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Sample records for sporadic parkinson disease

  1. Genetic architecture of sporadic frontotemporal dementia and overlap with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Wang, Yunpeng; Vandrovcova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical, pathological and genetic overlap between sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested; however, the relationship between these disorders is still not well understood. Here we evaluated genetic overlap betwee...

  2. Imaging movement-related activity in medicated Parkin-associated and sporadic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Eimeren, Thilo; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buhmann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Treatment-related motor complications such as dyskinesias are a major problem in the long-term management of Parkinson's disease (PD). In sporadic PD, a relatively early onset of the disease is known to be associated with an early development of dyskinesias. Although linked with early onset...... selected movements. Patients with Parkin-associated and sporadic PD showed no difference in movement-related activation patterns. Moreover, the covariates 'age' and 'disease duration' similarly influenced brain activation in both patient groups. The present finding suggests that a stable long-term motor...

  3. Generation of an integration-free induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-43 from a patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marote

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line was generated from a 36-year-old patient with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD. Skin fibroblasts were reprogrammed using the non-integrating Sendai virus technology to deliver OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 factors. The generated cell line (CSC-43 exhibits expression of common pluripotency markers, in vitro differentiation into three germ layers and normal karyotype. This iPSC line can be used to study the mechanisms underlying the development of PD.

  4. Generation of a human induced pluripotent stem cell line (CSC-42 from a patient with sporadic form of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Savchenko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Skin fibroblasts were collected from a 44-year-old patient with sporadic case of Parkinson's disease (PD. The non-integrating Sendai virus vector encoding OCT3/4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4 was used to reprogram fibroblasts into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Generated iPSCs had normal karyotypes, expressed common stem cell markers, and were capable of differentiating into all three germ layers. Generated line could be used for PD modeling to understand the mechanisms that influence the disorder.

  5. Unbiased screen for interactors of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 supports a common pathway for sporadic and familial Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilina, Alexandria; Rudenko, Iakov N.; Kaganovich, Alice; Civiero, Laura; Chau, Hien; Kalia, Suneil K.; Kalia, Lorraine V.; Lobbestael, Evy; Chia, Ruth; Ndukwe, Kelechi; Ding, Jinhui; Nalls, Mike A.; Olszewski, Maciej; Hauser, David N.; Kumaran, Ravindran; Lozano, Andres M.; Baekelandt, Veerle; Greene, Lois E.; Taymans, Jean-Marc; Greggio, Elisa; Cookson, Mark R.; Plagnol, Vincent; Martinez, Maria; Hernandez, Dena G.; Sharma, Manu; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Saad, Mohamad; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Schulte, Claudia; Lesage, Suzanne; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Sigurlaug; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cooper, J. Mark; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Deloukas, Panos; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Dürr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Omar; Harris, Clare; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huang, Xuemei; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; München, Helmholtz Zentrum; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw R.; Morrison, Karen E.; Mudanohwo, Ese; O'Sullivan, Sean S.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Shaw, Karen; Shoulson, Ira; Sidransky, Ellen; Smith, Colin; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D.; Strange, Amy; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Stefánsson, Kári; Hardy, John; Heutink, Peter; Brice, Alexis; Gasser, Thomas; Singleton, Andrew B.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Johnson, Robert; Longo, Dan L.; Majounie, Elisa; Nalls, Michael A.; O'Brien, Richard; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Zielke, H. Ronald; Zonderman, Alan B.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) cause inherited Parkinson disease (PD), and common variants around LRRK2 are a risk factor for sporadic PD. Using protein-protein interaction arrays, we identified BCL2-associated athanogene 5, Rab7L1 (RAB7, member RAS oncogene family-like 1), and

  6. May the thyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and sporadic Parkinson's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Emilio; García-Moreno, José-Manuel; Martín de Pablos, Angel; Chacón, José

    2014-11-20

    The research group has detected nitrosative stress and a singular version of nitrosylated serum α-synuclein in serum of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Dysfunction of the thyroid gland has been proposed to be linked to this disease. The aim of the study was to know if the thyroid gland is involved in idiopathic PD and nitrosative stress. We studied 50 patients (early and advanced disease patients), 35 controls, and 6 subjects with thyroidectomy. Clinical characteristics, serum thyroperoxidase levels, and 3-nitrotyrosine proteins were analyzed. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting methods were employed. The findings indicated that the prevalence of two thyroid dysfunctions (hyper- or hypothyroidism) was not found to be different in patients relative to controls. However, the levels of the enzyme thyroperoxidase were found to be elevated in early disease patients (pdisease subjects, and these levels were negatively correlated with serum 3-nitrotyrosine proteins (pthyroid gland and thyroperoxidase participate in nitrosylation of serum proteins and they could influence Parkinsonian nitrosative stress as well as nitrosylation of serum α-synuclein, a potentially pathogenic factor.

  7. Integrated molecular landscape of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klemann, C.J.H.M.; Martens, G.J.; Sharma, M.; Martens, M.B.; Isacson, O.; Gasser, T.; Visser, J.E.; Poelmans, G.J.V.

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is caused by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Although a number of independent molecular pathways and processes have been associated with familial Parkinson's disease, a common mechanism underlying especially sporadic Parkinson's disease is still largely

  8. Subchronic infusion of the product of inflammation prostaglandin J2 models sporadic Parkinson's disease in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo-Pereira Maria E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuroinflammation is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD. Inflammation involves the activation of microglia and astrocytes that release high levels of prostaglandins. There is a profound gap in our understanding of how cyclooxygenases and their prostaglandin products redirect cellular events to promote PD neurodegeneration. The major prostaglandin in the mammalian brain is prostaglandin D2, which readily undergoes spontaneous dehydration to generate the bioactive cyclopentenone prostaglandins of the J2 series. These J2 prostaglandins are highly reactive and neurotoxic products of inflammation shown in cellular models to impair the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway and cause the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. PD is a disorder that exhibits accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in neuronal inclusions (Lewy bodies. The role of J2 prostaglandins in promoting PD neurodegeneration has not been investigated under in vivo conditions. Methods We addressed the neurodegenerative and behavioral effects of the administration of prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2 simultaneously into the substantia nigra/striatum of adult male FVB mice by subchronic microinjections. One group received unilateral injections of DMSO (vehicle, n = 6 and three groups received PGJ2 [3.4 μg or 6.7 μg (n = 6 per group or 16.7 μg (n = 5] per injection. Immunohistochemical and behavioral analyses were applied to assess the effects of the subchronic PGJ2 microinfusions. Results Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a PGJ2 dose-dependent significant and selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra while the GABAergic neurons were spared. PGJ2 also triggered formation of aggregates immunoreactive for ubiquitin and α-synuclein in the spared dopaminergic neurons. Moreover, PGJ2 infusion caused a massive microglia and astrocyte activation that could initiate a deleterious cascade leading to self-sustained progressive neurodegeneration. The PGJ

  9. The Potential Mutation of GAK Gene in the Typical Sporadic Parkinson's Disease from the Han Population of Chinese Mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Hanyi; Zhu, Lei; Deng, Libing; Fang, Xin; Deng, Xia; Liang, Huiting; Tang, Chunyan; Cao, Xuebing; Lu, Yi; Li, Jiao; Ren, Xiao; Zuo, Wenjie; Zhang, Xiong; Xu, Renshi

    2016-12-01

    The genetic factors about the pathogenesis of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD) is not completely clear at present; therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study, high-throughput sequencing analysis (HTPSA) of all cyclin G-associated kinase (GAK) exons, loss-of-function assessment, and sorting intolerant from tolerant analysis of HTPSA data in 250 typical sPD and 250 controls, which found 55 candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To further explore these SNPs, we sequenced the 30 most strongly associated SNPs in the 460 typical sPD cases and the 525 controls. All subjects were from the Han population of Chinese mainland and excluded the toxic exposure, the heavy coffee drinking, and the early- and late-onset sPD. The minor allele frequencies (MAFs) at c.3824T>G, c.3794T>C, and c.3819G>A were higher in the control. The TG of c.3824T>G, the TC of c.3794T>C, and the AG of c.3819G>A were associated with the decreased risk of sPD. The subjects carrying the minor C allele of c.3794T>C or the minor A allele of c.3819G>A exhibited a decreased risk of sPD. c.3824T>G negatively affected the binding affinity of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). c.3794T>C increased the surface area exposed to substrates. c.3819G>A most likely reduced the expression level of GAK. Our data suggest that the multiple SNPs of GAK synergistically participate in the pathogenesis of sPD through multiple pathways.

  10. Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000755.htm Parkinson disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Parkinson disease results from certain brain cells dying. These cells ...

  11. Combined exposure to agriculture pesticides, paraquat and maneb, induces alterations in the N/OFQ-NOPr and PDYN/KOPr systems in rats: Relevance to sporadic Parkinson's disease.

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    Bastías-Candia, Sussy; Di Benedetto, Manuela; D'Addario, Claudio; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Despite several years of research, the aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is quite far from being solved. In PD, as well as in other neurodegenerative disorders, it has been proposed that the combination of multiple factors might contribute to the onset of the disease. Indeed, several authors have suggested that environmental factors, such as pollutants and chemicals, might be associated with the onset of several neurodegenerative disorders. On the other hand, several studies have described that the nociceptin/orphanin-NOP and prodynorphin-KOP opioid systems are implicated in the pathology of Parkinson's disease. Considering the nonrestricted commercial availability and common use of several pesticides, such as paraquat and maneb, in agriculture of less developed countries, the aim of our study was to investigate the involvement of nociceptin/orphanin-NOP and prodynorphin-KOP systems in a chronic paraquat and maneb animal model of Parkinson's disease. Our results showed that after paraquat/maneb (5/15 mg kg(-1) ) treatment, a significant reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine synthesis, was observed. Also, the association of paraquat and maneb (5/15 mg kg(-1) ) induced an increase in nociceptin/orphanin and a decrease of prodynorphin gene expression levels in the substantia nigra with a down-regulation of NOP and KOP receptors after both treatments in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen. These data further confirm that paraquat and maneb toxicity can modulate gene expression of the nociceptin/orphanin-NOP receptor and prodynorphin-KOP receptor systems in the substantia nigra and caudate putamen, offering further support to the hypothesis that chronic exposure to these agrochemicals might be implicated in the mechanisms underlying sporadic Parkinson's disease. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 30: 656-663, 2015. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a type of movement disorder. It happens when nerve cells in the brain don't ... coordination As symptoms get worse, people with the disease may have trouble walking, talking, or doing simple ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including: Your genes. Researchers have identified specific genetic mutations that can cause Parkinson's disease, but these are ... Exposure to toxins. Ongoing exposure to herbicides and pesticides may put you at a slightly increased risk ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and to reduce tremors, slowness of movements, and gait problems. DBS requires careful programming of the stimulator device in order to work correctly. View Full Treatment Information Definition Parkinson's disease (PD) belongs to a group of ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intramural scientists have defined descriptive terms of particular relevance to their own research, and have ranked those ... 2014) Research on Dopamine and Parkinson's Disease Illustrates Value of Exposome Studies (March 2014) Exploring the Haunting ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Dementia

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    ... Find your local chapter Join our online community Parkinson's Disease Dementia Parkinson's disease dementia is an impairment in ... disease. About Symptoms Diagnosis Causes & risks Treatments About Parkinson's disease dementia The brain changes caused by Parkinson's disease ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Cognitive Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease NY Nightly News with Chuck ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... the First Few Years with Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Pain in PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's Disease: Financial, Legal ... Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Understanding Pain in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: The Parkinson's Pipeline 2011: ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease NY Nightly News with Chuck ... Briefings: What's in the Parkinson's Pipeline? Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease 2010 Expert Briefings: Legal Issues: ...

  20. Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astradsson, Arnar; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The mean age of onset of Parkinson's disease is about 65 years, with a median time of 9 years between diagnosis and death. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of fetal cell or stem cell......-derived therapy in people with Parkinson's disease? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to September 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert ... Nonmotor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Gait, Balance and Falls in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Coping ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Cognitive Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: Nutrition ... Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease 2010 Expert Briefings: Legal Issues: Planning Ahead When You are Living with Parkinson's ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Issues: Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease NY Nightly News with Chuck ... Briefings: What's in the Parkinson's Pipeline? Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's Disease 2010 Expert Briefings: Legal Issues: ...

  4. The alterations of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sporadic Parkinson's disease from the Han population of Mainland China

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    Xia Deng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Many symptoms of sporadic Parkinson's disease (sPD can’t be completely explained by the lesion of simple typical extrapyramidal circuit between striatum and substantia nigra. Therefore, we investigated the alteration of cortical volume, thickness, surface and density in the intermediate sPD from the Han population of Mainland China in order to find the new pathological brain regions associated with the complex clinical manifestations of sPD. The cortical volume, thickness, surface and density were examined using the voxel-based cortical morphometry and corticometry on magnetic resonance image (MRI in 67 intermediate sPD and 35 controls, the multiple adjusted comparisons analysis of all MRI data were employed to assess the relationships between the cortical morphometric alteration in the specific brain regions and sPD. Results showed that a significantly shrunk volume, thinned thickness and enlarged or reduced surface of cortex in some specific brain regions were closely associated with sPD, but all cortical densities were not different. The majority of morphometric alteration of hemisphere cortex was symmetric, but that in the left hemisphere was more significant. The cortical morphometric alterations in the frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital and limbic lobe, cerebellum, caudate and thalamus were closely related to the clinical neural dysfunction (Clinical manifestations of sPD. Our data indicated that the deficits of extensive brain regions involved in the development of sPD, resulted in a series of correspondent complex clinical manifestations in the disease.

  5. Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a long and relatively healthy life. What Causes Parkinson's Disease? In the very deep parts of the brain, there is a collection of nerve cells that help control movement, known as the basal ganglia (say: BAY-sul GAN-glee-ah). In a ...

  6. Mutation analysis for DJ-1 in sporadic and familial parkinsonism: screening strategy in parkinsonism.

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    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Kubo, Shin-Ichiro; Toda, Tatsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2009-05-22

    DJ-1 mutations cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism (ARP). Although some reports of DJ-1 mutations have been published, there is lack of information on the prevalence of these mutations in large-scale studies of both familial and sporadic parkinsonism. In this genetic screening study, we analyzed the distribution and frequency of DJ-1 mutations by direct nucleotide sequencing of coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of DJ-1, in 386 parkin-negative parkinsonism patients (371 index cases: 67 probands of autosomal recessive parkinsonism families, 90 probands of autosomal dominant parkinsonism families, 201 patients with sporadic parkinsonism, and 13 with unknown family histories) from 12 countries (Japan 283, China 27, Taiwan 22, Korea 22, Israel 16, Turkey 5, Philippines 2, Bulgaria 2, Greece 2, Tunisia 1, USA 2, Ukraine 1, unknown 1). None had causative mutation in DJ-1, suggesting DJ-1 mutation is very rare among patients with familial and sporadic parkinsonism from Asian countries and those with other ethnic background. This is in contrast to the higher frequencies and worldwide distribution of parkin- and PINK1-related parkinsonism in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism. Thus, after obtaining clinical information, screening for mutations in (1) parkin, (2) PINK1, (3) DJ-1, (4) ATP13A2 should be conducted in that order, in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, based on their reported frequencies. In addition, haplotype analysis should be employed to check for homozygosity of 1p36, which harbors a cluster of causative genes for ARP such as DJ-1, PINK1 and ATP13A2 in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, especially in parkinsonism with consanguinity.

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation analysis in siblings and monozygotic twins discordant for sporadic Parkinson's disease revealed different epigenetic patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

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    Kaut, Oliver; Schmitt, Ina; Tost, Jörg; Busato, Florence; Liu, Yi; Hofmann, Per; Witt, Stephanie H; Rietschel, Marcella; Fröhlich, Holger; Wüllner, Ullrich

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have elucidated the genetics of Parkinson's disease; however, the aetiology of the majority of sporadic cases has not yet been resolved. We hypothesized that epigenetic variations could be associated with PD and evaluated the DNA methylation pattern in PD patients compared to brothers or twins without PD. The methylation of DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 62 discordant siblings including 24 monozygotic twins was characterized with Illumina DNA Methylation 450K bead arrays and subsequently validated in two independent cohorts: 221 PD vs. 227 healthy individuals (cohort 1) applying Illumina's VeraCode and 472 PD patients vs. 487 controls (cohort 2) using pyrosequencing. We choose a delta beta of >15 % and selected 62 differentially methylated CpGs in 51 genes from the discordant siblings. Among them, three displayed multiple CpGs per gene: microRNA 886 (MIR886, 10 CpGs), phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D, 2 CpGs) and tripartite motif-containing 34 (TRIM34, 2 CpGs). PDE4D was confirmed in both cohorts (p value 2.44e-05). In addition, for biomarker construction, we used the penalized logistic regression model, resulting in a signature of eight CpGs with an AUC of 0.77. Our findings suggest that a distinct level of PD susceptibility stems from individual, epigenetic modifications of specific genes. We identified a signature of CpGs in blood cells that could separate control from disease with a reasonable discriminatory power, holding promise for future epigenetically based biomarker development.

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  14. Mobility (Parkinson's Disease)

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    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  15. Diagnosis (Parkinson's Disease)

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    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease: Exercise

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    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Foundation News

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    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  18. What Is Parkinson's Disease?

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    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  19. Pain in Parkinson's Disease

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    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Expert Briefings: Parkinson's Disease: Financial, Legal and Medical Planning Tips for Care Partners Nursing Solutions: Innovations in ... and Parkinson's Disease 2010 Expert Briefings: Legal Issues: Planning Ahead When You are Living with Parkinson's Expert ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and what treatment options are available. Learn More Living with Parkinson's Managing Parkinson's In Your ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... How Does Depression Affect the Patient's Family and Social Network? Building a Parkinson’s Wellness Program: Step by Step ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Overview of Parkinson's Disease ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  9. Parkinson disease - discharge

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    Your doctor has told you that you have Parkinson disease . This disease affects the brain and leads to ... have you take different medicines to treat your Parkinson disease and many of the problems that may come ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  1. Parkinson's disease and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Seregi, Krisztina; Rihmer, Annamária

    2004-06-01

    The prevalence of depression in Parkinson's disease is around 40%, but, unfortunately, such depression is frequently unrecognized and untreated. However, recognition and appropriate treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson's disease is essential for clinical practice. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of depression associated with Parkinson's disease.

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PD: What You Need to Know Expert Briefings: Cognition and PD: What You've Always Wanted to ... People with Parkinson's? How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect Memory? When and What Type of Treatment Is Initiated ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  18. Parkinson's disease and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, K; Bennett, G

    2001-01-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest in the subject of anxiety in patients with Parkinson's disease. Up to 40% of patients with Parkinson's disease experience clinically significant anxiety. This anxiety may be a psychological reaction to the stress of the illness or may be related to the neurochemical changes of the disease itself. Antiparkinsonian drugs may have a role in the pathogenesis of the anxiety. The anxiety disorders in Parkinson's disease patients appear to be clustered in th...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  20. Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of Contents Medications for Parkinson's disease can help many patients live productive lives and ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Parkinson disease Parkinson disease Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Parkinson disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. ...

  2. How Is Parkinson's Disease Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers ...

  3. Falls in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Y.A.M.; Munneke, M.; Bloem, B.R.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the latest insights into the clinical significance, assessment, pathophysiology and treatment of falls in Parkinson's disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that falls are common in Parkinson's disease, even when compared with other fall-prone

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  9. Parkinson's Disease Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bachmann-Strauss Prize Alpha-Synuclein Imaging Prize HOME › PARKINSON'S DISEASE GLOSSARY A | B | C | D | E | F | G | ... used to treat mild to moderate dementia in Parkinson's disease. These drugs increase brain levels of a neurotransmitter ...

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  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  17. Lateralisation in Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riederer, P.; Jellinger, K. A.; Kolber, P.

    2018-01-01

    Asymmetry of dopaminergic neurodegeneration and subsequent lateralisation of motor symptoms are distinctive features of Parkinson’s disease compared to other forms of neurodegenerative or symptomatic parkinsonism. Even 200 years after the first description of the disease, the underlying causes...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease Research at NIH Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... areas of its research: MedlinePlus . medlineplus.gov . Type "Parkinson's disease" in the Search box. NIHSeniorHealth —Parkinson's Disease http:// ...

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  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  20. Xenotransplantation in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by loss of dopaminergic neurones in the substantia nigra pars compacta and subsequent shortage of dopamine in the striatum of the these patients causing the well known symptoms first described by James Parkinson in 1817. In this

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  3. Ambulation and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Shinichi; Roemmich, Ryan T; Skinner, Jared W; Hass, Chris J

    2013-05-01

    Parkinson disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a variety of motor and nonmotor features. This article reviews the problems of postural instability and gait disturbance in persons with Parkinson disease through the discussion of (1) the neuropathology of parkinsonian motor deficits, (2) behavioral manifestations of gait and postural abnormalities observed in persons with Parkinson disease, and (3) pharmacologic, surgical, and physical therapy-based interventions to combat postural instability and gait disturbance. This article advances the treatment of postural instability and gait disturbance by condensing up-to-date knowledge and making it available to clinicians and rehabilitation professionals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  7. Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Riederer, Peter; Lange, Klaus W.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of genetic aspects, ageing, environmental factors, head trauma, defective mitochondrial respiration, altered iron metabolism, oxidative stress and glutamatergic overactivity of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered in this review.

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    Medline Plus

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers of Excellence Bringing Care to You Expert Care Programs Professional Education Expert Care Research shows people with Parkinson’s who ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Las Actividades en Casa OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Jose Maria Lobo: Música ... presentadores What Are Some Strategies to Improve the Quality of Community Care for PD Patients? CareMAP: Bathroom: ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Shop A A You are here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Expert Briefings: Parkinson's Disease Psychosis: Hallucinations, ... Help is just a click away. The PD Library is an extensive collection of books, fact sheets, ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Gene and Cell Therapies Expert Briefings: Dealing with Dementia in PD Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease ... Day What Is Patient-Centered Care? Dealing with Dementia CareMAP: Life Beyond This Life What Are Some ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Communication and the PD Partnership Expert Briefings: Fatigue, Sleep Disorders and Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: What's in the ... and Scheduling: Part 2 What Are the Common Sleep Disorders Encountered in Patients with PD? Ask the Helpline: ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Gene and Cell Therapies Expert Briefings: Dealing with Dementia in PD Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease ... 1 What Is Patient-Centered Care? Dealing with Dementia CareMAP: Life Beyond This Life What Are Some ...

  7. Learning about Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Learning About Parkinson's Disease Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features Funding Divisions Funding ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Gene and Cell Therapies Expert Briefings: Dealing with Dementia in PD Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease ... See: Dealing With Non-Motor Symptoms Dealing with Dementia CareMAP: Life Beyond This Life Ask the Helpline: ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... y Fijar Horarios, Parte 2 What Are the Causes of Parkinson's Disease? Are There Disorders That Have Similar Symptoms? How Does Depression Affect the Patient's Family and Social Network? Why ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... are at a lower risk of complications and have better quality of life. Learn More Research Research ... Causes of Parkinson's Disease? Are There Disorders That Have Similar Symptoms? What Medications Help with Cognitive Impairment? ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Blocks for Creative Caregiving OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies for Problems with Urination? CareMAP: Changes Around the House: Part 1 What Are the ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... treatment and improved care that bring hope to the entire Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving ... involved to help raise funds and awareness for the 1 million Americans living with Parkinson’s disease. Learn ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... and improve your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient ... CareMAP: Life Beyond This Life What Types of Tests and Techniques Are There for Swallowing Problems? What ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Las Actividades en Casa OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Jose Maria Lobo: Música ... Swallowing Problems? Why Is Comprehensive Care or Team Approach Important? CareMAP: Cambios para Realizar en Casa, Parte ...

  18. Nondipping in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sita Sommer; Billur Aral-Becher; Wolfgang Jost

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to identify patients with Parkinson's disease who showed loss or decrease of nocturnal blood pressure fall (nondipper patients) as a marker of autonomic dysfunction. Presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension was considered to investigate whether alterations in circadian blood pressure pattern are associated with posture-related dysregulation of blood pressure. Methods. 40 patients with Parkinson's disease underwent 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. 2...

  19. Sleep disorders in Parkinson?s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Jahan, Israt; Hauser, Robert A; Sullivan, Kelly L; Miller, Amber; Zesiewicz, Theresa A

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disorders occur commonly in Parkinson?s disease (PD), and reduce quality of life. Sleep-related problems in PD include insomnia, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep apnea, parasomnias, excessive daytime sleepiness, and sleep attacks. This article reviews sleep disorders and their treatment in PD.

  20. Somatization in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Bech, Per; Patierno, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The current systematic review study is aimed at critically analyzing from a clinimetric viewpoint the clinical consequence of somatization in Parkinson's Disease (PD). By focusing on the International Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we...... consequence of such psychiatric symptom should be further evaluated by replacing the clinically inadequate diagnostic label of psychogenic parkinsonism with the psychosomatic concept of persistent somatization as conceived by the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research (DCPR)....

  1. Therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joseph; Poewe, Werner

    2012-08-01

    This review examines currently available therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease, emphasizing evidence-based data as well as a patient-centered approach to the treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although clinical trials of disease-modifying approaches have been thus far disappointing, steady advances are being made in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we focus on recent studies with monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (selegiline and rasagiline), coenzyme Q10, creatine, and exercise in early Parkinson's disease. We also discuss the relative merits and disadvantages of delaying the initiation of levodopa therapy, the role of dopamine agonists, particularly ropinirole and pramipexole, and management of motor and behavioral complications, such as fluctuations, dyskinesias and impulse-control disorders. Novel formulations and delivery approaches for conventional and new drugs are also discussed. Finally, we review recent studies of surgical treatments of Parkinson's disease, such as deep brain stimulation. Numerous clinical trials have provided evidence that health-related quality of life can be substantially improved with early diagnosis and institution of exercise and other physical measures, appropriate timing of dopaminergic therapy, and strategies to delay and treat levodopa-related motor complications and nonmotor Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

  2. Motor assessment in Parkinson`s disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Józef; Małecki, Andrzej; Małecka, Elżbieta; Socha, Teresa

    2017-09-21

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of most disabling disorders of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease: shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, postural instability and difficulty with walking and gait, are difficult to measure. When disease symptoms become more pronounced, the patient experiences difficulties with hand function and walking, and is prone to falls. Baseline motor impairment and cognitive impairment are probable predictors of more rapid motor decline and disability. An additional difficulty is the variability of the symptoms caused by adverse effects of drugs, especially levodopa. Motor assessment of Parkinson`s Disease can be divided into clinimetrics, assessment of balance and posture, arm and hand function, and gait/walking. These are many clinimetric scales used in Parkinson`s Disease, the most popular being the Hoehn and Yahr stages of progression of the disease and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Balance and posture can be assessed by clinimetric scales like the Berg BS, Tinetti, Brunel BA, and Timed Up and Go Test, or measured by posturometric platforms. Among skill tests, the best known are: the Purdue Pegboard Test, Nine-Hole Peg Test, Jebsen and Taylor test, Pig- Tail Test, Frenchay Arm Test, Action Research Arm Test, Wolf FMT and Finger-Tapping Test. Among motricity scales, the most popular are: the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment Scale and Södring Motor Evaluation. Gait and walking can also be assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Recently, the most popular is three-dimensional analysis of movement. This review article presents the current possibilities of motor assessment in Parkinson`s disease.

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Understanding Pain in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: The Parkinson's Pipeline 2011: ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Parkinson's Disease: The Newest Advances Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... number of genes that cause or contribute to Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as potential environmental risk factors. ...

  5. Diabetes mellitus and Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Gennaro; Polychronis, Sotirios; Wilson, Heather; Giordano, Beniamino; Ferrara, Nicola; Niccolini, Flavia; Politis, Marios

    2018-04-06

    To investigate whether diabetes mellitus is associated with Parkinson-like pathology in people without Parkinson disease and to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on markers of Parkinson pathology and clinical progression in drug-naive patients with early-stage Parkinson disease. We compared 25 patients with Parkinson disease and diabetes mellitus to 25 without diabetes mellitus, and 14 patients with diabetes mellitus and no Parkinson disease to 14 healthy controls (people with no diabetes mellitus or Parkinson disease). The clinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by 2 consecutive fasting measurements of serum glucose levels >126 mL/dL. Over a 36-month follow-up period, we then investigated in the population with Parkinson disease whether the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression or cognitive decline. The presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with higher motor scores ( p Parkinson disease. In patients with diabetes but without Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with lower striatal dopamine transporter binding ( p Parkinson disease, the presence of diabetes mellitus was associated with faster motor progression (hazard ratio = 4.521, 95% confidence interval = 1.468-13.926; p Parkinson-like pathology, and when present in patients with Parkinson disease, can induce a more aggressive phenotype. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... CareMAP: Changes Around the House: Part 2 Why Dance for PD? Tips for Caregivers When Should Medications ... Mind Guide to Parkinson's Disease Guide to Deep Brain Stimulation Sleep: A Mind Guide to Parkinson’s Disease ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Are There Disorders That Have Similar Symptoms? Why Dance for PD? When Should Medications Be Adjusted? CareMAP: ... Mind Guide to Parkinson's Disease Guide to Deep Brain Stimulation Sleep: A Mind Guide to Parkinson’s Disease ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... the House: Part 1 What Are the Neuroprotective Benefits of Exercise for PD Patients? Are There Any Ways to Control the Rate of Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... to Use for Freezing? CareMAP: Is a Care Facility Needed? CareMAP: Caring from Afar CareMAP: Dressing Building ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... the House: Part 2 Tips for Caregivers Why Dance for PD? When Should Medications Be Adjusted? CareMAP: ... Mind Guide to Parkinson's Disease Guide to Deep Brain Stimulation Sleep: A Mind Guide to Parkinson’s Disease ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... el Comportamiento, Parte 1 CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 1 Expert Briefings: Apathy or ... Disease? Hallucinations and Delusions CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 2 OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Managing ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... el Parkinson” CareMAP: Where to Find Help Why Dance for PD? CareMAP: Peace in Caring When Should ... Mind Guide to Parkinson's Disease Guide to Deep Brain Stimulation Sleep: A Mind Guide to Parkinson’s Disease ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... the DBS Device Work? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ... What Are the Risks and Benefits of DBS Surgery? Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: Las ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Does Depression Affect the Patient's Family and Social Network? Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: Where ... en Casa, Parte 1 OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Caregiver Summit 2016: Caregiving: ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... to Use for Freezing? CareMAP: Is a Care Facility Needed? CareMAP: Caring from Afar CareMAP: Dressing CareMAP: ... Progression of the Disease? OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Experienced Hallucinations or Delusions? CareMAP: Is a Care Facility Needed? CareMAP: Caring from Afar Caregiver Summit 2016: ... Disease? CareMAP: Getting Dressed OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Memorial Medicinal: “Terapia fisica para el Parkinson” Why Dance for PD? When Should Medications Be Adjusted? CareMAP: ... Mind Guide to Parkinson's Disease Guide to Deep Brain Stimulation Sleep: A Mind Guide to Parkinson’s Disease ...

  18. Kinesiotherapy of Parkinson`s disease and Parkinson`s syndrom

    OpenAIRE

    Zechovská, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    Author: Lenka Zechovská Institution: Rehabilitation Clinic, Faculty of Medicine in Hradec Králové Title: Kinesiotherapy of Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's syndrome Supervisor: Mgr. Ivana Vondráková Number of pages: 115 Number of attachments: 8 Year of defence: 2013 Keywords: Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia, tremor, rigidity, hypokinesia Bachelor thesis deals with the problems of Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's syndrome. The theoretical part includes the basal ganglia pathophysiolog...

  19. Parkinson Disease and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ptacek, Sara; Kramberger, Milica G

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a frequent complication of Parkinson disease (PD) with a yearly incidence of around 10% of patients with PD. Lewy body pathology is the most important factor in the development of Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) and there is evidence for a synergistic effect with β-amyloid. The clinical phenotype in PDD extends beyond the dysexecutive syndrome that is often present in early PD and encompasses deficits in recognition memory, attention, and visual perception. Sleep disturbances, hallucinations, neuroleptic sensitivity, and fluctuations are often present. This review provides an update on current knowledge of PDD including aspects of epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, management, and prognosis. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Ability to Consent to Parkinson Disease Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collection(s): All Movement Disorders http: / / n. neurology. org/ / cgi/ collection/ all_ movement_ disorders Parkinson's disease/Parkinsonism http: / / n. neurology. org/ / cgi/ collection/ parkinsons_ disease_ parkinsonism Permissions & Licensing Reprints Information ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Moving Day Walker Support a Parkinson's Champion Bequests & Planned Giving Shop More Ways to Give Ways to ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Any Tips to Use for Freezing? How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: Is a Care ... Parkinson's Mid-Stride: A Treatment Guide to Parkinson's Speech and Swallowing Psychosis: A Mind Guide to Parkinson's ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... the Helpline: What Is the Helpline? How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: El Vestirse Caregiver ... Parkinson's Mid-Stride: A Treatment Guide to Parkinson's Speech and Swallowing Psychosis: A Mind Guide to Parkinson's ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Independence and Safety Expert Briefings: Caring for a Person with Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Understanding Pain in Parkinson's ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... of Treatment Is Initiated After Diagnosis? How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: When Is It ... Parkinson's Mid-Stride: A Treatment Guide to Parkinson's Speech and Swallowing Psychosis: A Mind Guide to Parkinson's ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... the Helpline: What Is the Helpline? How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? When and What Type ... Parkinson's Mid-Stride: A Treatment Guide to Parkinson's Speech and Swallowing Psychosis: A Mind Guide to Parkinson's ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... What Are the Risks and Benefits of DBS Surgery? What Is the Impact of PD Medications on Excessive Daytime Sleepiness? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress What Treatments Exist for Parkinson's Disease Patients with a Depression Diagnosis? CareMAP: End-of-Life ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Programs Are Recommended? How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect Memory? CareMAP: La Alimentación y la Deglución, Parte 2 ... Featuring Katie Couric What Are Some Strategies to Improve the Quality of Community Care for PD Patients? ...

  9. Nondipping in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sita Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to identify patients with Parkinson's disease who showed loss or decrease of nocturnal blood pressure fall (nondipper patients as a marker of autonomic dysfunction. Presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension was considered to investigate whether alterations in circadian blood pressure pattern are associated with posture-related dysregulation of blood pressure. Methods. 40 patients with Parkinson's disease underwent 24-hour blood pressure monitoring. 21 patients were diagnosed with arterial hypertension and received anti-hypertensive drugs. Nondipper patients were defined as having nocturnal decrease of mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure less than 10%. Presence or absence of orthostatic hypotension was determined by Schellong's test. Results. We identified 35 nondipper patients (88%. Nondipping was detected in 20 patients with orthostatic hypotension (95% and in 15 patients without orthostatic hypotension (79%. 18 patients with hypertensive and 22 patients with normal blood pressure values were detected. Conclusions. In conclusion 24-hour blood pressure monitoring showed a high prevalence of nondipping in 40 patients with Parkinson's disease with and without orthostatic hypotension independent of coexisting arterial hypertension and antihypertensive treatment. 24-hour blood pressure monitoring may be useful to identify non-dipping as a marker of autonomic dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Parte 1 CareMAP: El Baño, Parte 1 CareMAP: Cambios en el Pensamiento y el Comportamiento, Parte 1 CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en ... of Parkinson's Disease? CareMAP: Dealing with Dementia CareMAP: Cambios en el Pensamiento y el Comportamiento, Parte 2 How Do PD and Its Treatment ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Following a Medication Schedule? CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 What Is Patient-Centered Care? CareMAP: ... Is the Progression of Parkinson's Disease? CareMAP: Prioritizing Health Needs of the Caregiver CareMAP: Putting Things in ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Comportamiento, Parte 2 What Type of Exercise or Exercise Programs Are Recommended? Jose Maria Lobo: Musica en vivo con Lobo! What Are Some Practical Strategies for Improving the Quality of Sleep? How Is Parkinson's Disease Diagnosed? CareMAP: Plans and ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... y la Deglución, Parte 2 CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress Caregiver Summit 2016: The PD You Can't ... Las Actividades en Casa OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis Jose Maria Lobo: Música ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available https://secure3.convio.net/prkorg/site/SPageNavigator/2017_donate_form_2... Find Resources Near You Search Our Site Donate General Gift Tribute Gift ... A Mind Guide to Parkinson's Disease Guide to Deep Brain Stimulation Sleep: A Mind Guide to Parkinson’s ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... el Sueño, Parte 1 Expert Briefings: What's in the PD Pipeline? Gene and Cell Therapies Expert Briefings: Dealing with Dementia in PD Expert Briefings: Anxiety in Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: Nutrition and ... PD Medications: Get the Most Out of Your Treatment Plan Expert Briefings: ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... area About Shop A A You are here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Expert Briefings: ... How Is Parkinson's Disease Diagnosed? CareMAP: Activities at Home CareMAP: Getting Dressed CareMAP: Caring for Someone with ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Slewett Who Is a Candidate for DBS? CareMAP: Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 1 Caregiver Summit 2016: Building ... Under-Diagnosed in Patients with Parkinson's Disease? CareMAP: Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 2 Caregiver Summit 2016: Maintaining ...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... el Pensamiento y el Comportamiento, Parte 1 CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 1 Expert ... and Delusions OHSU - Overview of Parkinson's Disease CareMAP: Medicamentos y la Salud en General, Parte 2 CareMAP: ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Communication and the PD Partnership Expert Briefings: Fatigue, Sleep Disorders and Parkinson's Disease Expert Briefings: What's in the ... and Scheduling: Part 2 What Are the Common Sleep Disorders Encountered in Patients with PD? CareMAP: Planear y ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers of Excellence Bringing Care to You Expert Care Programs Professional Education Expert Care Research shows people with Parkinson’s who seek skilled care are at a lower risk ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you can do to maintain and improve your quality of life and live well with Parkinson's disease. Learn More Expert Care Patient Centered Care Centers of Excellence Bringing Care to You Expert Care Programs Professional Education Expert Care Research shows people with Parkinson’s who ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A A You are here Home PD Library Search library Topic Type Expert Briefings: Marijuana and PD: What Do We Really Know? Nurse Webinars: Nursing Solutions: Improving Caregiver Strain through Science and Model Interventions Expert Briefings: Parkinson's Disease Psychosis: ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Under-Diagnosed in Patients with Parkinson's Disease? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress CareMAP: Movimientos y Caídas, Parte 2 CareMAP: End-of-Life Care Caregiver Summit 2016: Maintaining Dignity & Identity CareMAP: Thinking Changes: Part 1 CareMAP: Rest and Sleep: Part 2 ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Descanso y el Sueño, Parte 1 CareMAP: La Alimentación y la Deglución, Parte 1 CareMAP: El Baño, ... How Does Parkinson's Disease Affect Memory? CareMAP: La Alimentación y la Deglución, Parte 2 CareMAP: Movement and ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... to Find Help How Does the DBS Device Work? CareMAP: Peace in Caring CareMAP: Cambios para Realizar en Casa, Parte 1 CareMAP: Rest and Sleep: Part 2 Caregiver Summit 2016: Caregiving: The Emotional Rollercoaster What Are the Causes of Parkinson's Disease? Are There ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior in a Loved One with PD? Aware in Care: Real Stories How Do I Manage Non-Motor Problems Such as Hypersexuality? Are There Any Interactions With Non-Parkinson's Disease Medications? Is Depression Under-Diagnosed in Patients with ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Managing Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis CareMAP: Movement and Falls: Part 2 CareMAP: Changes Around the House: Part 2 Tips for Caregivers Why Dance for PD? When Should Medications Be Adjusted? CareMAP: ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Center: “Ententiendo el Párkinson” OHSU - Parkinson's Disease: Pharmacological Management of Depression, Anxiety & Psychosis What Are Some Strategies ... Couric What Are Some Strategies to Improve the Quality of Community Care for PD Patients? How Is ...

  9. Postural deformities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doherty, K.M.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Peralta, M.C.; Silveira-Moriyama, L.; Azulay, J.P.; Gershanik, O.S.; Bloem, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Postural deformities are frequent and disabling complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) and atypical parkinsonism. These deformities include camptocormia, antecollis, Pisa syndrome, and scoliosis. Recognition of specific postural syndromes might have differential diagnostic value in patients

  10. Oxidative Damage in Parkinson's Disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beal, M

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to determine whether there is a coherent body of evidence implicating oxidative damage in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease and the MPTP model of Parkinsonism...

  11. Relationship between Postural Deformities and Frontal Function in Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ninomiya, Satoko; Morita, Akihiko; Teramoto, Hiroko; Akimoto, Takayoshi; Shiota, Hiroshi; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Postural deformities and executive dysfunction (ED) are common symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD remains unclear. This study assessed the relationship between postural deformities and ED in patients with PD. Sixty-five patients with sporadic PD were assessed for the severity of postural deformities and executive function. The severity of postural deformities was scored using the United Parkinson's Disease Ra...

  12. The genetic basis of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tappakhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a multifactorial disease that develops in the presence of both genetic and environmental factors. In recent years, there has been sufficient information on the role of genetic predisposition in the development of not only familial cases, but also sporadic ones. A hereditary burden in PD may not be traced in cases of recessive inheritance with a low gene penetrance, as well as in a patient's death before the onset of the disease. Active introduction of molecular genetic methods, including next generation sequencing, can annually identify new gene mutations that underlie sporadic PD cases. This paper provides an overview of the current literature on the genetic aspects of PD with emphasis on the ethnic characteristics of the disease.

  13. Motor assessment in Parkinson`s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Opara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is one of most disabling disorders of the central nervous system. The motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease: shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement, postural instability and difficulty with walking and gait, are difficult to measure. When disease symptoms become more pronounced, the patient experiences difficulties with hand function and walking, and is prone to falls. Baseline motor impairment and cognitive impairment are probable predictors of more rapid motor decline and disability. An additional difficulty is the variability of the symptoms caused by adverse effects of drugs, especially levodopa. Motor assessment of Parkinson`s Disease can be divided into clinimetrics, assessment of balance and posture, arm and hand function, and gait/walking. These are many clinimetric scales used in Parkinson`s Disease, the most popular being the Hoehn and Yahr stages of progression of the disease and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale. Balance and posture can be assessed by clinimetric scales like the Berg BS, Tinetti, Brunel BA, and Timed Up and Go Test, or measured by posturometric platforms. Among skill tests, the best known are: the Purdue Pegboard Test, Nine-Hole Peg Test, Jebsen and Taylor test, Pig- Tail Test, Frenchay Arm Test, Action Research Arm Test, Wolf FMT and Finger-Tapping Test. Among motricity scales, the most popular are: the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment Scale and Södring Motor Evaluation. Gait and walking can also be assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. Recently, the most popular is three-dimensional analysis of movement. This review article presents the current possibilities of motor assessment in Parkinson`s disease.

  14. Primary skin fibroblasts as a model of Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auburger, G.; Klinkenberg, M.; Droste, J.A.H.; Marcus, K.; Morales-Gordo, B.; Kunz, W.S.; Brandt, U.; Broccoli, V.; Reichmann, H.; Gispert, S.; Jendrach, M.

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. While most cases occur sporadic mutations in a growing number of genes including Parkin (PARK2) and PINK1 (PARK6) have been associated with the disease. Different animal models and cell models like patient skin fibroblasts

  15. The skin in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, A

    1977-09-01

    The characteristic oily skin in individuals with parkinsonism has long been observed by clinicians. The oiliness seems to be associated with periods when the disease is most active. This seborrhea has been observed particularly in post-encephalitic parkinsonism, as well as in idiopathic paralysis agitans. It also occurs in phenothiazine-induced parkinsonism.

  16. MRI of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, A.; Vliet, A. Van der.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The key MRI findings in five cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are illustrated with four 'definite' and one 'probable' according to World Health Organization criteria. Close attention to fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences are important for diagnosis, noting especially restricted diffusion in cortical and deep grey matter. Our study and those of others show predominant cortical, caudate and thalamic involvement. This pattern is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis. Fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging signal abnormality becomes progressively more extensive and bilateral as disease progresses, but may become less pronounced in end-stage disease because of atrophy.

  17. Neuroanatomy and pathology of sporadic Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braak, Heiko; Del Tredici, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    .... The resulting nonrandom neuronal dysfunction and, in some regions, neuronal loss is reflected by a distinctive topographic distribution pattern of the Lewy pathology that, in the brain, has been staged...

  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... options are available. Learn More Living with Parkinson's Managing Parkinson's In Your Area Resources & Support PD Library ... otra canción” Expert Briefings: Diagnosis PD, Now What? Managing the First Few Years with Parkinson's Expert Briefings: ...

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Is Parkinson's? Causes & Statistics Early Signs Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Understanding Parkinson's There is a lot to know ... about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and what treatment options are available. Learn More Living with Parkinson's ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert ... Non-Motor Symptoms Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? How Does Parkinson's ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior in a Loved One with PD? Ask the ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert ... About Cognitive Impairment? Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? How Does Parkinson's ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... What Do Caregivers Need to Know? Is Compulsive Behavior a Side Effect of PD Medications? What Types ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior in a Loved One with PD? How Do ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert Briefings: When Parkinson's Interferes with Gastrointestinal ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Understanding Parkinson's What Is Parkinson's? Causes & Statistics Early Signs Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Understanding Parkinson's There is a ... on treatments, research and other updates. Email Address Sign Up Questions? Call our Helpline: 1-800-4PD- ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for ... Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's CareMAP: When Is It Time to Get Help? Ask the Helpline: Why Does ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior in a Loved One with PD? What Types ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... y Respuestas con todos los presentadores Is Compulsive Behavior a Side Effect of PD Medications? What Types ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Late Stage Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Impulsive and Compulsive Behaviors in Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Complementary Approaches to Parkinson's ... y Respuestas con todos los presentadores Is Compulsive Behavior a Side Effect of PD Medications? ¿Cómo Se ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... HELPLINE 1-800-4PD-INFO (473-4636) helpline@parkinson.org Search Our Site General Gift Tribute Gift Moving Day Support a Fundraiser Understanding Parkinson's What Is Parkinson's? Causes & Statistics Early Signs Movement ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... HELPLINE 1-800-4PD-INFO (473-4636) helpline@parkinson.org Search Our Site General Gift Tribute Gift Moving Day Support a Fundraiser Understanding Parkinson's What Is Parkinson's? Causes & Statistics Early Signs Symptoms ...

  13. Iron and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this case presentation, a man with a diagnosis of Parkinson's disease was treated with Chelation Therapy against iron without iron serum level correlation. The patient, who suffered from motor and non-motor symptoms of the disease, showed an improved condition after the Therapy. This clinical test was evaluated with UPDRS III score. The rationale and the limits of the Therapy are discussed. This case suggests that iron-dependent oxidative stress could represent a promising therapy for this dramatic disease; the necessity to deeply study the iron metabolism in neuro-degeneration appears really significant.

  14. Surgical insights into Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Erlick A C; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2006-01-01

    Surgery for Parkinson's disease was popularized in the midtwentieth century before the advent of effective medical therapies. Early lesioning treatments contributed to our understanding of the functional anatomy of Parkinson's disease. Observations of the limitations and long-term complications of established pharmacological therapies for Parkinson's disease, together with major contributions from animal research to elucidate the roles of the basal ganglia in movement disorders, inspired a re...

  15. A putative founder effect for Parkinson's disease in South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    imaging scans of the brain volumes of cortex and temporal lobe structures, and positron emission tomography scans of markers of .... Braak H, Del Tredici K, Rüb U, de Vos RAI, Jansen Steur ENH, Braak E. Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiol Aging 2003;24(2):197211. [http://dx.doi.

  16. Vitamin D receptor gene variants in Parkinson's disease patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Vitamin D plays an important role in neurodegenerative disorders as a crucial neuro-immunomodulator. Accumulating data provide evidences that vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is a candidate gene for susceptibility to Parkinson's disease (PD). Aim: To find out whether the risk of the development of sporadic ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Patient-Centered Care? Dealing with Dementia How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: El Vestirse Caregiver ... Parkinson's Mid-Stride: A Treatment Guide to Parkinson's Speech and Swallowing Psychosis: A Mind Guide to Parkinson's ...

  18. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Disorders » All Disorders Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page What research is being done? The ...

  19. Oxysterols and Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkhem, Ingemar; Lövgren-Sandblom, Anita; Leoni, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    Oxysterols are important for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain and may be affected in neurodegenerative diseases. The levels of the brain-derived oxysterol 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH) have been reported to be markedly reduced in the circulation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) (Lee...... et al., Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11 (2009) 407-420). The finding is surprising in view of the fact that other neurodegenerative diseases are associated with relatively modest effects on the circulating levels of 24S-OH. We determined the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of 24S-OH and 27......-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH) in patients with PD with different disease duration using a highly accurate method based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. All the patients had plasma levels of the different oxysterols within the normal range. When analyzing CSF, 10% of the PD patients were found to have levels of 24...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Summit 2016: Coping Strategy: Mindfulness Out of the Park for Parkinson's: Gordon Beckham Leads Stretches What Are ... or Team Approach Important? Adolfo Diaz, PTA, NPF - National Parkinson Foundation 2013 PSA Featuring Katie Couric What ...

  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Briefings: Sleep and Parkinson's Nursing Solutions: Recognizing the Impact of Genitourinary Symptoms in PD Expert Briefings: Is ... Eye: Vision Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and ...

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Expert Briefings: Driving and Parkinson's: Balancing Independence and Safety Expert Briefings: Caring for a Person with Late ... What Are the Risks and Benefits of DBS Surgery? How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert ... Non-Motor Symptoms Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? What Type of ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert ... of-Life Care Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? CareMAP: Thinking Changes: ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Gift Moving Day Support a Fundraiser Understanding Parkinson's What Is Parkinson's? Causes & Statistics Early Signs Symptoms Diagnosis ... Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and what treatment options are available. Learn More Living with ...

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Learn More Research Research We Fund Parkinson's Outcomes Project Grant Opportunities Science News & Progress Patient Engagement Research ... otra canción” Expert Briefings: Diagnosis PD, Now What? Managing the First Few Years with Parkinson's Expert Briefings: ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert ... Following a Medication Schedule? CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 Aware in Care: Real Stories Is ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Motor Symptoms Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? What Are the Causes ... Advice for Parkinson's Care Partners Why Is It Important to Continue Self-Care Between Appointments? OHSU - Overview ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Symptoms of PD Expert Briefings: The Effects of Exercise on PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert ... Patients with PD? Ask the Helpline: Why Is Exercise Important for People with Parkinson's? What Type of ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Our Site Donate General Gift Tribute Gift Moving Day Support a Fundraiser Call Our HELPLINE: 1-800- ... Search Our Site General Gift Tribute Gift Moving Day Support a Fundraiser Understanding Parkinson's What Is Parkinson's? ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Parkinson's community. Learn more Get Involved Moving Day Walk Parkinson's Champions Create Your Own Fundraiser Advocate With ... CareMAP: Rest and Sleep: Part 2 Why We Walk at Moving Day Interview with Nathan Slewett Who ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert ... Thinking Changes: Part 2 CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 2 ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? CareMAP: ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: El Vestirse Caregiver Summit 2016: Coping Strategy: Yoga & Stretching ¿Cuáles son las diferentes formas y etapas del Parkinson? ¿Cómo es la progresión del Parkinson? How Can Falls Be ...

  14. Origin of the G2019S mutation associated to Parkinson's disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract - Background: The G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene is associated with 1-2% of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) cases. In Europe, the prevalence of G2019S in sporadic PD patients depends on the population, being relatively high in Spain and Portugal but low in northern Europe. Aim: To drawn up a ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease and Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Tang, Bei-Sha; Guo, Ji-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease primarily characterized by the hallmarks of motor symptoms, such as tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and postural instability. However, through clinical investigations in patients and experimental findings in animal models of Parkinson's disease for years, it is now well recognized that Parkinson's disease is more than just a motor-deficit disorder. The majority of Parkinson's disease patients suffer from nonmotor disabilities, for instance, cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, sensory dysfunction, and sleep disorder. So far, anti-PD prescriptions and surgical treatments have been mainly focusing on motor dysfunctions, leaving cognitive impairment a marginal clinical field. Within the nonmotor symptoms, cognitive impairment is one of the most common and significant aspects of Parkinson's disease, and cognitive deficits such as dysexecutive syndrome and visuospatial disturbances could seriously affect the quality of life, reduce life expectancy, prolong the duration of hospitalization, and therefore increase burdens of caregiver and medical costs. In this review, we have done a retrospective study of the recent related researches on epidemiology, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, genetics, and potential treatment of cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease, aiming to provide a summary of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease and make it easy for clinicians to tackle this challenging issue in their future practice.

  16. Brain MRI in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, F.J.A.; Goraj, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review article, conventional brain MRI and advanced MRI techniques in Parkinson`s disease (PD) are discussed, with emphasis on clinical relevance. Conventional brain MRI sequences generally demonstrate limited abnormalities specific for PD and in clinical practice brain MRI is mainly used to

  17. Coffee, Genetic Variants, and Parkinson's Disease: Gene–Environment Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada-Fowler, Naomi; Söderkvist, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gene–environment interactions may help us to understand the disease mechanisms of common and complex diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Sporadic PD, the common form of PD, is thought to be a multifactorial disorder caused by combinations of multiple genetic factors and environmental or life-style exposures. Since one of the most extensively studied life-style factors in PD is coffee/caffeine intake, here, the studies of genetic polymorphisms with life-style interactions of ...

  18. Symptoms of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    Most people with Parkinson's disease (PD) have some non-motor symptoms such as sleep disturbance. Some will have impulse control disorders manifested as pathological gambling, hypersexuality, binge eating or compulsive shopping. Others show lack of initiative, indifference and lack of emotional response. This apathy, which is distinct from depression, has been reported to be present in 70 per cent of people with PD. This study examined 99 non-demented people with PD and found that quality of life was reduced in those with either of these impulse control disorders. The behavioural changes put a strain on relationships, and apathy resulted in a withdrawal from relationships and hobbies. The authors emphasise the need to diagnose and manage complications in a timely manner.

  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... have better quality of life. Learn More Research Research We Fund Parkinson's Outcomes Project Grant Opportunities Science News & Progress Patient Engagement Research Our research has ...

  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Learn More Research Research We Fund Parkinson's Outcomes Project Grant Opportunities Science News & Progress Patient Engagement Research Our research has led to breakthroughs in treatment ...

  1. Visual exploration in Parkinson's disease and Parkinson's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Neil K; Hutton, Sam B; Clarke, Michael P; Mosimann, Urs P; Burn, David J

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease, typically thought of as a movement disorder, is increasingly recognized as causing cognitive impairment and dementia. Eye movement abnormalities are also described, including impairment of rapid eye movements (saccades) and the fixations interspersed between them. Such movements are under the influence of cortical and subcortical networks commonly targeted by the neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson's disease and, as such, may provide a marker for cognitive decline. This study examined the error rates and visual exploration strategies of subjects with Parkinson's disease, with and without cognitive impairment, whilst performing a battery of visuo-cognitive tasks. Error rates were significantly higher in those Parkinson's disease groups with either mild cognitive impairment (P = 0.001) or dementia (P dementia group but was also affected in those subjects with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment. When compared with control subjects and cognitively normal subjects with Parkinson's disease, saccade amplitudes were significantly reduced in the groups with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fixation duration was longer in all Parkinson's disease groups compared with healthy control subjects but was longest for cognitively impaired Parkinson's disease groups. The strongest predictor of average fixation duration was disease severity. Analysing only data from the most complex task, with the highest error rates, both cognitive impairment and disease severity contributed to a predictive model for fixation duration [F(2,76) = 12.52, P ≤ 0.001], but medication dose did not (r = 0.18, n = 78, P = 0.098, not significant). This study highlights the potential use of exploration strategy measures as a marker of cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease and reveals the efficiency by which fixations and saccades are deployed in the build-up to a cognitive response, rather than merely focusing on the outcome itself. The prolongation of fixation

  2. Argentine tango in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    This article reports on a meta-analysis of 13 studies of the effects of Argentine tango (AT) as a music-based movement therapy for people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Nine studies involved randomised controlled trials.

  3. Parkinson's Disease: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes Postencephalitic parkinsonism . Just after the first World War, the viral disease encephalitis lethargica affected almost 5 ... or the NIH is appreciated. top Patient & Caregiver Education Fact Sheets Hope Through Research Know Your Brain ...

  4. Parkinson disease and positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.C.

    1984-10-01

    Physiopathologic investigations of Parkinson disease and parkinsonian syndrome using positron tomography are briefly reviewed: study of cerebral blood flow and metabolism; effects of L-DOPA; study of dopaminergic receptors and of 18 F-Fluoro-L-DOPA incorporation [fr

  5. Sleep disorders in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranzo de Riquer, Alex; Bergareche, Alberto; Campos, Victor

    2011-11-01

    Sleep is affected in a large number of patients with Parkinson disease. The mechanisms by which this occurs and the different types of sleep disorders that a patient with Parkinson disease may suffer (insufficient or fragmented sleep, persistent excessive daytime sleepiness, sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome) will be reviewed in this study, as well as their relationship with the dopaminergic system. Finally, the most effective treatments will be proposed.

  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Helpline? CareMAP: Thinking Changes: Part 2 How Does Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: Medications and General ... Cómo Se Trata el Parkinson? How Do I Talk to My Physician or Spouse About Sexual Dysfunction? ...

  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... in Care: Real Stories CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 What Is Patient-Centered Care? Dealing ... Parkinson Conference: Lessons Learned CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 2 ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? CareMAP: ...

  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Managing Advanced Parkinson's Website CareMAP: El Descanso y el Sueño, Parte 1 CareMAP: La Alimentación y la Deglución, ... la Enfermedad de Parkinson CareMAP: El Descanso y el Sueño, Parte 2 What Are Some Tips for Following ...

  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... What Is Parkinson's? Causes & Statistics Early Signs Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Understanding Parkinson's There is a lot to know ... with Cognitive Impairment? When and What Type of Treatment Is Initiated After Diagnosis? CareMAP: When Is It Time to Get Help? ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... our Helpline: 1-800-4PD-INFO (473-4636) © 2018 Parkinson's Foundation Miami: 200 SE 1st Street, Suite ... a Doctor Sign In Privacy & Terms Contact Us © 2018 Parkinson's Foundation Miami: 200 SE 1st Street, Suite ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Patients? Adolfo Diaz, PTA, NPF - National Parkinson Foundation CareMAP: Bathroom: Part 1 ¿Cómo Se Trata el ... 1-800-4PD-INFO (473-4636) © 2018 Parkinson's Foundation Miami: 200 SE 1st Street, Suite 800, Miami, ...

  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD Expert Briefings: Parkinson's and Parenting Expert Briefings: Occupational Therapy and Parkinson's: Tips for Healthy Living Expert ... its Treatment: Secrets, Myths and Misconceptions CareMAP: Prioritizing Health Needs of the Caregiver CareMAP: Putting Things in ...

  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Speech Therapy Help Parkinson's Patients? CareMAP: Managing Caregiver Stress CareMAP: El Vestirse CareMAP: End-of-Life Care ... Caregivers: Caremap and Caring & Coping CareMAP: Rest and Sleep: Part 2 Expert Briefings: Nutrition and Parkinson's What ...

  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Getting Dressed Adolfo Diaz, PTA, NPF - National Parkinson Foundation Tips for Caregivers How Can Caregivers Help with ... 1-800-4PD-INFO (473-4636) © 2018 Parkinson's Foundation Miami: 200 SE 1st Street, Suite 800, Miami, ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Following a Medication Schedule? CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 Adolfo Diaz, PTA, NPF - National Parkinson Foundation ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? CareMAP: Prioritizing Health Needs of the Caregiver What Is the Relationship ...

  16. Comparison Between Sporadic and Misdiagnosed Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiongfei; Yu, Yingxin; Zhao, Zhiru; Xu, Jiaping

    2015-06-01

    Definite accurate diagnosis for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) depends on neuropathologic examination of brain biopsy or autopsy. However, transmissible nature makes the invasive examination dangerous. This study was set to determine that the clinical features are for the diagnosis of CJD through a comparison study. We compared clinical features of two cases with initial diagnosis of sporadic CJD. One case was finally diagnosed as definite sporadic CJD. According to World Health Organization diagnosis criteria, the other one, which had been diagnosed as probable sporadic CJD, was confirmed as limbic encephalitis after long-term follow-up. Compared with the case of definite sporadic CJD, the misdiagnosed case did not present typical electroencephalogram (EEG) and diffusion-weighted in magnetic resonance images (DWI) of CJD. However, cerebrospinal fluid in the misdiagnosed patient showed 14-3-3 protein positivity. The patient conditions improved after treatment. Through this case comparison, we conclude that EEG and DWI are necessary for accurate diagnosis of sporadic CJD. Further, long-term follow-up is crucial to diagnosis and treatment of CJD.

  17. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, K.; Summers, D. M.; Romero, C.; Taratuto, A.; Heinemann, U.; Breithaupt, M.; Varges, D.; Meissner, B.; Ladogana, A.; Schuur, M.; Haik, S.; Collins, S. J.; Jansen, Gerard H.; Stokin, G. B.; Pimentel, J.; Hewer, E.; Collie, D.; Smith, P.; Roberts, H.; Brandel, J. P.; van Duijn, C.; Pocchiari, M.; Begue, C.; Cras, P.; Will, R. G.; Sanchez-Juan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distinct sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease molecular subtypes and thus might contribute to the earlier identification of the whole spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. This multi-centre international study aimed to provide a rationale for the amendment of the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging were recruited from 12 countries. Patients referred as ‘suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease’ but with an alternative diagnosis after thorough follow up, were analysed as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for signal changes according to a standard protocol encompassing seven cortical regions, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated in 436 sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients and 141 controls. The pattern of high signal intensity with the best sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was identified. The optimum diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of rapid progressive dementia was obtained when either at least two cortical regions (temporal, parietal or occipital) or both caudate nucleus and putamen displayed a high signal in fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging. Based on our analyses, magnetic

  18. Therapeutic Dancing for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenna Pryscia Carvalho Aguiar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dancing has been advocated as an effective adjunct to conventional physical therapies for people living with Parkinson's disease (PD. This systematic review evaluates studies on the outcomes of different dance genres on mobility and quality of life in PD. We searched databases including CINHAL (1982–2015, Medline (1922–2015, Scopus (1996–2015, Web of Science (2002–2015, Embase (2007–2015, PEDro (1999–2015 and the Cochrane Library (1996–2015. The key words were: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson*, Parkinsonism, dance, dance therapy, dance genres, safety, feasibility, and quality of life. Two independent investigators reviewed the texts. Only randomized controlled trials, quasirandomized controlled trials, and case series studies were included. There was emerging evidence that therapeutic dance can be safe and feasible for people with mild to moderately severe PD, with beneficial effects on walking, freezing of gait, and health related quality of life.

  19. Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Denyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic improvements to those suffering from this incurable degenerative neurological disorder, but none of these has convincingly shown effects on disease progression. Novel approaches based on gene therapy have several potential advantages over conventional treatment modalities. These could be used to provide more consistent dopamine supplementation, potentially providing superior symptomatic relief with fewer side effects. More radically, gene therapy could be used to correct the imbalances in basal ganglia circuitry associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or to preserve or restore dopaminergic neurons lost during the disease process itself. The latter neuroprotective approach is the most exciting, as it could theoretically be disease modifying rather than simply symptom alleviating. Gene therapy agents using these approaches are currently making the transition from the laboratory to the bedside. This paper summarises the theoretical approaches to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease and the findings of clinical trials in this rapidly changing field.

  20. Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease: hypersensitivity to X-rays in cultured cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, J.H.; Otsuka, Fujio; Tarone, R.E.; Polinsky, R.J.; Nee, L.E.; Brumback, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Fibroblast and/or lymphoblastoid lines from patients with several inherited primary neuronal degenerations are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, lymphoblastoid lines were irradiated from patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The mean survival values of the eight Parkinson's disease and of the six Alzheimer's disease lines, but not of the five amyotrophic lateral sclerosis lines, were less than that of the 28 normal lines. Our results with Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease cells can be explained by a genetic defect arising as a somatic mutation during embryogenesis, causing defective repair of the X-ray type of DNA damage. Such a DNA repair defect could cause an abnormal accumulation of spontaneously occurring DNA damage in Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease neurons in vivo, resulting in their premature death. (author)

  1. Noradrenaline and Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eDelaville

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is characterized by the degeneration of dopamine (DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, and motor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor at rest. These symptoms are manifest when around 70% of striatal DA is lost. In addition to motor deficits, PD is also characterized by the manifestation of non-motor symptoms. However, depletion of DA alone in animal models has failed to simultaneously elicit both the motor and non-motor deficits of PD because the disease is a multi-system disorder that features a profound loss of other neurotransmitter systems. There is growing evidence that additional loss of noradrenaline (NA neurons of the locus coeruleus, the principal source of NA in the brain, could be involved in the clinical expression of motor as well as in non-motor deficits. In the present review, we analyzed the latest data obtained from animal models of parkinsonism and from parkinsonian patients providing evidence for the implication of NA in the pathophysiology of PD. Recent studies have shown that NA depletion alone or combined with DA depletion resulted in motor as well as in non-motor dysfunctions. In addition, by using selective agonists and antagonists of alpha receptors we, and others, have shown that α2 receptors are implicated in the control of motor activity and that α2 receptor antagonists can improve PD motor symptoms as well as L-Dopa-induced dyskinesia. Here we provide arguments that the loss of NA neurons in PD has an impact on all PD symptoms and that the association of NAergic agents to dopaminergic medication can be beneficial in the treatment of the disease.

  2. Dysautonomia in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David S

    2014-04-01

    Dysautonomias are conditions in which altered function of one or more components of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) adversely affects health. This review updates knowledge about dysautonomia in Parkinson disease (PD). Most PD patients have symptoms or signs of dysautonomia; occasionally, the abnormalities dominate the clinical picture. Components of the ANS include the sympathetic noradrenergic system (SNS), the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS), the sympathetic cholinergic system (SCS), the sympathetic adrenomedullary system (SAS), and the enteric nervous system (ENS). Dysfunction of each component system produces characteristic manifestations. In PD, it is cardiovascular dysautonomia that is best understood scientifically, mainly because of the variety of clinical laboratory tools available to assess functions of catecholamine systems. Most of this review focuses on this aspect of autonomic involvement in PD. PD features cardiac sympathetic denervation, which can precede the movement disorder. Loss of cardiac SNS innervation occurs independently of the loss of striatal dopaminergic innervation underlying the motor signs of PD and is associated with other nonmotor manifestations, including anosmia, REM behavior disorder, orthostatic hypotension (OH), and dementia. Autonomic dysfunction in PD is important not only in clinical management and in providing potential biomarkers but also for understanding disease mechanisms (e.g., autotoxicity exerted by catecholamine metabolites). Since Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites containing alpha-synuclein constitute neuropathologic hallmarks of the disease, and catecholamine depletion in the striatum and heart are characteristic neurochemical features, a key goal of future research is to understand better the link between alpha-synucleinopathy and loss of catecholamine neurons in PD. © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  12. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis PD, Now What? Managing the First Few Years with Parkinson's Expert Briefings: Pain in PD Expert ... Transportation: Part 1 CareMAP: Mealtime and Swallowing: Part 2 What Is the Impact of PD Medications on ...

  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  16. Dysphagia in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttrup, Inga; Warnecke, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    More than 80 % of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) develop dysphagia during the course of their disease. Swallowing impairment reduces quality of life, complicates medication intake and leads to malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia, which is a major cause of death in PD. Although the underlying pathophysiology is poorly understood, it has been shown that dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic mechanisms are involved in the development of dysphagia in PD. Clinical assessment of dysphagia in PD patients is challenging and often delivers unreliable results. A modified water test assessing maximum swallowing volume is recommended to uncover oropharyngeal dysphagia in PD. PD-specific questionnaires may also be useful to identify patients at risk for swallowing impairment. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and videofluoroscopic swallowing study are both considered to be the gold standard for evaluation of PD-related dysphagia. In addition, high-resolution manometry may be a helpful tool. These instrumental methods allow a reliable detection of aspiration events. Furthermore, typical patterns of impairment during the oral, pharyngeal and/or esophageal swallowing phase of PD patients can be identified. Therapy of dysphagia in PD consists of pharmacological interventions and swallowing treatment by speech and language therapists (SLTs). Fluctuating dysphagia with deterioration during the off-state should be treated by optimizing dopaminergic medication. The methods used during swallowing treatment by SLTs shall be selected according to the individual dysphagia pattern of each PD patient. A promising novel method is an intensive training of expiratory muscle strength. Deep brain stimulation does not seem to have a clinical relevant effect on swallowing function in PD. The goal of this review is giving an overview on current stages of epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of PD-associated dysphagia, which might be helpful for neurologists

  17. Benign tremulous Parkinsonism: a unique entity or another facet of Parkinson?s disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Deeb, Wissam; Hu, Wei; Almeida, Leonardo; Patterson, Addie; Martinez-Ramirez, Daniel; Wagle Shukla, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Benign tremulous parkinsonism (BTP) is characterized by a prominent tremor that occurs both at rest and with action in conjunction with other mild features of parkinsonism. The progression of symptoms is typically slow and there is often a positive family history. Although BTP is included within the phenotypic spectrum of Parkinsonism its exact relationship with idiopathic Parkinson?s disease remains unclear. Treatment of BTP is challenging especially considering the poor response to levodopa...

  18. Olfactory threshold in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N P; Rossor, M N; Marsden, C D

    1987-01-01

    Olfactory threshold to differing concentrations of amyl acetate was determined in 78 subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and 40 age-matched controls. Impaired olfactory threshold (previously reported by others) was confirmed in Parkinsonian subjects compared with controls. There was no significant correlation between olfactory threshold and age, sex, duration of disease, or current therapy with levodopa or anticholinergic drugs. In a sub-group of 14 levodopa-treated patients with severe "on-off" fluctuations, no change in olfactory threshold between the two states was demonstrable. Olfactory impairment in Parkinson's disease may involve mechanisms that are not influenced by pharmacologic manipulation of dopaminergic or cholinergic status. PMID:3819760

  19. Managing Parkinson's disease with continuous dopaminergic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, Erik; Lees, Andrew J.; Volkmann, Jens; van Laar, Teus; Hovestadt, Ad

    The pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease is marked by the loss of dopaminergic neurons, which leads to striatal dopaminergic deficiency. This causes resting tremor, hypokinesia, rigidity, bradykinesia, and loss of postural reflexes. Most current treatments for Parkinson's disease aim to restore

  20. Non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chaudhuri, K. Ray

    2009-01-01

    ... dysfunction of Parkinson's disease 95 Daisy L. Whitehead and Richard. G. Brown 9 Depression, anxiety and apathy in Parkinson's disease 107 David A. Gallagher and Anette Schrag 10 Dementia in Pa...

  1. Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Dream Robber: Living with Parkinson's disease Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... Now 65, he has been permanently grounded by Parkinson's disease, unable, due to the loss of motor control ...

  2. [Sexual delinquency and Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Ch; Mehrhoff, F W; Beier, K M; Meinck, H-M

    2003-04-01

    The risk of aberrant sexual behaviour such as hypersexuality, exhibitionism, or pederasty may be underestimated in Parkinson's disease and its therapy with high-dosage L-dopa or dopamine agonists. We describe two legal cases which are representative of the forensic assessment of these side effects. The first case brought to court was a 45-year-old man suffering for 20 years from Parkinson's disease who developed hypersexuality and exhibitionism under high-dose therapy with ropinirol. The second patient, a 57-year-old man with an 11-year history of Parkinson's disease, developed increased libido and pederasty under therapy with L-dopa and bromocriptine. We discuss the present literature concerning hypersexuality and sexually deviant behaviour in Parkinson's disease and dopaminergic therapy in the German legal context. Doctors treating Parkinson patients should be aware of increased sexual impulses or reduced behavioural control and ask specifically about them during anamnesis, and counteractive therapeutic strategies should be considered to prevent the occurrence of illegal sexually aberrant behavioural disorders.

  3. Predictors and Neuropsychiatric Profile of Nucleus Basalis of Meynert Degeneration in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Disease PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Matthew J. Barrett, MD, MSc CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Rector & Visitors of the University of Virginia Charlottesville...of Meynert Degeneration in Parkinson Disease 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0768 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...therapies for non-motor symptoms in sporadic Parkinson disease (PD), specifically the neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia, psychosis, and apathy

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  13. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  14. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  15. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Diagnostica el Parkinson? CareMAP: Prioritizing Health Needs of the Caregiver CareMAP: Putting Things in Place Betsaida Cruz, PT, Long Beach Memorial Medicinal: “Terapia fisica para el Parkinson” Why Dance for PD? When Should Medications Be Adjusted? CareMAP: ...

  16. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... its Treatment: Secrets, Myths and Misconceptions CareMAP: Prioritizing Health Needs of the Caregiver CareMAP: Putting Things in ... Thinking Changes: Part 2 CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 2 ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? What ...

  17. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  18. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  19. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  20. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  1. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Urinary System? NPF Caregiver Summit 2016: Tools For Family Caregivers: Caremap and Caring & Coping How Do PD and Its Treatment Affect Sexual ... most read additions below: What You and Your Family Should Know Medications Fitness ... & Coping Caregiver's Guide Managing Parkinson's Mid-Stride: A Treatment ...

  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... CareMAP: Dealing with Dementia CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 1 CareMAP: Cambios en el Pensamiento y ... 2 CareMAP: Getting Dressed CareMAP: Medications and General Health Part 2 ¿Cómo Se Diagnostica el Parkinson? Adolfo ...

  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  8. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  12. Metabolic Imaging in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meles, Sanne K; Teune, Laura K; de Jong, Bauke M; Dierckx, Rudi A; Leenders, Klaus L

    2017-01-01

    This review focuses on recent human 18 F-FDG PET studies in Parkinson disease. First, an overview is given of the current analytic approaches to metabolic brain imaging data. Next, we discuss how 18 F-FDG PET studies have advanced understanding of the relation between distinct brain regions and associated symptoms in Parkinson disease, including cognitive decline. In addition, the value of 18 F-FDG PET studies in differential diagnosis, identifying prodromal patients, and the evaluation of treatment effects are reviewed. Finally, anticipated developments in the field are addressed. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  13. Parkinson's Disease: The Mitochondria-Iron Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Carlos M.; Núñez, Marco T.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage are conditions often found in damaged brain areas of Parkinson's disease. We propose that a causal link exists between these three events. Mitochondrial dysfunction results not only in increased reactive oxygen species production but also in decreased iron-sulfur cluster synthesis and unorthodox activation of Iron Regulatory Protein 1 (IRP1), a key regulator of cell iron homeostasis. In turn, IRP1 activation results in iron accumulation and hydroxyl radical-mediated damage. These three occurrences—mitochondrial dysfunction, iron accumulation, and oxidative damage—generate a positive feedback loop of increased iron accumulation and oxidative stress. Here, we review the evidence that points to a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and iron accumulation as early events in the development of sporadic and genetic cases of Parkinson's disease. Finally, an attempt is done to contextualize the possible relationship between mitochondria dysfunction and iron dyshomeostasis. Based on published evidence, we propose that iron chelation—by decreasing iron-associated oxidative damage and by inducing cell survival and cell-rescue pathways—is a viable therapy for retarding this cycle. PMID:27293957

  14. MRI in Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aotsuka, Akiyo; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Hirayama, Keizo; Ikehira, Hiroo; Fukuda, Hiroshi.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the magnetic resonance (MR) image of midbrain and striatum in 30 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 10 patients with vascular Parkinsonism (VP) and 10 age-matched control subjects. Studies were performed on a high field strength (1.5 tesla) MRI unit. T2-weighted spin echo pulse sequence (TR 2500 ms/TE 40 ms) was used. Intensity profiles of a straight line perpendicular to the pars compacta through the center of the red nucleus were made on an image of the midbrain. We measured the width of the valley at half-height between the peaks of intensity representing the red nucleus and the crus cerebri-pars reticulata complex and used this as an index of the width of the pars compacta signal. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 2.7 mm in the PD group and 4.3 mm in controls. The difference between the means was highly significant (p<0.01). While not significant statistically, there was a trend toward narrowing of the width of pars compacta signal of substantia nigra in the PD group as the Yahr's grade or disease duration progressed. In hemiparkinsonism, MRI revealed significant narrowing of the pars compacta signal on the contra-lateral side to the clinical predominant side. The mean width of the pars compacta signal was 3.9 mm in the VP group, but the decrease was not significant. MRI in VP group showed multiple high intensity area in the basal ganglia and the white matter, and periventricular hyperintensity area (PVHIA). There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of restoration of the signal intensity in the lateral portion of the substantia nigra among PD, VP and control groups. The low signal intensity in the posterolateral putamen was not found in the 3 groups. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal has been attributed either to atrophy of the pars compacta or to increased deposition of iron in this region. The narrowing of the pars compacta signal reflected pathophysiology of PD. (J.P.N.)

  15. Parkinson's Disease: A Traffic Jam?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clague, Michael J; Rochin, Leila

    2016-04-25

    Recent large-scale proteomic analyses of two protein kinases that are linked to Parkinson's disease have identified a remarkable convergence between their respective impacts on the phosphoproteome: activation of both LRRK2 and PINK1 leads to phosphorylation of several members of the Rab family of small GTPases, which regulate membrane trafficking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sweating dysfunction in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinn, L; Schrag, A; Viswanathan, R; Lees, A; Quinn, N; Bloem, Bastiaan R.

    2003-01-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence and nature of sweating disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and investigated their correlation with other clinical features and with Quality of Life (QoL) measures. A questionnaire on symptoms and consequences of sweating dysfunction was

  17. Pancreatic Polypeptide in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karoline; Hartmann, Bolette; Fedorova, Tatyana D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Parkinson's disease (PD) patients experience several non-motor symptoms from the gastrointestinal tract that may partly be caused by parasympathetic deficiency. The pancreas is densely innervated by the vagus nerve, which mediates early meal-induced secretion...

  18. Skin disorders in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Astrid-Helene; Thyssen, Jacob P; Egeberg, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by a symptom triad comprising resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia. In addition, non-motor symptoms of PD are well recognized and often precede the overt motor manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations...

  19. Genetic predisposition to Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic variants of CYP2D6 and HFE are more frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared with controls in a population where the prevalence of these variants and PD are increased. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 79 PD patients and 154...

  20. Genetic comorbidities in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nalls, Mike A.; Saad, Mohamad; Noyce, Alastair J.; Keller, Margaux F.; Schrag, Anette; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nick; Hardy, John; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B.; Nalls, Mike; Plagnol, Vincent; Sharma, Manu; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Schulte, Claudia; Lesage, Suzanne; Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Sigurlaug; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M. A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cooper, J. Mark; Corvol, Jean Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean-François; Deloukas, Panos; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Dürr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Ómar; Harris, Clare; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huang, Xuemei; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Lambert, Jean-Charles; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morrison, Karen E.; Mudanohwo, Ese; O'Sullivan, Sean S.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Shaw, Karen; Shoulson, Ira; Sidransky, Ellen; Smith, Colin; Spencer, Chris C. A.; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D.; Strange, Amy; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Stefánsson, Kári; Brice, Alexis; Wood, Nicholas W.; Donnelly, Peter; Barroso, Ines; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A.; Casas, Juan P.; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Palmer, N. A.; Plomin, Robert; Rautanen, Anna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Trembath, Richard C.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; Band, Gavin; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Hellenthal, Garrett; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Pirinen, Matti; Pearson, Richard; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Gwilliam, Rhian; Blackburn, Hannah; Bumpstead, Suzannah J.; Dronov, Serge; Gillman, Matthew; Hammond, Naomi; Jayakumar, Alagurevathi; McCann, Owen T.; Liddle, Jennifer; Potter, Simon C.; Ravindrarajah, Radhi; Ricketts, Michelle; Waller, Matthew; Weston, Paul; Widaa, Sara; Whittaker, Pamela; McCarthy, Mark I.; Nalls, Michael A.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Johnson, Robert; Longo, Dan L.; O'Brien, Richard; Traynor, Bryan; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Zielke, Ronald H.; Weale, Michael E.; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Walker, Rober

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a number of known genetic risk factors. Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested the existence of intermediate factors that may be associated with additional risk of PD. We construct genetic risk profiles for additional epidemiological and clinical factors

  1. Treatment of Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Varanese, Sara; Birnbaum, Zoe; Rossi, Roger; Di Rocco, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    Patients at late stage Parkinson's disease (PD) develop several motor and nonmotor complications, which dramatically impair their quality of life. These complications include motor fluctuations, dyskinesia, unpredictable or absent response to medications, falls, dysautonomia, dementia, hallucinations, sleep disorders, depression, and psychosis. The therapeutic management should be driven by the attempt to create a balance between benefit and side effects of the pharmacological treatments avai...

  2. Lack of Neuronal IFN-β-IFNAR Causes Lewy Body- and Parkinson's Disease-like Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlerskov, Patrick; Hultberg, Jeanette Göransdotter; Wang, JunYang

    2015-01-01

    defects in neuronal autophagy prior to α-synucleinopathy, which was associated with accumulation of senescent mitochondria. Recombinant IFN-β promoted neurite growth and branching, autophagy flux, and α-synuclein degradation in neurons. In addition, lentiviral IFN-β overexpression prevented dopaminergic...... neuron loss in a familial Parkinson's disease model. These results indicate a protective role for IFN-β in neuronal homeostasis and validate Ifnb mutant mice as a model for sporadic Lewy body and Parkinson's disease dementia....

  3. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Zerr; K. Kallenberg; D.M. Summers; C. Romero; A. Taratuto; U. Heinemann; M. Breithaupt; D. Varges; B. Meissner; A. Ladogana (Anna); M. Schuur (Maaike); S. Haik; S.J. Collins (Steven); G.H. Jansen (Gerard); G.B. Stokin; J. Pimentel; E. Hewer; D. Collie; P. Smith; H. Roberts; J.P. Brandel; P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); M. Pocchiari (Maurizio); C. Begue; P. Cras (Patrick); R.G. Will; P. Sanchez-Juan (Pascual)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSeveral molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications

  4. Legionnaires’ Disease: Clinicoradiological Comparison of Sporadic Versus Outbreak Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Rizwan Talib Hashmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2015, New York City experienced the worst outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the history of the city. We compare patients seen during the 2015 outbreak with sporadic cases of Legionella during the past 5 years. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 90 patients with Legionnaires’ disease, including sporadic cases of Legionella infection admitted from 2010 to 2015 (n = 55 and cases admitted during the 2015 outbreak (n = 35. Results: We saw no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding demographics, smoking habits, alcohol intake, underlying medical disease, or residence type. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with sporadic case of Legionella had a longer stay in the hospital and intensive care unit as well as an increased stay in mechanical ventilation. Short-term mortality, discharge disposition, and most clinical parameters did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Conclusions: We found no specific clinicoradiological characteristics that could differentiate sporadic from epidemic cases of Legionella . Early recognition and high suspicion for Legionnaires’ disease are critical to provide appropriate treatment. Cluster of cases should increase suspicion for an outbreak.

  5. [Physical therapy for parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, M

    2011-09-01

    Parkinson's disease is a complex neurologic and progressive incapacitating disease. Parkinson's disease severely threatens the quality of live and the number of patients worldwide is expected to rise considerably in the coming decade due to aging of the population. Even with optimal medical management using drugs or neurosurgery, patients are faced with progressively increasing impairments (e.g. in speech, mental and movement related functions), and restrictions in participation (e.g. domestic life and social activities). Physical therapy is often prescribed next to medical treatment but there is a lack of uniform treatment. A systematic literature search for guidelines, systematic reviews, trials, and expert opinions lead to a better understanding. The key question: Is physiotherapy able to optimally treat the Parkinson's disease symptoms? In which way, how and on which scientific bases can the physiotherapist participate to improve autonomy and to help them living independently and avoid, as long as possible, institutionalization? This article has integrated clinical research findings to provide clinicians with an overview to physical therapist management of disorders in people with Parkinson's disease. An Evidence-Based Physical Therapy Guideline providing practice recommendations was developed by the Royal Dutch Society for Physical Therapy (KNGF). Evidence from research was supplemented with clinical expertise and patients values. Randomized clinical trials reflect specific core areas of physical therapy, that is, transfer, posture, balance, reaching and grasping, gait and physical condition. Another aspect is that of educating patients (as well as their partners and family) about the disease process and the benefits of exercise therapy. Alternative therapies can be helpful like Tai Chi, virtual games, dancing, yoga, ball games for example.

  6. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean

  7. Impact of specialist palliative care on coping with Parkinson's disease: patients and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Nathan J; Frizelle, Dorothy; Adams, Debi; Johnson, Miriam J

    2018-01-09

    UK guidelines recommend palliative care access for people with Parkinson's disease; however, this remains sporadic, and it is unknown whether specialist palliative care helps patients and carers cope with this distressing condition. This study aimed to explore whether, and how, access to specialist palliative care services affected patients' and carers' coping with Parkinson's disease. Semistructured interviews were conducted, audio-recorded and verbatim transcribed. Data were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Participants were patients with advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease (n=3), and carers of people with Parkinson's disease (n=5, however, one diagnosis was reviewed) receiving care from an integrated specialist palliative care and Parkinson's disease service in North East England. Access to specialist palliative care helped participants cope with some aspects of advanced Parkinson's disease. Three superordinate themes were developed:' managing uncertainty', 'impacts on the self' and 'specialist palliative care maintaining a positive outlook'. Specialist palliative care helped patients and carers cope with advanced Parkinson's disease. Specialist palliative care is a complex intervention that acknowledges the complex and holistic nature of Parkinson's disease, enabling health in some domains despite continued presence of pathology. These exploratory findings support the utility of this approach for people living with Parkinson's disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolar Andrés, Sandra; Santamarina Rabanal, María Liliana; Granda Membiela, Carla María; Fernández Gutiérrez, María José; Sirgo Rodríguez, Paloma; Álvarez Marcos, César

    Parkinson's disease is a type of chronic neurodegenerative pathology with a typical movement pattern, as well as different, less studied symptoms such as dysphagia. Disease-related disorders in efficacy or safety in the process of swallowing usually lead to malnutrition, dehydration or pneumonias. The aim of this study was identifying and analyzing swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease. The initial sample consisted of 52 subjects with Parkinson's disease to whom the specific test for dysphagia SDQ was applied. Nineteen participants (36.5%) with some degree of dysphagia in the SDQ test were selected to be evaluated by volume-viscosity clinical exploration method and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were detected in 94.7% of the selected sample. With regards to efficiency, disorders were found in food transport (89.5%), insufficient labial closing (68.4%) and oral residues (47.4%), relating to duration of ingestion. Alterations in security were also observed: pharynx residues (52.7%), coughing (47.4%), penetration (31.64%), aspiration and decrease of SaO 2 (5.3%), relating to the diagnosis of respiratory pathology in the previous year. The SDQ test detected swallowing disorders in 36.5% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were demonstrated in 94.7% of this subset. Disorders of efficiency were more frequent than those of safety, establishing a relationship with greater time in ingestion and the appearance of respiratory pathology and pneumonias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing YUAN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease cognitive impairment (PD-CI is one of the major non-motor symtoms (NMS of PD, including Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD - MCI and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD. Executive dysfunction is relatively prominent, but other cognitive domains as visuospatial ability, memory and language can also be affected. Main risk factors for PD-CI include male gender, advanced age, low education, severe motor symptoms, low baseline cognitive function and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Lewy bodies are main pathological changes, and Alzheimer's disease (AD related pathological changes can also be seen. The application value of decreased α?synuclein (α-Syn and β-amyloid 1-42 (Aβ1-42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF as biomarkers remains controversial. There are few related research and no defined pathogenic genes currently. Both dopaminergic pathway and acetylcholinergic pathway are involved in the occurrence of PD - CI as demonstrated in PET studies. Cortical and subcortical atrophy are associated with PD - CI as observed in MRI studies. Olfactory dysfunction may be one of the predictors of cognitive impairment. PDD and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB share common biological characteristics, therefore the differential diagnosis sometimes is difficult. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs and memantine help to improve clinical symptoms, but treatment decision should be made with individualization. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT has potential clinical value and should be investigated by more studies. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.06.004

  10. When does Parkinson disease start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Rocca, Walter A; Ahlskog, J Eric

    2010-07-01

    There is convincing evidence that the Parkinson disease neurodegenerative process begins many years before the onset of motor manifestations. Initial estimates based on nigral neuropathological findings or striatal dopamine imaging suggested a 5- to 6-year preclinical period. However, more recent evidence of Lewy body pathology in other neuronal populations preceding nigral involvement suggests that the preclinical phase may be much longer. Epidemiologic studies of nonmotor manifestations, such as constipation, anxiety disorders, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), and anemia, suggest that the preclinical period extends at least 20 years before the motor manifestations. Olfactory impairment and depression may also precede the onset of motor manifestations; however, the lag time may be shorter. Recognition of a nonmotor preclinical phase spanning 20 or more years should guide the search for predictive biomarkers and the identification of risk or protective factors for Parkinson disease.

  11. Electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Fajardo, Humberto; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Llorens-Arenas, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Bermudez, Jesús; Ruiz-Chow, Ángel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for the management of depression and/or psychosis refractory to drug therapy in patients with Parkinson disease.Methods A retrospective study was carried out including patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy during the period between 2002 and 2013. A review of the literature was performed.Results A total of 27 patients were included. In regards to the neuropsychiatric diagnosis, 14 patients had major depression, 12 patients had both psychosis and depression, and only one patient had isolated psychosis. The mean number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions was 12 ± 2.8. After electroconvulsive therapy, all patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (reduction of 52% points) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (reduction of 50% points) independent of the presence of psychosis, depression or both.Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy is effective for the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  12. [Behavioral impairments in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashihara, Kenichi

    2004-09-01

    Behavioral impairments in parkinsonian patients include agitation, hypersexuality, stereotypic movement, pathological gambling, abuse of antiparkinsonian drugs, REM sleep behavioral disorder, and restless legs syndrome. Dementia, psychoses, and emotional disorders, such as depression and anxiety/panic disorder, also impair behavior. Symptoms may be produced by dysfunction of the central nervous system, medication, and/or the psychosocial problems associated with Parkinson's disease. Treatment therefore should be based on the cause of the symptoms seen. In some cases, the reduction or change of antiparkinsonian drugs, or both, may be effective. Treatment of the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, including motor fluctuations, may reduce the risk of panic attacks being evoked in the 'off' period. Use of antidepressants, sedatives, and neuroleptics may often be effective. Physicians should identify the causes of the symptoms of behavioral impairment and select appropriate treatments.

  13. Addictive behaviors and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjas, T; Eusebio, A; Fluchère, F; Azulay, J-P

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the dopaminergic system and the longstanding exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) may cause, in a group of vulnerable patients, dysregulation of the brain reward system. These patients develop DRT-related compulsions, which include addiction to levodopa or dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs or behavioral addiction reported in Parkinson's disease include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying and binge eating. Although the underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood, these behaviors are linked by their reward-based and repetitive nature. Such behaviors may result in devastating psychosocial impairment for the patients and are often hidden. The recognition of these behaviors is important and allows a better clinical management. Although the limited data do not permit particular therapeutic strategies, some approaches are worth considering: DRT reduction, trials of non-dopaminergic medications and subthalamic chronic stimulation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Emotional impairment in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Hai-bo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Emotional impairment is the common complication of Parkinson's disease (PD. Depression, anxiety and apathy affect the quality of life and the prognosis of PD patients. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional impairment in PD patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways, but the specific mechanism needs further study. In this review we discuss the clinical manifestation, possible pathological mechanism, diagnosis and treatment in PD patients.

  15. Apathy in Parkinson's disease patients

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Nodel

    2014-01-01

    pathy in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is one of the least studied manifestations of a broad range of neuropsychic disorders. According to numerous researchers, the rate of apathy in PD patients is 17–80%. The structural and neurochemical changes associated with PD have been considered to be the leading pathophysiological factors of apathy. The possible general pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed for apathy and hypokinesia, depression, executive (frontal) cognitive functions, and ...

  16. Apathy dimensions in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Radakovic, Ratko; Davenport, Richard; Starr, John M; Abrahams, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Apathy is a prominent and disabling symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is a multidimensional behaviour, but which dimensions are specifically affected is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) and explore the multidimensional profile of apathy in PD patients. METHODS: Thirty-four PD patients, with 30 of their informants/carers, and 34 healthy controls, with 30 of their informants,...

  17. Is sporadic Alzheimer's disease a developmental disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Thomas; Stieler, Jens; Ueberham, Uwe

    2017-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of higher age that specifically occurs in human. Its clinical phase, characterized by a decline in physiological, psychological, and social functioning, is preceded by a long clinically silent phase of at least several decades that might perhaps even start very early in life. Overall, key functional abilities in AD patients decline in reverse order of the development of these abilities during normal childhood and adolescence. Early symptoms of AD, thus, typically affect mental functions that have been acquired only during very recent hominid evolution and as such are specific to human. Neurofibrillar degeneration, a typical neuropathological lesion of the disease and one of the most robust pathological correlates of cognitive impairment, is rarely seen in non-primate mammals and even non-human primates hardly develop a pathology comparable to those seen in AD patients. Neurofibrillar degeneration is not randomly distributed throughout the AD brain. It preferentially affects brain areas that become increasingly predominant during the evolutionary process of encephalization. During progression of the disease, it affects cortical areas in a stereotypic sequence that inversely recapitulates ontogenetic brain development. The specific distribution of cortical pathology in AD, moreover, appears to be determined by the modular organization of the cerebral cortex which basically is a structural reflection of its ontogeny. Here, we summarize recent evidence that phylogenetic and ontogenetic dimensions of brain structure and function provide the key to our understanding of AD. More recent molecular biological studies of the potential pathogenetic role of a genomic mosaic in the brains of patients with AD might even provide arguments for a developmental origin of AD. This article is part of a series "Beyond Amyloid". © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Parkinson's disease as a result of aging

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Sabate, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    It is generally considered that Parkinson's disease is induced by specific agents that degenerate a clearly defined population of dopaminergic neurons. Data commented in this review suggest that this assumption is not as clear as is often thought and that aging may be critical for Parkinson's disease. Neurons degenerating in Parkinson's disease also degenerate in normal aging, and the different agents involved in the etiology of this illness are also involved in aging. Senescence is a wider p...

  19. Impulse-control disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Joseph M; Stacy, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and resting tremor. Increasingly, Parkinson's disease has been associated with a broad spectrum of non-motor symptoms, such as olfactory loss, sleep disorders, autonomic dysfunction, cognitive impairment, psychosis, depression, anxiety, and apathy. In addition, a minority of Parkinson's disease patients develop compulsive behaviors while receiving dopamine-replacement therapy, including medication hoarding, pathological gambling, binge eating, hyperlibidinous behavior, compulsive shopping, and punding. These behaviors may result in psychosocial impairment for patients and therapeutic challenges for clinicians. This article reviews the anatomic substrates, behavioral spectrum, associated factors, and potential treatments for dopamine-replacement therapy-related compulsions in Parkinson's disease.

  20. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around.

  1. [Parkinson's disease(s): recent insight into genetic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Scheffer, H.; Heutink, P.; Bloem, B.R.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, 5 genes have been identified that are unambiguously associated with genetic forms of Parkinson's disease. These genes probably explain less than 10% of all cases of Parkinson's disease. Clinically, these genetic forms can closely resemble idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Mutation

  2. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  3. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  4. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... PD: What You Need to Know Expert Briefings: Cognition and PD: What You've Always Wanted to ... How Does Depression Affect the Patient's Family and Social Network? Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: ...

  5. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  6. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  7. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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  9. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... What Do I Do if I Suspect Compulsive Behavior in a Loved One with PD? What Medications Help with Cognitive Impairment? How Do PD and Its Treatment Affect Sexual Functioning? Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: Balancing Life and ...

  10. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Impairment? How Do PD and Its Treatment Affect Sexual Functioning? Parkinson’s Disease Psychosis: A Caregiver’s Story CareMAP: ... I Talk to My Physician or Spouse About Sexual Dysfunction? Attachment: consultation.jpg Hallucinations and Delusions OHSU - ...

  11. Parkinson's Disease Videos

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    Full Text Available ... Sueño, Parte 1 CareMAP: La Alimentación y la Deglución, Parte 1 CareMAP: El Baño, Parte 1 CareMAP: ... Disease Affect Memory? CareMAP: La Alimentación y la Deglución, Parte 2 Caregiver Summit 2016: The PD You ...

  12. [Perioperative management of Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, A; Medrano, I Hernández; Cánovas, A Alonso; Lobo, E; Loinaz, C; Vela, L; Espiga, P García-Ruiz; Castrillo, J C Martínez

    2012-01-01

    One of the particular characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD) is the wide clinical variation as regards the treatment that can be found in the same patient. This occurs with specific treatment for PD, as well as with other drug groups that can make motor function worse. For this reason, the perioperative management of PD requires experience and above all appropriate planning. In this article, the peculiarities of PD and its treatment are reviewed, and a strategy is set out for the perioperative management of these patients. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Circadian dysregulation in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Videnovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects over one million individuals in the US alone. PD is characterized by a plethora of motor and non-motor manifestations, resulting from a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons and disbalance of several other neurotransmitters. A growing body of evidence points to significant alterations of the circadian system in PD. This is not surprising given the pivotal role that dopamine plays in circadian regulation as well as the role of circadian influences in dopamine metabolism. In this review we present basic and clinical investigations that examined the function of the circadian system in PD.

  14. Diffusion MR imaging in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Cakir Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare dementing disease and is thought to caused by a prion. It is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia, myoclonus, akinetic mutism and eventual death. Brain biopsy or autopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis of CJD. Diffusion-weighted imaging became an important tool for early diagnosis of CJD because of the high sensitivity. We present 59-year-old female patient diagnosed as sporadic CJD with typical MR imagings. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 880-883

  15. Nonmotor symptoms in genetic Parkinson disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasten, Meike; Kertelge, Lena; Brüggemann, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD.......To review current knowledge on nonmotor symptoms (NMS), particularly psychiatric features, in genetic Parkinson disease (PD) and to provide original data for genetic and idiopathic PD....

  16. Parkinson's disease: piecing together a genetic jigsaw.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.J. Dekker (Marieke); V. Bonifati (Vincenzo); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe role of genetics in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease has been subject to debate for decades. In recent years, the discovery of five genes and several more loci has provided important insight into its molecular aetiology. Some Parkinson's disease genes possibly cause

  17. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalf, J.G.; Munneke, M.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  18. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tetsuro; Noguchi, Sadako; Nishitani, Hiroshi; Kitano, Haruo; Ikegami, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs. (author)

  19. I-123 IMP SPECT in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Keita; Tachibana, Kyudai; Sugita, Minoru

    1990-01-01

    To examine semiquantitatively regional cerebral blood flow, SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) was undertaken in 17 patients with Parkinson's disease. Seven patients with Alzheimer's disease and 9 senile control subjects were also imaged for comparison. Both the Parkinson's disease group and the Alzheimer's disease group had a decreased uptake of I-123 IMP in the frontal lobe, in comparison with the control group. A remarkably decreased uptake was seen in the lateral and parietal lobes in the group of Parkinson's disease associated with dementia, as well as in the Alzheimer's disease group. A significantly decreased uptake was observed in the frontal lobe, lateral lobe, thalamus, and basal ganglia in the Parkinson's disease group, irrespective of the presence or absence of dementia. For Parkinson's disease associated with dementia, there was much more significant decrease in I-123 IMP uptake. The pattern of regional cerebral blood flow in the Alzheimer's disease group was analogous to that in the Parkinson's disease group associated with dementia. This supports the hypothesis that Alzheimer's disease may be somewhat involved in the occurrence of dementia for Parkinson's disease. (N.K.)

  20. Parkinson's disease associated with impaired oxidative phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterer, J.; Jarius, C.; Baumgartner, M.

    2001-01-01

    Parkinson's disease may be due to primary or secondary oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects. In a 76-year-old man with Parkinson's disease since 1992, slightly but recurrently elevated creatine phosphokinase, recurrently elevated blood glucose, thickening of the left ventricular myocardium, bifascicular block and hypacusis were found. Cerebral MRI showed atrophy, periventricular demyelination, multiple, disseminated, supra- and infratentorial lacunas, and haemosiderin deposits in both posterior horns. Muscle biopsy showed typical features of an OXPHOS defect. Whether the association of Parkinson's disease and impaired OXPHOS was causative or coincidental remains unknown. Possibly, the mitochondrial defect acted as an additional risk factor for Parkinson's disease or the OXPHOS defect worsened the preexisting neurological impairments by a cumulative or synergistic mechanism. In conclusion, this case shows that Parkinson's disease may be associated with a mitochondrially or nuclearly encoded OXPHOS defect, manifesting as hypacusis, myopathy, axonal polyneuropathy, cardiomyopathy and recurrent subclinical ischaemic strokes and haemorrhages. (orig.)

  1. Is "Parkinson's disease" one disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Calne, D B

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to how and why categories of ill health are divided into diseases. Aetiology is a fundamental criterion for the delineation of individual diseases. The same clinical and pathological picture may have many different causes; for example meningococcal meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis are distinct diseases that may display the same symptoms and signs. On the other hand, a single aetiology may lead to quite separate clinical and pathological phenomena; for example, neu...

  2. Reciprocal inhibition in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, C H; Chen, R S; Lu, C S

    1997-01-01

    We studied the inhibition of median H-reflex by conditioning stimuli on the radial nerve in 14 normal controls, 6 patients with unilateral and 1 patient with predominantly left-sided Parkinson's disease. In normal controls, the electrophysiological studies were performed on their right hands, yet both hands were examined in patient group. In the controls, we identified three inhibitory phases, with maximal inhibition at conditioning-test intervals of 0 ms (41.66 +/- 4.73%), 20 ms (45.19 +/- 4.33%), and 100 ms (44.55 +/- 6.84%), respectively. In the less- or a- symptomatic side of the patient group, the inhibitory patterns are similar to those of the controls. However, in the symptomatic arms, loss of inhibition, or even mild potentiation, was observed in the third inhibitory phase. When the symptomatic and asymptomatic sides of patients were compared, in contrast to the striking phenomenon found between symptomatic side and the controls, no difference was observed in the third phase. The current results imply that, although no obvious rigidity can be detected on the asymptomatic sides, subtle functional corruption may have occurred within the contralateral basal ganglia in patients with unilateral Parkinson's disease. The remarkable change of the third phase on the symptomatic sides of patients suggests the perturbation of the polysynaptic long latency reflex pathway may somehow play a role in the rigidity pathogenesis.

  3. Parkinson's disease: nursing care in emergency settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Vicky

    2017-09-14

    In the UK 127,000 people are diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, many of whom are frequently admited to hospital. However, Parkinson's disease is not usually the primary cause of admission. Emergency department (ED) nurses must be aware of the medication needs of people with Parkinson's disease and how these can be met in emergency setings to ensure the stability of their condition and to prevent the development of neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially fatal condition caused by abrupt omission of Parkinson's medication. This article highlights the importance of ensuring that patients with Parkinson's disease continue their medication regimen while in an ED, even if they are temporarily unable to swallow, and uses a case study to illustrate various ways of achieving this. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  4. Imaging and clinical characteristics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Shun-chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD presented rapidly progressive dementia which were subacute onset from 1 to 4 months. Among these cases, periodic synchronous discharge (PSD of electroencephalography (EEG was seen in 2 patients. Besides, 4 patients obtained positive results in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis for 14-3-3 protein. The cranial MRI examination showed symmetrical or asymmetrical colored-ribbon-shaped high signals in cerebral cortex or basal ganglia by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, suggesting that DWI had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sCJD as a preferred method in the clinical examination of sCJD.

  5. Dopamine Receptors and Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive extrapyramidal motor disorder. Pathologically, this disease is characterized by the selective dopaminergic (DAergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Correcting the DA deficiency in PD with levodopa (L-dopa significantly attenuates the motor symptoms; however, its effectiveness often declines, and L-dopa-related adverse effects emerge after long-term treatment. Nowadays, DA receptor agonists are useful medication even regarded as first choice to delay the starting of L-dopa therapy. In advanced stage of PD, they are also used as adjunct therapy together with L-dopa. DA receptor agonists act by stimulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors. Despite the usefulness, they could be causative drugs for valvulopathy and nonmotor complication such as DA dysregulation syndrome (DDS. In this paper, physiological characteristics of DA receptor familyare discussed. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and specific adverse effects of pharmaceutical DA receptor agonist.

  6. Treatment of Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Varanese

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients at late stage Parkinson's disease (PD develop several motor and nonmotor complications, which dramatically impair their quality of life. These complications include motor fluctuations, dyskinesia, unpredictable or absent response to medications, falls, dysautonomia, dementia, hallucinations, sleep disorders, depression, and psychosis. The therapeutic management should be driven by the attempt to create a balance between benefit and side effects of the pharmacological treatments available. Supportive care, including physical and rehabilitative interventions, speech therapy, occupational therapy, and nursing care, has a key role in the late stage of disease. In this review we discuss the several complications experienced by advance PD patients and their management. The importance of an integrative approach, including both pharmacological and supportive interventions, is emphasized.

  7. Slower Dynamics and Aged Mitochondria in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargini, Ricardo; García, Esther; Perry, George

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients. The analysis of mitochondrial network disruption using CCCP indicates that the patients' fibroblasts exhibit slower dynamics and mitochondrial membrane potential recovery. These defects lead to strong accumulation of aged mitochondria in Alzheimer's fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of autophagy and mitophagy involved genes in the patients demonstrates a downregulation indicating that the recycling mechanism of these aged mitochondria might be impaired. Our data reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the key early events of the disease intimately related with aging. PMID:29201274

  8. Corneal nerve microstructure in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Stuti L; Kersten, Hannah M; Roxburgh, Richard H; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; McGhee, Charles N J

    2017-05-01

    Ocular surface changes and blink abnormalities are well-established in Parkinson's disease. Blink rate may be influenced by corneal sub-basal nerve density, however, this relationship has not yet been investigated in Parkinson's disease. This case-control study examined the ocular surface in patients with moderately severe Parkinson's disease, including confocal microscopy of the cornea. Fifteen patients with moderately severe Parkinson's disease (modified Hoehn and Yahr grade 3 or 4) and fifteen control participants were recruited. Ophthalmic assessment included slit-lamp examination, blink rate assessment, central corneal aesthesiometry and in vivo corneal confocal microscopy. The effect of disease laterality was also investigated. Of the 15 patients with Parkinson's disease, ten were male and the mean age was 65.5±8.6years. The corneal sub-basal nerve plexus density was markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (7.56±2.4mm/mm 2 ) compared with controls (15.91±2.6mm/mm 2 ) (pParkinson's disease (0.79±1.2mBAR) and the control group (0.26±0.35mBAR), p=0.12. Sub-basal nerve density was not significantly different between the eye ipsilateral to the side of the body with most-severe motor symptoms, and the contralateral eye. There was a significant positive correlation between ACE-R scores and sub-basal corneal nerve density (R 2 =0.66, p=0.02). This is the first study to report a significant reduction in corneal sub-basal nerve density in Parkinson's disease and demonstrate an association with cognitive dysfunction. These results provide further evidence to support the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in Parkinson's disease, previously thought to be a central nervous system disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Asymmetrical Pedaling Patterns in Parkinson's Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penko, Amanda L.; Hirsch, Joshua R.; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Martin, Philip E.; Blackburn, Gordon; Alberts, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Approximately 1.5 million Americans are affected by Parkinson's disease [1] which includes the symptoms of postural instability and gait dysfunction. Currently, clinical evaluations of postural instability and gait dysfunction consist of a subjective rater assessment of gait patterns using items from the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and assessments can be insensitive to the effectiveness of medical interventions. Current research suggests the importance of cycling for Parkinson's disease patients, and while Parkinson's gait has been evaluated in previous studies, little is known about lower extremity control during cycling. The purpose of this study is to examine the lower extremity coordination patterns of Parkinson's patients during cycling. Methods Twenty five participants, ages 44-72, with a clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease participated in an exercise test on a cycle ergometer that was equipped with pedal force measurements. Crank torque, crank angle and power produced by right and left leg were measured throughout the test to calculate Symmetry Index at three stages of exercise (20 Watt, 60 Watt, maximum performance). Findings Decreases in Symmetry Index were observed for average power output in Parkinson's patients as workload increased. Maximum power Symmetry Index showed a significant difference in symmetry between performance at both the 20 Watt and 60 Watt stage and the maximal resistance stage. Minimum power Symmetry Index did not show significant differences across the stages of the test. While lower extremity asymmetries were present in Parkinson's patients during pedaling, these asymmetries did not correlate to postural instability and gait dysfunction Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores. Interpretation This pedaling analysis allows for a more sensitive measure of lower extremity function than the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and may help to provide unique insight into current and

  10. Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Parkinson`s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Peixinho

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease affects about 1% of the world population older than 65 years. It’s most frequently considered a movement disorder, but the neuropsychiatric manifestations associated with the disease and/or its treatment may be of equal or greater significance in some patients. We will discuss briefly the epidemiology, physiopathology and diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, highlighting the neuropsychiatric manifestations: depression, anxiety, psychosis, dementia, sleep disorders, dopamine dysregulation syndrome.

  11. Recent developments in biomarkers in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Anthony H.V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer disease, and current demographic trends indicate a life-time risk approaching 4% and predict a doubling of prevalence by 2030. Strategies are being developed to apply recent advances in our understanding of the cause of Parkinson disease to the development of biomarkers that will enable the identification of at-risk individuals, enable early diagnosis and reflect the progression of disease. The latter will be particularly important for the testing of disease-modifying therapies. This review summarizes recent advances in Parkinson disease biomarker development. Recent findings Recent reports continue to reflect the application of a variety of clinical, imaging or biochemical measurements, alone or in combination, to general Parkinson disease populations. Probably the most promising is the assay of alpha-synuclein in the diagnosis and evolution of Parkinson disease. At present, detection techniques are still being refined, but once accurate and reproducible assays are available, it will be important to define the relationship of these to early diagnosis and progression. Alpha-synuclein concentrations may also be modulated by certain disease-modifying agents in development and so may represent a measure of their efficacy. It has to be accepted that no single measure currently fulfils all the necessary criteria for a biomarker in Parkinson disease, but combinations of measures are more likely to deliver benefit. Summary The Parkinson disease biomarker field is approaching a stage when certain combinations of clinical, imaging and biochemical measures may identify a proportion of individuals at risk for developing the disease. However, their general applicability may be limited. Attention is now turning to stratification of Parkinson disease into certain at-risk groups defined by genotype. The application of multimodal screening to these populations may be more

  12. Electroconvulsive Therapy Intervention for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Puneet; Glowacki, Anna; Lippmann, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy is an established means to improve function in a variety of psychiatric and neurologic conditions, particularly for patients who remain treatment-refractory. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that sometimes does not respond well to conventional pharmacotherapies. Reports have indicated that electroconvulsive therapy may be an effective and safe treatment for those patients with Parkinson's disease who are not optimally responding to first-line treatments. Despite these reports, however, electroconvulsive therapy is not often used by clinicians in patients with treatment-resistant Parkinson's disease, perhaps due to stigma, lack of knowledge regarding its safety and efficacy, and/or inability to predict the duration of therapeutic benefit. Our objective was to determine if the available literature on ECT supports it as a safe and effective treatment option in patients with treatment-refractory Parkinson's disease. Motoric improvement induced by electroconvulsive therapy has been documented for decades in persons with Parkinson's disease. Efficacy and safety are reported following electroconvulsive therapy in people with Parkinson's disease who have sub-optimal response to medicines or experience the "on/off" phenomenon to L-dopa. Electroconvulsive therapy is an effective option for acute and maintenance treatment of Parkinson's disease in select patients. Inability to predict how long the beneficial effects of ECT therapy will last in patients with Parkinson's disease may be a reason why this treatment is underutilized by clinicians. More research is warranted to clarify parameters for application and duration of therapeutic benefit in individuals with difficult-to-treat Parkinson's disease.

  13. Imaging Parkinson's disease below the neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Knudsen, Karoline; Fedorova, Tatyana D

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a systemic disorder with widespread and early α-synuclein pathology in the autonomic and enteric nervous systems, which is present throughout the gastrointestinal canal prior to diagnosis. Gastrointestinal and genitourinary autonomic symptoms often predate clinical diagnosis......, the hypothesis remains unproven and in vivo imaging methods of peripheral organs may be essential to study this important research field. The loss of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve terminal function in Parkinson's disease has been demonstrated using radiotracers such as (123)I-meta-iodobenzylguanidin, (18......-isotope and radiological modalities for imaging peripheral pathology in Parkinson's disease....

  14. Bipolar disorder, a precursor of Parkinson's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia M.S. Novaretti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder predominantly resulting from dopamine depletion in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Some psychiatric disorders may have dopaminergic dysfunction as their substrate. We describe a well-documented case of Parkinson's disease associated with Bipolar Disorder. Although there is some knowledge about the association between these diseases, little is known about its pathophysiology and correlation. We believe that among various hypotheses, many neurotransmitters are linked to this pathophysiology.

  15. Sleep Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falup-Pecurariu, Cristian; Diaconu, Ştefania

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of sleep problems in Parkinson's disease (PD) is broad. These symptoms are recognized as being clinically relevant by the PD patients and may seriously affect their quality of life. Some studies reveal the occurrence of sleep disorders in more than half of the PD patients. The etiology is multifactorial and it mainly involves the degeneration of the sleep-regulating structures. Sleep disorders in PD can be classified into: disturbances of sleep and disturbances of wakefulness. Generic and specific scales were designed to help the screening and evaluation of sleep dysfunction. Further assessment can be done using sleep recording techniques, like actigraphy or polysomnography. All types of sleep disturbances may be encountered in PD: insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorders, and restless legs syndrome. This chapter will focus on reviewing the main characteristics, pathophysiology, assessment, and management of the most frequent sleep disturbances encountered in PD. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuronal oscillations in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcher, Mark; Moran, Rosalyn; Tatter, Stephen B; Laxton, Adrian W

    2014-06-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD), characterized by tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, is one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders in the world. The pathological hallmark of PD is the loss of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra and other brain regions. The pathophysiological mechanisms by which dopaminergic cell loss leads to the motor manifestations of PD are yet to be fully elucidated. A growing body of evidence has revealed abnormal neuronal oscillations within and between multiple brain regions in PD. Unique oscillatory patterns are associated with specific motor abnormalities in PD. Therapies, such as dopaminergic medication and deep brain stimulation that disrupt these abnormal neuronal oscillatory patterns produce symptomatic improvement in PD patients. These findings emphasize the importance of abnormal neuronal oscillations in the pathophysiology of PD, making the disruption of these oscillatory patterns a promising target in the development of effective PD treatments.

  17. Parkinson disease and smoking revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Lassen, Christina F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether being able to quit smoking is an early marker of Parkinson disease (PD) onset rather than tobacco being "neuroprotective," we analyzed information about ease of quitting and nicotine substitute use. METHODS: For this case-control study, we identified 1,808 patients...... patients with PD than controls ever established a smoking habit. Among former smokers, those with greater difficulty quitting or using nicotine substitutes were less likely to develop PD, with the risk being lowest among those reporting "extremely difficult to quit" compared with "easy to quit." Nicotine...... substitute usage was strongly associated with quitting difficulty and duration of smoking, i.e., most strongly among current smokers, followed by former smokers who had used nicotine substitutes, and less strongly among former smokers who never used substitutes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the notion...

  18. Skin disorders in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Astrid-Helene; Thyssen, Jacob P; Egeberg, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by a symptom triad comprising resting tremor, rigidity, and akinesia. In addition, non-motor symptoms of PD are well recognized and often precede the overt motor manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations...... with bullous pemphigoid. Moreover, a 2-fold increase in risk of new-onset PD has been observed in patients with rosacea. Besides the association between PD and various dermatological disorders, the skin may be useful in the diagnosis of PD. Early PD pathology is found not only in the brain but also in extra......-neuronal tissues. Thus, the protein α-synuclein, which is genetically associated with PD, is present not only in the CNS but also in the skin. Hence, higher values of α-synuclein have been observed in the skin of patients with PD. Furthermore, an increased risk of PD has been found in the Cys/Cys genotype, which...

  19. Parkinson's disease and driving ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-04-01

    To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in-car driving test. The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pfeatures in distinguishing safety to drive were severe physical disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage 3), reaction time, moderate disease associated with another medical condition and high score on car testing. Most individuals with PD are safe to drive, although many benefit from car modifications or from using an automatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in-car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on-road driving assessment.

  20. Parkinson's disease between internal medicine and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoti, Ilona; Jost, Wolfgang H; Reichmann, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    General medical problems and complications have a major impact on the quality of life in all stages of Parkinson's disease. To introduce an effective treatment, a comprehensive analysis of the various clinical symptoms must be undertaken. One must distinguish between (1) diseases which arise independently of Parkinson's disease, and (2) diseases which are a direct or indirect consequence of Parkinson's disease. Medical comorbidity may induce additional limitations to physical strength and coping strategies, and may thus restrict the efficacy of the physical therapy which is essential for treating hypokinetic-rigid symptoms. In selecting the appropriate medication for the treatment of any additional medical symptoms, which may arise, its limitations, contraindications and interactions with dopaminergic substances have to be taken into consideration. General medical symptoms and organ manifestations may also arise as a direct consequence of the autonomic dysfunction associated with Parkinson's disease. As the disease progresses, additional non-parkinsonian symptoms can be of concern. Furthermore, the side effects of Parkinson medications may necessitate the involvement of other medical specialists. In this review, we will discuss the various general medical aspects of Parkinson's disease.

  1. Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between Parkinson's disease and vascular Parkinsonism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indo, Toshikatsu

    1986-01-01

    Comparative study of CT scan findings and intellectual function between 64 cases with Parkinson's disease and 25 cases with vascular Parkinsonism was carried out. The rate of abnormality of CT scan findings, either ventricular dilatation or widening of sulci, in vascular Parkinsonism was strikingly high compared with Parkinson's disease. Patients could be divided into three groups according to the degree of overall abnormalities of CT scan findings (group A: markedly abnormal, group B: mildly abnormal, group C: normal). Incidences of group A were 9.4 % in Parkinson's disease and 52 % in vascular Parkinsonism, whereas those of group C were 56 % in the former and 28 % in the latter. All patients of group A were over 65 years of age in Parkinson's disease, but one-third of patients in group A were under 59 years of age in vascular Parkinsonism. Moreover, in vascular Parkinsonism, the level of disability was directly proportional to the abnormality of CT scan findings. The rate of predementia and dementia classified by Hasegawa's intelligence scale was 12.5 % in Parkinson's disease and 48 % in vascular Parkinsonism. No difference was found between the mean values of intelligence scale and background factors in Parkinson's disease. On the other hand, the mean value was significantly low in proportion to the poverty of L-dopa effect in vascular Parkinsonism. From these results, the abnormality of CT scan findings and intellectual impairment were probably related to the cerebral pathological process in vascular Parkinsonism, but these relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  2. Cyclooxygenase and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease Neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Anna L.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    Cyclooxygenase (COX) expression in the brain is associated with pro-inflammatory activities, which are instrumental in neurodegenerative processes such as Parkinson's disease (PD). It is discussed that drugs with the capacity to rescue dopaminergic neurons from microglia toxicity and

  3. Imaging Systemic Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghammer, Per; Knudsen, Karoline; Brooks, David J

    2016-06-01

    Parkinson's disease is now widely recognized to be a multisystem disorder affecting the brain and peripheral autonomic nerves. Extensive pathology is present in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system and the intrinsic gastrointestinal plexuses in patients. Autonomic pathology and symptoms such as constipation can predate the clinical diagnosis by years or decades. Imaging studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of Parkinson's disease but focused primarily on imaging cerebral pathology. However, given the importance of understanding the nature, chronology, and functional consequences of peripheral pathology, there has been renewed interest in imaging peripheral organs in Parkinson's disease. Suitable imaging tools can be divided into two types: radiotracer studies that directly estimate loss of sympathetic or parasympathetic nerve terminals, and imaging modalities to quantitate dysphagia, gastric emptying, esophageal and intestinal transit times, and anorectal dyssynergia. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about peripheral imaging in Parkinson's disease.

  4. Neurophysiology of Drosophila Models of Parkinson's Disease

    OpenAIRE

    West, Ryan J. H.; Furmston, Rebecca; Williams, Charles A. C.; Elliott, Christopher J. H.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an insight into the role Drosophila has played in elucidating neurophysiological perturbations associated with Parkinson's disease- (PD-) related genes. Synaptic signalling deficits are observed in motor, central, and sensory systems. Given the neurological impact of disease causing mutations within these same genes in humans the phenotypes observed in fly are of significant interest. As such we observe four unique opportunities provided by fly nervous system models of Parkinson's ...

  5. LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease ? drawing the curtain of penetrance: a commentary

    OpenAIRE

    Kr?ger, Rejko

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and affects about 2% of the population over the age of 60 years. In 2004, mutations in the LRRK2 gene were first described and turned out to be the most frequent genetic cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease and may account for up to 40% of patients in distinct populations. Based on these findings, Latourelle and colleagues show that the penetrance of the most common LRRK2 mutation is higher in pa...

  6. Dopaminreceptorscintigraphy in Parkinson's disease - Clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riklund Aahlstroem, K.E.; Hietala, S.-O.; Johansson, F.

    2002-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is a severe, progressive neuro degenerative disorder which is characterised by a degeneration of the dopamine containing cells and loss of dopamine transporters (DA) in substantia nigra. Earlier 123 I-β-CIT SPECT studies have demonstrated this loss of DA content in Parkinson's disease. Recently a new radioligand 123 I-FP-CIT, with faster kinetics than b-CIT became available for imaging of the DA transporter. The applicability of this radioligand was tested in a large clinical material with early and advanced Parkinson's disease using a one day protocol. 123 I-FP-CIT uptake was decreased in patients with Parkinson's disease and this was seen three hours after injection of the radioligand. In the Parkinson's disease group the uptake in the putamen was reduced more than in the caudate nucleus. Specific to non-specific striatal uptake ratios correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr stage. It appeared that 123 I-FP-CIT SPECT allows a significant discrimination between patients with Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders. The scintigraphic observations were correlated to clinical findings. The results will be presented and discussed

  7. Motivational modes and learning in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerde, Karin; Braun, Erin Kendall; Higgins, E Tory; Shohamy, Daphna

    2015-08-01

    Learning and motivation are intrinsically related, and both have been linked to dopamine. Parkinson's disease results from a progressive loss of dopaminergic inputs to the striatum and leads to impairments in motivation and learning from feedback. However, the link between motivation and learning in Parkinson's disease is not well understood. To address this gap, we leverage a well-established psychological theory of motivation, regulatory mode theory, which distinguishes between two functionally independent motivational concerns in regulating behavior: a concern with having an effect by initiating and maintaining movement (Locomotion) and a concern with establishing what is correct by critically evaluating goal pursuit means and outcomes (Assessment). We examined Locomotion and Assessment in patients with Parkinson's disease and age-matched controls. Parkinson's disease patients demonstrated a selective decrease in Assessment motivation but no change in Locomotion motivation, suggesting that Parkinson's disease leads to a reduced tendency to evaluate and monitor outcomes. Moreover, weaker Assessment motivation was correlated with poorer performance on a feedback-based learning task previously shown to depend on the striatum. Together, these findings link a questionnaire-based personality inventory with performance on a well-characterized experimental task, advancing our understanding of how Parkinson's disease affects motivation with implications for well-being and treatment outcomes. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Unifying Hypothesis for Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole J. Proctor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterised by the aggregation of two quite different proteins, namely, amyloid-beta (Aβ, which forms extracellular plaques, and tau, the main component of cytoplasmic neurofibrillary tangles. The amyloid hypothesis proposes that Aβ plaques precede tangle formation but there is still much controversy concerning the order of events and the linkage between Aβ and tau alterations is still unknown. Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool for generating and evaluating hypotheses involving complex systems. We have therefore used this approach to discover the most probable pathway linking Aβ and tau. The model supports a complex pathway linking Aβ and tau via GSK3β, p53, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the pathway contains a cycle with multiple points of entry. It is this property of the pathway which enables the model to be consistent with both the amyloid hypothesis for familial AD and a more complex pathway for sporadic forms.

  9. Cathepsin D polymorphism in Italian sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Silvia; Nacmias, Benedetta; Tedde, Andrea; Guarnieri, Bianca Maria; Cellini, Elena; Ciantelli, Monica; Petruzzi, Concetta; Bartoli, Antonella; Ortenzi, Luigi; Serio, Antonio; Sorbi, Sandro

    2002-08-16

    A recent study has shown that a genetic variation in the Cathepsin D (catD) gene is a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). CatD is an intracellular aspartyl protease involved in neurodegeneration. A C-->T (Ala-->Val) transition at position 224 has been associated with altered intracellular maturation. Recently, a significant overrepresentation of the T allele of the catD gene in AD patients compared with controls was reported. However, this finding has not yet been confirmed. We analyzed the distribution of catD and apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in Italian patients with sporadic and familial AD (FAD). Our studies revealed that the distribution of catD polymorphism did not differ in AD and FAD patients and controls. Thus, our data do not support a role for the catD gene as a genetic risk factor in the development of AD.

  10. Psychiatric care in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelhas, Rosa

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative and disabling disease in which medical providers focus mainly on ameliorating problems in day-to-day functioning. This review summarizes current knowledge about the efficacy and tolerability of psychopharmacological agents in the treatment of depression, anxiety, psychosis, and insomnia in patients with PD. Recommended or promising nonpharmacological interventions are also reviewed. Studies were identified using computerized searches, with further references obtained from the bibliographies of the reviewed articles. Findings in the research literature provide growing evidence concerning the antidepressant treatment of patients with PD. Psychoeducational interventions for managing depression and anxiety symptoms also appear promising. Music therapy has proven to be particularly effective for patients with PD. Psychosis is common in patients with PD. When psychosis is induced by antiparkinson drugs, a dose reduction can be considered, but it is seldom successful. Patients with PD do not generally tolerate conventional antipsychotic medications, justifying evaluation of newer atypical agents in this population. Cholinesterase inhibitors have also become increasingly important in the treatment of PD in recent years. Finally, insomnia is a very frequent complaint in patients with PD and may also contribute to the development of depression. Patients should be encouraged to improve sleep hygiene and use behavioral interventions. Definitive trials of treatments for sleep disorders in this population are also warranted. Therapeutic approaches to the treatment of PD and its associated psychiatric symptoms must be individualized and may involve a combination of antiparkinson drugs, psychopharmacological treatment, and/or psychotherapeutic interventions.

  11. Cognitive decline in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsland, Dag; Creese, Byron; Politis, Marios; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; ffytche, Dominic H.; Weintraub, Daniel; Ballard, Clive

    2017-01-01

    Dementia is a frequent problem encountered in advanced stages of Parkinson disease (PD). In recent years, research has focused on the pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in PD, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Several longitudinal studies have shown that MCI is a harbinger of dementia in PD, although the course is variable, and stabilization of cognition — or even reversal to normal cognition — is not uncommon. In addition to limbic and cortical spread of Lewy pathology, several other mechanisms are likely to contribute to cognitive decline in PD, and a variety of biomarker studies, some using novel structural and functional imaging techniques, have documented in vivo brain changes associated with cognitive impairment. The evidence consistently suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid-β42, a marker of comorbid Alzheimer disease (AD), predict future cognitive decline and dementia in PD. Emerging genetic evidence indicates that in addition to the APOE*ε4 allele (an established risk factor for AD), GBA mutations and SCNA mutations and triplications are associated with cognitive decline in PD, whereas the findings are mixed for MAPT polymorphisms. Cognitive enhancing medications have some effect in PD dementia, but no convincing evidence that progression from MCI to dementia can be delayed or prevented is available, although cognitive training has shown promising results. PMID:28257128

  12. Reading comprehension in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura L; Rutledge, Stefanie

    2014-05-01

    Although individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) self-report reading problems and experience difficulties in cognitive-linguistic functions that support discourse-level reading, prior research has primarily focused on sentence-level processing and auditory comprehension. Accordingly, the authors investigated the presence and nature of reading comprehension in PD, hypothesizing that (a) individuals with PD would display impaired accuracy and/or speed on reading comprehension tests and (b) reading performances would be correlated with cognitive test results. Eleven adults with PD and 9 age- and education-matched control participants completed tests that evaluated reading comprehension; general language and cognitive abilities; and aspects of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The PD group obtained significantly lower scores on several, but not all, reading comprehension, language, and cognitive measures. Memory, language, and disease severity were significantly correlated with reading comprehension for the PD group. Individuals in the early stages of PD without dementia or broad cognitive deficits can display reading comprehension difficulties, particularly for high- versus basic-level reading tasks. These reading difficulties are most closely related to memory, high-level language, and PD symptom severity status. The findings warrant additional research to delineate further the types and nature of reading comprehension impairments experienced by individuals with PD.

  13. Reliability and Validity of 39-Item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire and Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus-Ribeiro, Joana; Vieira, Elsa; Ferreira, Pedro; Januário, Cristina; Freire, António

    2017-05-31

    Parkinson's disease has a significant impact in quality of life, which can be assessed with 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire and Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire. This study aimed to evaluate the reliability and validity of these scales in Portuguese patients. Reliability was assessed through internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and reproducibility (intraclass correlation coefficient). Regarding construct validity, we performed one-way analysis of variance across different groups according to modified Hoehn and Yahr scale. For criterion validity, we compared both scales with each other and with the Short Form 36-item Health Survey. In a total of 100 patients with Parkinson's disease, Cronbach's alpha ranged for 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire between 0.66 - 0.98, and for Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, between 0.78 - 0.98. Intraclass correlation coefficient for 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire ranged between 0.49 - 0.96, and for Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire, ranged between 0.65 - 0.96. Both scales showed, in general, capacity to discriminate differences among patients in the different stages of disease. The scales presented moderate to strong magnitude correlations with some Short Form 36-item Health Survey domains. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for most domains were satisfactory. Overall, it has been demonstrated good reproducibility, as well as construct and criterion validity. The Portuguese versions of both scales showed to be valid and reliable.

  14. Mitochondrial dynamics in Parkinson's disease: a role for α-synuclein?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victorio M. Pozo Devoto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The distinctive pathological hallmarks of Parkinson's disease are the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons and the intracellular accumulation of Lewy bodies enriched in α-synuclein protein. Several lines of evidence from the study of sporadic, familial and pharmacologically induced forms of human Parkinson's disease also suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays an important role in disease progression. Although many functions have been proposed for α-synuclein, emerging data from human and animal models of Parkinson's disease highlight a role for α-synuclein in the control of neuronal mitochondrial dynamics. Here, we review the α-synuclein structural, biophysical and biochemical properties that influence relevant mitochondrial dynamic processes such as fusion-fission, transport and clearance. Drawing on current evidence, we propose that α-synuclein contributes to the mitochondrial defects that are associated with the pathology of this common and progressive neurodegenerative disease.

  15. BRCAness profile of sporadic ovarian cancer predicts disease recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Z Wysham

    Full Text Available The consequences of defective homologous recombination (HR are not understood in sporadic ovarian cancer, nor have the potential role of HR proteins other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 been clearly defined. However, it is clear that defects in HR and other DNA repair pathways are important to the effectiveness of current therapies. We hypothesize that a subset of sporadic ovarian carcinomas may harbor anomalies in HR pathways, and that a BRCAness profile (defects in HR or other DNA repair pathways could influence response rate and survival after treatment with platinum drugs. Clinical availability of a BRCAness profile in patients and/or tumors should improve treatment outcomes.To define the BRCAness profile of sporadic ovarian carcinoma and determine whether BRCA1, PARP, FANCD2, PTEN, H2AX, ATM, and P53 protein expression correlates with response to treatment, disease recurrence, and recurrence-free survival.Protein microarray analysis of ovarian cancer tissue was used to determine protein expression levels for defined DNA repair proteins. Correlation with clinical and pathologic parameters in 186 patients with advanced stage III-IV and grade 3 ovarian cancer was analyzed using Chi square, Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazard model, and cumulative incidence function.High PARP, FANCD2 and BRCA1 expressions were significantly correlated with each other; however, elevated p53 expression was associated only with high PARP and FANCD2. Of all patients, 9% recurred within the first year. Among early recurring patients, 41% had high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and P53, compared to 19.5% of patients without early recurrence (p = 0.04. Women with high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and/or P53 had first year cumulative cancer incidence of 17% compared with 7% for the other groups (P = 0.03.Patients with concomitantly high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and P53 protein expression are at increased risk of early ovarian cancer recurrence and platinum resistance.

  16. Visual symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R A

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common disorder of middle-aged and elderly people in which degeneration of the extrapyramidal motor system causes significant movement problems. In some patients, however, there are additional disturbances in sensory systems including loss of the sense of smell and auditory and/or visual problems. This paper is a general overview of the visual problems likely to be encountered in PD. Changes in vision in PD may result from alterations in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour discrimination, pupil reactivity, eye movements, motion perception, visual field sensitivity, and visual processing speeds. Slower visual processing speeds can also lead to a decline in visual perception especially for rapidly changing visual stimuli. In addition, there may be disturbances of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, and chronic visual hallucinations. Some of the treatments used in PD may also have adverse ocular reactions. The pattern electroretinogram (PERG) is useful in evaluating retinal dopamine mechanisms and in monitoring dopamine therapies in PD. If visual problems are present, they can have an important effect on the quality of life of the patient, which can be improved by accurate diagnosis and where possible, correction of such defects.

  17. Visual Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Armstrong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common disorder of middle-aged and elderly people in which degeneration of the extrapyramidal motor system causes significant movement problems. In some patients, however, there are additional disturbances in sensory systems including loss of the sense of smell and auditory and/or visual problems. This paper is a general overview of the visual problems likely to be encountered in PD. Changes in vision in PD may result from alterations in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, colour discrimination, pupil reactivity, eye movements, motion perception, visual field sensitivity, and visual processing speeds. Slower visual processing speeds can also lead to a decline in visual perception especially for rapidly changing visual stimuli. In addition, there may be disturbances of visuospatial orientation, facial recognition problems, and chronic visual hallucinations. Some of the treatments used in PD may also have adverse ocular reactions. The pattern electroretinogram (PERG is useful in evaluating retinal dopamine mechanisms and in monitoring dopamine therapies in PD. If visual problems are present, they can have an important effect on the quality of life of the patient, which can be improved by accurate diagnosis and where possible, correction of such defects.

  18. Gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Adreesh; Biswas, Atanu; Das, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-07-07

    Early involvement of gut is observed in Parkinson's disease (PD) and symptoms such as constipation may precede motor symptoms. α-Synuclein pathology is extensively evident in the gut and appears to follow a rostrocaudal gradient. The gut may act as the starting point of PD pathology with spread toward the central nervous system. This spread of the synuclein pathology raises the possibility of prion-like propagation in PD pathogenesis. Recently, the role of gut microbiota in PD pathogenesis has received attention and some phenotypic correlation has also been shown. The extensive involvement of the gut in PD even in its early stages has led to the evaluation of enteric α-synuclein as a possible biomarker of early PD. The clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD include malnutrition, oral and dental disorders, sialorrhea, dysphagia, gastroparesis, constipation, and defecatory dysfunction. These conditions are quite distressing for the patients and require relevant investigations and adequate management. Treatment usually involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. One important aspect of gut dysfunction is its contribution to the clinical fluctuations in PD. Dysphagia and gastroparesis lead to inadequate absorption of oral anti-PD medications. These lead to response fluctuations, particularly delayed-on and no-on, and there is significant relationship between levodopa pharmacokinetics and gastric emptying in patients with PD. Therefore, in such cases, alternative routes of administration or drug delivery systems may be required.

  19. Excessive hoarding in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Sean S; Djamshidian, Atbin; Evans, Andrew H; Loane, Clare M; Lees, Andrew J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2010-06-15

    Hoarding is seen in several psychiatric conditions, but has not been specifically assessed in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigates hoarding tendency amongst patients with PD, and its association with impulsive-compulsive spectrum behaviors (ICBs). We compare clinical features, measures of hoarding, impulse buying, self-control, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depression, and anxiety in 39 patients with PD with ICBs (PD + ICB), 61 patients with PD without ICBs (PD - ICB), and 50 healthy controls. A much higher proportion of PD + ICB (27.8%) than PD - ICB (3.5%) were hoarders (P = 0.001). 6% of healthy controls were hoarders. Compulsive shoppers scored higher than other varieties of ICB on excessive acquisition measures. Hoarding correlated positively with impulsive buying, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, PD duration, and negatively with self-control measures. Using multivariate regression analyzes, the presence of ICBs and measures of impulsive buying were the only variables independently associated with hoarding in PD. The association of hoarding with other ICBs and low trait impulse control suggests that excessive hoarding is related to the spectrum of impulsive behaviors in PD. (c) 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  20. Toxin-Induced and Genetic Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the presence of intraneuronal aggregates termed Lewy bodies (LBs, but the pathophysiological mechanisms are not fully understood. Epidemiologically, environmental neurotoxins such as pesticides are promising candidates for causative factors of PD. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by these toxins could contribute to the progression of PD. While most cases of PD are sporadic, specific mutations in genes that cause familial forms of PD have led to provide new insights into its pathogenesis. This paper focuses on animal models of both toxin-induced and genetically determined PD that have provided significant insight for understanding this disease. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and limitations of representative models.

  1. Acetylome in Human Fibroblasts From Parkinson's Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokhna M. S. Yakhine-Diop

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder. The pathogenesis of this disease is associated with gene and environmental factors. Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 are the most frequent genetic cause of familial and sporadic PD. Moreover, posttranslational modifications, including protein acetylation, are involved in the molecular mechanism of PD. Acetylation of lysine proteins is a dynamic process that is modulated in PD. In this descriptive study, we characterized the acetylated proteins and peptides in primary fibroblasts from idiopathic PD (IPD and genetic PD harboring G2019S or R1441G LRRK2 mutations. Identified acetylated peptides are modulated between individuals' groups. Although acetylated nuclear proteins are the most represented in cells, they are hypoacetylated in IPD. Results display that the level of hyperacetylated and hypoacetylated peptides are, respectively, enhanced in genetic PD and in IPD cells.

  2. Recent advances in imaging in Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Toru; Takeda, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent knowledge on the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease, the precise and early diagnosis of this condition remains difficult. Advances in imaging techniques have enabled the assessment of in vivo structural, neurometabolic, and neurochemical changes in Parkinson disease, and their role as biomarkers have assumed greater importance in recent years. We presently review the various approaches with these imaging techniques for the study of Parkinson disease. Voxel-based morphometry studies with structural MRI showed a characteristic pattern of gray matter loss, and fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) studies have indicated latent network abnormalities in Parkinson disease. Moreover, radiotracer imaging with dopaminergic markers facilitates the assessment of pre- and postsynaptic nigro-striatal integrity, and other radiotracers have been used in the studies of nondopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, such as the cholinergic, noradrenergic, and serotonergic systems. These imaging techniques can be used to detect presymptomatic disease and to monitor disease progression. Thus, imaging data provide meaningful insights into the pathological process in Parkinson disease. (author)

  3. Thiazolidinediones and Parkinson Disease: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, John G; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Gagne, Joshua J

    2015-12-01

    Thiazolidinediones, a class of medications indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, reduce inflammation and have been shown to provide a therapeutic benefit in animal models of Parkinson disease. We examined the association between treatment with thiazolidinediones and the onset of Parkinson disease in older individuals. We performed a cohort study of 29,397 Medicare patients enrolled in state pharmaceutical benefits programs who initiated treatment with thiazolidinediones or sulfonylureas during the years 1997 through 2005 and had no prior diagnosis of Parkinson disease. New users of thiazolidinediones were propensity score matched to new users of sulfonylureas and followed to determine whether they were diagnosed with Parkinson disease. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease in the propensity score-matched populations. To assess the association with duration of use, we performed several analyses that required longer continuous use of medications. In the primary analysis, thiazolidinedione users had a hazard ratio for a diagnosis of Parkinson disease of 1.09 (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.66) when compared with sulfonylurea users. Increasing the duration-of-use requirements to 10 months did not substantially change the association; the hazard ratios ranged from 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.49, 2.05) to 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 2.25). Thiazolidinedione use was not associated with a longer time to diagnosis of Parkinson disease than was sulfonylurea use, regardless of duration of exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Perioperative management of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Linn; Shtilbans, Alexander

    2014-04-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide, leading to a wide range of disability and medical complications. Managing patients with Parkinson's disease in the perioperative hospital setting can be particularly challenging. Suboptimal management can lead to medical complications, prolonged hospital stays, and delayed recovery. This review aims to address the most important issues related to caring for patients with Parkinson's disease perioperatively who are undergoing emergent or planned general surgery. It also intends to help hospitalists, internists, and other health care providers mitigate potential in-hospital morbidity and prevent prolonged recovery. Challenges in managing patients with Parkinson's disease in the perioperative hospital setting include disruption of medication schedules, "nothing by mouth" status, reduced mobility, and medication interactions and their side effects. Patients with Parkinson's disease are more prone to immobility and developing dysphagia, respiratory dysfunction, urinary retention, and psychiatric symptoms. These issues lead to higher rates of pneumonia, urinary tract infections, deconditioning, and falls compared with patients without Parkinson's disease, as well as prolonged hospital stays and a greater need for post-hospitalization rehabilitation. Steps can be taken to decrease these complications, including minimizing nothing by mouth status duration, using alternative routes of drugs administration when unable to give medications orally, avoiding drug interactions and medications that can worsen parkinsonism, assessing swallowing ability frequently, encouraging incentive spirometry, performing bladder scans, avoiding Foley catheters, and providing aggressive physical therapy. Knowing and anticipating these potential complications allow hospital physicians to mitigate nosocomial morbidity and shorten recovery times and hospital stays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Safety and Efficacy Study of VY-AADC01 for Advanced Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-27

    Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease; Parkinson's Disease; Basal Ganglia Disease; Brain Diseases; Central Nervous System Diseases; Movement Disorders; Nervous System Diseases; Neurodegenerative Diseases; Parkinsonian Disorders

  6. Pain syndrome features in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bril Е.М.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pain in Parkinson disease take the special place among all of disease symptoms due to it pathogenetics and clinical diversity. In spite of the plurality of resent studies, the majority of clinical practioners and neurologists didn't pay attention to significant decline of the quality of life in patients with Parkinson disease and pain disorders. This article was created with aim to summarize all important results of studies, focused on pain pathogenesis and clinical features on different stages of disease.

  7. Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease: The Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. de Rijk (Maarten)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAt present, Parkinson's disease (PO), after Alzheimer's disease, is generally considered to be the most frequent progressive neurodegenerative disease in the elderly. Due to the growing proportion of elderly in many populations, more and more persons will be affected by this disabling

  8. Unmasking levodopa resistance in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonnekes, J.H.; Timmer, M.H.M.; Vries, N.M. de; Rascol, O.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Bloem, B.R.

    2016-01-01

    Some motor and nonmotor features associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) do not seem to respond well to levodopa (or other forms of dopaminergic medication) or appear to become resistant to levodopa treatment with disease progression and longer disease duration. In this narrative review, we

  9. Current therapy for Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Obukhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD is to correct dopamine deficiency in the nigrostriatal system. Levodopa preparations and dopamine receptor agonists (DRAs that are prescribed with regards to patient age and disease severity are mainly used now. Notwithstanding the fact that levodopa preparations are the gold standard of therapy, their long-term use gives rise to complications as motor fluctuations and drug-induced dyskinesias. The currently available DRAs are the drugs of choice for the therapy of early-stage PD as they are as effective as levodopa preparations. In extensive-stage PD, DRAs are used to enhance the therapy and correction of developed motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. Pramipexole is one of the most commonly used representatives of non-ergoline DRAs. The paper analyzes the efficacy of the medication used as both monotherapy and part of combined therapy, its effect on tremor and depression in PD. A novel extended-release formulation of pramipexole is considered separately. Both immediate- and extended-release pramipexole formulations contain the same active ingredient and have the same dopamine-receptor interaction profile, but differ in the tablet release rate of the active ingredient. The advantages of the novel formulation are its more steady-state plasma concentration and 24-hour action, which ensures continuous dopaminergic stimulation ofpostsynaptic receptors to prevent and treat already developed motor complications. The once-daily extended-release formulation of the drug makes its treatment regimen easier and patient compliance higher.

  10. Physical Equilibrium Evaluation in Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt, Paula da Silva

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Parkinson disease can be among the multiple causes of alterations in the physical equilibrium. Accordingly, this study has the objective to evaluate Parkinson patients' physical equilibrium. Method: Potential study in which 12 Parkinson individuals were evaluated by way of tests of static and dynamic equilibrium, dynamic posturography and vectoelectronystagmograph. To compare the dynamic posturography results a group of gauged control was used. Results: Alterations in Romberg-Barré, Unterberger and Walk tests were found. The vestibular exam revealed 06 normal cases, 04 central vestibular syndrome and 02 cases of peripheral vestibular syndrome. In the dynamic posturography, an equilibrium alteration has been verified, when compared to the control group in all Sensorial Organization Tests, in average and in the utilization of vestibular system. Conclusion: Parkinson patients present a physical equilibrium alteration. The dynamic posturography was more sensitive to detect the equilibrium alterations than vectoelectronystagmograph.

  11. LRRK2 in Parkinson's disease – drawing the curtain of penetrance: a commentary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krüger Rejko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder and affects about 2% of the population over the age of 60 years. In 2004, mutations in the LRRK2 gene were first described and turned out to be the most frequent genetic cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease and may account for up to 40% of patients in distinct populations. Based on these findings, Latourelle and colleagues show that the penetrance of the most common LRRK2 mutation is higher in patients with familial compared with sporadic Parkinson's disease and identified a substantial number of affected relatives of mutation carriers not presenting with a LRRK2 mutation themselves. This commentary discusses the role of genetic and/or environmental susceptibility factors modulating the expressivity of the disease trait, how these factors may contribute to the phenomenon of phenocopies in genetically defined Parkinson's disease pedigrees, and how the findings of Latourelle and colleagues, published this month in BMC Medicine, relate to current concepts of genetic counselling.

  12. [Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Heuvel, O A; Van der Werf, Y D; Groenewegen, H J; Foncke, E M J; Berendse, H W

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterised not only by the classic triad of bradykinesia, rigidity and tremor, but also by the frequent occurrence of various non-motor symptoms such as the impulse control disorders (pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying, binge eating, punding and dopamine dependency). To increase insight into the clinical presentation, risk factors, treatment and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease. Relevant literature was reviewed. Impulse control disorders belong to an important group of neuropsychiatric disorders that occur at some point in 5-10% of patients with Parkinson's disease. They generally occur in conjunction with dopaminergic medication and can have a marked social, relational and/ or financial impact. Early recognition of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease is important and a close collaboration between the neurologist and the psychiatrist is essential in order to ensure correct diagnosis and the best possible treatment. Impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease show considerable phenomenological overlap with other repetitive behaviours within the impulsive-compulsive spectrum of disorders to which the obsessive-compulsive disorders and addiction disorders belong. The overlap can possibly be explained by a shared pathophysiological mechanism involving an imbalance between the direct and indirect pathways of the dorsal and ventral frontal-striatal circuits.

  13. Oral Hygiene in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Leonardo M; Portela de Oliveira, Millena Teles; Magalhaes, Wilrama B; Bastos, Poliana Lima

    2015-11-02

    Parkinson's disease is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a multifactorial etiology. The symptoms are characterized by motor disorders - tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability, which hinder oral hygiene. Oral and dental health in Parkinson's disease has been under-documented and findings are conflicting. Moreover, a number of dentists have limited experience regarding the management of these patients. This article reviews literature published within the last fifteen years, to better understand the impact of this disease in oral health. A literature search (MEDLINE and PUBMED), using keywords Parkinson Disease and Oral Hygiene, yielded 27 articles, from which 20 were selected. All of the articles were published in English in the last 15 years.

  14. Quantifying gait patterns in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Mónica; Atehortúa, Angélica; Romero, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is constituted by a set of motor symptoms, namely tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia, which are usually described but not quantified. This work proposes an objective characterization of PD gait patterns by approximating the single stance phase a single grounded pendulum. This model estimates the force generated by the gait during the single support from gait data. This force describes the motion pattern for different stages of the disease. The model was validated using recorded videos of 8 young control subjects, 10 old control subjects and 10 subjects with Parkinson's disease in different stages. The estimated force showed differences among stages of Parkinson disease, observing a decrease of the estimated force for the advanced stages of this illness.

  15. Disordered axial movement in Parkinson's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger, M J; Thompson, P D; Marsden, C D

    1996-01-01

    Axial motor impairments are a common cause of disability in patients with Parkinson's disease, become more prominent with longer disease duration, and have been said to be less responsive to levodopa replacement therapy. The ability to turn in bed while lying supine before and after dopaminergic stimulation was studied in a group of 36 patients with Parkinson's disease; 23 were in Hoehn and Yahr stages 3-5 when "off", and 13 were in stages 1-2. Turning was also compared with postural stabilit...

  16. PET-Studies in parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, J.

    2002-01-01

    Positron-emission-tomography (PET) has enabled to study the metabolism and blood flow in specific brain areas. Besides, there is a variety of radiotracers that allow quantification of the function of distinct molecules. In respect to Parkinson's disease, PET allowed for the first time to assess the number of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Thus, helping confirming a dopaminergic deficit, measuring disease progression and also help to determine the function of dopaminergic grafts. Current research has shifted to determine the role of related neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (orig.) [de

  17. Apathy in Parkinson's disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Nodel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available pathy in Parkinson's disease (PD patients is one of the least studied manifestations of a broad range of neuropsychic disorders. According to numerous researchers, the rate of apathy in PD patients is 17–80%. The structural and neurochemical changes associated with PD have been considered to be the leading pathophysiological factors of apathy. The possible general pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed for apathy and hypokinesia, depression, executive (frontal cognitive functions, and sleep disorders in PD patients. The pathophysiological commonality of apathy, hypokinesia, and executive functions is probably based on bilateral disorders of functional links of the striatum and dorsolateral, medial parts of the prefrontal cortex. A combination of apathy and depression in PD patients may be due to dysfunction of the structures of the limbic system and medial orbital prefrontal cortex, which are responsible for the motivationally driven behavior. Variability of relationships of apathy with hypokinesia, depression, cognitive impairments, sleep disorders at different stages of PD may be associated with the phenomenological heterogeneity of apathy. Apathy reduces quality of life, makes a significant contribution to disturbances of both everyday and social adaptation of PD patients. A study of the possibility for apathy correction using dopaminergic therapy is rather promising. Twenty patients with PD (the middle stage according to the Hoehn and Yahr scale, 2.5 received pramipexole (1.5–3.0 mg/day to correct motor disorders. A statistically significant positive trend in the time course of apathy, according to the overall assessment by the Starkstein apathy scale (AS, was noted after 4–6 weeks of the therapy. Based on the results, no statistically significant correlation was observed between the dynamics of the overall apathy score and the dynamics of motor symptoms of PD on the unified rating scale for PD assessment («Motor functions». We

  18. Apathy dimensions in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovic, Ratko; Davenport, Richard; Starr, John M; Abrahams, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Apathy is a prominent and disabling symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) and is a multidimensional behaviour, but which dimensions are specifically affected is unclear. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Dimensional Apathy Scale (DAS) and explore the multidimensional profile of apathy in PD patients. Thirty-four PD patients, with 30 of their informants/carers, and 34 healthy controls, with 30 of their informants, completed the DAS, Apathy Evaluation Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form. Motor staging and independent living status were recorded. Comparative group analyses revealed that PD patients were significantly more apathetic on self-rated executive (p = 0.01) and initiation (p = 0.03) dimensions than controls, where only executive apathy was significantly higher in ratings of patients' informants/carers compared with controls' informants (p = 0.02). A third of patients were impaired on at least one apathy dimension. Additionally, patients with apathy tended to have more impaired activities of daily living, while none of the apathy dimensions related to motor disability. Our findings show the DAS is a valid and reliable multidimensional apathy tool for use in PD. PD is characterised by an executive apathy profile as determined by informants/carers, although patients described both executive and initiation apathy. This indicates a lack of motivation for planning, organisation and attention and lack of initiation of thoughts or behaviours. Further research is needed to determine the cognitive underpinnings of this emerging apathy profile and the clinical impact in PD. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Abnormal thermography in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Rubio, I; Madrid-Navarro, C J; Salazar-López, E; Pérez-Navarro, M J; Sáez-Zea, C; Gómez-Milán, E; Mínguez-Castellanos, A; Escamilla-Sevilla, F

    2015-08-01

    An autonomic denervation and abnormal vasomotor reflex in the skin have been described in Parkinson's disease (PD) and might be evaluable using thermography with cold stress test. A cross-sectional pilot study was undertaken in 35 adults: 15 patients with PD and abnormal [(123)I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine cardiac scintigraphy and 20 healthy controls. Baseline thermography of both hands was obtained before immersing one in cold water (3 ± 1 °C) for 2 min. Continuous thermography was performed in: non-immersed hand (right or with lesser motor involvement) during immersion of the contralateral hand and for 6 min afterward; and contralateral immersed hand for 6 min post-immersion. The region of interest was the dorsal skin of the third finger, distal phalanx. PD patients showed a lower mean baseline hand temperature (p = 0.037) and greater thermal difference between dorsum of wrist and third finger (p = 0.036) and between hands (p = 0.0001) versus controls, regardless of the motor laterality. Both tests evidenced an adequate capacity to differentiate between groups: in the non-immersed hand, the PD patients did not show the normal cooling pattern or final thermal overshoot observed in controls (F = 5.29; p = 0.001), and there was an AUC of 0.897 (95%CI 0.796-0.998) for this cooling; in the immersed hand, thermal recovery at 6 min post-immersion was lesser in patients (29 ± 17% vs. 55 ± 28%, p = 0.002), with an AUC of 0.810 (95%CI 0.662-0.958). PD patients reveal abnormal skin thermal responses in thermography with cold stress test, suggesting cutaneous autonomic dysfunction. This simple technique may be useful to evaluate autonomic dysfunction in PD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CareMAP: Caring for Someone with Advanced Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parkinson's There is a lot to know about Parkinson's disease. Learn about symptoms, how it is diagnosed and ... awareness for the 1 million Americans living with Parkinson’s disease. Learn More > Our Impact Our Mission Our Team ...

  1. PDON: Parkinson's disease ontology for representation and modeling of the Parkinson's disease knowledge domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younesi, Erfan; Malhotra, Ashutosh; Gündel, Michaela; Scordis, Phil; Kodamullil, Alpha Tom; Page, Matt; Müller, Bernd; Springstubbe, Stephan; Wüllner, Ullrich; Scheller, Dieter; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

    2015-09-22

    Despite the unprecedented and increasing amount of data, relatively little progress has been made in molecular characterization of mechanisms underlying Parkinson's disease. In the area of Parkinson's research, there is a pressing need to integrate various pieces of information into a meaningful context of presumed disease mechanism(s). Disease ontologies provide a novel means for organizing, integrating, and standardizing the knowledge domains specific to disease in a compact, formalized and computer-readable form and serve as a reference for knowledge exchange or systems modeling of disease mechanism. The Parkinson's disease ontology was built according to the life cycle of ontology building. Structural, functional, and expert evaluation of the ontology was performed to ensure the quality and usability of the ontology. A novelty metric has been introduced to measure the gain of new knowledge using the ontology. Finally, a cause-and-effect model was built around PINK1 and two gene expression studies from the Gene Expression Omnibus database were re-annotated to demonstrate the usability of the ontology. The Parkinson's disease ontology with a subclass-based taxonomic hierarchy covers the broad spectrum of major biomedical concepts from molecular to clinical features of the disease, and also reflects different views on disease features held by molecular biologists, clinicians and drug developers. The current version of the ontology contains 632 concepts, which are organized under nine views. The structural evaluation showed the balanced dispersion of concept classes throughout the ontology. The functional evaluation demonstrated that the ontology-driven literature search could gain novel knowledge not present in the reference Parkinson's knowledge map. The ontology was able to answer specific questions related to Parkinson's when evaluated by experts. Finally, the added value of the Parkinson's disease ontology is demonstrated by ontology-driven modeling of PINK1

  2. Increased intracranial volume in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Katja; Karlsborg, Merete; Hansen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to diagnose and distinguish from each other. STUDY AIMS AND METHODS: Patients with PD and MSA and controls were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using tissue segmentation...

  3. Bladder dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winge, Kristian; Nielsen, Kurt K

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) patients often have lower urinary tract symptoms. Seventy-four percent of patients with early-to-moderate disease report more than one bladder disturbance symptom. Severe bladder symptoms are reported in 27-39% of PD patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate...

  4. Dysphagia and sialorrhea: the relationship to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicaretta, Denise Hack; Rosso, Ana Lucia; Mattos, James Pitágoras de; Maliska, Carmelindo; Costa, Milton M B

    2013-01-01

    Dysphagia and sialorrhea in patients with Parkinson's disease are both automatically accepted as dependent on this neurological disease. The aim were to establish if these two complaints are a consequence or associated manifestations of Parkinson's disease. Two Parkinson's diseases groups from the same outpatients' population were studied. Patients in the first group, with dysphagia, were studied by videofluoroscopy. The second, with sialorrhea, were studied by the scintigraphic method, Videofluoroscopic examination of the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of swallowing showed that 94% of Parkinson's diseases patients present, structural causes, not related to Parkinson's diseases, able to produce or intensify the observed disphagia. The scintigraphic examination of Parkinson's diseases patients with sialorrhea showed that there is no increase of serous saliva production. Nevertheless, showed a significantly higher velocity of saliva excretion in the Parkinson's diseases patients. Dysphagia can be due to the muscular rigidity often present in the Parkinson's diseases patient, or more usually by non Parkinson's disease associated causes. In Parkinson's diseases patients, sialorrhea is produced by saliva retention. Nevertheless, sialorrhea can produce discomfort in swallowing, although without a formal complaint of dysphagia. In this case, subclinical dysphagia must be considered. Sialorrhea is indicative of dysphagia or at least of subclinical dysphagia. As final conclusion, Parkinson's diseases can be an isolated cause of dysphagia and/or sialorrhea, but frequently, a factor unrelated to Parkinson's diseases is the main cause of or at least aggravates the dysphagia.

  5. Living Well with Parkinson's Disease Is an Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Living Well with Parkinson's Disease is an Art Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... Cunningham When did you first get diagnosed with Parkinson's disease? What symptoms led you to go to the ...

  6. [Parkinson's disease in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto; Carrillo, Jesús M

    2014-02-01

    INTRODUCTION. Since James Parkinson published what can be considered the first treaty on the disease that bears his name in 1817, the scientific literature on this pathology has not ceased to grow. But the illness has also been represented in literature, the cinema and on television, where the symptoms, treatment and socio-familial context of the disease have often been examined very closely. AIM. To address the cases in which Parkinson's disease appears in literature, cinema and television, as well as to reflect on the image of the condition presented in those contexts. DEVELOPMENT. We reviewed some of the most important works in the literature dealing with Parkinson's disease from any period of history and many of them were found to offer very faithful portrayals of the disease. Likewise, we also reviewed major films and TV series that sometimes offer the general public a close look at the vision and the impact of the disease on patients or their relatives. CONCLUSIONS. Literature, cinema and television have helped provide a realistic view of both Parkinson's disease and the related healthcare professionals, and there are many examples that portray the actual experiences of the patients themselves, while also highlighting the importance of healthcare and socio-familial care.

  7. Parkinson's disease and intensive exercise therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrbrand, Anders; Stenager, Egon; Pedersen, Martin Sloth

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the effect of 3 intensive exercise therapy modalities - Resistance Training (RT), Endurance Training (ET) and Other Intensive Training Modalities (OITM) - in Parkinson's Disease (PD). Design A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials......, ET and OITM may have beneficial effects on balance, walking performance, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III (UPDRS-III) score and quality of life in PD, but findings are inconsistent. No studies find deterioration in any outcomes following exercise therapy. CONCLUSION: RT, ET and OITM all...

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriwaka, Fumio; Tashiro, Kunio; Itoh, Kazunori; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Hamada, Takeshi.

    1992-01-01

    The width of substantia nigra (SN) in 59 cases of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as well as 21 normal controls was analyzed by T2 weighted image (T2WI) of 1.5 Tesla high-field magnetic resonance image (MRI). All patients and controls underwent MRI with the spin-echo sequences used TR/TE: 3000/30 (short TE), and TR/TE: 3000/80 (long TE), in 5-mm-thick volumes. The width between the red nucleus and the cerebral peduncle showing low signal intensity areas was measured as that of SN and its ratio to the distance from the aqueduct to the midline of the cerebral peduncle was also measured. The calculated values of the width of SN and its ratio were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. The significant reduction in the width of SN and its ratio in Parkinson's disease were disclosed below: the mean calculated values of the width of SN were 2.95±0.51 mm in controls, 2.68±0.99 mm in Parkinson's disase on long TE images (P<0.01), and the mean ratio of the width of SN were 13.58±4.21% in controls, 10.52±3.07% in Parkinson's disease on long TE images (P=0.0002). The narrowing of SN in Parkinson's disease was more prominent in men, and advanced cases with Yahr stage III and IV. Considering that the pars reticulata, which is normally containing iron, shows low signal intensity on long TE images, the width of pars compacta could be measured more precisely on this sequences. The evaluation of the ratio of SN in midbrain on long TE images seemed to be more sensitive than the calculated values in detecting the narrowing of SN and pars compacta in Parkinson's disease. (author)

  9. Network Analysis Identifies Disease-Specific Pathways for Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Chiara; Colugnat, Ilaria; Lopiano, Leonardo; Chiò, Adriano; Alberio, Tiziana

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the progressive loss of specific neurons in selected regions of the central nervous system. The main clinical manifestation (movement disorders, cognitive impairment, and/or psychiatric disturbances) depends on the neuron population being primarily affected. Parkinson's disease is a common movement disorder, whose etiology remains mostly unknown. Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra causes an impairment of the motor control. Some of the pathogenetic mechanisms causing the progressive deterioration of these neurons are not specific for Parkinson's disease but are shared by other neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature of all the quantitative proteomic investigations of neuronal alterations in different models of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to distinguish between general and Parkinson's disease-specific pattern of neurodegeneration. Then, we merged proteomics data with genetics information from the DisGeNET database. The comparison of gene and protein information allowed us to identify 25 proteins involved uniquely in Parkinson's disease and we verified the alteration of one of them, i.e., transaldolase 1 (TALDO1), in the substantia nigra of 5 patients. By using open-source bioinformatics tools, we identified the biological processes specifically affected in Parkinson's disease, i.e., proteolysis, mitochondrion organization, and mitophagy. Eventually, we highlighted four cellular component complexes mostly involved in the pathogenesis: the proteasome complex, the protein phosphatase 2A, the chaperonins CCT complex, and the complex III of the respiratory chain.

  10. [Metronome therapy in patients with Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzensberger, W; Oberländer, U; Stecker, K

    1997-12-01

    We studied 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 12 patients with Parkinson-plus-syndrome, trying to improve patients' gait by application of various external rhythmic stimuli, including metronome stimulation (96 beats per minute = middle andante). The test course of the patients was 4 x 10 meters and 3 U-turns. The patients' gait quality under stimulation was compared with their free walk (velocity, number of steps, number of freezing episodes). Metronome stimulation significantly reduced the time and number of steps needed for the test course and also diminished the number of freezing episodes. March music stimulation was less effective and tactile stimulation (rhythmically tapping on the patient's shoulder) even produced negative results. The positive effect of metronome stimulation was also found, when the tests were not performed inside the hospital building, but outside in the hospital parc. Metronome stimulation was comparably effective in both patient sub-groups examined in this study (M. Parkinson, Parkinson-plus-syndrome) and seems to be an important additional help in the treatment of these patients. Electronical metronomes are not expensive, easy in handling, and portable. A theoretical explanation of metronome stimulation effectivity in patients with Parkinson's disease still needs to be elucidated.

  11. Parkinson's: a syndrome rather than a disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Nataliya; Padmakumar, C; Lewis, Simon J G; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2017-08-01

    Emerging concepts suggest that a multitude of pathology ranging from misfolding of alpha-synuclein to neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurotransmitter driven alteration of brain neuronal networks lead to a syndrome that is commonly known as Parkinson's disease. The complex underlying pathology which may involve degeneration of non-dopaminergic pathways leads to the expression of a range of non-motor symptoms from the prodromal stage of Parkinson's to the palliative stage. Non-motor clinical subtypes, cognitive and non-cognitive, have now been proposed paving the way for possible subtype specific and non-motor treatments, a key unmet need currently. Natural history of these subtypes remains unclear and need to be defined. In addition to in vivo biomarkers which suggest variable involvement of the cholinergic and noradrenergic patterns of the Parkinson syndrome, abnormal alpha-synuclein accumulation have now been demonstrated in the gut, pancreas, heart, salivary glands, and skin suggesting that Parkinson's is a multi-organ disorder. The Parkinson's phenotype is thus not just a dopaminergic motor syndrome, but a dysfunctional multi-neurotransmitter pathway driven central and peripheral nervous system disorder that possibly ought to be considered a syndrome and not a disease.

  12. [Cannabis in Parkinson's Disease: Hype or help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Tina; Stork, Jan; Hidding, Ute; Buhmann, Carsten

    2018-02-01

    Cannabis buds and extracts as well as synthetic cannabinoids have been available on prescription to patients with severe diseases since March 2017, with the costs covered by health insurance companies.The prescription of medical marihuana is not restricted to specific symptoms and is therefore also valid for patients with Parkinson's disease. From a legal perspective, patients who are seriously ill even have the right to be treated with cannabis if standard treatment methods are unsuccessful or result in unbearable side effects. This also applies even if only a slight chance of noticeable improvement is predicted as a result of the cannabis treatment.Bearing this in mind and due to an intense media coverage of this topic, more and more patients with Parkinson's disease are requesting cannabis prescription, which is a challenging situation to their neurologists.This article provides an overview of the various cannabis products that can be prescribed, the different modes of administration and the available literature regarding motor- and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, the authors state their opinion on which indications cannabinoids could be useful in treating patients with Parkinson's disease or in which situation the patient could or even should be prescribed cannabinoids. Additionally, this article presents practical recommendations for the prescription of cannabinoids and patient counseling, e. g., on the effects of medical marijuana on driving capacity. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Increased intracranial volume in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Katja; Karlsborg, Merete; Hansen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA) are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to diagnose and distinguish from each other. STUDY AIMS AND METHODS: Patients with PD and MSA and controls were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using tissue segmentation...... and outlining of regions in order to identify regional volume changes that might be useful in the diagnosis of the two diseases....

  14. Parkinson's disease motor subtypes and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, David J; Landau, Sabine; Hindle, John V; Samuel, Michael; Wilson, Kenneth C; Hurt, Catherine S; Brown, Richard G

    2012-03-01

    Parkinson's disease is heterogeneous, both in terms of motor symptoms and mood. Identifying associations between phenotypic variants of motor and mood subtypes may provide clues to understand mechanisms underlying mood disorder and symptoms in Parkinson's disease. A total of 513 patients were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and separately classified into anxious, depressed, and anxious-depressed mood classes based on latent class analysis of a semistructured interview. Motor subtypes assessed related to age-of-onset, rate of progression, presence of motor fluctuations, lateralization of motor symptoms, tremor dominance, and the presence of postural instability and gait symptoms and falls. The directions of observed associations tended to support previous findings with the exception of lateralization of symptoms, for which there were no consistent or significant results. Regression models examining a range of motor subtypes together indicated increased risk of anxiety in patients with younger age-of-onset and motor fluctuations. In contrast, depression was most strongly related to axial motor symptoms. Different risk factors were observed for depressed patients with and without anxiety, suggesting heterogeneity within Parkinson's disease depression. Such association data may suggest possible underlying common risk factors for motor subtype and mood. Combined with convergent evidence from other sources, possible mechanisms may include cholinergic system damage and white matter changes contributing to non-anxious depression in Parkinson's disease, while situational factors related to threat and unpredictability may contribute to the exacerbation and maintenance of anxiety in susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Mortality in patients with Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wermuth, L; Stenager, E; Stenager, E

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: After the introduction of L-dopa the mortality rate in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients has changed, but is still higher than in the background population. MATERIAL & METHODS: Mortality, age at death and cause of death in a group of PD patients compared with the background population...

  16. Ambulatory motor assessment in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.W.; Horstink, M.W.I.M.; Gielen, S.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    We developed an algorithm that distinguishes between on and off states in patients with Parkinson's disease during daily life activities. Twenty-three patients were monitored continuously in a home-like situation for approximately 3 hours while they carried out normal daily-life activities. Behavior

  17. Diurnal and nocturnal drooling in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalf, J.G.; Bloem, B.R.; Munneke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Drooling as symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) has thus far been poorly defined. This uncertainty is reflected by high variations in published prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of saliva loss versus accumulation of saliva as a possible preliminary stage, and

  18. Nordic walking improves mobility in Parkinson's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkeren, F.J. van; Reijmers, R.S.; Kleinveld, M.J.; Minten, A.; Bruggen, J.P.; Bloem, B.R.

    2008-01-01

    Nordic walking may improve mobility in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we examined whether the beneficial effects persist after the training period. We included 19 PD patients [14 men; mean age 67.0 years (range 58-76); Hoehn and Yahr stage range 1-3] who received a 6-week Nordic walking exercise

  19. Statin use and Parkinson's disease in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Manthripragada, Angelika D; Qian, Lei

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether statin (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor) use is associated with risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) in Denmark. We identified 1,931 patients with a first time diagnosis of PD reported in hospital or outpatient clinic...

  20. Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease: Selected therapeutic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both Schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease are very much linked to the dopaminergic system, yet a larger understanding that goes behind this ''simplified explanation'' of the linked phenomena remains important to further novel advances. The description of factors related to both disorders including implicated receptors, ...