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Sample records for sporadic aggressive fibromatosis

  1. Aggressive Fibromatosis: Evidence for a Stable Phase

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    Gillian Mitchell

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Aggressive fibromatosis (AF is an uncommon locally infiltrating benign disease of soft tissue for which treatment comprises complete surgical resection. Radiotherapy can be given postoperatively if the margin is incompletely resected. If the tumour is inoperable radiotherapy provides an alternative treatment. Hormone therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy have also been used for unresectable or recurrent disease. All treatment modalities carry an associated morbidity. We believe that the natural history of aggressive fibromatosis may include a period of stable disease without progression, during which time, treatment is not always necessary.

  2. Radiotherapy in the management of aggressive fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atahan, I.L.; Akyol, F.; Zorlu, F.; Guerkaynak, M.

    1989-01-01

    Four case reports are summarised concerning the management of aggressive fibromatosis in children and adolescents up to the age of 15. It was concluded that radiotherapy should be reserved for recurrences or inoperable cases. A dose of 5000-6000 cGy in 25-30 fractions depending on age of patient, site, and size of tumour is necessary, since most surgical recurrences appear in 12 months, all cases with positive surgical margins should receive doses in the range 4000-4500 cGy for microscopic disease. Radiotherapy-chemotherapy combinations can also be used. (UK)

  3. Pazopanib, a promising option for the treatment of aggressive fibromatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szucs, Z.; Messiou, C.; Wong, H.H.; Hatcher, H.; Miah, A.; Zaidi, S.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Judson, I.; Jones, R.L.; Benson, C.

    2017-01-01

    Desmoid tumour/aggressive fibromatosis (DT/AF) is a rare soft-tissue neoplasm that is locally aggressive but does not metastasize. There is no standard systemic treatment for symptomatic patients, although a number of agents are used. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have recently been reported to show

  4. Nonsurgical treatment of aggressive fibromatosis in the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.B. Jr.; Shagets, F.W.; Mansfield, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis is a poorly defined, locally aggressive, yet histologically benign fibroblastic proliferative lesion that may occur in the head and neck. The lesion is highly cellular and locally infiltrative and has a propensity to invade and erode bone, compromising vital structures within the head and neck. However, it is not a true malignancy because it does not have malignant cytologic characteristics nor does it metastasize. We present two cases of aggressive fibromatosis occurring in young adult men. The first case involved a rapidly enlarging mass of the anterior maxilla that involved the upper lip, nasal alae, nasal septum, inferior turbinates, and hard palate. The patient underwent incisional biopsy to confirm the diagnosis. Because of difficulty in determining the actual margins of this extensive lesion and the significant morbidity that would have resulted from surgical resection, we elected to treat this patient with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. The second case was an extensive lesion involving the right temporal bone, pterygomaxillary space, and infratemporal, temporal, and middle cranial fossae. Incisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis. Because of the lack of functional and cosmetic deficits and the unavoidable morbidity of a surgical resection, this patient was treated with radiation therapy. Although wide field resection is the most satisfactory form of treatment, in situations in which this modality would result in unacceptable morbidity or if surgical margins are positive, then radiation therapy and chemotherapy should be considered. Support for these therapeutic modalities is found in larger series of cases outside the head and neck

  5. Aggressive laryngeal fibromatosis: A case report and brief review

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    Enam Murshed Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of aggressive fibromatosis of the larynx occurring in a 72-year-old man. The lesion manifested with complaints of dyspnea and stridor. A computerized tomographic scan of the neck revealed irregular polypoidal growth invading right vocal cord, crossing midline. A malignant tumor was suspected. Although several laryngoscopy-driven biopsies were negative for malignancy, total laryngectomy was done since the lesion was not deemed amenable to conservative therapy. Tissue sections featured a moderately cellular lesion composed of spindle cells with bland, elongated nuclei, enmeshed in a variably collagenized ground substance. The spindle cells were immunopositive for vimentin and negative for cytokeratins, PGP-9.5, smooth muscle antigen, CD68, desmin, and S-100 protein and Ki-67 of 4%. No further therapy was administered. Based on the available literature, our data confirm that aggressive laryngeal fibromatosis in adult patients is a locally infiltrating disease. Total laryngectomy with clear margins is needed as to avoid the high risk of local recurrence.

  6. Intraoperative Electron Radiotherapy for the Management of Aggressive Fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, Falk; Timke, Carmen; Oertel, Susanne; Hensley, Frank W.; Bischof, Marc; Muenter, Marc W.; Weitz, Juergen; Buchler, Markus W.; Lehner, Burkhard; Debus, Juergen; Krempien, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We analyzed our experience with intraoperative electron radiotherapy (IOERT) followed by moderate doses of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) after organ-sparing surgery in patients with primary or recurrent aggressive fibromatosis. Methods and Materials: Indication for IOERT and postoperative EBRT as an individual treatment approach to avoid mutilating surgical procedures was seen when complete surgical removal seemed to be unlikely or impossible. A total of 31 lesions in 30 patients were treated by surgery and IOERT with a median dose of 12 Gy. Median age was 31 years (range, 13-59 years). Resection status was close margin in six lesions, microscopically positive in 13, and macroscopically positive in 12. Median tumor size was 9 cm. In all, 25 patients received additional EBRT, with a median dose of 45 Gy (range, 36-54 Gy). Results: After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 3-139 months), no disease-related deaths occurred. A total of five local recurrences were seen, resulting in actuarial 3-year local control rates of 82% overall and 91% inside the IOERT areas. Trends to improved local control were seen for older age (>31 years) and negative margins, but none of these factors reached significance. Perioperative complications were found in six patients, in particular as wound healing disturbances in five patients and venous thrombosis in one patient. Late toxicity was seen in five patients. Conclusion: Introduction of IOERT into a multimodal treatment approach in patients with aggressive fibromatosis is feasible with low toxicity and yielded good local control rates even in patients with microscopical or gross residual disease.

  7. Bimaxillary unilateral gingival fibromatosis with localized aggressive periodontitis (eating the tooth at the same table

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    Sharanabasappa Japatti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case reports a unique presentation of two different clinical entities amidst few similarities and differences. Usually, aggressive periodontitis and gingival fibromatosis occur independently. Their simultaneous occurrence is rarely found. This report deals with the clinical features and management aspect of such a case.

  8. Child gluteal aggressive fibromatosis: a correlative study of CT findings and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Miao; Li Ziping; Meng Quanfei; Guo Yan; Ye Bingbing; Xiao Gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate CT imaging in the diagnosis of child gluteal aggressive fibromatosis. Methods: CT manifestations of child gluteal aggressive fibromatosis were retrospectively analyzed. In total 7 males and 1 female, 2 to 11 years old, were enrolled in study. All cases had been confirmed by surgery and pathology. CT findings were correlatively studied with pathology. Results: Lesions located on the left side were noted in 7 cases, and a lesion located on right side was seen in the rest 1 cam The lesions were elliptical or lobulated on CT images. Three tumors originated from solitary muscle and multiple muscles were involved in other 5 cases. Tumors were well demarcated. Invasion to the adjacent structure was shown in 7 cases. All tumors were homogeneous in density in non-enhanced scan. Compared to the muscles in the same section, 5 tumors were iso -density and 3 tumors were hypo-density. Inside the lesions no hemorrhage, necrosis, cystic degeneration and calcification was revealed. After contrast medium was administrated, iso-dense and homogeneous enhancement as the adjacent muscles was seen in 1 tumor and apparent enhancement were demonstrated in 7 tumors. Seven tumors tended to grow along the longitudinal axis of muscles and infiltrated into fascial space. Atrophy resulting from compression was shown in the adjacent muscles in 6 cases. The major clinical manifestation was limp. Gluteal aggressive fibromatosis was confirmed by pathology in all cases. Conclusion: There are characteristics of child gluteal aggressive fibromatosis in age of onset, gender of the patients, site of the lesion and CT findings as well. CT manifestations were consistent with pathology. CT imaging is helpful in initial diagnosis and differential diagnosis, as well as in assessing the expansion of the tumor and involvement of the adjacent structures. (authors)

  9. Aggressive desmoid fibromatosis: First case in a Rwandan child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumours are a rare group of locally aggressive, non-malignant tumours of broblastic origin that can result in signicant morbidity due to local invasion. Facial involvement in children with aggressive bromatosis is uncommon. We present the case of a 14-month-old Rwandan child with an aggressive desmoid tumour ...

  10. A V530I Mutation in c-KIT Exon 10 Is Associated to Imatinib Response in Extraabdominal Aggressive Fibromatosis

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    Jean-Emmanuel Kurtz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive fibromatosis (AF or desmoid tumor is a rare condition, characterized by deep tissue invasion by a monoclonal fibroblastic neoplasm, developed from musculoaponeurotic structures. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but negative margins can hardly been achieved in large tumors, and can lead to major functional disability. AF medical therapy includes nonsteroids anti-inflammatory drugs, tamoxifen, with inconsistent results. Several reports of imatinib efficacy in AF appear in the literature. Here, we describe for the first time a V530I KIT exon 10 mutant that was associated to a dramatic imatinib response in an extraabdominal aggressive fibromatosis. The previously discovered V530I substitution was characterized in the core binding factor AML, but had never been reported in any other condition, so far. In this paper, we discuss the KIT exon 10 mutations or polymorphisms that have been described in a variety of KIT-related conditions, including acute myelogenous leukemia, mastocytosis, and aggressive fibromatosis.

  11. Can the MRI signal of aggressive fibromatosis be used to predict its behavior?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellazzi, G.; Vanel, D.; Le Cesne, A.; Le Pechoux, C.; Caillet, H.; Perona, F.; Bonvalot, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Aggressive fibromatosis is an invasive non-metastasizing soft-tissue tumor. Until recently, the standard treatment combined surgery and radiation therapy, but new studies reported that conservative strategies with or without medical treatment could be the best management. The aim of this study was to analyze and correlate the size and MR imaging signal features of aggressive fibromatosis with its behavior in order to choose the best treatment. Materials and methods: Between March 1985 and December 2005, 27 patients with at least 2 consecutive MRI examinations and no surgery or radiation therapy in between were recorded. There were 9 men and 18 women, and median age was 31 years. They underwent 107 MRI examinations of 47 lesions, 29 of which were medically treated, while the remaining 18 did not receive any drug administration. The size and signal changes of each lesion were studied over time on T2- and/or T1-weighted sequences after injection of contrast medium. RECIST criteria were used for size: only a 30% decrease or a 20% increase in the size of the main dimension was considered significant. We classified the appearance of the signal into six categories in order of increasing intensity and then we established the related variations over time. Results: The size of 79% of the lesions in the treated group and 82% in the untreated group remained stable. The initial signal of stable lesions or those exhibiting an increase in size was most frequently high. There was a high rate of signal stability over time, whatever the initial signal and size changes. Changes in size were not correlated with the initial MR signal. A decrease in size associated with a decreased signal was observed in three cases exclusively in the treated group. Conclusion: Fibromatoses are a group of soft-tissue tumors with variable characteristics on MRI, but it is not possible to predict their behavior based on the MRI signal

  12. Positron emission tomography in patients with aggressive fibromatosis/desmoid tumours undergoing therapy with imatinib

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    Kasper, Bernd; Hohenberger, Peter [University of Heidelberg, Sarcoma Unit, ITM - Interdisciplinary Tumor Center Mannheim, Mannheim University Medical Center, Mannheim (Germany); Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Strauss, Ludwig G. [German Cancer Research Center, Clinical Cooperation Unit Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We used {sup 18}F-FDG PET to evaluate the FDG uptake in patients with aggressive fibromatosis (AF, also known as desmoid tumours) undergoing therapy with imatinib (imatinib mesylate, Glivec). The pilot study included nine patients with progressive AF receiving oral treatment with imatinib at a daily dose of 800 mg. Patients were examined using PET prior to the start of therapy and during imatinib treatment. Restaging according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) was performed in parallel using CT and/or MRI and served as reference. The clinical outcomes in nine evaluable patients were as follows: seven patients with stable disease, and two patients with progressive disease. A 27% decrease in the median average standardized uptake value (SUV) of the sequential PET examinations was demonstrated in all evaluable patients with three patients (33%) showing a decrease in SUV of more than 40% (48%, 52% and 54%, respectively); no patient showed a substantial increase in SUV. To our knowledge, this is the first series of AF patients undergoing treatment with imatinib and monitored using sequential PET imaging, that allows detection of SUV changes after imatinib induction, thus helping to decide whether treatment should be continued or not. (orig.)

  13. Aggressive fibromatosis of the neck in a patient with Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, A.T.; Nguyen, T.P.; Hogg, J.P.; Gabriele, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report a patient with Gardner's syndrome who, in addition to a total colectomy, had multiple excisions of desmoid tumors in both thighs. He presented with left-sided neck swelling and pain. MRI was highly suggestive of desmoid tumors in multiple neck muscles. To our knowledge this is the first description of diffuse fibromatosis of the neck in association with Gardner's syndrome. (orig.)

  14. Aggressive fibromatosis: optimisation of local management with a retrospective failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catton, C.N.; O'Sullivan, B.; Bell, R.; Cummings, B.; Fornasier, V.; Panzarella, T.

    1995-01-01

    The records of 40 consecutive patients treated at the Princess Margaret Hospital (PMH) between 1979 and 1988 for aggressive fibromatosis were reviewed. The median follow-up was 86 months (range 21-167 months). All surgery was performed at the referring hospitals. Thirty-six underwent an attempt at excision, four were biopsied. Thirty-one had no overt disease after surgery and 26 of these received adjuvant irradiation. Eight were treated with radiotherapy alone, and another was treated with azathioprine and prednisone. Twenty-four (60%) presented with recurrent disease. The overall relapse free rate was 63% at 5 and 10 years. Combined surgery and irradiation had a higher relapse rate than irradiation alone (46% vs. 25%), and a high proportion of failures in the combined group were marginal failures (36%). Relapses following surgery alone were (1(5)) (20%), and chemotherapy(0(1)) . Tumour size greater than 8 cm predicted for relapse (p 0.002), but tumour site, status of surgical margins, and presence or absence of a history of relapse were not statistically significant. Twelve with subsequent treatment failure underwent successful salvage surgery, and (37(40)) (92%) were disease free at last follow-up. A functional assessment (modified Johnstone scale) revealed(11(24)) patients (46%) with poor functional outcomes (grade 2 or less) after all treatment compared with (6(24)) (25%) at referral. Ten of 11 (91%) with grade of 2 or less had a history of recurrence, and (4(5)) amputations were for treatment of a painful recurrence. Treatment planning in this study was hampered by inadequate information on tumour location since few patients had clinically apparent disease when seen by the radiation oncologist (only 35% of cases) and fewer had preoperative cross-sectional imaging available (12% of cases). Relapse was also associated with a poor functional outcome. Attaining high rates of local control with good functional outcomes requires a thorough pretreatment assessment of

  15. Aggressive juvenile fibromatosis of the paranasal sinuses: case report and brief review

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    Lakhan Shaheen E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Desmoid fibromatoses are benign, slow growing fibroblastic neoplasms, arising from musculoaponeurotic stromal elements. Desmoids are characterized by local invasion, with a high rate of local recurrence and a tendency to destroy adjacent structures and organs. Desmoid fibromatoses are rare in children, and though they may occur in the head and neck region, are extremely rare in the paranasal sinuses. Here we report a case of extraabdominal desmoid fibromatosis in a seven-year-old boy involving the sphenoid sinus, one of only six published reports of desmoid fibromatosis of the paranasal sinuses. The expansile soft tissue mass eroded the walls of the sphenoid sinus as well as the posterior ethmoid air cells extending cephalad through the base of the skull. We discuss the clinicopathologic features of this lesion, including structural and ultrastructural characteristics, and we review the literature regarding treatment and outcome.

  16. Human sterile alpha motif domain 9, a novel gene identified as down-regulated in aggressive fibromatosis, is absent in the mouse

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    Bell Sherilyn

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neoplasia can be driven by mutations resulting in dysregulation of transcription. In the mesenchymal neoplasm, aggressive fibromatosis, subtractive hybridization identified sterile alpha motif domain 9 (SAMD9 as a substantially down regulated gene in neoplasia. SAMD9 was recently found to be mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. In this study, we studied the gene structure and function of SAMD9, and its paralogous gene, SAMD9L, and examined these in a variety of species. Results SAMD9 is located on human chromosome 7q21.2 with a paralogous gene sterile alpha motif domain 9 like (SAMD9L in the head-to-tail orientation. Although both genes are present in a variety of species, the orthologue for SAMD9 is lost in the mouse lineage due to a unique genomic rearrangement. Both SAMD9 and SAMD9L are ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. SAMD9 is expressed at a lower level in a variety of neoplasms associated with β-catenin stabilization, such as aggressive fibromatosis, breast, and colon cancers. SAMD9 and SAMD9L contain an amino-terminal SAM domain, but the remainder of the predicted protein structure does not exhibit substantial homology to other known protein motifs. The putative protein product of SAMD9 localizes to the cytoplasm. In vitro data shows that SAMD9 negatively regulates cell proliferation. Over expression of SAMD9 in the colon cancer cell line, SW480, reduces the volume of tumors formed when transplanted into immune-deficient mice. Conclusion SAMD9 and SAMD9L are a novel family of genes, which play a role regulating cell proliferation and suppressing the neoplastic phenotype. This is the first report as far as we know about a human gene that exists in rat, but is lost in mouse, due to a mouse specific rearrangement, resulting in the loss of the SAMD9 gene.

  17. Human sterile alpha motif domain 9, a novel gene identified as down-regulated in aggressive fibromatosis, is absent in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Catherine F; MacDonald, Jeffrey R; Wei, Robert Y; Ray, Jocelyn; Lau, Kimberly; Kandel, Christopher; Koffman, Rachel; Bell, Sherilyn; Scherer, Stephen W; Alman, Benjamin A

    2007-04-03

    Neoplasia can be driven by mutations resulting in dysregulation of transcription. In the mesenchymal neoplasm, aggressive fibromatosis, subtractive hybridization identified sterile alpha motif domain 9 (SAMD9) as a substantially down regulated gene in neoplasia. SAMD9 was recently found to be mutated in normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis. In this study, we studied the gene structure and function of SAMD9, and its paralogous gene, SAMD9L, and examined these in a variety of species. SAMD9 is located on human chromosome 7q21.2 with a paralogous gene sterile alpha motif domain 9 like (SAMD9L) in the head-to-tail orientation. Although both genes are present in a variety of species, the orthologue for SAMD9 is lost in the mouse lineage due to a unique genomic rearrangement. Both SAMD9 and SAMD9L are ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. SAMD9 is expressed at a lower level in a variety of neoplasms associated with beta-catenin stabilization, such as aggressive fibromatosis, breast, and colon cancers. SAMD9 and SAMD9L contain an amino-terminal SAM domain, but the remainder of the predicted protein structure does not exhibit substantial homology to other known protein motifs. The putative protein product of SAMD9 localizes to the cytoplasm. In vitro data shows that SAMD9 negatively regulates cell proliferation. Over expression of SAMD9 in the colon cancer cell line, SW480, reduces the volume of tumors formed when transplanted into immune-deficient mice. SAMD9 and SAMD9L are a novel family of genes, which play a role regulating cell proliferation and suppressing the neoplastic phenotype. This is the first report as far as we know about a human gene that exists in rat, but is lost in mouse, due to a mouse specific rearrangement, resulting in the loss of the SAMD9 gene.

  18. F 18 FDG PET/CT Findings of Spontaneous Mesenteric Fibromatosis in a Patient with Gardner's Syndrome

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    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Young Jin; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    Gardner's syndrome (GS), a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis, is an autosomal dominant disease. Originally, Gardner described a syndrome consisting of hereditary intestinal polyposis With osteomas and multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. The syndrome was later modified by the addition of other features, such as dental abnormalities, abdominal fibromatosis, and a number of malignant tumors. the principal cutaneous lesions that have been described in GS are epidermoid cysts. Other cutaneous lesions include fibromas, lipomas, leiomyomas, neurofibromas, and pigmented skin lesions. Fibromatoses are histologically benign, but locally aggressive fibrous tumors consisting of mature fibroblasts within an extensive collagen matrix. Most cases are sporadic, but there is a clear association with familial adenomatous polyposis and GS, suggesting a link with a mutation of the APC gene on chromosome 5q22. Fibromatosis occurs in 3.5%-29% of patients with GS, and is more likely to be multiple and to involve the mesentery and abdominal wall rather than being an isolated form. Clinically, fibromatosis presents as a painless firm soft tissue mass. Most cases of fibromatosis are believed to be precipitated by surgical trauma, however, a few cases of spontaneous occurrence have been reported. In our patient, no history of abdominal surgery or trauma was present. In addition, an abdominal CT obtained 2 years ago revealed no abnormality. Although the radiological features of fibromatosis on CT or MR have been described in the literature, F 18 FDG PET or PET/CT findings are rarely reported. The F 18 FDG uptake in patients with fibromatosis ranged from low to moderate grade and was generally heterogenous with a few tiny foci of relatively intense uptake or relatively homogenous. The areas of higher FDG metabolism are likely to represent more cellular and mitotically active areas. Mesenteric fibromatosis has similar findings to extra abdominal lesions.

  19. Aggressive musculo-apo neurotic fibromatosis, findings in image in a case of posttraumatic involvement of the scalene muscle; Fibromatosis musculo-aponeurotica agresiva, hallazgos en imagen en un caso de afectacion postraumatica dle musculo escaleno

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    Vizcaino, I.; Costa, S.; Cremades, A. [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset. Valencia (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis is a well-differentiated benign tumoral condition of fibroblastic origin that is classified as a tumor of the soft tissue. These lesions present an intermediate biological behavior between the benign fibroblastic tumors and fibrosarcoma, and have the capacity of presenting local relapse, but never metastasis. One case of post-traumatic musculoaponeurotic fibromatosis of the scalene muscle is presented by the study of the ultrasonography, CT and MRI. The imaging findings are not characteristics, but they are useful to carry out the differential diagnosis and extension study. (Author) 14 refs.

  20. Extra-abdominal fibromatosis invading the mandible: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, M K; Chindia, M L; Guthua, S W; Nyong'o, A

    2002-01-01

    Extra-abdominal fibromatosis (desmoid tumour) is a rare aggressive neoplasm with a tendency to infiltrate local structures but rarely metastasises or undergoes spontaneous malignant transformation. The treatment of choice is surgery, however, recurrences have been reported even after wide-field resection. This article presents a case of extra-abdominal fibromatosis that had extensively invaded the mandible.

  1. Recurrent infantile digital fibromatosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of an 8-year-old-boy with recurrent infantile digital fibromatosis (IDF) who presented with new ... Keywords: fibrous tumors, inclusion body fibromatosis, infantile digital fibromatosis, spindle cells, Reye tumor .... watch-and-wait strategy for patients with histologically confirmed IDF nodules that do not cause ...

  2. Expression of FAP, ADAM12, WISP1, and SOX11 is heterogeneous in aggressive fibromatosis and spatially relates to the histologic features of tumor activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misemer, Benjamin S; Skubitz, Amy P N; Carlos Manivel, J; Schmechel, Stephen C; Cheng, Edward Y; Henriksen, Jonathan C; Koopmeiners, Joseph S; Corless, Christopher L; Skubitz, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive fibromatosis (AF) represents a group of tumors with a variable and unpredictable clinical course, characterized by a monoclonal proliferation of myofibroblastic cells. The optimal treatment for AF remains unclear. Identification and validation of genes whose expression patterns are associated with AF may elucidate biological mechanisms in AF, and aid treatment selection. This study was designed to examine the protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) of four genes, ADAM12, FAP, SOX11, and WISP1, that were found in an earlier study to be uniquely overexpressed in AF compared with normal tissues. Digital image analysis was performed to evaluate inter- and intratumor heterogeneity, and correlate protein expression with histologic features, including a histopathologic assessment of tumor activity, defined by nuclear chromatin density ratio (CDR). AF tumors exhibited marked inter- and intratumor histologic heterogeneity. Pathologic assessment of tumor activity and digital assessment of average nuclear size and CDR were all significantly correlated. IHC revealed protein expression of all four genes. IHC staining for ADAM12, FAP, and WISP1 correlated with CDR and was higher, whereas SOX11 staining was lower in tumors with earlier recurrence following excision. All four proteins were expressed, and the regional variation in tumor activity within and among AF cases was demonstrated. A spatial correlation between protein expression and nuclear morphology was observed. IHC also correlated with the probability of recurrence following excision. These proteins may be involved in AF pathogenesis and the corresponding pathways could serve as potential targets of therapy

  3. Risk factors for local recurrence of fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, V; Troncoso, S; Mejías, L; Idoate, M Á; San-Julián, M

    To evaluate the clinical, radiological and histological factors that can predict local recurrence of fibromatosis. A retrospective study was conducted on 51 patients diagnosed with fibromatosis in this hospital from 1983 to 2014. The mean follow-up was 83 months. A study was made of the clinical parameters, location, depth, size, surgical margins, and proliferation index (Ki-67). An evaluation was also made of the risk of recurrence depending on the adjuvant treatment and the relationship between treatment and patient functionality. Tumour location and depth were identified as risk factors for local recurrence, showing statistically significant differences (P<.001 and P=.003, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in age, gender, size, surgical margins, or adjuvant treatments, or in the Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Score according to the treatment received. The mean Ki-67 was 1.9% (range 1-4), and its value was not associated with the risk of recurrence. Deep fibromatosis fascia tumours, and those located in extremities are more aggressive than superficial tumours and those located in trunk. The Ki-67 has no predictive value in local recurrence of fibromatosis. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or other adjuvant treatments such as tamoxifen have not been effective in local control of the disease. Given the high recurrence rate, even with adequate margins, a wait and see attitude should be considered in asymptomatic patients and/or stable disease. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Mesenteric fibromatosis, apropos of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveyra, N.; Agazharian, M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Mesenteric fibromatosis is a rare type of tumour,histological benign appearance but local aggressive behavior, prone to residivar, but lacks the ability to metastasize. The called desmoid tumour is a type of aggressive fibromatosis, a rare presentation representing less than 0.03% of all tumours with an annual incidence of 2-4 cases / 100,000. Mesenteric fibromatosis can be divided into two broad categories: one superficial and deep. The processes are superficially localized, located on the palms, soles, penis and knuckles. The deep shape is more aggressive, turns easily and can cause death by local invasion. It is subdivided in abdominal, extra abdominal and intraabdominal in which we find the pelvic fibromatosis, and mesenteric associated with inherited familial polyposis. Clinically, these tumours usually appear as a mass whose symptoms depend on the location; in the abdominal region, it will normally cause intestinal obstruction and hydronephrosis, bleeding or perforation of hollow viscera, or remain asymptomatic for a long time performing diagnosis belatedly when its size is large as in our case. Objectives: To report a case of mesenteric fibromatosis low frequency with a good clinical outcome after a treatment based on a comprehensive literature review. Methodology A case history of a female patient 57 years, no history is taken. Presented with an poor performance status, overall impact, weight loss of 10kg in 6 months. Right upper quadrant pain and bloating prandrial post. He studied with computed tomography, which describes the presence of a large tumour retroperitoneal in intimate contact with the intestinal loops. No lymphadenopathy. A laparotomy was performed explorer in which the presence of the tumour conforms to level stony member mesenteric planes later. Being an unresectable tumour. Pathology describes: fibro myxoid lesion without elements malignancy, compatible with mesenteric fibromatosis. Hormone receptor positive. Currently there

  5. Giant mesenteric fibromatosis – A case report

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    Liana Pleș

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenteric fibromatosis or intra-abdominal desmoids tumor is a rare clinical entity. It is a locally aggressive tumor but not metastasizing proliferation. We report a case of a 27-year-old woman with no significant medical and a previous cesarean section, admitted for abdominal pain. The CT abdominal evaluation revealed subserosal uterine fibroid. The patient underwent an elective laparotomy and a mass measuring 20/15/15 cm in diameter to the medial wall of the cecum was discovered. Complete removal was accomplished with right hemicolectomy. Histopathological examination reported mesenteric fibromatosis. Postoperatively, patient was well and 6 month follow-up showed good recovery. Moreover the next month she became pregnant and the pregnancy and birth were uneventful.

  6. Recurrent Primary Fibromatosis in the Breast: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Soo Jin; Kang, Young Hae; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Youn Jeong; Kim, Lucia; Cho, Young Up

    2012-01-01

    Fibromatosis is a rare benign tumor that presents predominantly as a unilateral, painless, palpable, and firm to hard mass which may be accompanied by skin dimpling and nipple retraction. It is characterized as an infiltrating fibroblastic and myofibroblastic proliferation that can behave in a locally aggressive fashion if incompletely excised. However, it is not known to metastasize. We report a case of a 39-year-old female with recurrent fibromatosis in the breast. Initially, the mass was detected by a screening mammography. It appeared as an oval mass and recurred twice after surgical excision over a 36-month period with a more suspicious appearance.

  7. Desmoid-type fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otero, S.; Moskovic, E.C.; Strauss, D.C.; Benson, C.; Miah, A.B.; Thway, K.; Messiou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a rare, locally infiltrative, mesenchymal neoplasm that is associated with high rates of local recurrence but lacks the potential to metastasise. The disease affects younger individuals, with a peak age of 30 years, and is the most common cause of an anterior abdominal wall mass in young women of childbearing age. It may, however, involve nearly every body part, including the extremities, head and neck, trunk, and abdominal cavity; as such, desmoid-type fibromatosis may present to a range of general and subspecialty radiologists. These rare tumours have a widely variable clinical presentation and unpredictable natural history, hence input from a soft-tissue tumour centre is recommended, although much of the imaging may be performed at the patient's local hospital. The consensus for treatment has changed over the past decade, with most centres moving away from primary radical surgery towards a front-line ‘watch-and-wait’ policy. Therefore, imaging has an increasingly important role to play in both the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. This review will discuss the typical imaging characteristics of these lesions and suggest diagnostic and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging protocols, with details of suitable sequences and scanning intervals

  8. Plantar fibromatosis. Ultrasound assessment; La fibromatosi plantare: risultati ecografici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solivetti, F.R.; Luzi, F.; Bucher, S.; Thorel, M.F.; Muscardin, L. [Rome Ospedale Santa Maria e San Gallicano, Rome (Italy)

    1999-05-01

    In 1998-99, six patients with plantar fibromatosis were submitted to US (ultrasound) with plantar fibromatosis were submitted to US with 13 MHz linear array and 20 MHz mechanical annular array probes. All patients were examined in prone recumbency with the probe positioned on the sole of the foot. Only some of them were subsequently submitted to surgery. Plantar fibromatosis exhibited an almost pathognomonic pattern and US proved to be a quick, noninvasive and cost-effective technique to confirm clinical diagnosis. The nodule is typically single and iso echoic, with maximum diameter of about 1 cm, inhomogeneous internal structure and few thin hyperechoic septa. The nodular fibrous proliferation adheres with the major axis along the plantar fascia; it exhibits clear-cut margins and US beam transmission is good. No calcifications or fluid collections are seen within the nodule. Color and power Doppler show no flow inside. It is demonstrated that US is an adequate tool for the study of plantar fibromatosis. [Italian] Negli anni 1998-99 sono stati osservati ben sei casi di fibromatosi plantare, solo in parte trattati chirurgicamente. Tutti sono stati studiati con ecografia, con apparecchiatura in tempo reale e sonde lineari da 13 MHz e anulari da 20 MHz. Si puo' descrivere un quadro tipico della malattia diagnosticabile con l'ecografia, specie in associazione con sintomi clinici caratteristici.

  9. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis. Fibromatosis hialina juvenil. Diagnostico radiologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-10-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  10. Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis. Radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes, R.; Sar, V.; Cabrera, J.J.; Diaz, L.; Hernandez, B.; Valeron, P.; Baez, O.; Rodriguez, M.

    1993-01-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology, very few cases of which have been reported in the literature. It presents similarities to other fibromatosys, but has its particular radiological features which differentiate it from them. The clinical findings consist of several, slow growing, subcutaneous nodules, flexion contractures of the joints which can lead to disability, gingival hypertrophy and muscular atrophy. The suspected radiological diagnosis is confirmed by electron microscopy study of the nodules, although light microscopy can also reveal suggestive images. Author (9 refs.)

  11. Aggressive fibromatosis - impact of prognostic variables on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One patient had local failure following excision and postoperative radiation therapy. The local control was 100% for surgery alone and 86% for surgery followed by postoperative radiation at ≥ 24 months. On univariate analysis, age, sex, positive margins, primary or recurrent presentation, site of involvement and initial ...

  12. Orbital Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Moro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a benign fibrous neoplasia originating from connective tissue, fascial planes, and musculoaponeurotic structures of the muscles. Currently, there is no evidence-based treatment approach available for desmoid fibromatosis. In this article, a case of a patient in the pediatric age affected by desmoid fibromatosis localized in the orbit is presented. The aim of the article is to describe this unusual and rare location for the desmoid fibromatosis and outline the principle phases in the decision-making process and the therapeutic alternatives for a patient affected by desmoid fibromatosis. Methods. The protocol of this review included study objectives, search strategy, and selection criteria. The primary end point of this study was to analyze the head and neck desmoid fibromatosis. The secondary end point was to identify the available therapies and assess their specific indications. Results. The mean age of patients was 18.9 years ranging from 0 to 66, and 52% were female. A bimodal age distribution was observed, and two age peaks were identified: 0–14 years (57% and 28–42 years (18%. The most common involved areas were the mandible (25% followed by the neck (21%. In 86% of the cases, the treatment was the surgical resection of the disease, and only in 5% of the cases, the surgical resection was followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. Conclusion. The orbital location is extremely rare, especially in the pediatric population. The management of desmoid fibromatosis is based on the function preservation and the maintenance of a good quality of life, but in case of symptomatic patients or aggressive course of the disease or risk of functional damages, the surgical approach may be considered. Therapeutic alternatives to surgical resection are radiotherapy and systemic therapy.

  13. Recurrent infantile digital fibromatosis | Izadpanaha | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... recurrent potential following surgical excision. Although B200 cases of IDF have been described to date, a generalized consensus does not seem to exist on an approach to treatment. The current treatment modalities for IDF are reviewed. Keywords: fibrous tumors, inclusion body fibromatosis, infantile digital fibromatosis, ...

  14. Case report: Fibromatosis colli in a neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiti S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromatosis colli or pseudotumor of infancy of the sternocleidomastoid muscle is a rare cause of a benign neck mass in neonates and infants. If diagnosed correctly, it can be managed conservatively, and unnecessary investigations can be avoided.

  15. Aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnaer, F.; Cima, M.; Arntz, A.R.; Cima, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aggression, violence and deviant behavior are terms frequently used interchangeable, but relate to different theoretical concepts. Therefore, this chapter starts with a definition of aggression. Furthermore, several theories regarding the development of aggression will be presented. According to

  16. Sporadic ret-rearranged papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: a subset of slow growing, less aggressive thyroid neoplasms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, P; Fonseca, E; Wynford-Thomas, D; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    1998-05-01

    Despite the large amount of information accumulated on the role played by ret activation in the oncogenesis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), the biological and clinical significance of such activation 'in vivo' remains controversial. The aim of this study was to address some of the existing controversies by comparing two groups of unselected PTCs, one with and the other without ret rearrangement, with regard to several clinicopathological and biological features. Thirty-three PTCs were selected at random. ret rearrangement was found in eight cases (24.2 per cent) using Southern blot analysis. The mean age of the patients with tumours displaying ret rearrangement (28 +/- 3.1 years) was significantly lower than that of the patients harbouring cases that did not present rearrangement (45 +/- 2.9 years). The large majority of the tumours with ret rearrangement displayed a papillary or mixed follicular-papillary pattern and very low proliferative activity. ret rearrangement correlated significantly with decreased cytoplasmic expression of E-cadherin. No significant differences were found regarding the gender of the patients, tumour size, multicentricity, extrathyroidal growth, vascular invasion, lymphocytic infiltration, lymph node involvement or the expression of E-cadherin (membrane), c-erb-B2, c-met, Bcl-2, and vimentin. It is proposed that sporadic PTCs harbouring a ret rearrangement occur frequently as slow growing, papillary, or predominantly papillary tumours that do not usually progress towards less differentiated neoplasms representing what might be described as a Bonsai phenotype.

  17. Desmoid fibromatosis of the chest wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, QiHao; Wong, Janice; Sinha, Sanjay; Kejriwal, Nand

    2018-05-01

    We report a case of desmoid fibromatosis of the chest wall. A 70-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with right shoulder blade pain and paresthesia over the right upper breast. Chest X-ray and computed tomography demonstrated a 5 cm right apical mass in the chest. Biopsy of the mass demonstrated features of desmoid fibromatosis. The patient subsequently underwent surgical resection of the mass and received adjuvant radiation therapy for microscopic positive margins. In conclusion, although desmoid tumour of the chest is rare, it is worth considering in the differential diagnoses of chest wall tumours.

  18. Neuropathic pain due to fibromatosis: Does anticancer treatment help?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mathew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Desmoid fibromatosis, although histologically benign, infiltrates local structures. The involvement of neural structures can lead to difficult neuropathic pain and the escalating use of analgesics. We report a patient with desmoid fibromatosis of the chest wall causing brachial plexus infiltration. As the tumor was locally invasive and unresectable, he was treated with radiation therapy and oral tamoxifen. On follow-up, there was significant pain relief, sustained reduction in the tumor size, and reduced analgesic requirement. Antineoplastic treatments like local radiation therapy and targeted systemic therapy with hormones or other agents can be considered in the management of selected unresectable desmoid fibromatosis to improve symptom control and reduce polypharmacy.

  19. Infantile digital fibromatosis (inclusion body fibromatosis observed in a baby without finger involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Kaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 9-day-old male baby was hospitalized after his birth due to some swells under the skin. The hard consistency nodules observed under the skin all over the body of the patient were of different size, and presented lesions, among which the biggest was 1 × 1 cm. No lesions were observed on the fingers. By superficial ultrasonography, multiple isoechoic hypoechoic lesions were observed among the muscle plan. In thoracolumbar magnetic resonance imaging, multiple massif lesions retaining peripheral contrast (the biggest was 1.7 × 1.4 cm large had been observed under the skin muscle plans, between the muscles of the extremities. The biopsy was positive for smooth muscle actin, but negative for desmin, S100, and CD34. These findings were diagnosed as infantile digital fibromatosis (IDF (inclusion body fibromatosis. The case was presented with an objective to illustrate and remind that IDF can be observed in babies without finger involvement.

  20. Abdominal wall fibromatosis associated with previous laparoscopic hernia repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S B F; MacDuff, E; O'Dwyer, P J

    2013-10-01

    Two cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis developing after laparoscopic hernia repair are described: one in a young male 3 years after laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair and the other in a young female 1 year after laparoscopic incisional hernia repair. The male patient presented with a slowly enlarging non-tender firm abdominal wall mass; the female patient had similar findings. Excision biopsy in the male and core biopsy in the female were consistent with fibromatosis. The young male patient underwent resection of the fibromatosis, and the female patient has been managed conservatively. These are the first documented cases of fibromatosis developing after laparoscopic hernia surgery. Whilst the safety of hernia meshes has been assessed in animal studies, it may be that more detailed study of intraperitoneal placement of these meshes is required.

  1. Aggressive desmoid fibromatosis: First case in a Rwandan child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6 weeks schedule: vincristine 2 mg/ m2 in intravenous (IV) infusion every 2 weeks, actinomycin-D 0.015 mg/kg/d by IV infusion for 5 days every 6 weeks, and cyclophosphamide 200 mg/m2 during the .... Brice G, Mansour S, Ostergaard P, Connell F, Jeffrey S, Mortimer P. Milroy disease. Hereditary lymphedema, type I: Milroy ...

  2. Indications for radiation therapy and surgery in the treatment of fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, M.A.; Jennings, L.C.; Efird, J.T.; Mankin, H.J.; Springfield, D.S.; Gebhardt, M.C.; Spiro, I.J.; Rosenberg, A.E.; Suit, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the roles of radiation and surgery in treating fibromatosis (desmoid tumors). Methods and Materials: Records of 92 patients treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. Treatment consisted of: radiation, 15 tumors; surgery, 37 tumors; radiation plus surgery, 40 tumors. Radiation doses ranged from 10 Gy to 72 Gy, and were delivered as megavoltage external beam, brachytherapy or a combination. Minimum follow up was 1 year (median 6.2 yrs). The margin status of resected specimens included: 14 negative, 11 negative at 18 yrs and 0% for age <18 yrs. Conclusions: Surgery remains the primary treatment of choice for fibromatosis. Radiation therapy, however, is also effective either as a primary treatment or a surgical adjuvent. Additional advantage in recurrence free survival with peri-operative treatment was seen in patients for whom negative margins were not achieved. Thus, radiation might be recommended to these patients, particularly if the lesion is located such that further recurrence and resection could result in a significant functional or cosmetic defect. Radiation would also be recommended as a primary therapy for those in which a primary resection could not be expected without such deficits. It should also be noted when considering the potential consequences of recurrence that these lesions may often fail locally even with negative margins. Of further interest lesions located in the planter or palmer regions appear as a different disease entity, with a very benign course in adults and an extremely aggressive course in children

  3. Fibromatosis over the dorsa of both feet: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Hari Kishan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromatosis is benign fibrous tissue condition intermediate between benign fibroma and metastasizing fibrosarcoma. The lesion tends to infiltrate and recur when removed, but do not metastasize. The lesion may be single or multiple, and the likelihood of recurrence after surgical removal varies with location of the lesion and age. A 40-year-old female presented with multiple raised lesions over both feet since 4 years, they were multiple well-defined firm nodules coalescing to form lobulated plaques distributed in a symmetrical pattern over the dorsum of both feet. Histopathology of skin showed epidermis with hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, mild parakeratosis, and prominent granular layer. Superficial dermis was unremarkable and deep dermis showed thick bundles of irregular collagen and fibroblastic proliferation, suggestive of fibromatosis. This case is being reported for its unusual presentation of fibromatosis over the dorsum of both feet.

  4. Bilateral breast fibromatosis: a rare case report | Fewou | Revue de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast fibromatosis is a rare benign tumor of soft tissues with local spread, often frequently recurrent but never results to metastasis. Methodology: We present a case diagnosed in a 41 years old patient who was referred to a Douala private medical center in February 2012 presenting bilateral breast tumors.

  5. Plantar fibromatosis and Dupuytren’s contracture in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromatosis represents a wide group of benign, locally proliferative disorders of fibroblasts. Dupuytren` s disease is a benign proliferative disease of palmar aponeurosis which usually affects adults between 40 and 60 years of age. Ledderhose`s disease or plantar fibromatosis is plantar equivalent of Dupuyten`s disease most often affecting middle- aged and older men, usually bilateral, represented with painless nodule in the medial division of plantar fascia. Case report. We presented a 19-year old adolescent that turned to a plastic surgeon complaining to his small finger contracture. He noticed palmar thickening with nodule over the metacarpophalangeal joint of small finger of his right hand when he was 16 years old. A year later a finger started to band. During physical checkup we noticed plantar nodule that also had his father and grandmother. Magnetic resonance and tumor biopsy confirmed a suspicion on plantar fibromatosis - Ledderhose`s disease. Clinical exam of the hand clearly led to a conclusion that the patient had Dupuytren`s contracture with pretendinous cord over the small finger flexor tendons and lack of extension of proximal interphalangeal (PIP joint. On the extensor side of the PIP joints there were Garrod`s nodes. The patient refused surgical treatment of plantar tumor, but agreed to surgical correction of finger contracture. Conclusion. Despite the fact that Dupuytren`s disease and plantar fibromatosis are diseases of adults, the possibility of conjoint appearance of these forms of fibromatosis in adolescent period of life should be kept in mind especially in patients with strong genetic predisposition.

  6. Familial prostate cancer has a more aggressive course than sporadic prostate cancer after treatment for localized disease, mainly due to a higher rate of distant metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupelian, Patrick A.; Klein, Eric A.; Suh, John H; Kupelian, Varant A.

    1997-01-01

    with negative and positive family history were 83% and 72% percent, respectively (p=0.013). The 5-year locRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 87% percent, respectively (p=0.45). The 5-year dRFS rates for patients with negative and positive family history were 91% and 84%, respectively (p=0.032). Table 1 displays the statistical significance in crude (univariate) and adjusted (multivariate) analysis of all factors analyzed with respect to outcomes of interest. After adjusting for potential confounders, family history of prostate cancer remained strongly associated with biochemical failure. For RP patients, even in the presence of pathologic parameters, family history remained a strong independent predictor of biochemical, clinical, and distant failure (data not shown). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that familial prostate cancer may have a more aggressive course after treatment than non-familial prostate cancer, and that clinical and/or pathological parameters may not adequately predict this course. Familial prostate cancer seems associated with a higher rate of distant metastases. Further studies need to be performed to confirm these findings

  7. Werewolf syndrome associated with gingival fibromatosis: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore K Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrichosis is a rare disorder that causes abnormal excessive body hair growth. Hypertrichosis has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. It is often associated with additional anomalies including gingival hyperplasia, deafness, cardiomegaly and bone abnormalities. The association of gingival fibromatosis and a coarse facies could further worsen the esthetics. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach involving a psychologist, a dentist as well as a dermatologist would be mandatory. We present this rare syndrome describing a case of a 9-year-old boy with congenital hypertrichosis and gingival fibromatosis. The growth being normal, the features of this boy were similar to hypertrichosis. Hypertrichosis has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to the werewolf.

  8. Werewolf syndrome associated with gingival fibromatosis: A rare case report

    OpenAIRE

    Mysore K Sunil; Ashwarya Trivedi; Saloni Arora; Sonam Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is a rare disorder that causes abnormal excessive body hair growth. Hypertrichosis has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. It is often associated with additional anomalies including gingival hyperplasia, deafness, cardiomegaly and bone abnormalities. The association of gingival fibromatosis and a coarse facies could further worsen the esthetics. Thus, a multidisciplinary approach involving a psychologist, a dentist a...

  9. Hyaline fibromatosis of Hoffa's fat pad in a patient with a mild type of hyaline fibromatosis syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raak, Sjoerd M. van [Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dordrecht (Netherlands); Meuffels, Duncan E. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Leenders, Geert J.L.H. van [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oei, Edwin H.G. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-04-15

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a rare, homozygous, autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of hyaline material in skin and other organs, resulting in esthetic problems, disability, and potential life-threatening complications. Most patients become clinically apparent in the first few years of life, and the disorder typically progresses with the appearance of new lesions. We describe a rare case of a 20-year-old patient with juvenile-onset mild HFS who presented with a history of progressive anterior knee pain. Detailed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with histopathological correlation are presented of hyaline fibromatosis of Hoffa's fat pad, including differential diagnosis. The diagnosis of HFS is generally made on basis of clinical and histopathological findings. Imaging findings, however, may contribute to the correct diagnosis in patients who present with a less typical clinical course of HFS. (orig.)

  10. Hyaline fibromatosis of Hoffa's fat pad in a patient with a mild type of hyaline fibromatosis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raak, Sjoerd M. van; Meuffels, Duncan E.; Leenders, Geert J.L.H. van; Oei, Edwin H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Hyaline fibromatosis syndrome (HFS) is a rare, homozygous, autosomal recessive disease, characterized by deposition of hyaline material in skin and other organs, resulting in esthetic problems, disability, and potential life-threatening complications. Most patients become clinically apparent in the first few years of life, and the disorder typically progresses with the appearance of new lesions. We describe a rare case of a 20-year-old patient with juvenile-onset mild HFS who presented with a history of progressive anterior knee pain. Detailed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings with histopathological correlation are presented of hyaline fibromatosis of Hoffa's fat pad, including differential diagnosis. The diagnosis of HFS is generally made on basis of clinical and histopathological findings. Imaging findings, however, may contribute to the correct diagnosis in patients who present with a less typical clinical course of HFS. (orig.)

  11. Two missense mutations in KCNQ1 cause pituitary hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommiska, Johanna; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    Familial growth hormone deficiency provides an opportunity to identify new genetic causes of short stature. Here we combine linkage analysis with whole-genome resequencing in patients with growth hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis. We report that patients from three...... associated with maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis is an allelic disorder with cardiac arrhythmia syndromes caused by KCNQ1 mutations....

  12. Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome: Case series of rare syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preetha Balaji

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by profound overgrowth of hair and gums, as well as other variable features. Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a large increase in the gingival dimension which extends above the dental crowns, covering them partially or completely. They were found to have a genetic origin, may also occur in isolation or be part of a syndrome, or acquired origin, due to specific drugs administered systemically. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with continuing excessive growth of terminal hair without androgenic stimulation. It has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. Various syndromes have been associated with these features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, cardiomegaly, or osteochondrodysplasia. As so far very few cases have been reported in literature, we are reporting a series of three cases with management of the same. The excess gingival tissues, in these cases, were removed by conventional gingivectomy under general anesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful and the patient's appearance improved significantly. Good esthetic result was achieved to allow patient to practice oral hygiene measures. Though this is not a serious condition clinically, psychosocial trauma cannot be neglected owing to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces.

  13. Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome: Case series of rare syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Preetha; Balaji, S M

    2017-01-01

    Gingival fibromatosis with hypertrichosis syndrome is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by profound overgrowth of hair and gums, as well as other variable features. Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by a large increase in the gingival dimension which extends above the dental crowns, covering them partially or completely. They were found to have a genetic origin, may also occur in isolation or be part of a syndrome, or acquired origin, due to specific drugs administered systemically. Congenital generalized hypertrichosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with continuing excessive growth of terminal hair without androgenic stimulation. It has informally been called werewolf syndrome because the appearance is similar to that of a werewolf. Various syndromes have been associated with these features such as epilepsy, mental retardation, cardiomegaly, or osteochondrodysplasia. As so far very few cases have been reported in literature, we are reporting a series of three cases with management of the same. The excess gingival tissues, in these cases, were removed by conventional gingivectomy under general anesthesia. The postoperative result was uneventful and the patient's appearance improved significantly. Good esthetic result was achieved to allow patient to practice oral hygiene measures. Though this is not a serious condition clinically, psychosocial trauma cannot be neglected owing to the cosmetic disfigurement it produces.

  14. Desmoid type fibromatosis in the facet joint of lumbar spine: Case report and review of literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, So Jung; Ha, Doo Hoe; Lee, Sang Min; Kang, Hae Youn [CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Desmoid type fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic tumor arising from the fascia or musculoaponeurosis. It may occur in various locations, but most commonly in the shoulder girdle and neck; to our knowledge, there has been no reported case originating from a facet joint of the spine. We report CT and MR imaging findings of a desmoid type fibromatosis, involving the facet joint of the L3-4 spine with bone involvement.

  15. Atypical olfactory groove meningioma associated with uterine fibromatosis; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma I. Papacocea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of the olfactory groove meningioma with uterine fibrosis is very rare. Our report presents the case of a giant olfactory groove meningioma revealed after a uterine fibroma resection in a 44 years-old female, due to a generalized seizure 10 days after operation. Cranial CT-scan identified the tumor as an olfactory groove meningioma. The tumor was operated with a macroscopically complete resection; the endothermal coagulation of the dura attachment was performed (Simpson II with a good postoperative evolution. Laboratory results showed the presence of receptors for steroid hormones both in meningioma and uterine tumor, and the histopathological examination revealed an atypical meningioma with 17% proliferation markers. Our findings suggest that even though meningiomas are benign tumors and a complete resection usually indicates a good prognosis, the association with uterine fibromatosis and the presence of high percentage of steroid receptors creates a higher risk to relapse, imposing therefore a good monitoring.

  16. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  17. Immunohistochemical staining with non-phospho β-catenin as a diagnostic and prognostic tool of COX-2 inhibitor therapy for patients with extra-peritoneal desmoid-type fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tomohisa; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Hamada, Shunsuke; Koike, Hiroshi; Ikuta, Kunihiro; Ota, Takehiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-08-29

    Immunohistochemical staining with conventional anti-β-catenin antibody has been applied as a diagnostic tool for desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF). This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of immunohistochemical staining with anti-non-phospho β-catenin antibody, which might more accurately reflect the aggressiveness of DF, in comparison to the conventional anti-β-catenin antibody. Between 2003 and 2015, 40 patients with extra-peritoneal sporadic DF were prospectively treated with meloxicam or celecoxib, a COX-2 inhibitor, therapy. The efficacy of this treatment was evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). Immunohistochemical staining was performed on formalin-fixed material to evaluate the expression of β-catenin and non-phospho β-catenin, and the positivity was grouped as negative, weak, moderate, and strong. DNA was isolated from frozen tissue or formalin-fixed materials, and the CTNNB1 mutation status was determined by direct sequencing. Of the 40 patients receiving COX-2 inhibitor treatment, there was one with complete remission, 12 with partial remission, 7 with stable disease, and 20 with progressive disease. The mutation sites in CTNNB1 were detected in 22 (55%) of the 40 cases: T41A (17 cases), S45F (3 cases), and T41I and S45P (1 each). The positive nuclear expression of non-phospho β-catenin showed a significant correlation with positive CTNNB1 mutation status detected by Sanger method (p = 0.025), and poor outcome in COX-2 inhibitor therapy (p = 0.022). In contrast, nuclear expression of β-catenin did not show a significant correlation with either CTNNB1 mutation status (p = 0.43) or outcome of COX-2 inhibitor therapy (p = 0.38). Nuclear expression of non-phospho β-catenin might more appropriately reflect the biological behavior of DF, and immunohistochemical staining with non-phospho β-catenin could serve as a more useful diagnostic and prognostic tool of COX-2 inhibitor therapy

  18. Desmoid fibromatosis: MRI features of response to systemic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheth, Pooja J.; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Del Moral, Spencer; Wilky, Breelyn A.; Trent, Jonathan C. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States); Cohen, Jonathan [Oncology and Radiation Associates, Miami, FL (United States); Rosenberg, Andrew E. [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Miami, FL (United States); Temple, H.T. [Center for Orthopedic Innovations, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Imaging criteria for measuring the response of desmoid fibromatosis to systemic therapy are not well established. We evaluated a series of patients with desmoids who underwent systemic therapy to document magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with a positive clinical response. This Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study included 23 patients (mean age 40.5) with 29 extra-abdominal tumors. Therapeutic regimens included cytotoxic chemotherapy (n = 19), targeted therapy (n = 3), and nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS; n = 1). Clinical effects were categorized as progressive disease, stable, or partial response. Maximum tumor dimension (D{sub max}), approximate tumor volume (V{sub Tumor}), and quantitative tumor T2 hyperintensity and contrast enhancement (relative to muscle) for pre- and post-treatment MRIs were compared. Three lesions progressed, 5 lesions were stable, whereas 21 showed a clinical response. D{sub max} decreased more in responders (mean -11.0 %) than in stable/progressive lesions (mean -3.6 and 0 % respectively, p = 0.28, ANOVA); by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST 1.1) 27 out of 29 lesions were ''stable,'' including the 3 progressive lesions. In responders, V{sub Tumor} change averaged -29.4 %, but -19.2 % and +32.5 % in stable and progressive lesions respectively (p = 0.002, ANOVA); by 3D criteria 14 out of 29 lesions showed a partial response. T2 hyperintensity decreased by 50-54 % in partial response/stable disease, but only by 10 % in progressive lesions (p = 0.049, t test). Changes in contrast enhancement ranged from -23 % to 0 %, but were not statistically significant among response groups (p = 0.37). Change in T2 hyperintensity showed a positive correlation with volumetric change (r = 0.40). Decreases in volume and T2 hyperintensity reflect the positive response of desmoid fibromatosis to systemic therapy; RECIST 1.1 criteria are not sensitive to clinically

  19. Infantile Fibromatosis: A Rare Cause of Anterior Mediastinal Mass in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatraman Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromatosis also known as desmoid tumor is an uncommon cause of a mediastinal mass in patients of all ages. Imaging appearance of fibromatosis is generally nonspecific and demands special attention to subtle details to be correctly identified as a possibility. Management of the patient is often complicated by failure to obtain precise pre-operative diagnosis. Location of a mass in the anterior mediastinum with encasement of vital structures is not favourable for complete cure. Although histologically benign, biological behaviour of the lesion varies between benign fibrous proliferation and low-grade fibrosarcoma. We present imaging appearances, surgical management dilemma, and the histopathological details of a case of fibromatosis in the anterior mediastinum in a child.

  20. Rapid Spontaneous Resolution of Fibromatosis Colli in a 3-Week-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Adamoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromatosis colli is an uncommon benign, congenital fibrous tumor or pseudotumor of the sternocleidomastoid muscle that manifests in infancy. In some of these patients tightening of the muscle results in torticollis. We report the case of a 3-week-old child, who presented with a neck mass localized in the left side with reduced mobility of the head. The diagnosis of fibromatosis colli was raised by ultrasound sonography. The mass regressed spontaneously within 3 months without surgical or physical treatment.

  1. Gummy smile: could it be genetic? Hereditary gingival fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livada, Rania; Shiloah, Jacob

    2012-12-01

    Gingival enlargement is common among patients and can be caused by a variety of etiological factors. The most common reason is poor oral hygiene and high bacterial load that leads to gingival inflammation and enlargement. Other implicated factors include systemic drugs, such as Phenytoin (Dilantin) taken by epileptic patients, Calcium Channel Blockers such as Nifedipine (Procardia) and Verapamil (Calan) for the treatment of hypertension, arrhythmia and angina. Another class of medication associated with gingival enlargement is immunosuppressive agents given to organ-transplant patients to prevent rejection of the new element, such as Cyclosporine. Some enlargements could be associated with other conditions such as puberty, pregnancy or diabetes or be a symptom of a systemic disease (leukemia, Wegener's granulomatosis or sarcoidosis). In rare cases the cause for the enlargement is genetic and termed Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF). HGF is a genetic disorder characterized by a progressive enlargement of the gingiva. Histologically, the gingiva is characterized by an accumulation of dense fibrous connective tissue. This is believed to be due to an imbalance between synthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix composed mainly of collagen molecules or due to an alteration in fibroblast proliferation. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed and examined over the years but no precise process has been identified. The main objective of this paper is to discuss this genetic anomaly and support it with clinical cases of a mother and her two children. It will focus on the clinical and histologic characteristics of HGF as well as known biologic and genetic features and treatment modalities.

  2. Fibromatosis gingival hereditaria una inusual enfermedad genética: reporte de caso Hereditary gingival fibromatosis a rare genetic disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Harris Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Asociada a factores genéticos, que se caracterizada por aumento en el tamaño del tejido gingival, el cual genera dificultades emocionales, estéticas y funcionales. En el presente artículo se reporta un caso de una paciente femenina de 13 años con aumento generalizado en el volumen de la encía, que cubre casi todos los dientes, la historia familiar fue muy importante para el diagnóstico de fibromatosis gingival hereditaria, ya que la madre y un hermano presentaron la misma manifestación.Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a rare disorder, associated with genetic factors, characterized by various degrees of attached gingival overgrowth, which generates emotional, aesthetic and functional disorders. This article reports the case of a 13-year-old female who presented a generalized severe gingival overgrowth, involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost the whole dentition. The family history was very important for the diagnosis of hereditary gingival fibromatosis, as the mother and a brother had the same disorder.

  3. Tailored Beta-catenin mutational approach in extra-abdominal sporadic desmoid tumor patients without therapeutic intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhoven, Danique L.M. van; Grünhagenl, Dirk J.; Dalen, Thijs van; Coevorden, Frits van; Bonenkamp, Han J.; Been, Lukas B.; Bemelmans, Marc H.A.; Dijkstra, Sander D.S.; Colombo, Chiara; Gronchi, Alessandro; Verhoef, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of the classical treatment modalities surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of aggressive fibromatosis is presently disputed and there is a shift towards a more conservative approach. The aim of the present study is to objectify tumor growth in patients with extra-abdominal or abdominal wall aggressive fibromatosis, while adhering to a “watchful waiting” policy. Other objectives are to investigate quality of life and to identify factors associated with tumor growth, in particular the relation with the presence of a CTNNB1-gene mutation in the tumor. GRAFITI is a nationwide, multicenter, prospective registration trial. All patients with extra-abdominal or abdominal wall aggressive fibromatosis are eligible for inclusion in the study. Main exclusion criteria are: history of familiar adenomatous polyposis, severe pain, functional impairment, life/limb threating situations in case of progressive disease. Patients included in the study will be treated with a watchful waiting policy during a period of 5 years. Imaging studies with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging scan will be performed during follow-up to monitor possible growth: the first years every 3 months, the second year twice and the yearly. In addition patients will be asked to complete a quality of life questionnaire on specific follow-up moments. The primary endpoint is the rate of progression per year, defined by the Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST). Secondary endpoints are quality of life and the rate of influence on tumor progression for several factors, such as CTNNB1-mutations, age and localization. This study will provide insight in tumor behavior, the effect on quality of life and clinicopathological factors predictive of tumor progression. The GRAFITI trial is registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR), number: NTR4714

  4. Ultrasound and MR imaging of fibromatosis colli (sternomastoid tumor of infancy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablin, D.S.; Jain, K. [Department of Radiology, University of California, Sacramento, CA (United States); Howell, L. [Department of Pathology, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); West, D.C. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The sonographic and CT findings of fibromatosis colli (sternomastoid tumor of infancy) have been described, but the MRI appearance has been reported in only one case in which the mass resolved over time. This case describes the detailed MRI findings in a biopsy-proven case of fibromatosis colli; the signal intensity of the mass on T2-weighted images was slightly less than on gradient-recalled T1-weighted images, consistent with the presence of some fibrous tissue within the muscle mass. The involved portion of the muscle was better defined on MRI than sonography. MRI was helpful in demonstrating the signal characteristics of the mass; localizing the mass to within the sternocleidomastoid muscle; and demonstrating clear surrounding fascial planes with lack of associated lymphadenopathy, airway compression, vascular encasement, bone involvement or intracranial/intraspinal extension associated with other neck masses. (orig.) With 3 figs., 6 refs.

  5. Slow growing desmoid-type fibromatosis of the breast: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Reum; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; KIm, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Soung Hee; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Bae, Kyung Eun [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Fibromatosis or desmoid tumor of the breast is a rare benign entity that has no metastatic potential but has significant risk of local recurrence. Its association with previous surgical or accidental trauma and Gardner's syndrome has been reported. Awareness of this lesion is important as the diagnosis is often confused with breast carcinoma. We report a case of a 44-year-old woman who presented with a palpable mass in her left breast, close to the axilla since a few months ago. She had undergone excisional biopsy for her left breast mass 15 months ago, and the diagnosis was confirmed as intraductal papilloma with atypical ductal hyperplasia. Subsequent ultrasound and core needle biopsy revealed stromal fibrosis. After 9 months, the mass showed an increase in its size and the anteroposterior to width ratio on ultrasonography compared to the previous examination, and final excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of desmoid-type fibromatosis.

  6. Assessment of Physician's Systemic Treatment Preferences for Patients with Advanced Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis: Experience-Based Medicine in the Absence of High-Level Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffski, Patrick; Requilé, Annelies; van Cann, Tom

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of advanced desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) is poorly standardized and primarily based on physician's choice. We assessed systemic treatment preferences for advanced DF among European experts, with the aim to define a control treatment for prospective randomized trials. A structured questionnaire was sent to a group of physicians involved in DF treatment. 54 experts from 14 countries (Europe, Israel) responded. Disease progression and failure of local therapy were typical indications for systemic therapy. Treatment preferences for patients with sporadic DF versus DF associated with Gardner's syndrome were similar. Physicians use at least 5 different classes of drugs (27 agents). The most frequently used compounds were anti-estrogens and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), in combination or as single agents. The second and third most common systemic approach was chemotherapy based on methotrexate or an anthracycline. Trial activity was limited to 1 country/1 multicentric study. There is an unmet medical need for evidence-based treatments and well-designed studies. Clinical trials with systemic agents should ideally select a homogeneous DF population with advanced, progressive, ideally symptomatic disease and/or functional impairment after failure of wait-and-see and/or local treatments, and should be randomized, with placebo, anti-estrogens, NSAIDs, or physician's choice as comparator. © 2018 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  7. Idiopathic gingival fibromatosis associated with progressive hearing loss: A nonfamilial variant of Jones syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagavad Gita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival fibromatosis is characterized by gingival tissue overgrowth of a firm and fibrotic nature. The growth is slow and progressive and is drug-induced, idiopathic, or hereditary in etiology. It occurs isolated or frequently as a component of various syndromes. Our patient presented with the complaint of gingival enlargement associated with progressive deafness, characteristic of Jones syndrome. This case report is important and unique since it is the first known one to have a Jones syndrome-like presentation without a family history. A male patient aged 14 years reported with the chief complaint of swelling of gums and progressive hearing loss in both ears for the past one year. There was no family history or history of drug intake. Enlargement was generalized, fibrotic and bulbous, involving the free and attached gingiva, extending up to the middle 1/3 rd of the crown. Investigations such as pure tone audiogram, impedance audiometry, and Tone decay test concluded that there was severe right and moderate left sensorineural hearing loss. The case was diagnosed to be idiopathic, generalized gingival fibromatosis with progressive hearing loss. The gingival overgrowth was managed by gingivectomy and periodic review. The patient was advised to use high occlusion computer generated hearing aids for his deafness as it was not treatable by medicines or surgery. This unique case report once again emphasizes the heterogeneity of gingival fibromatosis, which can present in an atypical manner.

  8. Radiotherapy in fascial fibromatosis: a case series, literature review and considerations for treatment of early-stage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenfell, Solveig; Borg, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Palmar and plantar fascial fibromatoses are benign hyperproliferative disorders of the deep fascia of the palm and sole. This study seeks to examine the role of radiotherapy in the management of fascial fibromatosis. Six consecutive cases of early-stage fascial fibromatosis treated with radiotherapy at the Adelaide Radiotherapy Centre between July 2008 and May 2011 were analysed. The results of the case series were compared with a systematic review of the literature. All six cases regressed or showed a reduction of symptoms following radiotherapy. Treatment was well tolerated with minor toxicities. Median follow-up for the case series was 38.5 months. The systematic review identified seven studies describing the use of radiotherapy as primary treatment for fascial fibromatosis between 1946 and 2013. The literature indicates that radiotherapy can prevent disease progression and improve symptoms for early-stage disease, with low likelihood of significant toxicities. Early results from our case series are consistent with the literature, showing that radiotherapy can provide an effective management option for patients with early-stage fascial fibromatosis, and justify consideration of radiotherapy as a primary treatment for early-stage disease.

  9. Outcome of surgery for primary and recurrent desmoid-type fibromatosis. A retrospective case series of 174 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Tsagozis, BSc, MD, PhD

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: A complete primary excision is the best window of opportunity to achieve local control of desmoid-type fibromatosis. Once the disease relapses, surgical intervention is accompanied with a high risk of failure, irrespective of the quality of the margins and adjuvant treatment given.

  10. Two missense mutations in KCNQ1 cause pituitary hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommiska, Johanna; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Skibsbye, Lasse; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Liu, Xiaonan; Lodge, Emily J; Tang, Chuyi; Yuan, Lei; Fagerholm, Rainer; Kanters, Jørgen K; Lahermo, Päivi; Kaunisto, Mari; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Vuoristo, Sanna; Pulli, Kristiina; Ebeling, Tapani; Valanne, Leena; Sankila, Eeva-Marja; Kivirikko, Sirpa; Lääperi, Mitja; Casoni, Filippo; Giacobini, Paolo; Phan-Hug, Franziska; Buki, Tal; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Pitteloud, Nelly; Veijola, Riitta; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Kaunisto, Kari; Mollard, Patrice; Andoniadou, Cynthia L; Hirsch, Joel A; Varjosalo, Markku; Jespersen, Thomas; Raivio, Taneli

    2017-11-03

    Familial growth hormone deficiency provides an opportunity to identify new genetic causes of short stature. Here we combine linkage analysis with whole-genome resequencing in patients with growth hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis. We report that patients from three unrelated families harbor either of two missense mutations, c.347G>T p.(Arg116Leu) or c.1106C>T p.(Pro369Leu), in KCNQ1, a gene previously implicated in the long QT interval syndrome. Kcnq1 is expressed in hypothalamic GHRH neurons and pituitary somatotropes. Co-expressing KCNQ1 with the KCNE2 β-subunit shows that both KCNQ1 mutants increase current levels in patch clamp analyses and are associated with reduced pituitary hormone secretion from AtT-20 cells. In conclusion, our results reveal a role for the KCNQ1 potassium channel in the regulation of human growth, and show that growth hormone deficiency associated with maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis is an allelic disorder with cardiac arrhythmia syndromes caused by KCNQ1 mutations.

  11. [Desmoid fibromatosis in absorption infrared spectroscopy, emission spectral analysis and roentgen diffraction recording].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zejkan, A; Bejcek, Z; Horejs, J; Vrbová, H; Bakosová, M; Macholda, F; Rykl, D

    1989-10-01

    The authors present results of serial quality and quantity microanalyses of bone patterns and dental tissue patterns in patient with desmoid fibromatosis. Methods of absorption spectroscopy, emission spectral analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis with follow-up to x-ray examination are tested. The above mentioned methods function in a on-line system by means of specially adjusted monitor unit which is controlled centrally by the computer processor system. The whole process of measurement is fully automated and the data obtained are recorded processed in the unit data structure classified into index sequence blocks of data. Serial microanalyses offer exact data for the study of structural changes of dental and bone tissues which manifest themselves in order of crystal grid shifts. They prove the fact that microanalyses give new possibilities in detection and interpretation of chemical and structural changes of apatite cell.

  12. Two missense mutations in KCNQ1 cause pituitary hormone deficiency and maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommiska, Johanna; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Skibsbye, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    unrelated families harbor either of two missense mutations, c.347G>T p.(Arg116Leu) or c.1106C>T p.(Pro369Leu), in KCNQ1, a gene previously implicated in the long QT interval syndrome. Kcnq1 is expressed in hypothalamic GHRH neurons and pituitary somatotropes. Co-expressing KCNQ1 with the KCNE2 β......-subunit shows that both KCNQ1 mutants increase current levels in patch clamp analyses and are associated with reduced pituitary hormone secretion from AtT-20 cells. In conclusion, our results reveal a role for the KCNQ1 potassium channel in the regulation of human growth, and show that growth hormone deficiency...... associated with maternally inherited gingival fibromatosis is an allelic disorder with cardiac arrhythmia syndromes caused by KCNQ1 mutations....

  13. Aggressive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Didden, H.C.M.; Lindsay, W.R.; Lang, R.B.; Sigafoos, J.; Deb, S.; Wiersma, J.; Peters-Scheffer, N.C.; Marschik, P.B.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lancioni, G.E.; Singh, N.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is common in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs), and it is most often targeted for intervention. Psychological, contextual, and biological risk factors may contribute to the risk of aggressive behavior. Risk factors are gender (males), level of

  14. Identification of 2 novel ANTXR2 mutations in patients with hyaline fibromatosis syndrome and proposal of a modified grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio E; Bertola, Débora; Kim, Chong; Alonso, Nivaldo; Hart, Thomas; Han, Sangwoo; Stelini, Rafael F; Buzzo, Celso L; Raposo-Amaral, Cesar A; Hart, P Suzanne

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile hyaline fibromatosis (JHF) and infantile systemic hyalinosis (ISH) are rare, autosomal recessive disorders of the connective tissue caused by mutations in the gene encoding the anthrax toxin receptor 2 protein (ANTXR2) located on chromosome 4q21. Characteristically, these conditions present with overlapping clinical features, such as nodules and/or pearly papules, gingival hyperplasia, flexion contractures of the joints, and osteolytic bone defects. The present report describes a pair of sibs and three other JHF/ISH patients whose diagnoses were based on typical clinical manifestations and confirmed by histopathologic analyses and/or molecular analysis. A comparison of ISH and JHF, additional thoughts about new terminology (hyaline fibromatosis syndrome) and a modified grading system are also included. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Increased F-18 FDG uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging caused by plantar fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Jennifer; Rehani, Bhavya; Percy, Thomas; Pelstring, Richard; Bharija, Ankur; Ames, Donald; Mantil, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    We detail the history and evaluation of a 68-year-old man who had head-to-toe PET/CT scanning that showed a focal area of increased FDG uptake in the left medial foot. This was thought to be recurrence of his melanoma. The patient was asymptomatic. He had a history of malignant melanoma of the right ear, which was removed in 2001. On biopsy, the foot lesion was diagnosed as plantar fibromatosis. Plantar fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic condition, which can be indistinguishable from malignancy in head-to-toe PET/CT scans. Awareness of their potential appearance on PET and PET/CT will aid in the appropriate staging of oncology patients.

  16. Fibromatosis-like carcinoma-an unusual phenotype of a metaplastic breast tumor associated with a micropapilloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badwe Rajan A

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromatosis-like metaplastic carcinoma is a newly described metaplastic breast tumor, literature on which is still evolving. Case presentation A 77-year-old lady presented with a 2 × 2 cm mass with irregular margins in the upper and outer quadrant of left breast. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the lump was inconclusive. A lumpectomy was performed and sent for frozen section, which revealed presence of spindle cells showing mild atypia in a sclerotic stroma. The tumor cells revealed prominent infiltration into the adjacent fat. A differential diagnosis of a low-grade sarcoma vs. a metaplastic carcinoma, favoring the former, was offered. Final histology sections revealed an infiltrating tumor with predominant spindle cells in a collagenous background, simulating a fibromatosis. Adjacent to the tumor were foci of benign ductal hyperplasia and a micropapilloma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC showed diffuse co-expression of epithelial markers i.e. cytokeratins (CK, HMWCK, CK7 and EMA along with a mesenchymal marker i.e. vimentin in the tumor cells. Myoepithelial markers (SMA and p63 showed focal positivity. A diagnosis of a low-grade fibromatosis-like carcinoma breast associated with a micropapilloma was formed. Conclusion Fibromatosis-like carcinoma is a rare form of a metaplastic breast tumor. This diagnosis requires an index of suspicion while dealing with spindle cell breast tumors. The importance of making this diagnosis to facilitate an intra operative surgical planning is marred by diagnostic difficulties. In such cases, IHC is imperative in forming an objective diagnosis.

  17. Adult onset sporadic ataxias: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Graziani Povoas Barsottini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with adult onset non-familial progressive ataxia are classified in sporadic ataxia group. There are several disease categories that may manifest with sporadic ataxia: toxic causes, immune-mediated ataxias, vitamin deficiency, infectious diseases, degenerative disorders and even genetic conditions. Considering heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of sporadic ataxias, the correct diagnosis remains a clinical challenge. In this review, the different disease categories that lead to sporadic ataxia with adult onset are discussed with special emphasis on their clinical and neuroimaging features, and diagnostic criteria.

  18. Fibromatosis of the Sigmoid Colon With CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Gene Mutation, Arising at the Site of Ileocolic Anastomosis for Resection of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thway, Khin; Abou Sherif, Sara; Riddell, Angela M; Mudan, Satvinder

    2016-05-01

    We describe a case of intra-abdominal fibromatosis, which occurred in a 44-year-old woman who had a previous history of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) of the sigmoid mesocolon, which was treated with imatinib and resection. A mass was detected at the site of ileocolic anastomosis of the previous small bowel resection and sigmoid colectomy, nearly 3 years later. Clinically, this was suspected to represent recurrent GIST and was excised, but histology and mutational analysis showed desmoid-type fibromatosis with a mutation in codon 41 of exon 3 of the CTNNB1 (β-catenin) gene. The occurrence of fibromatosis at the site of excision of GIST is very rare, but its recognition is important as the treatment of the two neoplasms differs significantly. As imaging cannot reliably distinguish between these 2 entities, histological diagnosis is crucial for correct clinical management. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  20. Sporadic lymphoplasmacytic cholecystitis: a clinicopathologic entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Suntrea T G; Appelman, Henry D

    2014-08-01

    To describe a sporadic form of lymphoplasmacytic cholecystitis (LPC), a condition known to occur in patients with chronic biliary tract disease. One year's worth of cholecystectomies was reviewed for sporadic cases of LPC. Histologic, radiologic, and clinical findings were reviewed and compared with noninflamed controls. Sporadic cases were also compared histologically with obstructive LPC cases. Sporadic LPC made up 7% of cholecystectomies, had a male predominance (54.2%), and more often presented with clinical signs of acute inflammation compared with controls. Radiologic findings identified gallstones in 71.4% of patients. The second most common finding was unexplained extrahepatic biliary dilation. There were no unique histologic findings to separate sporadic cases from those associated with pancreatobiliary disease. While obstructive LPC is traditionally described as acalculous, chronic cholecystitis, we show this inflammatory pattern occurs both in the presence of gallstones and outside of previously described disease categories. In addition, LPC occurs in a unique patient demographic (older men), often presenting similarly to acute cholecystitis. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  1. Sporadic early-onset colorectal cancer is a specific sub-type of cancer: a morphological, molecular and genetics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Kirzin

    Full Text Available Sporadic early onset colorectal carcinoma (EOCRC which has by definition no identified hereditary predisposition is a growing problem that remains poorly understood. Molecular analysis could improve identification of distinct sub-types of colorectal cancers (CRC with therapeutic implications and thus can help establish that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct entity. From 954 patients resected for CRC at our institution, 98 patients were selected. Patients aged 45-60 years were excluded to help define "young" and "old" groups. Thirty-nine cases of sporadic EOCRC (patients ≤ 45 years with microsatellite stable tumors were compared to both microsatellite stable tumors from older patients (36 cases, patients>60 years and to groups of patients with microsatellite instability. Each group was tested for TP53, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations and the presence of a methylator phenotype. Gene expression profiles were also used for pathway analysis. Compared to microsatellite stable CRC from old patients, sporadic EOCRC were characterized by distal location, frequent synchronous metastases and infrequent synchronous adenomas but did not have specific morphological characteristics. A familial history of CRC was more common in sporadic EOCRC patients despite a lack of identified hereditary conditions (p = 0.013. Genetic studies also showed the absence of BRAF mutations (p = 0.022 and the methylator phenotype (p = 0.005 in sporadic EOCRC compared to older patients. Gene expression analysis implicated key pathways such as Wnt/beta catenin, MAP Kinase, growth factor signaling (EGFR, HGF, PDGF and the TNFR1 pathway in sporadic EOCRC. Wnt/beta catenin signaling activation was confirmed by aberrant nuclear beta catenin immunostaining (p = 0.01. This study strongly suggests that sporadic EOCRC is a distinct clinico-molecular entity presenting as a distal and aggressive disease associated with chromosome instability. Furthermore, several signaling pathways including the

  2. Genetic instability in inherited and sporadic leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Henning D; Bohlander, Stefan K

    2010-12-01

    Genetic instability due to increased DNA damage and altered DNA repair is of central significance in the initiation and progression of inherited and sporadic human leukemias. Although very rare, some inherited DNA repair insufficiency syndromes (e.g., Fanconi anemia, Bloom's syndrome) have added substantially to our understanding of crucial mechanisms of leukemogenesis in recent years. Conversely, sporadic leukemias account for the main proportion of leukemias and here DNA damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a central role. Although the exact mechanisms of increased ROS production remain largely unknown and no single pathway has been detected thus far, some oncogenic proteins (e.g., the activated tyrosine kinases BCR-ABL1 and FLT3-ITD) seem to play a key role in driving genetic instability by increased ROS generation which influences the disease course (e.g., blast crisis in chronic myeloid leukemia or relapse in FLT3-ITD positive acute myeloid leukemia). Of course other mechanisms, which promote genetic instability in leukemia also exist. A newly emerging mechanism is the genome-wide alteration of epigenetic marks (e.g., hypomethylation of histone H3K79), which promotes chromosomal instability. Taken together genetic instability plays a critical role both in inherited and sporadic leukemias and emerges as a common theme in both inherited and sporadic leukemias. Beyond its theoretical impact, the analysis of genetic instability may lead the way to the development of innovative therapy strategies. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianghong

    2004-01-01

    The concept of aggression is important to nursing because further knowledge of aggression can help generate a better theoretical model to drive more effective intervention and prevention approaches. This paper outlines a conceptual analysis of aggression. First, the different forms of aggression are reviewed, including the clinical classification and the stimulus-based classification. Then the manifestations and measurement of aggression are described. Finally, the causes and consequences of ...

  4. The driver landscape of sporadic chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Young, Matthew D; Martincorena, Inigo; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Farndon, Sarah J; Guzzo, Charlotte; Hardy, Claire; Latimer, Calli; Butler, Adam P; Teague, Jon W; Shlien, Adam; Futreal, P Andrew; Shah, Sohrab; Bashashati, Ali; Jamshidi, Farzad; Nielsen, Torsten O; Huntsman, David; Baumhoer, Daniel; Brandner, Sebastian; Wunder, Jay; Dickson, Brendan; Cogswell, Patricia; Sommer, Josh; Phillips, Joanna J; Amary, M Fernanda; Tirabosco, Roberto; Pillay, Nischalan; Yip, Stephen; Stratton, Michael R; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Campbell, Peter J

    2017-10-12

    Chordoma is a malignant, often incurable bone tumour showing notochordal differentiation. Here, we defined the somatic driver landscape of 104 cases of sporadic chordoma. We reveal somatic duplications of the notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T) in up to 27% of cases. These variants recapitulate the rearrangement architecture of the pathogenic germline duplications of T that underlie familial chordoma. In addition, we find potentially clinically actionable PI3K signalling mutations in 16% of cases. Intriguingly, one of the most frequently altered genes, mutated exclusively by inactivating mutation, was LYST (10%), which may represent a novel cancer gene in chordoma.Chordoma is a rare often incurable malignant bone tumour. Here, the authors investigate driver mutations of sporadic chordoma in 104 cases, revealing duplications in notochordal transcription factor brachyury (T), PI3K signalling mutations, and mutations in LYST, a potential novel cancer gene in chordoma.

  5. Comparison Between Sporadic and Misdiagnosed Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Report of Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiongfei; Yu, Yingxin; Zhao, Zhiru; Xu, Jiaping

    2015-06-01

    Definite accurate diagnosis for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) depends on neuropathologic examination of brain biopsy or autopsy. However, transmissible nature makes the invasive examination dangerous. This study was set to determine that the clinical features are for the diagnosis of CJD through a comparison study. We compared clinical features of two cases with initial diagnosis of sporadic CJD. One case was finally diagnosed as definite sporadic CJD. According to World Health Organization diagnosis criteria, the other one, which had been diagnosed as probable sporadic CJD, was confirmed as limbic encephalitis after long-term follow-up. Compared with the case of definite sporadic CJD, the misdiagnosed case did not present typical electroencephalogram (EEG) and diffusion-weighted in magnetic resonance images (DWI) of CJD. However, cerebrospinal fluid in the misdiagnosed patient showed 14-3-3 protein positivity. The patient conditions improved after treatment. Through this case comparison, we conclude that EEG and DWI are necessary for accurate diagnosis of sporadic CJD. Further, long-term follow-up is crucial to diagnosis and treatment of CJD.

  6. Anger, hostility, verbal aggression and physical aggression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They always lead to antagonistic responses and aggressive behaviours in sporting activities. The study examined whether a combination of anger, hostility, and verbal utterances would predict physical aggressive behaviour among student-athletes in South African universities. A cross-sectional study of 300 student-athletes ...

  7. Risk factors for sporadic ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Vysotsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review of the literature on the problems of sporadic ovarian cancer details the present views of its disputable risk factors, such as dietary habits, body weight, contraception, and labor, and age of commencing a sexual activity. It discusses the dietary and sexual behavior model that has changed since the Neolithic, as well as the number of menses and ovulations throughout the reproductive peri- od. The works by authors dealing with the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on the risk of ovarian cancer are analyzed.

  8. Alcohol and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Roland

    1994-01-01

    Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…

  9. Multispeciality Approach in the Management of Patient with Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis: 1-Year Followup: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ramakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis is a fibrotic enlargement of the gingiva. It may exist as an isolated abnormality or as part of multisystem syndrome. This paper reports a case of 16-year-old male with generalized severe gingival overgrowth, involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost all teeth. Methods. Periodontal management of gingival enlargement included gingivectomy in both arches except in the lower right molar region where flap surgery was done under general anesthesia. After a 2-month followup period, orthodontic treatment was started with fixed appliances. Monthly periodontal checkups and maintainance (scaling and polishing were scheduled to control the gingival inflammation. Results. Reevaluation of the patient of surgical treatment after two months did not show any recurrence of condition; however, minimal overgrowth was noted 1 month after the beginning of orthodontic treatment which was treated nonsurgically. Conclusions. Although the risk of recurrence is high with this condition, surgical treatment with correction of malocclusion and regular followup can provide excellent outcome as seen in this case.

  10. Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenner, Barbara J.; Chari, Suresh T.; Cleeter, Deborah F.; Go, Vay Liang W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Innovation leading to significant advances in research and subsequent translation to clinical practice is urgently necessary in early detection of sporadic pancreatic cancer. Addressing this need, the Early Detection of Sporadic Pancreatic Cancer Summit Conference was conducted by Kenner Family Research Fund in conjunction with the 2014 American Pancreatic Association and Japan Pancreas Society Meeting. International interdisciplinary scientific representatives engaged in strategic facilitated conversations based on distinct areas of inquiry: Case for Early Detection: Definitions, Detection, Survival, and Challenges; Biomarkers for Early Detection; Imaging; and Collaborative Studies. Ideas generated from the summit have led to the development of a Strategic Map for Innovation built upon 3 components: formation of an international collaborative effort, design of an actionable strategic plan, and implementation of operational standards, research priorities, and first-phase initiatives. Through invested and committed efforts of leading researchers and institutions, philanthropic partners, government agencies, and supportive business entities, this endeavor will change the future of the field and consequently the survival rate of those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. PMID:25938853

  11. Tumour suppressor genes in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Ganesan, Trivadi S

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most frequent cause of death from gynaecological malignancies in the western world, and sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer is its most predominant form. The aetiology of sporadic ovarian cancer remains unknown. Genetic studies have enabled a better understanding...... of the evolution of tumour progression. A major focus of research has been to identify tumour suppressor genes implicated in sporadic ovarian cancer over the past decade. Several tumour suppressor genes have been identified by strategies such as positional cloning and differential expression display. Further...... research is warranted to understand fully their contribution to the pathogenesis of sporadic ovarian cancer....

  12. Neural mechanisms of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Randy J; Trainor, Brian C

    2007-07-01

    Unchecked aggression and violence exact a significant toll on human societies. Aggression is an umbrella term for behaviours that are intended to inflict harm. These behaviours evolved as adaptations to deal with competition, but when expressed out of context, they can have destructive consequences. Uncontrolled aggression has several components, such as impaired recognition of social cues and enhanced impulsivity. Molecular approaches to the study of aggression have revealed biological signals that mediate the components of aggressive behaviour. These signals may provide targets for therapeutic intervention for individuals with extreme aggressive outbursts. This Review summarizes the complex interactions between genes, biological signals, neural circuits and the environment that influence the development and expression of aggressive behaviour.

  13. Aggression in Psychiatric Wards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidhjelm, Jacob; Sestoft, Dorte; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2016-01-01

    Health care workers are often exposed to violence and aggression in psychiatric settings. Short-term risk assessments, such as the Brøset Violence Checklist (BVC), are strong predictors of such aggression and may enable staff to take preventive measures against aggression. This study evaluated...... whether the routine use of the BVC could reduce the frequency of patient aggression. We conducted a study with a semi-random regression discontinuity design in 15 psychiatric wards. Baseline aggression risk was assessed using the Aggression Observation Short Form (AOS) over three months. The BVC...... was implemented in seven intervention wards, and the risk of aggressive incidents over three months of follow-up was compared with the risk in eight control wards. The analysis was conducted at the ward level because each ward was allocated to the intervention and control groups. At baseline, the risk...

  14. Hearing regulates Drosophila aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteven, Marijke; Vanden Broeck, Lies; Geurten, Bart; Zwarts, Liesbeth; Decraecker, Lisse; Beelen, Melissa; Göpfert, Martin C; Heinrich, Ralf; Callaerts, Patrick

    2017-02-21

    Aggression is a universal social behavior important for the acquisition of food, mates, territory, and social status. Aggression in Drosophila is context-dependent and can thus be expected to involve inputs from multiple sensory modalities. Here, we use mechanical disruption and genetic approaches in Drosophila melanogaster to identify hearing as an important sensory modality in the context of intermale aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that neuronal silencing and targeted knockdown of hearing genes in the fly's auditory organ elicit abnormal aggression. Further, we show that exposure to courtship or aggression song has opposite effects on aggression. Our data define the importance of hearing in the control of Drosophila intermale aggression and open perspectives to decipher how hearing and other sensory modalities are integrated at the neural circuit level.

  15. Relational aggression in marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jason S; Nelson, David A; Yorgason, Jeremy B; Harper, James M; Ashton, Ruth Hagmann; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. MRI of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, A.; Vliet, A. Van der.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The key MRI findings in five cases of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are illustrated with four 'definite' and one 'probable' according to World Health Organization criteria. Close attention to fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences are important for diagnosis, noting especially restricted diffusion in cortical and deep grey matter. Our study and those of others show predominant cortical, caudate and thalamic involvement. This pattern is highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis. Fluid-attenuation inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging signal abnormality becomes progressively more extensive and bilateral as disease progresses, but may become less pronounced in end-stage disease because of atrophy.

  17. Dietary factors and microsatellite instability in sporadic colon carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diergaarde, B.; Braam, H.; Muijen, van G.N.P.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Microsatellite instability (MSI) occurs in 10-20% of the sporadic colon carcinomas and appears to be primarily due to alterations in hMLH1 and hMSH2. Little is known about the role of diet in MSI-related colon carcinogenesis. We used data from a Dutch population-based case-control study on sporadic

  18. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic aurorae observed in the United States

  19. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic

  20. The perception of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, G; Dassen, T; Moorer, P

    1997-01-01

    Several academic and clinical disciplines are involved in clarifying the concept of aggression by formulating operational and descriptive definitions. In the present paper the validity of the definitions of aggression, reported by nurses in an earlier qualitative study, is examined, using a survey

  1. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  2. Primary sporadic Burkitt lymphoma of the orbit, clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Sofiene; Said, Imed Ben; Yedeas, Mohamed Dahmani; Abderrahmen, Khansa; Maatar, Nidhal; Boubaker, Adnen; Kallel, Jalel; Jemel, Hafedh

    2016-03-01

    Involvement of the orbit with Burkitt's lymphoma is a very rare presentation of extra-nodal lymphoma. We report a case of a 2-year-old female presented an unusual location of sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma arising in the orbital region. Diagnostic magnetic resonance imagining identified an oval-shaped mass on the lateral rectus of the right orbit that caused dislocation of eyeball, for which she underwent a biopsy from the periorbital swellings. The mass was histologically confirmed as Burkitt's lymphoma, and postoperative aggressive chemotherapy was initiated. We describe clinical diagnosis, histological aspects, radiological features, and current management of this rapidly growing malignant tumor. Because of the rapid progression of Burkitt lymphoma, and considering that it responds well to treatment, early recognition and appropriate management are important factors for survival and to preserve visual function.

  3. The evolving genetic risk for sporadic ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Summer B; Downie, Jonathan M; Tsetsou, Spyridoula; Feusier, Julie E; Figueroa, Karla P; Bromberg, Mark B; Jorde, Lynn B; Pulst, Stefan M

    2017-07-18

    To estimate the genetic risk conferred by known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes to the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (SALS) using variant allele frequencies combined with predicted variant pathogenicity. Whole exome sequencing and repeat expansion PCR of C9orf72 and ATXN2 were performed on 87 patients of European ancestry with SALS seen at the University of Utah. DNA variants that change the protein coding sequence of 31 ALS-associated genes were annotated to determine which were rare and deleterious as predicted by MetaSVM. The percentage of patients with SALS with a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene was calculated. An odds ratio analysis was performed comparing the burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS vs 324 normal controls. Nineteen rare nonsynonymous variants in an ALS-associated gene, 2 of which were found in 2 different individuals, were identified in 21 patients with SALS. Further, 5 deleterious C9orf72 and 2 ATXN2 repeat expansions were identified. A total of 17.2% of patients with SALS had a rare and deleterious variant or repeat expansion in an ALS-associated gene. The genetic burden of ALS-associated genes in patients with SALS as predicted by MetaSVM was significantly higher than in normal controls. Previous analyses have identified SALS-predisposing variants only in terms of their rarity in normal control populations. By incorporating variant pathogenicity as well as variant frequency, we demonstrated that the genetic risk contributed by these genes for SALS is substantially lower than previous estimates. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  4. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...

  5. Reducing Aircraft Down for Lack of Parts with Sporadic Demand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bachman, Tovey

    2004-01-01

    .... Because of their sporadic demand, it is difficult to decide when to buy these items and in what quantities. As systems become more reliable and failure rates decrease, the number of these infrequently demanded parts is likely to grow...

  6. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallenberg, K.; Summers, D. M.; Romero, C.; Taratuto, A.; Heinemann, U.; Breithaupt, M.; Varges, D.; Meissner, B.; Ladogana, A.; Schuur, M.; Haik, S.; Collins, S. J.; Jansen, Gerard H.; Stokin, G. B.; Pimentel, J.; Hewer, E.; Collie, D.; Smith, P.; Roberts, H.; Brandel, J. P.; van Duijn, C.; Pocchiari, M.; Begue, C.; Cras, P.; Will, R. G.; Sanchez-Juan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Several molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications have demonstrated a potentially important role for magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-mortem diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Magnetic resonance imaging signal alterations correlate with distinct sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease molecular subtypes and thus might contribute to the earlier identification of the whole spectrum of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases. This multi-centre international study aimed to provide a rationale for the amendment of the clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging were recruited from 12 countries. Patients referred as ‘suspected sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease’ but with an alternative diagnosis after thorough follow up, were analysed as controls. All magnetic resonance imaging scans were assessed for signal changes according to a standard protocol encompassing seven cortical regions, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were evaluated in 436 sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients and 141 controls. The pattern of high signal intensity with the best sensitivity and specificity in the differential diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was identified. The optimum diagnostic accuracy in the differential diagnosis of rapid progressive dementia was obtained when either at least two cortical regions (temporal, parietal or occipital) or both caudate nucleus and putamen displayed a high signal in fluid attenuated inversion recovery or diffusion-weight imaging magnetic resonance imaging. Based on our analyses, magnetic

  7. Clinical Significance of Microsatellite Instability in Sporadic Epithelial Ovarian Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Bo-Sung; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Wun; Nam, Eun-Ji; Cho, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Wook; Kim, Sunghoon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the expression of microsatellite instability (MSI) in sporadic ovarian tumors using 5 standard and 9 new MSI markers to determine the clinical significance of MSI in sporadic epithelial ovarian tumors. Materials and Methods MSI was examined in 21 borderline and 25 malignant ovarian tumors. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed using the 5 markers recommended by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for colon cancer and 9 additional markers. MSI was determined using ...

  8. Linkages between Aggression and Children's Legitimacy of Aggression Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdley, Cynthia A.; Asher, Steven R.

    To determine whether Slaby and Guerra's (1988) measure of aggression would reliably assess younger children's belief about aggression and whether children's belief about the legitimacy of aggression relates to their self-reports of it and to their levels of aggression as evaluated by peers, 781 fourth and fifth graders were asked to complete an…

  9. Aggression in Pretend Play and Aggressive Behavior in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehr, Karla K.; Russ, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    Research Findings: Pretend play is an essential part of child development and adjustment. However, parents, teachers, and researchers debate the function of aggression in pretend play. Different models of aggression predict that the expression of aggression in play could either increase or decrease actual aggressive behavior. The current study…

  10. Genetics of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anholt, Robert R H; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2012-01-01

    Aggression mediates competition for food, mating partners, and habitats and, among social animals, establishes stable dominance hierarchies. In humans, abnormal aggression is a hallmark of neuropsychiatric disorders and can be elicited by environmental factors acting on an underlying genetic susceptibility. Identifying the genetic architecture that predisposes to aggressive behavior in people is challenging because of difficulties in quantifying the phenotype, genetic heterogeneity, and uncontrolled environmental conditions. Studies on mice have identified single-gene mutations that result in hyperaggression, contingent on genetic background. These studies can be complemented by systems genetics approaches in Drosophila melanogaster, in which mutational analyses together with genome-wide transcript analyses, artificial selection studies, and genome-wide analysis of epistasis have revealed that a large segment of the genome contributes to the manifestation of aggressive behavior with widespread epistatic interactions. Comparative genomic analyses based on the principle of evolutionary conservation are needed to enable a complete dissection of the neurogenetic underpinnings of this universal fitness trait.

  11. Aggression And Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Verma

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of the present study is to examine the factors related aggression in Iranian and Indian school children. Method: Attachment security (dependency, availability, and total considered as the variable. The KSS questionnaire was administrated students in the 5th grade; 300 were Iranian and 300 were Indian consisted of 150 boys and 150 girls. Results: Attachment security demonstrated significant negative correlations with aggression in the boys, girls and the total Iranian sample. The dependency on mothers was the only case with insignificant correlation.In the Indian sample, attachment security was also found to be significantly negatively correlated with aggression. The only exception was the correlation between mother's availability and aggression in girls, which was not significant Conclusion: It is important that parents treat their children in a tender, manner so that a secure attachment develop between them.

  12. Epidemiological trends and clinicopathological features of cutaneous melanoma in sporadic and xeroderma pigmentosum Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naouali, Chokri; Jones, Meriem; Nabouli, Imen; Jerbi, Manel; Tounsi, Haifa; Ben Rekaya, Mariem; Ben Ahmed, Melika; Bouhaouala, Balkiss; Messaoud, Olfa; Khaled, Aida; Zghal, Mohamed; Abdelhak, Sonia; Boubaker, Samir; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological features and trends of cutaneous melanoma (CM) in North-African populations remain unclear. Those populations are of particular interest as they belong to a mosaic of various other origins (sub-Saharan, European Ancestry, and North-African Berbers). The aim of this study is to draw epidemiological profile and clinicopathological features of CM in the Tunisian population. Incidence analyses were based on data from regional cancer registries. Clinical data were collected from dermatological departments and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) referral centers and provided CM clinicopathological characteristics and progression. Statistical analyses were achieved using R packages and SPSS 20.0. The incidence of CM in Tunisia is relatively low (0.5-0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants per year). Gender differences were observed regarding anatomical distribution (P = 0.004). Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) was the most frequent histological subtype (32.3%); however, nodular melanoma (NM) was the most aggressive and responsible for 54.8% of deaths. CM in XP patients develops at a median age that is 42 years earlier than sporadic cases, with preferential localization on the head and neck (P melanoma features in Tunisia are closer to those of non-Caucasians, even though gender differences that are similar to those observed in Caucasians were uncovered. This study also emphasizes the aggressiveness of NM and its effect on melanoma patient deaths. Xeroderma pigmentosum stands as the major predisposing host factor. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Adolescents’ Aggression to Parents: Longitudinal Links with Parents’ Physical Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether parents’ previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents’ subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents’ concurrent physical aggression (CPA); to investigate whether adolescents’ emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Methods Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective, longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1–3 on four types of parents’ PPA (mother-to-adolescent, father-to-adolescent, mother-to-father, father-to-mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents’ emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression, and on parents’ CPA Results Parents’ PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0–1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1–1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15–1.6, p controlling for adolescents’ sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents’ CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents’ parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82–17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents’ parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0–3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated effects. Conclusions Adolescents’ parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents’ physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early

  14. Adolescents' aggression to parents: longitudinal links with parents' physical aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Gayla; Baucom, Brian R

    2014-11-01

    To investigate whether parents' previous physical aggression (PPA) exhibited during early adolescence is associated with adolescents' subsequent parent-directed aggression even beyond parents' concurrent physical aggression (CPA) and to investigate whether adolescents' emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning child-to-parent aggression moderate associations. Adolescents (N = 93) and their parents participated in a prospective longitudinal study. Adolescents and parents reported at waves 1-3 on four types of parents' PPA (mother to adolescent, father to adolescent, mother to father, and father to mother). Wave 3 assessments also included adolescents' emotion dysregulation, attitudes condoning aggression, and externalizing behaviors. At waves 4 and 5, adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression, property damage, and verbal aggression and on parents' CPA. Parents' PPA emerged as a significant indicator of adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (odds ratio [OR]: 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0-1.55; p = .047), property damage (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5, p = .002), and verbal aggression (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.15-1.6, p controlling for adolescents' sex, externalizing behaviors, and family income. When controlling for parents' CPA, previous mother-to-adolescent aggression still predicted adolescents' parent-directed physical aggression (OR: 5.56, 95% CI: 1.82-17.0, p = .003), and father-to-mother aggression predicted adolescents' parent-directed verbal aggression (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3, p = .036). Emotion dysregulation and attitudes condoning aggression did not produce direct or moderated the effects. Adolescents' parent-directed aggression deserves greater attention in discourse about lasting, adverse effects of even minor forms of parents' physical aggression. Future research should investigate parent-directed aggression as an early signal of aggression into adulthood. Copyright © 2014 Society for

  15. Microbiology of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Müller, Hans-Peter

    2014-06-01

    For decades, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been considered the most likely etiologic agent in aggressive periodontitis. Implementation of DNA-based microbiologic methodologies has considerably improved our understanding of the composition of subgingival biofilms, and advanced open-ended molecular techniques even allow for genome mapping of the whole bacterial spectrum in a sample and characterization of both the cultivable and not-yet-cultivable microbiota associated with periodontal health and disease. Currently, A. actinomycetemcomitans is regarded as a minor component of the resident oral microbiota and as an opportunistic pathogen in some individuals. Its specific JP2 clone, however, shows properties of a true exogenous pathogen and has an important role in the development of aggressive periodontitis in certain populations. Still, limited data exist on the impact of other microbes specifically in aggressive periodontitis. Despite a wide heterogeneity of bacteria, especially in subgingival samples collected from patients, bacteria of the red complex in particular, and those of the orange complex, are considered as potential pathogens in generalized aggressive periodontitis. These types of bacterial findings closely resemble those found for chronic periodontitis, representing a mixed polymicrobial infection without a clear association with any specific microorganism. In aggressive periodontitis, the role of novel and not-yet-cultivable bacteria has not yet been elucidated. There are geographic and ethnic differences in the carriage of periodontitis-associated microorganisms, and they need to be taken into account when comparing study reports on periodontal microbiology in different study populations. In the present review, we provide an overview on the colonization of potential periodontal pathogens in childhood and adolescence, and on specific microorganisms that have been suspected for their role in the initiation and progression of aggressive

  16. Treatment of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teughels, Wim; Dhondt, Rutger; Dekeyser, Christel; Quirynen, Marc

    2014-06-01

    Despite etiological differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis, the treatment concept for aggressive periodontitis is largely similar to that for chronic periodontitis. The goal of treatment is to create a clinical condition that is conducive to retaining as many teeth as possible for as long as possible. When a diagnosis has been made and risk factors have been identified, active treatment is commenced. The initial phase of active treatment consists of mechanical debridement, either alone or supplemented with antimicrobial drugs. Scaling and root planing has been shown to be effective in improving clinical indices, but does not always guarantee long-term stability. Antimicrobials can play a significant role in controlling aggressive periodontitis. Few studies have been published on this subject for localized aggressive periodontitis, but generalized aggressive periodontitis has been subject to more scrutiny. Studies have demonstrated that systemic antibiotics as an adjuvant to scaling and root planing are more effective in controlling disease compared with scaling and root planing alone or with supplemental application of local antibiotics or antiseptics. It has also become apparent that antibiotics ought to be administered with, or just after, mechanical debridement. Several studies have shown that regimens of amoxicillin combined with metronidazole or regimens of clindamycin are the most effective and are preferable to regimens containing doxycycline. Azithromycin has been shown to be a valid alternative to the regimen of amoxicillin plus metronidazole. A limited number of studies have been published on surgical treatment in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but the studies available show that the effect can be comparable with the effect on patients with chronic periodontitis, provided that proper oral hygiene is maintained, a strict maintenance program is followed and modifiable risk factors are controlled. Both access surgery and

  17. Aggression in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Edward A; Huber, Robert

    2003-12-01

    Invertebrates are outstanding model systems for the study of aggression. Recent advances and promising new research approaches are bringing investigators closer to the goal of integrating behavioral findings with those from other disciplines of the neurosciences. The presence of highly structured, easily evoked behavioral systems offer unique opportunities to quantify the aggressive state of individuals, to explore the mechanisms underlying the formation and maintenance of dominance relationships, to investigate the dynamic properties of hierarchy formation, and to explore the significance of neural, neurochemical and genetic mechanisms in these behavioral phenomena.

  18. Similar phenotype characteristics comparing familial and sporadic premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Femi; Knauff, Erik A H; Niermeijer, Martinus F; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Laven, Joop S E; Lambalk, Cornelius B; Fauser, Bart C J M; Goverde, Angelique J

    2010-07-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is characterized by secondary amenorrhea before the age of 40 years, along with repeated increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen concentrations. POF is considered a complex genetic disease with a familial presentation in 12% to 50% of cases. POF may originate from different genes and various gene-environment interactions. The aim of this study was to identify possible differences in phenotype comparing women with familial and women with sporadic POF. A multicenter study was initiated in the Netherlands using standardized phenotyping. For each woman, medical history, menstrual cycle, and fertility and smoking status were assessed and a standardized examination was performed. Based on a detailed three-generation family history, women were identified as having either familial (defined as having at least one relative with POF) or sporadic POF. A total of 58 familial cases and 142 sporadic cases of POF were identified. Maternal age at menopause was significantly lower in the women with familial compared with the women with sporadic POF (41.0 +/- 7.5 and 49.7 +/- 2.6 y, respectively; P hormone-binding globulin concentration was significantly higher in the women with familial than in the women with sporadic POF (73.6 +/- 37.1 and 55.2 +/- 26.9 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.002). All other characteristics, such as parity, bone mineral density, and serum follicle-stimulating hormone and lipid levels were similar, as was the incidence of autoimmunity and cytogenetic abnormalities. Familial and sporadic POF do not differ in phenotype except for maternal menopause age and sex hormone-binding globulin concentration. Future studies are needed to unravel the genotype-phenotype interactions in POF.

  19. [Intra-abdominal fibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătucu, E; Marin, D; Ungureanu, D; Gheorghiu, D; Dragoncea, C

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe three cases of intraabdominal fibromathosis: two cases with intraperithoneal location and another one with retroperithoneal location. All of them are benign noncapsulated tumours of the fibrous tissue with tendancy to local recurrence. Abdominal fibromathosis may determine any form of acute or chronic digestive manifestations. Only to the accuracy of the histo-pathological examination is due the diagnosis between fibromathosis and fibrosarcoma, reactive fibrosis, mixoma and nodular fasceitis. The surgical excision must not be economical and the association with radiant therapy must also be considered.

  20. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Roberts

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation.

  1. Witz, Lust und Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2014-01-01

    Artiklen beskæftiger sig med forholdet mellem vits, lyst og aggression med udgangspunkt i lysten ved aggressiv litterær humor, eksemplificeret ved tekststeder fra Shakespeares Hamlet. Der argumenteres for, at aggressionen eller angrebet er et fælles centralt aspekt ved Sigmund Freuds og Friedrich...

  2. Relational Aggression among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Nelson, David A.; Hottle, America B.; Warburton, Brittney; Young, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    "Relational aggression" refers to harm within relationships caused by covert bullying or manipulative behavior. Examples include isolating a youth from his or her group of friends (social exclusion), threatening to stop talking to a friend (the silent treatment), or spreading gossip and rumors by email. This type of bullying tends to be…

  3. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical and psycholog......Very few international and no Danish studies investigating the consequences of exposure to both physical and psychological aggression at work have been published. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to investigate the prevalence and consequences of different forms of physical...... and psychological aggression. Four papers are included in the thesis and they address the prevalence and long-term consequences of physical and psychological aggression in the form of nasty teasing and violence and/or threats of violence and short-term consequences of bullying at work including physiological stress...... response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions.      The study...

  4. Aggression Against Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Tyushka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Review Essay: Of Thomas D. Grant. Aggression Against Ukraine: Territory, Responsibility, and International Law. Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. xxx, 283 pp. Treaties and Other International Texts. Cases. Municipal Instruments and Other State Documents. Abbreviations. Notes. Bibliography. Index. $105.50, cloth.

  5. Diet, Nutrition, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Pease, Susan E.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the theoretical and methodological issues related to diet and aggressive behavior. Clinical evidence indicates that, for some persons, diet may be associated with, or exacerbate, such conditions as learning disability, poor impulse control, intellectual deficits, a tendency toward violence, hyperactivity, and alcoholism and/or drug abuse,…

  6. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  7. Relational Aggression and Physical Aggression among Adolescent Cook Islands Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Angela; Smith, Lisa F.

    2016-01-01

    Both physical and relational aggression are characterised by the intent to harm another. Physical aggression includes direct behaviours such as hitting or kicking; relational aggression involves behaviours designed to damage relationships, such as excluding others, spreading rumours, and delivering threats and verbal abuse. This study extended…

  8. Aggressive behaviour in sport: An application of the Aggression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the study supported the Buss and Perry four-factor structure, indicating that the AQ-SA can be useful for the measurement of aggression in a South African setting. The results showed that most athletes expressed moderate to low physical aggression, verbal aggression and hostility; and exhibited low levels of ...

  9. Sporadic versus Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma: A Comparative Clinicopathologic and Molecular Analysis of 48 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are aggressive tumors of vascular endothelial origin, occurring sporadically or in association with prior radiotherapy. We compared clinicopathologic and biologic features of sporadic angiosarcomas (SA and radiation-associated angiosarcomas (RAA. Methods. From a University of Michigan institutional database, 37 SA and 11 RAA were identified. Tissue microarrays were stained for p53, Ki-67, and hTERT. DNA was evaluated for TP53 and ATM mutations. Results. Mean latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of RAA was 11.9 years: 6.7 years for breast RAA versus 20.9 years for nonbreast RAA (P=0.148. Survival after diagnosis did not significantly differ between SA and RAA (P=0.590. Patients with nonbreast RAA had shorter overall survival than patients with breast RAA (P=0.03. The majority of SA (86.5% and RAA (77.8% were classified as high-grade sarcomas (P=0.609. RAA were more likely to have well-defined vasoformative areas (55.6% versus 27%, P=0.127. Most breast SA were parenchymal in origin (80%, while most breast RAA were cutaneous in origin (80%. TMA analysis showed p53 overexpression in 25.7% of SA and 0% RAA, high Ki-67 in 35.3% of SA and 44.4% RAA, and hTERT expression in 100% of SA and RAA. TP53 mutations were detected in 13.5% of SA and 11.1% RAA. ATM mutations were not detected in either SA or RAA. Conclusions. SA and RAA are similar in histology, immunohistochemical markers, and DNA mutation profiles and share similar prognosis. Breast RAA have a shorter latency period compared to nonbreast RAA and a significantly longer survival.

  10. Sporadic potassium layers and their connection to sporadic E layers in the mesopause region at Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Jiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A double-laser beam lidar to measure potassium (K layer at Beijing (40.5° N, 116.2° E was successfully developed in 2010. The parameters of sporadic Ks layers and their distributions were given. The seasonal distribution of Ks occurrence frequency was obtained, with two maxima in July and January. The seasonal distributions of sporadic Es layer occurrence frequency over Beijing differ from those of Ks. However, the good correlation between Es and Ks in the case-by-case studies supports the mechanism of neutralization of metal ions in a descending Es layer.

  11. Brain sonography in African infants with complicated sporadic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the structural findings in brain sonography of African infants with complicated sporadic bacterial meningitis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective assessment of medical records of patients who underwent brain sonography on account of complicated bacterial meningitis. The brain sonography ...

  12. Updated clinical diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Zerr; K. Kallenberg; D.M. Summers; C. Romero; A. Taratuto; U. Heinemann; M. Breithaupt; D. Varges; B. Meissner; A. Ladogana (Anna); M. Schuur (Maaike); S. Haik; S.J. Collins (Steven); G.H. Jansen (Gerard); G.B. Stokin; J. Pimentel; E. Hewer; D. Collie; P. Smith; H. Roberts; J.P. Brandel; P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); M. Pocchiari (Maurizio); C. Begue; P. Cras (Patrick); R.G. Will; P. Sanchez-Juan (Pascual)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSeveral molecular subtypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified and electroencephalogram and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers have been reported to support clinical diagnosis but with variable utility according to subtype. In recent years, a series of publications

  13. Comparing Sporadic and Outbreak-associated Foodborne Illness

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-04

    Dr. Eric Ebel, a veterinarian and risk analyst with USDA’s Food Safety and Inspection Service, discusses his article on sporadic and outbreak-associated cases of foodborne illness.  Created: 11/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/4/2016.

  14. Prevalence of Abnormal Cervical Smears from Sporadic Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to find the prevalence of abnormal smears in an unscreened population of sexually active women attending a gynaecological clinic. “Pap” smears were taken sporadically for cytological examination from sexually active women attending gynaecological clinics at the Federal Medical Centre Gombe.

  15. Legionnaires’ Disease: Clinicoradiological Comparison of Sporadic Versus Outbreak Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Rizwan Talib Hashmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2015, New York City experienced the worst outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the history of the city. We compare patients seen during the 2015 outbreak with sporadic cases of Legionella during the past 5 years. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 90 patients with Legionnaires’ disease, including sporadic cases of Legionella infection admitted from 2010 to 2015 (n = 55 and cases admitted during the 2015 outbreak (n = 35. Results: We saw no significant differences between the 2 groups regarding demographics, smoking habits, alcohol intake, underlying medical disease, or residence type. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that patients with sporadic case of Legionella had a longer stay in the hospital and intensive care unit as well as an increased stay in mechanical ventilation. Short-term mortality, discharge disposition, and most clinical parameters did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. Conclusions: We found no specific clinicoradiological characteristics that could differentiate sporadic from epidemic cases of Legionella . Early recognition and high suspicion for Legionnaires’ disease are critical to provide appropriate treatment. Cluster of cases should increase suspicion for an outbreak.

  16. Cyclin D1 genotype and expression in sporadic hemangioblastomas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijtenbeek, J.M.M.; Sprenger, S.H.E.; Franke, B.; Wesseling, P.; Jeuken, J.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas are highly-vascularized tumors occurring in sporadic form or as a manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). The VHL protein (pVHL) regulates various target genes, one of which is the CCND1 gene, encoding cyclin D1, a protein that plays a

  17. Dyschromatosis symmetrica hereditaria: Report of a sporadic case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... hands and feet, with no family history of similar lesions. The diagnosis was confirmed by the typical histologic finding of basal hyperpigmentation with normal number of melanocytes and absence of melanin incontinence from a hyperpigmented lesion. Keywords: DyschromatosisSymmetricaHereditaria, Nigerian, Sporadic ...

  18. Interpretation of electrodiagnostic findings in sporadic progressive muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.; de Visser, M.; van den Berg-Vos, R. M.; van den Berg, L. H.; Wokke, J. H. J.; de Jong, J. M. B. V.; Franssen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective We present the electrophysiologic data at baseline of 37 patients who were included in our prospective study on sporadic adult-onset progressive muscular atrophy (PMA). The aim was to correlate electrophysiological. signs of lower motor neuron (LMN) loss with clinical signs of LMN loss,

  19. Clinicopathologic factors identify sporadic mismatch repair-defective colon cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvarsson, Britta; Anderson, Harald; Domanska, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    Identification of sporadic mismatch repair (MMR)-defective colon cancers is increasingly demanded for decisions on adjuvant therapies. We evaluated clinicopathologic factors for the identification of these prognostically favorable tumors. Histopathologic features in 238 consecutive colon cancers...... and excluded 61.5% of the tumors from MMR testing. This clinicopathologic index thus successfully selects MMR-defective colon cancers. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Feb...

  20. [The practice guideline 'Dermatomyositis, polymyositis and sporadic inclusion body myositis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogendijk, J.E.; Bijlsma, J.W.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Lindeman, E.J.M.; Royen-Kerkhof, A. van; Rie, M.A. de; Visser, M. de; Jennekens, F.G.I.

    2005-01-01

    This guideline presents recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of dermatomyositis, polymyositis and sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) according to the best available evidence. Characteristic skin abnormalities can be sufficient for the diagnosis of dermatomyositis. In case of doubt, a

  1. "Ladettes," Social Representations, and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncer, Steven; Campbell, Anne; Jervis, Victoria; Lewis, Rachel

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relationship among "laddishness" (traditionally working-class, youthful, male social behavior by young women), social representations, and self-reported aggression among English college students. Measures of aggression correlated with holding more instrumental representations of aggression. Females indicated no relationship…

  2. Aggression at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, Annie

    response in victims. It was also an aim of the thesis to study whether aspects of the work environment, social climate and personal dispositions would mediate potential relationships between exposure to bullying, nasty teasing or violence and different health effects and stress reactions.      The study...... at follow-up. The more exposure to violence the more fatigue was reported five years later. In a cross-sectional study, bullying was associated with psychological and somatic health effects and a lower physical stress response independently of age, gender, social climate and negative affectivity...... and psychological aggression. Four papers are included in the thesis and they address the prevalence and long-term consequences of physical and psychological aggression in the form of nasty teasing and violence and/or threats of violence and short-term consequences of bullying at work including physiological stress...

  3. Aggression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  4. Aggressive HIV-1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Ben; de Ronde, Anthony; van der Hoek, Lia

    2005-02-28

    New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?

  5. White matter involvement in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzasi, Eduardo; Mandelli, Maria Luisa; DeArmond, Stephen J; Hess, Christopher P; Vitali, Paolo; Papinutto, Nico; Oehler, Abby; Miller, Bruce L; Lobach, Irina V; Bastianello, Stefano; Geschwind, Michael D; Henry, Roland G

    2014-12-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is considered primarily a disease of grey matter, although the extent of white matter involvement has not been well described. We used diffusion tensor imaging to study the white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to healthy control subjects and to correlated magnetic resonance imaging findings with histopathology. Twenty-six patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and nine age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects underwent volumetric T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging. Six patients had post-mortem brain analysis available for assessment of neuropathological findings associated with prion disease. Parcellation of the subcortical white matter was performed on 3D T1-weighted volumes using Freesurfer. Diffusion tensor imaging maps were calculated and transformed to the 3D-T1 space; the average value for each diffusion metric was calculated in the total white matter and in regional volumes of interest. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis was also performed to investigate the deeper white matter tracts. There was a significant reduction of mean (P=0.002), axial (P=0.0003) and radial (P=0.0134) diffusivities in the total white matter in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity was significantly lower in most white matter volumes of interest (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Mean diffusivity reduction reflected concomitant decrease of both axial and radial diffusivity, without appreciable changes in white matter anisotropy. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis showed significant reductions of mean diffusivity within the white matter of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mainly in the left hemisphere, with a strong trend (P=0.06) towards reduced mean diffusivity in most of the white matter bilaterally. In contrast, by visual assessment there was no white matter abnormality either on T2-weighted or diffusion-weighted images. Widespread reduction in white matter mean

  6. MAJOR MOLECULAR GENETIC DRIVERS IN SPORADIC PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is primarily due to a solitary parathyroid adenoma but multi-gland disease, parathyroid carcinoma, and ectopic parathyroid hormone production can occur. Although primary hyperparathyroidism mostly presents sporadically, strong familial predispositions also exist. Much is known about heritable genetic mutations responsible for these syndromes, including multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2A, hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, and familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia. Acquired mutations in common sporadic hyperparathyroidism have also been discovered. Here we focus on the most common and well-established genetic drivers: 1) involvement of the oncogene cyclin D1 in human neoplasia was first established in parathyroid adenomas, followed by recognition of its importance in other tumor types including breast cancer and B-lymphoid malignancy; and 2) somatic mutation of the MEN1 gene, first identified as the source of pathogenic germline mutations in patients with familial endocrinopathies, is found in a substantial fraction of non-familial parathyroid adenomas.

  7. Elevated expression of Ki-67 identifies aggressive prostate cancers but does not distinguish BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, A V; Jameson, C; Barbachano, Y

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancers in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are more aggressive than morphologically similar cancers in men without these mutations. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that enhanced expression of Ki-67, as a surrogate of cell proliferation, is a characteristic...... feature of prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. The study cohort comprised 20 cases of prostate cancer in mutation carriers and 126 control sporadic prostate cancers. Of the combined sample cohort, 65.7% stained only within malignant tissues while 0.7% stained in both malignant...... a background of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations or as sporadic disease. The data suggest that, since elevated Ki-67 does not distinguish prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers from sporadic prostatic malignancies, the effects of these genetic mutations are probably independent. While all...

  8. Systematic comparison of sporadic and syndromic pancreatic islet cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlic, Zoran; Ploeckinger, Ursula; Cascon, Alberto; Hoffmann, Michael M; von Duecker, Laura; Winter, Aurelia; Kammel, Gerit; Bacher, Janina; Sullivan, Maren; Isermann, Berend; Fischer, Lars; Raffel, Andreas; Knoefel, Wolfram Trudo; Schott, Matthias; Baumann, Tobias; Schaefer, Oliver; Keck, Tobias; Baum, Richard P; Milos, Ioana; Muresan, Mihaela; Peczkowska, Mariola; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Cupisti, Kenko; Tönjes, Anke; Fasshauer, Mathias; Langrehr, Jan; von Wussow, Peter; Agaimy, Abbas; Schlimok, Günter; Lamberts, Regina; Wiech, Thorsten; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Weber, Alexander; Nunez, Mercedes; Robledo, Mercedes; Eng, Charis; Neumann, Hartmut P H

    2010-12-01

    Pancreatic islet cell tumors (ICTs) occur as sporadic neoplasias or as a manifestation of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Molecular classification of ICTs is mandatory for timely diagnosis and surveillance. Systematic comparison of VHL-ICTs and sporadic ICTs has been lacking. Our registry-based approaches used the German NET-Registry with 259 patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), who were primarily diagnosed with NETs, and the German VHL-Registry with 485 molecular genetically confirmed patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography of the abdomen. All patients provided blood DNA for testing of the MEN1 and VHL genes for intragenic mutations and large deletions. In the NET-Registry, 9/101 patients (8.9%) with ICTs had germline mutations, 8 in MEN1 and 1 in VHL. In the VHL-Registry, prevalence of NETs was 52/487 (10.6%), and all were ICTs. Interestingly, of those with VHL p.R167W, 47% developed ICTs, compared to 2% of those with p.Y98H. In total, there were 92 truly sporadic, i.e. mutation-negative ICT patients. Comparing these with the 53 VHL-ICT patients, the statistically significant differences were predominance of female gender (P=0.01), multifocal ICTs (P=0.0029), and lower malignancy rate (PICTs compared to sporadic cases. VHL was prevalent in ICTs, which are rarely the first presentation. Patients with NETs should not be subjected to genetic testing of the VHL gene, unless they have multifocal ICTs, other VHL-associated tumors, and/or a family history for VHL.

  9. The Role of Iron In Sporadic E Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondrak, T.; Woodcock, K. R. I.; Plane, J. M. C.

    Sporadic E layers in the lower thermosphere are mostly composed of metallic ions, of which Fe+ is the most abundant. Because dielectric recombination (Fe+ + elec- tron) is very slow, the lifetime of Fe+ above about 100 km is at least several days. However, below this height molecular ions such as FeO+, FeO2+ and FeN2+ form in- creasingly rapidly through reactions with O3, O2 and N2, respectively. These undergo rapid dissociative recombination with electrons, causing Fe+ to be neutralised increas- ingly rapidly as a sporadic E layer descends. Indeed, this is the most likely mechanism for the formation of the sporadic neutral Fe layers that are observed by lidar. However, atomic O plays a very important role in reducing these molecular ions back to Fe+, competing with dissociative recombination and thus slowing the rate at which Fe+ is neutralised and a sporadic E layer dissipates. This paper will discuss a laboratory and modelling study of the reactions of FeO+, FeO2+ and FeN2+ with atomic O. These reactions were studied (for the first time) in a fast flow tube, using the pulsed laser ablation of a rotating iron rod as the source of Fe+ ions in the upstream section of the tube. Reactants were then added to produce molecular ions, and atomic O further downstream through a movable injector. Fe+ and the molecular ions were detected at the downstream end of the tube using a two-stage quadrupole mass spectrometer. The spectroscopy of the FeO+ ion, observed by laser induced fluorescence, will also be discussed as a candidate for future ground-based lidar studies of the ion chemistry of the lower thermosphere.

  10. Measurements of the ionization heights of sporadic radio-meteors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggaley, W.J.; Webb, T.H.

    1980-01-01

    The echo heights and echo point ionization densities of 4587 sporadic radio-meteors have been determined using a calibrated interferometric height-finding system. Over the height interval 92 to 96 km no association was found between height and ionization but, for radio-meteors ablating above and below this region, significant and opposite trends exist in the data. It is suggested that this could be evidence for the influx of two distinct meteoroid populations. (author)

  11. Maxillary sporadic Burkitt′s lymphoma associated with neuro-orbital involvement in an Indian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Manne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Burkitt′s lymphoma (BL is the fastest growing malignancy of the lymphoreticular system to affect humans and has a potential ability to double in size every day. A case of maxillary sporadic BL (sBL associated with neuro-orbital involvement in an Indian male is presented. sBL initially presented as maxillary swelling with no obvious dental and periodontal changes. Histological specimen from incisional biopsy revealed a round cell malignant tumor and immunohistochemistry reactions favored nonHodgkin′s lymphoma consistent with BL. Four weeks later, patient presented with orbital involvement as diplopia, sixth cranial nerve palsy, and medial rectus palsy. Chemotherapy regimen according to LMB 89 protocol was started. During chemotherapy regimen patient showed bradycardia and Babinski response, suggestive of central nervous system involvement. sBL associated with orbital involvement is extremely rare and only seven cases have been reported. Our case showed unusual presentation; despite the aggressive tumor did not show any common clinical, radiological, and hematological findings. We also discussed the role of oral medicine specialist, importance of early diagnosis, and prompt referral in management of maxillary sBL.

  12. THE GIFT OF AGGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro Lacerda Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available On the context of Tupinambá war, bodies, trophies, women, children, names, words, identities, aggressions, offenses, and a lot more richness material that from the changing elements moving on permanently among enemy groups. But on the contrary, the potlatch held on the American northwest, where the alliance establishes a mutual relation of favors between not enemy groups. On the context of Tupi war, the changing system is based exactly in a hostile relation among opposite groups. The aim of the present article is to establish a parallel between anthropophagic complexes of Tupinambá Indians and established potlatch on the American’s northwest societies analyzed by Marcel Mauss.

  13. Aggressive HIV-1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Hoek Lia

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?

  14. Aggression, Recognition and Qualification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The article analyses the emotional aspects of a professional training process in the light of the participants’ experienced societal status. A detailed text analysis of interviews with a group of social pedagogue staff in Danish Youth clubs focuses on a particular vulnerability and their aggressive...... perception of other students with social problems, and interprets it partly as a reaction on the paradoxical situation adults in continuing education, and partly in the perspective of their experience of not being recognized as a profession. The last section of the article further explains the deep...

  15. Screening of hypoxia-inducible genes in sporadic ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Simon

    2008-10-01

    Genetic variations in two hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes, VEGF and ANG, have been linked with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (SALS). Common variations in these genes may reduce the levels or functioning of their products. VEGF and ANG belong to a larger group of angiogenic genes that are up-regulated under hypoxic conditions. We hypothesized that common genetic variation across other members of this group may also predispose to sporadic ALS. To screen other hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes for association with SALS, we selected 112 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tgSNPs) that captured the common genetic variation across 16 VEGF-like and eight ANG-like hypoxia-inducible genes. Screening for association was performed in 270 Irish individuals with typical SALS and 272 ethnically matched unrelated controls. SNPs showing association in the Irish phase were genotyped in a replication sample of 281 Swedish sporadic ALS patients and 286 Swedish controls. Seven markers showed association in the Irish. The one modest replication signal observed in the Swedish replication sample, at rs3801158 in the gene inhibin beta A, was for the opposite allele vs. the Irish cohort. We failed to detect association of common variation across 24 candidate hypoxia-inducible angiogenic genes with SALS.

  16. Next generation sequencing in sporadic retinoblastoma patients reveals somatic mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitrano, Sara; Marozza, Annabella; Somma, Serena; Imperatore, Valentina; Hadjistilianou, Theodora; De Francesco, Sonia; Toti, Paolo; Galimberti, Daniela; Meloni, Ilaria; Cetta, Francesco; Piu, Pietro; Di Marco, Chiara; Dosa, Laura; Lo Rizzo, Caterina; Carignani, Giulia; Mencarelli, Maria Antonietta; Mari, Francesca; Renieri, Alessandra; Ariani, Francesca

    2015-11-01

    In about 50% of sporadic cases of retinoblastoma, no constitutive RB1 mutations are detected by conventional methods. However, recent research suggests that, at least in some of these cases, there is somatic mosaicism with respect to RB1 normal and mutant alleles. The increased availability of next generation sequencing improves our ability to detect the exact percentage of patients with mosaicism. Using this technology, we re-tested a series of 40 patients with sporadic retinoblastoma: 10 of them had been previously classified as constitutional heterozygotes, whereas in 30 no RB1 mutations had been found in lymphocytes. In 3 of these 30 patients, we have now identified low-level mosaic variants, varying in frequency between 8 and 24%. In 7 out of the 10 cases previously classified as heterozygous from testing blood cells, we were able to test additional tissues (ocular tissues, urine and/or oral mucosa): in three of them, next generation sequencing has revealed mosaicism. Present results thus confirm that a significant fraction (6/40; 15%) of sporadic retinoblastoma cases are due to postzygotic events and that deep sequencing is an efficient method to unambiguously distinguish mosaics. Re-testing of retinoblastoma patients through next generation sequencing can thus provide new information that may have important implications with respect to genetic counseling and family care.

  17. Stable and sporadic symbiotic communities of coral and algal holobionts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Eric R; Barott, Katie L; Nulton, Jim; Vermeij, Mark JA; Rohwer, Forest L

    2016-01-01

    Coral and algal holobionts are assemblages of macroorganisms and microorganisms, including viruses, Bacteria, Archaea, protists and fungi. Despite a decade of research, it remains unclear whether these associations are spatial–temporally stable or species-specific. We hypothesized that conflicting interpretations of the data arise from high noise associated with sporadic microbial symbionts overwhelming signatures of stable holobiont members. To test this hypothesis, the bacterial communities associated with three coral species (Acropora rosaria, Acropora hyacinthus and Porites lutea) and two algal guilds (crustose coralline algae and turf algae) from 131 samples were analyzed using a novel statistical approach termed the Abundance-Ubiquity (AU) test. The AU test determines whether a given bacterial species would be present given additional sampling effort (that is, stable) versus those species that are sporadically associated with a sample. Using the AU test, we show that coral and algal holobionts have a high-diversity group of stable symbionts. Stable symbionts are not exclusive to one species of coral or algae. No single bacterial species was ubiquitously associated with one host, showing that there is not strict heredity of the microbiome. In addition to the stable symbionts, there was a low-diversity community of sporadic symbionts whose abundance varied widely across individual holobionts of the same species. Identification of these two symbiont communities supports the holobiont model and calls into question the hologenome theory of evolution. PMID:26555246

  18. Aggressive malignant phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Nathan; Runk, Dianne M

    2015-01-01

    Originally described in 1838 by Muller, phyllodes tumor is a rare fibroepithelial neoplasm which represents roughly 0.3-0.9% of all breast cancers. Phyllodes tumor are divided into benign, borderline and malignant histologic categories. Malignant phyllodes tumor represent anywhere from 10-30% of all phyllodes tumors. This group has both the potential to recur locally and metastasize, however not all malignant phyllodes behave this way. The challenge lays in predicting which tumor will recur locally or metastasize. Distinguishing this subset of malignant phyllodes tumor is paramount. We present a case of malignant phyllodes which presented with metastatic disease. What is fascinating about this case is not only the initial presentation but also the aggressiveness of this variation of phyllodes tumor. The patient initially presented with a large mass which encompassed her whole right breast. On surgical pathology the mass measured roughly 31cm in diameter and weighed over 10kg. Within 5 weeks from surgery the patient had suffered brain metastases and also 6 local recurrent tumors. The patient passed roughly 11 weeks after her first visit to our office. Despite biopsy proven malignant phyllodes tumor, it was near impossible to predict such a rapid course of disease progression in our patient. Our case illustrates the unpredictable nature of this disease in general and it possibly sheds light on a variant of the disease which had undergone an aggressive transformation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Aggression in children and youth towards crime.

    OpenAIRE

    ŠTEFFLOVÁ, Eva

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with aggressive children and youth, which leads to crime. It deals with the causes of aggression, factors that influence aggression, but also the type of aggression. The practical part contains specific case studies of individuals whose aggression was one of the causes of crime.

  20. The Effects of Pornography on Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Lauri L.

    This document reviews existing empirical research on the effect of pornography on aggressive behavior. Two types of pornography are distinguished: aggressive pornography and non-aggressive pornography. Conclusions drawn from the research review are presented, including: (1) aggressive pornograpy consistently increases aggressive attitudes and…

  1. Traumatic Brain Injury and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence

    1994-01-01

    Persons who have suffered traumatic injury to the brain may subsequently display aggressive behavior. Three main syndromes of aggression following traumatic brain injury are described: (1) episodic dyscontrol; (2) frontal lobe disinhibition; and (3) exacerbation of premorbid antisociality. The neuropsychological substrates of these syndromes are…

  2. Driving citations and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Leung, Justin S; Wiederman, Michael W

    2012-01-01

    Anger and driving have been examined in a number of studies of aggressive drivers and in drivers with road rage using various psychological and environmental study variables. However, we are not aware of any study that has examined the number of driving citations (an indication of problematic driving) and various forms of anger not related to driving. Using a cross-sectional approach in a consecutive sample of 331 respondents (68% female), we surveyed participants about the number of past driving citations, not necessarily convictions, and 21 aggressive behaviors using the Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. The number of driving citations demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the number of aggressive behaviors in the 21-item Aggressive Behavior Questionnaire. There were no differences between men and women. As for specific aggressive behaviors, the number of driving citations was statistically significantly related to punching a wall when angry, causing and getting into a bar fight, getting into fistfights (not in a bar), causing someone to have an accident, and intentionally running someone off the road. The number of driving citations, an indication of problematic driving, appears to be related to generally aggressive behavior. Findings indicate that if aggression plays a role in problematic driving, it is likely not limited to the road.

  3. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porsch, R.M.P.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Cherny, S.S.; Krapohl, E.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Loukola, A.; Korhonen, T.; Pulkkinen, L.; Corley, R.P.; Rhee, S.; Kaprio, J.; Rose, R.; Hewitt, J.K.; Sham, P.; Plomin, R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression

  4. The Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Robert J R

    2016-02-01

    This selective review provides a model of the neurobiology of impulsive aggression from a cognitive neuroscience perspective. It is argued that prototypical cases of impulsive aggression, those associated with anger, involve the recruitment of the acute threat response system structures; that is, the amygdala, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. It is argued that whether the recruitment of these structures results in impulsive aggression or not reflects the functional roles of ventromedial frontal cortex and dorsomedial frontal and anterior insula cortex in response selection. It is also argued that impulsive aggression may occur because of impaired decision making. The aggression may not be accompanied by anger, but it will reflect disrupted evaluation of the rewards/benefits of the action.

  5. False memories for aggressive acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

    2013-06-01

    Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of quantitative DTI metrics in sporadic CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Caverzasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffusion Weighted Imaging is extremely important for the diagnosis of probable sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease, the most common human prion disease. Although visual assessment of DWI MRI is critical diagnostically, a more objective, quantifiable approach might more precisely identify the precise pattern of brain involvement. Furthermore, a quantitative, systematic tracking of MRI changes occurring over time might provide insights regarding the underlying histopathological mechanisms of human prion disease and provide information useful for clinical trials. The purposes of this study were: 1 to describe quantitatively the average cross-sectional pattern of reduced mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, atrophy and T1 relaxation in the gray matter (GM in sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease, 2 to study changes in mean diffusivity and atrophy over time and 3 to explore their relationship with clinical scales. Twenty-six sporadic Jakob–Creutzfeldt disease and nine control subjects had MRIs on the same scanner; seven sCJD subjects had a second scan after approximately two months. Cortical and subcortical gray matter regions were parcellated with Freesurfer. Average cortical thickness (or subcortical volume, T1-relaxiation and mean diffusivity from co-registered diffusion maps were calculated in each region for each subject. Quantitatively on cross-sectional analysis, certain brain regions were preferentially affected by reduced mean diffusivity (parietal, temporal lobes, posterior cingulate, thalamus and deep nuclei, but with relative sparing of the frontal and occipital lobes. Serial imaging, surprisingly showed that mean diffusivity did not have a linear or unidirectional reduction over time, but tended to decrease initially and then reverse and increase towards normalization. Furthermore, there was a strong correlation between worsening of patient clinical function (based on modified Barthel score and increasing mean diffusivity.

  7. Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in sporadic pheochromocytomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Lindor, N.M.; Honchel, R. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have recently been demonstrated in kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B. Both of these autosomal dominant disorders are characterized by the development of neoplasia in cell lines of neural crest origin, such as medullary throid carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Individuals with MEN 2B have, in addition, ganglioneuromas of the lips, tongue and colon, a marfanoid habitus, and corneal nerve thickening. Approximately 90% of patients with MEN 2A have a germline mutation in exons 10 or 11, while 95% of patients with MEN 2B have a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 of exon 16. In this study, pheochromocytomas from 29 individuals who had no clinical evidence of MEN 2A or 2B (sporadic) were examined for the presence of either germline or somatic mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Of the 29 tumors examined, 3 (10%) were found to have a mutation in one of the three exons. One tumor had a G{yields}A transition in codon 609 (exon 10), another had a 6 bp deletion encompassing codons 632 & 633 (exon 11), and the final tumor had a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 (exon 16). These mutations were not found in the corresponding normal DNA from these individuals, indicating that the mutation were somatic in origin. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of mutations in other regions of the RET proto-oncogene, our data suggests that: (1) individuals presenting with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas are not likely to have undiagnosed MEN 2A or 2B; and (2) somatic mutations in the RET proto-oncogene contribute to the process of tumorigenesis in a small percentage of sporadic pheochromocytomas.

  8. Surgical versus non-surgical approach in primary desmoid-type fibromatosis patients: A nationwide prospective cohort from the French Sarcoma Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penel, Nicolas; Le Cesne, Axel; Bonvalot, Sylvie; Giraud, Antoine; Bompas, Emmanuelle; Rios, Maria; Salas, Sébastien; Isambert, Nicolas; Boudou-Rouquette, Pascaline; Honore, Charles; Italiano, Antoine; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Gouin, François; Bertucci, François; Ryckewaert, Thomas; Kurtz, Jean-Emmanuel; Ducimetiere, Françoise; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Blay, Jean-Yves

    2017-09-01

    The outcome of desmoid-type fibromatosis (DTF) is unpredictable. Currently, a wait-and-see approach tends to replace large en bloc resection as the first therapeutic approach. Nevertheless, there are no validated factors to guide the treatment choice. We conducted a prospective study of 771 confirmed cases of DTF. We analysed event-free survival (EFS) based on the occurrence of relapse after surgery, progressive disease during the wait-and-see approach, or change in therapeutic strategy. Identification of prognostic factors was performed using classical methods (log-rank test and Cox model). Overall, the 2-year EFS was 56%; this value did not differ between patients undergoing an operation and those managed by the wait-and-see approach (53% versus 58%, p = 0.415). In univariate analysis, two prognostic factors significantly influenced the outcome: the nature of diagnostic sampling (p = 0.466) and primary location (p = 0.0001). The 2-year EFS was only 32% after open biopsy. The 2-year EFS was 66% for favourable locations (abdominal wall, intra-abdominal, breast, digestive viscera and lower limb) and 41% for unfavourable locations. Among patients with favourable locations, the 2-year EFS was similar in patients treated by both surgery (70%) and the wait-and-see approach (63%; p = 0.413). Among patients with unfavourable locations, the 2-year EFS was significantly enhanced in patients initially managed with the wait-and-see approach (52%) compared with those who underwent initial surgery (25%; p = 0.001). The location of DTF is a major prognostic factor for EFS. If these findings are confirmed by independent analysis, personalised management of DTF must consider this easily obtained parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Results of a phase II pilot study of moderate dose radiotherapy for inoperable desmoid-type fibromatosis--an EORTC STBSG and ROG study (EORTC 62991-22998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keus, R B; Nout, R A; Blay, J-Y; de Jong, J M; Hennig, I; Saran, F; Hartmann, J T; Sunyach, M P; Gwyther, S J; Ouali, M; Kirkpatrick, A; Poortmans, P M; Hogendoorn, P C W; van der Graaf, W T A

    2013-10-01

    To determine the activity of radiotherapy in patients with inoperable desmoid-type fibromatosis (DF) a multicenter prospective phase II trial was carried out. Patients with inoperable progressive disease of primary, recurrent or incompletely resected lesions received a dose of 56 Gy in 28 fractions. Follow-up MRI studies were carried out every 3 months for 2 years and thereafter every 6 months. The primary end point was local control rate at 3 years, estimated by a nonparametric method for interval-censored survival data. Secondary end points were objective tumor response, acute and late toxic effect. Forty-four patients (27 F/17 M) were enrolled from 2001 to 2008. Median age was 39.5 years. Main tumor sites included trunk 15 (34.1%) and extremities 27 (61.3%). Median follow-up was 4.8 years. The 3-year local control rate was 81.5% (90% one-sided confidence interval 74% to 100%). Best overall response during the first 3 years was complete response (CR) 6 (13.6%), partial response (PR) 16 (36.4%), stable disease 18 (40.9%), progressive disease 3 (6.8%) and nonassessable 1 (2.3%). Five patients developed new lesions. After 3 years, the response further improved in three patients: (CR 2, PR 1). Acute grade 3 side-effects were limited to skin, mucosal membranes and pain. Late toxic effect consisted of mild edema in 10 patients. Moderate dose radiotherapy is an effective treatment of patients with DF. Response after radiation therapy is slow with continuing regression seen even after 3 years.

  10. Trans fat consumption and aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice A Golomb

    Full Text Available Dietary trans fatty acids (dTFA are primarily synthetic compounds that have been introduced only recently; little is known about their behavioral effects. dTFA inhibit production of omega-3 fatty acids, which experimentally have been shown to reduce aggression. Potential behavioral effects of dTFA merit investigation. We sought to determine whether dTFA are associated with aggression/irritability. METHODOLGY/PRINICPAL FINDINGS: We capitalized on baseline dietary and behavioral assessments in an existing clinical trial to analyze the relationship of dTFA to aggression. Of 1,018 broadly sampled baseline subjects, the 945 adult men and women who brought a completed dietary survey to their baseline visit are the target of this analysis. Subjects (seen 1999-2004 were not on lipid medications, and were without LDL-cholesterol extremes, diabetes, HIV, cancer or heart disease. Outcomes assessed adverse behaviors with impact on others: Overt Aggression Scale Modified-aggression subscale (primary behavioral endpoint; Life History of Aggression; Conflict Tactics Scale; and self-rated impatience and irritability. The association of dTFA to aggression was analyzed via regression and ordinal logit, unadjusted and adjusted for potential confounders (sex, age, education, alcohol, and smoking. Additional analyses stratified on sex, age, and ethnicity, and examined the prospective association. Greater dTFA were strongly significantly associated with greater aggression, with dTFA more consistently predictive than other assessed aggression predictors. The relationship was upheld with adjustment for confounders, was preserved across sex, age, and ethnicity strata, and held cross-sectionally and prospectively.This study provides the first evidence linking dTFA with behavioral irritability and aggression. While confounding is always a concern in observational studies, factors including strength and consistency of association, biological gradient, temporality, and

  11. Imaging and clinical characteristics of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Shun-chang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Five patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD presented rapidly progressive dementia which were subacute onset from 1 to 4 months. Among these cases, periodic synchronous discharge (PSD of electroencephalography (EEG was seen in 2 patients. Besides, 4 patients obtained positive results in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis for 14-3-3 protein. The cranial MRI examination showed symmetrical or asymmetrical colored-ribbon-shaped high signals in cerebral cortex or basal ganglia by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, suggesting that DWI had high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sCJD as a preferred method in the clinical examination of sCJD.

  12. Diffusion MR imaging in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Cakir Pekoz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD is a rare dementing disease and is thought to caused by a prion. It is characterized by rapidly progressive dementia, ataxia, myoclonus, akinetic mutism and eventual death. Brain biopsy or autopsy is required for a definitive diagnosis of CJD. Diffusion-weighted imaging became an important tool for early diagnosis of CJD because of the high sensitivity. We present 59-year-old female patient diagnosed as sporadic CJD with typical MR imagings. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(4.000: 880-883

  13. The monster sporadic group and a theory underlying superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapline, G.

    1996-09-01

    The pattern of duality symmetries acting on the states of compactified superstring models reinforces an earlier suggestion that the Monster sporadic group is a hidden symmetry for superstring models. This in turn points to a supersymmetric theory of self-dual and anti-self-dual K3 manifolds joined by Dirac strings and evolving in a 13 dimensional spacetime as the fundamental theory. In addition to the usual graviton and dilaton this theory contains matter-like degrees of freedom resembling the massless states of the heterotic string, thus providing a completely geometric interpretation for ordinary matter. 25 refs

  14. Aggression Can be Contagious: Longitudinal Associations between Proactive Aggression and Reactive Aggression Among Young Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J.; Richmond, Ashley; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin’s reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin’s proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin’s proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child’s level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child’s proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay. PMID:25683448

  15. Slower Dynamics and Aged Mitochondria in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargini, Ricardo; García, Esther; Perry, George

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's disease corresponds to 95% of cases whose origin is multifactorial and elusive. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major feature of Alzheimer's pathology, which might be one of the early events that trigger downstream principal events. Here, we show that multiple genes that control mitochondrial homeostasis, including fission and fusion, are downregulated in Alzheimer's patients. Additionally, we demonstrate that some of these dysregulations, such as diminished DLP1 levels and its mitochondrial localization, as well as reduced STOML2 and MFN2 fusion protein levels, take place in fibroblasts from sporadic Alzheimer's disease patients. The analysis of mitochondrial network disruption using CCCP indicates that the patients' fibroblasts exhibit slower dynamics and mitochondrial membrane potential recovery. These defects lead to strong accumulation of aged mitochondria in Alzheimer's fibroblasts. Accordingly, the analysis of autophagy and mitophagy involved genes in the patients demonstrates a downregulation indicating that the recycling mechanism of these aged mitochondria might be impaired. Our data reinforce the idea that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the key early events of the disease intimately related with aging. PMID:29201274

  16. Genetics of aggression in voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobrogge, Kyle L; Wang, Zuoxin W

    2011-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds-a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustrating the neurochemical mechanisms underlying pair bonding-induced aggression. Implications of this research for our understanding of the neurobiology of human violence are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The psychobiology of aggressive behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träskman-Bendz, Lil; Westling, Sofie

    2005-01-01

    Among psychiatric illnesses, genetically determined disorders usually have an early onset and a severe and complicated course. Gene-environmental interaction is of importance for aggressive impulsive behaviour. For example, alcoholism type II has a high family loading, a severe course, and is often associated with antisocial behaviour. In order to gain further understanding of aggressive and impulsive behaviour, genes determining serotonin metabolism, neurosteroids and carbohydrate metabolism should be of interest to investigate. Furthermore, modern brain-imaging studies will reveal the site of action of aggressiveness and impulsivity. Within brain regions of interest, biological studies will promote our knowledge of this deleterious behaviour.

  18. Aggressive behavior prevention in a dance duet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Gant

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the features of aggression and the main directions of prevention of aggressive forms of behavior, among athletes engaged in sports dancing in the preliminary basic training. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodological literature, "Personal aggressiveness and conflictness". Results: a theoretical analysis of the problem of aggressive behavior in sports dance duets. Level of aggressiveness of athletes of sports dances at the stage of preliminary basic training is determined. Reasons for the formation of aggressive behavior among young athletes are revealed. Areas of preventive and psychocorrectional work with aggressive athletes are singled out. Conclusion: a high level of aggression was detected in 19 (31,67% of the study participants. Determinants of aggressive behavior in sport ballroom pair appear particularly family upbringing style and pedagogical activity of the trainer. Correction of aggressive behavior of young athletes should have a complex systemic character and take into account the main characterological features of aggressive athletes.

  19. Outcome of triple negative breast cancer: comparison of sporadic and BRCA1-associated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nadine; Gaughan, Elizabeth; Hacker, Michele R; Lee, Larissa J; Alexander, Brian; Poles, Emily; Schnitt, Stuart J; Garber, Judy E

    2014-07-01

    The majority of breast cancers developing in BRCA1 mutation carriers are triple negative breast cancers (TNBC), an aggressive subtype that accounts for 15-20 % of sporadic breast cancer. We compare the clinical outcome and sites of relapse of TNBC in BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Women with stage I-III TNBC who had BRCA1 testing within 36 months of diagnosis and received adjuvant chemotherapy were identified from clinical databases at two academic institutions. Sites of relapse, freedom from distant metastasis (FFDM), and breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) were determined. RCA1 carriers (n = 89) were significantly younger at diagnosis (P < 0.0001) than non-carriers (n = 175). FFDM at 5 years was 80.5 % for carriers and 76.9 % for non-carriers; with median follow-up of 55 months, hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90, P = 0.71. Sites of recurrence, including brain, did not differ significantly. BCSS at 5 years was 88.1 % for carriers and 81.4 % for non-carriers; HR 0.60; P = 0.15 at 55 months follow-up. BRCA1 carriers who underwent oophorectomy had a significantly lower rate of death from TNBC, with an adjusted HR of 0.30 (95 % CI 0.10-0.94). Adjusting for age, oophorectomy, and prophylactic mastectomy, BRCA1 mutation status was not an independent predictor of survival (HR 2.1; P = 0.13). BRCA1 mutation carriers with TNBC had similar survival rates and sites of recurrence to non-carriers after treatment with conventional chemotherapy. Carriers who underwent oophorectomy had a significantly lower rate of breast cancer-related death; this finding should be studied further in all women with TNBC.

  20. Quantifying Aggressive Behavior in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teles, Magda C; Oliveira, Rui F

    2016-01-01

    Aggression is a complex behavior that influences social relationships and can be seen as adaptive or maladaptive depending on the context and intensity of expression. A model organism suitable for genetic dissection of the underlying neural mechanisms of aggressive behavior is still needed. Zebrafish has already proven to be a powerful vertebrate model organism for the study of normal and pathological brain function. Despite the fact that zebrafish is a gregarious species that forms shoals, when allowed to interact in pairs, both males and females express aggressive behavior and establish dominance hierarchies. Here, we describe two protocols that can be used to quantify aggressive behavior in zebrafish, using two different paradigms: (1) staged fights between real opponents and (2) mirror-elicited fights. We also discuss the methodology for the behavior analysis, the expected results for both paradigms, and the advantages and disadvantages of each paradigm in face of the specific goals of the study.

  1. Genetics of Aggression in Voles

    OpenAIRE

    Gobrogge, Kyle L.; Wang, Zuoxin

    2011-01-01

    Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) are socially monogamous rodents that form pair bonds—a behavior composed of several social interactions including attachment with a familiar mate and aggression toward conspecific strangers. Therefore, this species has provided an excellent opportunity for the study of pair bonding behavior and its underlying neural mechanisms. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of this unique animal model in the study of aggression and review recent findings illustra...

  2. Mathematical Model of Age Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Golovinski, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We formulate a mathematical model of competition for resources between representatives of different age groups. A nonlinear kinetic integral-differential equation of the age aggression describes the process of redistribution of resources. It is shown that the equation of the age aggression has a stationary solution, in the absence of age-dependency in the interaction of different age groups. A numerical simulation of the evolution of resources for different initial distributions has done. It ...

  3. Fear and aggression in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzunova Krasimira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the concepts of fear, phobia and aggression in dogs were precisely defined, as well as their underlying causes. The behavioural activities specific for these conditions were indicated. The accompanying symptoms were consistently explained. The causes that the development of pathological fear leads to aggression in dogs as well as the ex various therapy options depending on the clinical signs were presented.

  4. BRCAness profile of sporadic ovarian cancer predicts disease recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiya Z Wysham

    Full Text Available The consequences of defective homologous recombination (HR are not understood in sporadic ovarian cancer, nor have the potential role of HR proteins other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 been clearly defined. However, it is clear that defects in HR and other DNA repair pathways are important to the effectiveness of current therapies. We hypothesize that a subset of sporadic ovarian carcinomas may harbor anomalies in HR pathways, and that a BRCAness profile (defects in HR or other DNA repair pathways could influence response rate and survival after treatment with platinum drugs. Clinical availability of a BRCAness profile in patients and/or tumors should improve treatment outcomes.To define the BRCAness profile of sporadic ovarian carcinoma and determine whether BRCA1, PARP, FANCD2, PTEN, H2AX, ATM, and P53 protein expression correlates with response to treatment, disease recurrence, and recurrence-free survival.Protein microarray analysis of ovarian cancer tissue was used to determine protein expression levels for defined DNA repair proteins. Correlation with clinical and pathologic parameters in 186 patients with advanced stage III-IV and grade 3 ovarian cancer was analyzed using Chi square, Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazard model, and cumulative incidence function.High PARP, FANCD2 and BRCA1 expressions were significantly correlated with each other; however, elevated p53 expression was associated only with high PARP and FANCD2. Of all patients, 9% recurred within the first year. Among early recurring patients, 41% had high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and P53, compared to 19.5% of patients without early recurrence (p = 0.04. Women with high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and/or P53 had first year cumulative cancer incidence of 17% compared with 7% for the other groups (P = 0.03.Patients with concomitantly high levels of PARP, FANCD2 and P53 protein expression are at increased risk of early ovarian cancer recurrence and platinum resistance.

  5. Aberrant gene promoter methylation associated with sporadic multiple colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Gonzalo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-concept of an underlying epigenetic defect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined a total of 47 synchronous/metachronous primary CRC from 41 patients, and 41 gender, age (5-year intervals and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors. Exclusion criteria were polyposis syndromes, Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. DNA methylation at the promoter region of the MGMT, CDKN2A, SFRP1, TMEFF2, HS3ST2 (3OST2, RASSF1A and GATA4 genes was evaluated by quantitative methylation specific PCR in both tumor and corresponding normal appearing colorectal mucosa samples. Overall, patients with multiple lesions exhibited a higher degree of methylation in tumor samples than those with solitary tumors regarding all evaluated genes. After adjusting for age and gender, binomial logistic regression analysis identified methylation of MGMT2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.97; p = 0.008 and RASSF1A (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.13; p = 0.047 as variables independently associated with tumor multiplicity, being the risk related to methylation of any of these two genes 4.57 (95% CI, 1.53 to 13.61; p = 0.006. Moreover, in six patients in whom both tumors were available, we found a correlation in the methylation levels of MGMT2 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, SFRP1 (r = 0.83, 0.06, HPP1 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17, 3OST2 (r = 0.83, p = 0.06 and GATA4 (r = 0.6, p = 0.24. Methylation in normal appearing colorectal mucosa from patients with multiple and solitary CRC showed no relevant

  6. Clock genes, ADHD and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogavero, Floriana; Jager, Amanda; Glennon, Jeffrey C

    2016-11-09

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with comorbid aggression and sleep disturbances. The sleep/wake cycle is under the control of the circadian system which is moderated by clock genes. Clock genes can regulate the transcription of monoamine oxidase A, which is involved in the degradation of monoamines. Disturbances in monoamine interaction with clock genes in those with monoamine gene polymorphisms may regulate susceptibility of ADHD and comorbid aggression/sleep disturbances. While monoamines influence circadian rhythm and clock gene expression, circadian rhythm components modulate aggressive behavior, and altered clock genes expression have been associated with ADHD. We propose a mechanism by which circadian rhythm and clock gene expression may influence ADHD and comorbid aggression through the modulation of neurotransmitters. The role of clock genes in ADHD patients with comorbid aggression awaits further research; therefore we also indicate directions for future studies to help increase understanding of the underlying mechanisms in ADHD with comorbid aggression and sleep disturbances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Music, substance use, and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng-Jinn; Miller, Brenda A; Grube, Joel W; Waiters, Elizabeth D

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated whether young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors are related to their listening to music containing messages of substance use and violence. Using self-administered questionnaires, data were collected from a sample of community-college students, ages 15-25 years (N=1056; 57% female). A structural equation model (maximum likelihood method) was used to simultaneously assess the associations between listening to various genres of music and students' alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors. Respondents' age, gender, race/ethnicity, and level of sensation seeking were included in the analyses as control variables. Listening to rap music was significantly and positively associated with alcohol use, problematic alcohol use, illicit-drug use, and aggressive behaviors when all other variables were controlled. In addition, alcohol and illicit-drug use were positively associated with listening to musical genres of techno and reggae. Control variables (e.g., sensation seeking, age, gender and race/ethnicity) were significantly related to substance use and aggressive behaviors. The findings suggest that young people's substance use and aggressive behaviors may be related to their frequent exposure to music containing references to substance use and violence. Music listening preference, conversely, may reflect some personal predispositions or lifestyle preferences. There is also the possibility that substance use, aggression, and music preference are independent constructs that share common "third factors".

  8. Do Teachers Misbehave? Aggression in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite growing research on school aggression, significant gaps remain in the authors' knowledge of team aggression, since most studies have mainly explored aggression on the part of students. The purpose of this paper is to focus on understanding the phenomenon of workplace aggression in school teams. Specifically, the purpose of the…

  9. Adolescents' Social Reasoning about Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Tisak, Marie S.

    2010-01-01

    We examined early adolescents' reasoning about relational aggression, and the links that their reasoning has to their own relationally aggressive behavior. Thinking about relational aggression was compared to thinking about physical aggression, conventional violations, and personal behavior. In individual interviews, adolescents (N = 103) rated…

  10. Stability of Aggression Over Time and Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesman, L. Rowell; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studies the aggressiveness of over 600 subjects, their parents, and their children over a 22-year period. Subjects who were more aggressive 8-year-olds were more aggressive 30-year-olds, exhibiting serious antisocial behavior as adults. The stability of aggression across generations within a family was also high. (Author/CB)

  11. A Unifying Hypothesis for Familial and Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole J. Proctor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterised by the aggregation of two quite different proteins, namely, amyloid-beta (Aβ, which forms extracellular plaques, and tau, the main component of cytoplasmic neurofibrillary tangles. The amyloid hypothesis proposes that Aβ plaques precede tangle formation but there is still much controversy concerning the order of events and the linkage between Aβ and tau alterations is still unknown. Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool for generating and evaluating hypotheses involving complex systems. We have therefore used this approach to discover the most probable pathway linking Aβ and tau. The model supports a complex pathway linking Aβ and tau via GSK3β, p53, and oxidative stress. Importantly, the pathway contains a cycle with multiple points of entry. It is this property of the pathway which enables the model to be consistent with both the amyloid hypothesis for familial AD and a more complex pathway for sporadic forms.

  12. Physical function and muscle strength in sporadic inclusion body myositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders N; Aagaard, Per; Nielsen, Jakob L

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this study, self-reported physical function, functional capacity, and isolated muscle function were investigated in sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) patients. METHODS: The 36-item Short Form (SF-36) Health Survey and 2-min walk test (2MWT), timed up & go test (TUG), and 30-s...... chair stand performance were evaluated. In addition, patients were tested for knee extensor muscle strength (isokinetic dynamometer) and leg extension power (Nottingham power rig). RESULTS: TUG performance was the strongest predictor of self-reported physical function (r(2) = 0.56, P ... to sensitively predict self-perceived physical function in sIBM patients. Notably, between-limb asymmetry in lower limb muscle strength had a substantial negative impact on motor tasks involving gait function. Muscle Nerve, 2017....

  13. Sporadic Insulinoma Presenting as Early Morning Night Terrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisang, Daniel; Forlenza, Gregory P; Luquette, Mark; Sarafoglou, Kyriakie

    2017-06-01

    A 16-year-old boy with a recent diagnosis of night terrors was evaluated for recurrent early morning hypoglycemia after an early morning seizure. Evaluation in clinic with critical laboratories identified hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Additional investigation revealed a sporadic insulinoma as the etiology of his hypoglycemia and all symptoms were resolved after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The importance of obtaining critical laboratory samples is highlighted and appropriate radiologic, medical, and pathologic testing is discussed. We additionally review the medical and surgical management of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. A discussion of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 associated insulinomas is included as well. This case highlights the importance of considering hypoglycemia in the evaluation of night terrors and new-onset seizures. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Cathepsin D polymorphism in Italian sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Silvia; Nacmias, Benedetta; Tedde, Andrea; Guarnieri, Bianca Maria; Cellini, Elena; Ciantelli, Monica; Petruzzi, Concetta; Bartoli, Antonella; Ortenzi, Luigi; Serio, Antonio; Sorbi, Sandro

    2002-08-16

    A recent study has shown that a genetic variation in the Cathepsin D (catD) gene is a major risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). CatD is an intracellular aspartyl protease involved in neurodegeneration. A C-->T (Ala-->Val) transition at position 224 has been associated with altered intracellular maturation. Recently, a significant overrepresentation of the T allele of the catD gene in AD patients compared with controls was reported. However, this finding has not yet been confirmed. We analyzed the distribution of catD and apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in Italian patients with sporadic and familial AD (FAD). Our studies revealed that the distribution of catD polymorphism did not differ in AD and FAD patients and controls. Thus, our data do not support a role for the catD gene as a genetic risk factor in the development of AD.

  15. [Therapeutic Aggressiveness and Liquid Oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Duarte, F J; Rodríguez Calvo, M S; Amor Pan, J R

    2017-01-01

    Aggressiveness criteria proposed in the scientific literature a decade ago provide a quality judgment and are a reference in the care of patients with advanced cancer, but their use is not generalized in the evaluation of Oncology Services. In this paper we analyze the therapeutic aggressiveness, according to standard criteria, in 1.001 patients with advanced cancer who died in our Institution between 2010 and 2013. The results seem to show that aggressiveness at the end of life is present more frequently than experts recommend. About 25% of patients fulfill at least one criterion of aggressiveness. This result could be explained by a liquid Oncology which does not prioritize the patient as a moral subject in the clinical appointment. Medical care is oriented to necessities and must be articulated in a model focused on dignity and communication. Its implementation through Advanced Care Planning, consideration of patient's values and preferences, and Limitation of therapeutic effort are ways to reduce aggressiveness and improve clinical practice at the end of life. We need to encourage synergic and proactive attitudes, adding the best of cancer research with the best clinical care for the benefit of human being, moral subject and main goal of Medicine.

  16. Sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers at mid-latitudes: Simultaneous observations and implications for their formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the observations of 188 sporadic layers of either Ca atoms and/or Ca ions that we have observed during 112 nights of lidar soundings of Ca, and 58 nights of Ca+ soundings, at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E. The Ca+ soundings have been performed simultaneously and in a common volume with the Ca soundings by two separate lidars. Correlations between sporadic neutral and ionized metal layers are demonstrated through four case studies. A systematic study of the variations of occurrence of sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers reveals that neutral and ionized Ca layers are not as closely correlated as expected earlier: (a The altitude distribution shows the simultaneous occurrence of both sporadic Ca and Ca+ layers to be most likely only in the narrow altitude range between 90 and 95 km. Above that region, in the lower thermosphere, the sporadic ion layers are much more frequent than atom layers. Below 90 km only very few sporadic layers have been observed; (b The seasonal variation of sporadic Ca layers exhibits a minimum of occurrence in summer, while sporadic Ca+ layers do not show a significant seasonal variation (only the dense Ca+ layers appear to have a maximum in summer. At mid-latitudes sporadic Ca layers are more frequent than sporadic layers of other atmospheric metals like Na or K. For the explanation of our observations new formation mechanisms are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (ion chemistry and composition; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  17. Host response in aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Cyelee; Kinane, Denis F

    2014-06-01

    It is critical to understand the underlying host responses in aggressive periodontitis to provide a better appreciation of the risk and susceptibility to this disease. Such knowledge may elucidate the etiology and susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis and directly influence treatment decisions and aid diagnosis. This review is timely in that several widely held tenets are now considered unsupportable, namely the concept that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans is the key pathogen and that chemotactic defects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes are part of the etiopathology. This review also serves to put into context key elements of the host response that may be implicated in the genetic background of aggressive periodontitis. Furthermore, key molecules unique to the host response in aggressive periodontitis may have diagnostic utility and be used in chairside clinical activity tests or as population screening markers. It is becoming increasingly appreciated that the microbial etiology of aggressive periodontitis and the histopathology of this disease are more similar to than different from that of chronic periodontitis. An important therapeutic consideration from the lack of support for A. actinomycetemycomitans as a critical pathogen here is that the widely held belief that tetracycline had a role in aggressive periodontitis therapy is now not supported and that antibiotics such as those used effectively in chronic periodontitis (metronidazole and amoxicillin) are not contraindicated. Furthermore, A. actinomycetemycomitans-related molecules, such as cytolethal distending toxin and leukotoxin, are less likely to have utility as diagnosis agents or as therapeutic targets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Social Information Processing, Experiences of Aggression in Social Contexts, and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Lösel, Friedrich; Bliesener, Thomas; Bender, Doris

    2013-01-01

    This study examines social information processing and experiences of aggression in social contexts as predictors of different forms of aggressive behavior. A sample of 102 boys (aggressive, average, competent, and victimized students) was investigated with a prospective design in Grade 7/8 and again in Grade 9/10. Results show an aggressive-impulsive response repertoire strongly predicted self-reported and teacher-reported physical aggression, verbal aggression, violent offenses, general aggr...

  19. Predictors of Preoperative Tinnitus in Unilateral Sporadic Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Naros

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveNearly two-thirds of patients with vestibular schwannoma (VS are reporting a significantly impaired quality of life due to tinnitus. VS-associated tinnitus is attributed to an anatomical and physiological damage of the hearing nerve by displacing growth of the tumor. In contrast, the current pathophysiological concept of non-VS tinnitus hypothesizes a maladaptive neuroplasticity of the central nervous system to a (hidden hearing impairment resulting in a subjective misperception. However, it is unclear whether this concept fits to VS-associated tinnitus. This study aims to determine the clinical predictors of VS-associated tinnitus to ascertain the compatibility of both pathophysiological concepts.MethodsThis retrospective study includes a group of 478 neurosurgical patients with unilateral sporadic VS evaluated preoperatively regarding the occurrence of ipsilateral tinnitus depending on different clinical factors, i.e., age, gender, tumor side, tumor size (T1–T4 according to the Hannover classification, and hearing impairment (Gardner–Robertson classification, GR1–5, using a binary logistic regression.Results61.8% of patients complain about a preoperative tinnitus. The binary logistic regression analysis identified male gender [OR 1.90 (1.25–2.75; p = 0.002] and hearing impairment GR3 [OR 1.90 (1.08–3.35; p = 0.026] and GR4 [OR 8.21 (2.29–29.50; p = 0.001] as positive predictors. In contrast, patients with large T4 tumors [OR 0.33 (0.13–0.86; p = 0.024] and complete hearing loss GR5 [OR 0.36 (0.15–0.84; p = 0.017] were less likely to develop a tinnitus. Yet, 60% of the patients with good clinical hearing (GR1 and 25% of patients with complete hearing loss (GR5 suffered from tinnitus.ConclusionThese data are good accordance with literature about non-VS tinnitus indicating hearing impairment as main risk factor. In contrast, complete hearing loss appears a negative predictor for tinnitus. For the first

  20. SDHAF2 mutations in familial and sporadic paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Jean-Pierre; Kunst, Henricus P M; Cascon, Alberto; Sampietro, Maria Lourdes; Gaal, José; Korpershoek, Esther; Hinojar-Gutierrez, Adolfo; Timmers, Henri J L M; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Hermsen, Mario A; Suárez, Carlos; Hussain, A Karim; Vriends, Annette H J T; Hes, Frederik J; Jansen, Jeroen C; Tops, Carli M; Corssmit, Eleonora P; de Knijff, Peter; Lenders, Jacques W M; Cremers, Cor W R J; Devilee, Peter; Dinjens, Winand N M; de Krijger, Ronald R; Robledo, Mercedes

    2010-04-01

    Paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumours associated frequently with germline mutations of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB. Previous studies have shown the imprinted SDHAF2 gene to be mutated in a large Dutch kindred with paragangliomas. We aimed to identify SDHAF2 mutation carriers, assess the clinical genetic significance of SDHAF2, and describe the associated clinical phenotype. We undertook a multicentre study in Spain and The Netherlands in 443 apparently sporadic patients with paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas who did not have mutations in SDHD, SDHC, or SDHB. We analysed DNA of 315 patients for germline mutations of SDHAF2; a subset (n=200) was investigated for gross gene deletions. DNA from a group of 128 tumours was studied for somatic mutations. We also examined a Spanish family with head and neck paragangliomas with a young age of onset for the presence of SDHAF2 mutations, undertook haplotype analysis in this kindred, and assessed their clinical phenotype. We did not identify any germline or somatic mutations of SDHAF2, and no gross gene deletions were noted in the subset of apparently sporadic patients analysed. Investigation of the Spanish family identified a pathogenic germline DNA mutation of SDHAF2, 232G-->A (Gly78Arg), identical to the Dutch kindred. SDHAF2 mutations do not have an important role in phaeochromocytoma and are rare in head and neck paraganglioma. Identification of a second family with the Gly78Arg mutation suggests that this is a crucial residue for the function of SDHAF2. We conclude that SDHAF2 mutation analysis is justified in very young patients with isolated head and neck paraganglioma without mutations in SDHD, SDHC, or SDHB, and in individuals with familial antecedents who are negative for mutations in all other risk genes. Dutch Cancer Society, European Union 6th Framework Program, Fondo Investigaciones Sanitarias, Fundación Mutua Madrileña, and Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Cáncer. 2010

  1. Sporadic cases of adult measles: a research article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premaratna, Ranjan; Luke, Nathasha; Perera, Harsha; Gunathilake, Mahesh; Amarasena, Pubudu; Chandrasena, T G A Nilmini

    2017-01-10

    Measles caused by a paramyxovirus, characterized by fever, malaise, cough, coryza conjunctivitis, a maculopapular rash is known to result in pneumonia, encephalitis and death. Fatal cases of measles in Sri Lanka are rare after implementation of the National Immunization Programme in 1984. Thereafter 0.1% case fatality rate was observed during October 1999-June 2000 which is a very low figure compared to other regional countries. Immunization guidelines were further revised in 2001, 2011 and in 2012 when additional immunization was recommended to age group 4-21 years; who are likely to have inadequate immunization, in order to achieve elimination of Measles by 2020. However, in 2013-2014, 4690 cases were reported and the majority were children less than 1 year of age. The occurrence in adults is hard to retrieve in published epidemiological reports, however had been 38% (out of 1008 patients) in the 3rd quarter of 2013. During this outbreak 73/101 (72%) reported from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka had been more than 12 years of age with 50% being more than 29 years. 14 Sri lankan adult patients [median age 32 years (range 25-48)] who presented sporadically from June 2014 to March 2016, with confirmed measles infection were enrolled retrospectively after informed consent. Details with regards to their clinical presentation, immunization and other relevant areas were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire or using patient management records. The patients presented with high fever, headache, severe body aches, sore throat, dry cough, intense tearing, red eyes and posterior cervical lymphadenopathy over 3-5 days duration. Later they developed discrete maculopapular rash helping the diagnosis. They had a variable degree of leucopenia, lymphocytosis, thrombocytopenia and derangements in the liver functions mimicking any other acute febrile illnesses such as dengue, chikungunya, leptospirosis or Zika virus infection. At least a 3-5

  2. Consumer protection against aggressive selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacşu, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive selling is selling method which consists in using a series of aggressive techniques of negotiation – the proposal to by an unnecessary product, or “charging” the client with supplementary quantities of commodities, over his needs. In our days, the companies spend each year, a lot of money to initiate their sell agents in the selling art. Unfortunately, these manipulation techniques are not prohibited by law, so we have to keep our eyes wide open and try to keep our independent thinking.

  3. A two-factor model of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, S J; Lambert, M T; Hendrickse, W

    1997-01-01

    This article synthesizes theoretical material from psychology research into a practical model for conceptualizing violence in psychiatric settings. Relevant research and theory are reviewed, focusing on two important behavioral models of aggressive behavior, hostile aggression and instrumental aggression. The concepts of reinforcement, anticipated rewards, specific and nonspecific stimulus-driven aggression, intermediary emotional states in aroused persons, and the aggression stimulus threshold are developed into a bimodal model applicable to the clinical management of violence. The model provides a broad framework for categorizing, understanding, and addressing aggressive behavior in clinical settings.

  4. CAMS newly detected meteor showers and the sporadic background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    The Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteoroid orbit survey adds 60 newly identified showers to the IAU Working List of Meteor Showers (numbers 427, 445-446, 506-507, and part of 643-750). 28 of these are also detected in the independent SonotaCo survey. In total, 230 meteor showers and shower components are identified in CAMS data, 177 of which are detected in at least two independent surveys. From the power-law size frequency distribution of detected showers, we extrapolate that 36% of all CAMS-observed meteors originated from ∼700 showers above the N = 1 per 110,000 shower limit. 71% of mass falling to Earth from streams arrives on Jupiter-family type orbits. The transient Geminids account for another 15%. All meteoroids not assigned to streams form a sporadic background with highest detected numbers from the apex source, but with 98% of mass falling in from the antihelion source. Even at large ∼7-mm sizes, a Poynting-Robertson drag evolved population is detected, which implies that the Grün et al. collisional lifetimes at these sizes are underestimated by about a factor of 10. While these large grains survive collisions, many fade on a 104-y timescale, possibly because they disintegrate into smaller particles by processes other than collisions, leaving a more resilient population to evolve.

  5. Radiosurgical treatment of sporadic vestibular schwannomas: A prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel V, Freddy; Iniguez S, Rodrigo; Venencia M, Daniel; Tagle M, Patricio; Besa D, Pelayo; Lorenzoni S, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the preliminary experience of radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas at the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. Material and methods: The first 17 patients with sporadic Vestibular Schwannomas treated by radiosurgery at our institution are reported. The marginal dose used was 12 to 12.5 Gy. prescribed at the 70 or 80 isodose fine. Patients were controlled at 6, 12 and 24 months with magnetic resonance, audiometric study and clinical examination. Results: In all of the 17 patients treated a decrease tumor enhancement on MR was demonstrated. In 16 patients (94%) a pattern of central tumor necrosis was observed during the firs year Actuarial useful hearing was maintained in 62.5% at 2 year after treatment. Facial nerve function was maintained in all of the 15 patients with normal function at treatment (100%). Trigeminal function was maintained in ah of the 14 patients (100%) with previous normal trigeminal function. The mean time to return to work or normal activities was 11.5 days after treatment. Conclusions: These preliminary results are comparable with results published in the literature and reinforce the demonstrate role of radiosurgery in the management of vestibular schwannomas

  6. A review of drug therapy for sporadic fatal insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaee Damavandi, Pardis; Dove, Martin T; Pickersgill, Richard W

    2017-09-03

    Sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI) is a rapid progressive neurodegenerative disease characterised by gradual to perpetual insomnia, followed by dysautonomia, coma and death. 1 The cause of sFI was recently mapped to a mutation in a protein, the prion, found in the human brain. It is the unfolding of the prion that leads to the generation of toxic oligomers that destroy brain tissue and function. Recent studies have confirmed that a methionine mutation at codon 129 of the human Prion is characteristic of sFI. Current treatment slows down the progression of the disease, but no cure has been found, yet. We used Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics simulation methods, to study the toxic Fatal-Insomnia-prion conformations at local unfolding. The idea was to determine these sites and to stabilise these regions against unfolding and miss-folding, using a small ligand, based on a phenothiazine "moiety". As a result we here discuss current fatal insomnia therapy and present seven novel possible compounds for in vitro and in vivo screening.

  7. Facing and managing natural disasters in the Sporades islands, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikola, P.; Panagopoulos, T.; Tampakis, S.; Karantoni, M. I.; Tsantopoulos, G.

    2014-04-01

    The region of the Sporades islands located in central Greece is at the mercy of many natural phenomena, such as earthquakes due to the marine volcano Psathoura and the rift of Anatolia, forest fires, floods, landslides, storms, hail, snowfall and frost. The present work aims at studying the perceptions and attitudes of the residents regarding how they face and manage natural disasters. A positive public response during a hazard crisis depends not only upon the availability and good management of a civil defense plan but also on the knowledge and perception of the possible hazards by the local population. It is important for the stakeholders to know what the citizens expect so that the necessary structures can be developed in the phase of preparation and organization. The residents were asked their opinion about what they think should be done by the stakeholders after a catastrophic natural disaster, particularly about the immediate response of stakeholders and their involvement and responsibilities at different, subsequent intervals of time following the disaster. The residents were also asked about the most common disasters that happen in their region and about the preparation activities of the stakeholders.

  8. [Lung transplantation in sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis: study of 7 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansótegui Barrera, Emilio; Mancheño Franch, Nuria; Peñalver Cuesta, Juan Carlos; Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Padilla Alarcón, José

    2013-10-19

    Sporadic lymphangioleiomyomatosis (S-LAM) is a rare disease that affects only women. It is characterized by an abnormal proliferation of immature smooth muscle cells (LAM cells) that grow in an aberrant manner in the airway, parenchymal lung lymph and blood vessels, determining the onset of pulmonary cystic lesions. The disease has no treatment, progressing to respiratory failure, and lung transplantation (LT) may be a treatment option at this stage. Our goal was to study 7 patients undergoing LT for S-LAM. We studied a series of clinical and demographic characteristics, diagnostic modality and post-transplant outcomes. We performed a descriptive analysis of the series. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival. The mean age of onset of symptoms was 35 years, the diagnosis of 37 years and that of LT 38 years. The most common symptom was dyspnea. Four patients had a history of pneumothorax and pleural effusion. The mean forced expiratory volume in one second was 32.7% and the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was 29%. All patients were subjected to LT and survival was 100, 85.7 and 57.1% at one, 3 and 5 years, respectively. Three died of bronchiolitis obliterans and 2 necropsies did not show evidence of disease recurrence. LT is a therapeutic option in patients with S-LAM with an advanced respiratory functional impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid Sporadic Goiter with Adult Heterotopic Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid heterotopic bone formation (HBF in goiter is a rare finding. Five thyroid resection specimens were analyzed for HBF. The results were correlated with clinicomorphological features. All patients were women (33–82 years. The preoperative diagnosis was thyroid goiter or nodule. Treatment consisted in thyroidectomy and lobectomy (3 and 2, resp.. Microscopy showed sporadic nodular goiter. Malformative blood vessels and vascular calcifications were seen in intra- and extrathyroid location (5 and 3, resp.. The number and size of HBFs (total: 28 ranged between 1 and 23/thyroid gland (one bilateral and 1 and 10 mm, respectively. Twelve HBFs were in contact with the thyroid capsule. Most were extranodular (21, versus 6 intranodular. The medical history was positive for dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, renal dysfunction, and hyperuricemia (2, 3, and 3 cases and 1 case, resp. without any parathyroid abnormality. In conclusion, thyroid HBF may be characterized by subcapsular or extranodular location, various size (usually ≥2 mm, and vascular calcifications and malformations. Features of metabolic syndrome and renal dysfunction may be present, but their exact role in the pathogenesis of HBFs remains to be elucidated.

  10. Risperidone and Explosive Aggressive Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Joseph P.; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    1997-01-01

    In this study, 11 males with autism and mental retardation were administered risperidone. Substantial clinical improvement was noted almost immediately; patients with aggression, self-injury, explosivity, and poor sleep hygiene were most improved. The modal dose for optimal response was 0.5 mg bid. Weight gain was a significant side effect.…

  11. MANIFESTATIONS OF AGGRESSIVE ATYPICAL KAPOSI'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... weight loss (86.8%), skin nodules (86.4%) and diarrhoea (55.3%). Virtually, all occupational groups were affected, with students, civil servants and businessmen topping the list. Key Words: Atypical Aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma, HIV infection. African Journal Of Clinical And Experimental Microbiology Jan 2004 Vol.5 No.1 ...

  12. Psychopharmacology of aggression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Peter; Citrome, Leslie; Nichita, Carmen; Vitacco, Michael

    2011-09-01

    The management of aggression in patients with schizophrenia is a complex and challenging clinical dilemma. It also is greatly influenced by prevailing societal and medicolegal considerations regarding the perceived associations between violence and mental illness. This article provides a succinct account of a complex area and offers evidence for available treatments to reduce the occurrence of violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Aggressive periodontitis: The unsolved mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Danielle; Febbraio, Maria; Levin, Liran

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontal disease is an oral health mystery. Our current understanding of this disease is that specific bacteria invade the oral cavity and the host reacts with an inflammatory response leading to mass destruction of the alveolar bone. Aggressive periodontal disease is typically observed in a population under the age of 30 and occurs so rapidly that it is difficult to treat. Unfortunately, the consequence of this disease frequently involves tooth extractions. As a result, the aftermath is chewing disability and damage to self-esteem due to an altered self-image. Furthermore, patients are encumbered by frequent dental appointments which have an economic impact in regards to both personal financial strain and absent days in the workplace. Aggressive periodontal disease has a tremendous effect on patients' overall quality of life and needs to be investigated more extensively in order to develop methods for earlier definitive diagnosis and effective treatments. One of the mysteries of aggressive periodontal disease is the relatively nominal amount of plaque present on the tooth surface in relation to the large amount of bone loss. There seems to be a hidden factor that lies between the response by the patient's immune system and the bacterial threat that is present. A better mechanistic understanding of this disease is essential to provide meaningful care and better outcomes for patients.

  14. MANIFESTATIONS OF AGGRESSIVE ATYPICAL KAPOSI'S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has since the mid-1980's been known to distinguish atypical, aggressive Kaposi's sarcoma (AAKS) from the endemic type in Africa (1). In our series at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, we recorded 44 patients with AAKS, 35 of them male and 9 female, giving ...

  15. A concept analysis of relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M M

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to conduct a concept analysis of the phenomenon of relational aggression. With the increases in violence among our youth, the topic of aggression, and more specifically relational aggression, has gained an increasing interest. Discussion of relational aggression is imperative because it lends credence to a type of aggression not readily studied in previous decades. A new understanding of relational aggression will aide in future nursing and multidisciplinary research studies and will guide health promotion interventions to alleviate the consequences of relational aggression for adolescent girls. Therefore, with an increased knowledge about the consequences of relational aggression the nurse can provide appropriate nursing interventions to combat the detriment associated with it.

  16. Psychological features of aggression in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    .O. Kuznetsova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of empirical study of the psychological characteristics of aggression and frustration response in adolescents with different types of socialization. We describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of aggression in adolescence. We show the nature of the relationship of a aggressiveness features with type of socialization in adolescents. The described study involved 125 male adolescents aged 13-14 years, enrolled in the VIII grade (56 cadets and 69 students. We used methods of testing, survey, subjective scaling. In cadets, we found elevated rates of aggression and hostility, the prevalence of physical aggression, high scores on Irritation, Verbal aggression and Suspicion, as well as the prevalence in situations of frustration of extrapunitive reactions with “fixation on self-defense”. In the group of students of secondary school, the levels of aggression and hostility an on upper limit of test norms, impunitive reactions, indirect aggression, guilt, constructive reaction with “fixation on meeting needs” prevail.

  17. Genetic contributions to subtypes of aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, R.S.L.; Bartels, M.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Hudziak, J.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Boys and girls may display different styles of aggression. The aim of this study was to identify subtypes of aggression within the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) aggression scale, and determine their characteristics for both sexes. Maternal CBCL ratings of 7449 7-year-old twin pairs were analyzed

  18. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  19. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.; Jansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatient aggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this "Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale" (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff

  20. 4. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    the cognitive bases of adolescent aggressive behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2005; 34: 229-243. 25.Hayward, S. and Fletcher, J. Relational aggression in an Australian sample: gender and age differences. Australian Journal of. Psychology2003; 55:129–134. 26. Coie, J.D., and Dodge, K.A. (1998). Aggression.

  1. Fantasy Aggression and the Catharsis Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Sharon Baron; Zelin, Martin

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of fantasy aggression on blood pressure, affective states, and probability of subsequent aggression. The results are inconclusive because of the limited range of fantasy stimuli used and the short amount of time allowed for aggression to occur. (Author/KM)

  2. Aggression in adolescents: characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Dimitrijević, Radmila; Lazić, Dijana; Nenadović, Milutin; Djokić-Pjescić, Katarina; Klidonas, Nikolaos; Stefanović, Vesna

    2011-12-01

    Vulnerability of young people and frustration of their basic biological, emotional, cognitive and social needs can induce a series of psycho-pathological manifestations, including aggression. Aim of this study is to examine the manifestations of aggressiveness in young people and to establish the difference between aggressive responses of two age groups; adolescents aged 16-19 years and older adolescents aged 20-26 years. The sample consists of 100 young people aged 16-19 years (46 adolescents) and 20-26 years (54 adolescents). For the purposes of this study, we have constructed a questionnaire in which we entered the data obtained on the basis of a standard psychiatric examination, auto- and hetero-anamnesis data, and data obtained using the standard battery of psychological tests. Statistically significant association was found between verbal aggression and physical aggression (p = 0.002), verbal aggression and suicide attempts (p = 0.02), verbal aggression and substance abuse (p = 0.009), verbal aggression and low frustration tolerance (LFT) (p = 0.007), suicide attempt and LFT (p = 0.052). The younger group was significantly more verbally aggressive compared to the older group (p = 0.01). Verbal aggression, which was significantly associated with physical aggression, suicide attempts, substance abuse and LFT, indicates the need for timely interventions for the prevention of more serious and malignant forms of aggression.

  3. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21), and controls (n = 20) were included in a mixed factorial study. Alcohol and cannabis users received single doses of alcohol and placebo or cannabis and placebo, respectively. Subjective aggression was assessed before and after aggression exposure consisting of administrations of the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP) and the single category implicit association test (SC-IAT). Testosterone and cortisol levels in response to alcohol/cannabis treatment and aggression exposure were recorded as secondary outcome measures. Subjective aggression significantly increased following aggression exposure in all groups while being sober. Alcohol intoxication increased subjective aggression whereas cannabis decreased the subjective aggression following aggression exposure. Aggressive responses during the PSAP increased following alcohol and decreased following cannabis relative to placebo. Changes in aggressive feeling or response were not correlated to the neuroendocrine response to treatments. It is concluded that alcohol facilitates feelings of aggression whereas cannabis diminishes aggressive feelings in heavy alcohol and regular cannabis users, respectively.

  4. Clinical Perspective of Oxidative Stress in Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Santella, Regina M.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is one of the most devastating neurological diseases; most patients die within 3 to 4 years after symptom onset. Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance favoring the pro-oxidative state. Autopsy and laboratory studies in ALS indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in motor neuron degeneration and astrocyte dysfunction. Oxidative stress biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine, are elevated, suggesting that abnormal oxidative stress is generated outside of the central nervous system. Our review indicates that agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, military service, professional sports, excessive physical exertion, chronic head trauma, and certain foods might be modestly associated with ALS risk, with a stronger association between risk and smoking. At the cellular level, these factors are all involved in generating oxidative stress. Experimental studies indicate that a combination of insults that induce modest oxidative stress can exert additive deleterious effects on motor neurons, suggesting multiple exposures in real-world environments are important. As the disease progresses, nutritional deficiency, cachexia, psychological stress, and impending respiratory failure may further increase oxidative stress. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that ALS is possibly a systemic disease. Laboratory, pathologic, and epidemiologic evidence clearly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is central in the pathogenic process, particularly in genetically susceptive individuals. If we are to improve ALS treatment, well-designed biochemical and genetic epidemiological studies, combined with a multidisciplinary research approach, are needed and will provide knowledge crucial to our understanding of ALS etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis. PMID:23797033

  5. MTHFR polymorphisms as prognostic factors in sporadic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osian, Gelu; Procopciuc, Lucia; Vlad, Liviu

    2007-09-01

    Theoretically, individuals having at least one mutant allele present a modified activity of the MTHFR enzyme and low methylation, DNA synthesis-repair respectively, which could imply a higher risk of colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations of these mutations with the clinico-pathological aspects of colorectal cancer. The study included 69 patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. The relative risk in homozygous patients with a normal allele and for mutations C667T and A1298C, in heterozygous patients with one normal and one mutant allele, and for homozygous patients for the mutant allele was calculated. C667T and A1298C mutations represent a risk factor for colorectal cancer with an OR (odds ratio) = 2.13 (CI (0.51-8.91)) and 3 (CI(0.3-29.58), respectively, in homozygous patients. These mutations are associated with a more frequent location of lesions at the colon level, OR=2.3 and 2.15 respectively. The incidence of the A1298C mutation was more frequent in stage N0 than N+ (p<0.05), pT2 vs. pT3 (p<0.05), as well as in Dukes stages B and D vs. A or C (p<0.05). The results obtained support the hypothesis of an increased colorectal cancer prevalence in patients with one of the MTHFR gene mutations. These patients develop colon cancer more frequently, they present lymph node invasion more rarely, and develop more often distant metastases.

  6. Upregulated Genes In Sporadic, Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoub Magdi H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To elucidate further the pathogenesis of sporadic, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH and identify potential therapeutic avenues, differential gene expression in IPAH was examined by suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH. Methods Peripheral lung samples were obtained immediately after removal from patients undergoing lung transplant for IPAH without familial disease, and control tissues consisted of similarly sampled pieces of donor lungs not utilised during transplantation. Pools of lung mRNA from IPAH cases containing plexiform lesions and normal donor lungs were used to generate the tester and driver cDNA libraries, respectively. A subtracted IPAH cDNA library was made by SSH. Clones isolated from this subtracted library were examined for up regulated expression in IPAH using dot blot arrays of positive colony PCR products using both pooled cDNA libraries as probes. Clones verified as being upregulated were sequenced. For two genes the increase in expression was verified by northern blotting and data analysed using Student's unpaired two-tailed t-test. Results We present preliminary findings concerning candidate genes upregulated in IPAH. Twenty-seven upregulated genes were identified out of 192 clones examined. Upregulation in individual cases of IPAH was shown by northern blot for tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 and decorin (P Conclusion Four of the up regulated genes, magic roundabout, hevin, thrombomodulin and sucrose non-fermenting protein-related kinase-1 are expressed specifically by endothelial cells and one, muscleblind-1, by muscle cells, suggesting that they may be associated with plexiform lesions and hypertrophic arterial wall remodelling, respectively.

  7. Chlamydia pecorum: fetal and placental lesions in sporadic caprine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Anderson, Mark; Miller, Myrna; Rowe, Joan; Sverlow, Karen; Vasquez, Marce; Cantón, Germán

    2016-03-01

    Chlamydial abortion in small ruminants is usually associated with Chlamydia abortus infection. Although Chlamydia pecorum has been detected in aborted ruminants and epidemiological data suggests that C. pecorum is abortigenic in these species, published descriptions of lesions in fetuses are lacking. This work describes fetoplacental lesions in a caprine abortion with C. pecorum infection, and further supports the abortigenic role of C. pecorum in ruminants. A 16-month-old Boer goat aborted twin fetuses at ~130 days of gestation. Both fetuses (A and B) and the placenta of fetus A were submitted for postmortem examination and diagnostic workup. At autopsy, the fetuses had moderate anasarca, intermuscular edema in the hindquarters (A), and brachygnathia and palatoschisis (B). In the placenta, the cotyledons were covered by yellow fibrinosuppurative exudate that extended into the adjacent intercotyledonary areas. Histologically, there was severe suppurative and necrotizing placentitis with vasculitis (arteriolitis) and thrombosis, multifocal lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic hepatitis (A), and fibrinosuppurative enteritis in both fetuses. Chlamydia antigen was detected in the placenta by the direct fluorescent antibody test and in fetal intestines by immunohistochemistry. Nested polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of placenta and intestine amplified 400 bp of the Chlamydia 16S rRNA gene that was sequenced and found to be 99% identical to C. pecorum by BLAST analysis. Other known abortigenic infectious agents were ruled out by specific testing. It is concluded that C. pecorum infection is associated with fetoplacental lesions and sporadic abortion in goats. © 2015 The Author(s).

  8. Genotype and phenotype analysis of patients with sporadic periodic paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Chih-Chien; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Lo, Yi-Fen; Lin, Mei-Shan; Yang, Sung-Sen; Hsu, Yu-Chuan; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Sporadic periodic paralysis (SPP), the second leading cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HPP) in Asia, has a presentation similar to that of familial periodic paralysis (FPP) and is caused by gene mutations in the calcium (Ca(2+)) (CACNA1S) and sodium (Na(+)) (SCN4A) channels of skeletal muscle. The authors determined whether SPP shares similar genotype and phenotype with FPP. Sixty SPP patients who did not have a family history of paralysis, abnormal thyroid function tests and other identifiable causes of HPP, and 8 FPP patients were enrolled. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood leukocytes of all SPP and FPP patients. Genetic analysis of whole S4 segment in CACNA1S and SCN4A was performed. Phenotypic analysis included clinical presentations, laboratory data and precipitating events. All FPP patients had mutations in either CACNA1S or SCN4A, but only 4 SPP patients had de novo mutations in CACNA1S (R1239H) and SCN4A (R669×2, R1135H). SPP patients with de novo mutations manifested a phenotype indistinguishable from that of FPP patients except a later age of onset. SPP patients without mutations also had a later age of onset, significantly fewer attacks of paralysis than FPP patients, and unidentifiable precipitating factors. A minority of SPP patients had de novo CACNA1S or SCN4A mutations and may have a variant of FPP. The majority of SPP patients, those without mutations in CACNA1S and SCN4A, represent a unique subgroup of HPP patients, and this form of SPP usually manifests at a later age, is associated with fewer attacks and lacks apparent triggering factors.

  9. Identification of epigenetically altered genes in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Figueroa-Romero

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a terminal disease involving the progressive degeneration of motor neurons within the motor cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Most cases are sporadic (sALS with unknown causes suggesting that the etiology of sALS may not be limited to the genotype of patients, but may be influenced by exposure to environmental factors. Alterations in epigenetic modifications are likely to play a role in disease onset and progression in ALS, as aberrant epigenetic patterns may be acquired throughout life. The aim of this study was to identify epigenetic marks associated with sALS. We hypothesize that epigenetic modifications may alter the expression of pathogenesis-related genes leading to the onset and progression of sALS. Using ELISA assays, we observed alterations in global methylation (5 mC and hydroxymethylation (5 HmC in postmortem sALS spinal cord but not in whole blood. Loci-specific differentially methylated and expressed genes in sALS spinal cord were identified by genome-wide 5mC and expression profiling using high-throughput microarrays. Concordant direction, hyper- or hypo-5mC with parallel changes in gene expression (under- or over-expression, was observed in 112 genes highly associated with biological functions related to immune and inflammation response. Furthermore, literature-based analysis identified potential associations among the epigenes. Integration of methylomics and transcriptomics data successfully revealed methylation changes in sALS spinal cord. This study represents an initial identification of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in sALS which may improve our understanding of sALS pathogenesis for the identification of biomarkers and new therapeutic targets.

  10. Geographical and seasonal correlation of multiple sclerosis to sporadic schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritzsche Markus

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clusters by season and locality reveal a striking epidemiological overlap between sporadic schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis (MS. As the birth excesses of those individuals who later in life develop schizophrenia mirror the seasonal distribution of Ixodid ticks, a meta analysis has been performed between all neuropsychiatric birth excesses including MS and the epidemiology of spirochaetal infectious diseases. Results The prevalence of MS and schizophrenic birth excesses entirely spares the tropical belt where human treponematoses are endemic, whereas in more temperate climates infection rates of Borrelia garinii in ticks collected from seabirds match the global geographic distribution of MS. If the seasonal fluctuations of Lyme borreliosis in Europe are taken into account, the birth excesses of MS and those of schizophrenia are nine months apart, reflecting the activity of Ixodes ricinus at the time of embryonic implantation and birth. In America, this nine months' shift between MS and schizophrenic births is also reflected by the periodicity of Borrelia burgdorferi transmitting Ixodes pacificus ticks along the West Coast and the periodicity of Ixodes scapularis along the East Coast. With respect to Ixodid tick activity, amongst the neuropsychiatric birth excesses only amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS shows a similar seasonal trend. Conclusion It cannot be excluded at present that maternal infection by Borrelia burgdorferi poses a risk to the unborn. The seasonal and geographical overlap between schizophrenia, MS and neuroborreliosis rather emphasises a causal relation that derives from exposure to a flagellar virulence factor at conception and delivery. It is hoped that the pathogenic correlation of spirochaetal virulence to temperature and heat shock proteins (HSP might encourage a new direction of research in molecular epidemiology.

  11. Visual art therapy in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rajeet; Trauger-Querry, Barbara; Loughrin, Athena; Appleby, Brian S

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the diagnostic and treatment utility of visual art therapy in a case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Visual art therapy was compared longitudinally with clinical and neuroimaging data over five-month period in an autopsy-confirmed case of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease of MM2-cortical subtype. Art therapy sessions and content were useful in ascertaining neuropsychiatric symptoms during the course of her illness. Art therapy offered a unique emotional and cognitive outlet as illness progressed. Patients and families affected by sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease may benefit from art therapy despite the rapidly progressive nature of the illness. Art therapy can also be useful for assessment of patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease by healthcare professionals.

  12. Genetic architecture of sporadic frontotemporal dementia and overlap with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Raffaele; Wang, Yunpeng; Vandrovcova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical, pathological and genetic overlap between sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) has been suggested; however, the relationship between these disorders is still not well understood. Here we evaluated genetic overlap betwee...

  13. Aggression By Whom–Aggression Toward Whom: Behavioral Predictors of Same- and Other-Gender Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanish, Laura D.; Sallquist, Julie; DiDonato, Matthew; Fabes, Richard A.; Martin, Carol Lynn

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed girls’ and boys’ dominance-related behaviors (aggressive, commanding, submissive, and neutral behaviors) as they naturally occurred during interactions with male and female peers and evaluated the possibility that such behaviors elicit aggression from peers. Using a focal observational procedure, young girls’ and boys’ (N = 170; 54% boys) naturally occurring dominance-related behaviors and male and female peers’ aggressive responses to those behaviors were recorded multiple times each week across the academic year. Findings suggested that same-gender aggression occurred at similar rates as other-gender aggression once tendencies toward gender segregated play were controlled. Additionally, there were both gender-based similarities and differences in children’s use of dominance-related behaviors in peer interactions and as antecedents for peers’ aggression. The findings have implications for the literatures on aggression and gendered peer interactions. PMID:22369337

  14. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Aki; Miczek, Klaus A

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is observed in many animal species, such as insects, fish, lizards, frogs, and most mammals including humans. This wide range of conservation underscores the importance of aggressive behavior in the animals' survival and fitness, and the likely heritability of this behavior. Although typical patterns of aggressive behavior differ between species, there are several concordances in the neurobiology of aggression among rodents, primates, and humans. Studies with rodent models may eventually help us to understand the neurogenetic architecture of aggression in humans. However, it is important to recognize the difference between the ecological and ethological significance of aggressive behavior (species-typical aggression) and maladaptive violence (escalated aggression) when applying the findings of aggression research using animal models to human or veterinary medicine. Well-studied rodent models for aggressive behavior in the laboratory setting include the mouse (Mus musculus), rat (Rattus norvegicus), hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). The neural circuits of rodent aggression have been gradually elucidated by several techniques, e.g., immunohistochemistry of immediate-early gene (c-Fos) expression, intracranial drug microinjection, in vivo microdialysis, and optogenetics techniques. Also, evidence accumulated from the analysis of gene-knockout mice shows the involvement of several genes in aggression. Here, we review the brain circuits that have been implicated in aggression, such as the hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and olfactory system. We then discuss the roles of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), excitatory and inhibitory amino acids in the brain, as well as their receptors, in controlling aggressive behavior, focusing mainly on recent findings. At the end of this chapter, we discuss how genes can be identified that underlie individual

  15. Homeostatic disturbances and human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisberg, Y

    1997-04-01

    A new model on the nature of human aggression is presented. It rests on the assumption that a pre-established organismic homeostatic modification, based on a decrease in neuronal membrane electric threshold, causes neural facilitation. In turn, this influences the cut-off phenomenon, in particular, neuronal network and therefore either inherited schemata representation, or acquired engram linkage programs run inadequately. These programs adjust the response to working loads of the eight normal serial stages in the body's operational regime activity. The effect of facilitation on these programs is: (1) loss of discrimination when approaching involuntary multi-stimuli; (2) the corruption of acquired engram linkage portions used in neural networks; (3) significant reduction of the voluntary degrees of freedom of response, thus narrowing the body's operational regime activity. This results in damage to certain cognitive links from some acquired engram linkages, enhancing impulse-like program mismatches and causing a unilateral 'fight' response of an aggressive nature.

  16. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Bhagabat

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis. PMID:28299350

  17. Orthodontic Management in Aggressive Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Gyawali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a type of periodontitis with early onset and rapid progression and mostly affecting young adults who occupy a large percentage of orthodontic patients. The role of the orthodontist is important in screening the disease, making a provisional diagnosis, and referring it to a periodontist for immediate treatment. The orthodontist should be aware of the disease not only before starting the appliance therapy, but also during and after the active mechanotherapy. The orthodontic treatment plan, biomechanics, and appliance system may need to be modified to deal with the teeth having reduced periodontal support. With proper force application and oral hygiene maintenance, orthodontic tooth movement is possible without any deleterious effect in the tooth with reduced bone support. With proper motivation and interdisciplinary approach, orthodontic treatment is possible in patients with controlled aggressive periodontitis.

  18. Desmoid Fibromatosis of Submandibular Region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiation therapy has many drawbacks, it should be only considered in cases where surgery can significantly cause functional disabilities in the patient. For advanced desmoid tumors, several medical treatments such as NSAIDS, antihormonal therapy and chemotherapies, have been suggested if radiotherapy and surgery ...

  19. Plantar Fibroma and Plantar Fibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also wrap around the local digital nerves and arteries. How is plantar fibroma diagnosed? There are a ... Society ® Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Foundation 9400 W. Higgins Road, Suite 220, Rosemont, IL 60018 800-235-4855 ...

  20. Serum uric acid and lipid profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuai; He, Shuang; Shang, Jun-Kui; Ma, Ming-Ming; Xu, Chang-Shui; Shi, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Jie-Wen

    2016-02-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, rapidly progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. Brain lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in the disease pathogenesis. But little was known whether serum lipids and uric acid (a natural antioxidant) levels changed in patients with prion disease. Here we retrospectively reviewed and compared the serum lipids and uric acid levels of 19 probable sporadic CJD patients and 26 healthy control subjects. We found that the serum uric acid levels in sporadic CJD patients were significantly lower than that in controls (P=0.01). Serum triglycerides, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were similar in sporadic CJD patients and controls. However, LDL/HDL ratio was lower in sporadic CJD patients (P=0.003). The low serum uric acid and LDL/HDL ratio levels in sporadic CJD indicate that dysfunction in the lipid homeostasis and oxidative stress is associated with sporadic prion disease. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Prion Protein Preference of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Subtypes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Helen M. J.; Welton, Jeremy M.; Masters, Colin L.; Klug, Genevieve M.; Boyd, Alison; Hill, Andrew F.; Collins, Steven J.; Lawson, Victoria A.

    2012-01-01

    Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is the most prevalent manifestation of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases affecting humans. The disease encompasses a spectrum of clinical phenotypes that have been correlated with molecular subtypes that are characterized by the molecular mass of the protease-resistant fragment of the disease-related conformation of the prion protein and a polymorphism at codon 129 of the gene encoding the prion protein. A cell-free assay of prion protein misfolding was used to investigate the ability of these sporadic CJD molecular subtypes to propagate using brain-derived sources of the cellular prion protein (PrPC). This study confirmed the presence of three distinct sporadic CJD molecular subtypes with PrPC substrate requirements that reflected their codon 129 associations in vivo. However, the ability of a sporadic CJD molecular subtype to use a specific PrPC substrate was not determined solely by codon 129 as the efficiency of prion propagation was also influenced by the composition of the brain tissue from which the PrPC substrate was sourced, thus indicating that nuances in PrPC or additional factors may determine sporadic CJD subtype. The results of this study will aid in the design of diagnostic assays that can detect prion disease across the diversity of sporadic CJD subtypes. PMID:22930754

  2. Sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Kazuhiko

    1974-01-01

    The heretofore made morphological studies of sporadic-E and spread-F as the typical irregularities of electron density are reviewed. These phenomena have close correlation with other geophysical phenomena which occur in the atmosphere of superhigh altitude in high latitude region. Many of these phenomena occur from same causes. Although the quantitative data are insufficient, the sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region are supposed to be caused by the precipitating charged particles falling from magnetosphere. A system, which can observe such phenomena simultaneously using the measuring instruments carried by satellites in the atmosphere of high altitude over high latitude region, is desirable to solve such problems. In detail, the morphological study on sporadic-E obtained from the observation of vertically projected ionosphere and the morphological study on sporadic-E from the observation of forward scattering and slanting entrance are reviewed. The correlation of the occurrence frequency of sporadic-E with solar activity, geomagnetic activity and other phenomena was studied. The morphological study on spread-F occurrence is reviewed. The observation of the spread-F in high latitude region by the application of top side sounding is reviewed. The correlation of the sporadic-E and spread-F in high latitude region with other geophysical phenomena is discussed. Finally, the discrete phenomenon and the diffuse phenomenon are discussed too. (Iwakiri, K.)

  3. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports.

  4. Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Fontana, Constanza M; Maselli, María E; Pérez Elizalde, Rafael F; Di Milta Mónaco, Nicolás A; Uvilla Recupero, Ana L; López Laur, José D

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that adipose tissue and adipocytokines might affect the development of prostate cancer (PCa). Leptin would have a stimulating effect on prostate cancer cells by inducing promotion and progression, whereas adiponectin would have a protective effect. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between body composition, leptin, and adiponectin levels with the prevalence and aggressiveness of PCa in men of Mendoza, Argentina. Seventy volunteers between 50 and 80 years (35 healthy men as control group and 35 with PCa) were selected. The PCa group was subclassified according to the Gleason Score (GS). Digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostatic biopsy were performed; PSA, testosterone, leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined; and a nutritional interview including anthropometric measurements and a food frequency questionnaire was carried out. Statistical analysis was performed by Student t test, ANOVA I, and Bonferroni (p Body mass index and percentage of body fat mass were not statistically different between PCa and control groups. However, body fat mass was higher in subjects with more aggressive tumors (p = 0.032). No differences were observed regarding leptin levels between the groups. Nevertheless, leptin levels were higher in subjects with high GS (p consumption and nutrient intake did not differ in the studied groups. In conclusion, body composition and leptin are related to the PCa aggressiveness but not with its prevalence.

  5. Lateralization of aggression in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisazza, Angelo; de Santi, Andrea

    2003-05-15

    Recent research has suggested that lateralization of aggressive behaviors could follow an homogeneous pattern among all vertebrates. A left eye/right hemisphere dominance in eliciting aggressive responses has been demonstrated for all groups of tetrapods but teleost fish for which data is lacking. Here we studied differential eye use during aggressive interactions in three species of teleosts: Gambusia holbrooki, Xenotoca eiseni and Betta splendens. In the first experiment we checked for lateralization in the use of the eyes while the subject was attacking its own mirror image. In order to confirm the results, other tests were performed on two species and eye preference was scored during attacks or displays directed toward a live rival. All three species showed a marked preference for using the right eye when attacking a mirror image or a live rival. Thus, the direction of asymmetry in fish appears the opposite to that shown by all the other groups of vertebrates. Hypotheses on the origin of the difference are discussed.

  6. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162

  7. Imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeyadevan, N.N.; Sohaib, S.A.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Jeyarajah, A.; Shepherd, J.H.; Fisher, C

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To describe the imaging features of aggressive angiomyxoma in a rare benign mesenchymal tumour most frequently arising from the perineum in young female patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of patients with aggressive angiomyxoma who were referred to our hospital. The imaging features were correlated with clinical information and pathology in all patients. RESULTS: Four CT and five MR studies were available for five patients (all women, mean age 39, range 24-55). Three patients had recurrent tumour at follow-up. CT and MR imaging demonstrated a well-defined mass-displacing adjacent structures. The tumour was of low attenuation relative to muscle on CT. On MR, the tumour was isointense relative to muscle on T1-weighted image, hyperintense on T2-weighted image and enhanced avidly after gadolinium contrast with a characteristic 'swirled' internal pattern. MR imaging demonstrates the extent of the tumour and its relation to the pelvic floor. Recurrent tumour has a similar appearance to the primary lesion. CONCLUSION: The MR appearances of aggressive angiomyxomas are characteristic, and the diagnosis should be considered in any young woman presenting with a well-defined mass arising from the perineum. Jeyadevan, N. N. etal. (2003). Clinical Radiology58, 157--162.

  8. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  9. [Pharmacological treatment of syndromes of aggressivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, T M

    1978-01-01

    In the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior, four major groups of drugs emerged: 1. Major tranquilizers in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior associated with psychotic syndromes. 2. Anti-epileptic drugs such as diphenylhydantoin and barbiturates in the treatment of aggressive-violent behavior within the epileptic syndrome. 3. Psychostimulants in the treatment of aggressive behavior of adolescents and children within behavior disturbances. 4. Anti-male hormones such as cyproterone acetate in the treatment of violent-aggressive behavior associated with pathological sexual hyperactivity. Whereas each category of drug is predominantly effective in one type of aggressive syndrome, it may also be effective in other conditions as well. Aggression as a result of a personality disorder is most difficult to treat with drugs.

  10. Sporadic colorectal cancer: Studying ways to an end

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidalgo, Paulo; Filipe, Bruno; Albuquerque, Cristina; Fonseca, Ricardo; Chaves, Paula; Pereira, António D

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although colorectal cancer (CRC) has often been regarded as a single entity, different pathways may lead to macroscopically similar cancers. These pathways may evolve into a patchy colonic field defect that we aimed to study in consecutive CRC patients. Methods In a single-center, observational, prospective study, consecutive CRC patients were included if surgery and a perioperative colonoscopy were planned. Personal and familial history data were collected. Tumors were studied for microsatellite instability (MSI) status, DNA repair protein expression (DRPE) and presence of BRAF and/or APC mutations. Macroscopically normal mucosa samples were tested for APC mutations. Presence and location of synchronous and metachronous adenomas and patient follow-up were analyzed. The association of two categorical variables was tested through the Fisher’s exact test (SPSS 19). Results Twenty-four patients (12 male, mean age 69 years) were studied. High-grade MSI (MSI-H) was found in eight tumors—these were significantly more common in the right colon (p = 0.047) and more likely to have an altered DRPE (p = 0.007). BRAF mutation was found in two of six tested MSI-H tumors. APC gene mutations were found in nine of 16 non-MSI-H tumors and absent in normal mucosa samples. There was a nonsignificant co-localization of CRC and synchronous adenomas and a significant co-localization (p = 0.05) of synchronous and metachronous adenomas. Discussion Sporadic CRCs evolve through distinct pathways, evidenced only by pathological and molecular analysis, but clinically relevant both for patients and their families. In non-MSI-H tumors, the expected APC gene mutations were not detected by the most commonly used techniques in a high number of cases. More studies are needed to fully characterize these tumors and to search for common early events in normal mucosa patches, which might explain the indirect evidence found here for a field defect in the colon. PMID:27087959

  11. Zolmitriptan and human aggression: interaction with alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Joshua L; Swann, Alan C; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D

    2010-07-01

    The serotonin 1(B/D) (5-HT1(B/D)) receptor has shown potential as a target for decreasing aggression. The 5-HT1(B/D) agonist zolmitriptan's ability to reduce aggressive behavior in humans and its interaction with the well-known aggression-enhancing drug alcohol were examined. Our objective was to investigate zolmitriptan's potential to modify human aggression in a laboratory paradigm across a range of alcohol doses. Alcohol has been consistently associated with aggression and violence, thus we hoped to expand current understanding of alcohol's role in aggressive behavior via manipulation of the serotonin (5-HT) system. Eleven social drinkers, seven male, were recruited to participate in a research study lasting 3-4 weeks. Aggression was measured using the point-subtraction aggression paradigm (PSAP), a laboratory model widely used in human aggression studies. Subjects were administered 5-mg zolmitriptan and placebo capsules along with alcohol doses of 0.0, 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg in a within-subject, counterbalanced dosing design. Data were analyzed as the ratio of aggressive/monetary-earning responses, to account for possible changes in overall motor function due to alcohol. There was a significant alcohol by zolmitriptan interaction on the aggressive/monetary response ratio. Specifically, compared to placebo, zolmitriptan decreased the aggressive/monetary ratio at the 0.4- and 0.8-g/kg alcohol doses. A 5-mg dose of zolmitriptan effectively reduced alcohol-related aggression in an acute dosing protocol, demonstrating an interaction of 5-HT and alcohol in human aggressive behavior.

  12. Aggression

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Robert; Brennan, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Genes interact with the environment, experience, and biology of the brain to shape an animal's behavior. This latest volume in Advances in Genetics, organized according to the most widely used model organisms, describes the latest genetic discoveries in relation to neural circuit development and activity. Explores the latest topics in neural circuits and behavior research in zebrafish, drosophila, C.elegans, and mouse models Includes methods for testing with ethical, legal, and social implications Critically analyzes future prospects.

  13. Longitudinal Relations between Beliefs Supporting Aggression,Anger Regulation, and Dating Aggression among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Terri N; Garthe, Rachel C; Goncy, Elizabeth A; Carlson, Megan M; Behrhorst, Kathryn L

    2017-05-01

    Dating aggression occurs frequently in early to mid-adolescence and has negative repercussions for psychosocial adjustment and physical health. The patterns of behavior learned during this developmental timeframe may persist in future dating relationships, underscoring the need to identify risk factors for this outcome. The current study examined longitudinal relations between beliefs supporting aggression, anger regulation, and dating aggression. Participants were 176 middle school students in sixth, seventh, and eighth grade (50 % female; 82 % African American). No direct effects were found between beliefs supporting reactive or proactive aggression and dating aggression. Beliefs supporting reactive aggression predicted increased rates of anger dysregulation, and beliefs supporting proactive aggression led to subsequent increases in anger inhibition. Anger dysregulation and inhibition were associated with higher frequencies of dating aggression. An indirect effect was found for the relation between beliefs supporting reactive aggression and dating aggression via anger dysregulation. Another indirect effect emerged for the relation between beliefs supporting proactive aggression and dating aggression through anger inhibition. The study's findings suggested that beliefs supporting proactive and reactive aggression were differentially related to emotion regulation processes, and identified anger dysregulation and inhibition as risk factors for dating aggression among adolescents.

  14. Aggressive and acute periodontal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory periodontal diseases are highly prevalent, although most of these diseases develop and progress slowly, often unnoticed by the affected individual. However, a subgroup of these diseases include aggressive and acute forms that have a relatively low prevalence but show a rapid-course, high rate of progression leading to severe destruction of the periodontal tissues, or cause systemic symptoms that often require urgent attention from healthcare providers. Aggressive periodontitis is an early-onset, destructive disease that shows a high rate of periodontal progression and distinctive clinical features. A contemporary case definition of this disease is presented. Population studies show that the disease is more prevalent in certain geographic regions and ethnic groups. Aggressive periodontitis is an infectious disease, and recent data show that in affected subjects the subgingival microbiota is composed of a mixed microbial infection, with a wide heterogeneity in the types and proportions of microorganisms recovered. Furthermore, there are significant differences in the microbiota of the disease among different geographic regions and ethnicities. There is also evidence that the Aggregatibacter actinomycetemycomitans-JP2 clone may play an important role in the development of the disease in certain populations. The host response plays an important role in the susceptibility to aggressive periodontitis, where the immune response may be complex and involve multiple mechanisms. Also, genetic factors seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease, but the mechanisms of increased susceptibility are complex and not yet fully understood. The available data suggest that aggressive periodontitis is caused by mutations either in a few major genes or in multiple small-effect genes, and there is also evidence of gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects. Diagnostic methods for this disease, based on a specific microbiologic, immunologic or

  15. The passive-aggressive organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Norton, David P

    2005-10-01

    Passive-aggressive organizations are friendly places to work: People are congenial, conflict is rare, and consensus is easy to reach. But, at the end of the day, even the best proposals fail to gain traction, and a company can go nowhere so imperturbably that it's easy to pretend everything is fine. Such companies are not necessarily saddled with mulishly passive-aggressive employees. Rather, they are filled with mostly well-intentioned people who are the victirms of flawed processes and policies. Commonly, a growing company's halfhearted or poorly thought-out attempts to decentralize give rise to multiple layers of managers, whose authority for making decisions becomes increasingly unclear. Some managers, as a result, hang back, while others won't own up to the calls they've made, inviting colleagues to second-guess or overturn the decisions. In such organizations, information does not circulate freely, and that makes it difficult for workers to understand the impact of their actions on company performance and for managers to correctly appraise employees' value to the organization. A failure to accurately match incentives to performance stifles initiative, and people do just enough to get by. Breaking free from this pattern is hard; a long history of seeing corporate initiatives ignored and then fade away tends to make people cynical. Often it's best to bring in an outsider to signal that this time things will be different. He or she will need to address every obstacle all at once: clarify decision rights; see to it that decisions stick; and reward people for sharing information and adding value, not for successfully negotiating corporate politics. If those steps are not taken, it's only a matter of time before the diseased elements of a passive-aggressive organization overwhelm the remaining healthy ones and drive the company into financial distress.

  16. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  17. Discourses of aggression in forensic mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berring, Lene Lauge; Pedersen, Liselotte; Buus, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Managing aggression in mental health hospitals is an important and challenging task for clinical nursing staff. A majority of studies focus on the perspective of clinicians, and research mainly depicts aggression by referring to patient-related factors. This qualitative study investigates how...... aggression is communicated in forensic mental health nursing records. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the discursive practices used by forensic mental health nursing staff when they record observed aggressive incidents. Textual accounts were extracted from the Staff Observation Aggression Scale....... These antecedents, combined with the aggression incident itself, created stereotyping representations of forensic psychiatric patients as deviant, unpredictable and dangerous. Patient and staff identities were continually (re)produced by an automatic response from the staff that was solely focused on the patient...

  18. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual d...

  19. Genetics and neurobiology of aggression in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Zwarts, Liesbeth; Versteven, Marijke; Callaerts, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is widely present throughout the animal kingdom and is crucial to ensure survival and reproduction. Aggressive actions serve to acquire territory, food, or mates and in defense against predators or rivals; while in some species these behaviors are involved in establishing a social hierarchy. Aggression is a complex behavior, influenced by a broad range of genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies in Drosophila provide insight into the genetic basis and control of a...

  20. Prosocial video games reduce aggressive cognitions

    OpenAIRE

    Greitemeyer, Tobias; Osswald, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Previous research has shown that playing violent video games increased aggressive tendencies. However, as pointed out by the General Learning Model (GLM) (Buckley & Anderson, 2006), depending on their content, video games do not inevitably increase but may also decrease aggressive responses. Accordingly, the present research tested the hypothesis that playing prosocial video games decreases aggressive cognitions. In fact, playing a prosocial (relative to a neutral) video g...

  1. Gibbon Aggression During Introductions: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harl, Heather; Stevens, Lisa; Margulis, Susan W; Petersen, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the prevalence of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). In this study, an online survey was developed to quantify and collect contextual details regarding the frequency and types of aggression seen during introductions of captive gibbons (Hylobatidae). Nineteen percent of institutions (17 institutions) reported observing aggression, and 6 of these institutions recorded multiple instances of aggression, though a vast majority of these cases resulted in mild injuries or none at all. The female was the primary aggressor in 23% of cases, the male was the primary aggressor in 58% of cases, and both were the primary aggressor in 1 case. Although these aggressive interactions were often not associated with a known cause, 27% of cases were associated with food displacement. In most cases, management changes, including trying new pairings, greatly reduced situational aggression, suggesting that individual personalities may play a factor in aggression. These data begin to explain the extent of aggression observed in captive gibbons; future studies will address possible correlations with aggression and introduction techniques.

  2. Aggression and coexistence in female caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckerly, Floyd W.; Ricca, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are highly gregarious, yet there has been little study of the behavioral mechanisms that foster coexistence. Quantifying patterns of aggression between male and female, particularly in the only cervid taxa where both sexes grow antlers, should provide insight into these mechanisms. We asked if patterns of aggression by male and female caribou followed the pattern typically noted in other polygynous cervids, in which males display higher frequencies and intensity of aggression. From June to August in 2011 and 2012, we measured the frequency and intensity of aggression across a range of group sizes through focal animal sampling of 170 caribou (64 males and 106 females) on Adak Island in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. Males in same-sex and mixed-sex groups and females in mixed-sex groups had higher frequencies of aggression than females in same-sex groups. Group size did not influence frequency of aggression. Males displayed more intense aggression than females. Frequent aggression in mixed-sex groups probably reflects lower tolerance of males for animals in close proximity. Female caribou were less aggressive and more gregarious than males, as in other polygynous cervid species.

  3. Psychophysiology of proactive and reactive relational aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Holterman, Leigh Ann; Breslend, Nicole L; Sullivan, Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the joint effects of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system reactivity to social and non-social stressors on proactive (i.e., goal-directed, unemotional) and reactive (i.e., emotional, impulsive) functions of relational aggression. Two hundred and forty-seven (M age =18.77years) participants completed a series of stressor tasks while their sympathetic arousal (i.e., skin conductance) and parasympathetic arousal (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia) were assessed. Participants also provided self-reports of their aggressive behavior. In the standardized social stressor only, physiological reactivity was related to aggression, such that respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation predicted proactive relational aggression whereas heightened skin conductance reactivity predicted reactive relational aggression. Finally, in the context of low skin conductance reactivity, respiratory sinus arrhythmia augmentation was related to heightened proactive and reactive aggression, whereas respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal was protective. Results suggest that the benefits hypothesized to accompany respiratory sinus arrhythmia withdrawal may only occur among individuals with low "fight or flight" stress responses. Findings extend research on the physiological indicators of aggression to relational aggression, and highlight the importance of assessing functions of aggression, as well as physiological reactivity to multiple stressors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic background of aggressive behaviour in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Stanisław Proskura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of aggression is very complicated and the basis of its occurrence has not been well explained yet. It is thought that tendency to aggressiveness is an effect of both environmental and genetic factors. Aggression is a very undesirable behavioural trait in dogs living with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between two polymorphisms: DRD4 intron II VNTR and C/T substitution in exon I HTR2B genes and aggressive behaviour in dogs. The VNTR polymorphism in the DRD4 gene was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis following PCR amplification, whereas C/T substitution in the HTR2B gene was analysed using amplification created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (ACRS-PCR. A total of 121 dogs of several breeds were analyzed. All animals were classified based on a veterinary interview and observation in two groups: aggressive (n = 21 and non-aggressive (n = 100. Significant differences in DRD4 genotype frequencies between aggressive and non-aggressive dogs were observed (P DRD4 gene with the occurrence of aggressive behaviour in dogs. Moreover, the findings give good justification for further research aimed at evaluation of the possibility of using this genetic marker in Marker-assisted Selection.

  5. Video media-induced aggressiveness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, Michael Steven

    2013-09-01

    Transmission of aggressive behaviors to children through modeling by adults has long been a commonly held psychological concept; however, with the advent of technological innovations during the last 30 years, video media-television, movies, video games, and the Internet-has become the primary model for transmitting aggressiveness to children. This review explores the acquisition of aggressive behaviors by children through modeling behaviors in violent video media. The impact of aggressive behaviors on the child, the family, and society is addressed. Suggestive action plans to curb this societal ill are presented.

  6. Book-Tax Conformity Level on the Relationship between Tax Reporting Aggressiveness and Financial Reporting Aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aisyah Rachmawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of book-tax conformity level on the relationship between tax reporting aggressiveness and financial reporting aggressiveness. Different from Frank et al. (2009 and Lennox et al. (2013, this study considers endogeneity problem to minimize biased results. Using the companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for 2013-2016, this study found that there is endogeneity problem in the relationship between tax reporting aggressiveness and financial reporting aggressiveness, but no causality relationship. In this case, only tax reporting aggressiveness that affects financial reporting aggressiveness, but not otherwise. Consistent with the hypothesis, this study also found that firm with a low level of BTC is more weakened trade-offs between tax reporting aggressiveness and financial reporting aggressiveness than firm with high level of BTC. These results are consistent either with or without include the industry dummy.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic abnormalities in sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, H.G.; Coley, S.C.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Griffiths, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the proton MR spectroscopic findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) (sporadic and variant). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging and proton MR spectra were acquired in two patients with sporadic CJD (biopsy proven) and one patient with variant CJD. RESULTS: The two patients with sporadic CJD demonstrated MR signal change within the basal ganglia and thalami and reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA):creatine ratios. The patient with variant CJD showed characteristic signal change within the pulvinar of the thalami and a markedly reduced N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratio. CONCLUSION: All three patients with CJD demonstrated evidence of reduced N-acetylaspartate: creatine ratios on MR spectroscopy. These changes imply that neuronal loss and/or dysfunction is a consistent finding in established CJD. Pandya H. G., et al (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 148--153

  8. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic abnormalities in sporadic and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, H.G.; Coley, S.C.; Wilkinson, I.D.; Griffiths, P.D

    2003-02-01

    AIM: To study the proton MR spectroscopic findings in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) (sporadic and variant). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MR imaging and proton MR spectra were acquired in two patients with sporadic CJD (biopsy proven) and one patient with variant CJD. RESULTS: The two patients with sporadic CJD demonstrated MR signal change within the basal ganglia and thalami and reduced N-acetylaspartate (NAA):creatine ratios. The patient with variant CJD showed characteristic signal change within the pulvinar of the thalami and a markedly reduced N-acetylaspartate:creatine ratio. CONCLUSION: All three patients with CJD demonstrated evidence of reduced N-acetylaspartate: creatine ratios on MR spectroscopy. These changes imply that neuronal loss and/or dysfunction is a consistent finding in established CJD. Pandya H. G., et al (2003) Clinical Radiology58, 148--153.

  9. Hospital Admissions, Biological Therapy, and Surgery in Familial and Sporadic Cases of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier Moller, Frederik; Andersen, Vibeke; Andersson, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Easily accessible predictors of disease course in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are scarce, and it remains largely unknown whether a family history of IBD predicts the course of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). We aimed to compare the course of disease in familial...... and sporadic cases of IBD. However, patients with familial CD had significantly higher risk of major surgery than sporadic CD cases after 2 years of disease duration (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-2.07). Also, sensitivity analysis suggested a slightly reduced time from diagnosis to first......-related hospitalization, biological treatment, and surgery in familial versus sporadic cases of IBD. RESULTS: A total of 27,886 IBD cases, including 1006 IBD-relative pairs, were followed-up for up to 16 years, totaling 164,979 person-years. We observed no difference in risk of hospital admissions between familial...

  10. The genetics of radiation-induced and sporadic osteosarcoma: a unifying theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosemann, Michael; Kuosaite, Virginija; Nathrath, Michaela; Atkinson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of the genome, with the neoplastic phenotype being passed from one cell generation to the other. Radiation-induced cancer has often been considered to represent a unique entity amongst neoplasia, with the energy deposition being held responsible for both direct (gene mutations) and indirect (bystander effects, induced instability etc) alterations to the cellular genome. However, radiogenic tumours in man and experimental animals appear to be physiologically and genetically indistinguishable from their sporadic counterparts, suggesting that the aetiologies of these two tumour types are in fact closely related. We have conducted a general screen of the genetic alterations in radiation-induced mouse osteosarcoma, a tumour that is histopathologically indistinguishable from human sporadic osteosarcoma. Comparison of the two tumour types indicates the existence of a common set of genetic changes, providing additional evidence to support the concept that the molecular pathology of radiation-induced malignancy is no different to that of sporadic cancers. (author)

  11. BRCA 1/2-Mutation Related and Sporadic Breast and Ovarian Cancers: More Alike than Different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Melissa; Puhalla, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    No longer is histology solely predictive of cancer treatment and outcome. There is an increasing influence of tumor genomic characteristics on therapeutic options. Both breast and ovarian cancers are at higher risk of development in patients with BRCA 1/2-germline mutations. Recent data from The Cancer Genome Atlas and others have shown a number of genomic similarities between triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) and ovarian cancers. Recently, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors have shown promising activity in hereditary BRCA 1/2-mutated and sporadic breast and ovarian cancers. In this review, we will summarize the current literature regarding the genomic and phenotypic similarities between BRCA 1/2-mutation related cancers, sporadic TNBCs, and sporadic ovarian cancers. We will also review Phase I, II, and III data using PARP inhibitors for these malignancies and compare and contrast the results with respect to histology. PMID:24579064

  12. Microsatellite D21D210 (GT-12) allele frequencies in sporadic Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannfelt, L.; Lilius, L.; Viitanen, M.; Winblad, B.; Basun, H.; Houlden, H.; Rossor, M.; Hardy, J.

    1995-01-01

    Four disease-causing mutations have so far been described in the amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Linkage analysis with a fourteen-allele microsatellite at D21S210 named GT-12 has proven useful in the elucidation of amyloid presursor protein gene involvement in Alzheimer's disease families, as it is closely linked to the gene. Most cases of Alzheimer's disease are thought to be sporadic and not familial. However, evidence from earlier studies suggests an important genetic contribution also in sporadic cases, where gene-environment interaction may contribute to the disease. We have determined frequencies of the GT-12 alleles in 78 Swedish and 49 British sporadic Alzheimer's disease cases and 104 healthy elderly control subjects, to investigate if the disease associates with a particular genotype in GT-12. However, no differences in allele frequencies were observed between any of the groups. (au) (26 refs.)

  13. Collateral Damage from Criminalizing Aggression? Lawfare through aggression accusations in the Nagorno Karabakh conflict

    OpenAIRE

    DE HOON, Marieke

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of war through the prohibition and criminalization of the act of aggression has provided a common legal language for denouncing an opponent for committing aggressive war that is used between warring sides and is understood globally. Nevertheless, due to the indeterminate nature of aggression, different actors may invoke different interpretations and conceptual frameworks related to the legality of war to accuse the other of aggression. This article asserts that the notion of ag...

  14. Ascertainment of occurring forms of aggression, stimulus thresholds and influencing factors on aggressive behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Iversen, Sigrun

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the aggressive behaviour in 102 city dogs of different breeds in Berlin. The results presented in this thesis are based on an aggression test especially developed for this investigation and consisting of 31 test sequences, as well as a physical examination. The purpose of the test was to explore the different forms of aggressive behaviour shown by dogs toward humans and to ascertain possibly existing stimulus thresholds for aggressive behaviour. Before the test ...

  15. Beyond the Positive Reinforcement of Aggression: Peers' Acceptance of Aggression Promotes Aggression via External Control Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Janis; Krahé, Barbara; Busching, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Being surrounded by peers who are accepting of aggression is a significant predictor of the development and persistence of aggression in childhood and adolescence. Whereas past research has focused on social reinforcement mechanisms as the underlying processes, the present longitudinal study analysed the role of external control beliefs as an…

  16. Neuropathological and biochemical criteria to identify acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease among presumed sporadic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Parchi, Piero; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    As an experimental model of acquired Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we performed transmission studies of sporadic CJD using knock-in mice expressing human prion protein (PrP). In this model, the inoculation of the sporadic CJD strain V2 into animals homozygous for methionine at polymorphic codon 129 (129 M/M) of the PRNP gene produced quite distinctive neuropathological and biochemical features, that is, widespread kuru plaques and intermediate type abnormal PrP (PrP(Sc) ). Interestingly, this distinctive combination of molecular and pathological features has been, to date, observed in acquired CJD but not in sporadic CJD. Assuming that these distinctive phenotypic traits are specific for acquired CJD, we revisited the literature and found two cases showing widespread kuru plaques despite the 129 M/M genotype, in a neurosurgeon and in a patient with a medical history of neurosurgery without dura mater grafting. By Western blot analysis of brain homogenates, we revealed the intermediate type of PrP(Sc) in both cases. Furthermore, transmission properties of brain extracts from these two cases were indistinguishable from those of a subgroup of dura mater graft-associated iatrogenic CJD caused by infection with the sporadic CJD strain V2. These data strongly suggest that the two atypical CJD cases, previously thought to represent sporadic CJD, very likely acquired the disease through exposure to prion-contaminated brain tissues. Thus, we propose that the distinctive combination of 129 M/M genotype, kuru plaques, and intermediate type PrP(Sc) , represents a reliable criterion for the identification of acquired CJD cases among presumed sporadic cases. © 2015 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  17. Mutation analysis for DJ-1 in sporadic and familial parkinsonism: screening strategy in parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hiroyuki; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Kubo, Shin-Ichiro; Toda, Tatsushi; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2009-05-22

    DJ-1 mutations cause autosomal recessive parkinsonism (ARP). Although some reports of DJ-1 mutations have been published, there is lack of information on the prevalence of these mutations in large-scale studies of both familial and sporadic parkinsonism. In this genetic screening study, we analyzed the distribution and frequency of DJ-1 mutations by direct nucleotide sequencing of coding exons and exon-intron boundaries of DJ-1, in 386 parkin-negative parkinsonism patients (371 index cases: 67 probands of autosomal recessive parkinsonism families, 90 probands of autosomal dominant parkinsonism families, 201 patients with sporadic parkinsonism, and 13 with unknown family histories) from 12 countries (Japan 283, China 27, Taiwan 22, Korea 22, Israel 16, Turkey 5, Philippines 2, Bulgaria 2, Greece 2, Tunisia 1, USA 2, Ukraine 1, unknown 1). None had causative mutation in DJ-1, suggesting DJ-1 mutation is very rare among patients with familial and sporadic parkinsonism from Asian countries and those with other ethnic background. This is in contrast to the higher frequencies and worldwide distribution of parkin- and PINK1-related parkinsonism in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism. Thus, after obtaining clinical information, screening for mutations in (1) parkin, (2) PINK1, (3) DJ-1, (4) ATP13A2 should be conducted in that order, in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, based on their reported frequencies. In addition, haplotype analysis should be employed to check for homozygosity of 1p36, which harbors a cluster of causative genes for ARP such as DJ-1, PINK1 and ATP13A2 in ARP and sporadic parkinsonism, especially in parkinsonism with consanguinity.

  18. Simultaneous observation of sporadic E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency coherent backscatter radar. Sporadic E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs and blanketing (fbEs frequencies, the layer height (h'Es, and the width of the range spread of sporadic E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP and continuous coherent backscatter echoes. A close relationship was found between the appearance of QP echoes in the RTI plots and the level of spatial inhomogeneity in sporadic E plasma, signified here by the difference between foEs and fbEs. During QP echo events, foEs increased while fbEs decreased, so that the difference foEs-fbEs was enhanced, indicating the development of strong spatial structuring in electron density within a sporadic E-layer. On the other hand, increases in sporadic E range spreading also correlated with the occurrence of QP echoes but the degree of correlation varied from event to event. Continuous radar echoes were observed in association with low altitude sporadic E-layers, located well below 100 km and at times as low as 90 km. During the continuous echo events, both foEs and fbEs were less variable, and the difference foEs-fbEs was small and not as dynamic as in the QP echoes. On the other hand, the Es-layer spread intensified during continuous echoes, which means that some patchiness or corrugation in those low altitude layers is also necessary for the continuous backscatter echoes to take place.

  19. Simultaneous observation of sporadic E with a rapid-run ionosonde and VHF coherent backscatter radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maruyama

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available During the SEEK 2 rocket campaign, ionograms were recorded every minute at the Yamagawa Radio Observatory at about 90km west of the region monitored by a VHF (very high frequency coherent backscatter radar. Sporadic E-layer parameters, which include the critical (foEs and blanketing (fbEs frequencies, the layer height (h'Es, and the width of the range spread of sporadic E-traces, were compared with RTI (range-time-intensity plots of VHF quasi-periodic (QP and continuous coherent backscatter echoes. A close relationship was found between the appearance of QP echoes in the RTI plots and the level of spatial inhomogeneity in sporadic E plasma, signified here by the difference between foEs and fbEs. During QP echo events, foEs increased while fbEs decreased, so that the difference foEs-fbEs was enhanced, indicating the development of strong spatial structuring in electron density within a sporadic E-layer. On the other hand, increases in sporadic E range spreading also correlated with the occurrence of QP echoes but the degree of correlation varied from event to event. Continuous radar echoes were observed in association with low altitude sporadic E-layers, located well below 100 km and at times as low as 90 km. During the continuous echo events, both foEs and fbEs were less variable, and the difference foEs-fbEs was small and not as dynamic as in the QP echoes. On the other hand, the Es-layer spread intensified during continuous echoes, which means that some patchiness or corrugation in those low altitude layers is also necessary for the continuous backscatter echoes to take place.

  20. Relational and Overt Aggression in Urban India: Associations with Peer Relations and Best Friends' Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Ostrov, Jamie M.; Raja, Radhi

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the associations between relational and overt aggression and social status, and tested whether the peer correlates of aggression vary as a function of best friends' aggression during early adolescence in urban India. One hundred and ninety-four young adolescents from primarily middle-to-upper-class families in Surat, India…

  1. Media depictions of physical and relational aggression: connections with aggression in young adults' romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M; Nelson, David A; Graham-Kevan, Nicola; Tew, Emily; Meng, K Nathan; Olsen, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.

  2. Competitive Aggression without Interaction: Effects of Competitive versus Cooperative Instructions on Aggressive Behavior in Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A.; Morrow, Melissa

    1995-01-01

    Extended and tested Deutsch's theory of competition effects. Predicted that people view competitive situations as inherently more aggressive than cooperative ones. Predicted that leading people to think of an aggressive situation in competitive terms would increase aggressive behavior. Increase of kill ratio occurred in absence of changes in…

  3. "Blurred lines?" Sexual aggression and barroom culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wayne Osgood, D; Abbey, Antonia; Parks, Michael; Flynn, Andrea; Dumas, Tara; Wells, Samantha

    2014-05-01

    Meeting potential sexual/romantic partners for mutual pleasure is one of the main reasons young adults go to bars. However, not all sexual contacts are positive and consensual, and aggression related to sexual advances is a common experience. Sometimes such aggression is related to misperceptions in making and receiving sexual advances while other times aggression reflects intentional harassment or other sexually aggressive acts. This study uses objective observational research to assess quantitatively gender of initiators and targets and the extent that sexual aggression involves intentional aggression by the initiator, the nature of responses by targets, and the role of third parties and intoxication. We analyzed 258 aggressive incidents involving sexual advances observed as part of a larger study on aggression in large capacity bars and clubs, using variables collected as part of the original research (gender, intoxication, intent) and variables coded from narrative descriptions (invasiveness, persistence, targets' responses, role of third parties). Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were used to account for nesting of incidents in evening and bars. Ninety percent of incidents involved male initiators and female targets, with almost all incidents involving intentional or probably intentional aggression. Targets mostly responded nonaggressively, usually using evasion. Staff rarely intervened; patron third parties intervened in 21% of incidents, usually to help the target but sometimes to encourage the initiator. initiators' level of invasiveness was related to intoxication of the targets, but not their own intoxication, suggesting intoxicated women were being targeted. Sexual aggression is a major problem in bars often reflecting intentional sexual invasiveness and unwanted persistence rather than misperceptions in sexual advances. Prevention needs to focus on addressing masculinity norms of male patrons and staff who support sexual aggression and better

  4. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O. (Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)), e-mail: sdtalb02@gwise.louisville.edu; Plato, Brian M (Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States)); Parker, John (Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Univ. of Louisville, Louisville (United States))

    2011-04-15

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  5. Cortical restricted diffusion as the predominant MRI finding in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbott, Sabrina D.; Sattenberg, Ronald J.; Heidenreich, Jens O.; Plato, Brian M; Parker, John

    2011-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disorder with MR findings predominantly limited to the grey matter of the cortex and the basal ganglia. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease can produce a spectrum of MR imaging findings of the brain, most notably on DWI and FLAIR sequences. Involvement of the basal ganglia and neocortex is the most common finding, but isolated involvement of the cortex can also be seen. We describe the clinical history and MRI findings of three patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease confirmed by brain biopsy or autopsy and review the literature of imaging manifestations of this disease

  6. Sporadic Endolymphatic Sac Tumor-A Very Rare Cause of Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Dizziness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Didde Trærup; Kiss, Katalin; Hansen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor is a very rare neoplasm. It is low malignant, locally destructive and expansive, but non-metastasizing. The tumor is very rare in the sporadic form, but more often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 65-year old man with left sided tinnitus and hearing loss......-operative freeze-microscopy showed inflammation tissue, whereas subsequent microscopy showed papillary-cystic endolymphatic sac tumor. Endolymphatic sac tumor is a rare neoplasm. The tumor may present with asymmetrically sensory neural hearing loss with or without tinnitus, dizziness and facial nerve paresis...

  7. Patterns of Weakness, Classification of Motor Neuron Disease, and Clinical Diagnosis of Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statland, Jeffrey M; Barohn, Richard J; McVey, April L; Katz, Jonathan S; Dimachkie, Mazen M

    2015-11-01

    When approaching a patient with suspected motor neuron disease (MND), the pattern of weakness on examination helps distinguish MND from other diseases of peripheral nerves, the neuromuscular junction, or muscle. MND is a clinical diagnosis supported by findings on electrodiagnostic testing. MNDs exist on a spectrum, from a pure lower motor neuron to mixed upper and lower motor neuron to a pure upper motor neuron variant. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive mixed upper and lower motor neuron disorder, most commonly sporadic, which is invariably fatal. This article describes a pattern approach to identifying MND and clinical features of sporadic ALS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Imaging movement-related activity in medicated Parkin-associated and sporadic Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Eimeren, Thilo; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buhmann, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Treatment-related motor complications such as dyskinesias are a major problem in the long-term management of Parkinson's disease (PD). In sporadic PD, a relatively early onset of the disease is known to be associated with an early development of dyskinesias. Although linked with early onset...... selected movements. Patients with Parkin-associated and sporadic PD showed no difference in movement-related activation patterns. Moreover, the covariates 'age' and 'disease duration' similarly influenced brain activation in both patient groups. The present finding suggests that a stable long-term motor...

  9. Reactive GTS Allocation Protocol for Sporadic Events Using the IEEE 802.15.4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhtar Azeem

    2014-01-01

    by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The proposed control protocol ensures that a given offline sporadic schedule can be adapted online in a timely manner such that the static periodic schedule has not been disturbed and the IEEE 802.15.4 standard compliance remains intact. The proposed protocol is simulated in OPNET. The simulation results are analyzed and presented in this paper to prove the correctness of the proposed protocol regarding the efficient real-time sporadic event delivery along with the periodic event propagation.

  10. Children's Moral Reasoning regarding Physical and Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.; Galotti, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    Elementary school children's moral reasoning concerning physical and relational aggression was explored. Fourth and fifth graders rated physical aggression as more wrong and harmful than relational aggression but tended to adopt a moral orientation about both forms of aggression. Gender differences in moral judgments of aggression were observed,…

  11. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  12. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  13. Individualizing management of aggressive fibromatoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, Matthew A.; Jennings, L. Candace; Mankin, Henry J.; Spiro, Ira J.; Springfield, Dempsy S.; Gebhardt, Mark C.; Rosenberg, Andrew E.; Efird, James T.; Suit, Herman D.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To examine prognostic indicators in aggressive fibromatoses that may be used to optimize case-specific management strategy. Methods and Materials: One hundred and seven fibromatoses presenting between 1971 and 1992 were analyzed. The following treatment modalities were utilized: (a) surgery alone for 51 tumors; (b) radiation alone for 15 tumors; and (c) radiation and surgery (combined modality) for 41 tumors. Outcome analysis was based on 5-year actuarial local control rates. Results: Control rates among surgery, radiation therapy, and combined modality groups were 69%, 93%, and 72%. Multivariate analysis identified age 60 Gy was seen in patients with unresected or gross residual disease. Of the patients, 23 with disease involving the plantar region had a control rate of 62%, with significantly worse outcomes in children. Conclusions: These results are consistent with those found in the relevent literature. They support primary resection with negative margins when feasible. Radiation is a highly effective alternative in situations where surgery would result in major functional or cosmetic defects. When negative surgical margins are not achieved in recurrent tumors, radiation is recommended. Perioperative radiation should be considered in other high-risk groups (recurrent disease, positive margins, and plantar tumors in young patients). Doses of 60-65 Gy for gross disease and 50-60 Gy for microscopic residual are recommended. Observation may be considered for primary tumors with disease remaining in situ when they are located such that progression would not cause significant morbidity. Although plantar lesions in children may represent a group at high risk for recurrence or aggressive behavior, the greater potential for radiation-induced morbidity in this group must also temper its use. Given the inconsistent nature and treatment response of this tumor, it is fundamental that treatment recommendations should be made based on the risk:benefit analysis for

  14. Pathways to Aggression in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Malcolm W.; Fischer, Kurt W.; Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; Smith, Kevin W.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Malcolm Watson, Kurt Fischer, Jasmina Burdzovic Andreas, and Kevin Smith describe and compare two approaches to assessing risk factors that lead to aggression in children. The first, the severe risks approach, focuses on how risk factors form a pathway that leads to aggressive behavior. Within this approach, an inhibited…

  15. Relational Aggression and Victimization in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Eric R.; Czar, Katherine A.; Prather, Emily; Dyess, Christy

    2013-01-01

    For this study we explored relational aggression and victimization in a college sample (N = 307), examining potential gender and race differences, correlates, and the link between relational aggression and common emotional and behavioral problems, independent of relational victimization. Gender and race differences were observed on relational…

  16. How Food Controls Aggression in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rod S.; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún; Shin, Euncheol; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J.

    2014-01-01

    How animals use sensory information to weigh the risks vs. benefits of behavioral decisions remains poorly understood. Inter-male aggression is triggered when animals perceive both the presence of an appetitive resource, such as food or females, and of competing conspecific males. How such signals are detected and integrated to control the decision to fight is not clear. For instance, it is unclear whether food increases aggression directly, or as a secondary consequence of increased social interactions caused by attraction to food. Here we use the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, to investigate the manner by which food influences aggression. We show that food promotes aggression in flies, and that it does so independently of any effect on frequency of contact between males, increase in locomotor activity or general enhancement of social interactions. Importantly, the level of aggression depends on the absolute amount of food, rather than on its surface area or concentration. When food resources exceed a certain level, aggression is diminished, suggestive of reduced competition. Finally, we show that detection of sugar via Gr5a+ gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs) is necessary for food-promoted aggression. These data demonstrate that food exerts a specific effect to promote aggression in male flies, and that this effect is mediated, at least in part, by sweet-sensing GRNs. PMID:25162609

  17. The Barrier within: Relational Aggression among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Relational aggression among women presents an overlooked barrier to women's quest for advancement in the workplace. Although research on women's leadership extols their ability to collaborate and form lasting, supportive relationships, one cannot assume that all women are supportive of other women. Research reveals that relational aggression,…

  18. Psychiatric nurses' experiences with inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, H.L.I.; Bowers, L.; Oud, N.E.; Jansen, G.J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a survey instrument, the experiences of psychiatric nurses with inpatienaggression were investigated in East London, U.K. On this Perceptions of Prevalence Of Aggression Scale (POPAS), annual experiences with 15 types of disruptive and aggressive behavior were rated anonymously. Staff members

  19. Treatment of Aggressive NK-Cell Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Anders Kindberg; Jensen, Paw; Johansen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive NK-cell leukemia is a rare malignancy with neoplastic proliferation of natural killer cells. It often presents with constitutional symptoms, a rapid declining clinical course, and a poor prognosis with a median survival of a few months. The disease is usually resistant to cytotoxic...... literature concerning treatment of aggressive NK-cell leukemia....

  20. Melatonin increases reactive aggression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinting; Zhong, Ru; Xiong, Wei; Liu, Haibo; Eisenegger, Christoph; Zhou, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Melatonin, a hormone released preferentially by the pineal gland during the night, affects circadian rhythms and aging processes. As animal studies have shown that melatonin increases resident-intruder aggression, this study aimed to investigate the impact of melatonin treatment on human aggression. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled between-participant design, 63 healthy male volunteers completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) after oral administration of melatonin or placebo. We found that when given the opportunity to administer high or low punishments to an opponent, participants who ingested melatonin selected the high punishment more often than those who ingested placebo. The increased reactive aggression under melatonin administration remained after controlling for inhibitory ability, trait aggression, trait impulsiveness, circadian preference, perceptual sensibility to noise, and changes in subjective sleepiness and emotional states. This study provides novel and direct evidence for the involvement of melatonin in human social processes.

  1. Protection of nuclear facilities against outer aggressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aussourd, P.; Candes, P.; Le Quinio, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various types of outer aggressions envisaged in safety analysis for nuclear facilities are reviewed. These outer aggressions are classified as natural and non-natural phenomena, the latter depending on the human activities in the vicinity of nuclear sites. The principal natural phenomena able to constitute aggressions are atmospheric phenomena (strong winds, snow storms, hail, frosting mists), hydrologie phenomena such as tides, surges, flood, low waters, and geologic phenomena such as earthquakes. Artificial phenomena are concerned with aircraft crashes, projectiles, fire, possible ruptures of dams, and intentional human aggressions. The protection against intentional human aggressions is of two sorts: first, the possibility of access to the installations mostly sensitive to sabotage are to be prevented or reduced, secondly redundant circuits and functions must be separated for preventing their simultaneous destruction in the case when sabotage actors have reach the core of the facility [fr

  2. Are Aggressive Cartoons Really Funnier? A Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Stieger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that more aggressive cartoons are perceived as funnier. The current study (N = 106; 16 cartoons examined this finding in more detail by additionally including painfulness and cleverness rankings of cartoons, and by examining possible moderating effects of different humor styles, self-esteem (explicit, implicit, and social desirability. Aggressive or painful cartoons were not perceived to be funnier, but were rated as having a cleverer punch line. Effects were only weakly correlated with participants’ humor styles, but were independent of self-esteem and social desirability. This suggests that aggressive cartoons are not in general perceived to be funnier than non-aggressive ones, and that there may be other moderators influencing this effect (e.g., the type of cartoons, definition of aggression and funniness, cultural aspects.

  3. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Smith, Georgia; Burn, Michele; Litherland, Steven; Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Miller, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship of barroom aggression with both general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies. The present study investigated these associations in a rarely studied and high-risk population: construction tradespeople. Male construction tradespeople (n = 211) aged 18-35 years (M = 21.91, SD = 4.08 years) participated in a face-to-face questionnaire assessing general and barroom-specific alcohol expectancies and perpetration of physical and verbal barroom aggression as well as control variables, age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. Sequential logistic regression analyses revealed that general alcohol-aggression expectancies of courage or dominance were not predictive of either verbal or physical barroom aggression after controlling for age, alcohol consumption and trait aggression. However, barroom-specific alcohol expectancies were associated with both verbal and physical barroom aggression, with positive associations found for expected hyper-emotionality and protective effects for expected cognitive impairment. In a population where rates of risky drinking and barroom aggression are high, specific expectations about the effects of drinking in bars may influence subsequent aggressive behaviour in bars. [Zinkiewicz L, Smith G, Burn M, Litherland S, Wells S, Graham K, Miller P. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies and barroom aggression among construction tradespeople. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:549-556]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  4. Pathways to romantic relational aggression through adolescent peer aggression and heavy episodic drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, Erica M; Sukhawathanakul, Paweena; Caldeira, Valerie; Homel, Jacqueline; Leadbeater, Bonnie

    2016-11-01

    Adolescent peer aggression is a well-established correlate of romantic relational aggression; however, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Heavy episodic drinking (or "binge" alcohol use) was examined as both a prior and concurrent mediator of this link in a sample of 282 12-18 year old interviewed four times over 6 years. Path analyses indicated that early peer relational and physical aggression each uniquely predicted later romantic relational aggression. Concurrent heavy episodic drinking fully mediated this effect for peer physical aggression only. These findings highlight two important mechanisms by which peer aggression may increase the risk of later romantic relational aggression: a direct pathway from peer relational aggression to romantic relational aggression and an indirect pathway through peer physical aggression and concurrent heavy episodic drinking. Prevention programs targeting romantic relational aggression in adolescence and young adulthood may benefit from interventions that target multiple domains of risky behavior, including the heavy concurrent use of alcohol. Aggr. Behav. 42:563-576, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss; Inc.

  6. Psychotic experiences and aggression inoutpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Tsirigotis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some authors report that aggressive behaviour in schizophrenia is of heterogeneous sources, for example, aggression may be an impulsive action and even deliberate behaviour designed to intimidate others. Violence and aggressive behaviour may also be associated with psychotic experiences, such as delusions or hallucinations. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between psychotic experiences and the intensiveness of hostility and aggression in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Material and method: Seventy outpatients (35 men and 35 women with paranoid schizophrenia were examined. Relevant scales, subscales and indices of the Polish version of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were used. Results: The analysis of correlation and the factor analysis revealed a number of statistically significant correlations between the scores of the scales assessing psychotic experiences and those assessing the intensiveness of hostility and aggression. Conclusions: The results of this study confirm the presence of a number of relationships between psychotic experiences and felt hostility and aggression. Psychotic symptoms and indices of aggressiveness created five factors: “psychoticism,” “hostility,” “psychopathic aggression,” “poignancy,” “persecutory ideas.” Important for the felt hostility and aggressiveness in patients turned out to be experienced anxiety about their mental health because of the sense of the unreality of what is going on and because of the sense of alienation of their own thoughts. Another important factor turned out to be a sense of being wronged by life, misunderstood by others, and the belief that people have a grudge and try to harm. In contrast, characteristics, attitudes and behaviour which are the opposite of paranoid disorders, i.e. faith in people and optimistic attitude towards them, are an important factor for the inhibition of aggression.

  7. Neurobiology of Escalated Aggression and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczek, Klaus A.; de Almeida, Rosa M. M.; Kravitz, Edward A.; Rissman, Emilie F.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Raine, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and its escalation with greater precision; second, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem structures emerge as pivotal nodes in the limbic circuitry mediating escalated aggressive behavior. The neurochemical and molecular work focuses on the genes that enable invertebrate aggression in males and females and genes that are expressed or suppressed as a result of aggressive experiences in mammals. The fruitless gene, immediate early genes in discrete serotonin neurons, or sex chromosome genes identify sexually differentiated mechanisms for escalated aggression. Male, but not female, fruit flies establish hierarchical relationships in fights and learn from previous fighting experiences. By manipulating either the fruitless or transformer genes in the brains of male or female flies, patterns of aggression can be switched with males using female patterns and vice versa. Work with Sts or Sry genes suggests so far that other genes on the X chromosomes may have a more critical role in female mouse aggression. New data from feral rats point to the regulatory influences on mesocortical serotonin circuits in highly aggressive animals via feedback to autoreceptors and via GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. Imaging data lead to the hypothesis that antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior may in part be attributable to impairments in some of the brain structures (dorsal and ventral PFC, amygdala, and angular gyrus) subserving moral cognition and emotion. PMID:17978016

  8. Neurobiology of escalated aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miczek, Klaus A; de Almeida, Rosa M M; Kravitz, Edward A; Rissman, Emilie F; de Boer, Sietse F; Raine, Adrian

    2007-10-31

    Psychopathological violence in criminals and intense aggression in fruit flies and rodents are studied with novel behavioral, neurobiological, and genetic approaches that characterize the escalation from adaptive aggression to violence. One goal is to delineate the type of aggressive behavior and its escalation with greater precision; second, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and brainstem structures emerge as pivotal nodes in the limbic circuitry mediating escalated aggressive behavior. The neurochemical and molecular work focuses on the genes that enable invertebrate aggression in males and females and genes that are expressed or suppressed as a result of aggressive experiences in mammals. The fruitless gene, immediate early genes in discrete serotonin neurons, or sex chromosome genes identify sexually differentiated mechanisms for escalated aggression. Male, but not female, fruit flies establish hierarchical relationships in fights and learn from previous fighting experiences. By manipulating either the fruitless or transformer genes in the brains of male or female flies, patterns of aggression can be switched with males using female patterns and vice versa. Work with Sts or Sry genes suggests so far that other genes on the X chromosomes may have a more critical role in female mouse aggression. New data from feral rats point to the regulatory influences on mesocortical serotonin circuits in highly aggressive animals via feedback to autoreceptors and via GABAergic and glutamatergic inputs. Imaging data lead to the hypothesis that antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior may in part be attributable to impairments in some of the brain structures (dorsal and ventral PFC, amygdala, and angular gyrus) subserving moral cognition and emotion.

  9. Aggression on inpatient units: Clinical characteristics and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Laoise; Stewart, Duncan; Richardson, Michelle; Lavelle, Mary; James, Karen; Hardy, Claire; Price, Owen; Bowers, Len

    2016-08-01

    Aggression and violence are widespread in UK Mental Health Trusts, and are accompanied by negative psychological and physiological consequences for both staff and other patients. Patients who are younger, male, and have a history of substance use and psychosis diagnoses are more likely to display aggression; however, patient factors are not solely responsible for violence, and there are complex circumstances that lead to aggression. Indeed, patient-staff interactions lead to a sizeable portion of aggression and violence on inpatient units, thus they cannot be viewed without considering other forms of conflict and containment that occur before, during, and after the aggressive incident. For this reason, we examined sequences of aggressive incidents in conjunction with other conflict and containment methods used to explore whether there were particular profiles to aggressive incidents. In the present study, 522 adult psychiatric inpatients from 84 acute wards were recruited, and there were 1422 incidents of aggression (verbal, physical against objects, and physical). Cluster analysis revealed that aggressive incident sequences could be classified into four separate groups: solo aggression, aggression-rule breaking, aggression-medication, and aggression-containment. Contrary to our expectations, we did not find physical aggression dominant in the aggression-containment cluster, and while verbal aggression occurred primarily in solo aggression, physical aggression also occurred here. This indicates that the management of aggression is variable, and although some patient factors are linked with different clusters, these do not entirely explain the variation. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Higher cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase expression in familial than in sporadic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klauke, M.L.; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Budczies, J.; Bult, P.; Prinzler, J.; Radke, C.; van Krieken, J.H.; Dietel, M.; Denkert, C.; Muller, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) is a key element of the single-base excision pathway for repair of DNA single-strand breaks. To compare the cytoplasmic and nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) expression between familial (BRCA1, BRCA2, or non BRCA1/2) and sporadic breast cancer, we investigated 39 sporadic

  11. A randomized trial comparing levothyroxine with radioactive iodine in the treatment of sporadic nontoxic goiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesche, M. F.; Tiel-V Buul, M. M.; Lips, P.; Smits, N. J.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    A randomized clinical trial was performed in consecutive patients with sporadic nontoxic nodular goiter to compare efficacy and side effects of iodine-131 ((131)I) therapy with suppressive levothyroxine (L-thyroxine) treatment. Sixty-four patients were randomized after stratification for sex and

  12. CSF Neurofilament Proteins Levels are Elevated in Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; van Everbroeck, Bart; Abdo, W. Farid; Kremer, Berry P. H.; Verbeek, Marcel M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we investigated the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of neurofilament light (NFL) and heavy chain (NFHp35), total tau (t-tau), and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to detect disease specific profiles in sporadic Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (sCJD) patients and Alzheimer's disease

  13. Health professions and risk of sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob disease, 1965 to 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Alcalde-Cabero; J. Almazán-Isla; J-P. Brandel (Jean-Philippe); M. Breithaupt; J. Catarino; S.J. Collins (Steven); J. Haybäck; R. Höftberger (Romana); E. Kahana; G.G. Kovacs (Gabor); A. Ladogana (Anna); E. Mitrová (Eva); A. Molesworth; Y. Nakamura; M. Pocchiari (Maurizio); M. Popovic; M. Ruiz-Tovar; A. Taratuto; C. van Duin; M. Yamada; R.G. Will (Robert); I. Zerr (Inga); J. de Pedro-Cuesta (Jesús)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn 2009, a pathologist with sporadic Creutzfeldt- Jakob Disease (sCJD) was reported to the Spanish registry. This case prompted a request for information on health-related occupation in sCJD cases from countries participating in the European Creutzfeldt Jakob Disease Surveillance network

  14. Detection of infectivity in blood of persons with variant and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douet, Jean Yves; Zafar, Saima; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Lacroux, Caroline; Lugan, Séverine; Aron, Naima; Cassard, Herve; Ponto, Claudia; Corbière, Fabien; Torres, Juan Maria; Zerr, Inga; Andreoletti, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of infectivity in erythrocytes, leukocytes, and plasma of 1 person with variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in the plasma of 2 in 4 persons whose tests were positive for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The measured infectivity levels were comparable to those reported in various animals with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

  15. CT and MRI in iatrogenic and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: as far as imaging perseives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Santos, J.M. [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico, HU Dr. Morales Meseguer, Murcia (Spain)]|[Section of Neuroradiology, HU Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain); Lopez Corbalan, J.A. [Section of Neuroradiology, HU Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain); Martinez-Lage, J.F. [Service of Neurosurgery, HU Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain); Sicilis Guillen, J. [Service of Neurology, HU Virgen de la Arrixaca, Murcia (Spain)

    1996-04-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), an invariably fatal dementing illness, affects patients in middle and old age (sporadic form). However, the association of CJD with certain treatments (iatrogenic form) has been described in younger patients. The clinical onset of the two forms seems to differ; in the iatrogenic form a high frequency of the ataxic CJD variant has been reported. Nowadays, a definitive diagnosis of CJD is exclusively histological. We present five cases of CJD, one sporadic and the others iatrogenic, following dura mater grafts and analyse their CT and MRI features. CT typically demonstrates brain atrophy, generally progressive, but in sporadic CJD midfield MRI also showed abnormal signal, with predominant deep grey matter involvement. The use of narrow windows with proton-density sequences may reveal subtle cortical signal abnormalities not clearly visible with conventional windows. The early demonstration of these changes, in the appropriate clinical context, may suggest CJD and this supports the use of mid- or high magnetic fields in the diagnosis of CJD and other forms of dementia. In our cases of iatrogenic CJD, low-field MRI did not reveal more than the progressive atrophy displayed by CT, and raises the question on the one hand of possible differences, based on imaging, from the sporadic form, and on the other of the lack of sensitivity of low-field magnets to signal changes in CJD. (orig.)

  16. CT and MRI in iatrogenic and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: as far as imaging perseives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Santos, J.M.; Lopez Corbalan, J.A.; Martinez-Lage, J.F.; Sicilis Guillen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), an invariably fatal dementing illness, affects patients in middle and old age (sporadic form). However, the association of CJD with certain treatments (iatrogenic form) has been described in younger patients. The clinical onset of the two forms seems to differ; in the iatrogenic form a high frequency of the ataxic CJD variant has been reported. Nowadays, a definitive diagnosis of CJD is exclusively histological. We present five cases of CJD, one sporadic and the others iatrogenic, following dura mater grafts and analyse their CT and MRI features. CT typically demonstrates brain atrophy, generally progressive, but in sporadic CJD midfield MRI also showed abnormal signal, with predominant deep grey matter involvement. The use of narrow windows with proton-density sequences may reveal subtle cortical signal abnormalities not clearly visible with conventional windows. The early demonstration of these changes, in the appropriate clinical context, may suggest CJD and this supports the use of mid- or high magnetic fields in the diagnosis of CJD and other forms of dementia. In our cases of iatrogenic CJD, low-field MRI did not reveal more than the progressive atrophy displayed by CT, and raises the question on the one hand of possible differences, based on imaging, from the sporadic form, and on the other of the lack of sensitivity of low-field magnets to signal changes in CJD. (orig.)

  17. Diet-gene interactions in sporadic and hereditary colorectal carcinogenesis : epidemiological perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, D.

    1999-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is known to develop by accumulation of alterations in regulatory genes. Both familial and environmental factors play a role in the etiology of colorectal cancer and its adenomatous precursor lesions. This thesis examines diet-gene interactions in sporadic and hereditary

  18. A large-scale international meta-analysis of paraoxonase gene polymorphisms in sporadic ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wills, A-M.; Cronin, S.; Slowik, A.; Kasperaviciute, D.; Van Es, M. A.; Morahan, J. M.; Valdmanis, P. N.; Meininger, V.; Melki, J.; Shaw, C. E.; Rouleau, G. A.; Fisher, E. M. C.; Shaw, P. J.; Morrison, K. E.; Pamphlett, R.; Van den Berg, L. H.; Figlewicz, D. A.; Andersen, P. M.; Al-Chalabi, A.; Hardiman, O.; Purcell, S.; Landers, J. E.; Brown, R. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Six candidate gene studies report a genetic association of DNA variants within the paraoxonase locus with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, several other large studies, including five genome-wide association studies, have not duplicated this finding. Methods: We

  19. Ophthalmoscopy for congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in patients with sporadic colorectal carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartvigsen, A; Myrhøj, T; Bülow, Steffen

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the frequency of congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium (CHRPE) in sporadic colorectal cancer, ophthalmoscopy was carried out in 34 patients with colorectal carcinoma without known familial disposition. CHRPE is one of the most frequent extracolonic...

  20. Mechanism for the formation of sporadic-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasov, M.N.; Mishin, E.V.; Telegin, V.A.

    1980-09-01

    A model of the collective interaction of precipitating electrons and the ionospheric plasma is used to explain the formation of short-duration sporadic-E layers in the high-latitude ionosphere. The changes produced in electron density by this collective interaction mechanism are considered.

  1. Interrelationships between age, thyroid volume, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid function in patients with sporadic nontoxic goiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Smits, N. J.; Touber, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that during the natural history of sporadic nontoxic goiter (SNG), a diffuse goiter precedes a multinodular goiter with gradual development of autonomous thyroid function. A cross-sectional survey of 102 consecutive patients with SNG (seven male, 95 female) was performed.

  2. Sporadic minute medullary thyroid carcinoma with a double RET mutation: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Jun; Chiba, Tomohiro; Nakazato, Yoko; Hirano, Kouichi; Kamma, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    We describe a 74-year-old man with a nodular goiter accompanied by an incidental sporadic minute medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Histopathologically, the MTC was a well-defined 1.7 mm tumor in the upper one-third right lobe, with solid cell nests (SCNs) adjacent to the MTC. C-cells were scattered mainly around the SCNs, but C-cell hyperplasia was not evident in the background thyroid. The MTC cell phenotype was immunohistochemically identical to background C-cells, but was completely different from the SCN main cells. Direct DNA analyses of isolated MTC paraffin-embedded specimens revealed two RET proto-oncogene missense point mutations in exon 11 (i.e., C630R and C634W). The non-tumor thyroid tissue did not reveal any mutations. This study reports the smallest case of sporadic MTC with a double RET somatic mutation, substantiating that RET mutations can occur during a very early stage of carcinogenesis. The combined presence of C630R and C634W represent a novel somatic mutation in sporadic MTC. The present case indicates that the sporadic MTC originated from the surrounding C-cells of the SCNs without C-cell hyperplasia and that the SCN main cells may not be able to develop into an MTC. © 2017 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Analysis of FGGY as a risk factor for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Es, M.A. van; Vught, P.W. van; Veldink, J.H.; Andersen, P.M.; Birve, A.; Lemmens, R.; Cronin, S.; Kooi, A.J. van der; Visser, M. de; Schelhaas, H.J.; Hardiman, O.; Ragoussis, I.; Lambrechts, D.; Robberecht, W.; Wokke, J.H.J.; Ophoff, R.A.; Berg, L.H. van den

    2009-01-01

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) using pooled DNA samples from 386 sporadic ALS patients and 542 controls from the USA, identified genetic variation in FGGY (FLJ10986) as a risk factor, as well as 66 additional candidate SNPs. Considering the large number of hypotheses that are tested in GWAS,

  4. Medical and environmental risk factors for sporadic frontotemporal dementia: a retrospective case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Rosso (Sonia); E.J. Landweer; M. Houterman; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C. van Swieten (John); L. Donker Kaat (Laura)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA retrospective case-control study was carried out on 80 patients with sporadic frontotemporal dementia and 124 age, sex, and surrogate informant matched controls with respect to various medical and environmental risk factors. Head trauma was associated with an odds ratio of 3.3 (95%

  5. Glycoform-selective prion formation in sporadic and familial forms of prion disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, X.; Yuan, J.; Haïk, S.; Cali, I.; Zhan, Y.; Moudjou, M.; Li, B.; Laplanche, J.L.; Laude, H.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Gambetti, P.

    2013-01-01

    The four glycoforms of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) variably glycosylated at the two N-linked glycosylation sites are converted into their pathological forms (PrP(Sc)) in most cases of sporadic prion diseases. However, a prominent molecular characteristic of PrP(Sc) in the recently identified

  6. The clinical phenotype of hereditary versus sporadic prostate cancer: HPC definition revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Aben, K.K.H.; Oort, I.M. van; Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Vasen, H.F.A.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The definition of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) is based on family history and age at onset. Intuitively, HPC is a serious subtype of prostate cancer but there are only limited data on the clinical phenotype of HPC. Here, we aimed to compare the prognosis of HPC to the sporadic form

  7. ATM down-regulation is associated with poor prognosis in sporadic breast carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bueno, R C; Canevari, R A; Villacis, R A R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene downexpression has been reported in sporadic breast carcinomas (BC); however, the prognostic value and mechanisms of ATM deregulation remain unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: ATM and miRNAs (miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-203, miR-421, miR-664, miR-576-5p...

  8. Sporadic nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: A consecutive series of 8 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Bin Yeh

    2014-09-01

    Discussion: These cases confirm that sporadic NFLE closely resembles familial NFLE, and comprises a set of distinct clinical manifestations, with variable intensity, and variable scalp EEG epileptiform abnormalities across sleep and wakefulness, which have previously been identified in Caucasian patients from Europe and North America.

  9. S182 and STM2 gene missense mutations in sporadic alzheimer disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Susumu; Matsushita, Sachio; Hasegawa, Yoshio; Muramatsu, Taro [Kurihama National Hospital, Yokosuka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-26

    The linkage of genes S182 and STM2 to early-onset or late-onset sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD) was not found in a group of 97 clinically-diagnosed AD patients and 46 autopsy-confirmed AD cases, using PCR-RFLP methods. 7 refs.

  10. Variation of sporadic meteor activity during the 23. cycle of solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porubcan, V.; Zigo, P.; Cevolani, G.; Rozboril, J.; Pupillo, G.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of the influence of solar activity on sporadic meteor counts based on visual and radar meteor observations present rather contradictory results, indicating a possible variation of the sporadic meteor counts with a solar activity, with the maximum in observed meteor rates occurring from zero up to about five years after the solar activity maximum. With this perspective, in the present paper observations of the sporadic meteor background, obtained by a forward-scatter radio system for meteor observation operating along the Bologna (Italy)-Modra (Slovakia) baseline in 1996-2007, are analysed and discussed. The activity curves of all echoes and their variations indicate a correlation with solar activity in the 23. solar cycle represented by the solar relative number R (corr. coef. 0.71), as well as with the solar coronal index C1 (corr. coef. 0.73). The mass distribution exponent s and its variations (with corr. coef. against R and C1, 0.12 and 0.25, respectively) does not show a correlation consistent with solar activity and, from the viewpoint of s, suggest the existence of a relatively stable population of sporadic background meteoroids in the surroundings of the Earth's orbit during the investigated period.

  11. Clinical characteristics of familial and sporadic age-related macular degeneration: differences and similarities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saksens, N.T.M.; Kersten, E.; Groenewoud, J.M.M.; Grinsven, M.J.J.P. van; Ven, J.P.H. van de; Sanchez, C.I.; Schick, T.; Fauser, S.; Hollander, A.I. den; Hoyng, C.B.; Boon, C.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: We describe the differences and similarities in clinical characteristics and phenotype of familial and sporadic patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: We evaluated data of 1828 AMD patients and 1715 controls enrolled in the European Genetic Database. All subjects

  12. KCNQ1OT1 hypomethylation: A Novel disguised genetic predisposition in sporadic pediatric adrenocortical tumors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnen, Mark; Alders, Mariëlle; Zwaan, Christian M.; Wagner, Anja; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric adrenal tumors, other than neuroblastoma, are rare and can be associated with a genetic predisposition. In this report we describe two patients with an isolated and apparently sporadic adrenocortical tumor; one girl with a carcinoma, the other girl with an adenoma. In both patients genetic

  13. Verbal versus Physical Aggression in Intermittent Explosive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Look, Amy E.; McCloskey, Michael S.; Coccaro, Emil F.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED) is the only adult psychiatric diagnosis for which pathological aggression is primary. DSM-IV criteria focused on physical aggression, but DSM-5 allows for an IED diagnosis in the presence of frequent verbal aggression with or without concurrent physical aggression. It remains unclear how individuals with verbal aggression differ from those with physical aggression with respect to cognitive-affective deficits and psychosocial functioning. The current study...

  14. Oestrogen receptor beta isoform expression in sporadic colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis and progressive stages of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanato Filho, Paulo Roberto; Aguiar Júnior, Samuel; Begnami, Maria Dirlei

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas are ...... provide a better understanding of oestrogens and their potential preventive and therapeutic effects on sporadic colorectal cancer and cancers associated with FAP syndrome.......BACKGROUND: Among the sex hormones, oestrogen may play a role in colorectal cancer, particularly in conjunction with oestrogen receptor-β (ERβ). The expression of ERβ isoform variants and their correlations with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) syndrome and sporadic colorectal carcinomas...... was identified in sporadic polyps and in sporadic colorectal cancer as well as in polyps from FAP syndrome patients compared with normal tissues (p

  15. Mutation analysis of the RET gene in individuals with sporadic and familial pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, S.; Sirugo, G.; Bale, A.E. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Pheochromocytoma is common to many familial cancer syndromes including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) and neurofibromatosis (NF). Although sporadic cases of pheochromocytoma have been examined for mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16 of the RET gene, only one case with a mutation in exon 16 has been reported thus far. We are performing systematic examination of exons of the RET gene, which has previously been associated with mutation in both MEN2 A and B, to determine the role RET may play in the etiology of pheochromocytoma. Seventeen cases of sporadic pheochromocytoma and 3 cases of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma were obtained from the pathology archives. Histopathology of all specimens was confirmed to be either pheochromocytoma or medullary thyroid carcinoma before DNA was extracted from 0.5{mu} thin sections of paraffin-embedded tissue. DNA from familial pheochromocytoma patients was also available for analysis. All sporadic and familial cases were amplified for exons 2, 6 and 16 of the RET gene. Single strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis was performed for exons 2 and 6. On finding a variation in the SSCP pattern in the pheochromocytoma kindred we sequenced all the samples for exon 2. A single base pair variation was found, which did not segregate with pheochromocytoma in the family. No variant SSCP patterns have been observed with the exon 6 PCR products thus far. Exon 16 PCR products were subjected to DNA restriction analysis with Fok I. This enzyme detects a single base pair change associated with MEN2 B. With the exception of one sample with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma, all samples showed the normal pattern on DNA restriction analysis. Thus we can exclude exons 2 and 6 of the RET gene in the pathogenesis of pheochromocytoma. SSCP analyses with other exons in the RET gene are underway.

  16. BRCA promoter methylation in sporadic versus BRCA germline mutation-related breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Shoko; Moelans, Cathy Beatrice; van Diest, Paul Joannes

    2017-05-31

    In breast cancer, BRCA promoter hypermethylation and BRCA germline mutations are said to occur together rarely, but this property has not yet been translated into a clinical test. Our aim in this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of BRCA1/2 methylation in distinguishing breast carcinomas of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation carriers from sporadic breast carcinomas using a recently developed BRCA methylation assay based on methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA). MS-MLPAs were performed to assess BRCA1 and BRCA2 methylation in breast carcinoma tissues from 39 BRCA1 and 33 BRCA2 germline mutation carriers, 80 patients with sporadic breast cancer, and normal breast tissues from 5 BRCA1 and 4 BRCA2 mutation carriers and 5 nonmutation carriers. Methylation frequencies varied considerably between CpG sites across the BRCA1 and BRCA2 promoters. Some CpG sites were methylated more frequently in BRCA1/2-related than in sporadic carcinomas, whereas other CpG sites were methylated more frequently in sporadic carcinomas, with large variances in sensitivity and specificity as a consequence. The diagnostic value of BRCA promoter methylation analysis in distinguishing BRCA1/2-related from sporadic breast carcinomas seems to be considerably dependent on the targeted CpG sites. These findings are important for adequate use of BRCA methylation analysis as a prescreening tool for BRCA germline genetic testing or to identify BRCAness patients who may benefit from targeted therapies such as poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase inhibitors.

  17. Sporadic adult onset primary torsion dystonia is a genetic disorder by the temporal discrimination test.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kimmich, Okka

    2012-02-01

    Adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is an autosomal dominant disorder with markedly reduced penetrance; patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia are much more prevalent than familial. The temporal discrimination threshold is the shortest time interval at which two stimuli are detected to be asynchronous and has been shown to be abnormal in adult-onset primary torsion dystonia. The aim was to determine the frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and their first-degree relatives. We hypothesized that abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first relatives would be compatible with an autosomal dominant endophenotype. Temporal discrimination thresholds were examined in 61 control subjects (39 subjects <50 years of age; 22 subjects >50 years of age), 32 patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia (cervical dystonia n = 30, spasmodic dysphonia n = 1 and Meige\\'s syndrome n = 1) and 73 unaffected first-degree relatives (36 siblings, 36 offspring and one parent) using visual and tactile stimuli. Z-scores were calculated for all subjects; a Z > 2.5 was considered abnormal. Abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds were found in 1\\/61 (2%) control subjects, 27\\/32 (84%) patients with adult-onset primary torsion dystonia and 32\\/73 (44%) unaffected relatives [siblings (20\\/36; 56%), offspring (11\\/36; 31%) and one parent]. When two or more relatives were tested in any one family, 22 of 24 families had at least one first-degree relative with an abnormal temporal discrimination threshold. The frequency of abnormal temporal discrimination thresholds in first-degree relatives of patients with sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is compatible with an autosomal dominant disorder and supports the hypothesis that apparently sporadic adult-onset primary torsion dystonia is genetic in origin.

  18. Characteristics of epidemic and sporadic strains of Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in Abu Dhabi hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnevend, Agnes; Ghazawi, Akela; Al Munthari, Noura; Pitout, Martin; Hamadeh, Mohammad Baraa; Hashmey, Rayhan; Girgis, Safinaz Khaleel; Sheikh, Farrukh Amin; Al Haj, Mohamed; Nagelkerke, Nico; Pál, Tibor

    2013-04-01

    We compared the antibiotic susceptibility, clonal lineages and resistance genes of singleton Acinetobacter baumannii strains to those of isolates representing repeatedly encountered molecular types in five Abu Dhabi hospitals. One hundred and ten clinically relevant, non-repeat strains were typed by blaOXA-51-like allele sequencing and by PFGE, and selected isolates also by MLST. Resistance was assessed by MIC determinations and by disc diffusion. Genotyping was carried out by PCR, targeting 28 genes. The 80 epidemic strains belonged to worldwide lineages 1, 2 and 7, representing 11 pulsotypes and 9 genotypes, while the 30 sporadic isolates exhibited a high level of genetic variability and, with the exception of a small subgroup, were not associated with any recognized epidemic lineages. All epidemic subtypes carried the ISAba1-linked blaOXA-23 gene, and harboured the int, the blaPER and the armA genes significantly more frequently than their sporadic counterparts. They were all multi-drug resistant, including non-susceptibility to carbepenems, and were often extensively drug resistant, a phenomenon rarely seen among sporadic strains. Epidemic strains represented 78.8 % of intensive care unit isolates, causing more respiratory infections, while sporadic strains were more frequently isolated from wound and soft tissue infections. The study showed that among strains collected at the same time and from the same region, the very heterogeneous, sensitive sporadic strains, with the exception of a few non-susceptible singleton isolates, clearly differed from the highly resistant epidemic ones, which belonged to multiple pulsotypes and genotypes clustered into three worldwide clonal lineages carrying blaOXA-64, blaOXA-66 and blaOXA-69, respectively.

  19. A genome-wide investigation of copy number variation in patients with sporadic brain arteriovenous malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrine Bendjilali

    Full Text Available Brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM are clusters of abnormal blood vessels, with shunting of blood from the arterial to venous circulation and a high risk of rupture and intracranial hemorrhage. Most BAVMs are sporadic, but also occur in patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a Mendelian disorder caused by mutations in genes in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling pathway.To investigate whether copy number variations (CNVs contribute to risk of sporadic BAVM, we performed a genome-wide association study in 371 sporadic BAVM cases and 563 healthy controls, all Caucasian. Cases and controls were genotyped using the Affymetrix 6.0 array. CNVs were called using the PennCNV and Birdsuite algorithms and analyzed via segment-based and gene-based approaches. Common and rare CNVs were evaluated for association with BAVM.A CNV region on 1p36.13, containing the neuroblastoma breakpoint family, member 1 gene (NBPF1, was significantly enriched with duplications in BAVM cases compared to controls (P = 2.2×10(-9; NBPF1 was also significantly associated with BAVM in gene-based analysis using both PennCNV and Birdsuite. We experimentally validated the 1p36.13 duplication; however, the association did not replicate in an independent cohort of 184 sporadic BAVM cases and 182 controls (OR = 0.81, P = 0.8. Rare CNV analysis did not identify genes significantly associated with BAVM.We did not identify common CNVs associated with sporadic BAVM that replicated in an independent cohort. Replication in larger cohorts is required to elucidate the possible role of common or rare CNVs in BAVM pathogenesis.

  20. Affective dependence and aggression: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruccelli, Filippo; Diotaiuti, Pierluigi; Verrastro, Valeria; Petruccelli, Irene; Federico, Roberta; Martinotti, Giovanni; Fossati, Andrea; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner's autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject's own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS) and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  1. Neurogenomic mechanisms of aggression in songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maney, Donna L; Goodson, James L

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the biological basis of aggression in all vertebrates, including humans, has been built largely upon discoveries first made in birds. A voluminous literature now indicates that hormonal mechanisms are shared between humans and a number of avian species. Research on genetics mechanisms in birds has lagged behind the more typical laboratory species because the necessary tools have been lacking until recently. Over the past 30 years, three major technical advances have propelled forward our understanding of the hormonal, neural, and genetic bases of aggression in birds: (1) the development of assays to measure plasma levels of hormones in free-living individuals, or "field endocrinology"; (2) the immunohistochemical labeling of immediate early gene products to map neural responses to social stimuli; and (3) the sequencing of the zebra finch genome, which makes available a tremendous set of genomic tools for studying gene sequences, expression, and chromosomal structure in species for which we already have large datasets on aggressive behavior. This combination of hormonal, neuroendocrine, and genetic tools has established songbirds as powerful models for understanding the neural basis and evolution of aggression in vertebrates. In this chapter, we discuss the contributions of field endocrinology toward a theoretical framework linking aggression with sex steroids, explore evidence that the neural substrates of aggression are conserved across vertebrate species, and describe a promising new songbird model for studying the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying aggression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental psychopathology and neurobiology of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Jackie K; Lee, Royce; Coccaro, Emil F

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify how neural mechanisms at the molecular level, specifically the serotonergic (5-HT) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system (HPA) in conjunction with early life stress may contribute to the emergence of aggression, self-directed and otherwise, in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Chronic dysregulation of these biological systems, which function to regulate stress and emotion, may potentiate the development of impulsive aggression in borderline personality conditions. Our central premise in this paper is that brain development, stress regulation, and early pathonomic experience are interactive and cumulative in their mutual influence on the development of impulsive aggression in BPD. We review the parameters of impulsive aggression in BPD, followed by a discussion of the neurobiological and neuroendocrine correlates of impulsive aggression with and without BPD. We then focus on the developmental continuities in BPD with attention to brain maturation of 5-HT and HPA axis function during the life span and the influence of early adverse experiences on these systems. Finally, we comment on the data of the relative stability of aggression in BPD, adolescence as a developmental stage of potential vulnerability, and the course of aggressive behavior during the life span.

  3. Testosterone and aggression: Berthold, birds and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, K K

    2006-07-01

    Berthold's classic study of domesticated roosters in 1849 demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for the normal expression of aggressive behaviour. Although this conclusion is undoubtedly correct, field studies of wild songbirds have yielded important modifications and limitations of Berthold's original hypothesis. For example, studies of the North American song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) during the breeding season reveal that not only does testosterone increase aggression, but aggressive interactions also increase plasma testosterone levels. Furthermore, in winter, nonbreeding song sparrows have low plasma testosterone levels but are very aggressive, and castration of nonbreeding song sparrows does not decrease aggression. Interestingly, an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) does decrease male aggression in the nonbreeding season, and the effects of fadrozole can be rescued with oestradiol. In winter, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the periphery can be metabolised within the brain to supply oestradiol to specific neural circuits. Additionally, oestradiol might be synthesised de novo from cholesterol entirely within the brain. These mechanisms may have evolved to avoid the 'costs' of circulating testosterone in the nonbreeding season. Recent studies in tropical birds, hamsters, and humans suggest that these neuroendocrine mechanisms are important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species.

  4. Affective Dependence and Aggression: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Petruccelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Emotionally dependent subjects may engage in controlling, restrictive, and aggressive behaviours, which limit their partner’s autonomy. The underlying causes of such behaviours are not solely based on levels of aggression, but act as a mean of maintaining the subject’s own sense of self-worth, identity, and general functioning. Objective. The aim of the paper is to explore the correlation between affective dependency and reactive/proactive aggression and to evaluate individual differences as predisposing factors for aggressive behaviour and emotional dependency. Methods. The Spouse-Specific Dependency Scale (SSDS and the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ were administered to a sample of 3375 subjects. Results. In the whole sample, a positive correlation between emotional dependency and proactive aggression was identified. Differences with regard to sex, age group, and geographical distribution were evidenced for the scores of the different scales. Conclusion. A fundamental distinction between reactive and proactive aggression was observed, anchoring proactive aggression more strictly to emotional dependency. Sociocultural and demographical variables, together with the previous structuring of attachment styles, help to determine the scope, frequency, and intensity of the demands made to the partner, as well as to feed the fears of loss, abandonment, or betrayal.

  5. Health Care Workers' Experiences of Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Katelyn; Oram, Joanne; Tinson, Helen; Shum, David

    2017-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of patient aggression against health care workers, the consequences and coping mechanisms. Retrospective cross-sectional design. 50 participants comprised 37 nurses, 1 ward staff, 12 allied health staff employed in two brain injury wards with experience ranging from 3months to 34years. Neurosciences and Brain Injury Rehabilitation wards of a metropolitan tertiary hospital in Brisbane. Researcher designed self-report questionnaire. 98% of respondents had experienced aggression during their health care careers with an average of 143.93 events. Physical injuries had been sustained by 40% of staff, psychological injury by 82%, but only 12% sought treatment. Verbal aggression related to receiving a psychological injury (r=0.305, paggression made it more likely the person would also experience the other types of aggression. Verbal aggression was correlated with physical aggression (r=0.429, paggression (r=0.286, paggression was correlated with non-verbal aggression (r=0.333, paggression is prevalent and of serious concern for staff working in hospital settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The neurobiology of aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Daniel R; Siever, Larry J

    2015-06-01

    Aggression and violence represent a significant public health concern and a clinical challenge for the mental healthcare provider. A great deal has been revealed regarding the neurobiology of violence and aggression, and an integration of this body of knowledge will ultimately serve to advance clinical diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. We will review here the latest findings regarding the neurobiology of aggression and violence. First, we will introduce the construct of aggression, with a focus on issues related to its heterogeneity, as well as the importance of refining the aggression phenotype in order to reduce pathophysiologic variability. Next we will examine the neuroanatomy of aggression and violence, focusing on regional volumes, functional studies, and interregional connectivity. Significant emphasis will be on the amygdala, as well as amygdala-frontal circuitry. Then we will turn our attention to the neurochemistry and molecular genetics of aggression and violence, examining the extensive findings on the serotonergic system, as well as the growing literature on the dopaminergic and vasopressinergic systems. We will also address the contribution of steroid hormones, namely, cortisol and testosterone. Finally, we will summarize these findings with a focus on reconciling inconsistencies and potential clinical implications; and, then we will suggest areas of focus for future directions in the field.

  7. [Recognizing and assessing aggressive behaviour in dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalke, E; Hackbarth, H

    2006-03-01

    Within the population the sensitivity to aggressive behaviour in dogs has increased. The authorities are confronted with a problem: if any incident occurs it is their task to decide whether the dogs involved constitute a threat to other people or whether the charge is only the result of a quarrel between neighbours. For this reason, an examination of the dogs with regard to their aggressive behaviour is necessary. Seen from the biological point of view, aggressive behaviour is one of four possibilities a dog can chose from to solve a conflict. The dog's intention in showing aggressive behaviour is to eliminate disturbances and to maintain a distance in space and time. Aggressive behaviour might also be necessary to acquire or defend resources essential to the dog's life. This is to secure its survival and its success in reproduction. One can see from this that aggressive behaviour is a very important and biologically necessary adjustment factor. However, when living together with man aggressive behaviour might become a problem. For the assessment and the therapy of the problem it is necessary to exa-mine the behaviour shown by the dog with regard to its cause. To be able to do this an exact anamnesis, a medical check, and an examination of the dog on the basis of its display in special situations are necessary. For this reason, exclusively veterinarians with a special further education in the field of behaviour should carry out the examination of dogs.

  8. Patient aggression perceived by community support workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Christopher; Hannah, Annette; Swain, Nicola; Gray, Andrew; Coverdale, John; Oud, Nico

    2009-12-01

    Objective: Aggression by patients is a known risk factor for hospital workers. Within New Zealand, the bulk of ongoing care for physical and mental disabilities and health issues is not hospital based, but contracted to various non-governmental agencies. The rate of client aggression towards care workers from these organizations, to our knowledge, has not been assessed. Method: Two hundred and forty-two support workers in non-governmental agencies caring for people with disabilities responded to an anonymous mailed survey on client aggression, personal distress, and communication style. Results: Most support workers did experience verbal forms of aggression or destructive behaviour, fewer experienced physical aggression, and a minority were injured, sexually harassed, stalked or harassed by means of formal complaint. The median total violence score was five (interquartile range 12.25). A higher total violence score (using the POPAS-NZ) was associated with age and gender, the primary disability of clients, and the numbers of hours worked. The length of time worked was not associated with total violence risk. Communication style, after correcting for other factors, was a predictor of aggression. Almost 6% of care workers reported distress symptoms at a level associated with clinically significant stress reactions. Conclusions: Patient aggression is common among care workers, and can cause distress in the minority. We suggest that further research to clarify risk factors and develop interventions for care workers is needed.

  9. Amygdalofrontal functional disconnectivity and aggression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoptman, Matthew J; D'Angelo, Debra; Catalano, Dean; Mauro, Cristina J; Shehzad, Zarrar E; Kelly, A M Clare; Castellanos, Francisco X; Javitt, Daniel C; Milham, Michael P

    2010-09-01

    A significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia demonstrate abnormalities in dorsal prefrontal regions including the dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. However, it is less clear to what extent abnormalities are exhibited in ventral prefrontal and limbic regions, despite their involvement in social cognitive dysfunction and aggression, which represent problem domains for patients with schizophrenia. Previously, we found that reduced white matter integrity in right inferior frontal regions was associated with higher levels of aggression. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine amygdala/ventral prefrontal cortex (vPFC) functional connectivity (FC) and its relation to aggression in schizophrenia. Twenty-one healthy controls and 25 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. Aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire. Regions of interest were placed in the amygdala based on previously published work. A voxelwise FC analysis was performed in which the mean time series across voxels for this bilateral amygdala seed was entered as a predictor in a multiple regression model with motion parameters and global, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter signals as covariates. Patients showed significant reductions in FC between amygdala and vPFC regions. Moreover, in patients, the strength of this connection showed a significant inverse relationship with aggression, such that lower FC was associated with higher levels of self-rated aggression. Similar results were obtained for 2 other measures--Life History of Aggression and total arrests. These results suggest that amygdala/vPFC FC is compromised in schizophrenia and that this compromise is associated with aggression.

  10. Aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties: seeing aggression on television and video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofan, Oana; Paul, Moli; Weich, Scott; Spencer, Nicholas

    2014-11-18

    Mental health professionals are often asked to give advice about managing children's aggression. Good quality evidence on contributory environmental factors such as seeing aggression on television and in video games is relatively lacking, although societal and professional concerns are high. This study investigated possible associations between seeing aggression in such media and the aggressive behaviour of children attending specialist outpatient child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS). In this mixed methods study, forty-seven British children aged 7-11 years with behavioural/emotional difficulties attending CAMHS and their carers participated in a survey; twenty purposively-selected children and a parent/carer of theirs participated in a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews, analysed using the Framework Analysis Approach; findings were integrated. Children attending CAMHS exhibit clinically significant aggression, of varying types and frequency. They see aggression in multiple real and virtual settings. Verbal aggression was often seen, frequently exhibited and strongly associated with poor peer relationships and low prosocial behaviour. Children did not think seeing aggression influences their own behaviour but believed it influences others. Carers regarded aggression as resulting from a combination of inner and environmental factors and seeing aggression in real-life as having more impact than television/video games. There is yet no definitive evidence for or against a direct relationship between aggression seen in the media and aggression in children with behavioural/emotional difficulties. Future research should take an ecological perspective, investigating individual, developmental and environmental factors. Carers, professional organisations and policy makers should address aggression seen in all relevant area of children's lives, primarily real-life and secondly virtual environments.

  11. Localized juvenile periodontitis or localized aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Maria

    2002-01-01

    In general, the new term "localized aggressive periodontitis" replaces what was previously known as "localized juvenile periodontitis." Similarly, "generalized aggressive periodontitis" replaces what used to be called "generalized juvenile periodontitis." Aggressive periodontitis is a specific type of periodontitis with clearly identifiable clinical and laboratory findings, making it sufficiently different from chronic periodontitis and warranting separate classification. Not all the characteristics must be present to assign a diagnosis or classify the disease. The diagnosis may be based on clinical, radiographic, and historical data, and laboratory testing may not be essential for assigning a diagnosis.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Personality Structures of the Perpetrators of Aggressive and Non-aggressive Offense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova A.S.,

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available problem of the emergence of aggressive behavior is seen through the analysis of the relationship of proagressive and inhibiting aggression personality structures. The study involved 54 men serving sentences for criminal offenses, of which 24 were accused for violent offenses and 30 - for offenses without resorting to violence. We used questionnaires to study the proagressive and deterring aggression personality structures. Statistical analysis was performed to reveal significant differences between groups and to determine correlations. On this basis, the correlations were interpreted with the help of not only quantitative but also qualitative analysis. The results showed no significant differences in the level of expression of aggression and aggression inhibitors between treatment groups, but we identified qualitative differences in the structural analysis of data from individual psychological characteristics that are expected to distinguish aggressive offenders from the perpetrators without violence.

  13. Ploidy, cytokinetics, and histology features of aggressive versus less aggressive uterine cervical squamous cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.S.; Peters, L.J.; Adelson, M.; Williamson, K.D.; Sneige, N.; Katz, R.L.; Freedman, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors are investigating the interrelationships of flow cytometric measured ploidy, S-fraction with histology features of uterine cervical squamous cell cancers in an attempt to identify aggressive, high risk tumors and less aggressive tumors. Experimentally, pre-radiotherapy biopsy specimens are being studied using flow ploidy and cell-cycle analysis and microscopic scoring for histology features. The results to date for some 200 patients indicate that there are identifyable aggressive tumors, at high risk for 2 yr local control within each stage of disease and differentiation category (WD, MD, PD). These aggressive tumors usually have high degree DNA abnormalities (triploid or greater), high proliferative activity (%S≥20) compared to the less aggressive tumors characterized by diploid/near diploid DNA content, low to moderate %S (2-19, mean 12). Expression of high S-fraction appears to reflect high growth activity or growth potential and characterizes the aggressive tumors

  14. Risperidone for Aggressive Behavior in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of risperidone augmentation for treatment-resistant aggression in children with ADHD were evaluated in a placebo-controlled pilot study at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, FL.

  15. Psychopharmacology of Persistent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jonathan M; Cummings, Michael A; Proctor, George; Stahl, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    Persistent violence not due to acute psychosis or mania can be managed only after appropriate characterization of the aggressive episodes (psychotic, impulsive, or predatory/planned/instrumental). The type of violence combined with the psychiatric diagnosis dictates the evidence-based pharmacologic approaches for psychotically motivated and impulsive aggression, whereas instrumental violence mandates forensic/behavioral strategies. For nonacute inpatients, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, traumatic brain injury, and dementia comprise the majority of individuals who are persistently aggressive, with impulsive actions the most common form of violence across all diagnoses. Neurobiological considerations combined with empirical data provide a comprehensive framework for systematic medication trials to manage persistently aggressive patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neurogenetics of aggressive behavior: studies in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Christina S; Driscoll, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Aggressive behavior can have adaptive value in certain environmental contexts, but when extreme or executed inappropriately, can also lead to maladaptive outcomes. Neurogenetic studies performed in nonhuman primates have shown that genetic variation that impacts reward sensitivity, impulsivity, and anxiety can contribute to individual differences in aggressive behavior. Genetic polymorphisms in the coding or promoter regions of the Mu-Opioid Receptor (OPRM1), Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH), Monoamine Oxidase A (MAOA), Dopamine D4 Receptor (DRD4), and Serotonin Transporter (SLC6A4) genes have been shown to be functionally similar in humans and rhesus macaques and have been demonstrated to contribute to individual differences in aggression. This body of literature suggests mechanisms by which genetic variation that promotes aggressivity could simultaneously increase evolutionary success while making modern humans more vulnerable to psychopathology.

  17. Aggression: the testosterone-serotonin link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birger, Moshe; Swartz, Marnina; Cohen, David; Alesh, Ya'akov; Grishpan, Chaim; Kotelr, Moshe

    2003-09-01

    The relevance of central neurotransmission to aggressive and impulsive behavior has become more evident due to extensive research in humans and animals. Among other findings, there are abundant data relating low serotonergic activity--as measured by low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid, and a blunted response of prolactin to fenfluramine--to impulsive behavior. Many studies on testosterone activity show a relation between high plasma levels and a tendency towards aggression. It is hypothesized that the interaction between low serotonin and high testosterone levels in the central nervous system has a significant effect on the neural mechanisms involved in the expression of aggressive behavior. It seems that testosterone modulates serotonergic receptor activity in a way that directly affects aggression, fear and anxiety. Our survey reviews the main findings on serotonin, testosterone and the possible interaction between them with regard to these behavioral phenomena.

  18. Neural control of aggression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopfer, Eric D

    2016-06-01

    Like most animal species, fruit flies fight to obtain and defend resources essential to survival and reproduction. Aggressive behavior in Drosophila is genetically specified and also strongly influenced by the fly's social context, past experiences and internal states, making it an excellent framework for investigating the neural mechanisms that regulate complex social behaviors. Here, I summarize our current knowledge of the neural control of aggression in Drosophila and discuss recent advances in understanding the sensory pathways that influence the decision to fight or court, the neuromodulatory control of aggression, the neural basis by which internal states can influence both fighting and courtship, and how social experience modifies aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Aggression and mobbing among correctional officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz-Kot, Dorota; Cebrzyńska, Joanna

    2008-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of violence among correctional officers. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of exposure to violence in this professional group. The study comprised the sample of 222 correctional officers who voluntary and anonymously fulfilled the MDM questionnaire. The MDM Questionnaire allows for assessing exposure to aggression and mobbing at work. Preliminary assessment of exposure to single aggressive acts and mobbing shows a quite alarming tendency--around one third of subjects under the study experienced repetitive aggressive acts from coworkers and/or superiors. The problem of organizational aggression in correctional institutions should be recognized in details to develop effective preventive measures against violent behaviors occurring at work.

  20. Effects of Alcohol on Human Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Dominic J; Eckhardt, Christopher I

    2018-02-01

    There is little debate that alcohol is a contributing cause of aggressive behavior. The extreme complexity of this relation, however, has been the focus of extensive theory and research. And, likely due to this complexity, evidence-based programs to prevent or reduce alcohol-facilitated aggression are quite limited. We integrate I 3 Theory and Alcohol Myopia Theory to provide a framework that (1) organizes the myriad instigatory and inhibitory factors that moderate the effect of alcohol on aggression, and (2) highlights the mechanisms by which alcohol facilitates aggression among at-risk individuals. This integrative framework provides the basis for understanding the appropriate targets for prevention and intervention efforts and may serve as a catalyst for future research that seeks to inform intervention development.

  1. Detection of aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Sandra Sari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Calprotectin is a calcium-binding protein expressed by neutrophil, monocytes, gingival keratinocytes, and oral epithelial cells. The concentrations of calprotectin increase in plasma, urine and synovial fluid of patients with inflammatory diseases. This protein is known as a marker for periodontal diseases and is detected in gingival crevicular fluids. Purpose: This study was aimed to investigate the detection of inflammation on the aggressive periodontitis by calprotectin expression. Method: The gingival crevicular fluids were taken from five aggressive periodontitis patients and five healthy subjects by using sterile paper points. Calprotectin expression was analyzed by ELISA technique. Result: The results showed the significant difference in calprotectin expression between subject with aggressive periodontitis and healthy subjects p = 0.002 (p < 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that the calprotectin expression on the aggressive periodontitis patients may be useful for evaluation the progression of inflammation in periodontitis.

  2. The localised aggressive periodontitis prevalence in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaissi, F E; Cherkaoui, A; Laporte, C; Miquel, J L

    2004-03-01

    This work concerns a retrospective study of prevalence records and the clinical characteristics of localised aggressive periodontitis in the breast of consultants in the periodontitis service in Dental Medicine Faculty of Rabat (Morocco) from 1997 to 1999.

  3. Book-Tax Conformity Level on the Relationship between Tax Reporting Aggressiveness and Financial Reporting Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Nurul Aisyah Rachmawati; Dwi Martani

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of book-tax conformity level on the relationship between tax reporting aggressiveness and financial reporting aggressiveness. Different from Frank et al. (2009) and Lennox et al. (2013), this study considers endogeneity problem to minimize biased results. Using the companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for 2013-2016, this study found that there is endogeneity problem in the relationship between tax reporting aggressiveness and fina...

  4. The Heterogeneity Between Lynch-Associated and Sporadic MMR Deficiency in Colorectal Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Chen; Liu, Ran-Yi; Yan, Jun-Ping; An, Xin; Jiang, Wu; Ling, Yi-Hong; Chen, Jie-Wei; Bei, Jin-Xin; Zuo, Xiao-Yu; Cai, Mu-Yan; Liu, Ze-Xian; Zuo, Zhi-Xiang; Liu, Ji-Hong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Ding, Pei-Rong

    2018-02-20

    Previous studies demonstrated that prognosis of germline deficiency in mismatch repair protein (dMMR) was different from that of sporadic dMMR. The underlying mechanism has not been studied. From a prospectively maintained database, we collected dMMR colorectal cancer (CRC) patients identified by postoperative immunohistochemistry screening. According to genetic test, patients were grouped as Lynch-associated or sporadic dMMR. We compared the clinical-pathological features, prognosis, and immunoreactive differences between the two groups. By whole-exome sequencing and neoantigen detection pipeline, mutational frequencies and neoantigen burdens were also compared. All statistical tests were two-sided. Sixty-seven sporadic dMMR and 85 Lynch-associated CRC patients were included in the study. Sporadic dMMR patients were older (P < .001) and their tumors were poorly differentiated (P = .03). The survival was better in the Lynch-associated group (P = .001). After adjustment, the difference still remained statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.09 to 0.95, P = .04). The scores of Crohn's-like reaction (CRO; P < .001), immunoreactions in the invasive margin (IM; P = .01), tumor stroma (TS; P = .009), and cancer nest (CN; P = .02) of the Lynch-associated group were statistically significantly higher. The numbers of CD3+, CD8+, Foxp3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in IM; CD3+, CD4+ TILs in TS; and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ TILs in CN were statistically significantly higher in Lynch-associated dMMR patients. Based on the 16 patients who under went whole-exome sequencing, there were also more somatic mutations and neoantigen burdens in the Lynch-associated group compared with the sporadic dMMR group (439/pt vs 68/pt, P = .006; 628/pt vs 97/pt, P = .009). There are heterogeneities in dMMR CRCs. Lynch-associated dMMR patients present with more somatic mutations and neoantigens compared with sporadic dMMR, which probably results in stronger

  5. Simulation of electromagnetic aggression on components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adoun, G.; Coumar, O.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulation techniques can be used for studying the behaviour of electronic components exposed to electromagnetic aggression. This article discusses CW analysis on a CMOS-technology logic NAND gate under electromagnetic aggression of different amplitudes (2.5 V 5 V), frequencies (100 MHz and 1 GHz) and phase. Numerical simulations were conducted using three codes: Spice code was used for solving electronic circuits, and the Atlas and Dessis codes were used for examining internal component behaviour. (authors)

  6. Order Aggressiveness and Order Book Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony D. Hall; Nikolaus Hautsch

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we study the determinants of order aggressiveness and traders' order submission strategy in an open limit order book market. Using order book data from the Australian Stock Exchange, we model traders' aggressiveness in market trading, limit order trading as well as in order cancellations on both sides of the market using a six-dimensional autoregressive intensity model. The information revealed by the open order book plays an important role in explaining the degree of order agg...

  7. Prevalence and characteristics of aggressive periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Diatri Nariratih; Janti Rusjanti; Agus Susanto

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive Periodontitis is one of periodontal disease that generally affects individuals less than 30 years old, with a rapid attachment loss and alveolar bone destruction. Special features of the disease are affected incisors and first molars with symmetrical bilateral destruction. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Aggressive Periodontitis at Student Clinics, Faculty of Dentistry Padjadjaran University on May to July 2010. Based on accidentally...

  8. The clinical assessment of aggressive periodontitis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chan-Myung; You, Hyung-Keun; Jeong, Seong-Nyum

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Few epidemiologic studies have investigated aggressive periodontitis in Koreans, but such studies of disease prevalence and other clinical characteristics would be invaluable in providing proper treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis and to measure the extent of associated periodontal breakdown. Methods The study population consisted of 1,692 patients who visited the Department of Periodontology, Wonkwang Daejeon Dental Hospital from ...

  9. Can the TLR-4-Mediated Signaling Pathway Be “A Key Inflammatory Promoter for Sporadic TAA”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ruvolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thoracic aorta shows with advancing age various changes and a progressive deterioration in structure and function. As a result, vascular remodeling (VR and medial degeneration (MD occur as pathological entities responsible principally for the sporadic TAA onset. Little is known about their genetic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms. Recent evidence is proposing the strong role of a chronic immune/inflammatory process in their evocation and progression. Thus, we evaluated the potential role of Toll like receptor- (TLR- 4-mediated signaling pathway and its polymorphisms in sporadic TAA. Genetic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analyses were assessed. Interestingly, the rs4986790 TLR4 polymorphism confers a higher susceptibility for sporadic TAA (OR=14.4, P=0.0008 and it represents, together with rs1799752 ACE, rs3918242 MMP-9, and rs2285053 MMP-2 SNPs, an independent sporadic TAA risk factor. In consistency with these data, a significant association was observed between their combined risk genotype and sporadic TAA. Cases bearing this risk genotype showed higher systemic inflammatory mediator levels, significant inflammatory/immune infiltrate, a typical MD phenotype, lower telomere length, and positive correlations with histopatological abnormalities, hypertension, smoking, and ageing. Thus, TLR4 pathway should seem to have a key role in sporadic TAA. It might represent a potential useful tool for preventing and monitoring sporadic TAA and developing personalized treatments.

  10. Understanding human aggression: New insights from neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Allan; Victoroff, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    The present paper reviews and summarizes the basic findings concerning the nature of the neurobiological and behavioral characteristics of aggression and rage. For heuristic purposes, the types of aggression will be reduced to two categories - defensive rage (affective defense) and predatory attack. This approach helps explain both the behavioral properties of aggression as well as the underlying neural substrates and mechanisms of aggression both in animals and humans. Defensive rage behavior is activated by a threatening stimulus that is real or perceived and is associated with marked sympathetic output. This yields impulsivity with minimal cortical involvement. Predatory attack behavior in both animals and humans is generally planned, taking minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or even years (with respect to humans) for it to occur and is directed upon a specific individual target; it reflects few outward sympathetic signs and is believed to require cortical involvement for its expression. Predatory attack requires activation of the lateral hypothalamus, while defensive rage requires activation of the medial hypothalamus and midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG). Both forms of aggressive behavior are controlled by components of the limbic system, a region of the forebrain that is influenced by sensory inputs from the cerebral cortex and monoaminergic inputs from the brainstem reticular formation. Control of aggressive tendencies is partly modifiable through conditioning and related learning principles generated through the cerebral cortex.

  11. [Plasma amino acid concentrations in aggressive dogs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhr, Norbert-Christian; Brand, Ulrike; Riedel, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Following the hypothesis that metabolic screens may be useful tools in the diagnosis of canine aggression we have investigated the blood plasma amino acid levels of dogs which have been found aggressive (N = 10) against dogs or men in comparison to non-aggressive dogs (N = 10). In summary, the aggressive dogs showed elevated plasma concentrations of the neurophysiological active aromatic amino acids tryptophan (46/171 micromol/l, p urea-cycle in the conversion of ornithine (17/34 micromol/l, p < 0.01) to citrulline (64/47 micromol/l). Higher levels of branched chain amino acids, especially leucine (122/150 micromol/l, p < 0.01), mainly metabolized in muscles, and isoleucin (60/71 micromol/l, p < 0.05) show a high energy potential. The acidose-stimulator methionine (48/78 micromol/l, p < 0.01) proved elevated. The results show that the changed behavior in the aggressive dogs is also reflected in their free amino acid plasma concentrations, independent of the question whether these data are the cause or the result of the aggressivity.

  12. Immunohistochemistry for annexin A10 can distinguish sporadic from Lynch syndrome-associated microsatellite-unstable colorectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Reetesh K; Shadrach, Bonnie L; Carver, Paula; Heald, Brandie; Moline, Jessica; Church, James; Kalady, Matthew F; Burke, Carol A; Plesec, Thomas P; Lai, Keith K; Gonzalo, David H; Pai, Rish K

    2014-04-01

    Differentiating sporadic microsatellite-unstable colorectal carcinoma due to MLH1 promoter hypermethylation from Lynch syndrome (LS)-associated tumors due to mutations in mismatch-repair proteins is time consuming, cost intensive, and requires advanced laboratory testing. A mutation in BRAF has been shown to be highly specific for sporadic tumors; however, a significant proportion of sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors lack BRAF mutations. MLH1 promoter methylation analysis is subsequently used to differentiate LS and sporadic tumors, but both tests require specialized laboratories and are costly. Through previous gene expression profiling of serrated polyps, we identified annexin A10 as a protein highly expressed in sessile serrated adenomas/polyps. As these polyps give rise to the majority of sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors, we evaluated the ability of annexin A10 expression to discriminate between LS and sporadic tumors. A marked increase in annexin A10 mRNA was observed in sporadic microsatellite-unstable tumors compared with LS tumors (378-fold increase, Pimmunohistochemistry, annexin A10 was expressed in 23/53 (43%) BRAF-mutated and 9/22 (41%) BRAF wild-type sporadic tumors. In contrast, only 3/56 (5%) LS tumors were positive for annexin A10 (Pimmunohistochemistry. Only 1/28 (4%) LS tumors with loss of MLH1 was positive for annexin A10. This patient did not have a deleterious MLH1 mutation but rather germline promoter hypermethylation of MLH1. On the basis of these results, immunohistochemistry for annexin A10 may be a useful marker to distinguish sporadic from LS-associated microsatellite-unstable colon cancer.

  13. Male aggression and mating opportunity in a poeciliid fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One function of aggression in animals is to gain access to mates. Aggression may therefore be favoured by sexual selection, the strength of which can be assessed using repeatability of aggressive behaviour. Here, we tested the hypotheses that male swordtails, Xiphophorus sp., are consistent in the aggressive and mating ...

  14. Relational Aggression and Academic Performance in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between relational aggression and school performance, this study examined the relative and combined associations among relational aggression, overt aggression, and victimization and children's academic performance. Additionally this study examined the relative associations among relational and overt aggression and…

  15. The dopaminergic system and aggression in laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dopaminergic system regulates aggression in humans and other mammals. To investigate if birds with genetic propensity for high and low aggressiveness may exhibit distinctly different aggressive mediation via dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor pathways, two high aggressive (DXL and LGPS) and one lo...

  16. Relational Aggression and Prosocial Behaviours in Australian Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swit, Cara; McMaugh, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Relational aggression is a subtle form of aggressive behaviour that uses dyadic relationships and manipulation as a vehicle of harm. Little is known about relational aggression in preschool-age children in cultural contexts outside the United States. This study examined relationally aggressive behaviours and prosocial behaviours in Australian…

  17. Relational Aggression in Middle Childhood: Predictors and Adolescent Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J.; Campbell, Susan B.; Vandergrift, Nathan; Pierce, Kim M.; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Roisman, Glenn I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in the level and developmental course of relational aggression in middle childhood, as well as early predictors and outcomes of relational aggression, after controlling for concurrent physical aggression. Relational (RAgg) and Physical aggression (PAgg) scores for 558 boys and 545 girls at the ages of eight…

  18. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Cima, M.; Schuhmann, T.; Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a

  19. MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Correlation with clinical and neuropathological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Klisch, J.; Brechtelsbauer, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Wolf, H.K. [Department of Neuropathology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Gass, S. [Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    1998-02-01

    To ascertain whether increased grey matter signal intensity on T2-weighted images in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) corresponds to the stage and severity of this disease, we correlated MRI findings in four of our own and previously reported patients with sporadic CJD with the clinical variants, neuropathological changes at autopsy, duration of the disease and survival time after MRI examination. Of 15 patients with the extrapyramidal type of CJD, 10 showed increased signal in the basal ganglia on T2-weighted images. One of seven patients with the Heidenhain variant had increased signal in the occipital cortex. Patients without increased grey matter signal intensity had a longer overall duration of CJD (P = 0.035). Although the interval between onset of neurological symptoms and MRI was not different, patients without increased grey matter signal also survived longer after MRI examination (P = 0.022). (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 23 refs.

  20. MRI in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: Correlation with clinical and neuropathological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbach, H.; Solymosi, L.; Klisch, J.; Brechtelsbauer, D.; Wolf, H.K.; Gass, S.

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain whether increased grey matter signal intensity on T2-weighted images in patients with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) corresponds to the stage and severity of this disease, we correlated MRI findings in four of our own and previously reported patients with sporadic CJD with the clinical variants, neuropathological changes at autopsy, duration of the disease and survival time after MRI examination. Of 15 patients with the extrapyramidal type of CJD, 10 showed increased signal in the basal ganglia on T2-weighted images. One of seven patients with the Heidenhain variant had increased signal in the occipital cortex. Patients without increased grey matter signal intensity had a longer overall duration of CJD (P = 0.035). Although the interval between onset of neurological symptoms and MRI was not different, patients without increased grey matter signal also survived longer after MRI examination (P = 0.022). (orig.)

  1. Prion-Seeding Activity Is widely Distributed in Tissues of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanae Takatsuki, PhD

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormally folded prion proteins in the central nervous system. These proteins can be detected using the quaking-induced conversion assay. Compared with other bioassays, this assay is extremely sensitive and was used in the present study to determine prion distribution in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients at autopsy. Although infectivity of the sporadic form is thought to be restricted within the central nervous system, results showed that prion-seeding activities reach 106/g from a 50% seeding dose in non-neuronal tissues, suggesting that prion-seeding activity exists in non-neural organs, and we suggested that non-neural tissues of 106/g SD50 did not exist the infectivity.

  2. Prion-Seeding Activity Is widely Distributed in Tissues of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuki, Hanae; Fuse, Takayuki; Nakagaki, Takehiro; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Mihara, Ban; Takao, Masaki; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Murayama, Shigeo; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Nishida, Noriyuki; Satoh, Katsuya

    2016-10-01

    Human prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders caused by abnormally folded prion proteins in the central nervous system. These proteins can be detected using the quaking-induced conversion assay. Compared with other bioassays, this assay is extremely sensitive and was used in the present study to determine prion distribution in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease patients at autopsy. Although infectivity of the sporadic form is thought to be restricted within the central nervous system, results showed that prion-seeding activities reach 10 6 /g from a 50% seeding dose in non-neuronal tissues, suggesting that prion-seeding activity exists in non-neural organs, and we suggested that non-neural tissues of 10 6 /g SD50 did not exist the infectivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CHCH10 mutations in an Italian cohort of familial and sporadic ALS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiò, Adriano; Mora, Gabriele; Sabatelli, Mario; Caponnetto, Claudia; Traynor, Bryan J.; Johnson, Janel O.; Nalls, Mike A.; Calvo, Andrea; Moglia, Cristina; Borghero, Giuseppe; Monsurrò, Maria Rosaria; La Bella, Vincenzo; Volanti, Paolo; Simone, Isabella; Salvi, Fabrizio; Logullo, Francesco O.; Nilo, Riva; Battistini, Stefania; Mandrioli, Jessica; Tanel, Raffaella; Murru, Maria Rita; Mandich, Paola; Zollino, Marcella; Conforti, Francesca L.; Brunetti, Maura; Barberis, Marco; Restagno, Gabriella; Penco, Silvana; Lunetta, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in CHCHD10 have recently been described as a cause of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) co-morbid with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and clinical characteristics of CHCHD10 mutations in Italian patients diagnosed with familial (n = 64) and apparently sporadic ALS (n = 224). Three apparently sporadic patients were found to carry c.100C>T (p.Pro34Ser) heterozygous variant in the exon 2 of CHCHD10. This mutation had been previously described in two unrelated French patients with FTD-ALS. However, our patients had a typical ALS, without evidence of FTD, cerebellar or extrapyramidal signs, or sensorineural deficits. We confirm that CHCHD10 mutations account for ∼1% of Italian ALS patients and are a cause of disease in subject without dementia or other atypical clinical signs. PMID:25726362

  4. Data on inflammasome gene polymorphisms of patients with sporadic malignant melanoma in a Brazilian cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Cardoso da Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents data related to our another article entitled, Genotyping and differential expression analysis of inflammasome genes in sporadic malignant melanoma reveal novel contribution of CARD8, IL1B and IL18 in melanoma susceptibility and progression (W.C. Silva, T.M. Oshiro, D.C. Sá, D.D.G.S. Franco, C. Festa Neto, A. Pontillo, 2016 [2]. Data presented here refers to the distribution of selected inflammasome SNPs in a Brazilian case/control cohort. We have identified 4 inflammasome related Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs for CARD8 (rs6509365; IL1B (rs1143643 and IL18 (rs5744256 and rs1834481 related to melanoma susceptibility/protection. This data can serve as a potential prognostic marker in sporadic malignant melanoma.

  5. Source attribution of human salmonellosis and campylobacteriosos using a systematic review of studies of sporadic infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    . Identifying the most important sources of human disease is essential for prioritizing food safety interventions and setting public health goals. Numerous case-control studies of sporadic infections of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis have been published. These studies investigate a variety of potential...... or statistical analysis of data, and conclusions. With the objective of identifying the most important risk factors for human sporadic salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis, we performed a SR of case-control studies and meta-analysis of the obtained results. From 1,295 identified references, 132 passed...... the relevance screening, 73 passed the quality assessment stage, and data was extracted from 72. Of these studies, 34 investigated risk factors for human salmonellosis and 37 focused on campylobacteriosis. Heterogeneity between the studies and possible sources of bias were assessed. Information on exposures...

  6. Sporadic sodium and E layers observed during the summer 2002 MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Williams

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available On 5 July 2002, a MaCWAVE (Mountain and Convective Waves Ascending VErtically payload launched from Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, observed narrow enhanced layers of electron density that were nearly coincident with sporadic sodium layers measured by the Weber sodium lidar at the nearby ALOMAR Observatory. We investigate the formation mechanism of these layers using the neutral wind and temperature profiles measured directly by the lidar and the vertical motion deduced from the sodium mixing ratio. Through comparisons of the lidar data to the sporadic E in situ data, we find support for the concentration and downward motion of ions to an altitude where chemical models predict the rapid conversion of sodium ions to neutral sodium.

  7. Genetic mapping of canine fear and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Isain; Serpell, James A; Alvarez, Carlos E

    2016-08-08

    Fear/anxiety and anger/aggression greatly influence health, quality of life and social interactions. They are a huge burden to wellbeing, and personal and public economics. However, while much is known about the physiology and neuroanatomy of such emotions, little is known about their genetics - most importantly, why some individuals are more susceptible to pathology under stress. We conducted genomewide association (GWA) mapping of breed stereotypes for many fear and aggression traits across several hundred dogs from diverse breeds. We confirmed those findings using GWA in a second cohort of partially overlapping breeds. Lastly, we used the validated loci to create a model that effectively predicted fear and aggression stereotypes in a third group of dog breeds that were not involved in the mapping studies. We found that i) known IGF1 and HMGA2 loci variants for small body size are associated with separation anxiety, touch-sensitivity, owner directed aggression and dog rivalry; and ii) two loci, between GNAT3 and CD36 on chr18, and near IGSF1 on chrX, are associated with several traits, including touch-sensitivity, non-social fear, and fear and aggression that are directed toward unfamiliar dogs and humans. All four genome loci are among the most highly evolutionarily-selected in dogs, and each of those was previously shown to be associated with morphological traits. We propose that the IGF1 and HMGA2 loci are candidates for identical variation being associated with both behavior and morphology. In contrast, we show that the GNAT3-CD36 locus has distinct variants for behavior and morphology. The chrX region is a special case due to its extensive linkage disequilibrium (LD). Our evidence strongly suggests that sociability (which we propose is associated with HS6ST2) and fear/aggression are two distinct GWA loci within this LD block on chrX, but there is almost perfect LD between the peaks for fear/aggression and animal size. We have mapped many canine fear and

  8. Post-and prenatal testing for FSHD: Diagnostic approach for sporadic and familial cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, E.; Wielen, M.J.R. van der; Losekoot, M. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder. A major locus for FSHD was localized at the distal part of chromosome 4q. More recently, a disease associated DNA rearrangement was detected with the polymorphic probe p13E-11 (D4F104S1). In most FSHD patients, a shortened (< 28 kb instead of 50-300 kb) allele was detected. In sporadic patients a de novo deletion was found to be associated with the occurrence of FSHD. Diagnostically there were a number of problems to overcome. (1) About 5% of families show no linkage to chromosome 4q35. (2) Some 10% normal individuals show a shortened p13E11 allele, which is located at chromosome 10q. Our diagnostic strategy is as follows: If in sporadic patients a shortened p13E-11 allele is detected and neither parent shows this allele, then a de novo deletion has occurred and FSHD is proven. If no shortened allele is detected FSHD is less likely. In case one of the parents shows a shortened allele then clinical investigations and linkage studies are performed for both chromosome 4 and 10 markers. In familial cases both p13E-11 and polymorphic markers are tested. A shortened p13E-11 allele and/or chromosome 4 haplotype segregating with FSHD can be used for presymptomatic and prenatal diagnosis. Up to now, 45 sporadic cases and 21 families were referred for diagnosis. In 22 sporadic cases a shortened allele was detected, 13 were proven de novo. The first prenatal test was recently performed. The index patient was a de novo case with a shortened allele; the fetus had inherited this allele.

  9. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene Mutations Screening In Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients In Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur R. Akilzhanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of distinct mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been reported worldwide, but little is known regarding the role of these inherited susceptibility genes in breast cancer risk among Kazakhstan women. Aim: To evaluate the role of BRCA1/2 mutations in Kazakhstan women presenting with sporadic breast cancer. Methods: We investigated the distribution and nature of polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding regions in 156 Kazakhstan sporadic breast cancer cases and 112 age-matched controls using automatic direct sequencing. Results: We identified 22 distinct variants, including 16 missense mutations and 6 polymorphisms in BRCA1/2 genes. In BRCA1, 9 missense mutations and 3 synonymous polymorphisms were observed. In BRCA2, 7 missense mutations and 3 polymorphisms were detected. There was a higher prevalence of observed mutations in Caucasian breast cancer cases compared to Asian cases (p<0.05; higher frequencies of sequence variants were observed in Asian controls. No recurrent or founder mutations were observed in BRCA1/2 genes. There were no statistically significant differences in age at diagnosis, tumor histology, size of tumor, and lymph node involvement between women with breast cancer with or without the BRCA sequence alterations. Conclusions: Considering the majority of breast cancer cases are sporadic, the present study will be helpful in the evaluation of the need for the genetic screening of BRCA1/2 mutations and reliable genetic counseling for Kazakhstan sporadic breast cancer patients. Evaluation of common polymorphisms and mutations and breast cancer risk in families with genetic predisposition to breast cancer is ongoing in another current investigation. 

  10. Association of apolipoprotein E allele {epsilon}4 with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; David, F.; Berriche, S. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Reims (France)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    Apolipoprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE {epsilon}4), is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD) in French patients. The association is highly significant (0.45 AD versus 0.12 controls for {epsilon}4 allele frequencies). These data support the involvement of ApoE {epsilon}4 allele as a very important risk factor for the clinical expression of AD. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. High-risk population in sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma: guidelines for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruenderman, Elizabeth H; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-03-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most deadly forms of cancer in the United States, with an annual incidence to death ratio of 0.92 because of the late stage at diagnosis. Identification of high-risk individuals (HRIs) that would be ideal for screening is needed to identify precursor lesions and small early stage disease. Those with a genetic predisposition have largely been identified, but little is known about those at high-risk for sporadic PC. This study asserts that a high-risk population does exist in sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma and proposes simple guidelines for screening. A systematic review was conducted of the literature regarding identification of and screening in high-risk groups. Those with the highest genetic risk of developing PC include those with hereditary pancreatitis (87 times more likely at age 55), Peutz-Jehgers syndrome (132 times more likely at age 50), p16-Leiden mutations (48 times more likely), and familial pancreatic cancer (FPC) kindreds (32 times more likely). Those with the highest risk of developing sporadic PC include those with new-onset diabetes older than 50 y and smoking history. Given that sporadic PC is the single largest patient population effected with this devastating disease, some form of screening should be initiated. Currently, the medical community does nothing to attempt early detection of PC. However, sufficient evidence now exists to begin a screening protocol in a high-risk cohort, which would be patients with new-onset diabetes older than 50 y and a smoking history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Absence of RET proto-oncogene abnormalities in sporadic parathyroid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pausova, Z.; Janicic, N.; Konrad, E. [McGill Univ. and Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Parathyroid tumors can occur either sporadically or as a part of inherited cancer syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A. Recently, development of this syndrome has been shown to be related to specific mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, a putative receptor tyrosine kinase. Activation of this proto-oncogene has been demonstrated not only in tumors of the MEN 2A syndrome, but also in other neoplasia of neuroectoderm origin, namely papillary thyroid carcinoma where a rearrangement of the RET proto-oncogene has been found. In the present study, a role of the RET proto-oncogene in the development of sporadic parathyroid tumors was investigated by analyzing DNA samples obtained from 13 parathyroid adenomas and 6 parathyroid hyperplasias. Southern blot, using BamHI restricted DNA, did not reveal any gross alteration of the gene. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was then employed to amplify DNA fragments corresponding to exons 10 and 11 in which all MEN 2A mutations have been identified. Amplified DNA fragments were all of expected size (exon 10, 182 bp; exon 11, 233 bp). Since a single point mutation at codon 634 has been found to be associated in close to 90% of cases with development of parathyroid tumors in patients with the MEN 2A syndrome, exon 11, containing this codon, was further examined by direct sequence analysis. Sequences obtained from all tumors tested, however, did not differ from the wild type sequence. Therefore, the mutation of the RET proto-oncogene commonly associated with parathyroid neoplasias in MEN 2A is uncommon in sporadic parathyroid tumors. This suggests that the pathogenesis of parathyroid tumors occurring sporadically may be different from those occurring in patients with the MEN 2A syndrome.

  13. Earth's influx of different populations of sporadic meteoroids from photographic and television data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceplecha, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Precise photographic and television double- and multi-station data on 3624 sporadic meteors in the mass range from 2 x 10 -5 grams to 2 x 10 7 grams form the basis of this paper. The applied classification criteria and procedures are defined and described. A survey of 7 different populations of sporadic meteoroids known so far is presented. The total numbers and masses of meteoroids as a function of mass are given for individual groups and for all sporadic meteors. The absolute calibration of the influx to the Earth was carried out by comparison with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The comparison with the visual and cratering data revealed good agreement in the narrow ''visual'' interval of masses, and disagreement in the extrapolated parts of the visual and cratering flux curves. The slope of the cumulative number curve for the meteorite-dropping fireballs (type I) with masses larger than 1 kg was found as -0.69 in perfect agreement with the results of Halliday et al. (1984). The final mass scale derived in this paper is situated between the scale of McCrosky and the scale of Halliday. The relative significance of the different groups of meteoroids changes with the mass quite dramatically. The total influx of sporadic meteoroids in the mass interval of 12 orders from 2 x 10 7 to 2 x 10 -5 grams resulted in 5 x 10 9 grams per year for the entire Earth's surface. Most of this mass comes in the form of larger meteoroids. Bulk densities and ablation coefficient are presented for the individual meteor groups depending on different ablation models of several authors and some extreme concepts of this problem are discussed. (author). 3 figs., 6 tabs., 38 refs

  14. Height and critical frequency variations of the sporadic-E layer at midlatitudes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šauli, Petra; Bourdillon, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 70, č. 15 (2008), s. 1904-1910 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420704 Grant - others:European Union(XE) COST 296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Sporadic E * Planetary waves * Tidal waves * Mid-latitude ionosphere * Wavelet transform Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.667, year: 2008

  15. Novel multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 variations in patients with sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Birla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT can occur either as a sporadic case or in association with syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1 is a rare autosomal-dominant disease resulting from mutations in MEN1 gene encoding a 621 amino acid long tumor suppressor protein “menin.” We report here the results of MEN1 screening in 31 patients diagnosed with sporadic PHPT. Materials and Methods: Diagnosis of sporadic PHPT was made when blood urea and serum creatinine were normal, serum parathyroid hormone was high, and parathyroid enlargement could be localized on ultrasound and/or parathyroid scan. A total of 31 patients and 50 healthy volunteers were recruited for molecular analysis after taking informed consent. Results: Major symptoms at presentation were bone pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, and renal stones. Molecular genetic analysis revealed the presence of two novel intronic variations, c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A which by human splicing finder are predicted to cause potential alteration of splicing by either activating an intronic cryptic acceptor site or converting a conserved exonic splicing silencer sequence to an exonic splicing enhancer site. Apart from these, two reported polymorphisms rs144677807 and rs669976 were seen only in patients and none of the controls. Other reported polymorphisms rs2071313 and rs654440 were identified both in controls and patients. Conclusions: This is the first study of MEN1 gene screening in sporadic PHPT in India reporting on the clinical and genetic findings, wherein two novel intronic variations c. 913-79T>A and c. 784-129T>A were identified showing their possible role in disease causation.

  16. Differential gene expression in brain tissues of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tverdal Aage

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine behavioural problems, in particular aggression, are important reasons for euthanasia of otherwise healthy dogs. Aggressive behaviour in dogs also represents an animal welfare problem and a public threat. Elucidating the genetic background of adverse behaviour can provide valuable information to breeding programs and aid the development of drugs aimed at treating undesirable behaviour. With the intentions of identifying gene-specific expression in particular brain parts and comparing brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs, we studied amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus and parietal cortex, as these tissues are reported to be involved in emotional reactions, including aggression. Based on quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR in 20 brains, obtained from 11 dogs euthanised because of aggressive behaviour and nine non-aggressive dogs, we studied expression of nine genes identified in an initial screening by subtraction hybridisation. Results This study describes differential expression of the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes in brains of aggressive and non-aggressive dogs. It also reports differential expression for eight of the studied genes across four different brain tissues (amygdala, frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and parietal cortex. Sex differences in transcription levels were detected for five of the nine studied genes. Conclusions The study showed significant differences in gene expression between brain compartments for most of the investigated genes. Increased expression of two genes was associated with the aggression phenotype. Although the UBE2V2 and ZNF227 genes have no known function in regulation of aggressive behaviour, this study contributes to preliminary data of differential gene expression in the canine brain and provides new information to be further explored.

  17. Correlation of RET somatic mutations with clinicopathological features in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, M M; Cavaco, B M; Pinto, A E; Domingues, R; Santos, J R; Cid, M O; Bugalho, M J; Leite, V

    2009-01-01

    Screening of REarranged during Transfection (RET) gene mutations has been carried out in different series of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). RET-positive tumours seem to be associated to a worse clinical outcome. However, the correlation between the type of RET mutation and the patients' clinicopathological data has not been evaluated yet. We analysed RET exons 5, 8, 10–16 in fifty-one sporadic MTC, and found somatic mutations in thirty-three (64.7%) tumours. Among the RET-positive cases, exon 16 was the most frequently affected (60.6%). Two novel somatic mutations (Cys630Gly, c.1881del18) were identified. MTC patients were divided into three groups: group 1, with mutations in RET exons 15 and 16; group 2, with other RET mutations; group 3, having no RET mutations. Group 1 had higher prevalence (P=0.0051) and number of lymph node metastases (P=0.0017), and presented more often multifocal tumours (P=0.037) and persistent disease at last control (P=0.0242) than group 2. Detectable serum calcitonin levels at last screening (P=0.0119) and stage IV disease (P=0.0145) were more frequent in group 1, than in the other groups. Our results suggest that, among the sporadic MTC, cases with RET mutations in exons 15 and 16 are associated with the worst prognosis. Cases with other RET mutations have the most indolent course, and those with no RET mutations have an intermediate risk. PMID:19401695

  18. Down-regulation of BRCA1 in chronic pancreatitis and sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Carmela; Ramadani, Marco; Meyer, Stephan; Leder, Gerd; Krüger, Martin; Welte, Karl; Gansauge, Frank; Beger, Hans G

    2004-06-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are considered to be breast cancer susceptibility genes that may also contribute to pancreatic cancer development because family studies revealed mutation carriers to have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. However, as demonstrated for breast and ovarian cancer, inactivation of BRCA in sporadic diseases is based on alteration in gene expression or functional alteration. To study a potential correlation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 to chronic pancreatitis and development of sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, we have analyzed the expression of these genes by quantitative PCR and performed immunohistochemical analyses in normal pancreatic tissues, chronic pancreatitis, and pancreatic cancer specimens. BRCA1 expression was down-regulated in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, in particular on the RNA level. Furthermore, our data indicate suppressed BRCA1 expression in pancreatic cancer on both the RNA and protein levels. Quantitative analysis of BRCA1 protein expression demonstrated regular staining in 50% of tumor specimens tested and reduced staining in 50% of tumor specimens tested. Correlation with the clinical outcome revealed a significantly better 1-year overall survival for patients with BRCA1-regular as compared with BRCA1-reduced or BRCA1-absent tumors. In contrast, no substantial differences in BRCA2 expression were found in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer samples. Our data demonstrate alteration of BRCA1 expression in chronic pancreatitis and sporadic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. We, for the first time, provide evidence for a role of BRCA1 in pancreatic carcinogenesis of noninherited tumors and for clinical outcome.

  19. Measuring sporadic gastrointestinal illness associated with drinking water - an overview of methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, John; Toljander, Jonas; Lysén, Maria; Rasti, Niloofar; Engqvist, Jannes; Simonsson, Magnus

    2017-06-01

    There is an increasing awareness that drinking water contributes to sporadic gastrointestinal illness (GI) in high income countries of the northern hemisphere. A literature search was conducted in order to review: (1) methods used for investigating the effects of public drinking water on GI; (2) evidence of possible dose-response relationship between sporadic GI and drinking water consumption; and (3) association between sporadic GI and factors affecting drinking water quality. Seventy-four articles were selected, key findings and information gaps were identified. In-home intervention studies have only been conducted in areas using surface water sources and intervention studies in communities supplied by ground water are therefore needed. Community-wide intervention studies may constitute a cost-effective alternative to in-home intervention studies. Proxy data that correlate with GI in the community can be used for detecting changes in the incidence of GI. Proxy data can, however, not be used for measuring the prevalence of illness. Local conditions affecting water safety may vary greatly, making direct comparisons between studies difficult unless sufficient knowledge about these conditions is acquired. Drinking water in high-income countries contributes to endemic levels of GI and there are public health benefits for further improvements of drinking water safety.

  20. Sporadic nesting reveals long distance colonisation in the philopatric loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, Carlos; Pascual, Marta; Tomás, Jesús; Marco, Adolfo; Hochscheid, Sandra; Castillo, Juan José; Gozalbes, Patricia; Parga, Mariluz; Piovano, Susanna; Cardona, Luis

    2018-01-23

    The colonisation of new suitable habitats is crucial for species survival at evolutionary scale under changing environmental conditions. However, colonisation potential may be limited by philopatry that facilitates exploiting successful habitats across generations. We examine the mechanisms of long distance dispersal of the philopatric loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) by analysing 40 sporadic nesting events in the western Mediterranean. The analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA and 7 microsatellites of 121 samples from 18 of these nesting events revealed that these nests were colonising events associated with juveniles from distant populations feeding in nearby foraging grounds. Considering the temperature-dependent sex determination of the species, we simulated the effect of the incubation temperature and propagule pressure on a potential colonisation scenario. Our results indicated that colonisation will succeed if warm temperature conditions, already existing in some of the beaches in the area, extend to the whole western Mediterranean. We hypothesize that the sporadic nesting events in developmental foraging grounds may be a mechanism to overcome philopatry limitations thus increasing the dispersal capabilities of the species and the adaptability to changing environments. Sporadic nesting in the western Mediterranean can be viewed as potential new populations in a scenario of rising temperatures.

  1. Investigation of VSX1 sequence variants in South Indian patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anshuman; Das, Manoranjan; Srinivasan, Muthiah; Prajna, Namperumalsamy V; Sundaresan, Periasamy

    2013-03-18

    The involvement of VSX1 gene for the genetic basis of keratoconus is unclear and controversial. The genetic screening of VSX1 from different ethnic populations can enlighten this subject. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of VSX1 gene in patients with sporadic cases of keratoconus from South India. The VSX1 gene coding regions, including exon-intron boundaries were screened by direct sequencing analysis in 117 sporadic cases of keratoconus. The identified variations were also analyzed in 108 ethnic matched healthy blood donors. In the VSX1 gene screening, no pathogenic mutation was identified, whereas we could find the presence of four reported single nucleotide polymorphisms; c.546A>G (rs12480307), c.627+23G>A (rs6138482), c.627+84T>A (rs56157240) and c.504-24C>T (IVS3-24C). These variations were observed in similar frequency between cases and controls. The lack of VSX1 pathogenic variations in a large number of unrelated sporadic keratoconus patients tend to omit its role, and corroborate the involvement of other genetic, environmental or behavioural factors in the development of this complex disorder.

  2. Clinical and genetic characteristics of sporadic adult-onset degenerative ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Ilaria; Harmuth, Florian; Jacobi, Heike; Paap, Brigitte; Vielhaber, Stefan; Machts, Judith; Schöls, Ludger; Synofzik, Matthis; Sturm, Marc; Tallaksen, Chantal; Wedding, Iselin M; Boesch, Sylvia; Eigentler, Andreas; van de Warrenburg, Bart; van Gaalen, Judith; Kamm, Christoph; Dudesek, Ales; Kang, Jun-Suk; Timmann, Dagmar; Silvestri, Gabriella; Masciullo, Marcella; Klopstock, Thomas; Neuhofer, Christiane; Ganos, Christos; Filla, Alessandro; Bauer, Peter; Tezenas du Montcel, Sophie; Klockgether, Thomas

    2017-09-05

    To define the clinical phenotype and natural history of sporadic adult-onset degenerative ataxia and to identify putative disease-causing mutations. The primary measure of disease severity was the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA). DNA samples were screened for mutations using a high-coverage ataxia-specific gene panel in combination with next-generation sequencing. The analysis was performed on 249 participants. Among them, 83 met diagnostic criteria of clinically probable multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C) at baseline and another 12 during follow-up. Positive MSA-C criteria (4.94 ± 0.74, p 10 years were designated sporadic adult-onset ataxia of unknown etiology/non-MSA (SAOA/non-MSA). Compared with MSA-C, SAOA/non-MSA patients had lower SARA scores (13.6 ± 6.0 vs 16.0 ± 5.8, p = 0.0200) and a slower annual SARA increase (1.1 ± 2.3 vs 3.3 ± 3.2, p = 0.0013). In 11 of 194 tested participants (6%), a definitive or probable genetic diagnosis was made. Our study provides quantitative data on the clinical phenotype and progression of sporadic ataxia with adult onset. Screening for causative mutations with a gene panel approach yielded a genetic diagnosis in 6% of the cohort. NCT02701036. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  3. Sporadic isolated congenital asplenia with fulminant pneumococcal meningitis: a case report and updated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Shigeo

    2017-12-18

    Isolated congenital asplenia (ICA) is a rare and life-threatening condition that predisposes patients to severe bacterial infections. Most of the reported cases are familial and the mode of inheritance is usually autosomal dominant. Here, we report a case of sporadic isolated asplenia and review the literature while focusing on sporadic cases. We report the case of an 11-month-old female infant who developed fulminant pneumococcal meningitis. The pneumococcal vaccine-unimmunized patient was hospitalized with fever, irritability, and purpura, and was diagnosed as having meningitis, septic shock, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from both cerebrospinal fluid and blood. She was successfully treated with prompt antibiotic therapy. During hospitalization, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography findings, scintigraphy results, and Howell-Jolly body-containing red blood cells indicated the presence of asplenia without any visceroarterial anomalies. Moreover, the findings of peripheral blood smears and spleen ultrasonographic examinations of her parents were normal. Majority of sporadic ICA cases were detected only after the onset of overwhelming infection and had a high mortality. In cases of severe invasive pneumococcal disease, a systematic search for Howell-Jolly bodies on blood smears and the presence of asplenia on abdominal imaging are essential for detecting ICA even in the absence of any family history. After the diagnosis of ICA, patient and parent education, vaccinations, antibiotic prophylaxis, and prompt empiric treatment of febrile episode should be provided.

  4. Fruit and vegetable intake during pregnancy and risk for development of sporadic retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela, Manuela A; Titievsky, Lina; Liu, Xinhua; Ramirez-Ortiz, Marco; Ponce-Castaneda, Veronica; Lecona, Evelia; Molina, Evelyn; Beaverson, Katherine; Abramson, David H; Mueller, Nancy E

    2005-06-01

    Little is known about the causes of sporadic (noninherited) retinoblastoma. Rates seem to be somewhat higher among poorer populations in Mexico. Fruits and vegetables are important sources of carotenoids and folate. We examined whether decreased gestational maternal intake of fruits and vegetables may contribute to development of sporadic retinoblastoma. At the Instituto Nacional de Pediatria in Mexico City, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate prenatal maternal diet. We examined dietary intake of fruits and vegetables of mothers of 101 children with retinoblastoma and 172 control children using a dietary recall questionnaire and published food nutrient content tables. The reported number of mean daily servings of fruits and vegetables was lower among case mothers when compared with control mothers [vegetables: 2.28 in controls, 1.75 in cases (P vegetables and fruits was higher in controls (103 microg) than in cases (48 microg; P vegetables [odds ratios (OR), 3.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 2.0-6.0] or with a low intake of folate (OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 2.1, 7.3), or lutein/zeaxanthin (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6) derived from fruits and vegetables. Decreased intake of vegetables and fruits during pregnancy and the consequent decreased intake of nutrients such as folate and lutein/zeaxanthin, necessary for DNA methylation, synthesis, and retinal function, may increase risk for having a child with sporadic retinoblastoma.

  5. Expression of the Circadian Clock Genes Pert, Per2 in Sporadic, Familial Breast Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry L. Winter

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence implicating aberrant circadian clock expression in the development of cancer. Based on our initial experiments identifying a putative interaction between BRCA1, the clock proteins Per1, Per2, as well as the reported involvement of the circadian clock in the development of cancer, we have performed an expression analysis of the circadian clock genes Per1, Per2 in both sporadic, familial primary breast tumors, normal breast tissues using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Significantly decreased levels of Per1 were observed between sporadic tumors, normal samples (P < .00001, as well as a further significant decrease between familial, sporadic breast tumors for both Per1 (P < .00001, Per2 (P < .00001. Decreased Per1 was also associated with estrogen receptor negativity (53% vs 15%, P = .04. These results suggest a role for both Perl, Per2 in normal breast function, show for the first time that deregulation of the circadian clock may be an important factor in the development of familial breast cancer. Aberrant expression of circadian clock genes could have important consequences on the transactivation of downstream targets that control the cell cycle, on the ability of cells to undergo apoptosis, potentially promoting carcinogenesis.

  6. Occurrence of the blanketing sporadic E layer during the recovery phase of the October 2003 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Resende, Laysa Cristina Araújo; Moro, Juliano; Chen, Sony Su

    2016-05-01

    We have routinely monitored the total frequency ( ftEs) and the blanketing frequency ( fbEs) of sporadic E layers with the digital sounder under the magnetic equator in the Brazilian sector. Sporadic layers appear in the equatorial region (Esq) at heights between 90 and 130 km, mainly due to irregularities in the equatorial electrojet current. However, during the recovery phase of the October 2003 superstorm, an anomalous intensification of the ionospheric density that exceeded the normal ambient background values for local time and location was observed. The parameter fbEs rose to almost 7.5 MHz during this event, due to a type "c" blanketing sporadic layer (Esc), which is driven by wind shear. This result is discussed in terms of the atmosphere dynamics based on magnetic signature of the equatorial electrojet current using magnetometer data. Also, using data measured by sensors onboard the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) 10 we analyze the possible influence of the solar flare-associated X-ray flux as an additional source of ionization.

  7. Performance of D-Parameters in Isolating Meteor Showers from the Sporadic Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea

    2016-01-01

    It is often necessary to draw a division between meteor showers and the sporadic meteor complex in order to study these components of the meteoroid environment. Meteor showers persist for less than a season and are composed of members with a greater-than-average degree of orbital similarity. The level of orbital similarity is often quantified using so-called D-parameters; a D-parameter cutoff may be employed to define or extract a shower. Depending on the study, this cutoff value may be chosen based on the size of the data-set, the percentage of sporadic meteors within the data-set, or the inclination of the shower in question. We argue that the cutoff value should also reject the strength of the shower compared to the local sporadic background. We therefore present a method for determining, on a per-shower basis, the D-parameter cutoff that limits the false-positive rate to an acceptable percentage. If the false-positive rate exceeds this percentage regardless of cutoff value, we deem the shower to be undetectable in our data. We apply this method to optical meteor observations from the NASA All-Sky and Southern Ontario Meteor Networks and present the detectable meteor showers and their characteristics.

  8. Effects of Viewing Relational Aggression on Television on Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Sarah M.

    2016-01-01

    Most researchers on media and aggression have examined the behavioral effects of viewing physical aggression in the media. Conversely, in the current study, I examined longitudinal associations between viewing "relational aggression" on TV and subsequent aggressive behavior. Participants included 467 adolescents who completed a number of…

  9. Kindergarten children’s genetic vulnerabilities interact with friends’ aggression to promote children’s own aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Boivin, M.E.; Vitaro, F.; Brendgen, M.; Koot, H.M.; Dionne, G.; Tremblay, R.E.; Pérusse, D.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether kindergarten children's genetic liability to physically aggress moderates the contribution of friends' aggression to their aggressive behaviors. METHOD: Teacher and peer reports of aggression were available for 359 6-year-old twin pairs (145 MZ, 212 DZ) as well as

  10. FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia M Carvalho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is characterized by a rapid and severe periodontal destruction in young systemically healthy subjects. A greater prevalence is reported in Africans and African descendent groups than in Caucasians and Hispanics. We first fine mapped the interval 1q24.2 to 1q31.3 suggested as containing an aggressive periodontitis locus. Three hundred and eighty-nine subjects from 55 pedigrees were studied. Saliva samples were collected from all subjects, and DNA was extracted. Twenty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms were selected and analyzed by standard polymerase chain reaction using TaqMan chemistry. Non-parametric linkage and transmission distortion analyses were performed. Although linkage results were negative, statistically significant association between two markers, rs1935881 and rs1342913, in the FAM5C gene and aggressive periodontitis (p = 0.03 was found. Haplotype analysis showed an association between aggressive periodontitis and the haplotype A-G (rs1935881-rs1342913; p = 0.009. Sequence analysis of FAM5C coding regions did not disclose any mutations, but two variants in conserved intronic regions of FAM5C, rs57694932 and rs10494634, were found. However, these two variants are not associated with aggressive periodontitis. Secondly, we investigated the pattern of FAM5C expression in aggressive periodontitis lesions and its possible correlations with inflammatory/immunological factors and pathogens commonly associated with periodontal diseases. FAM5C mRNA expression was significantly higher in diseased versus healthy sites, and was found to be correlated to the IL-1beta, IL-17A, IL-4 and RANKL mRNA levels. No correlations were found between FAM5C levels and the presence and load of red complex periodontopathogens or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. This study provides evidence that FAM5C contributes to aggressive periodontitis.

  11. Neurocognitive models of aggression, the antisocial personality disorders, and psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, R

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers neurocognitive models of aggression and relates them to explanations of the antisocial personality disorders. Two forms of aggression are distinguished: reactive aggression elicited in response to frustration/threat and goal directed, instrumental aggression. It is argued that different forms of neurocognitive model are necessary to explain the emergence of these different forms of aggression. Impairments in executive emotional systems (the somatic marke...

  12. Relational aggression among boys: blind spots and hidden dramas

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksen, Ingunn Marie; Lyng, Selma Therese

    2016-01-01

    Although boys too are involved in relational aggression, their experiences are overshadowed by the focus on relational aggression among girls. This paradox mirrors the empirical puzzle that forms the starting point for this article: while teachers saw relational aggression as a ‘girl problem’, we found a vast undercurrent of relational aggression among boys. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews with staff and students in Norwegian schools, we ask how boys’ relational aggression ca...

  13. Understanding Female Aggression in Situationally Violent Relationships: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adi, Samar G

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this multiple case study was to gather information about female aggression in situationally violent relationship. The interviews and surveys of four African-American couples were coded and analyzed to gather information about the impact of female aggression on the relationship, the contextual factors surrounding female aggression, and the motivations for female aggression. The results indicated that female aggression impacts the couple relationship in several ways. First,...

  14. Aggressive and Prosocial Peer Norms : Change, Stability, and Associations With Adolescent Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Harakeh, Zeena; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, Rene; Vollebergh, Wilma

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which the development of prosocial and aggressive peer norms was related to individual prosocial and aggressive behavior development across the first year of secondary education (three waves, n = 1,134 adolescents from 51 classes, M-age = 12.66). A

  15. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  16. Intra- Versus Intersex Aggression: Testing Theories of Sex Differences Using Aggression Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfer, Ralf; Hewstone, Miles

    2015-08-01

    Two theories offer competing explanations of sex differences in aggressive behavior: sexual-selection theory and social-role theory. While each theory has specific strengths and limitations depending on the victim's sex, research hardly differentiates between intrasex and intersex aggression. In the present study, 11,307 students (mean age = 14.96 years; 50% girls, 50% boys) from 597 school classes provided social-network data (aggression and friendship networks) as well as physical (body mass index) and psychosocial (gender and masculinity norms) information. Aggression networks were used to disentangle intra- and intersex aggression, whereas their class-aggregated sex differences were analyzed using contextual predictors derived from sexual-selection and social-role theories. As expected, results revealed that sexual-selection theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intrasex aggression, whereas social-role theory predicted male-biased sex differences in intersex aggression. Findings suggest the value of explaining sex differences separately for intra- and intersex aggression with a dual-theory framework covering both evolutionary and normative components. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Aggressive and Prosocial Peer Norms: Change, Stability, and Associations with Adolescent Aggressive and Prosocial Behavior Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laninga-Wijnen, Lydia; Harakeh, Zeena; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Veenstra, René; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2018-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the extent to which the development of prosocial and aggressive peer norms was related to individual prosocial and aggressive behavior development across the first year of secondary education (three waves, n = 1,134 adolescents from 51 classes, M[subscript age] = 12.66). A distinction was made between descriptive…

  18. Collateral Damage from Criminalizing Aggression? Lawfare Through Aggression Accusations in the Nagorno Karabakh Conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Hoon, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of war through the prohibition and criminalization of the act of aggression has provided a common legal language for denouncing an opponent for committing aggressive war that is used between warring sides and is understood globally. Nevertheless, due to the indeterminate nature of

  19. Effects of serotonergic drugs on lateralized aggression and aggressive displays in Anolis carolinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckel, A W; Fuqua, L

    1998-10-01

    Previous work demonstrated that the brains of many reptiles, including the American chameleon Anolis carolinensis (A. carolinensis), are functionally 'split'. Because the left eye in this species projects predominantly to the right hemisphere, and vice versa, inferences about lateralized brain functioning can be made in A. carolinensis by observation of eye use during behavioral encounters. Using this model, past work suggested that territorial aggression in Anolis is under the preferential control of the right hemisphere, and that acute stress or chronic alcohol exposure selectively reduces right hemisphere mediated territorial aggression. In addition, drugs which increase serotonin (5-HT) in the synaptic cleft inhibit aggressive responding in anoles in both hemispheres. The current experiment examined whether or not the administration of the serotonin agonists 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine) tetralin (8-OHDPAT), quipazine, or meta-chlorophenylbiguanide (mCPBG) alter territorial aggression in Anolis. Nine adult socially isolated male A. carolinensis underwent a series of behavioral trials during which an antagonistic male was introduced into the cage. Once stable responding was initiated, all subjects were injected in a semi-randomized crossover manner with the following agents, (1) lactated Ringer's, (2) the 5-HT2 agonist quipazine (1.5 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg), (3) the 5-HT1 agonist 8-OHDPAT (83 mg/kg), and (4) the 5-HT3 agonist mCPBG (3.0 mg/kg and 9 mg/kg). Twenty minutes post injections, the male intruder was reintroduced into the subject's cage. Several behaviors were recorded, including: (1) the time to the first aggressive response, (2) the number of aggressive episodes mediated by the left eye or right eye, and (3) changes in skin color and posture. Aggressive responding was virtually eliminated in all subjects injected with 8-OHDPAT. On the other hand, one-way ANOVA found that both the 9 mg/kg dose of mCPBG (P=0.007), and the 3.0 mg/kg dose of quipazine (P=0

  20. Sporadic diffuse segmental interstitial cell of Cajal hyperplasia harbouring two gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST mimicking hereditary GIST syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Costa Neves

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: We describe a diffuse form of sporadic ICC hyperplasia harbouring multifocal GISTs, mimicking diffuse ICC hyperplasia in hereditary GIST syndromes. Detection of somatic c-KIT exon 11 mutation ruled out a hereditary disorder.

  1. Aggression-related brain function assessed with the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm in fMRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Anine P; Cunha-Bang, Sofi da; Carré, Justin M

    2017-01-01

    The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) measures aggressive behavior in response to provocations. The aim of the study was to implement the PSAP in a functional neuroimaging environment (fMRI) and evaluate aggression-related brain reactivity including response to provocations...... significant ventral and dorsal striatal reactivity when participants won a point and removed one from the opponent. Provocations significantly activated the amygdala, dorsal striatum, insula, and prefrontal areas. Task-related aggressive behavior was positively correlated with neural reactivity...... to provocations in the insula, the dorsal striatum, and prefrontal areas. Our findings suggest the PSAP within an fMRI environment may be a useful tool for probing aggression-related neural pathways. Activity in the amygdala, dorsal striatum, insula, and prefrontal areas during provocations is consistent...

  2. A high aggression strategy for smaller males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Andreas Svensson

    Full Text Available Male-male conflict is common among animals, but questions remain as to when, how and by whom aggression should be initiated. Factors that affect agonistic strategies include residency, the value of the contested resource and the fighting ability of the two contestants. We quantified initiation of aggression in a fish, the desert goby, Chlamydogobius eremius, by exposing nest-holding males to a male intruder. The perceived value of the resource (the nest was manipulated by exposing half of the residents to sexually receptive females for two days before the trial. Resident male aggression, however, was unaffected by perceived mating opportunities. It was also unaffected by the absolute and relative size of the intruder. Instead resident aggression was negatively related to resident male size. In particular, smaller residents attacked sooner and with greater intensity compared to larger residents. These results suggest that resident desert goby males used set, rather than conditional, strategies for initiating aggression. If intruders are more likely to flee than retaliate, small males may benefit from attacking intruders before these have had an opportunity to assess the resident and/or the resource.

  3. Oil and resource-backed aggression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    A common misperception about oil politics is that it has a uniform, monolithic effect on policy development. This paper argues that in fact the net political effect of oil varies dramatically depending on the nature of the petrostate. It shows that oil income, when combined with revolutionary governments in petrostates, generates strong incentives for foreign policy aggression and international conflict. The aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states is shown to have consequences in both military and economic spheres of international relations. Militarily, the aggressiveness of this type of state leads to a high rate of armed conflicts. Economically, the aggressiveness of petro-revolutionary states shapes global oil markets and international economic relations. The argument is tested using statistical analysis of international conflicts and economic sanctions. The policy implications are then considered, focusing on the negative global impacts of dependence on oil consumption. - Research highlights: → A radical reconsideration of the link between oil and international conflict is needed. → Resource-backed aggression, not resource-competition, is the major source of conflict. → Petro-revolutionary states instigate 250% more military conflicts than typical states. → Petro-revolutionary states are also more frequently targeted for economic sanctions.

  4. Novel mechanisms for neuroendocrine regulation of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Kiran K; Scotti, Melissa-Ann L; Newman, Amy E M; Charlier, Thierry D; Demas, Gregory E

    2008-10-01

    In 1849, Berthold demonstrated that testicular secretions are necessary for aggressive behavior in roosters. Since then, research on the neuroendocrinology of aggression has been dominated by the paradigm that the brain receives gonadal hormones, primarily testosterone, which modulate relevant neural circuits. While this paradigm has been extremely useful, recent studies reveal important alternatives. For example, most vertebrate species are seasonal breeders, and many species show aggression outside of the breeding season, when gonads are regressed and circulating testosterone levels are typically low. Studies in birds and mammals suggest that an adrenal androgen precursor-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-may be important for the expression of aggression when gonadal testosterone synthesis is low. Circulating DHEA can be metabolized into active sex steroids within the brain. Another possibility is that the brain can autonomously synthesize sex steroids de novo from cholesterol, thereby uncoupling brain steroid levels from circulating steroid levels. These alternative neuroendocrine mechanisms to provide sex steroids to specific neural circuits may have evolved to avoid the "costs" of high circulating testosterone during particular seasons. Physiological indicators of season (e.g., melatonin) may allow animals to switch from one neuroendocrine mechanism to another across the year. Such mechanisms may be important for the control of aggression in many vertebrate species, including humans.

  5. Oxytocin inhibits aggression in female Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, A C; Huhman, K L; Moore, T O; Albers, H E

    2002-12-01

    Dominant subordinate relationships are formed as the result of social conflict and are maintained at least in part by communication. At this time, little is known about the neural mechanisms that are responsible for coordinating the social behaviours (e.g. aggression) that occur in association with the formation and maintenance of these relationships. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of oxytocin (OXT) within the medial preoptic anterior hypothalamic continuum (MPOA-AH) in the control of aggression in female hamsters. OXT injected into the MPOA-AH immediately before testing significantly reduced the duration of aggression in a dose-dependent manner. Injection of an OXT antagonist 30 min before testing significantly increased the duration of aggression. In contrast, the duration of aggression was not altered when hamsters were tested either 30 min after injection of OXT or immediately following injection of an OXT-antagonist. These data support the hypothesis that OXT release within the MPOA-AH regulates social behaviours important in the formation and maintenance of dominant subordinate relationships in female hamsters.

  6. Interspecific aggression in hermatypic corals from Bermuda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, A.

    1984-11-01

    Interspecific aggression between hermatypic corals on Bermudian reefs has been investigated by aquarium and field studies, the latter involving induced interactions, observations from 30 m-2 transects and random SCUBA traverses. Resultant hierarchies, constructed by ranking the abilities of species to damage competitors, show close similarities with each other and with the Jamaican hierarchy at the family level, notwithstanding some differences in the ranking of some species. Only 11% of natural-occurring interactions depart from the aquarium-derived results; in terms of species-pair combinations, 30% show partial or complete inversions from aquarium to field, with most changes involving species close together in the field hierarchy. Circular (intransitive) interactions occur mostly within a network of weakly-aggressive species in both aquarium- and fieldderived hierarchies. While number of potential interactions m-2 varies directly with density, frequency of aggression is positively correlated with coral diversity (species richness), while frequency of “no reactions” and conspecific fusion (combined) shows a correspondingly negative correlation with diversity. Frequency of aggression does not appear to be depth related. Comparison of aquarium and field hierarchies suggest that digestion by mesenterial filaments is the most important mechanism of aggression under natural conditions. Sweeper tentacle activity is the most likely cause of field reversals involving Madracis mirabilis and Montastrea cavernosa. Other factors, such as stress caused by seasonal environmental extremes, may be responsible for reversals or inconsistent behaviour in other species.

  7. Perpetration of Alcohol-Related Aggression by Male and Female College Students: An Examination of Overt and Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kirsten; Forbes, Sarah; Thyne, Maree

    2017-03-01

    Existing literature exemplifies the relationship between alcohol and overt aggression, especially for adult males. Less clear is the relationship between alcohol and aggression among male and female college students, in particular, the nature of this aggression and the co-occurrence of drinking and aggression on the same day (temporal proximity). This study examines the chronic and temporal nature of males' and females' alcohol-related aggression among college students. Two hundred fourteen students completed a web-based 7-day event-level survey measuring alcohol consumption and perpetration of physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, and relational aggression over 4 weeks, resulting in 4,256 observations (days). The global analysis revealed students who are heavy drinkers are more likely to perpetrate all four forms of aggression, whereas the event-level analysis revealed that specific forms of aggression are associated with drinking at the time, while other forms were not linked to drinking occasions. Cross-tabulation revealed males and females were more likely to use verbal and physical aggression when drinking. For females, drinking was also associated with relational aggression and anger. Despite often being overlooked in research on aggression during emerging adulthood, relational aggression was prevalent. Discrepancies between the global and temporal analysis revealed factors other than alcohol might explain the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and specific forms of aggression. This is one of the first event-level studies to show the temporal relationship between alcohol and relational aggression. The distinctions in the current study, exemplifying the diversity of alcohol-related aggression, are critical for understanding aggressive behavior, potential gender differences, and for developing interventions. The temporal relationship between alcohol and aggression suggests health interventions should target drinking and aggression

  8. A Two-Week Psychosocial Intervention Reduces Future Aggression and Incarceration in Clinically Aggressive Juvenile Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Ashley D; Emerson, Erin M; Hartmann, William E; Zinbarg, Richard E; Donenberg, Geri R

    2017-12-01

    There is a largely unmet need for evidence-based interventions that reduce future aggression and incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders serving probation. We addressed this gap using a group randomized controlled trial. Offenders both with and without clinical aggression were included, enabling comparison of intervention effects. Juveniles 13 to 17 years old (N = 310, mean = 16 years, 90% African-American, 66% male) on probation were assigned to a 2-week intervention targeting psychosocial factors implicated in risky behavior (e.g., learning strategies to manage "hot" emotions that prompt risk taking) or to an equally intensive health promotion control. Participants completed aggression measures at baseline, 6-, and 12-month follow-up and reported on incarceration at 12 months. Spline regression tested symptom change. Among clinically aggressive offenders (n = 71), the intervention arm showed significantly greater reductions in aggression over the first 6 months compared with controls. Juveniles from the intervention no longer met clinical criteria, on average, but clinically significant symptoms persisted in the control group. By 12 months, participants from the intervention appeared to maintain treatment gains, but their symptom levels no longer differed significantly from those in the control. However, the intervention group was nearly 4 times less likely than controls to report incarceration. Intervention effects were significantly stronger for offenders with clinical than with nonclinical (n = 239) baseline aggression. A 2-week intervention expedited improvements in aggression and reduced incarceration in clinically aggressive juvenile offenders. The findings underscore the importance of directing intervention resources to the most aggressive youth. Clinical trial registration information-PHAT Life: Preventing HIV/AIDS Among Teens in Juvenile Justice (PHAT Life); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02647710. Copyright © 2017 American

  9. Cancer driver-passenger distinction via sporadic human and dog cancer comparison: a proof of principle study with colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jie; Li, Yaping; Lyon, Kenneth; Camps, Jordi; Dalton, Stephen; Ried, Thomas; Zhao, Shaying

    2013-01-01

    Herein we report a proof of principle study illustrating a novel dog-human comparison strategy that addresses a central aim of cancer research, namely cancer driver–passenger distinction. We previously demonstrated that sporadic canine colorectal cancers (CRCs) share similar molecular pathogenesis mechanisms as their human counterparts. In this study, we compared the genome-wide copy number abnormalities between 29 human- and 10 canine sporadic CRCs. This led to the identification of 73 drive...

  10. Allele doses of apolipoprotein E type {epsilon}4 in sporadic late-onset Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucotte, G.; Aouizerate, A.; Gerard, N. [Regional Center of Neurogenetics, Paris (France)] [and others

    1995-12-18

    Apoliprotein E, type {epsilon}4 allele (ApoE-{epsilon}4) is associated with late-onset sporadic Alzheimer`s disease (AD). We have found that the cumulative probability of remaining unaffected over time decreases for each dose of ApoE-{epsilon}4 in sporadic, late-onset French AD. The effect of genotypes on age at onset of AD was analyzed using the product limit method, to compare unaffected groups during aging. 26 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Digit Ratio (2D:4D, Aggression, and Testosterone in Men Exposed to an Aggressive Video Stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam P. Kilduff

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The relative lengths of the 2nd and 4th digits (2D:4D is a negative biomarker for prenatal testosterone, and low 2D:4D may be associated with aggression. However, the evidence for a 2D:4D-aggression association is mixed. Here we test the hypothesis that 2D:4D is robustly linked to aggression in “challenge” situations in which testosterone is increased. Participants were exposed to an aggressive video and a control video. Aggression was measured after each video and salivary free testosterone levels before and after each video. Compared to the control video, the aggressive video was associated with raised aggression responses and a marginally significant increase in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was negatively correlated with aggression after the aggressive video and the strength of the correlation was higher in those participants who showed the greatest increases in testosterone. Left 2D:4D was also negatively correlated to the difference between aggression scores in the aggressive and control conditions. The control video did not influence testosterone concentrations and there were no associations between 2D:4D and aggression. We conclude that 2D:4D moderates the impact of an aggressive stimulus on aggression, such that an increase in testosterone resulting from a “challenge” is associated with a negative correlation between 2D:4D and aggression.

  12. Novel Genetic Variants of Sporadic Atrial Septal Defect (ASD) in a Chinese Population Identified by Whole-Exome Sequencing (WES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Cao, Yu; Li, Yaxiong; Lei, Dongyun; Li, Lin; Hou, Zong Liu; Han, Shen; Meng, Mingyao; Shi, Jianlin; Zhang, Yayong; Wang, Yi; Niu, Zhaoyi; Xie, Yanhua; Xiao, Benshan; Wang, Yuanfei; Li, Xiao; Yang, Lirong; Wang, Wenju; Jiang, Lihong

    2018-03-05

    BACKGROUND Recently, mutations in several genes have been described to be associated with sporadic ASD, but some genetic variants remain to be identified. The aim of this study was to use whole-exome sequencing (WES) combined with bioinformatics analysis to identify novel genetic variants in cases of sporadic congenital ASD, followed by validation by Sanger sequencing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Five Han patients with secundum ASD were recruited, and their tissue samples were analyzed by WES, followed by verification by Sanger sequencing of tissue and blood samples. Further evaluation using blood samples included 452 additional patients with sporadic secundum ASD (212 male and 240 female patients) and 519 healthy subjects (252 male and 267 female subjects) for further verification by a multiplexed MassARRAY system. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to identify novel genetic variants associated with sporadic ASD. RESULTS From five patients with sporadic ASD, a total of 181,762 genomic variants in 33 exon loci, validated by Sanger sequencing, were selected and underwent MassARRAY analysis in 452 patients with ASD and 519 healthy subjects. Three loci with high mutation frequencies, the 138665410 FOXL2 gene variant, the 23862952 MYH6 gene variant, and the 71098693 HYDIN gene variant were found to be significantly associated with sporadic ASD (PASD (PASD, and supported the use of WES and bioinformatics analysis to identify disease-associated mutations.

  13. High prevalence of exon 8 G533C mutation in apparently sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarika, H L; Papathoma, A; Garofalaki, M; Vasileiou, V; Vlassopoulou, B; Anastasiou, E; Alevizaki, M

    2012-12-01

    Genetic screening for ret mutation has become routine practice in the evaluation of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Approximately 25% of these tumours are familial, and they occur as components of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndromes (MEN 2A and 2B) or familial MTC. In familial cases, the majority of mutations are found in exons 10, 11, 13, 14 or 15 of the ret gene. A rare mutation involving exon 8 (G533C) has recently been reported in familial cases of MTC in Brazil and Greece; some of these cases were originally thought to be sporadic. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate a series of sporadic cases of MTC, with negative family history, and screen them for germline mutations in exon 8. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral lymphocytes in 129 unrelated individuals who had previously been characterized as 'sporadic' based on the negative family history and negative screening for ret gene mutations. Samples were analysed in Applied Biosystems 7500 real-time PCR and confirmed by sequencing. The G533C exon 8 mutation was identified in 10 of 129 patients with sporadic MTC. Asymptomatic gene carriers were subsequently identified in other family members. In our study, we found that 7·75% patients with apparently sporadic MTC do carry G533C mutation involving exon 8 of ret. We feel that there is now a need to include exon 8 mutation screening in all patients diagnosed as sporadic MTC, in Greece. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Aggressiveness index of Apis Mellifera (Hymenoptera: Aapidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Insuasty Torres

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An index measuring the aggressiveness among ten colonies of Apis mellifera was elaborated based on the third generation synthetic indices by Charum et al. (1999. The index values are subject to a fixed parameter used as the beginning or standard value, and correspond to the aggressive features of some Africans colonies studied by Rothenbuler et al. (1968. In the ten colonies the index values are notably smaller than those of African colonies and are biased to the lowest values. This indicates, that neither of the colonies presents an extreme aggressive behavior and it is possible that they have not Africans genotypes. These results are an indirect proof of the index. Nevertheless, it could be improved by the introduction of other factors such as, climate and colony management.

  15. A Review on Post-Traumatic Aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahare Dadgari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury is the first cause of death and disability in children and young adults in worldwide. During the acute phase of recovery from moderate to severe brain injury, a period of post-traumatic confusion state (PTCS will arise that is a combination of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction. Seven key symptoms of PTCS are identified and measured by Confusion Assessment Protocol (CAP  Agitation can be part of PTCS in the acute phase or, part of the recovery of consciousness in chronic phase. There are different hypothesis and classifications of acute and chronic post-traumatic aggressive syndromes. While post-traumatic aggression is common, its mechanism, assessment tool, outcome and treatment plans are not well-defined. Understanding the different aspects of post-traumatic aggression; mechanism, differential diagnosis, and treatment are reviewed in this article.

  16. When customers exhibit verbal aggression, employees pay cognitive costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaeli, Anat; Erez, Amir; Ravid, Shy; Derfler-Rozin, Rellie; Treister, Dorit Efrat; Scheyer, Ravit

    2012-09-01

    In 4 experimental studies, we show that customer verbal aggression impaired the cognitive performance of the targets of this aggression. In Study 1, customers' verbal aggression reduced recall of customers' requests. Study 2 extended these findings by showing that customer verbal aggression impaired recognition memory and working memory among employees of a cellular communication provider. In Study 3, the ability to take another's perspective attenuated the negative effects of customer verbal aggression on participants' cognitive performance. Study 4 linked customer verbal aggression to quality of task performance, showing a particularly negative influence of aggressive requests delivered by high-status customers. Together, these studies suggest that the effects of even minor aggression from customers can strongly affect the immediate cognitive performance of customer service employees and reduce their task performance. The implications for research on aggression and for the practice of customer service are discussed.

  17. Epidemiology and demographics of aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susin, Cristiano; Haas, Alex N; Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis have used different study designs and a range of examination methods and case definitions, and this greatly complicates the study of disease prevalence in populations. The wide range of disease case definitions, in particular, profoundly impacts the reported rate of disease, and the use of a standard disease definition is strongly recommended. Surveys of aggressive periodontitis that use only clinical examinations, without radiographic examination to confirm the presence of a distinctive pattern of tissue loss, may overestimate the prevalence of this disease, particularly when a low threshold of attachment loss is used. The prevalence of aggressive periodontitis varies significantly between populations, and differences in race/ethnicities seem to be a key factor. Studies consistently show that aggressive periodontitis is most prevalent in Africa and in populations of African descent and is least prevalent in Caucasians in Europe and North America. Among children and young adults the prevalence of this disease is higher in older than in younger age groups. Most studies show comparable disease prevalence in male and female subjects. These findings show that aggressive periodontitis is a significant health problem in certain populations. This review also highlights a lack of information on the epidemiology and demographics of this disease in many parts of the world, particularly in Asia and Africa. Epidemiologic studies of aggressive periodontitis in high-risk populations are important and could provide vital data on the determinants of this disease, and this information is needed for the establishment of effective health-promotion measures. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Behavioral aggressiveness in boys with sexual precocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some boys with sexual precocity are known to have behavioral problems like increased physical and verbal aggression and school and social maladjustments. It is believed to be due to premature androgen exposure. However, it is not clear why only some develop this problem, difference in etiology could be one explanation. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess behavioral aggression in boys with sexual precocity due to different disorders. Materials and Methods: Seven children, ages three to seven years, were enrolled for this study. Two were diagnosed to have congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, three had testotoxicosis, while two had central precocious puberty. Parents of children with precocious puberty underwent the (CASP questionnaire (children′s aggression scale-parent version. Results: Testosterone levels were high in all patients. Parents denied any history of physical or verbal aggression in the two boys with CAH. Their CASP rating was 0. In contrast, the CASP ratings in the two boys with testotoxicosis and the two with precocious puberty for five domains ranged from 3.1 - 24.2, 2.6 - 8.3,1-5.6,0 - 7.1, and 0 - 1, respectively. In the present study, increased aggression was seen among all the patients with testotoxicosis and both with precocious puberty. In contrast, there were no symptoms of either increased verbal or physical aggression in either of the two patients with CAH. Conclusions: The hormonal milieu in the boys with CAH versus those with sexual precocity due to other causes differed in terms of cortisol and androgen precursors. The androgen excess in CAH children was a consequence of cortisol deficiency. It is possible that cortisol sufficiency is required for androgen-mediated behavioral effects.

  19. Aggressiveness, violence, homicidality, homicide, and Lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bransfield RC

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Robert C Bransfield Department of Psychiatry, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ, USA Background: No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD. Materials and methods: Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Results: Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation.Conclusion: LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the

  20. Aggressiveness, violence, homicidality, homicide, and Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransfield, Robert C

    2018-01-01

    No study has previously analyzed aggressiveness, homicide, and Lyme disease (LD). Retrospective LD chart reviews analyzed aggressiveness, compared 50 homicidal with 50 non-homicidal patients, and analyzed homicides. Most aggression with LD was impulsive, sometimes provoked by intrusive symptoms, sensory stimulation or frustration and was invariably bizarre and senseless. About 9.6% of LD patients were homicidal with the average diagnosis delay of 9 years. Postinfection findings associated with homicidality that separated from the non-homicidal group within the 95% confidence interval included suicidality, sudden abrupt mood swings, explosive anger, paranoia, anhedonia, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, disinhibition, nightmares, depersonalization, intrusive aggressive images, dissociative episodes, derealization, intrusive sexual images, marital/family problems, legal problems, substance abuse, depression, panic disorder, memory impairments, neuropathy, cranial nerve symptoms, and decreased libido. Seven LD homicides included predatory aggression, poor impulse control, and psychosis. Some patients have selective hyperacusis to mouth sounds, which I propose may be the result of brain dysfunction causing a disinhibition of a primitive fear of oral predation. LD and the immune, biochemical, neurotransmitter, and the neural circuit reactions to it can cause impairments associated with violence. Many LD patients have no aggressiveness tendencies or only mild degrees of low frustration tolerance and irritability and pose no danger; however, a lesser number experience explosive anger, a lesser number experience homicidal thoughts and impulses, and much lesser number commit homicides. Since such large numbers are affected by LD, this small percent can be highly significant. Much of the violence associated with LD can be avoided with better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of LD.

  1. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, gender differences in, and associations between relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7 to 10 years (N = 1410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. Unsurprisingly, boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; surprisingly, there were no significant gender differences in relational aggression. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). The countries differed significantly in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Despite mean level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression, as well as links between gender and aggression. PMID:23935227

  2. Boys’ and Girls’ Relational and Physical Aggression in Nine Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E; Skinner, Ann T; Sorbring, Emma; Di Giunta, Laura; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Distinguishing between relational and physical aggression has become a key feature of many developmental studies in North America and Western Europe, but very little information is available on relational and physical aggression in more diverse cultural contexts. This study examined the factor structure of, associations between, and gender differences in relational and physical aggression in China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States. Children ages 7–10 years (N = 1,410) reported on their relationally and physically aggressive behavior. Relational and physical aggression shared a common factor structure across countries. In all nine countries, relational and physical aggression were significantly correlated (average r = .49). Countries differed in the mean levels of both relational and physical aggression that children reported using and with respect to whether children reported using more physical than relational aggression or more relational than physical aggression. Boys reported being more physically aggressive than girls across all nine countries; no consistent gender differences emerged in relational aggression. Despite mean-level differences in relational and physical aggression across countries, the findings provided support for cross-country similarities in associations between relational and physical aggression as well as links between gender and aggression.

  3. The role of alcohol and steroid hormones in human aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Pahlen, Bettina

    2005-01-01

    The association between alcohol and aggressive behavior is well established although a direct causal relationship has proven hard to demonstrate. There are, however, indications that alcohol facilitates aggression in individuals who already have a predisposition to behave aggressively. Aggressive personality disorders have in turn been explained by elevated testosterone level. A one-to-one relation between increased levels of testosterone and aggression has been, nevertheless, difficult to reveal. Two metabolites of testosterone, estradiol and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), have been studied much less in human aggressive behavior. Estradiol might reduce androgenic effects and have a counterbalancing influence on aggression. DHT, again, has a much higher affinity than testosterone to androgen receptors, and there are indications that some of the effects of testosterone-mediating aggressive behavior occur after aromatization. Disregard of seasonal and circadian fluctuations in male testosterone production might be responsible for some of the inconclusive testosterone-aggression results. In addition, increasing age decreases both aggressive behavior and testosterone production in males. Cortisol has yielded conflicting results as a mediator in aggressive behavior. Both higher and lower levels have been reported in aggressive and abusive men. Finally, the acute and chronic effects of alcohol influence the steroid hormone levels in various ways. The present understanding of the etiology of aggression is still vague. It is clear that a multidimensional approach, combining both biological and psychosocial factors, will be necessary for the development of a more general concept of human aggression in the future.

  4. Neuromodulation can reduce aggressive behavior elicited by violent video games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Gabbiadini, Alessandro; Romero Lauro, Leonor J; Andrighetto, Luca; Volpato, Chiara; Bushman, Brad J

    2017-04-01

    Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games. Participants (N = 79) were randomly assigned to play a violent or a nonviolent video game while receiving anodal or sham stimulation. Afterward, participants aggressed against an ostensible partner using the Taylor aggression paradigm (Taylor Journal of Personality, 35, 297-310, 1967), which measures both unprovoked and provoked aggression. Among those who received sham stimulation, unprovoked aggression was significantly higher for violent-game players than for nonviolent-game players. Among those who received anodal stimulation, unprovoked aggression did not differ for violent- and nonviolent-game players. Thus, anodal stimulation reduced unprovoked aggression in violent-game players. No significant effects were found for provoked aggression, suggesting tit-for-tat responding. This experiment sheds light on one possible neural underpinning of violent-media-related aggression-the rVLPFC, a brain area involved in regulating negative feelings and aggressive impulses.

  5. [Managing aggression and violence associated with psychosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Tero; Repo-Tiihonen, Eila

    2015-01-01

    Risk for violence in psychosis is associated with the subject's history of early-onset antisocial behavior, substance abuse, suicidal ideation, lack of insight, and non-adherence to antipsychotic medication. These risk factors can be managed by effective treatment for psychosis, with the exception of predatory antisocial aggression. Generally, this group of patients is at considerable risk for untreated conditions. There is, however, no pharmacological treatment indicated solely for aggression. Physical violence can often be avoided by alertness and risk monitoring, and by attentive customer service skills. Safety at work is our shared responsibility.

  6. Age structure at diagnosis affects aggression in a psychiatric inpatient population: age structure affecting inpatient aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Un Jung; Lee, JooYoung; Kim, Hyo-Won; Lee, Jung Sun; Joo, Yeon-Ho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Chang Yoon; Shin, Yong-Wook

    2014-12-30

    Study of inpatient aggression in psychiatric inpatient units (PIUs), where vulnerable patients interact intensely in small groups, is hampered by a lack of systematic monitoring of aggressive events in the context of group dynamics. Our current study examines the relationship between aggression and group structure in the PIU of a general tertiary-care hospital over a 9-month period. The severity of aggression was monitored daily using the Overt Aggression Scale (OAS). Clinical data including the daily number and mean age of subpopulations with different diagnoses were acquired. Cross-correlation function and autoregressive integrated moving average modeling were used to assess the effects of various group structure parameters on the incidence of aggressive events in the PIU. The daily total OAS score correlated positively with the daily mean age of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. By contrast, the OAS total score demonstrated a negative correlation with the daily mean age of patients with major depression. The age of the patients at diagnosis is an important group structure that affects the incidence of aggression in a PIU.

  7. Neural mechanisms of predatory aggression in rats-implications for abnormal intraspecific aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulogdi, Aron; Biro, Laszlo; Barsvari, Beata; Stankovic, Mona; Haller, Jozsef; Toth, Mate

    2015-04-15

    Our recent studies showed that brain areas that are activated in a model of escalated aggression overlap with those that promote predatory aggression in cats. This finding raised the interesting possibility that the brain mechanisms that control certain types of abnormal aggression include those involved in predation. However, the mechanisms of predatory aggression are poorly known in rats, a species that is in many respects different from cats. To get more insights into such mechanisms, here we studied the brain activation patterns associated with spontaneous muricide in rats. Subjects not exposed to mice, and those which did not show muricide were used as controls. We found that muricide increased the activation of the central and basolateral amygdala, and lateral hypothalamus as compared to both controls; in addition, a ventral shift in periaqueductal gray activation was observed. Interestingly, these are the brain regions from where predatory aggression can be elicited, or enhanced by electrical stimulation in cats. The analysis of more than 10 other brain regions showed that brain areas that inhibited (or were neutral to) cat predatory aggression were not affected by muricide. Brain activation patterns partly overlapped with those seen earlier in the cockroach hunting model of rat predatory aggression, and were highly similar with those observed in the glucocorticoid dysfunction model of escalated aggression. These findings show that the brain mechanisms underlying predation are evolutionarily conservative, and indirectly support our earlier assumption regarding the involvement of predation-related brain mechanisms in certain forms of escalated social aggression in rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolated cleft lip with generalized aggressive periodontitis: A rare entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Renuka; Kumar, Ajay; Bhat, Kishore

    2015-01-01

    Oro-facial clefts are one of the most common birth defects and may be associated with other genetic anomalies. Aggressive periodontitis is a rare condition that progresses rapidly, but affects only a small percentage of the population. Most of the cases of aggressive periodontitis are familial. Even though, literature has documented the association of various genetic disorders with aggressive periodontitis, the aggressive periodontitis in patients with isolated cleft lip (CL) have never been addressed. Here, we report a rare case of isolated CL with generalized aggressive periodontitis. The concomitant presentation of isolated CL with aggressive periodontitis in an individual has clinical significance for multi-disciplinary care.

  9. Alzheimer's aggression: influences on caregiver coping and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Little, Kristina G; Gough, Heather R; Spurlock, Wanda J

    2011-04-01

    This study assessed impact of Alzheimer's patients' aggressive behavior (AD aggression) on caregiver coping strategies (task-, emotion-, and avoidance-focused) and caregiver resilience, and examined whether coping strategy moderated the AD aggression-caregiver resilience relationship. Informal caregivers across Louisiana (N = 419) completed surveys with measures of demographics, AD aggression, caregiver coping strategies, and caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping positively related to resilience. Aggression negatively predicted caregiver resilience. Emotion- and avoidance-focused coping strategies separately interacted with aggression and increased its negative relationship to caregiver resilience. Task-focused coping showed no moderation. Implications for social work professionals are discussed.

  10. Animal models of excessive aggression: implications for human aggression and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Sietse F

    2018-02-01

    Escalated interpersonal aggression and violence are common symptoms of multiple psychiatric disorders and represent a significant global health issue. Current therapeutic strategies are limited due to a lack of understanding about the neural and molecular mechanisms underlying the 'vicious' shift of normal adaptive aggression into violence, and the environmental triggers that cause it. Development of novel animal models that validly capture the salient features of human violent actions combined with newly emerging technologies for mapping, measuring, and manipulating neuronal activity in the brain significantly advance our understanding of the etiology, neuromolecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic interventions of excessive aggressive behaviors in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomic variants in the FTO gene are associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Greek patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Merkouri Papadima, Eleni; Xiromerisiou, Georgia; Balasopoulou, Angeliki; Charalampidou, Kyriaki; Galani, Vasiliki; Zafeiri, Krystallia-Vassiliki; Dardiotis, Efthymios; Ralli, Styliani; Deretzi, Georgia; John, Anne; Kydonopoulou, Kyriaki; Papadopoulou, Elpida; di Pardo, Alba; Akcimen, Fulya; Loizedda, Annalisa; Dobričić, Valerija; Novaković, Ivana; Kostić, Vladimir S; Mizzi, Clint; Peters, Brock A; Basak, Nazli; Orrù, Sandro; Kiskinis, Evangelos; Cooper, David N; Gerou, Spyridon; Drmanac, Radoje; Bartsakoulia, Marina; Tsermpini, Evangelia-Eirini; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Ali, Bassam R; Katsila, Theodora; Patrinos, George P

    2017-12-08

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease whose complex pathology has been associated with a strong genetic component in the context of both familial and sporadic disease. Herein, we adopted a next-generation sequencing approach to Greek patients suffering from sporadic ALS (together with their healthy counterparts) in order to explore further the genetic basis of sporadic ALS (sALS). Whole-genome sequencing analysis of Greek sALS patients revealed a positive association between FTO and TBC1D1 gene variants and sALS. Further, linkage disequilibrium analyses were suggestive of a specific disease-associated haplotype for FTO gene variants. Genotyping for these variants was performed in Greek, Sardinian, and Turkish sALS patients. A lack of association between FTO and TBC1D1 variants and sALS in patients of Sardinian and Turkish descent may suggest a founder effect in the Greek population. FTO was found to be highly expressed in motor neurons, while in silico analyses predicted an impact on FTO and TBC1D1 mRNA splicing for the genomic variants in question. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present a possible association between FTO gene variants and the genetic etiology of sALS. In addition, the next-generation sequencing-based genomics approach coupled with the two-step validation strategy described herein has the potential to be applied to other types of human complex genetic disorders in order to identify variants of clinical significance.

  12. Seasonal variability and descent of mid-latitude sporadic E layers at Arecibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Christakis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic E layers (Es follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, which are determined primarily by the vertical tidal wind shears in the lower thermosphere. In the present study a large set of sporadic E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR measurements are analyzed. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ~18° N; Magnetic Dip ~50° over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering evenly all seasons. A new methodology is applied, in which both weak and strong layers are clearly traced by using the vertical electron density gradient as a function of altitude and time. Taking a time base equal to the 24-h local day, statistics were obtained on the seasonal behavior of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variability and altitude descent patterns of sporadic E at Arecibo. The diurnal tide, most likely the S(1,1 tide with a vertical wavelength around 25 km, controls fully the formation and descent of the metallic Es layers at low altitudes below 110 km. At higher altitudes, there are two prevailing layers formed presumably by vertical wind shears associated mainly with semidiurnal tides. These include: 1 a daytime layer starting at ~130 km around midday and descending down to 105 km by local midnight, and 2 a less frequent and weaker nighttime layer which starts prior to midnight at ~130 km, descending downwards at somewhat faster rate to reach 110 km by sunrise. The diurnal and semidiurnal-like pattern prevails, with some differences, in all seasons. The differences in occurrence, strength and descending speeds between the daytime and nighttime upper layers are not well understood from the present data alone and require further study.

  13. Transarterial ethanol ablation for sporadic and non-hemorrhaging angiomyolipoma in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takebayashi, Shigeo [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57, Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama 232-0024 (Japan)], E-mail: take2922@urahp.yokohama-cu.ac.jp; Horikawa, Ayumi; Arai, Mito; Iso, Shinichiroh [Department of Radiology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, 4-57, Urafune-cho, Minami-ku, Yokohama 232-0024 (Japan); Noguchi, Kazumi [Department of Urology, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Yokohama (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: We evaluated the efficacy and side effects of transarterial ethanol ablation in sporadic and non-hemorrhaging angiomyolipomas (AMLs) in the kidney. Material and Methods: A total of 10 patients with solitary and sporadic AMLs underwent selective transarterial absolute ethanol ablation for prophylaxis against hemorrhage. We confirmed the ratio areas of tumor vessel on angiogram, those of infraction on post-ablation computed tomography (CT) and those of tumor reduction in a 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up CT. Results: Once or twice a single infusion of 1 or 2 ml absolute ethanol achieved in a total occlusion of 22 feeding arteries which consisted of 7 proximal interlobar arteries, 12 distal interlobar arteries and 3 renal capsular arteries. Nontarget occlusion did not occur by ethanol reflux in any cases but occurred causing spasms provoked by repeated inflation and deflation of the balloon in one case. Total occlusion of tumor vessels was observed in 7 patients and 92-95% occlusion in 3. Ethanol ablation produced 1.8-22.5% (mean 8.4 {+-} 6.8%) areas of infarctions but the outcome was not serious in all cases. Mean percentage areas of tumor reduction were 29.4 {+-} 10.6% in a 3-month follow-up, 45.7 {+-} 11.9% in a 6-month and 59.3 {+-} 11.5% in a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: Absolute ethanol ablation for sporadic and non-hemorrhaging AML is safe and effective in reducing majority of tumor area in a 1-year follow-up.

  14. Prevalence of mitochondrial DNA mutations in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hua; Chen, Jia; Li, Ying; Lin, Peng-Fang; He, Jian-Guo; Yang, Bei-Bei

    2016-01-01

    Several mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported to be associated with nonsyndromic hearing loss in several families. However, little is known about the prevalence of these mutations in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. The purpose of our study was to investigate the incidence of these mitochondrial DNA mutations in such population. A total of 178 sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood sample. We employed the SNaPshot(®) sequencing method to detect five mitochondrial DNA mutations, including A1555G and A827G in 12S rRNA gene and A7445G, 7472insC, and T7511C in tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene. Meanwhile, we used polymerase chain reaction and sequenced the products to screen GJB2 gene mutations in patients carrying mitochondrial DNA mutations. We failed to detect the presence of A1555G mutation in 12S rRNA gene, and of A7445G, 7472insC, T7511C mutations in tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene in our population. However, we found that 6 patients (3.37%) were carriers of a homozygous A827G mutation and one of them also carried homozygous GJB2 235delC mutation. Our findings in the present study indicate that even in sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss, mitochondrial DNA mutations might also contribute to the clinical phenotype. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Exome-wide association study reveals novel susceptibility genes to sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Esslinger

    Full Text Available Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM is an important cause of heart failure with a strong familial component. We performed an exome-wide array-based association study (EWAS to assess the contribution of missense variants to sporadic DCM.116,855 single nucleotide variants (SNVs were analyzed in 2796 DCM patients and 6877 control subjects from 6 populations of European ancestry. We confirmed two previously identified associations with SNVs in BAG3 and ZBTB17 and discovered six novel DCM-associated loci (Q-value<0.01. The lead-SNVs at novel loci are common and located in TTN, SLC39A8, MLIP, FLNC, ALPK3 and FHOD3. In silico fine mapping identified HSPB7 as the most likely candidate at the ZBTB17 locus. Rare variant analysis (MAF<0.01 demonstrated significant association for TTN variants only (P = 0.0085. All candidate genes but one (SLC39A8 exhibit preferential expression in striated muscle tissues and mutations in TTN, BAG3, FLNC and FHOD3 are known to cause familial cardiomyopathy. We also investigated a panel of 48 known cardiomyopathy genes. Collectively, rare (n = 228, P = 0.0033 or common (n = 36, P = 0.019 variants with elevated in silico severity scores were associated with DCM, indicating that the spectrum of genes contributing to sporadic DCM extends beyond those identified here.We identified eight loci independently associated with sporadic DCM. The functions of the best candidate genes at these loci suggest that proteostasis regulation might play a role in DCM pathophysiology.

  16. Comparative analysis of copy number variations in ulcerative colitis associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumar, B. M.; Chakrabarty, Sanjiban; Rotti, Harish; Seenappa, Venu; Rao, Lakshmi; Geetha, Vasudevan; Tantry, B. V.; Kini, Hema; Dharamsi, Rajesh; Pai, C. Ganesh; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of and mortality from colorectal cancers (CRC) can be reduced by early detection. Currently there is a lack of established markers to detect early neoplastic changes. We aimed to identify the copy number variations (CNVs) and the associated genes which could be potential markers for the detection of neoplasia in both ulcerative colitis-associated neoplasia (UC-CRN) and sporadic colorectal neoplasia (S-CRN). We employed array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) to identify CNVs in tissue samples of UC nonprogressor, progressor and sporadic CRC. Select genes within these CNV regions as a panel of markers were validated using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) method along with the microsatellite instability (MSI) in an independent cohort of samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis was also performed. Integrated analysis showed 10 overlapping CNV regions between UC-Progressor and S-CRN, with the 8q and 12p regions showing greater overlap. The qRT-PCR based panel of MYC, MYCN, CCND1, CCND2, EGFR and FNDC3A was successful in detecting neoplasia with an overall accuracy of 54 % in S-CRN compared to that of 29 % in UC neoplastic samples. IHC study showed that p53 and CCND1 were significantly overexpressed with an increasing frequency from pre-neoplastic to neoplastic stages. EGFR and AMACR were expressed only in the neoplastic conditions. CNVs that are common and unique to both UC-associated and sporadic colorectal neoplasm could be the key players driving carcinogenesis. Comparative analysis of CNVs provides testable driver aberrations but needs further evaluation in larger cohorts of samples. These markers may help in developing more effective neoplasia-detection strategies during screening and surveillance programs. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2303-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  17. Seasonal variability and descent of mid-latitude sporadic E layers at Arecibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Christakis

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic E layers (Es follow regular daily patterns in variability and altitude descent, which are determined primarily by the vertical tidal wind shears in the lower thermosphere. In the present study a large set of sporadic E layer incoherent scatter radar (ISR measurements are analyzed. These were made at Arecibo (Geog. Lat. ~18° N; Magnetic Dip ~50° over many years with ISR runs lasting from several hours to several days, covering evenly all seasons. A new methodology is applied, in which both weak and strong layers are clearly traced by using the vertical electron density gradient as a function of altitude and time. Taking a time base equal to the 24-h local day, statistics were obtained on the seasonal behavior of the diurnal and semidiurnal tidal variability and altitude descent patterns of sporadic E at Arecibo. The diurnal tide, most likely the S(1,1 tide with a vertical wavelength around 25 km, controls fully the formation and descent of the metallic Es layers at low altitudes below 110 km. At higher altitudes, there are two prevailing layers formed presumably by vertical wind shears associated mainly with semidiurnal tides. These include: 1 a daytime layer starting at ~130 km around midday and descending down to 105 km by local midnight, and 2 a less frequent and weaker nighttime layer which starts prior to midnight at ~130 km, descending downwards at somewhat faster rate to reach 110 km by sunrise. The diurnal and semidiurnal-like pattern prevails, with some differences, in all seasons. The differences in occurrence, strength and descending speeds between the daytime and nighttime upper layers are not well understood from the present data alone and require further study.

  18. Searching for possible effects on midlatitude sporadic E layer, caused by tropospheric lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Veronika; Haldoupis, Christos; Sátori, Gabriella; Buresova, Dalia

    2016-07-01

    Thunderstorms in the troposphere may affect the overlying ionosphere through electrodynamic and/or neutral atmosphere wave coupling processes. For example, it is well known that lightning discharges may impact upper atmosphere through quasi-electrostatic fields and strong electromagnetic pulses, leading to transient luminous phenomena, such as sprites and elves, along with electron heating and ionization changes in the upper D and lower E-region ionosphere that have been detected in VLF transmissions propagating in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. On the other hand, mechanical coupling between the troposphere and the ionosphere may be caused by neutral atmosphere gravity waves which are known to have their origin in massive thunderstorms. The effects of troposphere-ionosphere coupling during thunderstorms, are not yet fully established and understood, therefore there is need for more correlative studies, for example by using concurrent ionospheric and lightning observations. In the present work an effort is made to investigate a possible relationship between tropospheric lighting and sporadic E layer, which are known to dominate at bottomside ionosphere and at middle latitudes during summer. For this, a correlative analysis was undertaken using lightning data obtained with the LINET lightning detection network in Central Europe, and E region ionospheric parameters (fmin, foE, foEs, fbEs) measured with the Pruhonice (50° N, 14.5° E) DPS-4D digisonde in the summer of 2009. For direct correlation with the digisonde data, the lightning activity was quantified every 15 minutes in coincidence with the measured ionogram parameters. In the search for relation between lightning and sporadic E, the digisonde observations during lightning were also compared with those taken during a number of tropospheric storm-free days in Pruhonice. The results of this correlative study did not provide evidence of significance that favors a relationship between tropospheric lightning and

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENCODING ABILITY AND AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamis, Vasiliki J; Rebok, George W; Montague, David R

    2009-03-26

    While past research efforts have reported a relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior in children, the relationship between encoding ability and adult aggressiveness has not been examined. Encoding, an element of attention, refers to the ability to recall and reorder information stored in memory. Using selected cognitive tests and a self-report measure of aggressive behavior in a sample of community college students (n=55), this study investigated the relationship between encoding ability and aggressive behavior, (i.e., physical aggression, verbal aggression, anger, hostility, indirect aggression, and total aggression). Aggressive behavior was assessed by the Aggression Questionnaire of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory, a widely-used measure of aggressive behavior. Encoding was measured using the WAIS-III Digit Span and Arithmetic subtests. Initial analyses showed no significant correlations between the cognitive measures and the five scales of aggressive behavior. However, there was a significant age-related association between scores on the cognitive measures and the indices of aggressive behavior. Two groups were created, those who reported attention problems and those who did not report attention problems. When the two groups were compared, participants who had a history of attention problems were verbally more aggressive than participants with a negative history of attention problems, and they were generally more aggressive. A composite score, called an "encoding score," was related to scores on the aggressive behavior scales. Moreover, the age-related relationship between these two variables suggests that the relationship is maturational and may disappear as an individual ages. Concerning the latter, participants in the current study were enrolled in junior college. Therefore, persons who had attention problems and were aggressive may not have pursued higher education.

  20. Prevalence and psychosocial factors of aggression among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Marimuthu, Palaniappan

    2014-01-01

    Youth indulgence themselves in various aggressive behaviors leading to significant psychosocial dysfunctions. The present study assesses the prevalence of aggression among youth and to assess the risk factors of aggression among youth. Anger Data sheet, Resilience Scale and Buss-Perry Aggression Scale, were administered on 5476 participants using survey design. Data was collected from different communities (college, residential, apartments and workplace) of Bangalore, Jammu, Indore, Kerala, Rajasthan, Sikkim and Delhi. 47% were female and 53% were male. The mean age of the sample was 20.2 years. Comparative analysis was carried out by Pearson correlation coefficient and Chi-square was also carried out. About 17.7% of the youth has high mean aggression score on Buss-Perry Aggression Scale. Males have high mean score on aggression than females. Males experienced more verbal aggression, physical aggression and anger than females. Younger age group (16-19 years) experienced more aggression than older age group (20-26 years). The risk factors of the youth aggressions were identified as physical abuse in childhood, substance abuse such as alcohol and tobacco, negative peer influence, family violence, academic disturbance, psychological problems attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, suspicious, loneliness, mood disturbance, negative childhood experience and TV and media. The study document, the presence of correlates of risk factors of aggression among youth and implies usages of management strategies to help them to handle aggression.

  1. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    meyer (2003) describes an incident where a male teacher grabbed learners by the neck and then pushed one of ..... were critical of the attitude of the young teachers coming from the universities: “… for them (the young ... Male teachers need to develop social skills and self-control techniques so they can avoid aggressive ...

  2. Dien,cephalic Instability and Aggression*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For example, 16 subsyndromes of schizophrenia have been so delineated.'· It is likely that there are many more than three indicants of diencephalic instability and the indentification of subsyndromes may well involve tracing a path through a Boolean lattice. Aggressive behaviour is the indicant of particular interest here.

  3. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  4. Aggressive periodontitis in a Nigerian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwhator, Solomon Olusegun; Uhunmwangho, Iyobosa; Chukwuma, Benedict; Ikponmwosa, Osagie

    2014-07-01

    These case series were aimed at highlighting late presentations of aggressive periodontitis (AP) in a teaching hospital as well as proffering possible reasons for such presentations which would serve as part of the solution to prevent such presentations in the future. Aggressive periodontitis is a severe form of destructive periodontitis traditionally believed to present around puberty. However, many cases seen in a teaching hospital presented much later for yet-to-be explained reasons. Seven patients referred to the specialist periodontal clinic of a Nigerian teaching hospital presented with clinical features consistent with AP. Most of the patients were over twenty and some over thirty years of age. Aggressive periodontitis patients seen in our center were often outside the traditional age brackets. The range of treatment options available to the patients were under-utilized due to serious financial constraints. Aggressive periodontitis comes with serious psychological challenges and severe morbidity. Prompt diagnosis and effective management hold the key to success It is important to investigate why many of the cases seen in our center presented that late. Could be due to ignorance and poverty or could be due to failure of dentists recognize these cases and consequent misdiagnosis? Further studies are needed to answer these questions.

  5. Observing Aggression of Teachers in School Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sasson, Dvora; Somech, Anit

    2015-01-01

    To fill the gap in theoretical and empirical knowledge on workplace aggression by teachers working in teams, this study explored its components, its targets, and its contextual determinants. Data were collected through three observations at different schools and at different times on 29 math, homeroom, language, and science studies teams.…

  6. Male Teachers' Experiences of Own Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Johan; Myburgh, Chris; Poggenpoel, Marie

    2013-01-01

    We describe an exploratory, descriptive, and contextual study on the lived experiences of 17 male teachers' own aggression in the Gert Sibande district in Mpumalanga province. Individual phenomenological interviews were used to collect data from these volunteers for this qualitative research. The data were analysed by means of an open coding…

  7. Subtypes of aggression in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bo, Sune; Forth, Adelle; Kongerslev, Mickey

    2013-01-01

    Research has repeatedly demonstrated that schizophrenia has a small but significant association with violence. It is further recognised that a subgroup of people with such links also have personality disorders, but the extent to which type of violence or aggression varies according to subgroup...

  8. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles

    2014-01-01

    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  9. Psychological Determinants of Aggressive Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The instruments for data collection were aggressive behaviour scale (ABAS) and Psychological Assessment Scale (PAQ). The instruments were validated by experts in Educational Psychology, Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability coefficient of 0.84 was obtained for ABAS while reliability coefficients of 0.74, 0.85 ...

  10. Television Viewing and Aggression: Some Alternative Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feshbach, Seymour; Tangney, June

    2008-09-01

    The focus of this article is on the examination of variables that moderate the influence of exposure to TV violence. The research on the relationship between TV violence and aggressive behavior of the audience has largely focused on addressing the social policy issue of whether witnessing TV violence fosters aggressive behavior in viewers, particularly children. There has been a dearth of research addressing the conditions that enhance the aggression stimulating effects of media violence, those that mitigate these effects, and those that may even result in reduced aggression after one witnesses media violence. To illustrate the importance of potential moderating factors, we present longitudinal correlational data relating the degree of viewing TV violence to various social behaviors and cognitive attributes of White and African-American male and female elementary-school-age children. Although TV violence viewing was associated with lower cognitive attributes and negative social behaviors in White males and females and African-American females, a very different pattern of relationships was found for African-American males. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  11. The relation between sleep and violent aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Good sleep is important for our emotional stability and aggression control. Although most people do not become violent after a period of poor sleep, this may be different for certain vulnerable individuals. Forensic psychiatric patients may represent a group of such individuals. We studied patients

  12. Mitochondrial mutations drive prostate cancer aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, Julia F.; Sabelnykova, Veronica Y.; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear mutations are well known to drive tumor incidence, aggression and response to therapy. By contrast, the frequency and roles of mutations in the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome are poorly understood. Here we sequence the mitochondrial genomes of 384 localized prostate cancer...

  13. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  14. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  15. The clinical assessment of aggressive periodontitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chan-Myung; You, Hyung-Keun; Jeong, Seong-Nyum

    2011-06-01

    Few epidemiologic studies have investigated aggressive periodontitis in Koreans, but such studies of disease prevalence and other clinical characteristics would be invaluable in providing proper treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aggressive periodontitis and to measure the extent of associated periodontal breakdown. The study population consisted of 1,692 patients who visited the Department of Periodontology, Wonkwang Daejeon Dental Hospital from January to December, 2010. Clinical parameters (probing depth, gingival recession, periodontal attachment loss) were measured by a single examiner, and radiographic examination was performed at the baseline. Twenty-eight (1.65%) patients showed clinical features of aggressive periodontitis, of which 27 patients exhibited the generalized form, and 1 exhibited the localized form. There was no significant difference between the percentage of male and female patients. The probing pocket depth of the maxillary first molar was deeper than that of the other teeth and gingival recession was also the most serious at the maxillary first molar. The periodontal attachment loss was the highest at the maxillary first molar. The average number of missing teeth was 1.29 per subject. Loss of the second molar was prominent. Within the limitations of this study, the periodontal breakdown evaluated by attachment loss was found to be most severe at the first molars of aggressive periodontitis patients. However, further large scale multicenter studies are necessary to access more precise data, including prevalence.

  16. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  17. Multi-modal aggression detection in trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    In many public places multiple sensing devices, such as cameras, are installed to help prevent unwanted situations such as aggression and violence. At the moment, the best solution to reach a safe environment requires human operators to monitor the camera images and take appropriate actions when

  18. Sexual victimization, partner aggression and alcohol consumption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the relationship sexual victimization (both childhood sexual victimization and adult sexual victimization), aggression and alcohol consumption. The data for this research is from the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS). A random sample of 2070 adults (53.8% males and ...

  19. Aggressive behavior in the genus Gallus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Queiroz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the production system in the poultry industry and the vertical integration of the poultry agribusiness have brought profound changes in the physical and social environment of domestic fowls in comparison to their ancestors and have modified the expression of aggression and submission. The present review has covered the studies focusing on the different aspects linked to aggressiveness in the genus Gallus. The evaluated studies have shown that aggressiveness and subordination are complex behavioral expressions that involve genetic differences between breeds, strains and individuals, and differences in the cerebral development during growth, in the hormonal metabolism, in the rearing conditions of individuals, including feed restriction, density, housing type (litter or cage, influence of the opposite sex during the growth period, existence of hostile stimuli (pain and frustration, ability to recognize individuals and social learning. The utilization of fighting birds as experimental material in the study of mechanisms that have influence on the manifestation of aggressiveness in the genus Gallus might comparatively help to elucidate important biological aspects of such behavior.

  20. Vertebral Hemangiomas - Aggressive Forms | Allali | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical imaging allows both diagnosis and evaluation of their aggressivity. Objective To assess the role of radiology, embolisation, percutaneous vertebroplasty, radiotherapy and surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral hemangiomas. Methods We report our experience of five patients who had an average age of ...

  1. 4. Relational Aggression in Adolescents at Selected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    age groups (e.g. preschoolers, adolescence, adulthood), many researchers have been particularly interested in relational aggression. 4 among adolescents . Adolescence is a period of significant cognitive, social and behavioural transitions. Socially peer relationships become. 5 increasingly significant during adolescence ...

  2. Multi-modal human aggression detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, J. F. P.; Liem, M. C.; Krijnders, J. D.; Andringa, T. C.; Gavrila, D. M.

    This paper presents a smart surveillance system named CASSANDRA, aimed at detecting instances of aggressive human behavior in public environments. A distinguishing aspect of CASSANDRA is the exploitation of complementary audio and video cues to disambiguate scene activity in real-life environments.

  3. The diagnostic efficiency of biomarkers in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, J.M.; Heegaard, N.H.; Falkenhorst, G.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory markers have a prominent place among the diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Here we investigate the capability of protein 14-3-3, total-tau (t-tau), threonin-181-phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF......) together with the prion protein gene genotype to discriminate patients with sCJD (n=21) from neurological controls (n=164) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n=49). Low p-tau/t-tau ratio was the best single marker for sCJD with 90% specificity against neurological controls at 86% sensitivity whilst NSE...

  4. Analysis of wave-like oscillations in parameters of sporadic E layer and neutral atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mošna, Zbyšek; Koucká Knížová, Petra

    90-91, SI (2012), s. 172-178 ISSN 1364-6826. [IAGA/ICMA/CAWSES-II TG4 Workshop on Vertical Coupling in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System /4./. Prague, 14.02.2011-18.02.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420704 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Sporadic E * Planetary waves * Tidal waves * Mid-latitude ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.417, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682612001186

  5. HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE INFECTION IN CHILDREN DURING SPORADIC MORBIDITY: CLINICAL CASES WITH DIFFERENT (FAVORABLE OR FATAL OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadii A. Kharchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus influenzae infection in children is detected as sporadic cases and is characterized by polymorphism of clinical symptoms (rhinopharyngitis, purulent meningitis, acute epiglottitis, panniculitis, etc., which complicates an early diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. In young children, Haemophilus influenzae infection (type b often occurs in generalized forms and may result in death. The article presents  literature data and the results of own clinical observations  of Haemophilus influenzae cases that occurred with an aspect of purulent meningitis and panniculitis in young children. The tactics of a complex therapy and ways to prevent Haemophilus in fluenzae infection are discussed.

  6. Searching for effects caused by thunderstorms in midlatitude sporadic E layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Barta, V.; Haldoupis, C.; Sátori, G.; Burešová, Dalia; Chum, Jaroslav; Pozoga, M.; Berényi, K. A.; Bór, J.; Popek, Martin; Kis, Á.; Bencze, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 161, August (2017), s. 150-159 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC15-07281J; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : atmospheric gravity waves * ionosphere coupling * lightning * sporadic E layer * sprites * thunderstorm Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology OBOR OECD: Meteorology and atmospheric sciences Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 https://arxiv.org/abs/1708.00270

  7. Congenital terminal transverse deformity of upper limb: clinical and radiological findings in a sporadic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sajid; Afzal, Muhammad

    2013-03-01

    Congenital transverse limb anomalies are rare, which affect upper and/or lower limbs and may accompany several syndromic malformations. We present a sporadic male subject with congenital, unilateral transverse arrest of the left hand. The affected arm was observed to be short with reduced zeugopod and truncated palm. Fingers were represented by five bead-like nubbins. Roentgenographic examination revealed short radius and ulna with hypoplastic distal heads, absent carpals/metacarpals, and a hypoplastic bony island in each nubbin. Consanguinity was denied, and the subject had no symptoms in the orofacial, neurological and skeletal systems. Detailed clinical data with literature survey is presented.

  8. New application of intelligent agents in sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis identifies unexpected specific genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penco, Silvana; Buscema, Massimo; Patrosso, Maria Cristina; Marocchi, Alessandro; Grossi, Enzo

    2008-05-30

    Few genetic factors predisposing to the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been identified, but the pathology itself seems to be a true multifactorial disease in which complex interactions between environmental and genetic susceptibility factors take place. The purpose of this study was to approach genetic data with an innovative statistical method such as artificial neural networks to identify a possible genetic background predisposing to the disease. A DNA multiarray panel was applied to genotype more than 60 polymorphisms within 35 genes selected from pathways of lipid and homocysteine metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, coagulation, inflammation, cellular adhesion and matrix integrity, in 54 sporadic ALS patients and 208 controls. Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis Advanced intelligent systems based on novel coupling of artificial neural networks and evolutionary algorithms have been applied. The results obtained have been compared with those derived from the use of standard neural networks and classical statistical analysis. An unexpected discovery of a strong genetic background in sporadic ALS using a DNA multiarray panel and analytical processing of the data with advanced artificial neural networks was found. The predictive accuracy obtained with Linear Discriminant Analysis and Standard Artificial Neural Networks ranged from 70% to 79% (average 75.31%) and from 69.1 to 86.2% (average 76.6%) respectively. The corresponding value obtained with Advanced Intelligent Systems reached an average of 96.0% (range 94.4 to 97.6%). This latter approach allowed the identification of seven genetic variants essential to differentiate cases from controls: apolipoprotein E arg158cys; hepatic lipase -480 C/T; endothelial

  9. The diagnostic efficiency of biomarkers in sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease compared to Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Justyna Maria Czarna; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg; Falkenhorst, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    ) together with the prion protein gene genotype to discriminate patients with sCJD (n=21) from neurological controls (n=164) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n=49). Low p-tau/t-tau ratio was the best single marker for sCJD with 90% specificity against neurological controls at 86% sensitivity whilst NSE......Laboratory markers have a prominent place among the diagnostic criteria for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). Here we investigate the capability of protein 14-3-3, total-tau (t-tau), threonin-181-phosphorylated tau (p-tau), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF...

  10. Sporadic and genetic forms of paediatric somatotropinoma: a retrospective analysis of seven cases and a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozières Cécile

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatotropinoma, a pituitary adenoma characterised by excessive production of growth hormone (GH, is extremely rare in childhood. A genetic defect is evident in some cases; known genetic changes include: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1; Carney complex; McCune-Albright syndrome; and, more recently identified, aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP. We describe seven children with somatotropinoma with a special focus on the differences between genetic and sporadic forms. Methods Seven children who presented in our regional network between 1992 and 2008 were included in this retrospective analysis. First-type therapy was somatostatin (SMS analogues or transsphenoidal surgery. Control was defined as when insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels were within the normal range for the patient's age at 6 months after therapy, associated with decreasing tumour volume. Results Patients were aged 5-17 years and the majority (n = 6 were male. Four patients had an identified genetic mutation (McCune-Albright syndrome: n = 1; MEN1: n = 1; AIP: n = 2; the remaining three cases were sporadic. Accelerated growth rate was reported as the first clinical sign in four patients. Five patients presented with macroadenoma; invasion was noted in four of them (sporadic: n = 1; genetic: n = 3. Six patients were treated with SMS analogues; normalisation of IGF-1 occurred in one patient who had a sporadic intrasellar macroadenoma. Multiple types of therapy were necessary in all patients with an identified genetic mutation (4 types: n = 1; 3 types: n = 2; 2 types: n = 1, whereas two of the three patients with sporadic somatotropinoma required only one type of therapy. Conclusions This is the first series that analyzes the therapeutic response of somatotropinoma in paediatric patients with identified genetic defects. We found that, in children, genetic somatotropinomas are more invasive than sporadic somatotropinomas. Furthermore

  11. Verbal Aggressiveness Among Physicians and Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jenny Lynn; Hosseini, Motahar; Kamangar, Farin; Levien, David H; Rowland, Pamela A; Kowdley, Gopal C; Cunningham, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    To better understand verbal aggressiveness among physicians and trainees, including specialty-specific differences. The Infante Verbal Aggressiveness Scale (IVAS) was administered as part of a survey to 48 medical students, 24 residents, and 257 attending physicians. The 72 trainees received the IVAS and demographic questions, whereas the attending physicians received additional questions regarding type of practice, career satisfaction, litigation, and personality type. The IVAS scores showed high reliability (Cronbach α = 0.83). Among all trainees, 56% were female with mean age 28 years, whereas among attending physicians, 63% were male with mean age 50 years. Average scores of trainees were higher than attending physicians with corresponding averages of 1.88 and 1.68, respectively. Among trainees, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, non-US birthplace, choice of surgery, and a history of bullying. Among attending physicians, higher IVAS scores were significantly associated with male sex, younger age, self-reported low-quality of patient-physician relationships, and low enjoyment talking to patients. General surgery and general internal medicine physicians were significantly associated with higher IVAS scores than other specialties. General practitioners (surgeons and medical physicians) had higher IVAS scores than the specialists in their corresponding fields. No significant correlation was found between IVAS scores and threats of legal action against attending physicians, or most personality traits. Additional findings regarding bullying in medical school, physician-patient interactions, and having a method to deal with inappropriate behavior at work were observed. Individuals choosing general specialties display more aggressive verbal communication styles, general surgeons displaying the highest. The IVAS scoring system may identify subgroups of physicians with overly aggressive (problematic) communication skills and may provide a

  12. Aggressive periodontitis: case definition and diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease characterized by the following: the involvement of multiple teeth with a distinctive pattern of periodontal tissue loss; a high rate of disease progression; an early age of onset; and the absence of systemic diseases. In some patients periodontal tissue loss may commence before puberty, whereas in most patients the age of onset is during or somewhat after the circumpubertal period. Besides infection with specific microorganisms, a host predisposition seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as evidenced by the familial aggregation of the disease. In this article we review the historical background of the diagnostic criteria of aggressive periodontitis, present a contemporary case definition and describe the clinical parameters of the disease. At present, the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is achieved using case history, clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. The data gathered using these methods are prone to relatively high measurement errors. Besides, this diagnostic approach measures past disease history and may not reliably measure existing disease activity or accurately predict future tissue loss. A diagnosis is often made years after the onset of the disease, partly because current assessment methods detect established disease more readily and reliably than they detect incipient or initial lesions where the tissue loss is minimal and usually below the detection threshold of present examination methods. Future advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease may contribute to an earlier diagnosis. Insofar, future case definitions may involve the identification of key etiologic and risk factors, combined with high-precision methodologies that enable the early detection of initial lesions. This may significantly enhance the predictive value of these tests and detect cases of aggressive periodontitis before significant tissue loss develops. © 2014

  13. Is bipolar disorder specifically associated with aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Javier; Goldstein, Tina; Goldstein, Benjamin; Obreja, Mihaela; Axelson, David; Monk, Kelly; Hickey, MaryBeth; Iyengar, Satish; Farchione, Tiffany; Kupfer, David J; Brent, David; Birmaher, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Objective Several studies have suggested that bipolar disorder (BP) in adults is associated with aggressive behaviors. However, most studies have only included inpatients and have not taken possible confounding factors into consideration. The goal of this study was to compare the prevalence of aggression in subjects with BP compared to subjects with other non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Methods Subjects with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) and bipolar II disorder (BP-II) (n = 255), non-BP psychopathology (n = 85), and healthy controls (n = 84) were recruited. Aggression was measured using the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). Group comparisons were adjusted for demographic and clinical differences (e.g., comorbid disorders) and multiple comparisons. The effects of the subtype of BP, current versus past episode, polarity of current episode, psychosis, the presence of irritable mania/hypomania only, and pharmacological treatment were examined. Results Subjects with BP showed significantly higher total and subscale AQ scores (raw and T-scores) when compared with subjects with non-BP psychopathology and healthy controls. Exclusion of subjects with current mood episodes and those with common comorbid disorders yielded similar results. There were no effects of BP subtype, polarity of the current episode, irritable manic/hypomanic episodes only, or current use of pharmacological treatments. Independent of the severity of BP and polarity of the episode, those in a current mood episode showed significantly higher AQ scores than those not in a current mood episode. Subjects with current psychosis showed significantly higher total AQ score, hostility, and anger than those without current psychosis. Conclusions Subjects with BP display greater rates of anger and aggressive behaviors, especially during acute and psychotic episodes. Early identification and management of these behaviors is warranted. PMID:22548901

  14. Aggressive Behaviors and Verbal Communication Skills in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giacomo, Andrea; Craig, Francesco; Terenzio, Vanessa; Coppola, Annamaria; Campa, Maria Gloria; Passeri, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Aggressive behavior is a common problem among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and could negatively affect family functioning and school and social competence. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aggressive behavior, such as self-aggression and other-aggression, with verbal communication ability and IQ level in children with ASD. The sample examined in this study included 88 children with a diagnosis of ASD. For the purposes of our study, much attention was focused on individual items of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised that were useful to evaluate the aggressive behavior. We have not found any association between aggressive behavior (other-aggression and self-aggression) and the absence of language or low IQ in children with ASD. Thus, the degree of severity of autism is probably the most important risk factor for this behavior.

  15. Social-Cognitive Correlates of Children's Understanding of Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patricia H.; DeMarie-Dreblow, Darlene

    1990-01-01

    This study aimed to describe developmental differences in five-, seven-, and nine-year-olds' understanding of displaced aggression and to identify social and cognitive correlates of these differences. Understanding of displaced aggression increased significantly with age. (RH)

  16. Low levels of caries in aggressive periodontitis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulugodu Ramachandra, Srinivas

    2014-04-01

    This article is a traditional literature review on caries levels in aggressive periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis generally affects systemically healthy individuals aged aggressive periodontitis has long been debated. Initial research indicated that caries levels were high in patients with aggressive periodontitis, but high-quality studies have consistently shown that caries and aggressive periodontitis are inversely related. A recent in vitro study showed that Streptococcus mutans was killed more readily in the saliva of patients with aggressive periodontitis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans positivity than in patients with A. actinomycetemcomitans negativity. Other mechanisms possibly explaining the inverse relationship between caries and aggressive periodontitis in cases of Down's syndrome are also discussed in this literature review. The usefulness of caries level in the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis in developing countries such as India, where the disease is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical and radiographic features and familial history is also discussed.

  17. Neural Mechanisms of the Rejection-Aggression Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; DeWall, C Nathan

    2018-03-28

    Social rejection is a painful event that often increases aggression. However, the neural mechanisms of this rejection-aggression link remain unclear. A potential clue may be that rejected people often recruit the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex's (VLPFC) self-regulatory processes to manage the pain of rejection. Using functional MRI, we replicated previous links between rejection and activity in the brain's mentalizing network, social pain network, and VLPFC. VLPFC recruitment during rejection was associated with greater activity in the brain's reward network (i.e., the ventral striatum) when individuals were given an opportunity to retaliate. This retaliation-related striatal response was associated with greater levels of retaliatory aggression. Dispositionally aggressive individuals exhibited less functional connectivity between the ventral striatum and the right VLPFC during aggression. This connectivity exerted a suppressing effect on dispositionally aggressive individuals' greater aggressive responses to rejection. These results help explain how the pain of rejection and reward of revenge motivate rejected people to behave aggressively.

  18. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  19. Individual coping characteristics, aggressiveness and fighting strategies in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Schouten, W.G.P.; Schrama, J.W.; Wiegant, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual pigs, Sus scrofa, differ considerably in how aggressive they are during encounters with unfamiliar conspecifics. We examined whether individual coping characteristics of pigs were predictive of aggression during social encounters and the resulting social status. Piglets were subjected to

  20. Appetitive Aggression in Women: Comparing Male and Female War Combatants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie eMeyer-Parlapanis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression refers to positive feelings being associated with the perpetration of violent behavior and has been shown to provide resilience against the development of PTSD in combatants returning from the battlefield. Until this point, appetitive aggression has been primarily researched in males. This study investigates appetitive aggression in females. Female and male combatants and civilians from Burundi were assessed for levels of appetitive aggression. In contrast to non-combatants, no sex difference in appetitive aggression could be detected for combatants. Furthermore, each of the female and male combatant groups displayed substantially higher levels of appetitive aggression than each of the male and female civilian control groups. This study demonstrates that in violent contexts, such as armed conflict, in which individuals perpetrate numerous aggressive acts against others, the likelihood for an experience of appetitive aggression increases- regardless of whether the individuals are male or female.