disability, and treatment must be provided. Questions from patients concerning diet, lifestyle, and exercise are especially common at this point. The decision of when to initiate treatment is the next major consideration. Much controversy but relatively little light has been brought to bear on this issue. L-dopa was the first major antiparkinson medication to be introduced and remains the "gold standard" of treatment. Next in efficacy are the dopamine agonists (DAs). A debate has raged concerning whether initial dopaminergic treatment should be with L-dopa or DAs. Physicians have been concerned about forestalling the appearance of dyskinesias and motor fluctuations, whereas patients have incorrectly understood that L-dopa and possibly other antiparkinson drugs have a finite duration of usefulness, making it important to defer treatment for as long as possible. This has created "L-dopa phobia," which may stand in the way of useful treatment. In spite of this controversy, there is uniform agreement that the appropriate time to treat is when the patient is beginning to be disabled. This varies from patient to patient and depends on age, employment status, nature of job, level of physical activity, concern about

  20. What James Parkinson Really Thought was Behind Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Lawrence Broxmeyer, MD

    2017-01-01

    In May, 2017, a Norwegian study done by Berstad and Berstad threw its support behind revitalizing of the hypothesis that with regard to Parkinson's disease (PD), the preponderance of convincing evidence points to a chronic infectious cause – not viral and most likely of the family Actinomycetales of which tuberculosis and the mycobacteria are premier members. The Berstads concluded that in accordance with such thoughts and despite the diagnostic challenges ahead, that further studies in human...

  1. Ideational apraxia in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Mohammad; Williamson, John B; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2011-09-01

    : The objective of the study was to determine whether ideational apraxia (IA), a loss of ability to plan the sequence of actions needed to achieve a goal, is associated with Parkinson disease (PD). : The frontal lobes play an important role in planning and sequencing, and many patients with PD have frontal lobe dysfunction. : Ten right-handed patients with PD and 10 right-handed neurologically and psychiatrically healthy people participated. To assess for IA, participants were given sets of pictures that showed the steps in completing a task, but the steps were shown out of order. The participants were required to point to the pictures in the correct sequence to complete each task. The participants also performed a control task of sequencing randomly arranged printed single words to create a sentence that described an accompanying picture. : The patients with PD performed more poorly than the controls on the action-sequencing tasks (Pwords to make a sentence. : These results indicate that patients with PD do have IA, an action-sequence planning deficit. Further research is needed to better understand mechanisms, ecological implications, and potential treatments.

  2. Acetylome in Human Fibroblasts From Parkinson's Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhna M. S. Yakhine-Diop

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder. The pathogenesis of this disease is associated with gene and environmental factors. Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 are the most frequent genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. Moreover, posttranslational modifications, including protein acetylation, are involved in the molecular mechanism of PD. Acetylation of lysine proteins is a dynamic process that is modulated in PD. In this descriptive study, we characterized the acetylated proteins and peptides in primary fibroblasts from idiopathic PD (IPD and genetic PD harboring G2019S or R1441G LRRK2 mutations. Identified acetylated peptides are modulated between individuals' groups. Although acetylated nuclear proteins are the most represented in cells, they are hypoacetylated in IPD. Results display that the level of hyperacetylated and hypoacetylated peptides are, respectively, enhanced in genetic PD and in IPD cells.

  3. Safety and Efficacy Study of VY-AADC01 for Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-27

    Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease; Parkinson's Disease; Basal Ganglia Disease; Brain Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases; Movement Disorders; Nervous System Diseases; Neurodegenerative Diseases; Parkinsonian Disorders

  4. Recent advances in imaging in Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Toru; Takeda, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent knowledge on the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease, the precise and early diagnosis of this condition remains difficult. Advances in imaging techniques have enabled the assessment of in vivo structural, neurometabolic, and neurochemical changes in Parkinson disease, and their role as biomarkers have assumed greater importance in recent years. We presently review the various approaches with these imaging techniques for the study of Parkinson disease. Voxel-based morphometry studies with structural MRI showed a characteristic pattern of gray matter loss, and fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies have indicated latent network abnormalities in Parkinson disease. Moreover, radiotracer imaging with dopaminergic markers facilitates the assessment of pre- and postsynaptic nigro-striatal integrity, and other radiotracers have been used in the studies of nondopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, such as the cholinergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems. These imaging techniques can be used to detect presymptomatic disease and to monitor disease progression. Thus, imaging data provide meaningful insights into the pathological process in Parkinson disease. (author)

  5. Thiazolidinediones and Parkinson Disease: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John G; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Gagne, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Thiazolidinediones, a class of medications indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduce inflammation and have been shown to provide a therapeutic benefit in animal models of Parkinson disease. We examined the association between treatment with thiazolidinediones and the onset of Parkinson disease in older individuals. We performed a cohort study of 29,397 Medicare patients enrolled in state pharmaceutical benefits programs who initiated treatment with thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas during the years 1997 through 2005 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson disease. New users of thiazolidinediones were propensity score matched to new users of sulfonylureas and followed to determine whether they were diagnosed with Parkinson disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease in the propensity score-matched populations. To assess the association with duration of use, we performed several analyses that required longer continuous use of medications. In the primary analysis, thiazolidinedione users had a hazard ratio for a diagnosis of Parkinson disease of 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.66) when compared with sulfonylurea users. Increasing the duration-of-use requirements to 10 months did not substantially change the association; the hazard ratios ranged from 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 2.05) to 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 2.25). Thiazolidinedione use was not associated with a longer time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease than was sulfonylurea use, regardless of duration of exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease: The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Rijk (Maarten)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAt present, Parkinson's disease (PO), after Alzheimer's disease, is generally considered to be the most frequent progressive neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Due to the growing proportion of elderly in many populations, more and more persons will be affected by this disabling

  7. [Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, N.J.; Nijhof, A.; Tissingh, G.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease has traditionally been viewed as a disease with only motor features. Nowadays, a wide variety of non-motor symptoms and signs are also recognised as being characteristic of the disease. Non-motor symptoms, most importantly autonomic dysfunction, neuropsychiatric symptoms and

  8. Current therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Obukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD is to correct dopamine deficiency in the nigrostriatal system. Levodopa preparations and dopamine receptor agonists (DRAs that are prescribed with regards to patient age and disease severity are mainly used now. Notwithstanding the fact that levodopa preparations are the gold standard of therapy, their long-term use gives rise to complications as motor fluctuations and drug-induced dyskinesias. The currently available DRAs are the drugs of choice for the therapy of early-stage PD as they are as effective as levodopa preparations. In extensive-stage PD, DRAs are used to enhance the therapy and correction of developed motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Pramipexole is one of the most commonly used representatives of non-ergoline DRAs. The paper analyzes the efficacy of the medication used as both monotherapy and part of combined therapy, its effect on tremor and depression in PD. A novel extended-release formulation of pramipexole is considered separately. Both immediate- and extended-release pramipexole formulations contain the same active ingredient and have the same dopamine-receptor interaction profile, but differ in the tablet release rate of the active ingredient. The advantages of the novel formulation are its more steady-state plasma concentration and 24-hour action, which ensures continuous dopaminergic stimulation ofpostsynaptic receptors to prevent and treat already developed motor complications. The once-daily extended-release formulation of the drug makes its treatment regimen easier and patient compliance higher.

  9. Copper and Copper Proteins in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Mancia, Susana; Diaz-Ruiz, Araceli; Tristan-Lopez, Luis; Rios, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Copper is a transition metal that has been linked to pathological and beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease, free copper is related to increased oxidative stress, alpha-synuclein oligomerization, and Lewy body formation. Decreased copper along with increased iron has been found in substantia nigra and caudate nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients. Copper influences iron content in the brain through ferroxidase ceruloplasmin activity; therefore decreased protein-bound copper in brain may enhance iron accumulation and the associated oxidative stress. The function of other copper-binding proteins such as Cu/Zn-SOD and metallothioneins is also beneficial to prevent neurodegeneration. Copper may regulate neurotransmission since it is released after neuronal stimulus and the metal is able to modulate the function of NMDA and GABA A receptors. Some of the proteins involved in copper transport are the transporters CTR1, ATP7A, and ATP7B and the chaperone ATOX1. There is limited information about the role of those biomolecules in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease; for instance, it is known that CTR1 is decreased in substantia nigra pars compacta in Parkinson's disease and that a mutation in ATP7B could be associated with Parkinson's disease. Regarding copper-related therapies, copper supplementation can represent a plausible alternative, while copper chelation may even aggravate the pathology. PMID:24672633

  10. LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease – drawing the curtain of penetrance: a commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Rejko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and affects about 2% of the population over the age of 60 years. In 2004, mutations in the LRRK2 gene were first described and turned out to be the most frequent genetic cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease and may account for up to 40% of patients in distinct populations. Based on these findings, Latourelle and colleagues show that the penetrance of the most common LRRK2 mutation is higher in patients with familial compared with sporadic Parkinson's disease and identified a substantial number of affected relatives of mutation carriers not presenting with a LRRK2 mutation themselves. This commentary discusses the role of genetic and/or environmental susceptibility factors modulating the expressivity of the disease trait, how these factors may contribute to the phenomenon of phenocopies in genetically defined Parkinson's disease pedigrees, and how the findings of Latourelle and colleagues, published this month in BMC Medicine, relate to current concepts of genetic counselling.

  11. Daytime Napping, Nighttime Sleeping, and Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianjun; Huang, Xuemei; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert; Blair, Aaron; Schatzkin, Arthur; Chen, Honglei

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests that daytime sleepiness may predate clinical diagnosis of Parkinson disease. The authors examined daytime napping and nighttime sleeping durations, reported in 1996–1997 by 220,934 US NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study participants, in relation to Parkinson disease diagnoses at 3 clinical stages: established (cases diagnosed before 1995, n = 267), recent (1995–1999, n = 396), and prediagnostic (2000 and after, n = 770). Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Longer daytime napping was associated with higher odds of Parkinson disease at all 3 clinical stages: the odds ratios comparing long nappers (>1 hour/day) with nonnappers were 3.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.8, 5.6) for established cases, 2.2 (95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.0) for recent cases, and 1.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 1.9) for prediagnostic cases. Further control for health status or nighttime sleeping duration attenuated the association for established cases but made little difference for recent or prediagnostic cases. In the nighttime sleeping analysis, a clear U-shaped association with Parkinson disease was observed for established cases; however, this association was attenuated markedly for recent cases and disappeared for prediagnostic cases. This study supports the notion that daytime sleepiness, but not nighttime sleeping duration, is one of the early nonmotor symptoms of Parkinson disease. PMID:21402730

  12. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  13. Oral Hygiene in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Leonardo M; Portela de Oliveira, Millena Teles; Magalhaes, Wilrama B; Bastos, Poliana Lima

    2015-11-02

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The symptoms are characterized by motor disorders - tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability, which hinder oral hygiene. Oral and dental health in Parkinson's disease has been under-documented and findings are conflicting. Moreover, a number of dentists have limited experience regarding the management of these patients. This article reviews literature published within the last fifteen years, to better understand the impact of this disease in oral health. A literature search (MEDLINE and PUBMED), using keywords Parkinson Disease and Oral Hygiene, yielded 27 articles, from which 20 were selected. All of the articles were published in English in the last 15 years.

  14. Disordered axial movement in Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, M J; Thompson, P D; Marsden, C D

    1996-01-01

    Axial motor impairments are a common cause of disability in patients with Parkinson's disease, become more prominent with longer disease duration, and have been said to be less responsive to levodopa replacement therapy. The ability to turn in bed while lying supine before and after dopaminergic stimulation was studied in a group of 36 patients with Parkinson's disease; 23 were in Hoehn and Yahr stages 3-5 when "off", and 13 were in stages 1-2. Turning was also compared with postural stabilit...

  15. PET-Studies in parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, J.

    2002-01-01

    Positron-emission-tomography (PET) has enabled to study the metabolism and blood flow in specific brain areas. Besides, there is a variety of radiotracers that allow quantification of the function of distinct molecules. In respect to Parkinson's disease, PET allowed for the first time to assess the number of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Thus, helping confirming a dopaminergic deficit, measuring disease progression and also help to determine the function of dopaminergic grafts. Current research has shifted to determine the role of related neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (orig.) [de

  16. Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna, Janeth; Cassani, Erica; Cereda, Emanuele; Pozzi, Nicolò G.; Isaias, Ioannis U.; Contin, Manuela; Barichella, Michela; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether Mucuna pruriens (MP), a levodopa-containing leguminous plant growing in all tropical areas worldwide, may be used as alternative source of levodopa for indigent individuals with Parkinson disease (PD) who cannot afford long-term therapy with marketed levodopa preparations. Methods: We investigated efficacy and safety of single-dose intake of MP powder from roasted seeds obtained without any pharmacologic processing. Eighteen patients with advanced PD received the following treatments, whose sequence was randomized: (1) dispersible levodopa at 3.5 mg/kg combined with the dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor benserazide (LD+DDCI; the reference treatment); (2) high-dose MP (MP-Hd; 17.5 mg/kg); (3) low-dose MP (MP-Ld; 12.5 mg/kg); (4) pharmaceutical preparation of LD without DDCI (LD−DDCI; 17.5 mg/kg); (5) MP plus benserazide (MP+DDCI; 3.5 mg/kg); (6) placebo. Efficacy outcomes were the change in motor response at 90 and 180 minutes and the duration of on state. Safety measures included any adverse event (AE), changes in blood pressure and heart rate, and the severity of dyskinesias. Results: When compared to LD+DDCI, MP-Ld showed similar motor response with fewer dyskinesias and AEs, while MP-Hd induced greater motor improvement at 90 and 180 minutes, longer ON duration, and fewer dyskinesias. MP-Hd induced less AEs than LD+DDCI and LD−DDCI. No differences in cardiovascular response were recorded. Conclusion: Single-dose MP intake met all noninferiority efficacy and safety outcome measures in comparison to dispersible levodopa/benserazide. Clinical effects of high-dose MP were similar to levodopa alone at the same dose, with a more favorable tolerability profile. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02680977. PMID:28679598

  17. [Placebo effect in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hideto

    2007-02-01

    "Placebo" is Latin for "I shall please". The placebo effect has been widely documented by randomized placebo-controlled drug studies. One of the best examples of placebo effectiveness is that have been shown in clinical trials of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The placebo effect is observable not only in drug trials but also with deep brain stimulation. Recent advances in research on the placebo effect in Parkinson's disease (PD) have suggested that motor symptoms of PD can be essentially improved by placebo. A recent study using positron emission tomography (PET) with raclopride demonstrated that release of endogeneous dopamine in the dorsal striatum occurs in placebo-responsive patients with PD. This suggests that placebo-induced expectation of clinical improvement may activate endogenous dopamine in the striatum, and that placebo effectiveness is thus achieved by endogenous dopamine supplementation. Indeed, decreased neuronal activities in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), that were recorded during surgery to implant deep brain stimulation electrodes, correlated well with placebo-induced clinical improvement in patients with PD. Although the detailed pathophysiological mechanism underlying the placebo effects remains uncertain, theoretically, the placebo effect has generally been explained by two different mechanisms: one is conditioning theory (pavlovian conditioning), and the other is cognitive theory (expectation of clinical improvement). Although both mechanisms may contribute to placebo effects, the placebo effect in PD may be attributed more to cognitive mechanisms such as expectation of improvement, because the placebo effect can be obtained in de novo PD patients. There have been accumulating findings that suggest a functional relationship between dopamine and the expectation of clinical improvement (reward). Further basic studies are required to clarify the complex link between dopamine and the reward system, but such findings will contribute to a better

  18. Parkinson Disease: Treating Symptoms Unrelated to Muscle Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evidence-based Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES PARKINSON DISEASE: TREATING SYMPTOMS UNRELATED TO MUSCLE MOVEMENT This ... sheet may help you understand which therapies help Parkinson disease (PD) symptoms unrelated to muscle movement. Neurologists ...

  19. PDON: Parkinson's disease ontology for representation and modeling of the Parkinson's disease knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Scordis, Phil; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Page, Matt; Müller, Bernd; Springstubbe, Stephan; Wüllner, Ullrich; Scheller, Dieter; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-09-22

    Despite the unprecedented and increasing amount of data, relatively little progress has been made in molecular characterization of mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease. In the area of Parkinson's research, there is a pressing need to integrate various pieces of information into a meaningful context of presumed disease mechanism(s). Disease ontologies provide a novel means for organizing, integrating, and standardizing the knowledge domains specific to disease in a compact, formalized and computer-readable form and serve as a reference for knowledge exchange or systems modeling of disease mechanism. The Parkinson's disease ontology was built according to the life cycle of ontology building. Structural, functional, and expert evaluation of the ontology was performed to ensure the quality and usability of the ontology. A novelty metric has been introduced to measure the gain of new knowledge using the ontology. Finally, a cause-and-effect model was built around PINK1 and two gene expression studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-annotated to demonstrate the usability of the ontology. The Parkinson's disease ontology with a subclass-based taxonomic hierarchy covers the broad spectrum of major biomedical concepts from molecular to clinical features of the disease, and also reflects different views on disease features held by molecular biologists, clinicians and drug developers. The current version of the ontology contains 632 concepts, which are organized under nine views. The structural evaluation showed the balanced dispersion of concept classes throughout the ontology. The functional evaluation demonstrated that the ontology-driven literature search could gain novel knowledge not present in the reference Parkinson's knowledge map. The ontology was able to answer specific questions related to Parkinson's when evaluated by experts. Finally, the added value of the Parkinson's disease ontology is demonstrated by ontology-driven modeling of PINK1

  20. Bladder dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, Kristian; Nielsen, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often have lower urinary tract symptoms. Seventy-four percent of patients with early-to-moderate disease report more than one bladder disturbance symptom. Severe bladder symptoms are reported in 27-39% of PD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  1. Dysphagia and sialorrhea: the relationship to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaretta, Denise Hack; Rosso, Ana Lucia; Mattos, James Pitágoras de; Maliska, Carmelindo; Costa, Milton M B

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia and sialorrhea in patients with Parkinson's disease are both automatically accepted as dependent on this neurological disease. The aim were to establish if these two complaints are a consequence or associated manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Two Parkinson's diseases groups from the same outpatients' population were studied. Patients in the first group, with dysphagia, were studied by videofluoroscopy. The second, with sialorrhea, were studied by the scintigraphic method, Videofluoroscopic examination of the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing showed that 94% of Parkinson's diseases patients present, structural causes, not related to Parkinson's diseases, able to produce or intensify the observed disphagia. The scintigraphic examination of Parkinson's diseases patients with sialorrhea showed that there is no increase of serous saliva production. Nevertheless, showed a significantly higher velocity of saliva excretion in the Parkinson's diseases patients. Dysphagia can be due to the muscular rigidity often present in the Parkinson's diseases patient, or more usually by non Parkinson's disease associated causes. In Parkinson's diseases patients, sialorrhea is produced by saliva retention. Nevertheless, sialorrhea can produce discomfort in swallowing, although without a formal complaint of dysphagia. In this case, subclinical dysphagia must be considered. Sialorrhea is indicative of dysphagia or at least of subclinical dysphagia. As final conclusion, Parkinson's diseases can be an isolated cause of dysphagia and/or sialorrhea, but frequently, a factor unrelated to Parkinson's diseases is the main cause of or at least aggravates the dysphagia.

  2. Multiple modes of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Nombela

    Full Text Available Cognitive problems are a major factor determining quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease. These include deficits in inhibitory control, ranging from subclinical alterations in decision-making to severe impulse control disorders. Based on preclinical studies, we proposed that Parkinson's disease does not cause a unified disorder of inhibitory control, but rather a set of impulsivity factors with distinct psychological profiles, anatomy and pharmacology. We assessed a broad set of measures of the cognitive, behavioural and temperamental/trait aspects of impulsivity. Sixty adults, including 30 idiopathic Parkinson's disease patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-III and 30 healthy controls, completed a neuropsychological battery, objective behavioural measures and self-report questionnaires. Univariate analyses of variance confirmed group differences in nine out of eleven metrics. We then used factor analysis (principal components method to identify the structure of impulsivity in Parkinson's disease. Four principal factors were identified, consistent with four different mechanisms of impulsivity, explaining 60% of variance. The factors were related to (1 tests of response conflict, interference and self assessment of impulsive behaviours on the Barrett Impulsivity Scale, (2 tests of motor inhibitory control, and the self-report behavioural approach system, (3 time estimation and delay aversion, and (4 reflection in hypothetical scenarios including temporal discounting. The different test profiles of these four factors were consistent with human and comparative studies of the pharmacology and functional anatomy of impulsivity. Relationships between each factor and clinical and demographic features were examined by regression against factor loadings. Levodopa dose equivalent was associated only with factors (2 and (3. The results confirm that impulsivity is common in Parkinson's disease, even in the absence of impulse control disorders, and

  3. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  4. The use of rasagiline in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, A H V

    2006-01-01

    Rasagiline is a novel, potent, irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidative B developed for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. The drug has shown efficacy in improving motor features in both early and advanced Parkinson's disease patients. The drug appears to be well tolerated and its once daily fixed dose formulation should make for excellent compliance. Rasagiline has also demonstrated important neuroprotective properties in both in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies. A provisional study of neuroprotection in a delayed start clinical trial of early PD patients has also suggested that this benefit may be translated to the clinic. Additional clinical trials are underway to confirm this.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaka, Fumio; Tashiro, Kunio; Itoh, Kazunori; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Hamada, Takeshi.

    1992-01-01

    The width of substantia nigra (SN) in 59 cases of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as well as 21 normal controls was analyzed by T2 weighted image (T2WI) of 1.5 Tesla high-field magnetic resonance image (MRI). All patients and controls underwent MRI with the spin-echo sequences used TR/TE: 3000/30 (short TE), and TR/TE: 3000/80 (long TE), in 5-mm-thick volumes. The width between the red nucleus and the cerebral peduncle showing low signal intensity areas was measured as that of SN and its ratio to the distance from the aqueduct to the midline of the cerebral peduncle was also measured. The calculated values of the width of SN and its ratio were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. The significant reduction in the width of SN and its ratio in Parkinson's disease were disclosed below: the mean calculated values of the width of SN were 2.95±0.51 mm in controls, 2.68±0.99 mm in Parkinson's disase on long TE images (P<0.01), and the mean ratio of the width of SN were 13.58±4.21% in controls, 10.52±3.07% in Parkinson's disease on long TE images (P=0.0002). The narrowing of SN in Parkinson's disease was more prominent in men, and advanced cases with Yahr stage III and IV. Considering that the pars reticulata, which is normally containing iron, shows low signal intensity on long TE images, the width of pars compacta could be measured more precisely on this sequences. The evaluation of the ratio of SN in midbrain on long TE images seemed to be more sensitive than the calculated values in detecting the narrowing of SN and pars compacta in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  6. [Metronome therapy in patients with Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzensberger, W; Oberländer, U; Stecker, K

    1997-12-01

    We studied 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 12 patients with Parkinson-plus-syndrome, trying to improve patients' gait by application of various external rhythmic stimuli, including metronome stimulation (96 beats per minute = middle andante). The test course of the patients was 4 x 10 meters and 3 U-turns. The patients' gait quality under stimulation was compared with their free walk (velocity, number of steps, number of freezing episodes). Metronome stimulation significantly reduced the time and number of steps needed for the test course and also diminished the number of freezing episodes. March music stimulation was less effective and tactile stimulation (rhythmically tapping on the patient's shoulder) even produced negative results. The positive effect of metronome stimulation was also found, when the tests were not performed inside the hospital building, but outside in the hospital parc. Metronome stimulation was comparably effective in both patient sub-groups examined in this study (M. Parkinson, Parkinson-plus-syndrome) and seems to be an important additional help in the treatment of these patients. Electronical metronomes are not expensive, easy in handling, and portable. A theoretical explanation of metronome stimulation effectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease still needs to be elucidated.

  7. Parkinson's: a syndrome rather than a disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Nataliya; Padmakumar, C; Lewis, Simon J G; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2017-08-01

    Emerging concepts suggest that a multitude of pathology ranging from misfolding of alpha-synuclein to neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotransmitter driven alteration of brain neuronal networks lead to a syndrome that is commonly known as Parkinson's disease. The complex underlying pathology which may involve degeneration of non-dopaminergic pathways leads to the expression of a range of non-motor symptoms from the prodromal stage of Parkinson's to the palliative stage. Non-motor clinical subtypes, cognitive and non-cognitive, have now been proposed paving the way for possible subtype specific and non-motor treatments, a key unmet need currently. Natural history of these subtypes remains unclear and need to be defined. In addition to in vivo biomarkers which suggest variable involvement of the cholinergic and noradrenergic patterns of the Parkinson syndrome, abnormal alpha-synuclein accumulation have now been demonstrated in the gut, pancreas, heart, salivary glands, and skin suggesting that Parkinson's is a multi-organ disorder. The Parkinson's phenotype is thus not just a dopaminergic motor syndrome, but a dysfunctional multi-neurotransmitter pathway driven central and peripheral nervous system disorder that possibly ought to be considered a syndrome and not a disease.

  8. Visual art therapy in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rajeet; Trauger-Querry, Barbara; Loughrin, Athena; Appleby, Brian S

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the diagnostic and treatment utility of visual art therapy in a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Visual art therapy was compared longitudinally with clinical and neuroimaging data over five-month period in an autopsy-confirmed case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of MM2-cortical subtype. Art therapy sessions and content were useful in ascertaining neuropsychiatric symptoms during the course of her illness. Art therapy offered a unique emotional and cognitive outlet as illness progressed. Patients and families affected by sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may benefit from art therapy despite the rapidly progressive nature of the illness. Art therapy can also be useful for assessment of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by healthcare professionals.

  9. Increased intracranial volume in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Katja; Karlsborg, Merete; Hansen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to diagnose and distinguish from each other. STUDY AIMS AND METHODS: Patients with PD and MSA and controls were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using tissue segmentation a...... and outlining of regions in order to identify regional volume changes that might be useful in the diagnosis of the two diseases....

  10. [A core deficit in Parkinson disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, A; Herrera, E; Cuetos, F

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative condition involving motor, cognitive, and linguistic deficits. It is important to know why all these different deficits co-occur in the affected people. This paper aims to clarify whether these comorbid deficits result from the selective impairment of a computational primitive, namely, a context-sensitive computational ability according to Chomsky's Hierarchy (a well-established research tool in comparative neuroscience). A total of 15 medicated subjects with Parkinson disease and 15 controls were selected. They were matched in age and education. A battery of tasks was designed to test 3 different domains (motor capacities, cognition, and language) and 2 different computational abilities (context-free and context-sensitive operations). Significant differences between groups were observed only regarding the linguistic task involving context-sensitive computations (correferences). The observed deficits in our patients with Parkinson disease cannot be explained in terms of the selective impairment of one only unspecific, low-level computational process. At the same time, differences between patients and controls are expected to be greater if the former are not medicated. Moreover, we should pursue in the search of (this kind of) computational primitives than can be selectively impaired in people with Parkinson disease, because they may help to achieve an earlier diagnosis of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Voice Onset Time in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Emily; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found that speaking rate has an effect on voice onset time (VOT). Given that Parkinson disease (PD) affects speaking rate, the purpose of this study was to examine VOT with the effect of rate removed (VOT ratio), along with the traditional VOT measure, in individuals with PD. VOT and VOT ratio were examined in 9 individuals with PD…

  12. Hypocretin (orexin) loss in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Lee, S.Y.; Hegeman, I.M.; Pelt, J. van; Duinen, S.G. van; Lammers, G.J.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) system plays a central role in the regulation of various functions, including sleep/wake regulation and metabolism. There is a growing interest in hypocretin function in Parkinson's disease (PD), given the high prevalence of non-motor symptoms such as sleep

  13. Hypocretin (orexin) loss in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Lee, S.Y.; Hegeman, I.M.; Pelt, J. van; Duinen, S.G. van; Lammers, G.J.; Swaab, D.F.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) system plays a central role in the regulation of various functions, including sleep/wake regulation and metabolism. There is a growing interest in hypocretin function in Parkinson's disease (PD), given the high prevalence of non-motor symptoms such as sleep

  14. Clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Bart; Speelman, Johannes D.; de Haan, Rob J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical heterogeneity in newly diagnosed Parkinson's disease using cluster analysis and to describe the subgroups in terms of impairment, disability, perceived quality of life, and use of dopaminergic therapy. METHODS: We conducted a k-means cluster analysis in a prospective

  15. Ambulatory motor assessment in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.W.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We developed an algorithm that distinguishes between on and off states in patients with Parkinson's disease during daily life activities. Twenty-three patients were monitored continuously in a home-like situation for approximately 3 hours while they carried out normal daily-life activities. Behavior

  16. Parkinson's disease and mitochondrial gene variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andalib, Sasan; Vafaee, Manouchehr Seyedi; Gjedde, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of the central nervous system in the elderly. The pathogenesis of PD is a complex process, with genetics as an important contributing factor. This factor may stem from mitochondrial gene variations and mutations as well as from nuclear gene variations...

  17. Mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Stenager, E; Stenager, E

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: After the introduction of L-dopa the mortality rate in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has changed, but is still higher than in the background population. MATERIAL & METHODS: Mortality, age at death and cause of death in a group of PD patients compared with the background population...

  18. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensen, E. van; Leeuwen, R.B. van; Zaag-Loonen, H.J. van der; Masius-Olthof, S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dizziness is a frequent complaint of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and orthostatic hypotension (OH) is often thought to be the cause. We studied whether benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) could also be an explanation. AIM: To assess the prevalence of benign paroxysmal

  19. Parkinson's disease motor subtypes and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, David J; Landau, Sabine; Hindle, John V; Samuel, Michael; Wilson, Kenneth C; Hurt, Catherine S; Brown, Richard G

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is heterogeneous, both in terms of motor symptoms and mood. Identifying associations between phenotypic variants of motor and mood subtypes may provide clues to understand mechanisms underlying mood disorder and symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A total of 513 patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and separately classified into anxious, depressed, and anxious-depressed mood classes based on latent class analysis of a semistructured interview. Motor subtypes assessed related to age-of-onset, rate of progression, presence of motor fluctuations, lateralization of motor symptoms, tremor dominance, and the presence of postural instability and gait symptoms and falls. The directions of observed associations tended to support previous findings with the exception of lateralization of symptoms, for which there were no consistent or significant results. Regression models examining a range of motor subtypes together indicated increased risk of anxiety in patients with younger age-of-onset and motor fluctuations. In contrast, depression was most strongly related to axial motor symptoms. Different risk factors were observed for depressed patients with and without anxiety, suggesting heterogeneity within Parkinson's disease depression. Such association data may suggest possible underlying common risk factors for motor subtype and mood. Combined with convergent evidence from other sources, possible mechanisms may include cholinergic system damage and white matter changes contributing to non-anxious depression in Parkinson's disease, while situational factors related to threat and unpredictability may contribute to the exacerbation and maintenance of anxiety in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Neuroimaging in pre-motor Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Barber

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease begins long before the onset of clinical motor symptoms, resulting in substantial cell loss by the time a diagnosis can be made. The period between the onset of neurodegeneration and the development of motoric disease would be the ideal time to intervene with disease modifying therapies. This pre-motor phase can last many years, but the lack of a specific clinical phenotype means that objective biomarkers are needed to reliably detect prodromal disease. In recent years, recognition that patients with REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD are at particularly high risk of future parkinsonism has enabled the development of large prodromal cohorts in which to investigate novel biomarkers, and neuroimaging has generated some of the most promising results to date. Here we review investigations undertaken in RBD and other pre-clinical cohorts, including modalities that are well established in clinical Parkinson's as well as novel imaging methods. Techniques such as high resolution MRI of the substantia nigra and functional imaging of Parkinsonian brain networks have great potential to facilitate early diagnosis. Further longitudinal studies will establish their true value in quantifying prodromal neurodegeneration and predicting future Parkinson's.

  1. Gene-Environment Interaction in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Lill, Christina M; Lee, Pei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Drinking caffeinated coffee has been reported to provide protection against Parkinson's disease (PD). Caffeine is an adenosine A2A receptor (encoded by the gene ADORA2A) antagonist that increases dopaminergic neurotransmission and Cytochrome P450 1A2 (gene: CYP1A2...

  2. Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease: Selected therapeutic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease are very much linked to the dopaminergic system, yet a larger understanding that goes behind this ''simplified explanation'' of the linked phenomena remains important to further novel advances. The description of factors related to both disorders including implicated receptors, ...

  3. [Insufficient medication compliance in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, M.B.; Eijk, M. van der; Kramers, C.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Medication compliance is generally suboptimal, particularly in patients with complex polypharmacy. This generic treatment problem is described here for Parkinson's disease (PD). We would expect patients with PD to have good medication compliance, since missed doses immediately result in worsening of

  4. Emotion and Object Processing in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Henri; Gagne, Marie-Helene; Hess, Ursula; Pourcher, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    The neuropsychological literature on the processing of emotions in Parkinson's disease (PD) reveals conflicting evidence about the role of the basal ganglia in the recognition of facial emotions. Hence, the present study had two objectives. One was to determine the extent to which the visual processing of emotions and objects differs in PD. The…

  5. Detection of proteolytic signatures for Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordal, Peter Lüttge; Dyrlund, Thomas F.; Winge, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate if idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) is associated with distinct proteolytic signatures relative to non-neurodegenerative controls (NND) and patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Materials & methods: A subtiligase-based N-terminomics screening method was exploited...

  6. Quantitative motor performance and sleep benefit in Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gilst, Merel; van Mierlo, P.; Bloem, B.R.; Overeem, S.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Many people with Parkinson disease experience "sleep benefit": temporarily improved mobility upon awakening. Here we used quantitative motor tasks to assess the influence of sleep on motor functioning in Parkinson disease. DESIGN: Eighteen Parkinson patients with and 20 without

  7. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-04

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lumbar Spine Surgery in Patients with Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Joshua E; Hughes, Alexander; Sama, Andrew; Weinstein, Joseph; Kaplan, Leon; Cammisa, Frank P; Girardi, Federico P

    2015-10-21

    Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. The literature on patients with Parkinson disease and spine surgery is limited, but increased complications have been reported. All patients with Parkinson disease undergoing lumbar spine surgery between 2002 and 2012 were identified. Patients' charts, radiographs, and outcome questionnaires were reviewed. Parkinson disease severity was assessed with use of the modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. Complications and subsequent surgeries were analyzed. Risk for reoperation was assessed. Ninety-six patients underwent lumbar spine surgery. The mean patient age was 63.0 years. The mean follow-up duration was 30.1 months. The Parkinson disease severity stage was Parkinson disease severity stage of ≥3 (p Parkinson disease is good, with improvement of spine-related pain. A larger prospective study is warranted. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  9. [Sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease: characteristics, evaluation and therapeutic approaches].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faludi, Béla; Janszky, József; Komoly, Sámuel; Kovács, Norbert

    2015-07-05

    Parkinson's disease is a well known representent of the movement disorder group of neurological disorders. The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease is based on specific symptoms and signs of movement abnormalities. In addition to classic motor symptoms, Parkinson's disease has characteristic non-motor features, and some of these emerges the classic signs. The authors discuss characteristics and therapeutic interventions in Parkinson's disease related sleep disturbances. The authors reviewed and summarised literature data on sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease published in the PubMed database up to January 2015. Sleep problems are important non-motor complains (insomnia, hypersomnia, REM behaviour disorder, sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome). The neurodegenerative process of the brain-stem, the effect of symptoms of Parkinson's disease on sleep and concomitant sleep disorders constitute the background of the patient's complains. Appropriate diagnosis and therapy of the consequential or concomitant sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease will help to improve the patient's quality of life.

  10. Prevalence and incidence of Parkinson's disease in The Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, Lene; Bech, Sara Brynhild Winther; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2008-01-01

    A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively.......A study in The Faroe Islands in 1995 suggested a high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and total parkinsonism of 187.6 and 233.4 per 100,000 inhabitants respectively....

  11. Serum uric acid and lipid profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; He, Shuang; Shang, Jun-Kui; Ma, Ming-Ming; Xu, Chang-Shui; Shi, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jie-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, rapidly progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. Brain lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in the disease pathogenesis. But little was known whether serum lipids and uric acid (a natural antioxidant) levels changed in patients with prion disease. Here we retrospectively reviewed and compared the serum lipids and uric acid levels of 19 probable sporadic CJD patients and 26 healthy control subjects. We found that the serum uric acid levels in sporadic CJD patients were significantly lower than that in controls (P=0.01). Serum triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were similar in sporadic CJD patients and controls. However, LDL/HDL ratio was lower in sporadic CJD patients (P=0.003). The low serum uric acid and LDL/HDL ratio levels in sporadic CJD indicate that dysfunction in the lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress is associated with sporadic prion disease. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Prion Protein Preference of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Subtypes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Helen M. J.; Welton, Jeremy M.; Masters, Colin L.; Klug, Genevieve M.; Boyd, Alison; Hill, Andrew F.; Collins, Steven J.; Lawson, Victoria A.

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most prevalent manifestation of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases affecting humans. The disease encompasses a spectrum of clinical phenotypes that have been correlated with molecular subtypes that are characterized by the molecular mass of the protease-resistant fragment of the disease-related conformation of the prion protein and a polymorphism at codon 129 of the gene encoding the prion protein. A cell-free assay of prion protein misfolding was used to investigate the ability of these sporadic CJD molecular subtypes to propagate using brain-derived sources of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). This study confirmed the presence of three distinct sporadic CJD molecular subtypes with PrPC substrate requirements that reflected their codon 129 associations in vivo. However, the ability of a sporadic CJD molecular subtype to use a specific PrPC substrate was not determined solely by codon 129 as the efficiency of prion propagation was also influenced by the composition of the brain tissue from which the PrPC substrate was sourced, thus indicating that nuances in PrPC or additional factors may determine sporadic CJD subtype. The results of this study will aid in the design of diagnostic assays that can detect prion disease across the diversity of sporadic CJD subtypes. PMID:22930754

  13. Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannfelt, L.; Lilius, L.; Viitanen, M.; Winblad, B.; Basun, H.; Houlden, H.; Rossor, M.; Hardy, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer's disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are thought to be sporadic and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in sporadic cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British sporadic Alzheimer's disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.)

  14. Parkinson's disease in Russia: prevalence and incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razdorskaya V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of the regional studies on the frequency of Parkinson's disease (PD and the incidence of it in Russia have been generalized, the main factors that determine the quality of the estimates of this disease epidemiological indicators have been identifyd. The article summarizes data from 19 original studies on the epidemiology of parkinsonism and Parkinson's disease in Russia published between 2005-2015. Due to the statistical heterogeneity of the primary results computational analytics was not applied to the data; however, data consolidation allowed to perform a trend analysis of epidemiological indicators. The methodological basis of the majority of studies was medical aid appealabil-ity; two of the studies used door-to-door surveys. One of the studies returned questionably low epidemiological indicators obtained from the medical records, and the rest showed the standardized prevalence of 30.0-139.9/100,000 and incidence of 7.63-21.8/100,000 per year. Contribution of Parkinson's disease to the nosological structure of parkinsonism was >61.3%. Estimate of the number of patients with PD in Russia is approximately 210,000 people. Conclusions are made regarding the prevalence of PD in Russia according to the cross-cutting research on the level of indicators in the Western countries. The prevalence of PD by appealability is 2-3 times less than the prevalence in continuous research, both national and foreign. The incidence of PD, demonstrated in half of the studies, is stable from region to region and is comparable with the universally recognized values.

  15. Wireless Monitoring for Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefaliakos, Antonios; Pliakos, Ioannis; Charalampidou, Martha; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The use of applications for mobile devices and wireless sensors is common for the sector of telemedicine. Recently various studies and systems were developed in order to help patients suffering from severe diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and Parkinson's disease. They present a challenge for the sector because such systems demand the flow of accurate data in real time and the use of specialized sensors. In this review will be presented some very interesting applications developed for patients with cardiovascular diseases and Parkinson's disease.

  16. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))

    2011-04-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  17. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O.; Plato, Brian M; Parker, John

    2011-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  18. CSF Neurofilament Proteins Levels are Elevated in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; van Everbroeck, Bart; Abdo, W. Farid; Kremer, Berry P. H.; Verbeek, Marcel M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease

  19. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M

    2017-10-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.

  20. DYSPHAGIA AND SIALORRHEA: the relationship to Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Hack NICARETTA; Ana Lucia ROSSO; James Pitagoras de MATTOS; Carmelindo MALISKA; Milton M. B. COSTA

    2013-01-01

    Context Dysphagia and sialorrhea in patients with Parkinson's disease are both automatically accepted as dependent on this neurological disease. Objective The aim were to establish if these two complaints are a consequence or associated manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Method Two Parkinson's diseases groups from the same outpatients' population were studied. Patients in the first group, with dysphagia, were studied by videofluoroscopy. The second, with sialorrhea, were studied by th...