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Sample records for spontaneously quit smoking

  1. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  2. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

  3. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  4. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  5. Smoking - Medicines to Help You Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Smoking - Medicines To Help You Quit Share Tweet Linkedin ... associated with the use of the medicine. Quit Smoking Tips Quit Smoking… for yourself and for those ...

  6. 6 FAQs About Helping Someone Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people want to help their friends and loved ones quit smoking. But, they often don't know how. Here are 6 frequently asked questions about how to help someone quit smoking to help you get the information you need.

  7. How Can I Quit Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even that pack you stashed away for emergencies. Wash all your clothes. Get rid of the smell of cigarettes as much as you can by washing all your clothes and having your coats or sweaters dry-cleaned. If you smoked in your car, clean that out, too. Think about your triggers. ...

  8. Smoking - tips on how to quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not able to quit smoking the first time. Nicotine addiction is a hard habit to break. Try something ... Saunders; 2016:chap 46. Rakel RE, Houston T. Nicotine addiction. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of ...

  9. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  10. Cigarette Smoking: Health Risks and How to Quit (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... the health problems caused by smoking and the importance of quitting smoking. Different ways to quit smoking ...

  11. Quit-Smoking Products: Boost Your Chance of Quitting for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Administration (FDA) can help you stop for good. Using smoking-cessation products can greatly increase your ... more likely that you'll stop smoking for good. Although you can buy some quit-smoking products ...

  12. The effects of smoking self-identity and quitting self-identity on attempts to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Putte, B.; Yzer, M.C.; Willemsen, M.C.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of two types of self-identity on attempts to quit smoking: self-identity in terms of smoking and self-identity in terms of quitting. Design: A prospective survey among an initial sample of 3,411 smokers. Smoking history variables and psychosocial variables from the

  13. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  14. [Understanding unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking: a social phenomenology approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Silva, Marcelo Henrique da; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Kortchmar, Estela; Zampier, Vanderleia Soeli de Barros; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand the experience of smokers in view of unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking. This study is based on social phenomenology. Between November and December of 2014, nine interviews were conducted with people that had attempted to quit smoking. The content of these interviews was analyzed and discussed based on the related literature. Unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking are related to tobacco addiction; cigarettes are seen as a support to cope with everyday stressful situations. Attempts to quit the smoking habits were based on the need of health improvement and insistence of family and friends. Smokers reported the use of habit cessation strategies learned in support groups, but they also express expectation of specialized psychological support. The study points out the need to expand the strategies of approaching smokers, and reinforcing psychological support in order to achieve success in the attempt to quit smoking.

  15. THYROID FUNCTION Quitting smoking-transient risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for Graves disease. However, Carle et al. have demonstrated that individuals have a transient increased risk of developing overt autoimmune hypothyroidism in the first 2 years after quitting smoking. The mechanisms involved in these two opposing effects of smoking on the

  16. Possible causes of quitting smoking among women in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko, Ksenia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey completed in 2010 in Ukraine, 28,8% (about 11,5 million of adults aged 15 years and older are current smokers. Among women, prevalence of current smoking is 11,2%, which is considerably less than among men (50%. The goal of the study was to reveal the determinants of quitting smoking among women.METHODS. The sample included 571 women, who were current or former daily smokers. Firstly, the bivariate analysis (cross-tabulation and chi-square test was conducted. Then, the significant determinants from bivariate analysis were included to binary logistic regression. The women’s smoking status (current daily smokers vs. former daily smokers was considered an outcome measure. Independent variables included education, age, occupation, income, religion, marital status, variation in prices for tobacco products, awareness of the negative consequences of smoking, permission to smoke at home, and whether the woman received an advice to quit smoking from a health worker.RESULTS. Bivariate analysis showed that there was statistically significant relationships with age, marital status, occupation, permission to smoke at home, having received information about the dangers of smoking from the radio, newspapers, and other sources. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the unemployed women and women from households where smoking was banned were more likely to quit smoking. Unmarried women were less likely to quit smoking than married.CONCLUSIONS. Quitting smoking among women was associated with being married, unemployed, and living in a home where smoking is banned. Major limitations of the study are the small sample size and cross-sectional nature of the study; hence, the inerrant conclusions about cause-effect relationships are not possible. So, longitudinal study with larger sample could be a better future option.

  17. Weight gain after quitting smoking: What to do

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can do for your health. Fortunately, there are things you can do to keep your weight under control when you quit. Why People Who Quit Smoking Gain Weight There are a couple of reasons why people gain weight when they give up ...

  18. Cigarette Smoking and Quitting among Young Adults In Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...

  19. Teenage smoking, attempts to quit, and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T W; Lin, Z; Keeler, T E

    1998-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between school performance, smoking, and quitting attempts among teenagers. A logistic regression model was used to predict the probability of being a current smoker or a former smoker. Data were derived from the 1990 California Youth Tobacco Survey. Students' school performance was a key factor in predicting smoking and quitting attempts when other sociodemographic and family income factors were controlled. Developing academic or remedial classes designed to improve students' school performance may lead to a reduction in smoking rates among teenagers while simultaneously providing a human capital investment in their futures.

  20. Quality of life after quitting smoking and initiating aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Minami, Haruka; Brown, Richard A; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Abrantes, Ana M

    2017-10-01

    Quitting smoking and aerobic exercise each improve health. Although smokers may be concerned that quitting smoking will reduce their quality of life (QOL), recent research has shown that cessation is associated with QOL benefits. Elements of smoking cessation interventions, such as exercise, may contribute to changes in QOL. However, it is unknown whether initiating exercise in the context of smoking cessation is associated with greater or different effects on QOL than smoking cessation alone. The current study is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial (n = 61) of an exercise intervention for smoking cessation. We hypothesized that smoking abstinence and engagement in exercise would have positive, additive effects on QOL at end-of-treatment, 6- and, 12-month follow-ups. Sedentary adult smokers were randomized to the exercise intervention or a health education control (HEC) group. Additionally, all participants received smoking cessation counseling and nicotine patches. Data were analyzed using actual engagement in exercise, rather than group assignment as a proxy for exercise engagement, because some HEC participants also began exercising. Abstinence was positively associated with higher total and physical health QOL at follow-up. Exercise was not associated with total QOL and only marginally associated with physical health QOL, but was positively related to overall sense of well-being. Emphasizing that smoking cessation is associated with higher QOL may help motivate smokers to initiate quit attempts.

  1. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  2. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Susan; Meigs, James B; Grinspoon, Steven K; Triant, Virginia A

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status. We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP) to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking), while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes. Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91). Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both Psmoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, Psmoking (ARR 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15, Psmoking outcomes. HIV was independently associated with both smoking and not

  3. Randomised controlled trial evaluation of Tweet2Quit: a social network quit-smoking intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Cornelia; Delucchi, Kevin; Lakon, Cynthia M; Prochaska, Judith J

    2017-03-01

    We evaluated a novel Twitter-delivered intervention for smoking cessation, Tweet2Quit, which sends daily, automated communications to small, private, self-help groups to encourage high-quality, online, peer-to-peer discussions. A 2-group randomised controlled trial assessed the net benefit of adding a Tweet2Quit support group to a usual care control condition of nicotine patches and a cessation website. Participants were 160 smokers (4 cohorts of 40/cohort), aged 18-59 years, who intended to quit smoking, used Facebook daily, texted weekly, and had mobile phones with unlimited texting. All participants received 56 days of nicotine patches, emails with links to the smokefree.gov cessation website, and instructions to set a quit date within 7 days. Additionally, Tweet2Quit participants were enrolled in 20-person, 100-day Twitter groups, and received daily discussion topics via Twitter, and daily engagement feedback via text. The primary outcome was sustained abstinence at 7, 30 and 60 days post-quit date. Participants (mean age 35.7 years, 26.3% male, 31.2% college degree, 88.7% Caucasian) averaged 18.0 (SD=8.2) cigarettes per day and 16.8 (SD=9.8) years of smoking. Participants randomised to Tweet2Quit averaged 58.8 tweets/participant and the average tweeting duration was 47.4 days/participant. Tweet2Quit doubled sustained abstinence out to 60 days follow-up (40.0%, 26/65) versus control (20.0%, 14/70), OR=2.67, CI 1.19 to 5.99, p=0.017. Tweeting via phone predicted tweet volume, and tweet volume predicted sustained abstinence (p<0.001). The daily autocommunications caused tweeting spikes accounting for 24.0% of tweets. Tweet2Quit was engaging and doubled sustained abstinence. Its low cost and scalability makes it viable as a global cessation treatment. NCT01602536. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Smoke-Free Universities Help Students Avoid Establishing Smoking by Means of Facilitating Quitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana I Andreeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to clarify whether smoke-free policies affect the initiation or the quit­ting of smoking among young adults. Methods: In this natural quasi-experiment study, three universities with different enforcement of smoke-free policies were considered in Kazan City, Russian Federation. Exposure data were collected in 2008-2009 through measurement of particulate matter concentrations in typical sets of premises in each university to distinguish smoke-free universities (SFU and those not smoke-free (NSFU. All present third year students were surveyed in class in April-June 2011. Number of valid questionnaires equaled 635. The questionnaire was adapted from the Health Professions Students Survey and con­tained questions on smoking initiation, current tobacco use, willingness to quit, quit attempts, percep­tion of smoke-free policies enforcement, and the demographic data. Results: Among students of SFU, the percentage of current smokers was smaller than in NSFU: 42% vs. 64% in men and 32% vs. 43% in women. Prevalence of daily smoking was 11-12% in SFU, 26% in NSFU overall and 42% among male students. No advantage of SFU in limiting smoking initiation was found. Percentage of former smokers in SFU was 33% vs. 10% in NSFU. Among current smokers, 57% expressed willingness to quit in SFU and only 28% in NSFU. About 60% of current smokers in SFU attempted to quit within a year and only 36% did so in NSFU with 23% vs. 3% having done three or more attempts. Conclusion: Smoke-free universities help young adults to avoid establishing regular smoking by means of facilitating quitting smoking.

  5. Smoke-Free Universities Help Students Avoid Establishing Smoking by Means of Facilitating Quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Tatiana I; Ananjeva, Galina A; Daminova, Natalia A; Leontieva, Tatiana V; Khakimova, Louise K

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether smoke-free policies affect the initiation or the quitting of smoking among young adults. In this natural quasi-experiment study, three universities with different enforcement of smoke-free policies were considered in Kazan City, Russian Federation. Exposure data were collected in 2008-2009 through measurement of particulate matter concentrations in typical sets of premises in each university to distinguish smoke-free universities (SFU) and those not smoke-free (NSFU). All present third year students were surveyed in class in April-June 2011. Number of valid questionnaires equaled 635. The questionnaire was adapted from the Health Professions Students Survey and contained questions on smoking initiation, current tobacco use, willingness to quit, quit attempts, percep-tion of smoke-free policies enforcement, and the demographic data. Among students of SFU, the percentage of current smokers was smaller than in NSFU: 42% vs. 64% in men and 32% vs. 43% in women. Prevalence of daily smoking was 11-12% in SFU, 26% in NSFU overall and 42% among male students. No advantage of SFU in limiting smoking initiation was found. Percentage of former smokers in SFU was 33% vs. 10% in NSFU. Among current smokers, 57% expressed willingness to quit in SFU and only 28% in NSFU. About 60% of current smokers in SFU attempted to quit within a year and only 36% did so in NSFU with 23% vs. 3% having done three or more attempts. Smoke-free universities help young adults to avoid establishing regular smoking by means of facilitating quitting smoking.

  6. Quitting smoking: The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    We examined how 'smoker' and 'non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e., the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban. Longitudinal online survey study with one-year follow-up (N = 623 at T1 in 2011; N = 188 at T2 in 2012) among daily smokers. Intention to quit, quit attempts and 'rejecting', 'victimizing', 'socially conscious smoking' and 'active quitting' responses to the smoking ban. Non-smoker identities are more important than smoker identities in predicting intention to quit, quit attempts and responses to the smoking ban, even when controlling for other important predictors such as nicotine dependence. Smokers with stronger non-smoker identities had stronger intentions to quit, were more likely to attempt to quit between measurements, and showed less negative and more positive responses to the smoking ban. The association between non-smoker self-identity and intention to quit was stronger among smokers with lower than higher SES. Antismoking measures might be more effective if they would focus also on the identity of smokers, and help smokers to increase identification with non-smoking and non-smokers.

  7. Motives to quit smoking and reasons to relapse differ by socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Aadahl, Mette; Toft, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status.......To investigate motives, strategies and experiences to quit smoking and reasons to relapse as a function of socioeconomic status....

  8. Use of varenicline for 4 weeks before quitting smoking: decrease in ad lib smoking and increase in smoking cessation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden J; Myers, Katie E; Stapleton, John; Dhanji, Al-Rehan

    2011-04-25

    The use of varenicline tartrate alleviates postquit withdrawal discomfort, but it also seems to reduce the "reward" associated with smoking. The current treatment schedule, which commences 1 week before quitting, relies primarily on the first mechanism. We set out to determine whether increasing the prequit medication period renders cigarettes less satisfying and facilitates quitting. One hundred one smokers attending a stop-smoking clinic in London, United Kingdom, were randomly allocated to receive varenicline for 4 weeks before the target quit date (TQD) or to receive placebo for 3 weeks before the TQD, followed by varenicline for 1 week before the TQD. In both groups, standard varenicline treatment was given for 3 months after the TQD. Measures included smoking satisfaction and smoke intake before quitting, urges to smoke and withdrawal discomfort after quitting, and sustained abstinence from the TQD to 3 months. Varenicline preloading reduced prequit enjoyment of smoking (P = .004) and smoke intake (P lib smoking and enhance 12-week quit rates. Current treatment schedules may lead to suboptimal treatment results. Trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to corroborate these findings. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00789074.

  9. The Impact of Quitting Smoking on Weight Among Women Prisoners Participating in a Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Leslie A.; Jackson, Dorothy O.; Villalobos, Gabrielle C.; Weaver, Michael F.; Stitzer, Maxine L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of smoking cessation on weight change in a population of women prisoners. Methods. Women prisoners (n = 360) enrolled in a smoking cessation intervention; 250 received a 10-week group intervention plus transdermal nicotine replacement. Results. Women who quit smoking had significant weight gain at 3- and 6-month follow-ups, with a net difference of 10 pounds between smokers and abstainers at 6 months. By the 12-month follow-up, weight gain decreased among abstainers. Conclusions. We are the first, to our knowledge, to demonstrate weight gain associated with smoking cessation among women prisoners. Smoking cessation interventions that address postcessation weight gain as a preventative measure may be beneficial in improving health and reducing the high prevalence of smoking in prisoner populations. PMID:20558806

  10. Trends in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges among homeless smokers participating in a smoking cessation RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Erika Ashley; Hennrikus, Deborah Jane; Erickson, Darin J; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Forster, Jean Lois; Okuyemi, Kolawole Stephen

    2018-03-01

    In the U.S., approximately 73% of homeless adults smoke cigarettes and they experience difficulty quitting. Homeless smokers report low self-efficacy to quit and that smoking urges are a barrier to quitting. Self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges are dynamic and change throughout smoking cessation treatment. This study examines changes in self-efficacy to quit and smoking urges throughout a smoking cessation intervention among the homeless and identifies predictors of change in these characteristics. Homeless smokers (n=430) participating in a smoking cessation randomized controlled trial in the U.S. completed surveys at baseline, and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 26 on demographic and smoking characteristics (i.e., confidence to quit, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, and smoking urges). A growth curve analysis was conducted by modeling change in the smoking characteristics over time and examining the variability in the change in smoking characteristics by demographic characteristics and treatment group. Among the full sample, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking increased linearly over time, confidence to quit increased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently decreased, and smoking urges decreased until the midpoint of treatment but subsequently increased. There were race differences in these trajectories. Racial minorities experienced significantly greater increases in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking than Whites and Blacks had higher confidence to quit than Whites. White participants experienced less increase in self-efficacy to refrain from smoking and lower confidence to quit and therefore may be a good target for efforts to increase self-efficacy to quit as part of homeless-targeted smoking cessation interventions. Sustaining high confidence to quit and low smoking urges throughout treatment could be key to promoting higher cessation rates among the homeless. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Provision and effect of quit-smoking counselling by primary care midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Wesselink, Sandra F; Lingsma, Hester F; Robben, Paul B M; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2015-10-01

    we aimed to evaluate the provision of quit-smoking counselling by midwives in the Netherlands and its effect on smoking behaviour and birth weight. quasi-experimental study in which we collected information from pregnant women who smoke throughout their pregnancy by extracting data from electronic patient files. primary care midwifery practices. 851 pregnant women who smoke, treated between 2011 and 2014. quit-smoking counselling. the midwives decided to provide quit-smoking counselling to the participant or not. Non-counselled women were used as the control group. The primary outcome parameter was quit smoking, defined as 'quit smoking by end of pregnancy'. At intake, 67% of the women smoked 1-9 cigarettes a day, 23% smoked 10-20 cigarettes a day and 4% more than 20 cigarettes a day. The midwives began counselling with 42% of the participants, but seldom completed all the counselling steps. The average quit rate was 10% and average birth weight of the babies was 3200g. We found no difference in quit rate or birth weight between counselled women and those who were not. However, the data suggested that counselling is more effective when more steps of counselling are completed. no effect was found of quit-smoking counselling on quit-smoking rate or birth weight. Possibly, counselling is effective when provided extensively throughout pregnancy. our study shows that provision of counselling can be improved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking in a sample of smokers in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thaddeus; Pokhrel, Pallav; Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2015-01-01

    Despite its potential for usefulness in informing the development of smoking cessation interventions, short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit is a relatively understudied topic. To assess the prevalence of smokers' day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit, and to assess associations of day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit with several established cessation-related variables. A cross-sectional survey was administered to smokers in Hawaii (N = 1,567). To assess short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking, participants were asked to respond "True" or "False" to the statement: "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next." Other items measured desire to quit smoking, intention to quit, confidence in quitting, cigarette dependence, and other cessation-related variables. "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next" was endorsed as true by 64.7% of smokers, and false by 35.3%. Analyses revealed that smokers who indicated fluctuating motivation were significantly more interested in quitting as compared to smokers without fluctuations. Fluctuations in motivation to quit also were associated with greater confidence in quitting, lesser cigarette dependence, and more recent quitting activity (all p < .01). Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are common. Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are strongly associated with higher motivation to quit, greater confidence in future quitting, and other positive cessation-relevant trends.

  13. Smoking patterns, quit behaviors, and smoking environment of workers in small manufacturing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Erika A; Hennrikus, Deborah J; Hannan, Peter J; Lando, Harry A; Brosseau, Lisa M

    2015-09-01

    This study describes smokers employed at 47 small manufacturing companies in Minnesota, USA. Smokers (n = 713) participating in a group-randomized trial completed a baseline survey on their smoking patterns, quit behaviors, smoking environment, workplace attitudes about smoking, and correlates of smoking. These characteristics were examined by job type and a latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to group workers with similar characteristics. Production workers had the highest prevalence of daily smoking (88% vs. 68% among managers), and addiction (61% vs. 26% among managers), and the highest mean level of perceived stress (6.4 vs. 4.9 among managers). The LCA identified three subgroups of smokers that differed in levels of barriers to cessation. Production workers were most likely to be in the group with greater barriers (P = 0.01). These results underscore the importance of targeting interventions to production workers and those who exhibit the greatest barriers to cessation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Smoking behaviour and attitudes to periodontal health and quit smoking in patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Elizabeth; Palmer, Richard M; Wilson, Ron F; Newton, J Tim

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related beliefs and attitudes, health behaviour of smokers in relation to the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) of behaviour change, willingness to have smoking cessation provided together with periodontal treatment. Postal questionnaire was sent to 500 referred patients. Part 1 looked at attitudes and beliefs about periodontal disease, Part 2 aimed at current smokers focused on the TTM and smoking cessation. Response rate was 56% (n=277); 67% females, 33% males. Mean age was 44.9 years (SD 12.45); 24.5% current smokers, 30.3% past smokers, 45.5% never smokers. Fewer smokers reported "bleeding gums" (p=0.027), but more smokers reported "having loose teeth" (p=0.016). The TTM stages of change indicated that 31% of current smokers were in pre-contemplation of quitting smoking, 46% were in contemplation and 23% were in preparation. Twenty-three percent of the past smokers were in action and 77% in maintenance. Smokers showed differences in the "self-re-evaluation" (p=0.001) and "self-liberation" (p=0.015) processes of change depending on their stage of change (pre-contemplation or preparation). Nearly half (49%) of the current smokers who wanted to quit requested smoking cessation to be provided alongside their periodontal treatment. A large proportion of periodontal patient smokers may be considering quitting, and nearly half requested provision of smoking cessation intervention in conjunction with the periodontal treatment.

  15. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  16. Harms of Smoking and Health Benefits of Quitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of SIDS, ear infections, colds, pneumonia, and bronchitis. Secondhand smoke exposure can also increase the frequency and severity of ... Abstract] National Cancer Institute. Cancer Trends Progress Report: Secondhand Smoke Exposure . National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health ...

  17. Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqa Athamneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has been described as “the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette.” Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  18. Healthy behaviors, lifestyle, and reasons for quitting smoking among out-of-school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K J; Stanton, W R; Lowe, J B

    1999-10-01

    To investigate the relationships among healthy behavior, healthy values, social influences, and quitting smoking in adolescents not attending school. Following screening procedures, young smokers independently completed a self-report questionnaire administered by trained staff. Vocational (TAFE) colleges and Commonwealth Employment Offices (CES) from varying socioeconomic localities were selected as sites to intercept smoking adolescents on their attitudes about quitting smoking. Youth attending vocational colleges or CES. There were no differences between the two groups of smokers (vocational students and unemployed youth). The decision to quit smoking among these youth is based on a number of factors including social and personal reasons. Health-oriented values were found to be more highly associated with quitting behavior than social influences. Programs for smoking cessation need to be focused on an overall health and improvement approach rather than only a quit-smoking approach.

  19. Underestimation of homeless clients' interest in quitting smoking: a case for routine tobacco assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Sarah; Segan, Catherine

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed In Australia smoking rates among the homeless are extremely high; however, little is known about their interest in quitting and few homeless services offer cessation assistance. In an Australian homeless service, this research examined the clients' smoking from the client, staff and organisational perspectives in order to assess the need for cessation assistance for clients and identify opportunities to increase access to it. Methods Twenty-six nurses completed an anonymous survey describing their attitudes to providing smoking-cessation support, current practices and estimates of client smoking and interest in quitting. Subsequently, nurses administered a survey to 104 clients to determine their smoking prevalence and interest in quitting. Organisation-wide tobacco-related policy and practices were audited. Results Most clients (82%) smoked, half of these (52%) reported wanting to quit and 64% reported trying to quit or reduce their smoking in the previous 3 months. Nurses approximated clients' smoking prevalence (88% vs 82% reported by clients), but underestimated interest in quitting (33% vs 52% reported by clients). Among nurses 93% agreed that cessation support should be part of normal client care. The organisation's client-assessment form contained fields for 'respiratory issues' and 'drug issues', but no specific field for smoking status. The organisation's smoking policy focused on providing a smoke-free work environment. Conclusions Many smokers using homeless services want to quit and are actively trying to reduce and quit smoking. Smoking-cessation assistance that meets the needs of people experiencing homelessness is clearly warranted. So what? Homeless services should develop, and include in their smoking policy and intake processes, a practice of routinely assessing tobacco use, offering brief interventions and referral to appropriately tailored services.

  20. An ecological momentary assessment analysis of pre-quit markers for smoking cessation failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Vivian M.; McCarthy, Danielle E.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify correlates of smoking cessation failure, a failure to establish abstinence during a quit smoking attempt. Identifying risk factors for early failure could facilitate the development of tailored interventions to promote cessation. The current study used existing ecological momentary assessment (EMA) data to investigate the extent to which pre-quit craving, negative affect, and recent smoking were associated with cessation failure in 374 smokers (189, 50.5% female). Subjects were prompted to complete 4–7 real-time reports of craving, negative affect, and recent smoking daily in the four days prior to quitting. Multilevel models of craving and negative affect (mean level, growth, volatility, and association with smoking) were estimated. Results indicated that recent smoking was associated with significantly lower craving among smokers who failed to quit than those who achieved a full day of cessation, but this held only among smokers who reduced smoking by at least 10% in the days preceding the quit attempt. Smokers who failed to quit on the quit day also experienced slower increases in negative affect in the days preceding the quit attempt than did initial abstainers, but delayed quitters and delayed cessation failures did not differ in negative affect trajectories. These results suggest that successful abstainers and cessation failures can be differentiated by specific dimensions of pre-quit craving and negative affect experiences, but the effects hold only in certain circumstances. PMID:22924702

  1. Helping relationships for smoking cessation: grounded theory development of the process of finding help to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, J Susan; Owen, Donna C

    2014-01-01

    Some cigarette smokers report supportive people from their social network are helpful when they attempt to quit smoking. This qualitative study set out to explain the process of quitting smoking cigarettes, with specific attention to the question of whether the help of another person was important. Grounded theory was used. Participants were volunteers who responded to a flier posted on a health sciences center campus. Purposeful sampling was used as data were analyzed. Transcripts of interviews conducted with 16 participants of diverse demographic backgrounds were analyzed. Interpretive analysis of coded transcripts revealed three major guiding constructs supporting the process of finding a helper to quit smoking: (a) seeking out helper qualities, (b) building a helping relationship, and (c) constructing the environment. The use of a helping relationship for smoking cessation was important for smokers in the study to successfully quit. A very salient quality, constructing the environment, emerged as one of the most important aspects of the process of quitting smoking.

  2. Love conquers all but nicotine: Spousal peer effects on the decision to quit smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2017-01-01

    If two partners smoke, their quit behavior may be related through correlation in unobserved individual characteristics and through common shocks. However, there may also be a causal effect whereby the quit behavior of one partner is affected by the quit decision of the other partner. If so, there is

  3. Smoking Status and Intention to Quit: The Role of Affective Associations and Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Marks, Anthony D. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how affective associations with smoking and outcome expectancies regarding smoking are related to smoking status and intention to quit among smokers. Researchers and practitioners can draw on findings regarding affective associations and outcome expectancies to provide a further basis for smoking…

  4. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

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    Luca Pieroni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  5. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell'Omo, Marco

    2015-08-13

    We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996-2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices' smoking behavior. It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: -1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and -3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma.

  6. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  7. The determinants of quitting or reducing smoking due to the tobacco tax increase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigova, Olena

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Ukraine has adopted State targeted social program for reducing the harmful effects of tobacco on public health in Ukraine till 2012. One of the measures to be implemented is increasing excise tax on tobacco products; therefore, a highly important question is which groups of population are likely to benefit from tax increase through quitting or reducing smoking.METHODS. Data used for analysis were collected in a nationally representative survey of Ukrainian population conducted in 2010. An outcome measure was the anticipated keeping smoking versus quitting (reducing smoking due to tobacco tax increase. Independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of quitting smoking, exposure to different tobacco control measures, exposure to tobacco advertizing. Binary logistic regression was used to measure associations.RESULTS. Respondents were more likely to expect to keep smoking after the tobacco tax increase if they were dependent on tobacco (odds ratio 2.57, not interested in quitting, not in favor of tobacco tax increase, and exposed to tobacco advertising on TV and cigarette promotions. Respondents were more likely to expect to reduce or quit smoking if they had higher wealth status (OR=0.55, were aware of tobacco health hazard (OR=0.09, had earlier attempts of quitting smoking, were not exposed to secondhand smoke, observed tobacco-related information on television (OR=0.7 and in newspapers (OR=0.45, and observed advertizing of tobacco on radio (OR=0.33 and in public transport (OR=0.25.CONCLUSIONS. Several aspects are important while implementing taxation policy. It is more likely to result in quitting or reducing smoking among those who are less dependent, have tried quitting smoking earlier, and have higher wealth level. Concurrent smoke-free policies and awareness campaigns may potentiate the effect of taxation policies and are recommended to be developed further.

  8. Aboriginal Health Workers experience multilevel barriers to quitting smoking: a qualitative study

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    Dawson Anna P

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Long-term measures to reduce tobacco consumption in Australia have had differential effects in the population. The prevalence of smoking in Aboriginal peoples is currently more than double that of the non-Aboriginal population. Aboriginal Health Workers are responsible for providing primary health care to Aboriginal clients including smoking cessation programs. However, Aboriginal Health Workers are frequently smokers themselves, and their smoking undermines the smoking cessation services they deliver to Aboriginal clients. An understanding of the barriers to quitting smoking experienced by Aboriginal Health Workers is needed to design culturally relevant smoking cessation programs. Once smoking is reduced in Aboriginal Health Workers, they may then be able to support Aboriginal clients to quit smoking. Methods We undertook a fundamental qualitative description study underpinned by social ecological theory. The research was participatory, and academic researchers worked in partnership with personnel from the local Aboriginal health council. The barriers Aboriginal Health Workers experience in relation to quitting smoking were explored in 34 semi-structured interviews (with 23 Aboriginal Health Workers and 11 other health staff and 3 focus groups (n = 17 participants with key informants. Content analysis was performed on transcribed text and interview notes. Results Aboriginal Health Workers spoke of burdensome stress and grief which made them unable to prioritise quitting smoking. They lacked knowledge about quitting and access to culturally relevant quitting resources. Interpersonal obstacles included a social pressure to smoke, social exclusion when quitting, and few role models. In many workplaces, smoking was part of organisational culture and there were challenges to implementation of Smokefree policy. Respondents identified inadequate funding of tobacco programs and a lack of Smokefree public spaces as policy

  9. Exploring socio-contextual factors associated with male smoker’s intention to quit smoking

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    Minsoo Jung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programs to encourage smokers to quit smoking tobacco have been implemented worldwide and are generally viewed as an effective public health intervention program. However, few studies have examined the social factors that influence a smoker’s intention to quit smoking. This study investigated the socio-contextual factors that are associated with the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in South Korea. Methods Data were obtained from a 2014 nationally representative panel that examined the influences of mass media on the health of the Korean population. Members of this panel were recruited using a mixed-method sampling and a combination of random digit dial and address-based sampling designs. Survey questions were based on those used in previous studies that assessed the effects of social context, including mass media and social capital, on health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of the answers of 313 male smokers were undertaken. Results Male smokers who participated in community-based activities were 2.45 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.25–6.82. In addition, male smokers who participated in informal social gathering networks were 2.38 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % CI: 1.11–5.10. Moreover, male smokers with high smartphone use were 1.93 times more likely than smokers with low smartphone use to intend to quit smoking within one year (95 % CI: 1.07–3.46. Conclusions A supportive environment that enables male smokers to access beneficial health information and that encourages them to quit smoking is necessary for a stop-smoking program to be effective. The result of this study contribute to establishing a new smoking control policy by identifying socio-contextual factors related to the intention to quit smoking.

  10. Exploring socio-contextual factors associated with male smoker's intention to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2016-05-13

    Programs to encourage smokers to quit smoking tobacco have been implemented worldwide and are generally viewed as an effective public health intervention program. However, few studies have examined the social factors that influence a smoker's intention to quit smoking. This study investigated the socio-contextual factors that are associated with the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in South Korea. Data were obtained from a 2014 nationally representative panel that examined the influences of mass media on the health of the Korean population. Members of this panel were recruited using a mixed-method sampling and a combination of random digit dial and address-based sampling designs. Survey questions were based on those used in previous studies that assessed the effects of social context, including mass media and social capital, on health. Multivariate logistic regression analyses of the answers of 313 male smokers were undertaken. Male smokers who participated in community-based activities were 2.45 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-6.82). In addition, male smokers who participated in informal social gathering networks were 2.38 times more likely to intend to quit smoking compared to male smokers in general (95 % CI: 1.11-5.10). Moreover, male smokers with high smartphone use were 1.93 times more likely than smokers with low smartphone use to intend to quit smoking within one year (95 % CI: 1.07-3.46). A supportive environment that enables male smokers to access beneficial health information and that encourages them to quit smoking is necessary for a stop-smoking program to be effective. The result of this study contribute to establishing a new smoking control policy by identifying socio-contextual factors related to the intention to quit smoking.

  11. Cigarette smoking and advice to quit in a national sample of homeless adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2010-08-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among homeless people, but its characteristics in this vulnerable population have not been studied at a national level. Whether homeless smokers receive advice to quit from healthcare providers is also unknown. To determine the prevalence and predictors of current cigarette smoking, smoking cessation, and receipt of clinician advice to quit in a national sample of homeless adults. This study analyzed data from 966 adult respondents to the 2003 Health Care for the Homeless User Survey, representing more than 436,000 people nationally. Using multivariable logistic regression, the independent predictors of smoking, quitting, and receiving advice to quit were identified. Analyses were conducted in 2008-2009. The prevalence of current smoking was 73%. The lifetime quit rate among ever smokers was 9%. Among past-year smokers, 54% reported receiving clinician advice to quit. Factors independently associated with current smoking included out-of-home placement in childhood (AOR=2.79, 95% CI=1.03, 7.52); victimization while homeless (AOR=2.36, 95% CI=1.15, 4.83); past-year employment (AOR=2.52, 95% CI=1.13, 5.58); and prior illicit drug use (AOR=7.21, 95% CI=3.11, 16.7) or problem alcohol use (AOR=7.42, 95% CI=2.51, 21.9). Respondents with multiple homeless episodes had higher odds of receiving quit advice (AOR=2.51, 95% CI=1.30, 4.83) but lower odds of quitting (AOR=0.47, 95% CI=0.29, 0.78). Compared to the general population, homeless people are far more likely to smoke and much less likely to quit, even though more than half of smokers received quit advice in the past year. Interventions for homeless smokers should address the unique comorbidities and vulnerabilities of this population. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  13. Smoking Prevalence and Associated Factors to Quit among Tabriz Dormitory University Medical Students, Tabriz, Iran

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    Shamsipour M.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking as a major public health problem contributes extra health costs, and smoking cessation among youths is a priority for any prevention program. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of smoking and examined factors associated with having attempts to quit smoking and the motivations to quit among medical university students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a random sampling was carried out among 523 (293 male, and 246 female, aged 22.48±3.33years students in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by t-test, chi-square test and Fisher exact tests.Results: The overal prevalence of smoking was 8.9%. (male 18% and 1.4% female. There were significant relationships between smoking status with male gender and alcohol consumption (p<0.001. The reasons for smoking initiation were: satisfying their curiosity, new experience (37.76%, pleasure and entertainment (17.48%, mental, emotional problems and sedation (16.08%, smoker friends (15.38%, inexperience and ignorance (4.89%. 54.16% of the current smokers had a history of smoking cessation.Conclusion: Regarding the higher prevalence of cigarette smoking in students, especialy in male and attempting to quit smoking in majority of them, preventive interventions in younger age and providing cigarette smoking cessation services for students seem necessary.

  14. [Effects of smoking on periodontal tissues and benefits of tobacco quitting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Paweł; Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the most common addictions. Epidemiological studies show a significant effect of smoking on oral health and the development of periodontal diseases. The purpose of this study is to analyze existing research on the impact of cigarette smoking on periodontal condition and present the benefits of tobacco quitting. In the mouth of a smoker comes to faster loss of connective tissue and bone, increased tooth mobility and greater number of missing teeth than non-smokers. The negative effects of smoking on periodontal tissues correlate with the length and frequency of smoking. Also, people exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) are at a higher risk of developing periodontal disease than those who had no contact with tobacco smoke. Quitting smoking has a positive effect on periodontal health and is an absolute prerequisite for the health of the entire oral cavity. With the prolongation of tobacco abstinence negative consequences for oral health are gradually reduced. Each patient should be aware of his addiction, the risks arising from exposure to tobacco smoke and be motivated to eliminate it. The role of general practitioners, particularly family doctors and dentists is crucial in evaluation of active and passive smoking as well as motivation and support smokers in quitting the habit and maintaining smoking abstinence.

  15. Quit rates at 6 months in a pharmacist-led smoking cessation service in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, Sui Chee; Yen, Gan Kim; Malik, Nurdiyana

    2016-09-01

    Smoking cessation clinics have been established in Malaysia since 2004, but wide variations in success rates have been observed. This study aimed to evaluate the proposed pharmacist-led Integrated Quit Smoking Service (IQSS) in Sabah, Malaysia, and identify factors associated with successful smoking cessation. Data from 176 participants were collected from one of the quit-smoking centres in Sabah, Malaysia. Pharmacists, doctors and nurses were involved throughout the study. Any health care provider can refer patients for smoking cessation, and free pharmacotherapy and counselling was provided during the cessation period for up to 3 months. Information on demographic characteristics, smoking behaviours, follow-up and pharmacotherapy were collected. The main outcome measure was the abstinence from smoking, which was verified through carbon monoxide in expired air during the 6-month follow-up. A 42.6% success rate was achieved in IQSS. Smoking behaviour such as lower cigarette intake and lower Fagerström score were identified as factors associated with success. On top of that, a longer duration of follow-up and more frequent visits were significantly associated with success in quitting smoking. Collaboration among health care practitioners should be the main focus, and we need a combination of proven effective modalities in order to create an ideal smoking cessation module.

  16. Motives for smoking cessation are associated with stage of readiness to quit smoking and sociodemographics among German industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Birgit; Ratner, Pamela A; Seidenstücker, Sabine; Janssen, Patricia A; Novak, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To test the relationships among particular motives for smoking cessation, stage of readiness to quit (preparation or contemplation), and sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study to examine attitudes toward and use of health promotion at the worksite, using a self-administered questionnaire. Two German metal companies. Of 1641 responding employees (response rate 65% in company A and 44% in company B), 360 smokers who intended to quit immediately (n = 105) or in the near future (n = 255) were analyzed. The questionnaire comprised of sociodemographic characteristics, smoking behavior, smoking history, readiness to quit smoking, motives to quit, such as coworkers' complaints and health-related or financial concerns. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Health-related reasons (94%) predominated financial (27%) or image-related (14%) reasons for smoking cessation. Participants in the cessation preparation group were more likely to report an awareness of being addicted (79.6% vs. 58.2%; p motives for smoking cessation, including reduced performance, family's and coworkers' complaints, pregnancy/children, and negative public image, but not health-related and financial concerns, differed significantly by gender, age, marital status, education, and occupational status. Motives for smoking cessation vary according to the individual's level of readiness to quit and sociodemographic background.

  17. SMOKING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES: PREVALENCE, IMPACT ON PROGNOSIS, POSSIBLE SMOKING CESSATION STRATEGIES AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS. Part 2. Advantages of quitting smoking. Strategies to quit smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The immediate and remote benefits of smoking cessation are considered. Within one year after quitting smoking the ischemic heart disease (IHD risk will be 2 folds lower than the risk in smoking patient. Within 15 years the IHD risk declines to non-smoking population level. After 5-15 years after quitting smoking the risk of stroke also declines to non-smoker risk. Smoking cessation prior to cardio surgical intervention leads to reduction of complications incidence by 41%. Smoking cessation significantly reduces the risk of developing stable and unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, transient ischemic attack, ischemic stroke, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, peripheral arterial diseases, abdominal aortic aneurysm at any age, in both sexes in comparison to patients who continue to smoke. Smoking cessation is the most cost-effective strategy of cardiovascular disease prevention. Today, the most effective smoking cessation strategy is the identification of smokers and continuous advice on smoking cessation, and offer of the appropriate medication, primarily varenicline. The article contains data from a number of studies showing that varenicline is an effective and safe drug for tobacco dependence treatment, in particular, in patients with acute and chronic cardiovascular disease. 

  18. High School Students Who Tried to Quit Smoking Cigarettes: United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarcher, A.; Jones, S. E.; Morris, E.; Kann, L.; Buckley, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, cigarette use is the leading cause of preventable death, and most adult smokers started before the age of 18 years. Nicotine dependence maintains tobacco use and makes quitting difficult. Despite their relatively short smoking histories, many adolescents who smoke are nicotine dependent, and such dependence can lead to daily…

  19. Blogging to Quit Smoking: Sharing Stories from Women of Childbearing Years in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minian, Nadia; Noormohamed, Aliya; Dragonetti, Rosa; Maher, Julie; Lessels, Christina; Selby, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which the pregnant or postpartum women, in the process of quitting smoking, felt that writing in a blog about their smoking cessation journeys helped them in their efforts to become or remain smoke free. Five women who blogged for Prevention of Gestational and Neonatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (a website designed to help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking) were interviewed about their experiences as bloggers. Participants were asked to complete an online survey, which had closed-ended questions regarding their sociodemographic and smoking characteristics. Once they completed the survey, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted over the phone. Findings suggest that blogging might combine several evidence-based behavioral strategies for tobacco cessation, such as journaling and getting support from others who use tobacco. Being part of a blogging community of women who have experienced or are experiencing similar challenges can be therapeutic and help women gain confidence in their ability to quit smoking. In conclusion, blogging may help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking by increasing their social support and promoting self-reflection.

  20. Blogging to Quit Smoking: Sharing Stories from Women of Childbearing Years in Ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Minian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the degree to which the pregnant or postpartum women, in the process of quitting smoking, felt that writing in a blog about their smoking cessation journeys helped them in their efforts to become or remain smoke free. Five women who blogged for Prevention of Gestational and Neonatal Exposure to Tobacco Smoke (a website designed to help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking were interviewed about their experiences as bloggers. Participants were asked to complete an online survey, which had closed-ended questions regarding their sociodemographic and smoking characteristics. Once they completed the survey, semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted over the phone. Findings suggest that blogging might combine several evidence-based behavioral strategies for tobacco cessation, such as journaling and getting support from others who use tobacco. Being part of a blogging community of women who have experienced or are experiencing similar challenges can be therapeutic and help women gain confidence in their ability to quit smoking. In conclusion, blogging may help pregnant and postpartum women quit smoking by increasing their social support and promoting self-reflection.

  1. "After all - It doesn't kill you to quit smoking"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Caroline Lyng; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise

    2013-01-01

    . In addition, we examined if blogging could provide social support for people in a smoking cessation process. Method: The study was based on messages posted from 1 January 2012 to 29 February 2012 on the blog of the internet-based smoking cessation programme DDSP, operated by the Danish Cancer Society......Background: A growing body of literature demonstrates internet-based smoking cessation interventions as a promising aid in helping people quit smoking. However, the underlying mechanisms of how these interventions influence the cessation process are still relatively unknown. Several studies have...... indicated blogging as a potential source in providing social support to users of internet-based smoking cessation interventions and thereby enhance their change of succeeding in quitting. Objective: The study aimed to investigate themes discussed on a blog in an internet-based smoking cessation intervention...

  2. Differences in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black and White daily smokers: the role of smoking motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacio, Guadalupe A; Guzman, Iris Y; Shapiro, Jenessa R; Ray, Lara A

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of smoking across racial/ethnic groups has declined over the years, yet racial health disparities for smoking persist. Studies indicate that non-Hispanic Black smokers attempt to quit smoking more often compared to non-Hispanic White smokers but are less successful at doing so. Research suggests that motives to quit smoking differ by race, however, less is known about the role of motives to smoke in explaining racial differences in attempts to quit smoking. This study examined whether smoking motives accounted for the differential rates in quit attempts between non-Hispanic Black (n=155) and non-Hispanic White (n=159) smokers. Data were culled from a larger study of heavy-drinking smokers. The Wisconsin Index of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) assessed motives to smoke. As expected, Black and White smokers reported similar smoking patterns, yet Black smokers reported higher rates of failed attempts to quit smoking than White smokers. Findings indicated that Black, compared to White, smokers endorsed lower scores in the negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, and taste WISDM subscales and scores in these subscales mediated the relationship between race and quit attempts. In this study, Blacks, compared to Whites, endorsed lower motives to smoke, which are generally associated with successful quit attempts, yet they experienced more failed attempts to quit smoking. This study demonstrates racial health disparities at the level of smoking motives and suggests that Black smokers remain vulnerable to failed quit attempts despite reporting lower motives to smoke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Factors Associated With Quitting Among Smoking Pregnant Women From Small Town and Rural Areas in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwicki, Lukasz; Smith, Danielle M; Pierucka, Magdalena; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Zarzeczna-Baran, Marzena; Jedrzejczyk, Tadeusz; Strahl, Marzena; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2017-05-01

    Smoking rates among women in Poland are high, and access to specialized smoking cessation services in rural areas are limited. The aim of this study was to assess factors related to quitting among pregnant women who smoke in rural areas of Poland. Data were collected during interviews conducted by midwives among 4512 women at various stages of their pregnancy. The interviews took place in small towns with populations having less than 8000 residents, located within 12 out of 16 voivodships (provinces). We used exhaled carbon monoxide to verify self-reported smoking status. Overall, 38% of women interviewed (n = 1578) smoked before they found out they were pregnant. Among these women, 33% quit just after they had become aware of their pregnancy. The main predictors of early quitting were: higher educational attainment among pregnant women (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.81-5.68), secondary educational attainment among their partners (AOR 1.63; 95% CI = 1.06-2.48), and not having children (AOR 1.71; 95% CI = 1.31-2.24). The main barriers to early quitting were: living with at least one current smoker (AOR 0.55, 95% CI = 0.39-0.76), being single (AOR 0.45; 95% CI = 0.29-0.71), and having both parents smoke cigarettes (AOR 0.67; 95% CI = 0.46-0.97). A modest proportion of women included in this study quit after they became aware of their pregnancy. However, women faced multiple barriers to quitting, including the smoking status of their family members. The factors identified in the study can inform the design of tailored interventions for pregnant women in rural areas. Smoking rates among women in Poland are high, and access to specialized smoking cessation services in rural areas are limited. This study found that women were motivated to quit smoking, and many quit after they had become aware of their pregnancy. However, women faced multiple barriers to quitting, including the smoking status of their family members. The factors

  4. Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking and Motivation to Quit among Street Food Sellers in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Xuan Thanh Thi; To, Lien Thi; Le, Huong Thi; Hoang, Hanh Duc; Do, Khanh Nam; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Tran, Bach Xuan; Do, Huyen Phuc; Nguyen, Luong Thanh; Latkin, Carl A; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2018-01-29

    Since 2013, smoke-free signs in public places, including in restaurants and food stores, have been introduced in Vietnam, aiming to prevent passive smoking. Although extensive research has been carried out on second-hand smoking among clients in public places (e.g., hospitals, restaurants) in Vietnam, no single study exists which captures the current practice of smoking among street food outlets. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify factors associated with smoking status and cessation motivation amongst food sellers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study involving 1733 food providers at outlets was conducted in 29 districts in Hanoi capital, Vietnam, in 2015. The prevalence of smoking amongst food sellers was determined to be 8.5% (25% for men and 0.8% for women). The enforcement of the smoke-free policy remains modest, since only 7.9% observed outlets complied with the law, providing a room designated for smokers. Although approximately 80% of the participants were aware of the indoor smoke-free regulations in public places, such as restaurants and food stores, 40.2% of smokers reported no intention of quitting smoking. A percentage of 37.6% of current smokers reported that despite having intentions to quit, they did not receive any form of support for smoking cessation. Being male and having hazardous drinking habits and a poor quality of life were all factors that were significantly associated with smoking status. Additionally, having awareness of smoking's adverse effects and being frequently supervised by the authority were associated with a greater motivation to quit. This study highlights the importance of an accompanying education and smoking cessation program in addition to the frequent inspection and reinforcement of smoke-free policy in food stores. This research extends on our knowledge of smoking prevalence and its factors related to smoking events and motivation to quit among street food outlets. Overall, this study

  5. How increasing tobacco prices affects the decision to start and quit smoking: evidence from Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Gonzalez-Rozada; Giselle Montamat

    2015-01-01

    We study empirically the role of cigarettes’ prices on smoking onset and quitting in Argentina, using a continuous-time split population model. The findings in this paper suggest that increasing cigarettes’ prices, using taxes, has a larger effect on the starting age of smoking than on the quitting age. In particular, at the mean starting age of 15 years an increase of 20% in real cigarettes’ prices is expected to delay smoking onset by 3 years. On the other hand, the same policy is less effe...

  6. Smoking and intention to quit among a large sample of black sexual and gender minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jenna N; Everett, Kevin D; Ge, Bin; McElroy, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to more completely quantify smoking and intention to quit from a sample of sexual and gender minority (SGM) Black individuals (N = 639) through analysis of data collected at Pride festivals and online. Frequencies described demographic characteristics; chi-square analyses were used to compare tobacco-related variables. Black SGM smokers were more likely to be trying to quit smoking than White SGM smokers. However, Black SGM individuals were less likely than White SGM individuals to become former smokers. The results of this study indicate that smoking behaviors may be heavily influenced by race after accounting for SGM status.

  7. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the barriers of quitting smoking during pregnancy: a systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingall, Georgina; Cropley, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is widely known to increase health risks to the foetus, and understanding the quitting process during pregnancy is essential in order to realise national government targets. Qualitative studies have been used in order to gain a greater understanding of the quitting process and the objective of this systematic review was to examine and evaluate qualitative studies that have investigated the psychological and social factors around women attempting to quit smoking during pregnancy. Electronic databases and journals were searched with seven articles included in this review. The findings demonstrated that women were aware of the health risks to the foetus associated with smoking; however knowledge of potential health risks was not sufficient to motivate them to quit. Several barriers to quitting were identified which included willpower, role, and meaning of smoking, issues with cessation provision, changes in relationship interactions, understanding of facts, changes in smell and taste and influence of family and friends. A further interesting finding was that cessation service provision by health professionals was viewed negatively by women. It was concluded that there is a shortage of qualitative studies that concentrate on the specific difficulties that pregnant women face when trying to quit smoking. 2009 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Arab Americans: Application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Essien, E James; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to quit water pipe smoking by using an observational, survey-based, cross-sectional study design with a convenient sample of Arab American adults in Houston, Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of intention to quit water pipe smoking in the next year. A total of 340 participants completed the survey. Behavioral evaluation, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply were significant predictors of an intention to quit water pipe smoking adjusting for age, gender, income, marital status, and education. Interventions and strategies that include these constructs will assist water pipe smokers in quitting.

  10. Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking and Motivation to Quit among Street Food Sellers in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Thanh Thi Le

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, smoke-free signs in public places, including in restaurants and food stores, have been introduced in Vietnam, aiming to prevent passive smoking. Although extensive research has been carried out on second-hand smoking among clients in public places (e.g., hospitals, restaurants in Vietnam, no single study exists which captures the current practice of smoking among street food outlets. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of smoking and identify factors associated with smoking status and cessation motivation amongst food sellers in Vietnam. A cross-sectional study involving 1733 food providers at outlets was conducted in 29 districts in Hanoi capital, Vietnam, in 2015. The prevalence of smoking amongst food sellers was determined to be 8.5% (25% for men and 0.8% for women. The enforcement of the smoke-free policy remains modest, since only 7.9% observed outlets complied with the law, providing a room designated for smokers. Although approximately 80% of the participants were aware of the indoor smoke-free regulations in public places, such as restaurants and food stores, 40.2% of smokers reported no intention of quitting smoking. A percentage of 37.6% of current smokers reported that despite having intentions to quit, they did not receive any form of support for smoking cessation. Being male and having hazardous drinking habits and a poor quality of life were all factors that were significantly associated with smoking status. Additionally, having awareness of smoking’s adverse effects and being frequently supervised by the authority were associated with a greater motivation to quit. This study highlights the importance of an accompanying education and smoking cessation program in addition to the frequent inspection and reinforcement of smoke-free policy in food stores. This research extends on our knowledge of smoking prevalence and its factors related to smoking events and motivation to quit among street food outlets. Overall

  11. Motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and abstinence maintenance among treated Spanish smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Del Río, Elena Fernández; Martínez, Úrsula; Brandon, Thomas H; Becoña, Elisardo

    2016-02-01

    Although quitting motivation predicts smoking cessation, there have been inconsistent findings regarding motivation predicting long-term maintenance of abstinence. Moreover, most such research has been conducted in North America and the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to examine motivation to quit as a predictor of smoking cessation and of abstinence maintenance in a Spanish sample. The sample comprised 286 Spanish smokers undergoing psychological treatment for smoking cessation. Motivation to quit was assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment with the Readiness to Quit Ladder. Abstinence post-treatment and at 6month follow-up was biochemically verified. Participants with higher levels of pre-treatment and post-treatment motivation were more likely to be abstinent at the end of the treatment (OR=1.36) and at 6month follow-up (OR=4.88). Among abstainers at the end of the treatment (61.9%), higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment predicted maintaining abstinence at 6months (OR=2.83). Furthermore, participants who failed to quit smoking reported higher levels of motivation to quit post-treatment than they had pretreatment (pMotivation to quit smoking predicted short and long-term cessation, and also predicted long-term maintenance of abstinence. These results have implications for understanding motivational processes of smoking cessation in general, while extending research to Spanish smokers. They may also help in the design of cessation and relapse-prevention interventions. Specifically, the results suggest that motivational enhancement is important throughout the cessation and maintenance periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. To start and quit smoking cigarettes: an evaluation of students in a Nigerian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoyebi, O A; Ibirongbe, D O; Babatunde, O A; Atoyebi, O E

    2013-06-01

    Several factors have been shown to influence cigarette smoking and are important in creating measures for tobacco control. The aim of this study is to identify the factors responsible for making decisions to start or stop cigarette smoking among students. This was a cross-sectional study which sampled 280 youths in tertiary institutions using multi-stage sampling technique. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaire that had been pretested and validated. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Frequency tables and cross-tabulations were generated with a 95% confidence interval and predetermined p-value at less than 0.05. All the current smokers (100%) were males, most (73.2%) were within 21 to 25 years of age and 87.8% of them had a relative or friend who smoked. Some (29%) of the students who currently smoked were willing to quit smoking while 73.2% of them had ever attempted to quit smoking. Students who smoked to relieve stress were willing to stop smoking (100.0%), while 40% of those who smoked for pleasure/relaxation were willing to stop smoking. Students who had received lectures on smoking were significantly willing to quit (100.0%) compared with those who had not received such lectures (0.0%) (p = 0.000). Understanding the role of the factors associated with smoking initiating and cessation is very crucial in planning appropriate intervention for the control of cigarette smoking among the youths and there is need for more youth oriented health education directed towards a proper attitude to tobacco control.

  13. YouTube as a source of quit smoking information for people living with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ratika; Lucas, Maya; Ford, Pauline; Meurk, Carla; Gartner, Coral E

    2016-11-01

    YouTube is the most popular video sharing website, and is increasingly used to broadcast health information including smoking cessation advice. This study examines the quality and quantity of YouTube quit smoking videos targeted at people living with mental illness (MI). We systematically searched YouTube using selected relevant search terms. The first 50 videos obtained for each search term were screened for relevance and further videos screened through snowball sampling. Forty unique, English language videos focussing on people with MI were included in the assessment and evaluated for general video characteristics, themes, format, targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction information. Most videos either discussed the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI (n=12) or smoking cessation programmes and policies at an institutional level (n=13). Only nine videos were aimed at providing quit smoking advice to this population. One video recommended higher doses of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for people with MI while six videos referred to possible changes in medication dosage on quitting smoking. Four videos suggested cutting down smoking for harm reduction. Very few YouTube videos specifically focus on the problem of high smoking rates among people with MI and even fewer provide targeted smoking cessation and harm reduction advice for this priority population. There is a need to develop comprehensive, evidence based, quit smoking video resources for smokers with a MI. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Postpartum smoking relapse among women who quit during pregnancy: cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takako; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Mieko; Nagai, Akiko; Tanaka, Taichiro; Kondo, Naoki; Suzuki, Kohta; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2013-11-01

    To determine the postpartum smoking relapse rate among women in Japan who quit smoking during pregnancy and to clarify factors related to smoking relapse. A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted as a cross-sectional study of all mothers of children who underwent health checkups after birth in randomly selected municipalities in Japan from May to July 2009. Using valid data of 20,601 mothers, smoking rate was calculated. In addition, χ(2) -test and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to clarify related factors to the smoking relapse. The smoking rates among women were 15.8% at the time when they became pregnant, 5.1% during pregnancy and 11.3% after giving birth. Among women who smoked at the time they became pregnant, the smoking rate during pregnancy was 31.1%. Among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, the postpartum smoking relapse rate was 41.0%. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for factors in smoking relapse were 0.72 (0.60-0.88) for women spending time with their child in a relaxed mood, 0.67 (0.47-0.94) for women having someone to talk to on the Internet about childrearing, 1.94 (1.60-2.35) for women who worked and 3.37 (2.61-4.35) for women whose partner smoked after they gave birth. It is hoped that future research will establish methods to further support smoking cessation and the continuation of smoking cessation after childbirth, and develop mechanisms to spread knowledge about the harm of smoking in society and encourage women not to start. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Positive smoking outcome expectancies mediate the association between negative affect and smoking urge among women during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Lam, Cho Y; Chen, Minxing; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Stewart, Diana W; McClure, Jennifer B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2014-08-01

    Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine associations between negative affect, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and smoking urge during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt. Participants were 302 female smokers who enrolled in an individually tailored smoking cessation treatment study. Multilevel mediation analysis was used to examine the temporal relationship among the following: (a) the effects of negative affect and positive smoking outcome expectancies at 1 assessment point (e.g., time j) on smoking urge at the subsequent time point (e.g., time j + 1) in Model 1; and, (b) the effects of negative affect and smoking urge at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 in Model 2. The results from Model 1 showed a statistically significant effect of negative affect at time j on smoking urge at time j + 1, and this effect was mediated by positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j, both within- and between-participants. In Model 2, the within-participant indirect effect of negative affect at time j on positive smoking outcome expectancies at time j + 1 through smoking urge at time j was nonsignificant. However, a statistically significant indirect between-participants effect was found in Model 2. The findings support the hypothesis that urge and positive smoking outcome expectancies increase as a function of negative affect, and suggest a stronger effect of expectancies on urge as opposed to the effect of urge on expectancies.

  16. Stress-related expectations about smoking cessation and future quit attempts and abstinence - a prospective study in daily smokers who wish to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Egan, Kia Kejlskov; Dalum, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Smokers who wish to quit may refrain from doing so if they expect to experience more stress after haven given up. We test if stress-related expectations about smoking cessation are associated with quit attempts and abstinence among smokers who are motivated to quit. The study included 1809 daily...... after 3, 8 and 14 months. We found that the association between expecting to be more stressed if giving up smoking differed between participants who had previously attempted to quit and those who had not: In participants who previously attempted to quit (47%), expecting to be more stressed......, expectations about stress were not associated with abstinence. Results indicate that expectations about stress in relation to smoking cessation are an important determinant of cessation in smokers who previously attempted to quit. Addressing stress and how to handle stressful situations may increase...

  17. Association of Sociodemographic Factors, Smoking-Related Beliefs, and Smoking Restrictions With Intention to Quit Smoking in Korean Adults: Findings From the ITC Korea Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Seo, Hong Gwan; Cheong, Yoo-Seock; Park, Sohee; Lee, Wonkyong B; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported the factors associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. This study aimed to examine sociodemographic characteristics, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking-restriction variables associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adult smokers. Methods We used data from the International Tobacco Control Korea Survey, which was conducted from November through December 2005 by using random-digit dialing and computer-assisted telephone interviewing of male and female smokers aged 19 years or older in 16 metropolitan areas and provinces of Korea. We performed univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of intention to quit. Results A total of 995 respondents were included in the final analysis. Of those, 74.9% (n = 745) intended to quit smoking. In univariate analyses, smokers with an intention to quit were younger, smoked fewer cigarettes per day, had a higher annual income, were more educated, were more likely to have a religious affiliation, drank less alcohol per week, were less likely to have self-exempting beliefs, and were more likely to have self-efficacy beliefs regarding quitting, to believe that smoking had damaged their health, and to report that smoking was never allowed anywhere in their home. In multiple logistic regression analysis, higher education level, having a religious affiliation, and a higher self-efficacy regarding quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit. Conclusions Sociodemographic factors, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking restrictions at home were associated with intention to quit smoking among Korean adults. PMID:22186157

  18. An electronic decision support system to motivate people with severe mental illnesses to quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunette, Mary F; Ferron, Joelle C; McHugo, Gregory J; Davis, Kristin E; Devitt, Timothy S; Wilkness, Sandra M; Drake, Robert E

    2011-04-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are high among people with severe mental illnesses compared with the general population (45%-90% versus 20%). The authors developed a Web-based computer decision support system that is tailored for use by people with cognitive deficits and is designed to stimulate motivation to quit smoking by using evidence-based treatment. This initial study used a quasi-experimental design to test the decision support system among a convenience sample of 41 smokers with severe mental illnesses. Researchers interviewed participants at baseline and two months later to assess for behaviors indicative of motivation to quit smoking. A negative binomial regression modeled the outcome and controlled for baseline group differences. Participants who used the decision support system were significantly more likely to show any behavioral motivation to quit smoking (such as meet with a clinician to discuss cessation, initiate cessation treatment, or otherwise attempt to quit) (67% versus 35%; χ(2)=4.11, df=41, p=.04). Further, using the decision support system increased by a factor of 2.97, or about 300%, the expected number of ways that a participant showed motivation. The encouraging results of this pilot study indicate that electronic decision supports may facilitate motivation to quit smoking and use of cessation treatment among people with severe mental illnesses.

  19. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  20. Evaluation of QuitNow Men: An Online, Men-Centered Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Oliffe, John L; Sarbit, Gayl; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M; Currie, Leanne M; Schmid, Jonathan; Mackay, Martha H; Stolp, Sean

    2016-04-20

    Men continue to smoke cigarettes in greater numbers than women. There is growing evidence for the value of developing targeted, men-centered health promotion programs. However, few smoking cessation interventions have been designed for men. A gender-specific website, QuitNow Men, was developed based on focus group interview findings, stakeholder feedback, and evidence-based cessation strategies. The website was designed to incorporate a masculine look and feel through the use of images, direct language, and interactive content. Usability experts and end-users provided feedback on navigation and functionality of the website prior to pilot testing. The objectives of the pilot study were to describe (1) men's use and evaluations of the interactive resources and information on the QuitNow Men website, and (2) the potential of QuitNow Men to engage men in reducing and quitting smoking. A one-group, pretest-posttest study design was used. Men who were interested in quitting were recruited and invited to use the website over a 6-month period. Data were collected via online questionnaires at baseline, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. A total of 117 men completed the baseline survey. Over half of those (67/117, 57.3%) completed both follow-up surveys. At baseline, participants (N=117) had been smoking for an average of 24 years (SD 12.1) and smoked on average 15 cigarettes a day (SD 7.4). The majority had not previously used a quit smoking website (103/117, 88.0%) or websites focused on men's health (105/117, 89.7%). At the 6-month follow-up, the majority of men used the QuitNow Men website at least once (64/67, 96%). Among the 64 users, 29 (43%) reported using the website more than 6 times. The men using QuitNow Men agreed or strongly agreed that the website was easy to use (51/64, 80%), the design and images were appealing (42/64, 66%), they intended to continue to use the website (42/64, 66%), and that they would recommend QuitNow Men to others who wanted to quit (46

  1. Contemplation of smoking cessation and quit attempts in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and uninfected veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrir, Shahida; Tindle, Hilary A; McGinnis, Kathleen A; Fiellin, David A; Goulet, Joseph; Akgün, Kathleen M; Gibert, Cynthia L; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Crothers, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    As antiretroviral treatments prolong life in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, smoking cessation is now a top priority. However, studies of HIV-infected smokers have not been conducted with uninfected controls. In this study, researchers determined factors associated with contemplating smoking cessation and making a prior quit attempt among HIV-infected and uninfected smoking veterans. Between 2005 and 2007, 1,027 HIV-infected and 794 uninfected smokers were identified as part of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS). Stratifying by HIV status, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated using logistic regression to identify factors associated with contemplating smoking cessation and making a prior quit attempt. Most participants (66 % of HIV-infected vs. 68 % of uninfected; P = .46) were contemplating cessation, and 56 % of both groups (P = .99) had attempted to quit in the last year. In stratified multivariable analyses, HIV-infected smokers with recent pulmonary disease diagnoses were more likely to have made a quit attempt (AOR = 4.93, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.41-17.17). Both HIV-infected and uninfected patients with unhealthy alcohol use were less likely to be contemplating cessation (AOR = 0.66, 95 % CI = 0.49-0.90 and 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.50-1.00). HIV-infected smokers who reported unhealthy alcohol use were also less likely to have made a quit attempt in the last year (AOR = 0.68, 95 % CI = 0.51-0.91). Patient-level interest and motivation are not major barriers to smoking cessation among HIV-infected veterans. Targeting HIV-infected smokers with a recent pulmonary disease diagnosis may improve sustained smoking cessation. Unhealthy alcohol use appears to be a key modifiable risk factor. Smoking cessation rates may be improved by combining interventions for smoking and alcohol use for HIV-infected patients.

  2. ATTITUDE TO HEALTH AND MOTIVATION TO QUIT SMOKING IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chetverkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to study of features of the status of smoking in patients with the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Degree of nicotine addiction, types of smoking behavior in various age groups of patients are determined. The interrelation at sick HOBL between motivation to refusal of smoking and the attitude towards health is analyzed. The directions of psychotherapeutic impacts for increase in efficiency of the techniques directed to refusal of smoking are offered.Objective  – to study the motivation to quit smoking and attitudes towards health in patients with COPD. Materials  and  methods. A questionnaire by D. Horney for determining the type of smoking behavior; Fagerstrem test for the determination of nicotine dependence; the questionnaire for determining the motivation to refuse to smoke; the questionnaire of N.E. Vodopyanova «Assessment of the level of satisfaction with the quality of life» (2005 and the methodology «Attitude to health» by R. A. Berezovsky.Results.  The average age for the entire sample of respondents was 65.3±7.6 years, the length of smoking in smokers was 33.5±14.3 years. The predominant type of smoking behavior in the survey sample was «Support». In patients with high motivation, the assessment of the level of satisfaction with the overall «quality of life index» (ICI was 26 points. In patients with low motivation to quit smoking, the mean value (ICR was 21.Conclusion. Patients with high motivation to quit smoking were older than patients with low motivation. A group of patients with COPD with high motivation to quit smoking was characterized mainly by low or medium degree of nicotine dependence; the dominant type of smoking behavior of them was «Support.» On the contrary, in the group of patients with low motivation, physical dependence on nicotine prevailed; the «thirst» was the dominant type of smoking behavior.

  3. Is attributing smoking to genetic causes associated with a reduced probability of quit attempt success? A cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Alison J; Aveyard, Paul; Guo, Boliang; Murphy, Michael; Brown, Karen; Marteau, Theresa M

    2007-01-01

    Aims Pharmacogenetic smoking cessation interventions would involve smokers being given information about the influence of genes on their behaviour. However, attributing smoking to genetic causes may reduce perceived control over smoking, reducing quit attempt success. This study examines whether attributing smoking to genetic influences is associated with reduced quitting and whether this effect is mediated by perceived control over smoking. Design Cohort study. Participants A total of 792 sm...

  4. Smokers' reasons for quitting in an anti-smoking social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baha, M; Le Faou, A-L

    2010-04-01

    To examine the impact of the social denormalization of smoking on smokers' motives for quitting and on subsequent abstinence in a context of intensified anti-smoking measures. This study is based on data from 13,746 French smokers who were registered in cessation services nationwide between September 2006 and September 2007. Motives freely reported by smokers on their first visit to a cessation service were explored through open coding. Bivariate methods and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association with biochemically validated abstinence at 1 month follow-up. Motives most frequently expressed by smokers were health concerns (55.0%) and cost of smoking (24.2%), but no significant association was found with abstinence. The highest abstinence rates were achieved by smokers motivated by their social network: 'motivated or pressured by others' (20.9%), 'setting a good example' (20.7%) and 'having a smoke-free social network' (20.3%). Smokers could no longer bear the social constraints of smoking: '[my] friends and family have all quit, [I] smoke outside all alone and feel left out' and 'I no longer want people to say with disgust that I smell of tobacco. I would like to be freed from this addiction because I'm ashamed of smoking, not at home but on the street'. French smokers' motives for quitting reflect a social unacceptability of smoking which has been buttressed by measures intended to reduce tobacco use. Through smoke-free social networks, the denormalization of smoking appears to improve short-term abstinence. 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotion dysregulation explains relations between sleep disturbance and smoking quit-related cognition and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Jennifer; Alfano, Candice A; Paulus, Daniel J; Smits, Jasper A J; Davis, Michelle L; Rosenfield, David; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Powers, Mark B; Otto, Michael W; Baird, Scarlett O; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality and tobacco use are common and co-occurring problems, although the mechanisms underlying the relations between sleep disturbance and smoking are poorly understood. Sleep disturbance lowers odds of smoking cessation success and increases odds of relapse. One reason may be that sleep loss leads to emotion dysregulation, which in turn, leads to reductions in self-efficacy and quit-related problems. To address this gap, the current study examined the explanatory role of emotion dysregulation in the association between sleep disturbance and smoking in terms of (1) self-efficacy for remaining abstinent in relapse situations, (2) the presence of a prior quit attempt greater than 24h, and (3) the experience of quit-related problems among 128 adults (Mage=40.2; SD=11.0; 52.3% female) seeking treatment for smoking cessation. Results suggested that increased levels of sleep disturbance are related to emotion dysregulation which, in turn, may lead to lower levels of self-efficacy for remaining abstinent, more quit-related problems, and being less likely to have had a quit attempt of 24h or greater. Further, these indirect effects were present above and beyond variance accounted for by theoretically-relevant covariates (e.g., gender and educational attainment), suggesting that they may maintain practical significance. These findings suggest that this malleable emotional risk factor (emotion dysregulation) could serve as a target for intervention among those with poor sleep and tobacco use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2017-01-01

    Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in i...

  7. Smokers Who Try E-Cigarettes to Quit Smoking: Findings From a Multiethnic Study in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Little, Melissa A.; Kawamoto, Crissy T.; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We characterized smokers who are likely to use electronic or “e-”cigarettes to quit smoking. Methods. We obtained cross-sectional data in 2010–2012 from 1567 adult daily smokers in Hawaii using a paper-and-pencil survey. Analyses were conducted using logistic regression. Results. Of the participants, 13% reported having ever used e-cigarettes to quit smoking. Smokers who had used them reported higher motivation to quit, higher quitting self-efficacy, and longer recent quit duration than did other smokers. Age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97, 0.99) and Native Hawaiian ethnicity (OR = 0.68; 95% CI = 0.45, 0.99) were inversely associated with increased likelihood of ever using e-cigarettes for cessation. Other significant correlates were higher motivation to quit (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.21), quitting self-efficacy (OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.36), and ever using US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved cessation aids such as nicotine gum (OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.67, 5.19). Conclusions. Smokers who try e-cigarettes to quit smoking appear to be serious about wanting to quit. Despite lack of evidence regarding efficacy, smokers treat e-cigarettes as valid alternatives to FDA-approved cessation aids. Research is needed to test the safety and efficacy of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. PMID:23865700

  8. Smokers can quit regardless of motivation stage in a worksite smoking cessation programme in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Siti Munira; Retneswari, Masilamani; Moy, Foong Ming; Koh, David; Isahak, Marzuki

    2011-01-01

    There is an unclear relationship between smoker's early motivation and success rates. Here we aimed to explore the correlates of motivation and smoking abstinence and relapse in worksite smoking cessation programmes. This prospective cohort study involved employees from two major public universities in Malaysia. Participants were actively recruited into a smoking cessation programme. At the start of treatment, participants were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, smoking habits and 'stage of change'. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was given as treatment for two months. A similar stage of change questionnaire was given at six months, and their smoking status was determined. There were 185 smokers from both Universities, who joined the programme. At six months, 24 smokers reported sustained abstinence while the others had relapsed. Prior to the programme, the majority of smokers were seriously planning on quitting (59.5%--preparation stage), but over a third had no plans to quit (35.5%--contemplation stage). There was no significant difference noted in changes of motivation stage among the relapsers and the non quitters. In addition, logistic regression showed that sustained abstinence was not predicted by pre-session motivation stage, but this did predict higher relapse for the participants, compared to those in the preparation stage. It is possible to help smokers in the lower motivation groups to quit, provided extra caution is taken to prevent relapse. Healthcare providers' recruitment strategies for cessation programmes should thus encompass smokers in all motivation stages.

  9. Revealing the complexity of quitting smoking: a qualitative grounded theory study of the natural history of quitting in Australian ex-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2017-11-23

    To explore the quitting histories of Australian ex-smokers in order to develop an understanding of the varied contribution of smoking cessation assistance (either pharmacotherapy or professionally mediated behavioural support) to the process of quitting. Qualitative grounded theory study; in-depth interviews. 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 men, 22 women) who quit in the past 6-24 months. Although participants' individual quitting histories and their overall experiences of quitting were unique, when the 37 quitting histories were compared it was clear two experiences were common to almost all participants: almost no one quit at their first quit attempt and almost everyone started out quitting unassisted. Furthermore, distinct patterns existed in the timing and use of assistance, in particular the age at which assistance was first used, how some participants were resolutely uninterested in assistance, and how assistance might have contributed to the process of successful quitting even if not used on the final quit attempt. Importantly, three patterns in use of assistance were identified: (1) only ever tried to quit unassisted (n=13); (2) started unassisted, tried assistance but reverted back to unassisted (n=13); (3) started unassisted, tried assistance and quit with assistance (n=11). For most participants, insight into what quitting would require was only gained through prior quitting experiences with and without assistance. For a number of participants, interest in assistance was at its lowest when the participant was most ready to quit. Quitting should be viewed as a process drawing on elements of assisted and unassisted quitting rather than a stand-alone event that can be labelled as strictly assisted or unassisted. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Quitting-Unmotivated and Quitting-Motivated Cigarette Smokers Exhibit Different Patterns of Cue-Elicited Brain Activation When Anticipating an Opportunity to Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen J.; Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of smoking expectancy on cue-reactivity among those motivated and those unmotivated to quit smoking using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cue-elicited activation was observed in the rostral prefrontal cortex (PFC) in smokers who expected to smoke within seconds, but not in those who expected to have to wait hours before having the chance to smoke, regardless of quitting motivation. For quitting-unmotivated smokers expecting to smoke, rostral PFC activation was strongly positively correlated with the activation of several areas previously linked to cue-reactivity, including the medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In contrast, there was a non-significant negative relationship between activation of the rostral PFC and activation of the medial OFC/rostral ACC in quitting-motivated smokers expecting to smoke. Results extend previous work examining the effects of smoking expectancy and highlight the utility of examining interregional covariation during cue exposure. Findings also suggest that investigators may need to pay close attention to the motivational contexts associated with their experiments when studying cue-reactivity, as these contexts can modulate not only responses to drug cues, but perhaps also the functional implications of observed activity. PMID:21859165

  11. Smoking behaviour and sensations during the pre-quit period of an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Stefanie; Prapavessis, Harry

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has shown reductions in cigarette consumption during the pre-quit period of exercise-aided smoking cessation interventions. Smoking topography and sensation patterns during this period is unknown and may provide valuable insight into compensation and cessation readiness. Female smokers (N = 236, M age = 43, M cigarettes/day = 17.0) enrolled in an exercise-aided smoking cessation intervention self-reported daily cigarette use and cigarette sensory experiences. Breath carbon monoxide and smoking topography data were collected during the period leading up to the targeted quit date (i.e., baseline, week 1, and week 3), which was set for week 4. Repeated measures ANOVAs revealed that cigarette consumption (p < 0.001, eta = 0.32), carbon monoxide (p < 0.001, eta = 0.14), puff duration (p = 0.01, eta = 0.05), smoking satisfaction (p < 0.001, eta = 0.34), psychological reward (p < 0.001, eta = 0.43), enjoyment of respiratory tract sensations (p < 0.001, eta = 0.29), and craving (p < 0.001, eta = 0.39) decreased, whereas average puff flow (p = 0.01, eta = 0.05) increased. This is the first study to establish that regular exercise during the pre-quit period served as a conduit for facilitating behavioral and sensory harm reduction with cigarettes. Furthermore, the pattern of change observed between cigarette consumption and smoking topography does not support compensation. These findings imply that female smokers who exercise prior to a quit attempt are in a favourable state to achieve cessation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  13. Smoking Expectancies and Intention to Quit in Smokers with Schizophrenia, Schizoaffective Disorder and Non-Psychiatric Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Tidey, Jennifer W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2009-01-01

    Cigarette smoking expectancies are systematically related to intention to quit smoking in adult smokers without psychiatric illness, but little is known about these relationships in smokers with serious mental illness. In this study, we compared positive and negative smoking expectancies, and examined relationships between expectancies and intention to quit smoking, in smokers with schizophrenia (n = 46), smokers with schizoaffective disorder (n = 35), and smokers without psychiatric illness ...

  14. Smoking characteristics and comorbidities in the power to quit randomized clinical trial for homeless smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Goldade, Kate; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Thomas, Janet L; Eischen, Sara; Guo, Hongfei; Connett, John E; Grant, Jon; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Resnicow, Ken; Owen, Greg; Gelberg, Lillian; Jarlais, Don Des

    2013-01-01

    Smoking prevalence in homeless populations is strikingly high (∼70%); yet, little is known about effective smoking cessation interventions for this population. We conducted a community-based clinical trial, Power To Quit (PTQ), to assess the effects of motivational interviewing (MI) and nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]) on smoking cessation among homeless smokers. This paper describes the smoking characteristics and comorbidities of smokers in the study. Four hundred and thirty homeless adult smokers were randomized to either the intervention arm (NRT + MI) or the control arm (NRT + Brief Advice). Baseline assessment included demographic information, shelter status, smoking history, motivation to quit smoking, alcohol/other substance abuse, and psychiatric comorbidities. Of the 849 individuals who completed the eligibility survey, 578 (68.1%) were eligible and 430 (74.4% of eligibles) were enrolled. Participants were predominantly Black, male, and had mean age of 44.4 years (S D = 9.9), and the majority were unemployed (90.5%). Most participants reported sleeping in emergency shelters; nearly half had been homeless for more than a year. Nearly all the participants were daily smokers who smoked an average of 20 cigarettes/day. Nearly 40% had patient health questionnaire-9 depression scores in the moderate or worse range, and more than 80% screened positive for lifetime history of drug abuse or dependence. This study demonstrates the feasibility of enrolling a diverse sample of homeless smokers into a smoking cessation clinical trial. The uniqueness of the study sample enables investigators to examine the influence of nicotine dependence as well as psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities on smoking cessation outcomes.

  15. Changes in self-efficacy associated with success in quitting smoking in participants in Japanese smoking cessation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Chie; Tanaka, Hideo; Saka, Hideo; Oze, Isao; Tachibana, Kazunobu; Nozaki, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Yukio; Sakakibara, Hisataka

    2018-03-23

    To identify the strength of self-efficacy during 12-week smoking cessation therapy (SCT) that consisted of 5 sessions and its association with the success of smoking cessation at the end of SCT. Few studies showed to what level self-efficacy should be reinforced to facilitate success in smoking cessation. Prospective cohort study. We enrolled 488 smokers who received SCT from 6 Japanese smoking cessation clinics between October 2008 and October 2014. In each smoker, the self-efficacy of quitting smoking was assessed at each session of SCT. The association of the strength of self-efficacy with the success of smoking cessation was investigated by logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, having a present illness, prescription, and nicotine dependence score. The self-efficacy of the 398 abstainers was significantly higher than that of the 90 nonabstainers at the first to fifth sessions of the SCT (P self-efficacy scores of greater than 60% were significantly more likely to attain abstinence than those with scores of 40% and less. During SCT, nurses' counselling to maintain patients' self-efficacy scores of smoking cessation in the range from 61% to 100% may be important for assisting patients in achieving smoking cessation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Gender, age, social disadvantage and quitting smoking in Argentina and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzin, Mirosław; Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Krakowiak, Jan; Saran, Tomasz; Szatko, Franciszek; Kaleta, Dorota

    2018-03-14

    Cessation of tobacco use has the potential to provide the greatest immediate benefits for tobacco control. Understanding the social determinants of smoking cessation is an essential requirement for increasing smoking cessation at the population level. The purpose of this study was to analyze the socio-economic dimensions associated with cessation success among adults in Argentina and Uruguay. Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), a cross-sectional, population-based, nationally representative survey conducted in Argentina (n=5,383) and Uruguay (n=4,833) was utilized. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses with results being presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were applied to study differences among those respondents who sustained smoking abstinence (≥1 year) and those who continued smoking. The GATS study revealed that social gradients in tobacco quitting exist in Argentina and Uruguay. Being aged 25-34, particularly men in Uruguay, women in Argentina, low educated men in Argentina and having a lower asset index were associated with reduced odds for quitting. Factors that are driving differences in smoking cessation between diverse social groups in Latin America countries need to be considered when implementing relevant interventions to ensure tobacco control strategies work effectively for all population segments.

  17. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cues, such as those occurring in motion pictures. Seventeen right-handed smokers and seventeen non-smokers watched a popular movie while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using a natural stimulus, such as a movie, allowd us to keep both smoking and non-smoking participants naïve to the goals of the experiment. Brain activity evoked by scenes of movie smoking was contrasted with non-smoking control scenes which were matched for frequency and duration. Compared to non-smokers, smokers showed greater activity in left anterior intraparietal sulcus and inferior frontal gyrus, both regions involved in the simulation of contralateral hand-based gestures, when viewing smoking vs. control scenes. These results demonstrate that smokers spontaneously represent the action of smoking when viewing others smoke, the consequence of which may make it more difficult to abstain from smoking. PMID:21248113

  18. Homelessness, cigarette smoking and desire to quit: results from a US national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether or not homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socio-economic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. We analyzed data from 2678 adult respondents to the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of homeless and non-homeless individuals using US federally funded community health centers. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between homelessness and (i) current cigarette smoking among all adults, and (ii) past-year desire to quit among current smokers, adjusting for demographic, socio-economic and behavioral health characteristics. Adults with any history of homelessness were more likely than never homeless respondents to be current smokers (57 versus 27%, P homelessness was associated independently with current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.49-2.93], even after adjusting for age, sex, race, veteran status, insurance, education, employment, income, mental illness and alcohol and drug abuse. Housing status was not associated significantly with past-year desire to stop smoking in unadjusted (P = 0.26) or adjusted (P = 0.60) analyses; 84% of currently homeless, 89% of formerly homeless and 82% of never homeless smokers reported wanting to quit. Among patients of US health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker independent of other socio-economic factors and behavioral health conditions. However, homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit and should be offered effective interventions. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Homelessness, Cigarette Smoking, and Desire to Quit: Results from a U.S. National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P.; Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A.; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims We determined whether homelessness is associated with cigarette smoking independent of other socioeconomic measures and behavioral health factors, and whether homeless smokers differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit. Design, Setting, and Participants We analyzed data from 2,678 adult respondents to the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of homeless and non-homeless individuals using U.S. federally-funded community health centers. Measurements We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between homelessness and (1) current cigarette smoking among all adults, and (2) past-year desire to quit among current smokers, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral health characteristics. Findings Adults with any history of homelessness were more likely than never homeless respondents to be current smokers (57% vs. 27%, phomelessness was independently associated with current smoking (AOR 2.09; 95% CI 1.49-2.93), even after adjusting for age, sex, race, veteran status, insurance, education, employment, income, mental illness, and alcohol and drug abuse. Housing status was not significantly associated with past-year desire to stop smoking in unadjusted (p=0.26) or adjusted (p=0.60) analyses; 84% of currently homeless, 89% of formerly homeless, and 82% of never homeless smokers reported wanting to quit. Conclusions Among patients of U.S. health centers, a history of homelessness doubles the odds of being a current smoker independent of other socioeconomic factors and behavioral health conditions. However, homeless smokers do not differ from non-homeless smokers in their desire to quit and should be offered effective interventions. PMID:23834157

  20. [Cost-benefit of medical advice for quitting smoking in the Region of Murcia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Nicolás, Angel; Trapero-Bertran, Marta; Muñoz, Celia

    To perform a cost-benefit analysis of brief medical advice to quit smoking in the Region of Murcia. A cost-benefit analysis is performed on brief medical advice to quit smoking versus non-intervention. A Markov model is used to estimate the costs (€ in 2014), under the perspective of the National Health System, and health outcomes. These are measured in quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The time horizon of the analysis is 20years, and costs and health outcomes were discounted at 3%. A univariate and multivariate deterministic sensitivity analysis is performed. Region of Murcia. Smokers in the Region of Murcia. Brief advice to quit smoking. Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). With a time horizon of 5years (2018), the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) would be €172,400 per QALY gained; at 10years (2023) the ICER was €30,300 per QALY gained; and, for the maximum horizon considered by the model, the ICER was €7,260 per QALY gained. Brief advice intervention is more efficient in the long-term than in the short-term and, depending on the Spanish cost-benefit threshold, public funding for this intervention would be recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Helping adolescents quit smoking:a needs assessment of current and former teen smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingree, Suzanne; Boberg, Eric; Patten, Christi; Offord, Kenneth; Gaie, Martha; Schensky, Ann; Gustafson, David H; Dornelas, Ellen; Ahluwalia, Jasjit

    2004-01-01

    This study compared the survey responses of 280 current and former adolescent smokers for what they perceived would be helpful (or what had helped) in quitting smoking. The survey was developed from focus groups and was structured using Prochaska and DiClementes Stages of Change health behavior framework. Results showed that former smokers and current smokers in the preparation stage of change shared beliefs about the importance of interpersonal support, those who were contemplating a quit decision worried about obstacles and internal issues, and current smokers not thinking about quitting focused on external rewards. The findings that significant differences exist based on the adolescent smokers Stage of Change imply that this framework can be appropriately applied to this context.

  2. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Heydari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Results: Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9% were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative was −21. Conclusion: Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  3. Electronic cigarette, effective or harmful for quitting smoking and respiratory health: A quantitative review papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Gholamreza; Ahmady, Arezoo Ebn; Chamyani, Fahimeh; Masjedi, Mohammadreza; Fadaizadeh, Lida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, electronic cigarettes (ECs) have been heavily advertised as an alternative smoking device as well as a possible cessation method. We aimed to review all published scientific literature pertaining to ECs and to present a simple conclusion about their effects for quitting smoking and respiratory health. This was a cross-sectional study with a search of PubMed, limited to English publications upto September 2014. The total number of papers which had ECs in its title and their conclusions positive or negative regarding ECs effects were computed. The number of negative papers was subtracted from the number of positive ones to make a score. Of the 149 articles, 137 (91.9%) were accessible, of which 68 did not have inclusion criteria. In the 69 remaining articles, 24 studies supported ECs and 45 considered these to be harmful. Finally, based on this evidence, the score of ECs (computed result with positive minus negative) was -21. Evidence to suggest that ECs may be effective and advisable for quitting smoking or a safe alternative for smoking is lacking and may instead harm the respiratory system. However, further studies are needed.

  4. The effect of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking: an examination of the mechanism of action of two pre-quit pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenying; Chappell, Kate; Walters, Julia A E; Jacobson, Glenn A; Patel, Rahul; Schüz, Natalie; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2017-07-01

    In recent years, there has been growing research interest in using nicotine replacement medications to aid smoking reduction prior to a quit attempt. Gaining a better understanding of how treatments influence smoking reduction may allow for better tailoring of treatments and, ultimately, better cessation outcomes. The objective of the current study was to test the effects of the pre-quit use of varenicline and nicotine patch on smoking rate and satisfaction with smoking. All participants were required to attend up to five study visit sections. Participants (n = 213) who were interested in quitting were randomised (open-label) to receive either pre-quit patch or varenicline (both treatments started 2 weeks prior to an assigned quit day, followed by 10 weeks post-quit) or standard patch (10 weeks starting from an assigned quit day). Participants used modified smartphones to monitor their smoking in real time for 4 weeks. Participants in the two pre-quit treatment groups reported significant reductions in both their satisfaction with smoking (p < 0.001) and smoking rate (p < 0.001) from baseline to the end of pre-quit period; participants in the standard patch group did not. The observed reduction of smoking rate was associated with the satisfaction with smoking (p < 0.01), although the mediation effect of satisfaction was small. Pre-quit treatment caused reductions in satisfaction with smoking and smoking rate. Satisfaction was associated with changes in smoking rate, but the relationship was weak. As such, monitoring reductions in satisfaction do not appear to be a viable method of evaluating responsiveness to treatment.

  5. Mortality reduction from quitting smoking in Hong Kong: population-wide proportional mortality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Zhi-Ming; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Ching-Man; Wang, Man-Ping; Peto, Richard; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2018-02-08

    The effects of smoking cessation might be different in different populations. Proportional mortality studies of all deaths, relating the certified cause to retrospectively determined smoking habits, have helped assess the hazards of smoking in Hong Kong, and further analyses can help assess the effects of prolonged cessation (although not of recent cessation, as life-threatening disease can itself cause cessation, particularly in old age). The LIMOR study sought the certified causes of all deaths in 1998, and interviewed 81% of families at death registries to determine the decedent's smoking history. Cases were deaths from pre-defined diseases of interest (N = 15 356); controls were deaths from pre-defined non-smoking-related diseases (N = 5023). Case vs control odds ratios for ex-smokers vs smokers were calculated by age-, sex- and education-standardized logistic regression. These are described as mortality rate ratios (RRs), with a group-specific confidence interval (CI). For the aggregate of all deaths from any of the diseases of interest at ages 35-69 years, the RRs for current smoking, quitting 0-4, 5-9 or 10+ years ago and never-smoking were, respectively, RR = 1 (95% CI 0.86-1.17), 0.91 (0.73-1.14), 0.71 (0.49-1.02), 0.66 (0.50-0.87) and 0.43 (0.37-0.48). Younger age of quitting (25-44 or 45-64) appeared to be associated with greater protection: RR = 0.58 (0.38-0.88) and 0.71 (0.54-0.93), respectively. These patterns were less clear at older ages, particularly for death from emphysema. Longer durations of smoking cessation are associated with progressively lower mortality rates from the diseases of interest. For sustainable monitoring of tobacco-attributed mortality, approximate years since last smoked should be recorded during death registration. © The Author(s) 2018; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  6. Quitting smoking : The importance of non-smoker identity in predicting smoking behaviour and responses to a smoking ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Eline; Gebhardt, Winifred A.; Dijkstra, Arie; Willemsen, Marc C.; Van Laar, Colette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined how smoker' and non-smoker' self- and group-identities and socio-economic status (SES) may predict smoking behaviour and responses to antismoking measures (i.e. the Dutch smoking ban in hospitality venues). We validated a measure of responses to the smoking ban.Design:

  7. Engaging Parents Who Quit Smoking in Antismoking Socialization of Children: A Novel Approach to Relapse Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christine; Hayes, Kim A; Dickinson, Denise M

    2016-05-01

    Data from a randomized controlled trial designed primarily to test the effect of an antismoking socialization parenting program on child initiation of smoking were used to test the subsidiary hypothesis that providing antismoking socialization to children would lower the odds of relapse within a sub-sample of parents who had recently quit smoking. Over 13 months, 11 state Quitlines provided contact information for callers who were parents of 8- to 10-year-old children. Of 1604 parents enrolled in the trial, 689 (344 treatment; 345 control) had quit smoking cigarettes for at least 24 hours after calling a Quitline. Their data were used to test for group differences in 30-day abstinence measured using telephone interviews conducted 7 and 12 months post-baseline. Analyses of parents with complete follow-up data and intent-to-treat analyses incorporating parents lost to follow-up are presented. Among 465 parents with complete follow-up data, treatment group parents had twice the odds of being abstinent 12 months post-baseline (adjusted OR = 2.01; P = .001) relative to controls. Intent-to-treat analysis with all 689 parents, in which those lost to follow-up were coded as having relapsed, showed a smaller though significant treatment effect on 30-day abstinence at 12 months (adjusted OR = 1.58; P = .017). This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. Additional research is needed to replicate this finding and to identify the psychological mechanisms underlying the observed effect. There is a clear the need for research to develop new relapse prevention strategies. This study is the first to observe that engaging parents who have quit smoking in antismoking socialization of children can lower their odds of relapse. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For

  8. Identifying attendance patterns in a smoking cessation treatment and their relationships with quit success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, Jolene; Papini, Santiago; Davis, Michelle L; Rosenfield, David; Powers, Mark B; Frierson, Georita M; Hopkins, Lindsey B; Baird, Scarlett O; Marcus, Bess H; Church, Timothy S; Otto, Michael W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Smits, Jasper A J

    2017-05-01

    While important for substance use outcomes, knowledge about treatment attendance patterns, and their relation with clinical outcomes is limited. We examined the association between attendance patterns and smoking outcomes in a randomized, controlled smoking cessation intervention trial. In addition to standard smoking cessation treatment, participants were randomized to 15 weeks of an exercise intervention (n=72) or an education control condition (n=64). Latent class growth analysis (LCGA) tested whether intervention attendance would be better modeled as qualitatively distinct attendance patterns rather than as a single mean pattern. Multivariate generalized linear mixed modeling (GLMM) was used to evaluate associations between the attendance patterns and abstinence at the end of treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The LCGA solution with three patterns characterized by high probability of attendance throughout (Completers, 46.3%), gradual decreasing probability of attendance (Titrators, 23.5%), and high probability of dropout within the first few weeks (Droppers, 30.1%) provided the best fit. The GLMM analysis indicated an interaction of attendance pattern by treatment condition, such that titration was associated with lower probability of quit success for those in the control condition. Probability of quit success was not significantly different between Titrators and Completers in the exercise condition. These findings underscore the importance of examining how treatment efficacy may vary as a function of attendance patterns. Importantly, treatment discontinuation is not necessarily indicative of poorer abstinence outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Factors Associated With Smoking, Quit Attempts and Attitudes towards Total Smoking Bans at University: A Survey of Seven Universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, W.; Stock, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban (dependent variables). Methods: Data from 3,706 undergraduate students were collected from....... Interventions would need to comprise multi-component programmes that do not solely focus on smoking prevention/cessation, but also on other health promoting practices as well.......Objectives: This study assessed the associations between socio-demographic, health and wellbeing variables (independent variables) and daily smoking, attempts to quit smoking, and agreement with smoking ban (dependent variables). Methods: Data from 3,706 undergraduate students were collected from...... seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland using a standardised questionnaire. Results: About 15.8% of the whole sample reported daily smoking, while 12% were occasional smokers. Smoking was significantly more prevalent among males, but the difference was due to a higher rate...

  10. Prevalence and correlates of switching to another tobacco product to quit smoking cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Malarcher, Ann M; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Using nationally representative data, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smokers who tried switching to smokeless tobacco (SLT) or to other combusted tobacco (OCT) products to quit. Data came from 12,400 current or former adult smokers who made a quit attempt in the past year and responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Demographics and smoking characteristics were computed among those switching to SLT, switching to OCT, or trying to quit without using either strategy. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression models identified correlates of using each strategy. Overall, 3.1% of smokers tried switching to SLT to quit, 2.2% tried switching to OCT, and 0.6% tried both strategies. Compared to those not using either switching strategy to try to quit, males were more likely than females to try switching to SLT or OCT; Blacks were less likely than Whites to try switching to SLT, but more likely to try switching to OCT; younger age groups were more likely to try switching to SLT or OCT; current someday smokers were more likely to have try switching to SLT (vs. everyday smokers), while recent former smokers were more likely to have tried switching to OCT. Both switching groups were more likely to have used cessation medication versus those not using switching strategies. Data suggest that switching to other tobacco products is a prevalent cessation approach; messages are needed to help clinicians encourage smokers who try to quit by switching to use evidence-based cessation approaches. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Attitudes, perceptions, habits of smoker non-smoker general practitioners and why they fail to motivate patients to quit smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, A.; Naqvi, S.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate attitudes, perceptions and habits of General Practitioners (GPs) who smoke and those who do not smoke cigarettes, with particular attention to smoking cessation. Two physician groups were targeted: GPs who smoke and those who do not smoke. They were screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A unique country-specific questionnaire was developed to conduct a 20-minute telephonic interview. Survey was started from December 2006 and completed in May 2007. Simple statistical calculations were used to interpret the data. GPs view smoking as the most harmful behaviour among the risk factors. 94% agreed that smoking should be classified as a medical condition and if it were so would encourage more smokers to quit smoking and they have suggested the need of prescription therapies for their patients to quit smoking. Significant discontent exists between physicians and smokers. The main cause of this discontent is physician perceived inability to provide successful solutions to quit smoking due to low awareness level and lack of training. This issue, when properly addressed, can be useful as an additional tool to aid patients in quitting. (author)

  12. Latent interaction effects in the theory of planned behaviour applied to quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje Sommer; Hagtvet, Knut A; Kovac, Velibor Bobo

    2014-02-01

    This study applies three latent interaction models in the theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1988, Attitudes, personality, and behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press; Ajzen, 1991, Organ. Behav. Hum. Decis. Process., 50, 179) to quitting smoking: (1) attitude × perceived behavioural control on intention; (2) subjective norms (SN) × attitude on intention; and (3) perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting behaviour. The data derive from a longitudinal Internet survey of 939 smokers aged 15-74 over a period of 4 months. Latent interaction effects were estimated using the double-mean-centred unconstrained approach (Lin et al., 2010, Struct. Equ. Modeling, 17, 374) in LISREL. Attitude × SN and attitude × perceived behavioural control both showed a significant interaction effect on intention. No significant interaction effect was found for perceived behavioural control × intention on quitting. The latent interaction approach is a useful method for investigating specific conditions between TPB components in the context of quitting behaviour. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Tobacco smoking, associated risk behaviours, and experience with quitting: a qualitative study with homeless smokers addicted to drugs and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Laura; Ratschen, Elena

    2013-10-10

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking among homeless people can reach more than 90%, with related morbidity and mortality being high. However, research in this area is scarce. This study aims to explore smoking and quitting related behaviours, experiences and knowledge in homeless smokers in the context of other substance abuse. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with homeless smokers accessing a harm reduction service in Nottingham, UK. Data on smoking history, nicotine dependence, motivation and confidence to quit were collected using structured instruments; a semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit responses to predefined subject areas, and to encourage the emergence of unprecedented themes. Data were analysed using framework analysis and descriptive statistics. Participants were generally highly dependent smokers who did not display good knowledge/awareness of smoking related harms and reported to engage in high risk smoking behaviours. The majority reported notable motivation and confidence to quit in the future, despite or indeed for the benefit of addressing other dependencies. Of the many who had tried to quit in the past, all had done so on their own initiative, and several described a lack of support or active discouragement by practitioners to address smoking. High levels of tobacco dependence and engagement in unique smoking related risk behaviours and social interplays appear to add to the vulnerability of homeless smokers. Given reported motivation, confidence, previous attempts and lack of support to quit, opportunities to address smoking in one of the most disadvantaged groups are currently missed.

  14. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers’ Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I.; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Bin Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers’ knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting. PMID:21139879

  15. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers’ Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Borland

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention or the old text-only warnings (control. Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers’ knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

  16. Impact of the new Malaysian cigarette pack warnings on smokers' awareness of health risks and interest in quitting smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K Michael; Borland, Ron; Bin Mohd Samin, Ahmad Shalihin

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, response to the package warnings, and interest in quitting smoking. Exposure to the pictorial warnings resulted in increased awareness of the risks of smoking, stronger behavioral response to the warnings and increased interest in quitting smoking. The new warnings in Malaysia will increase smokers' knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and have a positive effect on interest in quitting.

  17. National action plan to reduce smoking during pregnancy: the National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orleans, Tracy; Melvin, Cathy; Marx, Joseph; Maibach, Edward; Vose, Kathryn Kahler

    2004-04-01

    Although there has been remarkable progress and momentum toward achieving smoke-free pregnancies in the United States since 1990, concerted action is needed to close the remaining gaps in treatment and prevention so that we can reach the Healthy People 2010 goal for pregnant smokers: a prevalence of 1% or less. This need for action led to the formation of the National Partnership to Help Pregnant Smokers Quit, a collaboration among more than 50 organizations and agencies, public and private, that have joined forces to help pregnant smokers quit by providing proven clinical and community-based interventions to every pregnant smoker. This article summarizes the action plan developed by the partnership, the strategies it outlines, and some of the actions taken by partners over the past year to put the plan into action. Action is planned and progress is being made in five strategic areas: offering help through the health care system; using the media effectively; harnessing community and worksite resources; promoting policies known to increase smoking cessation efforts and successes; and expanding national research, surveillance, and evaluation efforts.

  18. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Fu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.060-3.912; p < 0.05. The smokers who were always restricted to smoking in public places were more likely to quit smoking successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116–4.291; p < 0.05. This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  19. Ambivalence and Fluidity in the Teenage Smoking and Quitting Experience: Lessons from a Qualitative Study at an English Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Marina; Duncan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a school-based stop smoking pilot project and to understand the teenage experience of smoking and quitting within that context. Design: Flexible design methods. Setting: A Kent (United Kingdom [UK]) secondary school. Methods: Semi-structured interviews analyzed following a grounded theory approach. Results: The main themes…

  20. Distress Tolerance Treatment for Weight Concern in Smoking Cessation Among Women: The WE QUIT Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Erika Litvin; Wing, Rena R; Kahler, Christopher W; Thompson, J Kevin; Meltzer, Sari; Hecht, Jacki; Minami, Haruka; Price, Lawrence H; Brown, Richard A

    2017-07-01

    Fear of gaining weight after quitting cigarette smoking is a major barrier to smoking cessation among women. Distress tolerance, which refers to one's ability and willingness to tolerate physical and emotional discomfort, predicts successful behavior change. Novel interventions rooted in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) have emerged that aim to increase distress tolerance and engagement in values-oriented behavior. In this study, we developed a 9-week, group-based distress tolerance intervention for weight concern in smoking cessation among women (DT-W). Using an iterative process, we piloted DT-W with two small groups ( n = 4 and n = 7) of female weight-concerned smokers. Results indicated that we successfully established the feasibility and acceptability of DT-W, which was well-attended and well-received. Biochemically verified 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rates at post-intervention, 1, 3, and 6 months were 64%, 36%, 27%, and 27%, respectively. We are now evaluating DT-W in a randomized controlled trial.

  1. Smoke-Free Policies at Home, Church, and Work: Smoking Levels and Recent Quit Attempts Among a Southeastern Rural Population, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Swan, Deanne W.; Kegler, Michelle C.; Fredrick, George; Daniel, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of smoke-free policies and social support for smoking cessation in the home, at church, and at work on smoking levels and quit attempts in the context of a community-based study of rural African Americans and whites in the Southeast. Methods We conducted a baseline survey to assess sociodemographics, smoking behavior, level of social support for smoking cessation, and smoke-free policies at home, church, and work. W...

  2. The views and experiences of smokers who quit smoking unassisted. A systematic review of the qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Unassisted cessation - quitting without pharmacological or professional support - is an enduring phenomenon. Unassisted cessation persists even in nations advanced in tobacco control where cessation assistance such as nicotine replacement therapy, the stop-smoking medications bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural assistance are readily available. We review the qualitative literature on the views and experiences of smokers who quit unassisted. We systematically searched for peer-reviewed qualitative studies reporting on smokers who quit unassisted. We identified 11 studies and used a technique based on Thomas and Harden's method of thematic synthesis to discern key themes relating to unassisted cessation, and to then group related themes into overarching concepts. The three concepts identified as important to smokers who quit unassisted were: motivation, willpower and commitment. Motivation, although widely reported, had only one clear meaning, that is 'the reason for quitting'. Willpower was perceived to be a method of quitting, a strategy to counteract cravings or urges, or a personal quality or trait fundamental to quitting success. Commitment was equated to seriousness or resoluteness, was perceived as key to successful quitting, and was often used to distinguish earlier failed quit attempts from the final successful quit attempt. Commitment had different dimensions. It appeared that commitment could be tentative or provisional, and also cumulative, that is, commitment could be built upon as the quit attempt progressed. A better understanding of what motivation, willpower and commitment mean from the smoker's perspective may provide new insights and direction for smoking cessation research and practice.

  3. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  4. Altered spontaneous activity of posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal gyrus are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome using varenicline revealed by regional homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Shen, Zhujing; Huang, Peiyu; Qian, Wei; Yu, Xinfeng; Sun, Jianzhong; Yu, Hualiang; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Minming

    2017-06-01

    Compared to nonsmokers, smokers exhibit a number of potentially important differences in regional brain function. However, little is known about the associations between the local spontaneous brain activity and smoking cessation treatment outcomes. In the present analysis, we aimed to evaluate whether the local features of spontaneous brain activity prior to the target quit date was associated with the smoking cessation outcomes. All the participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans and smoking-related behavioral assessments. After a 12-week treatment with varenicline, 23 smokers succeeded in quitting smoking and 32 failed. Smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning prior to an open label smoking cessation treatment trial. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to measure spontaneous brain activity, and whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to detect brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between relapser and quitter groups. After controlling for potentially confounding factors including years of education, years smoked, cigarettes smoked per day and FTND score as covariates, compared to quitters, relapsers displayed significantly decreased ReHo in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as increased ReHo in left superior temporal gyrus (STG). These preliminary results suggest that regional brain function variables may be promising predictors of smoking relapse. This study provided novel insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying smoking relapse. A deeper understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with relapse may result in novel pharmacological and behavioral interventions.

  5. Socioeconomic Moderators of the Relationship Between Different Quitting Motives and Smoking Cessation in Hong Kong Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Francisco T T; Wong, Wikki W K; Kwan, Joyce L Y

    2017-09-01

    To facilitate effective tobacco control, it is important to identify the socioeconomic strata in which different quitting motives are more strongly associated with cessation. This study aims to examine such a moderating role of socioeconomic background. A total of 2022 past or current daily smoking men from the Hong Kong Thematic Household Survey 2010 who had attempted for cessation were analyzed. Binary socioeconomic indicators, quitting motives, and 1-year abstinence were entered in an exploratory backward-stepwise log-linear model, followed by a binary logistic regression to estimate the probability of one-year abstinence in each socioeconomic stratum. Results suggest that the association between cessation and health motives is stronger in less educated men ( P = .004) and nonmarried men ( P = .003). The estimated probability of cessation ranges from 0.02 (95% CI = 0.00-0.06) to 0.96 (95% CI = 0.89-1.00). Accordingly, policy makers should educate less-educated men and nonmarried men about the adverse health impacts of tobacco use.

  6. Masculinity and Fatherhood: New Fathers' Perceptions of Their Female Partners' Efforts to Assist Them to Reduce or Quit Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Yung; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Health promotion initiatives to reduce smoking among parents have focused almost exclusively on women to support their cessation during pregnancy and postpartum, while overlooking the importance of fathers' smoking cessation. This study was a secondary analysis of in-depth interviews with 20 new and expectant fathers to identify how they perceived their female partners' efforts to assist them to reduce or quit smoking. Social constructionist gender frameworks were used to theorize and develop the findings. Three key themes were identified: support and autonomy in men's smoking cessation, perception of challenging men's freedom to smoke, and contempt for men's continued smoking. The findings suggest that shifts in masculinities as men take up fathering should be considered in designing smoking cessation interventions for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Advice From Former-Smoking E-Cigarette Users to Current Smokers on How to Use E-Cigarettes as Part of an Attempt to Quit Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher; Dickson, Tiffany; McKeganey, Neil

    2017-08-03

    Substitution of e-cigarettes for tobacco smoking has the potential to prevent almost all the harm caused by smoking. Identifying strategies that may increase smokers' capability, opportunity and motivation to use e-cigarettes in place of tobacco cigarettes is vital. Former smokers who have successfully used e-cigarettes to quit smoking may be especially well qualified to increase current smokers' interest in switching and ability to switch to e-cigarettes. A multi-national, self-selected sample of 4192 former smokers who quit smoking by using e-cigarettes were asked, via an online survey, the advice they would offer to smokers who are considering using e-cigarettes to support an attempt to quit smoking. Thematic analysis of participants' qualitative responses identified four emergent themes: (1) Find a combination of vaping device, flavors of e-liquid and nicotine strength that "works for you"; (2) Continuing to smoke for a while after starting to vape is OK; (3) Failure to quit smoking with the use of approved smoking cessation aids before success with e-cigarettes is common; and (4) Awareness of improved health and hygiene since switching to vaping. Experienced vapers who used to smoke appear eager to give smokers advice and practical information about vaping that may assist attempts to switch from smoking to vaping. Encouraging cigarette smokers to interact with experienced vapers in places where vapers themselves once received advice and now give advice about vaping-vape shops and online discussion fora-may have significant potential to help more smokers to switch to e-cigarette use. This study describes the advice that former-smokers who used e-cigarettes to quit smoking would offer to smokers who are considering using an e-cigarette to support an attempt to quit smoking. Vapers advised smokers to find the right combination of device, flavors and nicotine strength, continue to smoke and vape for a while if they wished, not be deterred by past failed attempts

  8. The efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yanhui; Wu, Qiuxia; Tang, Jinsong; Zhang, Fengyu; Wang, Xuyi; Qi, Chang; He, Haoyu; Long, Jiang; Kelly, Brian C; Cohen, Joanna

    2016-08-19

    Considering the extreme shortage of smoking cessation services in China, and the acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions for quitting smoking in other countries, here we propose a study of "the efficacy of mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') for smoking cessation in China". The primary objective of this proposed project is to assess whether a program of widely accessed mobile phone-based text message interventions ('Happy Quit') will be effective at helping people in China who smoke, to quit. Based on the efficacy of previous studies in smoking cessation, we hypothesize that 'Happy Quit' will be an effective, feasible and affordable smoking cessation program in China. In this single-blind, randomized trial, undertaken in China, about 2000 smokers willing to make a quit attempt will be randomly allocated, using an independent telephone randomization system that includes a minimization algorithm balancing for sex (male, female), age (19-34 or >34 years), educational level (≤ or >12 years), and Fagerstrom score for nicotine addiction (≤5, >5), to 'Happy Quit', comprising motivational messages and behavioral-change support, or to a control group that receives text messages unrelated to quitting. Messages will be developed to be suitable for Chinese. A pilot study will be conducted before the intervention to modify the library of messages and interventions. The primary outcome will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence. A secondary outcome will be point prevalence of abstinence. Abstinence will be assessed at six time points (4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 weeks post-intervention). A third outcome will be reductions in number of cigarettes smoked per day. The results will provide valuable insights into bridging the gap between need and services received for smoking cessation interventions and tobacco use prevention in China. It will also serve as mHealth model for extending the public

  9. Assessing the effectiveness of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) for smoking cessation in women: HIIT to quit study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Gartner, Coral E; Coombes, Jeff S; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-12-29

    Smoking and physical inactivity are major risk factors for heart disease. Linking strategies that promote improvements in fitness and assist quitting smoking has potential to address both these risk factors simultaneously. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of two exercise interventions (high intensity interval training (HIIT) and lifestyle physical activity) on smoking cessation in female smokers. This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18-55 years who smoke ≥ 5 cigarettes/day, and want to quit smoking. all participants will receive usual care for quitting smoking. Group 1--will complete two gym-based supervised HIIT sessions/week and one home-based HIIT session/week. At each training session participants will be asked to complete four 4-min (4 × 4 min) intervals at approximately 90% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3- min recovery periods. Group 2--participants will receive a resource pack and pedometer, and will be asked to use the 10,000 steps log book to record steps and other physical activities. The aim will be to increase daily steps to 10,000 steps/day. Analysis will be intention to treat and measures will include smoking cessation, withdrawal and cravings, fitness, physical activity, and well-being. The study builds on previous research suggesting that exercise intensity may influence the efficacy of exercise as a smoking cessation intervention. The hypothesis is that HIIT will improve fitness and assist women to quit smoking. ACTRN12614001255673 (Registration date 02/12/2014).

  10. Prevalence of Tobacco Smoking and Determinants of Success in Quitting Smoking among Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study in Rural Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hang; Feng, Da; Tang, Shangfeng; He, Zhifei; Xiang, Yuanxi; Wu, Tailai; Wang, Ruoxi; Shao, Tian; Liu, Chunyan; Shao, Piaopiao; Feng, Zhanchun

    2017-02-09

    Tobacco use is one of the behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate smoking prevalence in chronically ill residents and their smoking behavior in western rural China, to identify factors associated with success in quitting smoking, and to provide appropriate intervention strategies for tobacco control. Cross-sectional survey data from patients with chronic diseases from rural western China were analyzed. Among the 906 chronically ill patients, the current smoking prevalence was 26.2%. About 64.3% of smokers with chronic diseases attempted to quit smoking, 21.0% of which successfully quitted. The odds ratio (OR) of smokers with only one chronic disease to quit smoking successfully was higher than that of those who have other diseases (OR = 2.037, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.060-3.912; p successfully than those who were free to smoke (OR = 2.188, 95% CI = 1.116-4.291; p < 0.05). This study suggests that health literacy, comorbidity of diseases, and psychological counseling should be considered when developing targeted tobacco prevention strategies. Strengthening tobacco control measures in public places such as rural medical institutions will be effective.

  11. Neighbourhood deprivation and smoking and quit behaviour among smokers in Mexico: findings from the ITC Mexico Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Thrasher, James F; Sáenz de Miera Juárez, Belén; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighbourhood environment on smoking behaviour. To determine whether neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010 to 2012. Data were analysed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in waves 4-6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government's composite index of neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalised estimating equations to determine associations between neighbourhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviours. Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighbourhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighbourhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighbourhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighbourhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighbourhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighbourhoods (p=0.06). Neighbourhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  12. Neighborhood deprivation and smoking and quit behavior among smokers in Mexico: Findings from the ITC Mexico Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Thrasher, James F.; de Miera Juárez, Belén Sáenz; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Osman, Amira; Siahpush, Mohammad; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2016-01-01

    Background In high-income countries (HICs), higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is associated with higher levels of smoking. Few studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have investigated the role of the neighborhood environment on smoking behavior. Objective To determine whether neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation is related to smoking intensity, quit attempts, quit success, and smoking relapse among a cohort of smokers in Mexico from 2010–2012. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 4–6 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Mexico Survey. Data were linked to the Mexican government’s composite index of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, which is based on 2010 Mexican Census data. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood deprivation and individual smoking behaviors. Findings Contrary to past findings in HICs, higher neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower smoking intensity. Quit attempts showed a U-shaped pattern whereby smokers living in high/very high deprivation neighborhoods and smokers living in very low deprivation neighborhoods were more likely to make a quit attempt than smokers living in other neighborhoods. We did not find significant differences in neighborhood deprivation on relapse or successful quitting, with the possible exception of people living in medium-deprivation neighborhoods having a higher likelihood of successful quitting than people living in very low deprivation neighborhoods (p=0.06). Conclusions Neighborhood socioeconomic environments in Mexico appear to operate in an opposing manner to those in HICs. Further research should investigate whether rapid implementation of strong tobacco control policies in LMICs, as occurred in Mexico during the follow-up period, avoids the concentration of tobacco-related disparities among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:25170022

  13. MapMySmoke: feasibility of a new quit cigarette smoking mobile phone application using integrated geo-positioning technology, and motivational messaging within a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Kelsey, Thomas W; Marston, John; Samson, Kay; Humphris, Gerald W

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 11,000 people die in Scotland each year as a result of smoking-related causes. Quitting smoking is relatively easy; maintaining a quit attempt is a very difficult task with success rates for unaided quit attempts stubbornly remaining in the single digits. Pharmaceutical treatment can improve these rates by lowering the overall reward factor of nicotine. However, these and related nicotine replacement therapies do not operate on, or address, the spatial and contextual aspects of smoking behaviour. With the ubiquity of smartphones that can log spatial, quantitative and qualitative data related to smoking behaviour, there exists a person-centred clinical opportunity to support smokers attempting to quit by first understanding their smoking behaviour and subsequently sending them dynamic messages to encourage health behaviour change within a situational context. We have built a smartphone app-MapMySmoke-that works on Android and iOS platforms. The deployment of this app within a clinical National Health Service (NHS) setting has two distinct phases: (1) a 2-week logging phase where pre-quit patients log all of their smoking and craving events; and (2) a post-quit phase where users receive dynamic support messages and can continue to log craving events, and should they occur, relapse events. Following the initial logging phase, patients consult with their general practitioner (GP) or healthcare provider to review their smoking patterns and to outline a precise, individualised quit attempt plan. Our feasibility study consists of assessment of an initial app version during and after use by eight patients recruited from an NHS Fife GP practice. In addition to evaluation of the app as a potential smoking cessation aid, we have assessed the user experience, technological requirements and security of the data flow. In an initial feasibility study, we have deployed the app for a small number of patients within one GP practice in NHS Fife. We recruited eight

  14. Reasons and Motivations for Cigarette Smoking and Barriers against Quitting Among a Sample of Young People in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Bakarman, Marwan A; Gazzaz, Zohair J; Khabaz, Mohamad N; Ahmed, Tahir J; Qureshi, Imtiaz A; Hussain, Muhammad B; Alzahrani, Ali H; AlShehri, Ali A; Basendwah, Mohammad A; Altherwi, Fahd B; AlShehri, Fahd M

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Tobacco consumption has grave negative consequences for health so that it is important to understand the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking among the young generation for developing effective policies to control this widespread problem. This crosssectional survey was carried out at the Faculty of Medicine, Rabigh, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 438 young smokers participated from the University and the general population. Data were collected through anonymous, selfadministered questionnaires in the Arabic language that contained questions about the reasons and motivations towards cigarette smoking and barriers against quitting smoking. The questionnaire also contained several questions regarding knowledge and attitude of the participants towards cigarette smoking. The data was analyzed on SPSS16. The mean age of the respondents was 22.9±3.48, out of 438 subjects 87 (19.9%) were married, and 351 (80.1%) were unmarried, and 331 (75.6%) belonged to urban areas while 107 (24.5%) were from the rural areas. Responding to a question about a number of cigarettes smoked per day, 31% answered 1120, 29% answered 2130, and 25% answered 110. Questioned about smokers in the family, 34.5% responded more than one, with 19% for brother and 13% for father. About the reasons for not quitting smoking, 26% described lack of willpower, 25% had no reason, 22% said that people around me smoke, and 15.3% responded stress at home/work. The major motivation for smokers was smoker friends (42%), for 33.8% others, for 12% father/brother and 7.8% media. There are several avoidable and preventable reasons and barriers against quitting smoking. However, knowledge and attitude about smoking were good, and the majority of the smokers were well aware of the associated hazards. Therefore, there is a need to search out ways and means to help them to

  15. Impact of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and quit ratios in 27 European Union countries from 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliu, Ariadna; Filippidis, Filippos T; Joossens, Luk; Fong, Geoffrey T; Vardavas, Constantine I; Baena, Antoni; Castellano, Yolanda; Martínez, Cristina; Fernández, Esteve

    2018-02-22

    Tobacco use is still highly prevalent in Europe, despite the tobacco control efforts made by the governments. The development of tobacco control policies varies substantially across countries. The Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) was introduced to quantify the implementation of tobacco control policies across European countries OBJECTIVE: To assess the midterm association of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and quit ratios among 27 European Union (EU) Member States (EU27). Ecological study. We used the TCS in EU27 in 2007 and the prevalence of tobacco and quit ratios data from the Eurobarometer survey (2006 (n=27 585) and 2014 (n=26 793)). We analysed the relationship between the TCS scores and smoking prevalence and quit ratios and their relative changes (between 2006 and 2014) by means of scatter plots and multiple linear regression models. In EU27, countries with higher scores in the TCS, which indicates higher tobacco control efforts, have lower prevalence of smokers, higher quit ratios and higher relative decreases in their prevalence rates of smokers over the last decade. The correlation between TCS scores and smoking prevalence (r sp =-0.444; P=0.02) and between the relative changes in smoking prevalence (r sp =-0.415; P=0.03) was negative. A positive correlation was observed between TCS scores and quit ratios (r sp =0.373; P=0.06). The percentage of smoking prevalence explained by all TCS components was 28.9%. EU27 should continue implementing comprehensive tobacco control policies as they are key for reducing the prevalence of smoking and an increase tobacco cessation rates in their population. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. The moderating role of experiential avoidance in the relationships between internal distress and smoking behavior during a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Haruka; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Reed, Kathleen M Palm; Hayes, Steven C; Brown, Richard A

    2015-06-01

    Recent smoking cessation studies have shown that decreasing experiential avoidance (EA; i.e., tendency to reduce or avoid internal distress) improves success, but to date none have examined the moderating effect of EA on the role of specific internal distress in smoking cessation. This study examined whether prequit general EA (Acceptance and Action Questionnaire) and smoking-specific EA (Avoidance and Inflexibility Scale) moderated the relations between 4 measures of postquit internal distress (depressive symptoms, negative affect, physical withdrawal symptoms, craving) and smoking. Forty adult smokers participated in a randomized controlled trial of distress tolerance treatment for smokers with a history of early lapse. Multilevel models showed that prequit smoking-specific EA, but not general EA, significantly moderated the relationship between all measures of internal distress, except craving, and smoking over 13 weeks postquit. When examined over 26 weeks, these relations remained unchanged for all, but the moderating effect became trend-level for depressive symptoms. Significant associations between postquit internal distress and smoking were found only in those with high prequit smoking-specific EA. Moreover, prequit smoking-specific EA did not predict postquit levels or changes in internal distress, suggesting that decreasing smoking-specific EA prequit may not reduce internal distress, but may instead reduce smoking risk in response to such distress during a quit attempt. Results mainly supported hypothesized relations, but only for smoking-specific EA. Smoking cessation interventions focusing on EA reduction may especially benefit those vulnerable to greater postquit depressive and withdrawal symptoms, and those who smoke to regulate aversive internal states. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. The effects of smoking-related television advertising on smoking and intentions to quit among adults in the United States: 1999-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry; Kim, Yoonsang; Choi, Young Ku; Szczypka, Glen; Wakefield, Melanie; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2012-04-01

    We investigated whether state-sponsored antitobacco advertisements are associated with reduced adult smoking, and interactions between smoking-related advertising types. We measured mean exposure to smoking-related advertisements with television ratings for the top-75 US media markets from 1999 to 2007. We combined these data with individual-level Current Population Surveys Tobacco Use Supplement data and state tobacco control policy data. Higher exposure to state-sponsored, Legacy, and pharmaceutical advertisements was associated with less smoking; higher exposure to tobacco industry advertisements was associated with more smoking. Higher exposure to state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements was positively associated with intentions to quit and having made a past-year quit attempt; higher exposure to ads for pharmaceutical cessation aids was negatively associated with having made a quit attempt. There was a significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertisements. Exposure to state-sponsored advertisements was far below Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended best practices. The significant negative relationships between antismoking advertising and adult smoking provide strong evidence that tobacco-control media campaigns help reduce adult smoking. The significant negative interaction between state- and Legacy-sponsored advertising suggests that the campaigns reinforce one another.

  18. E-cigarette use in young Swiss men: is vaping an effective way of reducing or quitting smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmel, Gerhard; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Studer, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    To test longitudinally differences in conventional cigarette use (cigarettes smoked, cessation, quit attempts) between vapers and nonvapers. Fifteen months follow-up of a sample of 5 128 20-year-old Swiss men. The onset of conventional cigarette (CC) use among nonsmokers, and smoking cessation, quit attempts, changes in the number of CCs smoked among smokers at baseline were compared between vapers and nonvapers at follow-up, adjusted for nicotine dependence. Among baseline nonsmokers, vapers were more likely to start smoking at follow-up than nonvapers (odds ratio [OR] 6.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.81, 12.88 for becoming occasional smokers, and OR = 12.69, 95% CI 4.00, 40.28 for becoming daily smokers). Vapers reported lower smoking cessation rates among occasional smokers at baseline (OR = 0.43 (0.19, 0.96); daily smokers: OR = 0.42 [0.15, 1.18]). Vapers compared with nonvapers were heavier CC users (62.53 vs 18.10 cigarettes per week, p vaping at follow-up for either smoking cessation or smoking reduction.

  19. The Effects of Tobacco-Related Health-Warning Images on Intention to Quit Smoking among Urban Chinese Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Tingzhong; Cottrell, Randall R.; Zhou, Huan; Yang, Xiaozhao Y.; Zhang, Yanqin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of different tobacco health-warning images on intention to quit smoking among urban Chinese smokers. The different tobacco health-warning images utilised in this study addressed the five variables of age, gender, cultural-appropriateness, abstractness and explicitness. Design:…

  20. Feasibility and Quit Rates of the Tobacco Status Project: A Facebook Smoking Cessation Intervention for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Thrul, Johannes; Chavez, Kathryn; Delucchi, Kevin L; Prochaska, Judith J

    2015-12-31

    Young adult smokers are a challenging group to engage in smoking cessation interventions. With wide reach and engagement among users, Facebook offers opportunity to engage young people in socially supportive communities for quitting smoking and sustaining abstinence. We developed and tested initial efficacy, engagement, and acceptability of the Tobacco Status Project, a smoking cessation intervention for young adults delivered within Facebook. The intervention was based on the US Public Health Service Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Transtheoretical Model and enrolled participants into study-run 3-month secret Facebook groups matched on readiness to quit smoking. Cigarette smokers (N=79) aged 18-25, who used Facebook on most days, were recruited via Facebook. All participants received the intervention and were randomized to one of three monetary incentive groups tied to engagement (commenting in groups). Assessments were completed at baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-months follow-up. Analyses examined retention, smoking outcomes over 12 months (7-day point prevalence abstinence, ≥50% reduction in cigarettes smoked, quit attempts and strategies used, readiness to quit), engagement, and satisfaction with the intervention. Retention was 82% (65/79) at 6 months and 72% (57/79) at 12 months. From baseline to 12-months follow-up, there was a significant increase in the proportion prepared to quit (10/79, 13%; 36/79, 46%, PFacebook post, with more commenting among those with biochemically verified abstinence at 3 months (P=.036) and those randomized to receive a personal monetary incentive (P=.015). Over a third of participants (28/79, 35%) reported reading most or all of the Facebook posts. Highest acceptability ratings of the intervention were for post ease (57/79, 72%) and thinking about what they read (52/79, 66%); 71% (56/79) recommended the program to others. Only 5 participants attended the optional cognitive-behavioral counseling sessions, though their attendance

  1. Clinical and Individual Factors Associated with Smoking Quit Attempts among Adults with COPD: Do Factors Vary with Regard to Race?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana S. Mowls

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Only half of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD report a smoking quit attempt in the past year. Adults with COPD have frequent encounters with the healthcare system that are opportunities for health behavior interventions that support quit attempts. The purpose of this research was to examine individual- and clinical-level factors associated with smoking quit attempts in adults with COPD. Cross-sectional data were from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Race-stratified, weighted logistic regression examined factors associated with quit attempt among current smokers with COPD. Overall, quit attempt was reported by 65% (95% confidence interval (CI: 61.9, 67.5 of adults and was more likely among blacks than whites (p < 0.0001. Among whites with COPD quit attempt was associated with: Female gender (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.3; CI: 1.0, 1.7, exercise (AOR = 2.0; CI: 1.5, 2.5, and medications for COPD (AOR = 1.6; CI: 1.3, 2.2. Among black adults with COPD quit attempt was associated with: Having a partner (AOR = 4.5; CI: 1.3, 15.0, exercise (AOR = 3.7; CI: 1.6, 8.7, spirometry (AOR = 9.5; CI: 3.2, 28.7, and having a personal doctor (AOR = 6.4; CI: 1.8, 22.5. Individual and clinical-factors associated with quit attempt varied by race. These findings suggest an impact of the healthcare system that supports quit attempts in blacks but not whites with COPD.

  2. “Hike up yer Skirt, and Quit.” What Motivates and Supports Smoking Cessation in Builders and Renovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Bercovitz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction-related occupations have very high smoking prevalence rates and are an identified priority population for efforts to promote cessation. This study sought to identify the smoking cessation supports and services which best suited this workforce group, and to identify gaps in reach of preventive health services. We performed qualitative text analysis on pre-existing conversations about smoking cessation among workers in this sector. The material appeared on a discussion forum about residential construction from 1998 and 2011. Roughly 250 unique user names appeared in these discussions. The qualitative analysis addressed knowledge, motivation, environmental influences, and positive and negative experiences with supports for cessation. Self-identified smokers tended to want to quit and described little social value in smoking. Actual quit attempts were attributed to aging and tangible changes in health and fitness. Peer-to-peer social support for cessation was evident. Advice given was to avoid cigarettes and smokers, to focus on personal skills, personal commitment, and the benefits of cessation (beyond the harms from smoking. Many discussants had received medical support for cessation, but behavioural counselling services appeared underutilized. Our findings support efforts toward more complete bans on workplace smoking and increased promotion of available behavioural support services among dispersed blue-collar workers.

  3. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21–30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3% agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6–12 months (odds ratio (OR 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.651–6.248 and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475–4.584 were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  4. Shisha Smoking Practices, Use Reasons, Attitudes, Health Effects and Intentions to Quit among Shisha Smokers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Aghazadeh, Sima; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2016-07-19

    Despite its popularity, shisha smoking practices, reasons for its use, attitudes, detrimental health effects and intention to quit among shisha users in Malaysia have never been investigated. A total of 503 shisha users responded to a cross-sectional study conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. The majority of users were young people aged 21-30; a small minority were underage. The reasons for shisha use were its growing popularity as a favourite pastime activity and the perception of shisha use as cool and trendy. Just over half (57.3%) agree that shisha use exposes the smoker to large amounts of smoke and the majority were unsure about the health risks of shisha smoking compared to tobacco smoking. The three most common detrimental health effects reported by the study respondents were dry throat, headache and nausea. Regular shisha users have significantly higher detrimental health effects compared to no-regular shisha users. Shisha users with a duration of smoking of 6-12 months (odds ratio (OR) 3.212; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.651-6.248) and 6 months and below (OR 2.601; 95% CI 1.475-4.584) were significantly more likely to have a higher proportion who intend quitting smoking than shisha users of more than 12 months duration.

  5. Identifying attendance patterns in a smoking cessation treatment and their relationships with quit success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacquart, J.; Papini, S.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Frierson, G.M.; Hopkins, L.B.; Baird, S.O.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Otto, M.W.; Zvolensky, M.J.; Smits, J.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: While important for substance use outcomes, knowledge about treatment attendance patterns, and their relation with clinical outcomes is limited. We examined the association between attendance patterns and smoking outcomes in a randomized, controlled smoking cessation intervention trial.

  6. Quitting smoking and experience of smoking cessation interventions among UK Bangladeshi and Pakistani adults: the views of community members and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martin; Bush, Judith; Kai, Joe; Bhopal, Raj; Rankin, Judith

    2006-05-01

    To explore attitudes to quitting smoking and experience of smoking cessation among Bangladeshi and Pakistani ethnic minority communities. Qualitative study using community participatory methods, purposeful sampling, interviews and focus groups, and a grounded approach to data generation and analysis. Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, 2000-2002. 53 men and 20 women aged 18-80 years, including smokers, former smokers, and smokers' relatives, from the Bangladeshi and Pakistani communities; and eight health professionals working with these communities. Motivation to quit was high but most attempts had failed. "Willpower" was the most common approach to quitting. For some, the holy month of Ramadan was used as an incentive, however few had been successful in quitting. Perceived barriers to success included being tempted by others, everyday stresses, and withdrawal symptoms. Few participants had sought advice from health services, or received cessation aids, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or buproprion. Family doctors were not viewed as accessible sources of advice on quitting. Health professionals and community members identified common barriers to accessing effective smoking cessation, including: language, religion and culture; negative attitudes to services; and lack of time and resources for professionals to develop necessary skills. High levels of motivation do not seem to be matched by effective interventions or successful attempts to quit smoking among Bangladeshi and Pakistani adults in the UK. There is a need to adapt and test effective smoking cessation interventions to make them culturally acceptable to ethnic minority communities. UK tobacco control policies need to give special attention to the needs of ethnic minority groups.

  7. Motivating Latino Caregivers of Children with Asthma to Quit Smoking: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.; Novak, Scott P.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Becker, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with asthma onset and exacerbation. Latino children have higher rates of asthma morbidity than other groups. The current study compared the effectiveness of a newly developed smoking cessation treatment with existing clinical guidelines for smoking cessation. Method: Latino caregivers who smoked…

  8. User-Centered Design of Learn to Quit, a Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for People With Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo, Javier; Zeng, Emily; Kientz, Julie A; Ries, Richard; Otis, Chad; Hernandez, Kayla

    2018-01-01

    Background Smoking rates in the United States have been reduced in the past decades to 15% of the general population. However, up to 88% of people with psychiatric symptoms still smoke, leading to high rates of disease and mortality. Therefore, there is a great need to develop smoking cessation interventions that have adequate levels of usability and can reach this population. Objective The objective of this study was to report the rationale, ideation, design, user research, and final specifications of a novel smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness (SMI) that will be tested in a feasibility trial. Methods We used a variety of user-centered design methods and materials to develop the tailored smoking cessation app. This included expert panel guidance, a set of design principles and theory-based smoking cessation content, development of personas and paper prototyping, usability testing of the app prototype, establishment of app’s core vision and design specification, and collaboration with a software development company. Results We developed Learn to Quit, a smoking cessation app designed and tailored to individuals with SMI that incorporates the following: (1) evidence-based smoking cessation content from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation aimed at providing skills for quitting while addressing mental health symptoms, (2) a set of behavioral principles to increase retention and comprehension of smoking cessation content, (3) a gamification component to encourage and sustain app engagement during a 14-day period, (4) an app structure and layout designed to minimize usability errors in people with SMI, and (5) a set of stories and visuals that communicate smoking cessation concepts and skills in simple terms. Conclusions Despite its increasing importance, the design and development of mHealth technology is typically underreported, hampering scientific innovation. This report describes the

  9. User-Centered Design of Learn to Quit, a Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for People With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Rizo, Javier; Zeng, Emily; Kientz, Julie A; Ries, Richard; Otis, Chad; Hernandez, Kayla

    2018-01-16

    Smoking rates in the United States have been reduced in the past decades to 15% of the general population. However, up to 88% of people with psychiatric symptoms still smoke, leading to high rates of disease and mortality. Therefore, there is a great need to develop smoking cessation interventions that have adequate levels of usability and can reach this population. The objective of this study was to report the rationale, ideation, design, user research, and final specifications of a novel smoking cessation app for people with serious mental illness (SMI) that will be tested in a feasibility trial. We used a variety of user-centered design methods and materials to develop the tailored smoking cessation app. This included expert panel guidance, a set of design principles and theory-based smoking cessation content, development of personas and paper prototyping, usability testing of the app prototype, establishment of app's core vision and design specification, and collaboration with a software development company. We developed Learn to Quit, a smoking cessation app designed and tailored to individuals with SMI that incorporates the following: (1) evidence-based smoking cessation content from Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and US Clinical Practice Guidelines for smoking cessation aimed at providing skills for quitting while addressing mental health symptoms, (2) a set of behavioral principles to increase retention and comprehension of smoking cessation content, (3) a gamification component to encourage and sustain app engagement during a 14-day period, (4) an app structure and layout designed to minimize usability errors in people with SMI, and (5) a set of stories and visuals that communicate smoking cessation concepts and skills in simple terms. Despite its increasing importance, the design and development of mHealth technology is typically underreported, hampering scientific innovation. This report describes the systematic development of the first smoking

  10. Benefits of quitting smoking on work productivity and activity impairment in the United States, the European Union and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Flores, Natalia M; Zou, Kelly H; Bruno, Marianna; Harrison, Vannessa J

    2017-01-01

    Smoking has important health and economic consequences for individuals and society. This study expands the understanding of work-related burden associated with smoking and benefit of smoking cessation across the US, European Union (EU) and China using large-scale, representative survey methodology. Data utilised the 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey in United States (US), EU5 (UK, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain) and China. Working-aged respondents 18-64 were used in the analyses (US N=58 500; EU5 N=50 417; China N=17 987) and were categorised into: current smokers, trying to quit, former smokers and never smokers. Generalised linear models controlling for demographics and health characteristics examined the relationship of smoking status with work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI-GH). The WPAI-GH measures were: absenteeism, presenteeism, overall work impairment, and activity impairment. Separately, current smokers were compared with those who quit 0-4, 5-10 and 11 or more years ago on WPAI-GH end-points. Current smokers reported greater absenteeism in the US and China and greater presenteeism, overall work impairment, and activity impairment than former and never smokers across the three regions. Those who quit even 0-4 years ago demonstrated lower absenteeism, presenteeism, and activity impairment in China and lower presenteeism, overall work impairment, and activity impairment in the US and EU5. Smoking was associated with significant work productivity loss in the US, EU5 and China. The results suggest that quitting benefits extend to work productivity rapidly after cessation, serving to further encourage and promote the implementation of workplace cessation programs. © 2017 Pfizer Inc. International Journal of Clinical Practice Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Patient Characteristics Associated With Smoking Cessation Interventions and Quit Attempt Rates Across 10 Community Health Centers With Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfen, Sheryl L; Cha, Jisung; Wang, Jason J; Land, Thomas G; Shih, Sarah C

    2015-10-01

    We used electronic health record (EHR) data to determine rates and patient characteristics in offering cessation interventions (counseling, medications, or referral) and initiating quit attempts. Ten community health centers in New York City contributed 30 months of de-identified patient data from their EHRs. Of 302 940 patients, 40% had smoking status recorded and only 34% of documented current smokers received an intervention. Women and younger patients were less likely to have their smoking status documented or to receive an intervention. Patients with comorbidities that are exacerbated by smoking were more likely to have status documented (82.2%) and to receive an intervention (52.1%), especially medication (10.8%). Medication, either alone (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 2.3) or combined with counseling (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.5, 2.3), was associated with higher quit attempts compared with no intervention. Data from EHRs demonstrated underdocumentation of smoking status and missed opportunities for cessation interventions. Use of data from EHRs can facilitate quality improvement efforts to increase screening and intervention delivery, with the potential to improve smoking cessation rates.

  12. Public acceptability of financial incentives to reward pregnant smokers who quit smoking: a United Kingdom-France comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Noémi; Goldzahl, Léontine; Bauld, Linda; Hoddinott, Pat; Berlin, Ivan

    2017-06-23

    A substantial amount of research has been conducted on financial incentives to increase abstinence from smoking among pregnant smokers. If demonstrated to be effective, financial incentives could be proposed as part of health care interventions to help pregnant smokers quit. Public acceptability is important; as such interventions could be publicly funded. Concerns remain about the acceptability of these interventions in the general population. We aimed to assess the acceptability of financial incentives to reward pregnant smokers who stop smoking using a survey conducted in the UK and then subsequently in France, two developed countries with different cultural and social backgrounds. More French than British respondents agreed with financial incentives for rewarding quitting smoking during pregnancy, not smoking after delivery, keeping a smoke-free household, health service payment for meeting target and the maximum amount of the reward. However, fully adjusted models showed significant differences only for the two latter items. More British than French respondents were neutral toward financial incentives. Differences between the representative samples of French and British individuals demonstrate that implementation of financial incentive policies may not be transferable from one country to another.

  13. Are Chinese pediatricians missing the opportunity to help parents quit smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jing; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Nong, Guangmin; Huang, Kaiyong; Yang, Li; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-08-20

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of children due to parental tobacco use is a particularly prevalent health issue and is associated with adverse health outcomes. Following the US Clinical Practice guidelines, pediatricians in the United States deliver 5A's (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange) counseling to smoking parents which has proven to be effective. We examined Chinese pediatricians' adherence to the clinical practice guidelines for smoking cessation (i.e. 5A's counseling practices) with smoking parents, and identified factors associated with these practices. A cross-sectional paper-and-pencil survey of pediatricians was conducted in twelve conveniently selected southern Chinese hospitals. Factors associated with any of the 5A's smoking cessation counseling practices were identified by logistic regression. Of respondents (504/550), only 26 % routinely provided 5A's smoking cessation counseling to smoking parents. More than 80 % of pediatricians didn't receive formal training in smoking cessation and had not read China smoking cessation guidelines; 24 % reported being "very confident" in discussing smoking or SHS reduction with parents. Pediatricians who had never smoked (OR: 2.29, CI:1.02-5.12), received training in smoking cessation (OR: 2.50, CI:1.40-4.48), had read China smoking cessation guidelines (OR: 2.17, CI:1.10-4.26), and felt very (OR: 7.12, CI:2.45-20.70) or somewhat (OR: 3.05, CI:1.11-8.37) confident in delivering cessation counseling were more likely to practice 5A's. Pediatricians who reported "it is hard to find a time to talk with parents" (OR: 0.32, CI: 0.11-0.92) or "lack of a standard of care requiring pediatricians to provide smoking cessation or SHS exposure reduction intervention" (OR: 0.45, CI: 0.21-0.98) as a barrier were less likely to follow the 5A's guidelines. Smoking cessation counseling to address parental smoking is infrequent among Chinese pediatricians. There is a need to develop and test intervention strategies to

  14. Smoking cessation in workplace setting: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme

    OpenAIRE

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions.; Between 2006 a...

  15. Effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in stop smoking service in reaching and supporting disadvantaged UK smokers to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Andrea; Dickinson, Anne; Murray, Rachael; Jones, Laura; Li, Jinshuo; Parrott, Steve; McNeill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In countries where there are large disparities in smoking with persistent high rates among disadvantaged groups, there is a need to ensure that stop smoking services (SSS) reach such smokers. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in, community-based SSS in reaching more disadvantaged smokers, particularly those from routine and manual (RM) occupation groups, than standard services; secondary aims were to evaluate effectiveness in reaching those who had not previously accessed SSS, triggering unplanned quit behaviour, helping people quit and cost-effectiveness. Following a 4-week pilot period, a mobile drop-in SSS was delivered across various public locations in Nottingham City, UK for 6 months, offering behavioural and pharmacological support via one-to-one consultations with trained cessation advisors. Detailed demographic and smoking behaviour data were collected from all clients accessing the mobile SSS, and Nottingham's standard SSS for comparison. Compared with smokers accessing the standard SSS (n=1856), mobile SSS smokers (n=811) were significantly more likely to be from the RM group (33.3% vs 27.2%, p=0.002), and to be first-time SSS users (67.8% vs 59.3%, pmobile SSS had no prior quit intentions. The cost per smoker setting a quit date for the mobile SSS was only slightly higher than the standard SSS (£224 vs £202). A mobile drop-in SSS is an effective way of reaching more disadvantaged smokers from RM occupations, as well as those who have not previously accessed standard SSS and those without prior quit intentions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Health-care provider screening for tobacco smoking and advice to quit - 17 countries, 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable mortality in the world. Article 14 of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) states that countries should promote cessation of tobacco use and adequate treatment for tobacco dependence. Health-care providers asking all patients about their tobacco use and advising tobacco users to quit are evidence-based strategies that increase tobacco abstinence. This report examines the proportion of tobacco smokers in 17 countries responding to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) who saw a health-care provider in the past year and who reported that a health-care provider asked them about smoking and advised them to quit. Respondents were tobacco smokers aged ≥15 years surveyed during 2008-2011 in Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam. The proportion of smokers who had visited a health-care provider during the previous 12 months ranged from 21.6% in Egypt to 62.3% in Poland. Among these, the proportion reporting that a health-care provider asked if they smoked ranged from 34.9% in Vietnam to 82.1% in Romania. Among those screened for tobacco use, those who reported their health-care providers advised them to quit ranged from 17.3% in Mexico to 67.3% in Romania. In most countries, persons aged ≥45 years were more likely to report being screened and advised to quit than were persons aged ≤24 years. Health-care providers should identify smokers and provide advice and assistance in quitting at each visit as an adjunct to effective community interventions (e.g., increased price of tobacco products; smoke-free policies, mass media campaigns, and tobacco quitlines).

  17. Quit smoking for life--social marketing strategy for youth: a case for Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowaja, Liaquat Ali; Khuwaja, Ali Khan; Nayani, Parvez; Jessani, Saleem; Khowaja, Malika Parveen; Khowaja, Saima

    2010-12-01

    Smoking is the single most avoidable risk factor for cancers. Majority of smokers know about this fact but it is difficult for them to give it up mainly in the face of widespread smoking advertisements by the tobacco industries. To reduce the prevalence of smoking and its associated cancers, immediate actions are required by public health authorities. Social marketing is an effective strategy to promote healthy attitudes and influence people to make real, sustained health behavior change by transiting through different stages which include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. Social marketing can influence smokers to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon their smoking behavior. In Pakistan, the smoking prevalence has been increasing, necessitating effective measures. The trend of its usage has been going upwards and, according to the World Health Organization, in Pakistan, the usage of cigarette smoking is increased by 30% compared to 1998 figures. The Pakistan Pediatrics Association has estimated 1,000 to 1,200 school-going children between the ages of 6 and 16 years take up smoking every day. In Pakistan, ex-smokers in the low socioeconomic group reported spending 25% of the total household income on this habit. This paper focuses on the antismoking social marketing strategy in Pakistan with an aim to reduce smoking prevalence, especially among the youth.

  18. Factors Associated with Taiwanese Junior High School Personnel Advising Students to Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping-Ling; Huang, Wei-Gang; Chao, Kun-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Most smokers in developing countries begin smoking before age 18, and smoking prevalence is rising among adolescents. School personnel represent a target group for tobacco-control efforts because they interact daily with students, are role models for students, teach about tobacco-use prevention in school curricula, and implement school…

  19. Emotion dysregulation explains relations between sleep disturbance and smoking quit-related cognition and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fillo, J.; Alfano, C.A.; Paulus, D.J.; Smits, J.A.J.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Baird, S.O.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality and tobacco use are common and co-occurring problems, although the mechanisms underlying the relations between sleep disturbance and smoking are poorly understood. Sleep disturbance lowers odds of smoking cessation success and increases odds of relapse. One reason may be that

  20. ¿Cómo ayudar a los pacientes a dejar de fumar? How to help patients quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo Arias

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de tabaco es la principal causa de morbimortalidad en el mundo. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los profesionales de la salud no están entrenados para promover la abstinencia o el abandono del consumo de cigarrillo. En el presente artículo se comentan estrategias actuales y eficaces que están al alcance de médicos y enfermeras de los diferentes niveles de atención y que son de utilidad en este proceso de asesoría sobre el consumo de tabaco: establecer el estado de consumo, evaluar y motivar el abandono del consumo en los fumadores, ayudarlos a dejar de fumar y hacerles un adecuado seguimiento.Smoking is a leading cause of world morbidity and mortality. However, the most health professionals has not been trained on promoting abstinence or quitting smoking among patients. This article updates and resumes useful strategies for physicians and nurses from different level of assistance: ask about smoking, assess and motivate willing to quit, assist to quit and arrange a follow-up.

  1. Gender, age, social disadvantage and quitting smoking in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Niedzin

    2018-03-01

    Factors that are driving differences in smoking cessation between diverse social groups in Latin America countries need to be considered when implementing relevant interventions to ensure tobacco control strategies work effectively for all population segments.

  2. How to Handle Withdrawal Symptoms and Triggers When You Decide to Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2000. Kotlyar M, Hatsukami DK. Managing nicotine addiction. Journal of Dental Education 2002; 66(9):1061–1073. [ ...

  3. A survey of smoking prevalence and interest in quitting among social and community service organisation clients in Australia: a unique opportunity for reaching the disadvantaged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Christine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social and community service organisations (SCSOs are non-government, not-for-profit organisations that provide welfare services to disadvantaged individuals. SCSOs hold considerable potential for providing smoking cessation support to disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to establish the prevalence of smoking, interest in quitting and interest in receiving cessation support amongst clients accessing SCSOs. Methods Clients seeking financial or material assistance from three SCSOs in NSW, Australia, between February and October 2010 were invited to complete a 60-item general health touch screen computer survey. This included questions about smoking status, past quit attempts and interest in receiving support to quit smoking from SCSO staff. Results A total of 552 clients were approached to participate during the study period, of which 383 provided consent and completed the survey (69% consent rate. Daily smoking was reported by 53.5% of participants. Occasional smoking (non-daily smoking was reported by a further 7.9% of participants. Most participants had tried to quit smoking in the past (77% and had made an average of two quit attempts (SD = 3.2 lasting longer than 24 hours in the previous 12 months. More than half of all participants (52.8% reported that they would like help from SCSO staff to quit smoking. For those interested in receiving help, the preferred types of help were access to free NRT (77%, cash rewards (52% and non-cash rewards (47% for quitting, and to receive support and encouragement from SCSO staff to quit (45%. Conclusions Smoking rates among clients accessing SCSO are substantially higher than the general population rate of 15.1%. A substantial proportion of clients are interested in quitting and want support from the SCSO to do so.

  4. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, van J.; Brug, J.; Zundert, van R.M.P.; Eijn, van den R.J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple levels of influence should be considered in interventions aimed at the adolescent smoker, including psychological, addiction, peer and parental influences. However, the mechanism by which these variables influence the process of smoking cessation in adolescents is not well elucidated.

  5. Motivating smokers in the hospital pulmonary function laboratory to quit smoking by use of the lung age concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, David A; Marcy, Theodore; Dorwaldt, Anne; Pinckney, Richard; DeSarno, Michael; Solomon, Laura; Hughes, John R

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of lung age to motivate a quit attempt among smokers presenting to a hospital pulmonary function testing (PFT) laboratory. Participants were randomized to receive a lung age-based motivational strategy (intervention group) versus standard care (control group). At 1 month, all participants were interviewed by telephone to determine whether they made a quit attempt. A total of 67 participants were enrolled, and 51 completed the study. Baseline mean data included age = 52 years, 70% women, 40 pack-years of smoking, FEV(1) = 69% predicted, and lung age = 83 years. The quit attempt rates were not different between the intervention and control groups (32% vs. 24%, respectively, p = .59). There was a near significant interaction between lung age and intervention strategy (p = .089), with quit attempt rates among those with normal lung age of 18% in the intervention group versus 33% in the control group and among those with high (worse) lung age of 39% in the intervention group versus 17% in the control group; p = .38. Using lung age to motivate smokers presenting to the PFT laboratory to quit may succeed in patients with high lung age but may undermine motivation in smokers with normal lung age. Further work is needed to refine the approach to smokers with normal lung age.

  6. The applicability of the theory of planned behavior to the intention to quit smoking across workplaces in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S C; Lanese, R R

    1998-01-01

    An examination of the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to the intention to quit smoking across workplaces was conducted. Subjects were randomly selected from three workplaces in southern Taiwan. Those from a large public steel-manufacturing company were used for model building, and those from two private auto-parts-manufacturing companies served to cross-validate the model. Eligible subjects were divided into three study samples: a learning sample and two test samples. Three predictors--priority of quitting, past behavior (measured as previous quit attempt), and habit (measured as nicotine dependence)--were added to the TPB model. The results of this study show that TPB based on the learning sample fit well in another sample from the same workplace but poorly in other workplaces. When priority of quitting and past behavior were added to the TPB model, prediction to other workplaces significantly improved. Habit had no significant contribution to the intention to quit in the TPB model. Detailed discussions of the results are provided.

  7. Can an index of smokers' emotional status predict the chances of success in attempts to quit smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddini-Martinez, José; de Padua, Adriana Ignácio

    2013-06-01

    Smoking cessation still is a great challenge for smokers and health care professionals. Most subjects try cigarettes in adolescence under predominant environmental influences, and some psychological features are clearly associated with the establishment of continuous cigarette use. As a result, it is acceptable to assume that the risk of becoming regular smokers should be higher for subjects exhibiting imperfect psychological well-being. Since nicotine exhibits recognized psychopharmacological actions, an important reason for smoking would be the comfort of smokers' emotional afflictions. In this scenario, cigarettes might be seen as effective coping instruments for smokers. We hypothesize that a simple measure covering major emotional features of smokers might become a useful instrument for predicting the chances of success in attempts to quit smoking. The development of this new test aimed to measure the degree of smokers' emotional imbalance has the potential to predict the chances of success in response to standard therapy, as well as the need for introduction of intensive individualized psychological or psychiatric interventions. Preliminary analyses of a new test called Smokers' Emotional Index (SEI) support such a hypothesis. The SEI scores showed significant correlations with the values of the Fagerström test of nicotine dependence (FTND) for adult smokers. More numerous and better correlation coefficients were also observed between aspects of smoking history with SEI punctuations than with FTND scores. A clinical trial is proposed to test this hypothesis that could help to improve the results of current approaches to smoking cessation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in success at quitting smoking: Short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueta, Adriana; Nerín, Isabel; Gargallo, Pilar; Beamonte, Asunción

    2016-06-14

    Smoking cessation treatments are effective in men and women. However, possible sex-related differences in the outcome of these treatments remain a controversial topic. This study evaluated whether there were differences between men and women in the success of smoking cessation treatment, including gender-tailored components, in the short and long term (> 1 year). A telephone survey was carried out between September 2008 and June 2009 in smokers attended in a Smoking Cessation Clinic. All patients who have successfully completed treatment (3 months) were surveyed by telephone to determine their long-term abstinence. Those who remained abstinent were requested to attend the Smoking Cessation Clinic for biochemical validation (expired CO ≤10 ppm). The probability of remaining abstinent in the long-term was calculated using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The treatment success rate at 3-months was 41.3% (538/1302) with no differences by sex 89% (479/538) among those located in the telephonic follow-up study and 47.6% (256/479) were abstinent without differences by sex (p = .519); abstinence was validated with CO less than 10 ppm in 191 of the 256 (53.9% men and 46.1% women). In the survival analysis, the probability of men and women remaining abstinent in the long-term was not significant. There are no differences by sex in the outcome of smoking cessation treatment that included gender-tailored components in the short and long term (> 1 year).

  9. Crohn's disease and smoking: is it ever too late to quit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrance, Ian C; Murray, Kevin; Batman, Birol; Gearry, Richard B; Grafton, Rachel; Krishnaprasad, Krupa; Andrews, Jane M; Prosser, Ruth; Bampton, Peter A; Cooke, Sharon E; Mahy, Gillian; Radford-Smith, Graham; Croft, Anthony; Hanigan, Katherine

    2013-12-01

    Smoking increases CD risk. The aim was to determine if smoking cessation at, prior to, or following, CD diagnosis affects medication use, disease phenotypic progression and/or surgery. Data on CD patients with disease for ≥5 yrs were collected retrospectively including the Montreal classification, smoking history, CD-related abdominal surgeries, family history, medication use and disease behaviour at diagnosis and the time when the disease behaviour changed. 1115 patients were included across six sites (mean follow-up-16.6 yrs). More non-smokers were male (p=0.047) with A1 (p3 cigarettes/day had an increased risk of developing B2/B3 disease (p=0.012: OR 3.8 95%CI 1.27-11.17). Progression to B2/B3 disease and surgery is reduced by smoking cessation. All CD patients regardless of when they were diagnosed, or how many surgeries, should be strongly encouraged to cease smoking. Copyright © 2013 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Varenicline in prevention of relapse to smoking: effect of quit pattern on response to extended treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajek, Peter; Tønnesen, Philip; Arteaga, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    AIM: While older behavioural and pharmacological approaches to preventing relapse to smoking show little efficacy, a recent randomized trial of an extended course of varenicline reported positive results. In this secondary analysis, trial data were examined to see whether smokers who manage to ac...

  11. Day-to-day mastery and self-efficacy changes during a smoking quit attempt: Two studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lisa M; Stadler, Gertraud; Lüscher, Janina; Knoll, Nina; Ochsner, Sibylle; Hornung, Rainer; Scholz, Urte

    2018-01-15

    In social-cognitive theory, it is hypothesized that mastery experiences (successfully implementing behaviour change) are a source of self-efficacy, and self-efficacy increases the opportunity for experiencing mastery. Vicarious experiences (seeing others succeed) are suggested as another source of self-efficacy. However, the hypothesis of this reciprocal relationship has not been tested using a day-to-day design. This article reports findings from two intensive longitudinal studies, testing the reciprocal relationship of self-efficacy and its two main sources within the naturally occurring process of quitting smoking (without intervention). Smokers (Study 1: N = 100 smokers in smoker-non-smoker couples (1,787 observations); Study 2; N = 81 female (1,401 observations) and N = 79 male smokers (1,328 observations) in dual-smoker couples) reported their mastery experiences (not smoking the entire day; in Study 2, mastery experience of partner served as vicarious experience) and smoking-specific self-efficacy for 21 days after a self-set quit date. Time-lagged multilevel analyses were conducted using change-predicting-change models. Increases in mastery experiences predicted changes in self-efficacy, and increases in self-efficacy predicted changes in mastery experiences in Study 1. Study 2 replicated these results and showed contagion effects (partners' mastery on individuals' mastery and partners' self-efficacy on individuals' self-efficacy), but found no evidence for a link between vicarious experiences (partners' mastery experiences) and individuals' self-efficacy. This article demonstrates that mastery experiences and self-efficacy show a reciprocal relationship within smokers during a quit attempt in a day-to-day design, as well as contagion effects in couples when both partners try to quit simultaneously. Statement of Contribution What is already known on this subject? Self-efficacy is one of the strongest correlates of quitting smoking. Despite the

  12. Hollywood quits--behind the scenes of a Hollywood-based smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nides, Mitchell; Hund, Lisa M; Carothers, Sharon; McCausland, Kristen L; Duke, Jennifer C; Xiao, Haijun; Balaoing, Michael; Dale, Lowell C; Healton, Cheryl G

    2007-01-01

    To develop, implement, and assess the efficacy of a comprehensive, evidence-based smoking cessation program for entertainment industry workers and their families. Study participants were recruited from 5 outpatient medical clinics and a worksite setting. Tobacco use data were collected during the initial counseling visit and at 6-month follow-up. Univariate and multivariate regressions were used in analysis. More than 50% of participants (n=470) self-reported 7-day abstinence at follow-up. The majority of participants used combination cessation medications, with more than 50% still using at least 1 medication at 6 months. This evidence-based smoking cessation program using behavioral counseling and combination pharmacotherapy was successful with entertainment industry workers.

  13. Uptake of Tailored Text Message Smoking Cessation Support in Pregnancy When Advertised on the Internet (MiQuit): Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Joanne L; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2018-04-19

    Smoking in pregnancy is a major public health concern. Pregnant smokers are particularly difficult to reach, with low uptake of support options and few effective interventions. Text message-based self-help is a promising, low-cost intervention for this population, but its real-world uptake is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the uptake and cost-effectiveness of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers ("MiQuit") when advertised on the internet. Links to a website providing MiQuit initiation information (texting a short code) were advertised on a cost-per-click basis on 2 websites (Google Search and Facebook; £1000 budget each) and free of charge within smoking-in-pregnancy webpages on 2 noncommercial websites (National Childbirth Trust and NHS Choices). Daily budgets were capped to allow the Google and Facebook adverts to run for 1 and 3 months, respectively. We recorded the number of times adverts were shown and clicked on, the number of MiQuit initiations, the characteristics of those initiating MiQuit, and whether support was discontinued prematurely. For the commercial adverts, we calculated the cost per initiation and, using quit rates obtained from an earlier clinical trial, estimated the cost per additional quitter. With equal capped budgets, there were 812 and 1889 advert clicks to the MiQuit website from Google (search-based) and Facebook (banner) adverts, respectively. MiQuit was initiated by 5.2% (42/812) of those clicking via Google (95% CI 3.9%-6.9%) and 2.22% (42/1889) of those clicking via Facebook (95% CI 1.65%-2.99%). Adverts on noncommercial webpages generated 53 clicks over 6 months, with 9 initiations (9/53, 17%; 95% CI 9%-30%). For the commercial websites combined, mean cost per initiation was £24.73; estimated cost per additional quitter, including text delivery costs, was £735.86 (95% CI £227.66-£5223.93). Those initiating MiQuit via Google were typically very early in pregnancy

  14. Effectiveness of intensive smoking reduction counselling plus combination nicotine replacement therapy in promoting long-term abstinence in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease not ready to quit smoking: Protocol of the REDUQ trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Hagens

    2017-12-01

    Discussion: The outcomes of the REDUQ trial will advance knowledge on treatment of smoking COPD patients not ready to quit. If (cost-effective, the smoking reduction intervention can be offered to this difficult-to-treat target group as a valuable adjunct to smoking cessation treatment.

  15. Quit and Smoking Reduction Rates in Vape Shop Consumers: A Prospective 12-Month Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Polosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Design: Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs. Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Settings: Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. Participants: 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Measurements: Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours were also noted. Findings: Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice to more advanced devices (MODs was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month as well as a trend in decreasing thee-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month. Conclusions: We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates.

  16. Quit and smoking reduction rates in vape shop consumers: a prospective 12-month survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Cibella, Fabio; Le-Houezec, Jacques

    2015-03-24

    Here, we present results from a prospective pilot study that was aimed at surveying changes in daily cigarette consumption in smokers making their first purchase at vape shops. Modifications in products purchase were also noted. Participants were instructed how to charge, fill, activate and use their e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Participants were encouraged to use these products in the anticipation of reducing the number of cig/day smoked. Staff from LIAF contacted 10 vape shops in the province of the city of Catania (Italy) that acted as sponsors to the 2013 No Tobacco Day. 71 adult smokers (≥18 years old) making their first purchase at local participating vape shops were asked by professional retail staff to complete a form. Their cigarette consumption was followed-up prospectively at 6 and 12 months. Details of products purchase (i.e., e-cigs hardware, e-liquid nicotine strengths and flavours) were also noted. Retention rate was elevated, with 69% of participants attending their final follow-up visit. At 12 month, 40.8% subjects could be classified as quitters, 25.4% as reducers and 33.8% as failures. Switching from standard refillables (initial choice) to more advanced devices (MODs) was observed in this study (from 8.5% at baseline to 18.4% at 12 month) as well as a trend in decreasing thee-liquid nicotine strength, with more participants adopting low nicotine strength (from 49.3% at baseline to 57.1% at 12 month). We have found that smokers purchasing e-cigarettes from vape shops with professional advice and support can achieve high success rates.

  17. Genetic Risk Can Be Decreased: Quitting Smoking Decreases and Delays Lung Cancer for Smokers With High and Low CHRNA5 Risk Genotypes — A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Shiun Chen

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: We demonstrate that quitting smoking is highly beneficial in reducing lung cancer risks for smokers regardless of their CHRNA5 rs16969968 genetic risk status. Smokers with high-risk CHRNA5 genotypes, on average, can largely eliminate their elevated genetic risk for lung cancer by quitting smoking- cutting their risk of lung cancer in half and delaying its onset by 7 years for those who develop it. These results: 1 underscore the potential value of smoking cessation for all smokers, 2 suggest that CHRNA5 rs16969968 genotype affects lung cancer diagnosis through its effects on smoking, and 3 have potential value for framing preventive interventions for those who smoke.

  18. Making it harder to smoke and easier to quit: the effect of 10 years of tobacco control in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgore, Elizabeth A; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Johns, Michael; Coady, Micaela H; Perl, Sarah B; Goodman, Andrew; Kansagra, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    In 2002, New York City implemented a comprehensive tobacco control plan that discouraged smoking through excise taxes and smoke-free air laws and facilitated quitting through population-wide cessation services and hard-hitting media campaigns. Following the implementation of these activities through a well-funded and politically supported program, the adult smoking rate declined by 28% from 2002 to 2012, and the youth smoking rate declined by 52% from 2001 to 2011. These improvements indicate that local jurisdictions can have a significant positive effect on tobacco control.

  19. A qualitative exploration of the reasons for the discontinuation of smoking cessation treatment among Quit Smoking Clinics' defaulters and health care providers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mei Lin; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal

    2013-01-01

    Treatment default among the smokers hinders the effectiveness of the delivery of cessation services. While many studies have predicted the defaulters' characteristics, the reasons why these smokers dropped out and continued smoking are seldom explored. This study examined the barriers encountered by such smokers and their respective health care providers (HCPs) in relation to the discontinuation of cessation treatment. From May 2010 to March 2011, 15 current adult smokers and 9 HCPs from 2 Quit Smoking Clinics (QSCs) in the Melaka Tengah District, Malacca, Malaysia were interviewed on smoking, cessation, and the QSC. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subsequently translated into English and analyzed using thematic analysis. The barriers encountered were categorized as Individual- and Clinic-level. Both smokers and HCPs acknowledged that the smokers' low intrinsic motivation was the individual-level barrier. The clinic-level barriers were the mismatched perceptions of smokers and HCPs regarding the HCPs' roles, skills, and attitudes, as well as the availability and efficacy of smoking cessation aids (SCAs). While the smokers viewed the program as not helpful, the HCPs cited the lack of organizational support as their main barrier. The reasons for treatment default centered on the overall dissatisfaction with the treatment (due to the program, HCP, and SCA factors) combined with the smokers' low intrinsic motivation. Optimizing the interplay of the extrinsic motivational cues, such as the HCP and SCA factors, would complement the smoker's low intrinsic motivation and thus encourage treatment retention. However, it is necessary to strike a balance between the individual smoker's needs and the availability of organizational support. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Secular versus religious norms against smoking: which is more important as a driver of quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Savvas, Steven; Borland, Ron; Thrasher, James; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2013-06-01

    This paper prospectively examined two kinds of social normative beliefs about smoking, secular versus religious norms. The purpose of this paper is to determine the relative importance of these beliefs in influencing quitting behaviour among Muslim Malaysian and Buddhist Thai smokers. Data come from 2,166 Muslim Malaysian and 2,463 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who participated in the first three waves of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia project. Respondents were followed up about 18 months later with replenishment. Respondents were asked at baseline about whether their society disapproved of smoking and whether their religion discouraged smoking, and those recontacted at follow-up were asked about their quitting activity. Majority of both religious groups perceived that their religion discouraged smoking (78% Muslim Malaysians and 86% Buddhist Thais) but considerably more Buddhist Thais than Muslim Malaysians perceived that their society disapproved of smoking (80% versus 25%). Among Muslim Malaysians, religious, but not societal, norms had an independent effect on quit attempts. By contrast, among the Buddhist Thais, while both normative beliefs had an independent positive effect on quit attempts, the effect was greater for societal norms. The two kinds of normative beliefs, however, were unrelated to quit success among those who tried. The findings suggest that religious norms about smoking may play a greater role than secular norms in driving behaviour change in an environment, like Malaysia where tobacco control has been relatively weak until more recently, but, in the context of a strong tobacco control environment like Thailand, secular norms about smoking become the dominant force.

  1. The effects of smoking norms and attitudes on quitting intentions in Malaysia, Thailand, and four Western nations: A cross-cultural comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK, and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against s...

  2. "It is just not part of the culture here": young adults' photo-narratives about smoking, quitting, and healthy lifestyles in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Oliffe, John L; White, Cameron F; Bottorff, Joan L

    2013-07-01

    In this article we consider young adults' photo-narratives about smoking and quitting and their linkages to themes of healthy lifestyles and the culture of place in Vancouver, Canada. Drawing from a pilot study using participant-driven photography with a group of twelve young women and men ages nineteen to twenty-six, participants' visual and narrative representations of being a smoker and the process of quitting smoking were analyzed. Findings suggest "healthy lifestyle" imperatives within the Vancouver context may be productive for facilitating cessation, but may also have exclusionary effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mood as a resource in dealing with health recommendations: How mood affects information processing and acceptance of quit-smoking messages

    OpenAIRE

    Das, E.; Vonkeman, C.C.; Hartmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An experimental study tested the effects of positive and negative mood on the processing and acceptance of health recommendations about smoking in an online experiment. It was hypothesised that positive mood would provide smokers with the resources to systematically process self-relevant health recommendations.Design: One hundred and twenty-seven participants (smokers and non-smokers) read a message in which a quit smoking programme was recommended. Participants were randomly assig...

  4. Impact of reduced ignition propensity cigarette regulation on consumer smoking behavior and quit intentions: evidence from 6 waves (2004-11) of the ITC Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison, Sarah E; O'Connor, Richard J; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Cummings, K Michael; Hammond, David; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2013-12-21

    Although on the decline, smoking-related fires remain a leading cause of fire death in the United States and United Kingdom and account for over 10% of fire-related deaths worldwide. This has prompted lawmakers to enact legislation requiring manufacturers to implement reduced ignition propensity (RIP) safety standards for cigarettes. The current research evaluates how implementation of RIP safety standards in different countries influenced smokers' perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment, frequency of extinguishment, and the impact on consumer smoking behaviors, including cigarettes smoked per day and planning to quit. Participants for this research come from Waves 3 through 8 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey conducted longitudinally from 2004 through 2011 in the United States, United Kingdom, Australia, and Canada. Perceptions of cigarette self-extinguishment and frequency of extinguishment increased concurrently with an increase in the prevalence of RIP safety standards for cigarettes. Presence of RIP safety standards was also associated with a greater intention to quit smoking, but was not associated with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Intention to quit was higher among those who were more likely to report that their cigarettes self-extinguish sometimes and often, but we found no evidence of an interaction between frequency of extinguishment and RIP safety standards on quit intentions. Overall, because these standards largely do not influence consumer smoking behavior, RIP implementation may significantly reduce the number of cigarette-related fires and the associated death and damages. Further research should assess how implementation of RIP safety standards has influenced smoking-related fire incidence, deaths, and other costs associated with smoking-related fires.

  5. E-cigarette advertisements, and associations with the use of e-cigarettes and disapproval or quitting of smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Heijndijk, Suzanne M; Cummings, K Michael; Willemsen, Marc C; van den Putte, Bas; Heckman, Bryan W; Hummel, Karin; de Vries, Hein; Hammond, David; Borland, Ron

    2016-03-01

    Much attention has been directed towards the possible effects of e-cigarette advertisements on adolescent never smokers. However, e-cigarette advertising may also influence perceptions and behaviours of adult smokers. The aim of our study was to examine whether noticing e-cigarette advertisements is associated with current use of e-cigarettes, disapproval of smoking, quit smoking attempts, and quit smoking success. We used longitudinal data from two survey waves of the ITC Netherlands Survey among smokers aged 16 years and older (n=1198). Respondents were asked whether they noticed e-cigarettes being advertised on television, on the radio, and in newspapers or magazines in the previous 6 months. There was a significant increase in noticing e-cigarette advertisements between 2013 (13.3%) and 2014 (36.0%), across all media. The largest increase was for television advertisements. There was also a substantial increase in current use of e-cigarettes (from 3.1% to 13.3%), but this was not related to noticing advertisements in traditional media (OR=0.99, p=0.937). Noticing advertisements was bivariately associated with more disapproval of smoking (Beta=0.05, p=0.019) and with a higher likelihood of attempting to quit smoking (OR=1.37, p=0.038), but these associations did not reach significance in multivariate analyses. There was no significant association between noticing advertisements and quit smoking success in either the bivariate or multivariate regression analysis (OR=0.92, p=0.807). Noticing e-cigarette advertisements increased sharply in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2014 along with increased e-cigarette use, but the two appear unrelated. The advertisements did not seem to have adverse effects on disapproval of smoking and smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Anxiety sensitivity explains associations between anxious arousal symptoms and smoking abstinence expectancies, perceived barriers to cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts among low-income smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Paulus, Daniel J; Langdon, Kirsten J; Robles, Zuzuky; Garey, Lorra; Norton, Peter J; Businelle, Michael S

    2017-05-01

    Disproportionately more smokers report low-income and mental health problems relative to non-smokers. Low-income smokers may use smoking to alleviate negative emotional states resulting from exposure to multiple stressors. Yet, little work has been devoted to elucidating mechanisms that may explain the association between negative emotional states and smoking-related processes among low-income smokers. The present study sought to address this gap by examining anxiety sensitivity, a transdiagnostic factor related to both anxiety and smoking, as a potential mediator for the influence of anxiety symptoms on smoking-related processes, including threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Participants included treatment-seeking daily cigarette smokers (n=101; 68.3% male; M age =47.1; SD=10.2). Results indicated that anxiety symptoms exerted a significant indirect effect through anxiety sensitivity for threat-related smoking abstinence expectancies (somatic symptoms and harmful consequences), perceived barriers for cessation, and problems experienced during past quit attempts. The present results provide empirical support that anxiety sensitivity may be an underlying mechanism that partially explains the relation between anxiety symptoms and smoking processes among low-income treatment-seeking smokers. Findings broaden current theoretical understanding of pathways through which anxiety symptoms contribute to maladaptive smoking processes and cognitions among socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Online tobacco websites and online communities-who uses them and do users quit smoking? The quit-primo and national dental practice-based research network Hi-Quit studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Sadasivam, Rajani S; DeLaughter, Kathryn; Kamberi, Ariana; Volkman, Julie E; Cobb, Nathan; Gilbert, Gregg H; Ray, Midge N; Houston, Thomas K

    2016-12-01

    Online tobacco cessation communities are beneficial but underused. Our study examined whether, among smokers participating in a web-assisted tobacco intervention (Decide2quit.org), specific characteristics were associated with navigating to BecomeAnEx.org, an online cessation community, and with subsequent quit rates. Among smokers (N = 759) registered with Decide2quit.org, we identified visitors to BecomeAnEx.org, examining associations between smoker characteristics and likelihood of visiting. We then tested for associations between visits and 6-month cessation (point prevalence). We also tested for an interaction between use of other online support-seeking (Decide2quit.org tobacco cessation coaches), visiting, and 6-month cessation. One quarter (26.0 %; n = 197) of the smokers visited BecomeAnEx.org; less than one tenth (7.5 %; n = 57) registered to participate in the online forum. Visitors were more likely to be female (73.0 vs. 62.6 % of non-visitors, P Online cessation communities attract smokers with previous cessation website experience and recent quit attempts. Community visiting was not associated with quit rates in our study, but low use may have limited our power to detect differences. Further research should explore whether an additive effect can be achieved by offering community visitors support via online coaches.

  8. Quitting Smoking - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hindi (हिन्दी) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Levantine (Arabic dialect) (Levantine Arabic) Modern Standard Arabic (al-ʻArabīyat ul- ... Russian (Русский) Somali (Af-Soomaali ) Spanish (español) Sudanese (Arabic dialect) (Sudanese Arabic) Tagalog (Wikang Tagalog) Urdu (اردو) Vietnamese ( ...

  9. Stages of Change, Smoking Behaviour and Readiness to Quit in a Large Sample of Indigenous Australians Living in Eight Remote North Queensland Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn McDermott

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is a major health issue for Indigenous Australians, however there are few interventions with demonstrated efficacy in this population. The Transtheoretical Model may provide a useful framework for describing smoking behaviour and assessing readiness to quit, with the aim of developing better interventions. Interviews were conducted with 593 Indigenous Australians in eight rural and remote communities in north Queensland, to examine stages of change and smoking behaviour. Among current smokers, 39.6% and 43.4% were in Precontemplation and Contemplation stages respectively. A further 13.9% were making preparations to quit (Preparation whilst only 3.2% said they were actively trying to quit (Action. When analysed by stage of change, the pattern of smoking-related behaviours conformed to the results of past research using the model. Importantly however, distribution of individuals across the stages opposes those observed in investigations of smoking behaviour in non-Indigenous Australian populations. The Transtheoretical Model can be used to meaningfully classify Indigenous smokers in remote north Queensland according to stages along the behaviour change continuum. Importantly, in this large sample across eight communities, most Indigenous smokers were not making preparations to change their smoking behaviour. This suggests that interventions should focus on promoting movement toward the Preparation and Action stages of change.

  10. What cigarette price is required for smokers to attempt to quit smoking? Findings from the ITC Korea Waves 2 and 3 Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Ja; Park, Susan; Cho, Sung-il; Kim, Yeol; Seo, Hong Gwan; Driezen, Pete; Quah, Anne C K; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2015-07-01

    We assess the cigarette price that would motivate smokers to quit. We also explore the factors associated with the required price, including exposures to non-tax tobacco control policies. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted on data from 1257 male smokers, who participated in either Wave 2 or 3 of the ITC Korea Survey. Information was obtained on what cigarette price per pack would make them try to quit ('price to quit'). Tobit regression on log-transformed price and logistic regression on non-quitting were conducted to identify associated factors. The median price to quit was KRW5854 (US$5.31)/pack, given the current price of KRW2500 (US$2.27)/pack. Younger age, higher education, lack of concern about the health effects of smoking, lack of quit attempts and more cigarettes consumed per day were related to a higher price needed for a quit attempt. Exposures to combinations of non-tax policies were significantly associated with lower price levels to be motivated to quit. Considering the large price increase required for quit attempts, tax policy needs to be combined with other policies, particularly for certain groups, such as heavy smokers. Strengthening non-tax policies is likely to facilitate greater responsiveness to tax policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Educational Differences in Associations of Noticing Anti-Tobacco Information with Smoking-Related Attitudes and Quit Intentions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, L.; Willemsen, M. C.; Mons, U.; van den Putte, B.; Kunst, A. E.; Guignard, R.; Hummel, K.; Allwright, S.; Siahpush, M.; de Vries, H.; Nagelhout, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and…

  12. Evaluation of a web-based educational programme on changes in frequency of nurses' interventions to help smokers quit and reduce second-hand smoke exposure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Zou, Xiao Nong; Wang, Weili; Hong, Jingfang; Wells, Marjorie; Brook, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a web-based educational smoking cessation programme on changes in the frequency of hospital-based nurses' self-reported interventions to help smokers quit using the 5 As (i.e. Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange), to reduce exposure to second-hand smoke and to change attitudes about nurses' involvement in tobacco control. Few nurses in China support smokers' quit attempts using evidence-based smoking cessation interventions based on the 5 As. Limited knowledge is a barrier to intervention. Web-based tobacco cessation programs have the potential to reach a large population of nurses. A prospective single-group design with pre-, 3- and 6-month follow-up after the educational programme evaluated the feasibility of conducting web-based educational programs in two cities in China in 2012-2013. Frequency of interventions was assessed using a valid and reliable web-based survey with a convenience sample of nurses from eight hospitals in Beijing and Hefei, China. Generalized linear models, adjusting for age, clinical setting, education and site were used to determine changes in the consistent (usually/always) use of the 5 As from baseline to 3 and to 6 months. Nurses (N = 1386) had baseline and/or 3- and 6-month data. At 6 months, nurses were significantly more likely to Assess, Assist and Arrange for smoking cessation and recommend smoke-free home environments. There was significant improvement in attitudes about tobacco control. Nurses receiving web-based smoking cessation education significantly increased self-reports of frequency of providing interventions to patients who smoke, including recommending smoke-free home environments to support quit attempts. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effects of smoking norms and attitudes on quitting intentions in Malaysia, Thailand and four Western nations: a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosking, Warwick; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Fong, Geoffrey; Zanna, Mark; Laux, Fritz; Thrasher, James; Lee, Wonkyong Beth; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-01-01

    This research investigated the influence of smoking attitudes and norms on quitting intentions in two predominantly collectivistic countries (Malaysia and Thailand) and four predominantly individualistic Western countries (Canada, USA, UK and Australia). Data from the International Tobacco Control Project (N = 13,062) revealed that higher odds of intending to quit were associated with negative personal attitudes in Thailand and the Western countries, but not in Malaysia; with norms against smoking from significant others in Malaysia and the Western countries, but not in Thailand; and with societal norms against smoking in all countries. Our findings indicate that normative factors are important determinants of intentions, but they play a different role in different cultural and/or tobacco control contexts. Interventions may be more effective if they are designed with these different patterns of social influence in mind.

  14. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore the Relation between Smoke-Free Air Laws and Quitting Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Jay, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a…

  15. Tobacco use, smoking quit rates, and socioeconomic patterning among men and women: a cross-sectional survey in rural Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsi, Daniel J; Subramanian, S V; Lear, Scott A; Teo, Koon K; Boyle, Michael H; Raju, P Krishnam; Joshi, Rohina; Neal, Bruce; Chow, Clara K

    2014-10-01

    Tobacco use is common in India and a majority of users are in rural areas. We examine tobacco use and smoking quit rates along gender and socioeconomic dimensions in rural Andhra Pradesh. Data come from a cross-sectional survey. Markers of socioeconomic status (SES) were education, occupation, and income. Regression analyses were undertaken to examine determinants of current smoking, smoking quit rates, tobacco use by type (cigarettes, bidis, and chewing), and quantity consumed (number per day, pack-years). The weighted prevalence of current smoking and tobacco chewing was higher in men (50.3%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 48.1-52.6 and 5.0%, 95% CI 4.1-5.9, respectively) compared with women (4.8%, 95% CI 3.9-5.7 and 1.0%, 95% CI 0.6-1.4, respectively) and higher among older age groups. The quit rate was higher in women (45.5%, 95% CI 38.7-52.2) compared to men (18.8%, 95% CI 16.7-20.9). Illiterate individuals were more likely to be current smokers of any type compared to those with secondary/higher education (odds ratio, OR, 3.25, 95% CI 2.54-4.16), although cigarette smoking was higher in men of high SES. Smoking quit rates were positively associated with SES (OR 2.56, 95% CI 1.76-3.71) for secondary/higher education vs. illiterates. Level of consumption increased with SES and those with secondary/higher education smoked an additional 1.93 (95% CI 1.08-2.77) cigarettes or bidis per day and had an additional 1.87 (95% CI 0.57-3.17) pack-years vs. illiterates. The social gradients in cigarette smoking and level of consumption contrasted those for indigenous forms of tobacco (bidi smoking and chewing). International prevention and cessation initiatives designed at modifying Western-style cigarette usage will need to be tailored to the social context of rural Andhra Pradesh to effectively influence the use of cigarettes and equally harmful indigenous forms of tobacco. © The European Society of Cardiology 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Determining counselling communication strategies associated with successful quits in the National Health Service community pharmacy Stop Smoking programme in East London: a focused ethnography using recorded consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Sohanpal, Ratna; MacNeill, Virginia; Steed, Liz; Edwards, Elizabeth; Antao, Laurence; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2017-10-27

    To determine communication strategies associated with smoking cessation in the National Health Service community pharmacy Stop Smoking programme. 11 community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. 9 stop smoking advisers and 16 pairs of smokers who either quit or did not quit at 4 weeks, matched on gender, ethnicity, age and smoking intensity. 1-3 audio-recorded consultations between an adviser and each pair member over 5-6 weeks were analysed using a mixed-method approach. First a content analysis was based on deductive coding drawn from a theme-oriented discourse analysis approach and the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Core themes were identified through this quantification to explore in detail the qualitative differences and similarities between quitters and non-quitters. Quantitative analysis revealed advisers used a core set of counselling strategies that privileged the 'voice of medicine' and often omitted explicit motivational interviewing. Smokers tended to quit when these core strategies were augmented by supportive talk, clear permission for smokers to seek additional support from the adviser between consultations, encouragement for smokers to use willpower. The thematic analysis highlighted the choices made by advisers as to which strategies to adopt and the impacts on smokers. The first theme 'Negotiating the smoker-adviser relationship' referred to adviser judgements about the likelihood the smoker would quit. The second theme, 'Roles of the adviser and smoker in the quit attempt', focused on advisers' counselling strategies, while the third theme, 'Smoker and adviser misalignment on reasons for smoking, relapsing and quitting', concerned inconsistencies in the implementation of National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training recommendations. Advisers in community pharmacies should use the advantages of their familiarity with smokers to ensure appropriate delivery of patient-centred counselling strategies and reflect on the impact on

  17. Adult smokers' perception of the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking and association with quitting: a comparison between Thai Buddhists and Malaysian Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Hua-Hie; Hamann, Stephen L; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Omar, Maizurah

    2009-10-01

    In recent years, attempts have been made to incorporate religion into tobacco control efforts, especially in countries like Malaysia and Thailand where religion is central to the lives of people. This paper is a prospective examination of the perceived relevance and role of religion and religious authorities in influencing smoking behaviour among Muslims in Malaysia and Buddhists in Thailand. Data were collected from 1482 Muslim Malaysian and 1971 Buddhist Thai adult smokers who completed wave 1 (early 2005) of the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (ITC-SEA). Respondents were asked about the role of religion and religious leadership on smoking at Wave 1 and among those recontacted, quitting activity at Wave 2. Results revealed that over 90% of both religious groups reported that their religion guides their day-to-day behaviour at least sometimes, but Malaysian Muslims were more likely to report that this was always the case. The majority (79% Muslims and 88% Buddhists) of both groups believed that their religion discourages smoking. About 61% of the Muslims and 58% of the Buddhists reported that their religious leaders had encouraged them to quit before and a minority (30% and 26%, respectively) said they would be an influential source to motivate them to quit. Logistic regression models suggest that these religious factors had a clear independent association with making quitting attempts in both countries and this translated to success for Malaysian Muslims but not for the Thai Buddhists. Taken together, results from this study indicate that religion and religious authorities are both relevant and important drivers of quitting, but whether this is always enough to guarantee success is less clear. Religion can be a culturally relevant vehicle to complement other tobacco control efforts.

  18. Educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions: findings from the International Tobacco Control Europe Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springvloet, L; Willemsen, M C; Mons, U; van den Putte, B; Kunst, A E; Guignard, R; Hummel, K; Allwright, S; Siahpush, M; de Vries, H; Nagelhout, G E

    2015-10-01

    This study examined educational differences in associations of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes and quit intentions among adult smokers. Longitudinal data (N = 7571) from two waves of six countries of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys were included. Generalized estimating equation analyses and multiple linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Higher educated smokers noticed anti-tobacco information slightly more often than lower educated smokers (F(2) = 25.78, P educational differences were found in the association of noticing anti-tobacco information with smoking-related attitudes but associations with quit intentions were found only among low (OR = 1.12, P = 0.001) and high educated respondents (OR = 1.11, P educated respondents (OR = 1.02, P = 0.43). Noticing anti-tobacco information may positively influence quit intentions and possibly smoking-related attitudes. Lower educated smokers were as likely to be influenced by anti-tobacco information as higher educated smokers but noticed anti-tobacco information less often; increasing reach of anti-tobacco information may increase impact in this group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Yoga as a complementary treatment for smoking cessation: rationale, study design and participant characteristics of the Quitting-in-Balance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennings Ernestine

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking remains the leading preventable cause of death among American women. Exercise has shown promise as an aid to smoking cessation because it reduces weight gain and weight concerns, improves affect, and reduces nicotine withdrawal symptoms and cigarette craving. Studies have shown that the practice of yoga improves weight control, and reduces perceived stress and negative affect. Yoga practice also includes regulation of breathing and focused attention, both of which may enhance stress reduction and improve mood and well-being and may improve cessation outcomes. Methods/Design This pilot efficacy study is designed to examine the rates of cessation among women randomized to either a novel, 8-week Yoga plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT smoking cessation intervention versus a Wellness program plus the same CBT smoking cessation intervention. Outcome measures include 7-day point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment, 3 and 6 months follow up and potential mediating variables (e.g., confidence in quitting smoking, self-efficacy. Other assessments include measures of mindfulness, spirituality, depressive symptoms, anxiety and perceived health (SF-36. Discussion Innovative treatments are needed that address barriers to successful smoking cessation among men and women. The design chosen for this study will allow us to explore potential mediators of intervention efficacy so that we may better understand the mechanism(s by which yoga may act as an effective complementary treatment for smoking cessation. If shown to be effective, yoga can offer an alternative to traditional exercise for reducing negative symptoms that often accompany smoking cessation and predict relapse to smoking among recent quitters. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials NCT00492310

  20. Differences in Quit Attempts and Cigarette Smoking Abstinence Between Whites and African Americans in the United States: Literature Review and Results From the International Tobacco Control US Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Jessica A; Cornelius, Monica E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Giovino, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data. We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months). Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences. Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority. This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit

  1. The effects of providing lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback on community college smokers' perceived smoking-related health risks, worries and desire to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, Isaac M; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effects of providing lung age, as assessed via a lung function test (spirometry), and respiratory symptoms feedback on college smokers' perceived smoking-related risks, worries and desire to quit. We also investigated whether smokers reacted defensively to this feedback. One hundred and twenty-four smokers were randomized to either receive lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback (intervention group) or a brochure containing facts about smoking only (control group). Perceived risks, worries and desire to quit did not differ between groups. In both groups, worries, but not perceived risks, were correlated with a stronger desire to quit. With increasing lung age, smokers rated the feedback as less relevant and reported exerting less effort breathing in and out while undergoing spirometry. The latter two outcomes were associated with less worry. These findings suggest that lung age and respiratory symptoms feedback does not translate readily into appreciable changes in motivation to quit as well as do other often reported mediators of change (e.g., perceived risks and worries).

  2. Mood as a resource in dealing with health recommendations: how mood affects information processing and acceptance of quit-smoking messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Enny; Vonkeman, Charlotte; Hartmann, Tilo

    2012-01-01

    An experimental study tested the effects of positive and negative mood on the processing and acceptance of health recommendations about smoking in an online experiment. It was hypothesised that positive mood would provide smokers with the resources to systematically process self-relevant health recommendations. One hundred and twenty-seven participants (smokers and non-smokers) read a message in which a quit smoking programme was recommended. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: positive versus negative mood, and strong versus weak arguments for the recommended action. Systematic message processing was inferred when participants were able to distinguish between high- and low-quality arguments, and by congruence between attitudes and behavioural intentions. Persuasion was measured by participant's attitudes towards smoking and the recommended action, and by their intentions to follow the action recommendation. As predicted, smokers systematically processed the health message only under positive mood conditions; non-smokers systematically processed the health message only under negative mood conditions. Moreover, smokers' attitudes towards the health message predicted intentions to quit smoking only under positive mood conditions. Findings suggest that positive mood may decrease defensive processing of self-relevant health information.

  3. The effect of quitting smoking on the risk of unfavorable events after surgical treatment of oral potentially malignant lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vladimirov, B S; Schiødt, Morten

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if cessation of smoking after surgical excision of oral potentially malignant lesions in smokers reduced the risk of recurrences, development of new lesions or malignancies. 51 patients with oral leukoplakia or erythroplakia were included. They were daily...... carcinomas (p>0.05) in continuing smokers. Multivariate analysis showed continuing smoking to be the most significant factor for occurrence of unfavorable events, OR 23.7. In conclusion, cessation of smoking significantly reduced the risk of unfavorable events after surgical treatment of oral potentially...

  4. Large multi-centre pilot randomized controlled trial testing a low-cost, tailored, self-help smoking cessation text message intervention for pregnant smokers (MiQuit).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Felix; Cooper, Sue; Foster, Katharine; Emery, Joanne; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Sutton, Stephen; Jones, Matthew; Ussher, Michael; Whitemore, Rachel; Leighton, Matthew; Montgomery, Alan; Parrott, Steve; Coleman, Tim

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the effectiveness of pregnancy smoking cessation support delivered by short message service (SMS) text message and key parameters needed to plan a definitive trial. Multi-centre, parallel-group, single-blinded, individual randomized controlled trial. Sixteen antenatal clinics in England. Four hundred and seven participants were randomized to the intervention (n = 203) or usual care (n = 204). Eligible women were smoked at least one daily cigarette (> 5 pre-pregnancy), were able to receive and understand English SMS texts and were not already using text-based cessation support. All participants received a smoking cessation leaflet; intervention participants also received a 12-week programme of individually tailored, automated, interactive, self-help smoking cessation text messages (MiQuit). Seven smoking outcomes, including validated continuous abstinence from 4 weeks post-randomization until 36 weeks gestation, design parameters for a future trial and cost-per-quitter. Using the validated, continuous abstinence outcome, 5.4% (11 of 203) of MiQuit participants were abstinent versus 2.0% (four of 204) of usual care participants [odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-9.35]. The Bayes factor for this outcome was 2.23. Completeness of follow-up at 36 weeks gestation was similar in both groups; provision of self-report smoking data was 64% (MiQuit) and 65% (usual care) and abstinence validation rates were 56% (MiQuit) and 61% (usual care). The incremental cost-per-quitter was £133.53 (95% CI = -£395.78 to 843.62). There was some evidence, although not conclusive, that a text-messaging programme may increase cessation rates in pregnant smokers when provided alongside routine NHS cessation care. © 2017 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Short-term behavioral changes in pregnant women after a quit-smoking program via e-learning: a descriptive study from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Nami; Kobayashi, Toshio; Turale, Sue

    2012-09-01

    Approximately 20% of Japanese women in their reproductive years are smokers. Therefore, in the present study, we report the behavioral changes of woman who undertook a 3 month stop-smoking program. Sixty-six pregnant smokers in the first trimester of pregnancy participated in this study from two hospitals and an obstetric clinic in Japan. Our newly-developed e-learning program uses a cell phone Internet connection service to support pregnant women who want to quit smoking. Using this, service participants were given guidance concerning smoking, and were breath tested for their carbon monoxide levels every 4 weeks for 3 months. An e-learning cessation smoking-support program was maintained throughout the same period. Consequently, 52 of 66 pregnant smokers from three settings began the program, and 48 of 52 eventually completed it. The achievement rate of non-smoking was 71.1% (37/48), and their carbon monoxide exhalation levels significantly decreased from 6.43 ± 4.5 ppm at the beginning to 0.7 ± 1.0 ppm in 1 month, to 0.29 ± 1.08 in 3 months (P < 0.001). These results suggest the effectiveness of our e-leaning program. This paper reports the results of the study. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. The effect of financial incentives on top of behavioral support on quit rates in tobacco smoking employees: study protocol of a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brand, F A; Nagelhout, G E; Winkens, B; Evers, S M A A; Kotz, D; Chavannes, N H; van Schayck, C P

    2016-10-06

    Stimulating successful tobacco cessation among employees has multiple benefits. Employees who quit tobacco are healthier, more productive, less absent from work, and longer employable than employees who continue to use tobacco. Despite the evidence for these benefits of tobacco cessation, a successful method to stimulate employees to quit tobacco is lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether adding a financial incentive to behavioral support (compared with no additional incentive) is effective and cost-effective in increasing abstinence rates in tobacco smoking employees participating in a smoking cessation group training. In this cluster-randomized trial employees in the intervention and control group both participate in a smoking cessation group training consisting of seven weekly counseling sessions of ninety minutes each. In addition to the training, employees in the intervention group receive a voucher as an incentive for being abstinent from smoking at the end of the training (€50), after three months (€50), after six months (€50), and after one year (€200). The control group does not receive any incentive. The primary outcome is carbon monoxide validated 12-month continuous abstinence from smoking (Russel's standard). Additionally, an economic evaluation is performed from a societal and an employer perspective. The present paper describes the methods and design of this cluster-randomized trial in detail. We hypothesize that the financial incentive for abstinence in the form of vouchers increases abstinence rates over and above the group training. The results of this study can provide important recommendations for enhancement of employee tobacco cessation. Dutch Trial Register: NTR5657 . First received 27-01-2016.

  7. The effect of systematic clinical interventions with cigarette smokers on quit status and the rates of smoking-related primary care office visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Land

    Full Text Available The United States Public Health Service (USPHS Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence includes ten key recommendations regarding the identification and the treatment of tobacco users seen in all health care settings. To our knowledge, the impact of system-wide brief interventions with cigarette smokers on smoking prevalence and health care utilization has not been examined using patient population-based data.Data on clinical interventions with cigarette smokers were examined for primary care office visits of 104,639 patients at 17 Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates (HVMA sites. An operational definition of "systems change" was developed. It included thresholds for intervention frequency and sustainability. Twelve sites met the criteria. Five did not. Decreases in self-reported smoking prevalence were 40% greater at sites that achieved systems change (13.6% vs. 9.7%, p<.01. On average, the likelihood of quitting increased by 2.6% (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.1%-4.6% per occurrence of brief intervention. For patients with a recent history of current smoking whose home site experienced systems change, the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses decreased by 4.3% on an annualized basis after systems change occurred (p<0.05, 95% CI: 0.5%-8.1%. There was no change in the likelihood of an office visit for smoking-related diagnoses following systems change among non-smokers.The clinical practice data from HVMA suggest that a systems approach can lead to significant reductions in smoking prevalence and the rate of office visits for smoking-related diseases. Most comprehensive tobacco intervention strategies focus on the provider or the tobacco user, but these results argue that health systems should be included as an integral component of a comprehensive tobacco intervention strategy. The HVMA results also give us an indication of the potential health impacts when meaningful use core tobacco measures are widely adopted.

  8. The Intention to Quit Smoking: The Impact of Susceptibility, Self-Efficacy, Social Norms and Emotional Intelligence Embedded Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Sabbir; Mannan, Mahafuz; Rahman, Mohammad Mahboob

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: From the perspective of developing countries, studies regarding the behavioral effects of quitting tobacco consumption on emerging psychological determinants are limited. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of emotional intelligence (EI), social norms, susceptibility and self-efficacy on the behavioral effects of…

  9. Randomised trial investigating effect of a novel nicotine delivery device (Eclipse) and a nicotine oral inhaler on smoking behaviour, nicotine and carbon monoxide exposure, and motivation to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerström, K O; Hughes, J R; Rasmussen, T; Callas, P W

    2000-09-01

    To monitor the effect of a novel nicotine delivery device that may produce fewer carcinogens (Eclipse) on cigarette smoking, carbon monoxide and nicotine concentrations, and motivation to give up smoking. The smoker's own brand of cigarette and a nicotine replacement product (Nicotrol inhaler) were used as comparisons. After baseline data were recorded, smokers were randomised to either Eclipse or inhaler for two weeks and then switched to the other product for another two weeks. Thereafter a second baseline was obtained. Fifty smokers were included and data are reported for the 40 with complete data sets. The smokers were not trying to quit but were interested in trying a new product to reduce their risk. They visited a smoking clinic 10 times during the six week period of the trial. No counselling to aid reduction by Eclipse or inhaler was given. At each visit smoking status and carbon monoxide concentrations were recorded. In half of the visits withdrawal symptoms, attitudes towards smoking, heart rate, and blood nicotine concentrations were also recorded. Eclipse use decreased the number of cigarettes smoked per day (cpd) from 19.1 cpd at baseline to 2.1 cpd (p < 0.001), but increased carbon monoxide concentrations in parts per million (ppm) from 21.0 ppm to 33.0 ppm (p < 0.001). A similar decrease in cigarettes smoked per day was seen with the Nicotrol inhaler, from 19.1 cpd to 4.8 cpd (p < 0.001), but carbon monoxide decreased from 21.0 ppm to 12.7 ppm (p < 0.001). The blood nicotine concentration remained fairly stable with Eclipse, increasing slightly from 16.8 ng/ml to 18.0 ng/ml, while for the inhaler a significant drop was noted, from 16.8 ng/ml to 12. 2 ng/ml (p < 0.002). Craving and withdrawal did not increase with Eclipse. Few significant adverse events occurred with Eclipse. Eclipse can dramatically decrease cigarette consumption without causing withdrawal symptoms or decreases in nicotine concentrations or motivation to quit altogether. Unlike the

  10. Impact of the New Malaysian Cigarette Pack Warnings on Smokers? Awareness of Health Risks and Interest in Quitting Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I.; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Cummings, K. Michael; Borland, Ron; Samin, Ahmad Shalihin Bin Mohd

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the response of adult smokers in Malaysia to newly proposed pictorial cigarette warnings against the current text-only warnings. The study population included 140 adult male smokers who were enrolled in a randomized trial to view either the new pictorial warnings (intervention) or the old text-only warnings (control). Participants completed pre-exposure and post-exposure questionnaires that assessed their awareness of the health risks of smoking, ...

  11. Recruitment and initial interest of men in yoga for smoking cessation: QuitStrong, a randomized control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskins, Ronnesia B; Jennings, Ernestine G; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M; Bock, Beth C

    2015-06-01

    Innovative treatments like yoga for men's smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men's SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18-65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±13.7) who smoked on average 18.6 cigarettes/day (±8.3). Wellness (75.8 %) versus yoga (56 %) men attended more SC classes, p < 0.01. Sixty percent attended ≥1 yoga class. Men reported greater satisfaction with in-house versus community yoga classes. Wellness appears to be the preferred intervention; results indicated that it may be more feasible and showed increased attendance at smoking classes. To be fully feasible, yoga + SC may need to be a unified program offering all classes tailored for men and in the same location.

  12. QUITTING TOBACCO AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Markovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of tobacco quitting is difficult besause of absence of motives to keep good health, nicotine addiction, later beginning of health damages and lack of social suport. The aim of the study was to find out: dominant type of nicotine addiction among students, basic motives for quitting and readines to use pharmaceuticals or profesional help in services which support quitting. The conducted poll comprised 280 senior students of medicine and economy, active and ex-smokers. The obtained answers are as follows: 49.4% active smokers had never tryed to quit smoking; in the group of ex-smokers, 29.3% had never tryed before the first successful attempt. The most frequent motiv for quitting is care for own health in the future time (32% active smokers and 26.3% ex-smokers. The majority of active smokers needed a month or more to quit smoking (50.9%; the same period needed for quitting was reported by 10% of ex-smokers (p < 0.005 χ2=31.59. Quitting process is mostly disturbed by staying in smoked places (67.4% active and 51.2% ex-smokers. Only 2.4% of ex-smokers have used farmaceuticals during the quitting, while 22.2% of active smokers would use farmaceuticals (χ2=8.76 Yates corrected=7.54 p < 0.05. Counseling office for help during the quitting would be used by 12.1% of actual smokers. The same type of help have used 2.4% of ex-smokers. Conclusion: the dominant type of addiction among students smokers is a heavy nikotine addiction type. Care for own health in the future is not characteristic of the students' majority. Students rarely use farmaceuticals or counseling office help during the quitting process.

  13. Are quit attempts among U.S. female nurses who smoke different from female smokers in the general population? An analysis of the 2006/2007 tobacco use supplement to the current population survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarna Linda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a significant women's health issue. Examining smoking behaviors among occupational groups with a high prevalence of women may reveal the culture of smoking behavior and quit efforts of female smokers. The purpose of this study was to examine how smoking and quitting characteristics (i.e., ever and recent quit attempts among females in the occupation of nursing are similar or different to those of women in the general population. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey 2006/2007 were used to compare smoking behaviors of nurses (n = 2, 566 to those of non-healthcare professional women (n = 93, 717. Smoking characteristics included years of smoking, number of cigarettes, and time to first cigarette with smoking within the first 30 minutes as an indicator of nicotine dependence. Logistic regression models using replicate weights were used to determine correlates of ever and previous 12 months quit attempts. Results Nurses had a lower smoking prevalence than other women (12.1% vs 16.6%, p p = 0.0002; but not in the previous 12 months (42% vs 43%, p = 0.77. Among those who ever made a quit attempt, nurses who smoked within 30 minutes of waking, were more likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other women (OR = 3.1, 95% CI: 1.9, 5.1. When considering quit attempts within the last 12 months, nurses whose first cigarette was after 30 minutes of waking were less likely to have made a quit attempt compared to other females (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.98. There were no other significant differences in ever/recent quitting. Conclusions Smoking prevalence among female nurses was lower than among women who were not in healthcare occupations, as expected. The lack of difference in recent quit efforts among female nurses as compared to other female smokers has not been previously reported. The link between lower level of nicotine dependence, as reflected by the longer

  14. Recruitment and initial interest of men in yoga for smoking cessation: QuitStrong, a randomized control pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskins, Ronnesia B.; Jennings, Ernestine G.; Thind, Herpreet; Fava, Joseph L.; Horowitz, Santina; Lantini, Ryan; Becker, Bruce M.; Bock, Beth C.

    2014-01-01

    Innovative treatments like yoga for men’s smoking cessation (SC) are lacking. To examine the feasibility and acceptability of yoga for men’s SC. We randomly assigned eligible men (smoker, ≥5 cigarettes/day, age 18–65) to receive cognitive behavioral therapy for SC, plus a yoga or wellness program. Measures included feasibility (recruitment, class attendance) and acceptability (customer satisfaction). We enrolled 38 of 49 eligible men of 167 screened in response to ads (mean age 39.9 years, ±1...

  15. Real-world uptake of a tailored, text message pregnancy smoking cessation programme (MiQuit) when offered online

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Joanne; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prenatal smoking is a major public health concern and uptake of NHS cessation support is low in this group. Text message-based self-help is a promising intervention for this population but little is known about its likely real-world uptake, an essential parameter for estimating public health impact. Aims were to explore uptake (including cost) of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers (‘MiQuit’) when offered online. Methods: Links to a website pr...

  16. Smoking Cessation Support by Text Message During Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study of Views and Experiences of the MiQuit Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Melanie; Hopewell, Sarah; Coleman, Tim; Cooper, Sue; Naughton, Felix

    2017-05-01

    SMS text messaging is increasingly used for delivering smoking cessation support and pilot studies suggest this may also be useful in pregnancy. This study explores the views of women who received a tailored text messaging cessation intervention (MiQuit) during pregnancy, focusing on acceptability, perceived impact, and suggestions for improvements. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 purposively sampled women who had received the MiQuit intervention during pregnancy as part of a randomized controlled trial. Data were analyzed thematically. Three main themes were identified: "impact", "approach," and "optimization." Participants described an immediate, yet often short-lived, impact from the texts that distracted and delayed them from smoking and they perceived that texts focusing on the development of and risk to the baby generated more enduring emotional impacts. Most women found receiving support by text preferable to face-to-face cessation support, with participants citing the greater regularity, convenience, and non-judgmental style as particular advantages. Participants would have preferred a longer support program with increased tailoring, greater customization of text timings and consideration of cutting down as an alternative/precursor to quitting. Pregnancy-specific cessation support by text message was well received and participants considered the support increased their motivation to stop smoking. The focus on the developing baby, the regularity of contact and the provision of gentle, encouraging messages were highlighted as particularly important elements of the program. This study adds further evidence to the acceptability and perceived positive impact of text-messaging programs in aiding smoking cessation in pregnancy. The findings indicate that for some women, this type of support is preferable to face-to-face methods and could be utilized by health professionals, either in addition to current methods or as an alternative. This study

  17. Quitting Games

    OpenAIRE

    Eilon Solan; Nicolas Vieille

    1998-01-01

    Quitting games are sequential games in which, at any stage, each player has the choice between continuing and quitting. The game ends as soon as at least player chooses to quit; player i then receives a payoff r, which depends on the set S of players that did choose to quit. If the game never ends, the payoff to each player is 0. We prove the existence of cyclic E-equilibrium under some assumptions on the payoff function (r sub s). We prove on an example that our result is essentially optimal...

  18. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-González Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Methods/design Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited. On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Discussion Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and

  19. Effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers: a randomized controlled trial. ESPIROTAB study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, Mar; Torán-Monserrat, Pere; Muñoz-Ortiz, Laura; Negrete-Palma, Antonio; Montero-Alia, Juan José; Jiménez-González, Mercedes; Zurilla-Leonarte, Elena; Marina-Ortega, Victoria; Olle-Borque, Montserrat; Valentin-Moya, Esther; Cortada-Cabrera, Anna; Tena-Domingo, Alexis; Martínez-González, Silvia; Vila-Palau, Victoria; Ramos-Ordoñez, Adriana; Rotllant-Estelrich, Guida; Forcada-Vega, Carme; Borrell-Thió, Eulàlia

    2011-06-28

    Undiagnosed airflow limitation is common in the general population and is associated with impaired health and functional status. Smoking is the most important risk factor for this condition. Although primary care practitioners see most adult smokers, few currently have spirometers or regularly order spirometry tests in these patients. Brief medical advice has shown to be effective in modifying smoking habits in a large number of smokers but only a small proportion remain abstinent after one year. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of regular reporting of spirometric results combined with a smoking cessation advice by a primary care physician on smoking quit rate in adult smokers. Intervention study with a randomized two arms in 5 primary care centres. A total of 485 smokers over the age of 18 years consulting their primary care physician will be recruited.On the selection visit all participants will undergo a spirometry, peak expiratory flow rate, test of smoking dependence, test of motivation for giving up smoking and a questionnaire on socio-demographic data. Thereafter an appointment will be made to give the participants brief structured advice to give up smoking combined with a detailed discussion on the results of the spirometry. After this, the patients will be randomised and given appointment for follow up visits at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Both arms will receive brief structured advice and a detailed discussion of the spirometry results at visit 0. The control group will only be given brief structured advice about giving up smoking on the follow up. Cessation of smoking will be tested with the carbon monoxide test. Early identification of functional pulmonary abnormalities in asymptomatic patients or in those with little respiratory symptomatology may provide "ideal educational opportunities". These opportunities may increase the success of efforts to give up smoking and may improve the opportunities of other preventive actions to

  20. Motivating parents of kids with asthma to quit smoking: the effect of the teachable moment and increasing intervention intensity using a longitudinal randomized trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Belinda; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Tooley, Erin M; Busch, Andrew M; Hammond, S Katharine; Becker, Bruce; Dunsiger, Shira

    2016-09-01

    We tested two aims: (1) the teachable moment (TM): whether second-hand smoke exposure (SHSe) feedback motivates cessation in parents of children with asthma versus parents of healthy children (HC); and (2) whether greater intervention intensity [enhanced-precaution adoption model (PAM)] produces greater cessation than a previously tested intervention (PAM). Aim 1: two home visits (asthma education or child wellness), and cessation induction using motivational interviewing and SHSe feedback. Aim 2: post-home-visits, parents with asthmatic children were randomized to PAM (n = 171; six asthma education calls) or enhanced-PAM (n = 170; six asthma education/smoking cessation calls + repeat SHSe feedback). Rhode Island, USA. Parents of asthmatic (n = 341) or healthy (n = 219) children who did not have to want to quit smoking to enroll. Measurements were given at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Abstinence was bioverified. Outcomes were 7-day and 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) and SHSe (primary) and asthma morbidity (secondary). Aim 1: the TM was supported: parents of asthmatic children were more than twice as likely to achieve 30-day [odds ratio (OR) = 2.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.22-5.54] and 7-day ppa (OR = 2.26, 95% CI = 1.13-4.51) at 2 months (primary end-point) and have non-detectable levels of SHSe than HCs. Greater treatment intensity yielded stronger TM effects (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.72-7.55). Aim 2: enhanced-PAM was more likely to achieve 30-day ppa at the primary end-point, 4 months (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.09-4.12) and improved asthma outcomes versus PAM. Smoking cessation intervention (Motivational Interviewing plus biomarker feedback) appear to motivate smoking cessation more strongly among parents of asthmatic children than among parents of healthy children. Increased intervention intensity yields greater smoking cessation among parents of asthmatic children and better asthma outcomes.

  1. Are nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline or bupropion options for pregnant mothers to quit smoking? Effects on the respiratory system of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Gert S

    2009-08-01

    Nicotine occurs in tobacco smoke. It is a habit-forming substance and is prescribed by health professionals to assist smokers to quit smoking. It is rapidly absorbed from the lungs of smokers. It crosses the placenta and accumulates in the developing fetus. Nicotine induces formation of oxygen radicals and at the same time also reduces the antioxidant capacity of the lungs. Nicotine and the oxidants cause point mutations in the DNA molecule thereby changing the program that controls lung growth and maintenance of lung structure. The data available indicate that maternal nicotine exposure induces a persistent inhibition of glycolysis and a drastically increased AMP level. These metabolic changes are thought to contribute to the faster aging of the lungs of the offspring of mothers that are exposed to nicotine via the placenta and mother's milk. The lungs of these animals are more susceptible to damage as shown by the gradual deterioration of the lung parenchyma. The rapid metabolic and structural aging of the lungs of the animals exposed to nicotine via the placenta and mother's milk, and thus during phases of lung development characterized by rapid cell division, is likely due to 'programming' induced by nicotine. Since varenicline, a partial nicotine agonist, has basically the same structure as nicotine, and also binds to acetylcholine receptors in competition with nicotine (but with largely the same effect), it is not advisable to use nicotine or varenicline during gestation and lactation. Furthermore, the use of individual vitamin supplements is also not advisable because of the negative impact on the program that controls maintenance of lung structural and functional integrity and aging. A more appropriate smoking cessation program will also include a mixture of antioxidant nutrients such as in tomato juice.

  2. Measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve quitting: a qualitative grounded theory study of the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea L; Carter, Stacy M; Dunlop, Sally M; Freeman, Becky; Chapman, Simon

    2017-05-11

    To better understand the process of quitting from the ex-smokers' perspective, and to explore the role spontaneity and planning play in quitting. Qualitative grounded theory study using in-depth interviews with 37 Australian adult ex-smokers (24-68 years; 15 males, 22 females) who quit smoking in the past 6-24 months (26 quit unassisted; 11 used assistance). Based on participants' accounts of quitting, we propose a typology of quitting experiences: measured, opportunistic, unexpected and naïve. Two key features integral to participants' accounts of their quitting experiences were used as the basis of the typology: (1) the apparent onset of quitting (gradual through to sudden); and (2) the degree to which the smoker appeared to have prepared for quitting (no evidence through to clear evidence of preparation). The resulting 2 × 2 matrix of quitting experiences took into consideration three additional characteristics: (1) the presence or absence of a clearly identifiable trigger; (2) the amount of effort (cognitive and practical) involved in quitting; and (3) the type of cognitive process that characterised the quitting experience (reflective; impulsive; reflective and impulsive). Quitting typically included elements of spontaneity (impulsive behaviour) and preparation (reflective behaviour), and, importantly, the investment of time and cognitive effort by participants prior to quitting. Remarkably few participants quit completely out-of-the-blue with little or no preparation. Findings are discussed in relation to stages-of-change theory, catastrophe theory, and dual process theories, focusing on how dual process theories may provide a way of conceptualising how quitting can include elements of both spontaneity and preparation.

  3. Age and smoking habit influence on the spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies of the micronucleus in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human population that have been exposed at work or in the environment to genotoxic agents, particularly to ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for evaluating radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. A research to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the MN spontaneous and radiation induced frequencies was carried out in order to define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 health donors aged between 4 and 60 years. Based on the smoking habits, they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ-rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed, and a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was also obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence significantly MN variability, but there was a greater dispersion in the results obtained from female donors, when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to the data from non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ-rays for doses below 2 Gy. (authors). 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habits) on the spontaneous and radiation induced micronuclei frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, M.; Nasazzi, N.; Heredia, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Several endpoints have been used for monitoring human populations for environmental or occupational exposure to genotoxic agents, particularly ionizing radiation. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) assay in peripheral lymphocytes is a reliable method for assessing radiation induced chromosomal damage (DNA breaks and mitotic spindle disturbances) and thus, a suitable dosimeter for estimating in vivo whole body exposures. To further define the use of this assay in Biological Dosimetry, a study to determine the influence of age, sex and life style factors (smoking habit) on the spontaneous and radiation induced MN frequencies was performed. The estimation of MN frequencies was analyzed in lymphocytes cultures from 50 healthy donors aged between 4 and 62 years. On the basis of their smoking habit they were divided into 2 groups. A fraction of the sample was irradiated in vitro with γ rays in the range of 0.35 Gy to 4 Gy. A statistically significant influence on the spontaneous MN frequency was observed (R 2 = 0.59) when the variables age and smoking habit were analyzed and also a statistically significant influence on the radiation induced MN frequency was obtained (R 2 = 0.86) when dose, age and smoking habit were studied. Sex did not influence MN variability significantly but there was a greater dispersion in the results for females when compared to males, possibly due to the loss of X chromosomes. The comparison of the data from smoking donors to non smoking donors supports the convenience of taking into account the smoking habit for estimating in vivo whole body exposure to γ rays for doses below 2 Gy. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Effects of 30% and 50% Cigarette Pack Graphic Warning Labels on Visual Attention, Negative Affect, Quit Intentions, and Smoking Susceptibility among Disadvantaged Populations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurka, Chris; Kemp, Deena; Davydova, Julie; Thrasher, James F; Byrne, Sahara; Greiner Safi, Amelia; Avery, Rosemary J; Dorf, Michael C; Mathios, Alan D; Scolere, Leah; Niederdeppe, Jeff

    2017-11-04

    Though the WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) calls for the implementation of large graphic warning labels on cigarette boxes (GWLs), the courts have blocked the implementation of 50% labels in the U.S. We conducted an experiment to explore whether changing the size of GWLs is associated with changes in visual attention, negative affect, risk beliefs, and behavioral intentions. We recruited adult smokers (N = 238) and middle-school youth (N = 237) throughout New York state in May 2016. We randomly assigned participants to one of three between-subjects conditions (no GWL [control], 30% GWL, 50% GWL). Adult and youth participants looked at the GWLs longer when the GWL covered 50% versus 30% of the pack's front. Increasing GWL size from 30 to 50 percent did not influence negative affect or risk beliefs, though both GWL sizes increased negative affect relative to the no-GWL control group. Exposure to 50% GWLs increased adult smokers' intentions to quit compared to no-GWL, but smokers exposed to 30% GWLs did not differ from control. There were no differences between 50% GWLs, 30% GWLs, or control on youth smoking susceptibility. Findings provide some evidence of the benefits of a 50 versus 30 percent GWL covering the front of the pack for adult smokers and at-risk youth from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds-though not on all outcomes. This research shows that 30% GWLs on cigarette packages increase negative affect relative to packages without front-of-package GWLs. Larger GWLs on cigarette packages (50% versus 30%) increase visual attention to the warning and its pictorial content among low-SES smokers and at-risk youth but do not further increase negative affect. A 50% GWL increased adults' quit intention compared to no GWL at all, but we were underpowered to detect modest differences in quit intentions between a 50% and 30% GWL. Future work should thus continue to explore the boundary conditions under which relatively larger GWLs influence

  6. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti, Vitor E.; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.; Adami, Fernando; Sato, Monica A.; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M.; Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Rodrigues, Luciano M.; Ferreira, Celso

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4...

  7. Effectiveness of personalised risk information and taster sessions to increase the uptake of smoking cessation services (Start2quit): a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Hazel; Sutton, Stephen; Morris, Richard; Petersen, Irene; Galton, Simon; Wu, Qi; Parrott, Steve; Nazareth, Irwin

    2017-02-25

    National Health Service Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) offer help to smokers motivated to quit; however, attendance rates are low and recent figures show a downward trend. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of a two-component personalised intervention on attendance at SSSs. We did this randomised controlled trial in 18 SSSs in England. Current smokers (aged ≥16 years) were identified from medical records in 99 general practices and invited to participate by their general practitioner. Individuals who gave consent, were motivated to quit, and had not attended the SSS within the past 12 months, were randomly assigned (3:2), via computer-generated randomisation with permuted blocks (block size of five), to receive either an individually tailored risk letter and invitation to attend a no-commitment introductory session run by the local SSS (intervention group) or a standard generic letter advertising the local SSS (control group). Randomisation was stratified by sex. Masking of participants to receipt of a personal letter and invitation to a taster session was not possible. The personal letter was generated by a research assistant, but the remainder of the research team were masked to group allocation. General practitioners, practice staff, and SSS advisers were unaware of their patients' allocation. The primary outcome was attendance at the first session of an SSS course within 6 months from randomisation. We did analysis by intention to treat. This trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN 76561916. Recruitment, collection of baseline data, delivery of the intervention, and follow up of participants took place between Jan 31, 2011, and July 12, 2014. We randomly assigned 4384 smokers to the intervention group (n=2636) or the control group (n=1748); 4383 participants comprised the intention-to-treat population. Attendance at the first session of an SSS course was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (458

  8. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation: A longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Godtfredsen, Nina

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...... of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation...

  9. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  10. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000696.htm Smoking and COPD To use the sharing features on ... than if you were to stop smoking. Quit Smoking Quitting smoking is the best thing you can ...

  11. Statement on smoking cessation in COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Andreas, Stefan; Lewis, Keir E

    2015-01-01

    increasing numbers of (small) randomised controlled trials suggesting intensive smoking cessation treatments work in people with pulmonary diseases many patients are not given specific advice on the benefits or referred for intensive cessation treatments and, therefore, continue smoking.This is a qualitative......Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, asthma and pulmonary tuberculosis are common pulmonary diseases that are caused or worsened by tobacco smoking. Growing observational evidence suggests that symptoms and prognosis of these conditions improve upon smoking cessation. Despite...... review regarding smoking cessation in patients with COPD and other pulmonary disorders, written by a group of European Respiratory Society experts. We describe the epidemiological links between smoking and pulmonary disorders, the evidence for benefits of stopping smoking, how best to assess tobacco...

  12. Study of spontaneous deposition of 210Po on various metals and application for activity assessment in cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karali, T.; Oelmez, S.; Yener, G.

    1996-01-01

    210 Po in environmental samples has been accumulated on various metals using the chemical electrodeposition technique. The 210 Po was deposited spontaneously on metal discs after decomposition of the sample in HCl acid and then measured using a ZnS(Ag)α-particle detector. Silver was observed to have the highest deposition efficiency when 210 Po deposition on different metals was studied. Copper discs were used in the application of activity assessment in cigarette smoke as this is more available and more economical although silver has a higher efficiency than that of other materials examined. The technique is applied for the analysis of 210 Po in tobacco, ash and butt for several brands of imported and domestic cigarettes smoked in Turkey. (Author)

  13. Tobacco Industry Research on Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. OBJECTIVE Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers’ needs. METHODS Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. RESULTS Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, “ultra low tar” cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers’ motivations. PMID:15109339

  14. Associations of lifetime active and passive smoking with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis of historical data from the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Andrew; Piazza, Kenneth M; Hovey, Kathleen M; Ockene, Judith K; Andrews, Christopher A; Rivard, Cheryl; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2015-07-01

    To examine the associations between tobacco exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes using quantitative measures of lifetime active smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Historical reproductive data on 80 762 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were examined with a cross-sectional analysis. We assessed self-reported lifetime active and passive tobacco smoke exposure, self-reported spontaneous abortions, stillbirths and ectopic pregnancies. When compared with never-smoking women, participants who were ever active smokers during their reproductive years had ORs (OR) of 1.16 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.26) for 1 or more spontaneous abortions, 1.44 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.73) for 1 or more stillbirths, and 1.43 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.86) for 1 or more ectopic pregnancies. Never-smoking women participants with the highest levels of lifetime SHS exposure, including childhood >10 years, adult home >20 years and adult work exposure >10 years, when compared with never-smoking women with no SHS exposure had adjusted ORs of 1.17 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.30) for spontaneous abortion, 1.55 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.97) for stillbirth, and 1.61 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.24) for ectopic pregnancy. Women who were ever-smokers during their reproductive years had significantly greater estimates of risk for spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Never-smoking women with the highest levels of lifetime exposure to SHS had significantly increased estimates of risk for spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. Assisting Young People in Quitting Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudore, Constance Faye

    1997-01-01

    Describes efforts to help teenagers stop smoking. Discusses the use of a curriculum titled Tobacco Free Teens in a stop-smoking group offered to students. The curriculum, an eight-session program with meetings of 50 minutes each, assists participants demonstrate increased knowledge of the benefits of quitting smoking. (RJM)

  16. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  17. Mood as a resource in dealing with health recommendations: How mood affects information processing and acceptance of quit-smoking messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, E.; Vonkeman, C.C.; Hartmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: An experimental study tested the effects of positive and negative mood on the processing and acceptance of health recommendations about smoking in an online experiment. It was hypothesised that positive mood would provide smokers with the resources to systematically process self-relevant

  18. Perspectives on financial incentives to health service providers for increasing breast feeding and smoking quit rates during pregnancy: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; MacLennan, Graeme; Dykes, Fiona; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Campbell, Marion K

    2015-11-13

    To explore the acceptability, mechanisms and consequences of provider incentives for smoking cessation and breast feeding as part of the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study. Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews. Scotland and North West England. Early years professionals: 497 survey respondents included 156 doctors; 197 health visitors/maternity staff; 144 other health staff. Qualitative interviews or focus groups were conducted with 68 pregnant/postnatal women/family members; 32 service providers; 22 experts/decision-makers; 63 conference attendees. Early years professionals were surveyed via email about the acceptability of payments to local health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding targets. Agreement was measured on a 5-point scale using multivariable ordered logit models. A framework approach was used to analyse free-text survey responses and qualitative data. Health professional net agreement for provider incentives for smoking cessation targets was 52.9% (263/497); net disagreement was 28.6% (142/497). Health visitors/maternity staff were more likely than doctors to agree: OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.64; pgaming, box-ticking bureaucracies and health inequalities were counterbalances to potential benefits. Provider incentives are favoured by non-medical staff. Solutions which increase trust and collaboration towards shared goals, without negatively impacting on relationships or increasing bureaucracy are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Perspectives on financial incentives to health service providers for increasing breast feeding and smoking quit rates during pregnancy: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, Pat; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; Crossland, Nicola; MacLennan, Graeme; Dykes, Fiona; Stewart, Fiona; Bauld, Linda; Campbell, Marion K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the acceptability, mechanisms and consequences of provider incentives for smoking cessation and breast feeding as part of the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study. Design Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews. Setting Scotland and North West England. Participants Early years professionals: 497 survey respondents included 156 doctors; 197 health visitors/maternity staff; 144 other health staff. Qualitative interviews or focus groups were conducted with 68 pregnant/postnatal women/family members; 32 service providers; 22 experts/decision-makers; 63 conference attendees. Methods Early years professionals were surveyed via email about the acceptability of payments to local health services for reaching smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding targets. Agreement was measured on a 5-point scale using multivariable ordered logit models. A framework approach was used to analyse free-text survey responses and qualitative data. Results Health professional net agreement for provider incentives for smoking cessation targets was 52.9% (263/497); net disagreement was 28.6% (142/497). Health visitors/maternity staff were more likely than doctors to agree: OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.51 to 3.64; p<0.001). Net agreement for provider incentives for breastfeeding targets was 44.1% (219/497) and net disagreement was 38.6% (192/497). Agreement was more likely for women (compared with men): OR 1.81 (1.09 to 3.00; p=0.023) and health visitors/maternity staff (compared with doctors): OR 2.54 (95% CI 1.65 to 3.91; p<0.001). Key emergent themes were ‘moral tensions around acceptability’, ‘need for incentives’, ‘goals’, ‘collective or divisive action’ and ‘monitoring and proof’. While provider incentives can focus action and resources, tensions around the impact on relationships raised concerns. Pressure, burden of proof, gaming, box-ticking bureaucracies and health inequalities were

  20. Successful Quitting (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-01-12

    Quitting smoking is a major challenge for many people. Seeking help and using proven techniques can improve your chances of quitting for good. In this podcast, Steve Babb discusses ways to successfully quit smoking.  Created: 1/12/2017 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/12/2017.

  1. Characterisation of the proximal airway squamous metaplasia induced by chronic tobacco smoke exposure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster Martyn

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous exposure to tobacco smoke (TS is a key cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a complex multifactorial disease that is difficult to model in rodents. The spontaneously hypertensive (SH rat exhibits several COPD-associated co-morbidities such as hypertension and increased coagulation. We have investigated whether SH rats are a more appropriate animal paradigm of COPD. Methods SH rats were exposed to TS for 6 hours/day, 3 days/week for 14 weeks, and the lung tissues examined by immunohistochemistry. Results TS induced a CK13-positive squamous metaplasia in proximal airways, which also stained for Ki67 and p63. We hypothesise that this lesion arises by basal cell proliferation, which differentiates to a squamous cell phenotype. Differences in staining profiles for the functional markers CC10 and surfactant D, but not phospho-p38, indicated loss of ability to function appropriately as secretory cells. Within the parenchyma, there were also differences in the staining profiles for CC10 and surfactant D, indicating a possible attempt to compensate for losses in proximal airways. In human COPD sections, areas of CK13-positive squamous metaplasia showed sporadic p63 staining, suggesting that unlike the rat, this is not a basal cell-driven lesion. Conclusion This study demonstrates that although proximal airway metaplasia in rat and human are both CK13+ and therefore squamous, they potentially arise by different mechanisms.

  2. Necesidad del abandono del tabaquismo para la prevención de enfermedad periodontal y otras afecciones It is necessary to quit smoking to prevent periodontal disease and other affections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eladio Miguel Traviesas Herrera

    2011-09-01

    explored in this review the features related to the smoking quit, the immediate and at long term physical, psychological, economic advantages representing this type of behavior, as well as the processes and methods that at present times are applied to such quit. It was evidenced that it is necessary the implementation of techniques contributing to smoking quit and thus to contribute to recovery of periodontal health.

  3. [Quitting the tobacco habit in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Hernández, I; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    1991-06-29

    The tendencies in the cessation from smoking and their determinants provide useful information to developed preventive policies and to predict the evolution of diseases associated with cigarette consumption. Spain is one of the European countries with more prevalent smoking habits in the general population, and thus the study of factors determining cessation from smoking is particularly relevant. The socioeconomic, demographic and health-related variables associated with the cessation from smoking were evaluated using the data bank from the National Health Survey carried out by the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo in 1987, which includes interviews to 29,647 individuals above 16 years of age. The data were analyzed by the calculation of the quit ratio standardized for age. The quit ratio is influenced by age and sex; it is higher among women and it increases with age. The results are questionable regarding the relation with educational level, family income and occupation. The smokers of less than 10 or more than 25 cigarettes/day are those with a higher quit ratio. The quit ratio is also higher in individuals with health problems, a higher rate of use of health services and in those without usual alcohol consumption. The profile of the individuals who quit smoking in Spain has specific features when compared with other countries, particularly regarding the higher quit rate among women and the lack of a linear correlation with indicators of socioeconomic level.

  4. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor E. Valenti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. METHODS: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH (16 weeks old were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V. The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. The rats were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for 180 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks (CO: 100-300 ppm. The baroreflex was tested using a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, bolus and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg, bolus. Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after injection of a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 0.001 g/100 μL into the 4th V. RESULTS: Vehicle administration into the 4th V did not affect the cardiovascular response, whereas administration of the central catalase inhibitor increased the basal HR and attenuated the bradycardic peak (p<0.05 to a greater extent in WKY rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke than in WKY rats exposed to fresh air. However, in spontaneously hypertensive rats, the effect of the catalase inhibitor treatment was stronger in the fresh air condition (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Administration of a catalase inhibitor into the 4th V combined with exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke has a stronger effect in WKY rats than in SH rats.

  5. Do the smoking intensity and duration, the years since quitting, the methodological quality and the year of publication of the studies affect the results of the meta-analysis on cigarette smoking and Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) in adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colamesta, Vittoria; D'Aguanno, Silvia; Breccia, Massimo; Bruffa, Sara; Cartoni, Claudio; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The aim was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the relationship between tobacco smoking and the onset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adults. PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched. In the meta-analysis, random or fixed effects models were used according to the presence of heterogeneity. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Twenty-seven articles were included. Case-control and cohort meta-analyses show that current, ever and former smokers have a significant increased risk to develop AML compared to never smokers [current: OR=1.36 (1.11-1.66) and RR=1.52 (1.10-2.14); ever: OR=1.25 (1.14-1.38) and RR=1.45 (1.10-1.90); former: OR=1.21 (1.03-1.41) and RR=1.45 (1.08-1.94)]. Moreover, increasing smoking intensity and duration is associated with an increase of the risk, OR shift from 1.14 (1-20 pack/years) to 2.36 (>40 pack/years). Smoking may have a significant role in AML onset in a multistep pathogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. What characterises smokers who quit without using help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Dalum, Peter; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang

    2015-01-01

    -2008. In all, 6445 persons reporting quitting successfully within the last 5 years were included in analyses. Users and non-users of cessation aid (medical or behavioural support) were compared with regards to age, education, years smoked, tobacco amount, tobacco type and smoking-related disease using logistic......, those who had smoked for 15 years or more also had lower odds of quitting unaided. Smoking 15 or more grams of tobacco daily was inversely associated with quitting unaided (eg, OR among men were 0.38, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.46). CONCLUSIONS: Quitting smoking without the use of formalised aid was the most...... common cessation approach. Quitting unaided was more likely among men, younger age groups, those with a shorter history of smoking and those who were light smokers. These results indicate that awareness of unaided cessation in general and to those for whom it is especially relevant should be increased...

  7. Effects of the administration of a catalase inhibitor into the fourth cerebral ventricle on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Vitor E; Abreu, Luiz Carlos de; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Adami, Fernando; Sato, Monica A; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; Ferreira, Lucas Lima; Rodrigues, Luciano M; Ferreira, Celso

    2013-06-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between brain oxidative stress and cardiovascular regulation. We evaluated the effects of central catalase inhibition on cardiovascular responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SH) (16 weeks old) were implanted with a stainless steel guide cannula leading into the fourth cerebral ventricle (4th V). The femoral artery and vein were cannulated for arterial pressure and heart rate measurement and drug infusion, respectively. The rats were exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke for 180 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks (CO: 100-300 ppm). The baroreflex was tested using a pressor dose of phenylephrine (8 μg/kg, bolus) and a depressor dose of sodium nitroprusside (50 μg/kg, bolus). Cardiovascular responses were evaluated before and 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after injection of a catalase inhibitor (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, 0.001 g/100 μL) into the 4th V. Vehicle administration into the 4th V did not affect the cardiovascular response, whereas administration of the central catalase inhibitor increased the basal HR and attenuated the bradycardic peak (peffect of the catalase inhibitor treatment was stronger in the fresh air condition (pcatalase inhibitor into the 4th V combined with exposure to sidestream cigarette smoke has a stronger effect in WKY rats than in SH rats.

  8. Tobacco industry research on smoking cessation. Recapturing young adults and other recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2004-05-01

    Smoking rates are declining in the United States, except for young adults (age 18 to 24). Few organized programs target smoking cessation specifically for young adults, except programs for pregnant women. In contrast, the tobacco industry has invested much time and money studying young adult smoking patterns. Some of these data are now available in documents released through litigation. Review tobacco industry marketing research on smoking cessation to guide new interventions and improve clinical practice, particularly to address young adult smokers' needs. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents. Compared to their share of the smoking population, young adult smokers have the highest spontaneous quitting rates. About 10% to 30% of smokers want to quit; light smokers and brand switchers are more likely to try. Tobacco companies attempted to deter quitting by developing products that appeared to be less addictive or more socially acceptable. Contrary to consumer expectations, "ultra low tar" cigarette smokers were actually less likely to quit. Tobacco industry views of young adult quitting behavior contrast with clinical practice. Tobacco marketers concentrate on recapturing young quitters, while organized smoking cessation programs are primarily used by older smokers. As young people have both the greatest propensity to quit and the greatest potential benefits from smoking cessation, targeted programs for young adults are needed. Tobacco marketing data suggest that aspirational messages that decrease the social acceptability of smoking and support smoke-free environments resonate best with young adult smokers' motivations.

  9. Systems toxicology approaches enable mechanistic comparison of spontaneous and cigarette smoke-related lung tumor development in the A/J mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luettich, Karsta; Xiang, Yang; Iskandar, Anita; Sewer, Alain; Martin, Florian; Talikka, Marja; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Berges, An; Veljkovic, Emilija; Gonzalez-Suarez, Ignacio; Schlage, Walter; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel

    2014-06-01

    The A/J mouse is highly susceptible to lung tumor induction and has been widely used as a screening model in carcinogenicity testing and chemoprevention studies. However, the A/J mouse model has several disadvantages. Most notably, it develops lung tumors spontaneously. Moreover, there is a considerable gap in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary chemical carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse. Therefore, we examined the differences between spontaneous and cigarette smoke-related lung tumors in the A/J mouse model using mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) profiling. Male A/J mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream cigarette smoke (MS) for 18 months. Gene expression interaction term analysis of lung tumors and surrounding non-tumorous parenchyma samples from animals that were exposed to either 300 mg/m(3) MS or sham-exposed to fresh air indicated significant differential expression of 296 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis(®) (IPA(®)) indicated an overall suppression of the humoral immune response, which was accompanied by a disruption of sphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism and a deregulation of potentially oncogenic miRNA in tumors of MS-exposed A/J mice. Thus, we propose that MS exposure leads to severe perturbations in pathways essential for tumor recognition by the immune system, thereby potentiating the ability of tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance. Further, exposure to MS appeared to affect expression of miRNA, which have previously been implicated in carcinogenesis and are thought to contribute to tumor progression. Finally, we identified a 50-gene expression signature and show its utility in distinguishing between cigarette smoke-related and spontaneous lung tumors.

  10. Talking about Quitting: Interpersonal Communication as a Mediator of Campaign Effects on Smokers’ Quit Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Michelle; Tan, Andy; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura; Hornik, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the role of interpersonal communication in the context of a mass media anti-smoking campaign. Specifically, it explored whether conversations about campaign ads and/or about quitting mediated campaign exposure effects on two quitting behaviors (sought help to quit and tried to quit smoking completely), as well as the relationship between ad-related and quitting-related conversations. Data were collected prior to the campaign and monthly for 16 months during the campaign through cross-sectional telephone surveys among a sample of 3277 adult Philadelphian smokers. Follow-up interviews were conducted among 877 participants three months after their first survey. Cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models with bootstrap procedures assessed the indirect effects of campaign exposure on outcomes through conversations, and of conversations about ads on outcomes through conversations about quitting. In addition, lagged regression analyses tested the causal direction of associations between the variables of interest. The results partially support hypotheses that conversations about quitting mediate campaign effects on quitting-related behaviors, and, in line with previous research, that conversations about the ads have indirect effects on quitting-related behaviors by triggering conversations about quitting. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering interpersonal communication as a route of campaign exposure effects when evaluating and designing future public health campaigns. PMID:26147367

  11. Quit Attempt Correlates among Smokers by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Teplinskaya

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature deaths in the U.S., accounting for approximately 443,000 deaths annually. Although smoking prevalence in recent decades has declined substantially among all racial/ethnic groups, disparities in smoking-related behaviors among racial/ethnic groups continue to exist. Two of the goals of Healthy People 2020 are to reduce smoking prevalence among adults to 12% or less and to increase smoking cessation attempts by adult smokers from 41% to 80%. Our study assesses whether correlates of quit attempts vary by race/ethnicity among adult (≥18 years smokers in the U.S. Understanding racial/ethnic differences in how both internal and external factors affect quit attempts is important for targeting smoking-cessation interventions to decrease tobacco-use disparities. Methods: We used 2003 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS data from 16,213 adults to examine whether the relationship between demographic characteristics, smoking behaviors, smoking policies and having made a quit attempt in the past year varied by race/ethnicity. Results: Hispanics and persons of multiple races were more likely to have made a quit attempt than whites. Overall, younger individuals and those with >high school education, who smoked fewer cigarettes per day and had smoked for fewer years were more likely to have made a quit attempt. Having a smoke-free home, receiving a doctor’s advice to quit, smoking menthol cigarettes and having a greater time to when you smoked your first cigarette of the day were also associated with having made a quit attempt. The relationship between these four variables and quit attempts varied by race/ethnicity; most notably receiving a doctor’s advice was not related to quit attempts among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and menthol use among whites was associated with a lower prevalence of quit attempts while black menthol users were more likely

  12. Systems toxicology approaches enable mechanistic comparison of spontaneous and cigarette smoke-related lung tumor development in the A/J mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luettich Karsta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The A/J mouse is highly susceptible to lung tumor induction and has been widely used as a screening model in carcinogenicity testing and chemoprevention studies. However, the A/J mouse model has several disadvantages. Most notably, it develops lung tumors spontaneously. Moreover, there is a considerable gap in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary chemical carcinogenesis in the A/J mouse. Therefore, we examined the differences between spontaneous and cigarette smokerelated lung tumors in the A/J mouse model using mRNA and microRNA (miRNA profiling. Male A/J mice were exposed whole-body to mainstream cigarette smoke (MS for 18 months. Gene expression interaction term analysis of lung tumors and surrounding nontumorous parenchyma samples from animals that were exposed to either 300 mg/m3 MS or sham-exposed to fresh air indicated significant differential expression of 296 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis® (IPA® indicated an overall suppression of the humoral immune response, which was accompanied by a disruption of sphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism and a deregulation of potentially oncogenic miRNA in tumors of MS-exposed A/J mice. Thus, we propose that MS exposure leads to severe perturbations in pathways essential for tumor recognition by the immune system, thereby potentiating the ability of tumor cells to escape from immune surveillance. Further, exposure to MS appeared to affect expression of miRNA, which have previously been implicated in carcinogenesis and are thought to contribute to tumor progression. Finally, we identified a 50-gene expression signature and show its utility in distinguishing between cigarette smoke-related and spontaneous lung tumors

  13. Cigarette Purchasing Patterns, Readiness to Quit, and Quit Attempts Among Homeless Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrighting, Quentaxia; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; LeBlanc, Hannah; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2017-11-07

    Cigarette purchasing patterns may be linked with greater readiness to make a quit attempt and more quit attempts among domiciled samples. However, little is known about the cigarette purchasing patterns of homeless smokers or their potential relations to quitting intention and behaviors. This study redressed this gap among a convenience sample of homeless adult smokers from a large shelter in Dallas, Texas. Participants (N = 207; Mage = 43; 71.5% male) smoked ≥100 cigarettes over the lifetime and endorsed current daily smoking. Variables assessed included cigarette dependence (time to first cigarette of the day), monthly income, quantity of cigarettes most recently purchased, average money spent on cigarettes weekly, readiness/motivation to quit smoking, and the number intentional quit attempts lasting ≥24h in the past year. Regression analyses were conducted to characterize associations of cigarette purchasing patterns with readiness to quit and quit attempts controlling for sex, age, cigarette dependence, and income. Most participants purchased cigarettes by the pack (61.4%), and more than half the sample spent ≤$20 on cigarettes per week. Results indicated that spending less money per week on cigarettes was associated with greater readiness to quit (P = .016), even when controlling for income, cigarette dependence, and other covariates. Stratified analyses indicated that this association was significant only for homeless smokers reporting no regular monthly income. Homeless daily smokers with no reported income who spend little money on cigarettes may make particularly apt targets for cessation interventions due to potential associations with quitting motivation. Adults who are homeless smoke at greater rates and quit at lower rates than domiciled adults, leading to significant smoking-related health disparities among this group. Findings suggest that cigarette purchasing patterns are linked with readiness to quit smoking among smokers who are homeless

  14. Chronic cigarette smoking enhances spontaneous release of tumour necrosis factor-α from alveolar macrophages of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pessina

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biological effects of chronic cigarette smoking (two cigarettes for 2 h, daily for 4 months in rats were evaluated. During the smoking period, body weight of smoker rats was always significantly lower than that of control rats. Immediately after the last smoking session the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration in the blood was about 8.5% and the polymorphonuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid increased significantly. At the same time, enzymatic analyses on the supernatants of bronchoalveolar fluid revealed a significant increase of β-glucuronidase in the smoker group. Alveolar macrophages, collected 0, 8 and 24 h after the last smoking session, significantly increased the generation of superoxide anion and, after incubation for 24 h at 37° C in a humidified atmosphere, released significantly high amounts of TNF-α. When challenged with lipopolysaccharide, alveolar macrophages of smoker rats released much more TNF-α but, in such a case, TNF-α release was about one half of that observed in the control group. Peritoneal macrophages of both control and smoker rats were unable either to generate high levels of superoxide anion or to release significant amounts of TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated the activated state of alveolar macrophages and the resting state of peritoneal macrophages.

  15. Making a Quit Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your quit plan Be healthier Be healthier Save money Save money Smell better Smell better My loved ones My ... songs, plan a movie night with friends, or save up your cigarette money for a special treat when you reach a ...

  16. [Nicotine in infancy--QUIT for kids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazela, Jan; Merritt, T Ailen; Florek, Ewa; Gadzinowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during pregnancy as well as during postnatal period has been shown to be potentially responsible for variety of diseases, including premature delivery, upper and lower respiratory illnesses, asthma or behavioral disturbances (colic, attention deficient disorders). It is estimated that up to 70 to 80% of children are exposed to ETS, and most often they are forced to inhale air contaminated by tobacco smoke in public places such as kindergartens, schools, play grounds, but also cars and in other forms of transportation. Nevertheless one of the most significant sources of nicotine and other toxicants of tobacco smoke is breast milk from the smoking mother, or even among mothers exposed to ETS. Lack of individual educational approach focused on prevention of ETS exposure by infants lead our academic collaboration and establishment of "The QUIT for kids" program.

  17. I'll txt U if I have a problem: how the Société Canadienne du cancer in Quebec applied behavior-change theory, data mining and agile software development to help young adults quit smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mierlo, Trevor; Fournier, Rachel; Jean-Charles, Anathalie; Hovington, Jacinthe; Ethier, Isabelle; Selby, Peter

    2014-01-01

    For many organizations, limited budgets and phased funding restrict the development of digital health tools. This problem is often exacerbated by the ever-increasing sophistication of technology and costs related to programming and maintenance. Traditional development methods tend to be costly and inflexible and not client centered. The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of Agile software development and outcomes of a three-phase mHealth program designed to help young adult Quebecers quit smoking. In Phase I, literature reviews, focus groups, interviews, and behavior change theory were used in the adaption and re-launch of an existing evidence-based mHealth platform. Based on analysis of user comments and utilization data from Phase I, the second phase expanded the service to allow participants to live text-chat with counselors. Phase II evaluation led to the third and current phase, in which algorithms were introduced to target pregnant smokers, substance users, students, full-time workers, those affected by mood disorders and chronic disease. Data collected throughout the three phases indicate that the incremental evolution of the intervention has led to increasing numbers of smokers being enrolled while making functional enhancements. In Phase I (240 days) 182 smokers registered with the service. 51% (n = 94) were male and 61.5% (n = 112) were between the ages of 18-24. In Phase II (300 days), 994 smokers registered with the service. 51% (n = 508) were male and 41% (n = 403) were between the ages of 18-24. At 174 days to date 873 smokers have registered in the third phase. 44% (n = 388) were male and 24% (n = 212) were between the ages of 18-24. Emerging technologies in behavioral science show potential, but do not have defined best practices for application development. In phased-based projects with limited funding, Agile appears to be a viable approach to building and expanding digital tools.

  18. I'll txt U if I have a problem: how the Société Canadienne du cancer in Quebec applied behavior-change theory, data mining and agile software development to help young adults quit smoking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor van Mierlo

    Full Text Available For many organizations, limited budgets and phased funding restrict the development of digital health tools. This problem is often exacerbated by the ever-increasing sophistication of technology and costs related to programming and maintenance. Traditional development methods tend to be costly and inflexible and not client centered. The purpose of this study is to analyze the use of Agile software development and outcomes of a three-phase mHealth program designed to help young adult Quebecers quit smoking.In Phase I, literature reviews, focus groups, interviews, and behavior change theory were used in the adaption and re-launch of an existing evidence-based mHealth platform. Based on analysis of user comments and utilization data from Phase I, the second phase expanded the service to allow participants to live text-chat with counselors. Phase II evaluation led to the third and current phase, in which algorithms were introduced to target pregnant smokers, substance users, students, full-time workers, those affected by mood disorders and chronic disease.Data collected throughout the three phases indicate that the incremental evolution of the intervention has led to increasing numbers of smokers being enrolled while making functional enhancements. In Phase I (240 days 182 smokers registered with the service. 51% (n = 94 were male and 61.5% (n = 112 were between the ages of 18-24. In Phase II (300 days, 994 smokers registered with the service. 51% (n = 508 were male and 41% (n = 403 were between the ages of 18-24. At 174 days to date 873 smokers have registered in the third phase. 44% (n = 388 were male and 24% (n = 212 were between the ages of 18-24.Emerging technologies in behavioral science show potential, but do not have defined best practices for application development. In phased-based projects with limited funding, Agile appears to be a viable approach to building and expanding digital tools.

  19. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation analyses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking-related variables affected making a quit attempt. An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15-24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors influencing quit attempts among male daily smokers in China✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Song, Yang; Xiao, Lin; Palipudi, Krishna; Asma, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background China has the largest population of smokers in the world, yet the quit rate is low. We used data from the 2010 Global Adult Tobacco Survey China to identify factors influencing quit attempts among male Chinese daily smokers. Methods The study sample included 3303 male daily smokers. To determine the factors that were significantly associated with making a quit attempt, we conducted logistic regression analyses. In addition, mediation anal yses were carried out to investigate how the intermediate association among demographics (age, education, urbanicity) and smoking related variables affected making a quit attempt. Results An estimated 11.0% of male daily smokers tried to quit smoking in the 12 months prior to the survey. Logistic regression analysis indicated that younger age (15–24 years), being advised to quit by a health care provider (HCP) in the past 12 months, lower cigarette cost per pack, monthly or less frequent exposure to smoking at home, and awareness of the harms of tobacco use were significantly associated with making a quit attempt. Additional mediation analyses showed that having knowledge of the harm of tobacco, exposure to smoking at home, and having been advised to quit by an HCP were mediators of making a quit attempt for other independent variables. Conclusion Evidence-based tobacco control measures such as conducting educational campaigns on the harms of tobacco use, establishing smoke-free policies at home, and integrating tobacco cessation advice into primary health care services can increase quit attempts and reduce smoking among male Chinese daily smokers. PMID:26441296

  1. Intervenciones para dejar de fumar en México: análisis de disponibilidad a pagar por un método efectivo de cesación Smoking cessation interventions in Mexico: analysis of the willingness to pay for an effective method to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson E Serván-Mori

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar factores socioeconómicos, demográficos, historia de tabaquismo y contextuales asociados con el deseo de dejar de fumar, estimar la disponibilidad a pagar (DAP por tratamientos de cesación tabáquica (TCT efectivos, e identificar sus factores asociados. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante la Encuesta Global de Tabaquismo en Adultos, México 2009, caracterizamos a 1 626 fumadores. Modelos logit y de regresión lineal múltiple permitieron identificar factores asociados con el deseo de dejar de fumar y la DAP. RESULTADOS: 82.2% de los fumadores que no deseaban dejar de fumar fueron hombres. Entre quienes deseaban dejar de fumar, 49.8% fumaba diariamente y reportó más de 16 años de fumar, 57% manifestó intentos previos de cesación y 10% conocer centros de ayuda. La DAP promedio fue 2 708 MXN, destacando diferencias por nivel socioeconómico y educativo. CONCLUSIONES: Se contribuye al diseño de estrategias de cesación diferenciadas, propiciando mejoras en la respuesta del sistema de salud al combate del tabaquismo en México.OBJECTIVE: To identify environmental, demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with the desire to quit, estimate the willingness to pay (WTP for smoking cessation treatments (SCT and to identify associated factors with this valuation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Mexico 2009, we characterized 1 626 smokers. Logistic and multiple lineal regression models allowed to identify associated factors with the desire to quit and the WTP for SCT. RESULTS: 82.2 % of the current smokers who did not want to quit were men. Between those who wanted to quit, 49.8 % had been consuming tobacco every day, for more than 16 years, 57 % had made cessation attempts in the past, and around 10% knew about the existence of centers to help quit smoking. Average WTP was 2 708 Mexican pesos (MXP, with differences by educational and socioeconomic levels. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence supports

  2. Clinical inquiries. Does office spirometry improve quit rates in smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spata, Jennifer; Kelsberg, Gary; Safranek, Sarah

    2010-10-01

    It depends. Simply performing spirometry and offering cessation advice doesn't improve quit rates in patients who smoke (strength of recommendation [SOR]: A, systematic review of randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). However, when the spirometry results are communicated in terms of "lung age", smokers are more likely to quit (SOR: B, large RCT). Patients with abnormal spirometry results may be more likely to quit than patients with normal results (SOR: B, cohort studies).

  3. Symptoms in smokers trying to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgason Asgeir R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To describe the prevalence and intensity of different symptoms in relation to tobacco abstinence. To explore latent dimensions between symptoms in smokers trying to quit. Design A cross sectional study using a questionnaire to retrospectively assess symptoms over a period of 12 months. Setting Swedish telephone quitline, a nationwide free of charge service. Participants All 741 individuals who had called the quitline and signed up for smoking cessation treatment between February 2000 to November 2001 and reported to have been smoke free for at least 24 hours during the previous 12 month period from first contact. Measurements Assessments were made by self-report, and abstinence was defined as "not a single puff of smoke during the last week". A factor analysis approach where individual items aggregate into factors was used to explore the relationship between the different symptoms. Findings High intensity of symptoms related to unsuccessful quitting attempts and included craving, irritability, apprehension/anxiety, difficulties concentrating, restlessness, depression/depressed mood, and insomnia. The factor loadings of all 17 symptoms resulted in three factors with factor 1, psychological being the most important. High scores on this factor relates to unsuccessful quitting attempts. Using Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT for 5 weeks or longer, reduced symptoms included in factor 1. The other two factors were factor 2 physiological and factor 3 neurological. Conclusion Symptoms that are psychological and/or neurological in nature are interrelated and appear to be the most significant obstacles for successful quitting attempts in a population-based setting. These symptoms may be successfully treated with NRT.

  4. Quitting Doesn’t Mean You Can’t Have A Social Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you’re a smoker, smoking is probably an important part of many of your relationships. You may smoke with co-workers, with friends, or with your partner, and when you stop smoking, these relationships might change. But quitting smoking doesn’t mean that you can’t have a social life.

  5. The effect of quitting smoking on costs and healthcare utilization in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a comparison of current smokers versus ex-smokers in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Rejas-Gutiérrez, Javier; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Ibáñez-Nolla, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent condition mainly related to smoking, which is associated with a substantial economic burden. The purpose was to compare healthcare resource utilization and costs according to smoking status in patients with COPD in routine clinical practice. A retrospective cohort nested case-control study was designed. The cohort was composed of male and female COPD outpatients, 40 years or older, covered by the Badalona Serveis Assistencials (a health provider) health plan. Cases were current smokers with COPD and controls (two per case) were former smokers with COPD (at least 12 months without smoking), matched for age, sex, duration of COPD, and burden of comorbidity. The index date was the last visit recorded in the database, and the analysis was performed retrospectively on healthcare resource utilization data for the 12 months before the index date. A total of 930 COPD records were analyzed: 310 current and 620 former smokers [mean age 69.4 years (84.6 % male)]. Cases had more exacerbations, physician visits of any type, and drug therapies related to COPD were more common. As a consequence, current smokers had higher average annual healthcare costs: €3,784 (1,888) versus €2,302 (2,451), p use of healthcare resources, mainly COPD drugs and physician visits, compared with former smokers who had abstained for at least 12 months. As a consequence, current smokers had higher healthcare costs to the National Health System in Spain than ex-smokers.

  6. Smokers living in deprived areas are less likely to quit: A longitudinal follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Giskes (Katrina); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); G. Turrell; J. Brug (Hans); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To follow up smokers to examine whether the likelihood of quitting smoking varied by area deprivation, and whether smoking history, health status, personality characteristics, social support and stressful situations contributed to differences in area deprivation in quit rates.

  7. Exposure to Cigarette Smoke Constituents in a Population of Adult Cigarette Smokers in the U.S. Who Spontaneously Switched to Cigarettes with Lower or Higher Machine Measured ‘Tar’ Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad-Kah RS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in exposure to cigarette smoke and smoking behavior were assessed in adult smokers participating in a multi-center, cross-sectional study who spontaneously switched to > 3 mg lower or higher machine measured ‘tar’ yield. Of 2,542 consenting smokers only 23 down-switchers (DWNSW and 68 up-switchers (UPSW met study eligibility criteria. Biomarkers of exposure (BOE to selected smoke constituents were measured. Large variability was observed in the BOEs (e.g. CV% for nicotine equivalents (nicotine and five of its metabolites, NE per day ranged from 59% to 78%. On average, DWNSW smoked two more cigarettes/day (+ 9% that had ~ 5.9 mg lower ‘tar’ yield. Mean NE/day were 12.0 ± 6.2 mg/day compared to 13.9 ± 8.2 mg/day after down switching. Slightly lower levels of NE/cigarette (-8%, total NNAL/day and per cigarette were observed (-18% and -23% in the DWNSW's. UPSW smoked two fewer cigarettes/day (-13% with higher ‘tar’ yield (~ 8.4 mg higher ‘tar’. NE/day was 12.5 ± 9.7 vs. 12.8 ± 9.0 mg/day. Total NNAL values per day and per cigarette were lower (-24% and -17%. Due to the large variability and insufficient power to detect significant differences in exposure based on post-hoc power calculations, no definitive conclusions can be drawn from this study. These results suggest that it might not be feasible to conduct a definitive assessment of changes in exposure among spontaneous switchers.

  8. Smoking: Do You Really Know the Risks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Smoking: Do you really know the risks? Updated:Mar 27,2015 You ... Smoking • Home • Why Quit Smoking Introduction Do you really know the risks? How Cigarettes Damage Your Body ...

  9. Smoking and Asthma (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child. Encourage family members who smoke to quit. Sending an Antismoking Message No one wants their child to start smoking , but it's especially important to discourage this bad habit in kids who have asthma. If your child ...

  10. Abstinence and Relapse Rates Following a College Campus-Based Quit & Win Contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Janet L.; An, Larry; Luo, Xianghua; Scherber, Robyn M.; Berg, Carla J.; Golden, Dave; Ehlinger, Edward P.; Murphy, Sharon E.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To conduct and evaluate Quit & Win contests at 2 2-year college and 2 4-year university campuses. Participants: During Spring semester, 2006, undergraduates (N = 588) interested in quitting smoking signed up for a Quit & Win 30-day cessation contest for a chance to win a lottery prize. Methods: Participants (N = 588) completed a…

  11. Postnatal Cardiovascular Consequences in the Offspring of Pregnant Rats Exposed to Smoking and Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; More, Amar S; Hankins, Gary D; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Kumar, Sathish

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of pregnant women smoke despite intentions to quit. Smoking cessation drugs, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, are recommended treatments. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in offspring have raised concerns about NRT's safety during pregnancy. However, the effect of bupropion is unknown. Using a rat model, we determined whether NRT and bupropion interventions during pregnancy are safer than continued smoking on offspring's cardiovascular function. Male offspring of controls and dams exposed to cigarette smoke (1.6 packs/day, inhalation), nicotine (2 mg/kg/d subcutaneously), and bupropion (13 mg/kg twice daily orally) were assessed for fetoplacental weight, cardiac function, blood pressure, and vascular reactivity. Fetoplacental weights were decreased and spontaneous beating and intracellular calcium in neonatal cardiomyocytes were increased in smoking, nicotine, and bupropion offspring; however, these effects were more accentuated in smoking followed by nicotine and bupropion offspring. Increased heart rate and decreased cardiac output, stroke volume, and left ventricular percent posterior wall thickening were observed in smoking, nicotine, and bupropion offspring. The left ventricular mass was reduced in smoking and nicotine but not in bupropion offspring. Blood pressure was higher with decreased endothelium-dependent relaxation and exaggerated vascular contraction to angiotensin II in smoking and nicotine offspring, with more pronounced dysfunctions in smoking than nicotine offspring. Maternal bupropion did not impact offspring's blood pressure, endothelium-dependent relaxation, and vascular contraction. In conclusion, maternal nicotine intervention adversely affects offspring's cardiovascular outcomes, albeit less severely than continued smoking. However, bupropion causes cardiac derangement in offspring but does not adversely affect blood pressure and vascular function.

  12. Aiming at Tobacco Harm Reduction: A survey comparing smokers differing in readiness to quit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarafidou Jasmin-Olga

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Greece has the highest smoking rates (in the 15-nation bloc in Europe. The purpose of this study was to investigate Greek smokers' intention and appraisal of capability to quit employing the theoretical frameworks of Decisional Balance (DB and Cognitive Dissonance (CD. Methods A cross-sectional study including 401 Greek habitual smokers (205 men and 195 women, falling into four groups according to their intention and self-appraised capability to quit smoking was carried out. Participants completed a questionnaire recording their attitude towards smoking, intention and self appraised capability to quit smoking, socio-demographic information, as well as a DB and a CD scale. Results The most numerous group of smokers (38% consisted of those who neither intended nor felt capable to quit and these smokers perceived more benefits of smoking than negatives. DB changed gradually according to smokers' "readiness" to quit: the more ready they felt to quit the less the pros of smoking outnumbered the cons. Regarding relief of CD, smokers who intended but did not feel capable to quit employed more "excuses" compared to those who felt capable. Additionally smokers with a past history of unsuccessful quit attempts employed fewer "excuses" even though they were more frequently found among those who intended but did not feel capable to quit. Conclusion Findings provide support for the DB theory. On the other hand, "excuses" do not appear to be extensively employed to reduce the conflict between smoking and concern for health. There is much heterogeneity regarding smokers' intention and appraised capability to quit, reflecting theoretical and methodological problems with the distinction among stages of change. Harm reduction programs and interventions designed to increase the implementation of smoking cessation should take into account the detrimental effect of past unsuccessful quit attempts.

  13. Chronological narratives from smoking initiation through to pregnancy of Indigenous Australian women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian S; Bovill, Michelle; Clarke, Marilyn J; Gruppetta, Maree; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Bonevski, Billie

    2017-09-01

    One in two Indigenous Australian pregnant women smoke, yet little is known about their trajectory of smoking. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal women's narratives from starting smoking through to pregnancy. A female Aboriginal Researcher conducted individual face-to-face interviews with 20 Aboriginal women from New South Wales, Australia. Recruitment, through Aboriginal services and community networks, continued until saturation was reached. Audio-recorded transcripts were independently open coded by two researchers, inductively analysed and reported using a three-dimensional structure of looking backwards, forwards, inwards, outwards and a sense of place, to elucidate the chronology of events, life stages, characters, environments, and turning points of the stories. A chronology emerged from smoking initiation in childhood, coming of age, becoming pregnant, through to attempts at quitting, and relapse post-partum. Several new themes emerged: the role mothers play in women's smoking and quitting; the contribution of nausea to spontaneous quitting; depression as a barrier to quitting; and the hopes of women for their own and their children's future. The epiphany of pregnancy was a key turning point for many - including the interplay of successive pregnancies; and the intensity of expressed regret. Aboriginal women report multiple influences in the progression of early smoking to pregnancy and beyond. Potential opportunities to intervene include: a) childhood, coming of age, pregnancy, post-natal, in-between births; b) key influencers; c) environments, and d) targeting concurrent substance use. Morning sickness appears to be a natural deterrent to continued smoking. Depression, and its relationship to smoking and quitting in Australian Indigenous pregnant women, requires further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  15. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  16. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Siahpush

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129. However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  17. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael; Kessler, Asia Sikora; Dodd, Michael D; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-06

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates.

  18. The Association of Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing with Quit Attempt and Quit Success: Results from a Prospective Study of Smokers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Shaikh, Raees A.; Smith, Danielle; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael; Sikora Kessler, Asia; Dodd, Michael D.; Carlson, Les; Meza, Jane; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to assess the association of exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing with quit attempt and quit success in a prospective study of smokers in the United States. Data were collected via telephone-interview on exposure to POS tobacco marketing, sociodemographic and smoking-related variables from 999 smokers in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States. Exposure to POS tobacco marketing was measured by asking respondents three questions about noticing pack displays, advertisements, and promotions in their respective neighborhoods stores. These three variables were combined into a scale of exposure to POS tobacco marketing. About 68% of the respondents participated in a six-month follow-up phone interview and provided data on quit attempts and smoking cessation. At the six-month follow-up, 39.9% of respondents reported to have made a quit attempt, and 21.8% of those who made a quit attempt succeeded in quitting. Exposure to POS marketing at baseline was not associated with the probability of having made a quit attempt as reported at the six-month follow-up (p = 0.129). However, higher exposure to POS marketing was associated with a lower probability of quit success among smokers who reported to have attempted to quit smoking at six-month follow-up (p = 0.006). Exposure to POS tobacco marketing is associated with lower chances of successfully quitting smoking. Policies that reduce the amount of exposure to POS marketing might result in higher smoking cessation rates. PMID:26861379

  19. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  20. Cross-Sectional Survey on Quitting Attempts among Adolescent Smokers in Dharan, Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranil Man Singh Pradhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescents frequently attempt smoking cessation but are unable to maintain long term abstinence because they are dependent on nicotine and experience withdrawal symptoms. Objectives. This study aimed to explore the quitting attempts among adolescent smokers in Dharan Municipality of Eastern Nepal. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted using pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Global Youth Tobacco Survey to assess current smokers and quitting attempts among 1312 adolescent students in middle (14-15 years and late adolescence (16–19 years. Chi square test was used for association of various factors with quitting attempts. Results. The prevalence of current smoking was 13.7%. Among the current smokers, 66.5% had attempted to quit in the past because they believed smoking was harmful to health (35.5%. The median duration of quitting was 150 days. Nearly 8% of the current smokers were unwilling to quit in the future because they thought it is already a habit (60%. Smokers who are willing to quit smoking in the future were more likely to have made quitting attempts (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 0.40–4.45. Conclusion. Relapse often occurs even after multiple quitting attempts. Tobacco focused interventions to support abstinence are important during adolescence to prevent habituation.

  1. Subjective social status predicts quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Kendzor, Darla E; Cao, Yumei; Businelle, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Smoking prevalence is alarmingly high among the homeless. Few studies have focused on predictors of smoking abstinence in this population. Subjective social status, a person's ranking of their own social standing relative to others in the United States or in their own self-defined communities, has predicted smoking cessation among domiciled smokers in analyses adjusted for objective socioeconomic status and other demographic variables. This study examined if subjective social status predicted quit-day abstinence among homeless smokers making a quit attempt. Longitudinal study using self-reported survey data. Transitional homeless shelter in Dallas, Texas. A total of 57 homeless smokers enrolled in a cessation program. Predictors were the Subjective Social Status-U.S (SSS-U.S.) and the Subjective Social Status-Community (SSS-Community) ladders measured 1 week pre quit. Covariates were sociodemographics and tobacco dependence measured 1 week pre quit. The outcome was self-reported and biochemically verified smoking abstinence on the quit day. Analysis . Covariate-adjusted logistic regression models. Higher rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder, but not the SSS-Community ladder, predicted abstinence on the quit day (p = .005). Lower rankings on the SSS-U.S. ladder predicted increased risk of relapse on the quit day or the inability to quit at all. The SSS-U.S. ladder might be useful in identifying homeless smokers needing additional preparation and intervention before initiating a quit attempt.

  2. Parental Smoking Exposure and Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E.; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001–2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. RESULTS: Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents’ current non-nicotine–dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children’s lifetime to reduce these risks. PMID:24819567

  3. [Medical therapy for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. Physicians are in the unique position to promote smoking cessation and to support patients in quitting smoking is a key task for every single health care provider. Counselling smoking cessation is clearly shown to be both efficient and cost-effective in terms of years of live saved. Nicotine is highly addictive and to achieve long-term abstinence pharmacotherapy is frequently inevitable. Nicotine replacement therapy is efficacious and doubles the odds of permanently abstain from smoking. Further, strong evidence supports the use of buproprion, an atypical antidepressive agent, for quit smoking. Varenicline is the first medication specifically developed for smoking cessation. Varenicline is a partial agonist and antagonist at the nicotinic receptor that reduces craving, withdrawal symptoms and the reinforcing effect of smoking. This review summarises the current clinical data on the pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation and provides practical advice for daily clinical practice.

  4. Motivation to Quit and Interest in Cessation Treatment Among Homeless Youth Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett; Mullins, Leslie

    2015-08-01

    Approximately 70% of unaccompanied homeless youth are current smokers. Although a few studies have described smoking behavior among homeless youth, none have focused on how to help homeless youth quit smoking. As such, there are significant gaps in understanding their interest in quitting and what strategies might best fit their specific needs. Unaccompanied homeless youth were randomly sampled from street sites in Los Angeles County (N = 292). All were current smokers who completed a survey on their smoking-related behaviors and cognitions. 65.7% of youth had quit for at least 24hr during the past year, and 43.4% were motivated to quit. Previous quit attempts tended to be unassisted, but 58.6% reported that they would be interested in formal cessation treatment. Multivariate analyses indicated that motivation to quit was higher among youth who were older, Black or Hispanic (vs. White), and who asked about smoking by a service provider, but it was lower among those who were more nicotine dependent. Being interested in cessation treatment was more likely among youth who were asked about smoking by a service provider, anticipated more barriers to quitting, and were motivated to quit; it was less likely among youth who had slept outdoors during the past 30 days. Smoking cessation is often considered a low priority for homeless youth. However, many are motivated to quit and are interested in smoking cessation products and services. Implications for developing and engaging homeless youth in cessation treatment are discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Smoking and stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoichiro

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the brain infarction (lacunar and atherothrombotic brain infarction) and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Not only active smoking but also passive smoking and smokeless tobacco products pose a risk. The risk after smoking cessation for 5-10 years is equal to that faced by a non-smoker. Many patients continue smoking even after an attack of stroke; therefore, support measures to enforce nonsmoking are required in this high-risk population. We offer nonsmoking support using the 5A approach, and assess the nonsmoking stage (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). We also administer medical therapy for smoking cessation when the patients find it difficult to quit smoking on their own accord. Nicotine dependency needs a follow-up like that required for other risk factors in the primary and secondary prevention of the stroke because smoking is a chronic disease that tends to recur.

  6. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... just be an excuse to avoid facing your nicotine addiction. Most people gain 5 to 10 pounds when they quit smoking. This is much less of a health risk than smoking. Exercising ... between alcohol and nicotine? Can the smell of smoke from others make ...

  7. Cigarette smoke exposure during adolescence but not adulthood induces anxiety-like behavior and locomotor stimulation in rats during withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Dela Peña, Irene Joy; Woo, Taeseon; Kim, Hee Jin; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2016-12-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for cigarette smoking. Studies have shown that adolescent smokers are more likely to become addicted, are less likely to quit, and are more prone to relapse. In the present study, we examined the affective symptoms experienced by adolescents during withdrawal from cigarette smoke exposure. Towards this goal, adolescent male rats were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke, through an automated smoking machine, for 14 days. Then, cigarette smoke exposure was discontinued to induce spontaneous withdrawal. During the withdrawal period, anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus-maze test), locomotor activity (open-field test), and learning and memory (passive-avoidance test) were evaluated. These behavioral evaluations were conducted during the first, third, seventh, and fourteenth day of withdrawal. For comparison, parallel experiments were performed in adult rats. We found that adolescent rats exposed to cigarette smoke experiences increased anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity during withdrawal relative to control rats. Learning and memory processes were undisturbed. On the other hand, adult rats exposed to cigarette smoke did not show any statistically significant behavioral alteration during withdrawal. These results are consistent with the notion that adolescents are differentially sensitive to the withdrawal effects of cigarette smoking. This sensitivity might be a factor why adolescent smokers have difficulty quitting and are more prone to relapse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Job satisfaction and intention to quit the job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suadicani, P; Bonde, J P; Olesen, K; Gyntelberg, F

    2013-03-01

    Negative psychosocial work conditions may influence the motivation of employees to adhere to their job. To elucidate the perception of psychosocial work conditions among Danish hospital employees who would quit their job if economically possible and those who would not. A cross-sectional questionnaire study of hospital employees. The questionnaire gave information on elements of the psychosocial work environment (job demands, job influence, job support, management quality, exposure to bullying), general health status, sick-leave during the preceding year, life style (leisure time physical activity, alcohol intake and smoking habits), age, sex and profession. There were 1809 participants with a response rate of 65%. About a quarter (26%) reported that they would quit their job if economically possible; this rose to 40% among the 17% who considered their health mediocre or bad. In a final logistic regression model, six factors were identified as independently associated with the wish to quit or not: self-assessed health status, meaningfulness of the job, quality of collaboration among colleagues, age, trustworthiness of closest superior(s) and exposure to bullying. Based on these factors it was possible to identify groups with fewer than 15% wishing to quit, and similarly, groups where 50% or more would quit if this was economically possible. Psychosocial work conditions, in particular meaningfulness of the job, were independently associated with intention to quit the job if economically possible and relevant within different job categories.

  9. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute What if the tools you need to quit smoking were as easy to find as a cigarette? NCI QuitPal is a free, interactive app for iPhone or iPad that uses proven quit ...

  10. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... intervals and a mean follow-up of 15.5 years. Date of death and cause of death were obtained by record linkage with nationwide registers. By means of Cox proportional hazards models, heavy smokers (>or=15 cigarettes/day) who reduced their daily tobacco intake by at least 50% without quitting between...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...

  11. Parkinson disease and smoking revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Beate; Lee, Pei-Chen; Lassen, Christina F

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether being able to quit smoking is an early marker of Parkinson disease (PD) onset rather than tobacco being "neuroprotective," we analyzed information about ease of quitting and nicotine substitute use. METHODS: For this case-control study, we identified 1,808 patients...... patients with PD than controls ever established a smoking habit. Among former smokers, those with greater difficulty quitting or using nicotine substitutes were less likely to develop PD, with the risk being lowest among those reporting "extremely difficult to quit" compared with "easy to quit." Nicotine...... substitute usage was strongly associated with quitting difficulty and duration of smoking, i.e., most strongly among current smokers, followed by former smokers who had used nicotine substitutes, and less strongly among former smokers who never used substitutes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the notion...

  12. Socially Anxious Smokers Experience Greater Negative Affect and Withdrawal during Self-Quit Attempts

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Langdon, Kirsten J.; Jeffries, Emily R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite evidence of a strong and consistent relation between smoking and elevated social anxiety, strikingly little empirical work has identified mechanisms underlying the smoking-social anxiety link. Persons with elevated social anxiety may rely on smoking to cope with more severe nicotine withdrawal and post-quit negative mood states; yet, no known studies have investigated the relation of social anxiety to withdrawal severity. The current study examined the relation of social anxiety to po...

  13. The impact of second-hand tobacco smoke exposure on pregnancy outcomes, infant health, and the threat of third-hand smoke exposure to our environment and to our children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, T Allen; Mazela, Jan; Adamczak, Aleksandra; Merritt, Travis

    2012-01-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is associated with various adverse effects on pregnancy and fetal development, carries a lot of serious complications such as spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, and reduced birth weight of the newborn. Children of smoking mothers have an increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome and respiratory diseases during infancy. Smoking also causes long-term risk of maternal health problems such as: heart disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and higher mortality rate. Because women are more likely to quit smoking during pregnancy than at any other time, there are attempts to increase motivation and help them to stop smoking at the procreative phase of their life. The article describes interventions that are carried out in Loma Linda, where the educational program "When You Smoke Your Baby Smokes" reminds parents about the health effects of smoking during pregnancy and harmful impact on child's health caused by second-hand smoke. Another threat to health and environment of our children, is the nicotine coming from indirect exposure to tobacco smoke. Residual nicotine that persists in high concentrations on the interior surfaces, including clothing, is forming in the reaction of nitric acid carcinogenic compounds of specific nitrosamines. In addition, ozone and related atmospheric oxidants react with nicotine smoke or smoke coming from the second-hand smoke, giving the smallest particles with high risk of asthma. Efforts towards reducing exposure to tobacco smoke coming from the passive and indirect smoking should be placed at a high priority throughout the European Union.

  14. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  15. Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn

    2013-10-01

    A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

  16. The Effect of Nicotine Replacement Therapy Advertising on Youth Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Melanie Wakefield; Yvonne Terry-McElrath

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising on youth smoking. NRT advertising could decrease smoking by informing smokers that the product can make quitting easier and thus inducing more smokers to try and quit. However, a moral hazard is created because NRT advertising increases the expectation that cessation is relatively easy. NRT advertising could thus induce youth to smoke, to smoke more and/or to delay quit attempts. Data from Nielsen Media Research ...

  17. Developing cessation interventions for the social and community service setting: A qualitative study of barriers to quitting among disadvantaged Australian smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Jon

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates remain unacceptably high among individuals who are socially disadvantaged. Social and community service organisations (SCSO are increasingly interested in providing smoking cessation support to clients, however little is known about the best way to assist disadvantaged smokers to quit in this setting. This study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators to quitting within the conceptual framework of the PRECEDE model to identify possible interventions appropriate to the social and community service setting. Methods Semi-structured focus groups were conducted with clients attending five community welfare organisations located in New South Wales, Australia. Thirty-two clients participated in six focus groups. A discussion guide was used to explore the barriers and facilitators to smoking and smoking cessation including: current smoking behaviour, motivation to quit, past quit attempts, barriers to quitting and preferences for cessation support. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis techniques. Results Participants were current smokers and most expressed a desire to quit. Factors predisposing continued smoking included perceived benefits of smoking for stress relief, doubting of ability to quit, fear of gaining weight, and poor knowledge and scepticism about available quit support. The high cost of nicotine replacement therapy was a barrier to its use. Continual exposure to smoking in personal relationships and in the community reinforced smoking. Participants expressed a strong preference for personalised quit support. Conclusions Disadvantaged smokers in Australia express a desire to quit smoking, but find quitting difficult for a number of reasons. SCSOs may have a role in providing information about the availability of quit support, engaging disadvantaged smokers with available quit support, and providing personalised, ongoing support.

  18. Helping smokers quit: behaviours and attitudes of Chinese Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Zou, Xiao Nong; Wang, Weili; Hong, Jingfang; Chan, Sophia; Wells, Marjorie J; Brook, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    To describe the self-reported frequency of Chinese nurses' interventions to help smokers quit, using the 5 As (i.e. Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange), attitudes towards tobacco control and differences in consistency interventions by demographic and professional characteristics prior to an educational intervention to increase nurses' support for quit efforts. Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in China; quitting smoking reduces health risks and premature death. The China Tobacco Cessation Treatment Guideline supports the 5 As model for intervention, but nurses' frequency of delivering smoking cessation interventions is unknown. Descriptive survey using a convenience sample. Nurses from eight hospitals in Beijing and Hefei, China completed a web-based survey in 2012. Differences in consistency of the 5 As by nurse characteristics were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Overall importance of nurses in tobacco control was evaluated on a 1-5 scale (5 = most important). Nurses (N = 2440; 1404 Beijing, 1036 Hefei) participated. 64% consistently asked about smoking status, 85% advised patients to quit, 52% assessed readiness to quit and assisted with smoking cessation and 17% arranged for follow-up. Interventions varied by nurses' education and clinical setting. Nurses positively viewed involvement in tobacco control (4·3/5) and thought nurses should be smoke-free role models (4·8/5·0). This study demonstrates that the majority of nurses asked about smoking status, but few assisted patients with quitting. Further efforts are needed to help nurses actively promote smoking cessation interventions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Timing and risk factors associated with relapse among smokers attempting to quit in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, S M; Moy, F M; Retneswari, M; Isahak, M; Koh, D

    2012-07-01

    Many smokers attempt to quit smoking, but very few succeed. To identify the timing and risk factors involved in smoking relapse. We conducted a prospective cohort study among staff in two public universities in Malaysia. Behavioural therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy was given as treatment. Participants were followed up for 6 months. Relapse was defined as returning to smoking after having quit for at least 24 h. Of 185 smokers who volunteered to participate, 120 achieved at least 24-h abstinence, and 80% of these relapsed within 2 months. Compared to participants who attended a single smoking cessation session, participants who attended three sessions had a lower likelihood of relapse within 6 months of quitting. In contrast, smokers with a much longer exposure to cigarette smoking in the workplace (>3 h per week) had a greater chance of relapse compared to those with no exposure. Frequent attendance at clinic sessions and less exposure to other people smoking in the workplace can potentially reduce the likelihood of relapse among smokers who have recently quit.

  20. Health Harms from Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tobacco Use and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion,” New England Journal of Medicine 340(5):333- 339, February 4, 1999; Chatenoud, ... al., “Smoking: A Risk Factor for Spontaneous Abortions,” New England Journal of Medicine 291(15):793-96, October 1977; Raymond, EG, ...

  1. Comparative impact of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in three European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Boudreau, Christian; Allwright, Shane; McNeill, Ann; van den Putte, Bas; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the differential impact of comprehensive and partial smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation. This study aimed to examine the impact of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in Ireland and England, and partial hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands on quit attempts and quit success. Methods: Nationally representative samples of 2,219 adult smokers were interviewed in three countries as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys. Quit attempts and quit success were compared between period 1 (in which smoke-free legislation was implemented in Ireland and the Netherlands) and period 2 (in which smoke-free legislation was implemented in England). Results: In Ireland, significantly more smokers attempted to quit smoking in period 1 (50.5%) than in period 2 (36.4%) (p legislation in Ireland and England may have had positive effects on quit attempts and quit success respectively. The partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands probably had no effect on quit attempts or quit success. Therefore, it is recommended that countries implement comprehensive smoke-free legislation. PMID:22294778

  2. Brief meditation training induces smoking reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    More than 5 million deaths a year are attributable to tobacco smoking, but attempts to help people either quit or reduce their smoking often fail, perhaps in part because the intention to quit activates brain networks related to craving. We recruited participants interested in general stress reduction and randomly assigned them to meditation training or a relaxation training control. Among smokers, 2 wk of meditation training (5 h in total) produced a significant reduction in smoking of 60%; ...

  3. Prevalence and Psychological Characterization of Smoking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Smoking habit among the university students is common and in many cases results from ... It is difficult to quit smoking, as it is associated .... Good habit. 68. 27.2. Smoking is not a serious problem/harmful. 80. 32.0. Bad habit. 182. 72.8. Because my friends do not allow me to quit. 78. 31.2. Total. 250. 100.0.

  4. Smoking and other pre-gestational risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth Tabagismo e outros fatores de risco pré-gestacional para nascimento espontâneo prematuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio Grillo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to investigate pre-gestational risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth and, the role of smoking and its cumulative effects on prematurity. METHODS: a case-control study analyzed a data set of all births occurring in a tertiary maternity hospital between April 2002 and July 2004. Spontaneous preterm births of single and live newborns without malformations were selected as cases. Controls were all the term births of live and single newborns without malformations during the same period. Three outcomes were studied: all preterm births (OBJETIVOS: investigar fatores de risco pré-gestacional para nascimento espontâneo prematuro e o papel do tabagismo e seus efeitos cumulativos na prematuridade. MÉTODOS: um estudo transversal baseado em um banco de dados maternos e perinatais, analisou todos os nascimentos ocorridos, em um hospital terciário, no período de abril de 2002 a julho de 2004. Nascimentos prematuros, únicos e espontâneos, de nascidos vivos, sem malformações, foram selecionados como casos. Controles foram selecionados como nascidos vivos e a termo, únicos e sem malformações durante o mesmo período. Três desfechos foram estudados: todos nascimentos prematuros com menos de 37 semanas, aqueles com menos de 35 e 32 semanas de gestação. Regressão Logística foi utilizada na determinação do efeito independente de cada um dos fatores de risco. RESULTADOS: idade materna de menos de 20 anos, baixa escolaridade, baixo índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional e tabagismo se mostraram independente e significativamente associados com nascimento espontâneo e prematuro para os três desfechos. Para todos os fatores de risco, exceto tabagismo materno, as razões de chance aumentaram linearmente com o decréscimo da idade gestacional. O teste para tendência linear se mostrou significante para idade materna de menos de 20 anos e para baixo índice de massa corporal pré-gestacional. CONCLUSÕES: os efeitos cumulativos do

  5. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  6. Attitudes Towards Smoking and Frequency of Smoking Among Students of Duzce Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atilla Senih Mayda

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study; to determine smoking prevalence in the students of Duzce Medical School and to learn attitudes of students towards smoking was aimed and questionnaires applied under supervision to 230 students (96.0% who accepted to participated to the study of all 242 students of the Medical School in the term of 2005-2006. The prevalence of smoking was found 31.3%. Smoking prevalence was significantly higher in the students who have smokers among their friends, the students who had been graduated from Science High School, the students who deal with an art such as painting, music, theatre and the students who have lived alone. Almost all the students declined that they had supported the legal regulations and sanctions against smoking and 43.0 % of the students thought that to persuade community not to smoke has been the mission of doctors. The reasons to begin to smoke were declined as; the affects of friends, (54.4%, affectation (28.0%, curiosity (28.8% and being alone (20.6%. Of the students who have been smoking currently 42 students (65.6% have wanted to quit smoking, 20 (31.3% haven’t want to quit and 2 (%3.1 has been undecided. Of smokers, 47 students (74.6% had been tried to quit smoking. The students of Medical School have known that smoking was harmful to health. Because friends’ affects are important to begin smoking; campaigns to quit smoking has to be planned towards friend groups not to individuals. Considering that behaviors of physicians have effected to community physicians have to be ensured to quit smoking and not to begin smoking with campaigns against smoking. It’s important to support students who want to quit smoking. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(5: 364-370

  7. Do cigarette prices motivate smokers to quit? New evidence from the ITC survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Hana; Blecher, Evan; Yan, Lili; Hyland, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    To examine the importance of cigarette prices in influencing smoking cessation and the motivation to quit. We use longitudinal data from three waves of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey (ITC). The study contrasts smoking cessation and motivation to quit among US and Canadian smokers and evaluates how this relationship is modified by cigarette prices, nicotine dependence and health knowledge. Different price measures are used to understand how the ability to purchase cheaper cigarettes may reduce the influence of prices. Our first model examines whether cigarette prices affect motivation to quit smoking using Generalized Estimating Equations to predict cessation stage and a least squares model to predict the change in cessation stage. The second model evaluates quitting behavior over time. The probability of quitting is estimated with Generalized Estimating Equations and a transition model to account for the 'left-truncation' of the data. US and Canada. 4352 smokers at Wave 1, 2000 smokers completing all three waves. Motivation to quit, cigarette prices, nicotine dependence and health knowledge. Smokers living in areas with higher cigarette prices are significantly more motivated to quit. There is limited evidence to suggest that price increases over time may also increase quit motivation. Higher cigarette prices increase the likelihood of actual quitting, with the caveat that results are statistically significant in one out of two models. Access to cheaper cigarette sources does not impede cessation although smokers would respond more aggressively (in terms of cessation) to price increases if cheaper cigarette sources were not available. This research provides a unique opportunity to study smoking cessation among adult smokers and their response to cigarette prices in a market where they are able to avoid tax increases by purchasing cigarettes from cheaper sources. Higher cigarette prices appear to be associated with greater motivation to

  8. Smoking and Older Adults

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-10-27

    This podcast discusses the importance of older adults quitting smoking and other tobacco products. It is primarily targeted to public health and aging services professionals.  Created: 10/27/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/20/2008.

  9. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  10. Job-Quitting at Appalachain Sawmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf

    1977-01-01

    Labor turnover in hardwood sawmills of the Appalachian Region was studied by using data collected during interviews with 68 mill managers. Job-quitting was highest among young unskilled workers who had less than 6 months of service with their employers. Half of the mills surveyed had annual quit rates of more than 100 percent. Variation among mills was associated with...

  11. Pathways of Change Explaining the Effect of Smoke-Free Legislation on Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands. An Application of the International Tobacco Control Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Candel, Math J. J. M.; Thrasher, James F.; van den Putte, Bas; Thompson, Mary E.; Cummings, K. Michael; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to test the pathways of change from individual exposure to smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation, as hypothesized in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Conceptual Model. Methods: A nationally representative sample of Dutch smokers aged 15 years and older was surveyed during 4 consecutive annual surveys. Of the 1,820 baseline smokers, 1,012 participated in the fourth survey. Structural Equation Modeling was employed to test a model of the effects of individual exposure to smoke-free legislation through policy-specific variables (support for smoke-free legislation and awareness of the harm of [secondhand] smoking) and psychosocial mediators (attitudes, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention to quit) on quit attempts and quit success. Results: The effect of individual exposure to smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation was mediated by 1 pathway via support for smoke-free legislation, attitudes about quitting, and intention to quit smoking. Exposure to smoke-free legislation also influenced awareness of the harm of (secondhand) smoking, which in turn influenced the subjective norm about quitting. However, only attitudes about quitting were significantly associated with intention to quit smoking, whereas subjective norm and self-efficacy for quitting were not. Intention to quit predicted quit attempts and quit success, and self-efficacy for quitting predicted quit success. Conclusions: Our findings support the ITC Conceptual Model, which hypothesized that policies influence smoking cessation through policy-specific variables and psychosocial mediators. Smoke-free legislation may increase smoking cessation, provided that it succeeds in influencing support for the legislation. PMID:22491892

  12. Drug and alcohol abuse inpatients' attitudes about smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, L M; Seidner, A L; Burling, T A; Thomas, R G; Brenner, G F

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes about quitting cigarette smoking were assessed at admission to a substance abuse treatment program for homeless veterans. The majority were interested in quitting smoking, believed that inpatient drug/alcohol treatment was the best time to quit, and that quitting would not threaten their sobriety. Using cluster analysis, four subgroups of inpatients with different levels of interest, confidence, and motivation regarding quitting smoking were identified. Our inpatients' positive attitudes about quitting smoking stand in contrast with previously reported attitudes of many health professionals, and suggest that inpatient treatment could be an opportune time to provide stop-smoking interventions. Findings also suggest that different treatment approaches may be needed for subgroups of inpatients with varying attitudes about quitting.

  13. The effect of prenatal smoking exposure on daily smoking among teenage offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Solja; Räisänen, Aleksi; Koskela, Jari; Taanila, Anja; Miettunen, Jouko; Ramsay, Hugh; Veijola, Juha

    2017-01-01

    To study the predictive associations between maternal smoking and the impact of quitting smoking during pregnancy and offspring daily smoking at age 15-16 years. The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC86) includes 99% of all births in the region and has an ongoing follow-up. Data were collected using questionnaires at 24th gestational week during pregnancy and after delivery, and at follow-up in 2001-02, when the offspring were aged 15-16 years. Northern Finland. NFBC86 included 9432 live born children. Data regarding maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring smoking at age 15-16 years were available for 4462 subjects (47.3% of the original sample). The outcome was offspring's self-reported daily smoking. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was considered using a four-class variable: (1) no smoking, (2) mother had smoked, but had quit smoking before becoming pregnant, (3) mother quit smoking during the 1st trimester and (4) mother quit smoking after the 1st trimester or continued smoking throughout the pregnancy. Information regarding paternal smoking during pregnancy, maternal and paternal smoking and education level, family structure and dwelling at offspring's age 15-16 years were considered potential confounding variables. Continuing smoking after the 1st trimester increased the odds of daily smoking among offspring, independently of confounding factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-2.5]. Continuing to smoke after the 1st trimester was associated with higher odds compared with quitting smoking during the 1st trimester. Also, parental smoking at offspring age 15-16 years increased the odds of offspring daily smoking, independently of prenatal smoking exposure. Prenatal smoking exposure increases the risk for offspring adolescent daily smoking. Quitting smoking during the early stages of pregnancy may decrease the odds for offspring smoking. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  15. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  16. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... has to do with participation in screening alone and not dependent on the CT scan. Participants in both CT and control arm in randomized screening trials had higher smoking abstinence rate compared to that of the general population. A positive screening test seems to further promote smoking cessation...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...

  17. What price quitting? The price of cigarettes at which smokers say they would seriously consider trying to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scollo, Michelle; Hayes, Linda; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-07-13

    Deciding on an appropriate level for taxes on tobacco products is a critical issue in tobacco control. The aim of the present study was to describe the critical price points for packs for smokers of each pack size, to calculate what this would equate to in terms of price per stick, and to ascertain whether price points varied by age, socio-economic status and heaviness of smoking. In November 2011, 586 Victorian smokers of factory-made cigarettes were asked during a telephone survey about their usual brand, including the size and cost of their usual pack. They were also asked about use of illicit tobacco. Smokers estimated what price their preferred pack would need to reach before they would seriously consider quitting. Three-quarters of regular smokers of manufactured cigarettes could envisage their usual brand reaching a price at which they would seriously consider quitting. Analyses revealed that answers clustered around whole numbers, (AUD$15, $20, $25 and $30), with a median nominated price point of AUD$20 per pack. The median price point at which regular smokers would consider quitting was calculated to be 80 cents per stick, compared to the current median reported stick price of 60 cents.Of the smokers who nominated a price point, 60.1% indicated they would seriously consider quitting if the cost of their usual brand equated to 80 cents per stick or less; 87.5% would seriously consider quitting if sticks reached one dollar each. These results do suggest a potentially useful approach to setting taxes in Australia. If taxes can be set high enough to ensure that the cost of the smokers' preferred packs exceeds critical price points, then it seems likely that more people would seriously attempt to quit than if the price increased to a level even slightly below the price points. Our study suggests that a tax increase large enough to ensure that a typical pack of 25 cigarettes in Australia cost at least AUD$20 would prompt more than 60% of smokers able to nominate

  18. Intent to quit, quit attempts, and perceived health risk reduction among African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Luo, Xianghua; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2017-10-16

    Ethnic and racial differences in smoking patterns and behaviors have been well documented and most African American and Latino smokers are nondaily or light smokers. However, differences within smoking levels are understudied. Our primary aim was to determine whether there are racial and ethnic differences among African American, Latino, and White nondaily, light daily, and moderate to heavy daily smokers on (1) perceived health risk reduction, (2) intentions to quit, and (3) past year quit attempts. Smokers were recruited through an online research panel for a cross-sectional survey (n = 2376). Sampling quotas were used to obtain equal numbers of African American, Latino, and White nondaily and daily smokers. African American (59.6%) and Latino (54%) nondaily smokers were more likely than White nondaily smokers (45%) to currently limit their cigarettes per day (cpd) as a perceived health risk reduction strategy (p smokers were more likely than Latino and White nondaily smokers (p smokers (15%) were more likely than either Latinos (7.8%) or Whites (8.5%) to intend to quit in the next 30 days (p smokers were more likely than Whites (49%) to have made a quit attempt in the past year (p smokers. Racial and ethnic group differences were more pronounced among nondaily smokers compared to light daily smoker and moderate to heavy daily smokers. Smoking level is an important consideration in understanding racial and ethnic variation in perceived health risk reduction and cessation-related behaviors.

  19. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Background: On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Methods: Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Results: Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. Conclusion: The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments. PMID:22294782

  20. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  1. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  2. Smoking-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviors, Smoking Cessation Idea and Education Level among Young Adult Male Smokers in Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Lingli; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In 2012 in China, 52.9% of men were reported to smoke while only 2.4% of women smoked. This study explored the smoking-related Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) among young adult male smokers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in four municipal areas of Chongqing using a questionnaire administered to 536 natives young male smokers aged 18–45 years old. Results: The total score of smoking cognition, the total score of smoking attitude and the total score of positive behavior to quit smoking was significantly different among the three groups by education. Besides, 30.97% of male smokers never seriously thought about quitting smoking. Logistic regression analysis found smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and sociodemographic factors affect having smoking cessation idea. But no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking in a sample of higher education. No statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.03012, p = 0.6811), and also no statistically significant correlation was observed between smoking cognition and positive behavior to quit smoking (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.08869, p = 0.2364)  in the sample of higher education young adult males Conclusions: Young adult males with higher education have a better knowledge of smoking hazards and a more positive attitude toward smoking, however, this knowledge and attitude do not necessarily translate into health behavioral outcomes such as not smoking. Overall the present findings indicate that no statistically significant correlation between the education level and quitting smoking idea exists among young adult male smokers in China. This survey gives a snapshot of the impact of education on smoking-related KAP among young adults male smokers. PMID:25689992

  3. Past quit attempts in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Davey, Maureen E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe past attempts to quit smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, and to compare their quitting activity with that in the general Australian population. The Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1643 smokers and 78 recent quitters between April 2012 and October 2013. Baseline results for daily smokers (n = 1392) are compared with results for daily smokers (n = 1655) from Waves 5 to 8.5 (2006-2012) of the Australian International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC Project). Ever having tried to quit, tried to quit in the past year, sustained a quit attempt for 1 month or more. Compared with the general population, a smaller proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers had ever tried to quit (TATS, 69% v ITC, 81.4%), but attempts to quit within the past year were similar (TATS, 48% v ITC, 45.7%). More Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers than those in the general population reported sustaining past quit attempts for short periods only. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers whose local health services had tobacco control resources were more likely to have tried to quit, whereas men and people who perceived they had experienced racism in the past year were less likely. Younger smokers, those who had gone without essentials due to money spent on smoking, and those who were often unable to afford cigarettes were more likely to have tried to quit in the past year, but less likely to have ever sustained an attempt for 1 month or more. Smokers who were unemployed, those who had not completed Year 12 and those from remote areas were also less likely to sustain a quit attempt. Existing comprehensive tobacco control programs appear to be motivating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers

  4. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Working... Add to Want to watch this again later? Sign in to add this video to a ... is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is ...

  5. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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    Full Text Available ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower that sends out ... and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes it hard to feel OK without ...

  6. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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  7. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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    Full Text Available ... loved one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be viewed at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse. ...

  8. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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    Full Text Available ... Feb 7, 2012 Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like ... out signals to direct your actions and choices. Addiction changes the signals in your brain and makes ...

  10. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

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  12. The role of employers in facilitating smoking cessation among staff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University authorities should build on this and take specific steps to institute a comprehensive workplace antitobacco policy which includes smoking cessation interventions to assist staff who smoke to quit. Keywords: Tobacco cessation, Workplace no-smoking policy, Workplace smoking cessation interventions ...

  13. Up in Smoke: The Effects of Secondhand Smoke on Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Joe

    1993-01-01

    Environmental or second-hand smoke can have serious effects on children. Many smokers are more likely to consider quitting if they know they are causing harm to their children and families. Physicians must take the time to point out the dangers of passive smoking to parents who smoke. (SM)

  14. [Occasional smoking in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Marianne

    2014-01-28

    In recent decades, daily smoking has become less common, while occasional smoking has stayed at the same level. The purpose of the study is to describe occasional smokers on the basis of their smoking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from Statistics Norway's quarterly surveys of tobacco use in 2010 and 2011 were used. Information on smoking habits, smoking-related behaviour and the respondents' attitudes to their own smoking was collected in telephone interviews. Of the 8,700 men and women aged 16-74 (response rate 57%) who were included, altogether 1,583 were daily smokers and 907 occasional smokers. The occasional smokers were younger, more frequently lived in large cities and had a higher level of education and income than the daily smokers. Twenty-nine of 174 (17%) occasional smokers used snus on a daily basis, compared to 10 of 394 (3%) of the daily smokers. The occasional smokers had great confidence in their ability to quit: 95% responded that they would be smoke-free in five years, compared to 55% of the daily smokers (n = 2,158). Fifty-five (35%) of the occasional smokers lit up several times weekly (16 cigarettes per week on average), while the remaining (65%) smoked only once per week as a maximum (five cigarettes per week on average). Those who smoked several times each week had attitudes to their own smoking and usage pattern for tobacco that were similar to those of the daily smokers. Nearly half of the occasional smokers defined themselves as non-smokers. Norwegian occasional smokers are a heterogeneous group in terms of their smoking pattern and frequency, and many define themselves as non-smokers.

  15. Dispositional Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation and Smoking Lapse Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Whitney L.; Spears, Claire Adams; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Castro, Yessenia; Li, Yisheng; Guo, Beibei; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although mindfulness has been hypothesized to promote health behaviors, no research has examined how dispositional mindfulness might influence the process of smoking cessation. Purpose The current study investigated dispositional mindfulness, smoking abstinence, and recovery from a lapse among African American smokers. Methods Participants were 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment (treatments did not include any components related to mindfulness). Dispositional mindfulness and other psychosocial measures were obtained pre-quit; smoking abstinence was assessed 3 days, 31 days, and 26 weeks post-quit. Results Individuals higher in dispositional mindfulness were more likely to quit smoking both initially and over time. Moreover, among individuals who had lapsed at day 3, those higher in mindfulness were more likely to recover abstinence by the later time points. The mindfulness-early abstinence association was mediated by lower negative affect, lower expectancies to regulate affect via smoking, and higher perceived social support. Conclusions Results suggest that mindfulness might enhance smoking cessation among African American smokers by operating on mechanisms posited by prominent models of addiction. PMID:26743533

  16. Dispositional Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation and Smoking Lapse Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Whitney L; Spears, Claire Adams; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Castro, Yessenia; Li, Yisheng; Guo, Beibei; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2016-06-01

    Although mindfulness has been hypothesized to promote health behaviors, no research has examined how dispositional mindfulness might influence the process of smoking cessation. The current study investigated dispositional mindfulness, smoking abstinence, and recovery from a lapse among African American smokers. Participants were 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment (treatments did not include any components related to mindfulness). Dispositional mindfulness and other psychosocial measures were obtained pre-quit; smoking abstinence was assessed 3, 31 days, and 26 weeks post-quit. Individuals higher in dispositional mindfulness were more likely to quit smoking both initially and over time. Moreover, among individuals who had lapsed at day 3, those higher in mindfulness were more likely to recover abstinence by the later time points. The mindfulness-early abstinence association was mediated by lower negative affect, lower expectancies to regulate affect via smoking, and higher perceived social support. Results suggest that mindfulness might enhance smoking cessation among African American smokers by operating on mechanisms posited by prominent models of addiction.

  17. Reliability and Validity of Measures of Impulsive Choice and Impulsive Action in Smokers Trying to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Danielle E.; Bold, Krysten W.; Minami, Haruka; Yeh, Vivian M.; Rutten, Emily; Nadkarni, Shruti G.; Chapman, Gretchen B.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that smokers are more impulsive than are non-smokers, but few studies have examined relations between impulsiveness and later success in quitting smoking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and predictive validity of facets of impulsiveness in adult smokers trying to quit. Baseline behavioral measures of impulsive choice (assessed with a delay discounting task) and impulsive action (assessed with a measure of behavioral disinhibition) were used as predictors of smoking cessation success over 12 weeks. The sample included 116 adult (18 years old or older) daily smokers from central New Jersey. Impulsive choice, impulsive action, and self-reported impulsiveness were not significantly related to one another at baseline. Impulsive choice had high test-retest reliability from pre- to post-quit, whereas impulsive action was less stable. Test-retest reliability from pre-quit to three weeks post-quit was moderated by achievement of seven-day abstinence. Baseline impulsive action was significantly negatively related to quitting for at least one day in the first two weeks of a quit attempt and of prolonged abstinence (no relapse over the next 10 weeks). Baseline impulsive choice was robustly associated with biochemically verified seven-day point-prevalence abstinence 12 weeks post-quit, such that those with lower delay discounting were more likely to achieve abstinence. Facets of impulsiveness appear to function largely independently in adult smokers, as indicated by their lack of inter-correlation, differential stability, and differential relations with abstinence. Impulsive action may impede initial quitting, whereas impulsive choice may be an obstacle to maintaining lasting abstinence. PMID:26751623

  18. Smoking cessation counseling in women with genital intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Joseph T; Crigger, Mary; English, Emily; Wan, Jim; Likes, Wendy

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for cervical, vaginal, vulvar, and anal dysplasia. We will study the prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients with genital dysplasia and effect of counseling on smoking cessation. All patients with genital dysplasia were screened for smoking history. One clinician provided smoking cessation counseling using the US Department of Health 5 A's technique: ask patients about their smoking status, advise smokers to quit, assess their readiness to quit, assist with their smoking cessation effort, and arrange for follow-up visits. Patients were informed on how smoking may cause worsening of genital dysplasia and increased risk of progression to cancer. Each patient received 2 counseling sessions, but no pharmacological or psychological interventions. Smoking cessation was evaluated by patient self-report via phone or during clinic visits. From January 2007 to December 2010, 344 patients were referred to our gynecologic oncology clinic for evaluation of genital dysplasia. Patients who were smokers (n=125, 36%) were counseled to cease smoking in 2 counseling sessions, with 100% compliance for attendance. At study analysis (July 2011), 83 patients still smoke and 40 patients quit smoking (smoking cessation rate of 32%). Caucasian patients (P=.0013) and patients with vulvar dyplasia (P=.411) seemed to smoke more than other races and patients with cervical/vaginal dysplasia respectively. Smoking cessation counseling for the genital dysplasia patients who smoked was associated with smoking cessation in 32% of the patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter; Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-10-20

    Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke-associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption.

  20. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... Quitting drugs is hard because addiction is a brain disease. Your brain is like a control tower ...

  1. Why Are Drugs So Hard to Quit?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... one find treatment. For more information, visit http://www.easyread.drugabuse.gov This video can also be ... at: http://easyread.drugabuse.gov/quit-dr... http://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topi... Audio Transcript: http://easyread. ...

  2. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  3. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  4. Growth Mindset as a Predictor of Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines motivations to quit smoking within the theoretical context of self-theories (Dweck, 2000). It investigates whether self-theories play a significant predictive role in motivating adults to quit smoking. A convenience sample of 197 adult current smokers and ex-smokers in northeast Ohio completed on line or paper versions of the…

  5. Smokers' responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David; Zain, Zarihah

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the effects of cigarette pack warning labels on quitting intentions. We examined whether different responses among smokers toward cigarette pack warning labels could predict quit intentions and self-efficacy in quitting. Variables studied were "noticing warning labels during last month," "reading or looking closely at warning labels," "avoiding looking at labels during last month," "thinking about health risks of smoking because of the warning labels, "more likely to quit because of the warning labels," and "stopping from having a cigarette when about to smoke one because of the labels." A total of 2,006 adult smokers in Malaysia were surveyed in face-to-face interviews using a standardized questionnaire. Of those, 1,919 male smokers were included in the analyses. The responses "more likely to quit because of the warning labels" and "stopped from having a cigarette when about to smoke one" significantly predicted all stages of change and self-efficacy, independent of the other measures. In addition, thinking about the health risks and reading the warnings more often added extra predictive capacity but only in the early stages of contemplating change. Less intense processing of the information may be important in initiating thoughts, but cognitions about quitting and foregoing cigarettes are the key mechanisms by which warnings stimulate quitting intentions and help smokers feel capable of succeeding. Malaysian smokers appear to respond to warnings in ways comparable with those from developed countries.

  6. Health, Secondhand Smoke Exposure, and Smoking Behavior Impacts of No-Smoking Policies in Public Housing, Colorado, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Shelley; Bialick, Peter; Liverance, Cindy; Seder, Ashley; Berg, Erica; Karp, Liberty

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke is problematic for residents living in multiunit housing, as the smoke migrates through shared ventilation systems, unsealed cracks, and door spaces. The objective of our research was to assess resident exposure to secondhand smoke, support for no-smoking policies, and the health impacts of no-smoking policies in multiunit housing. Methods Surveys of 312 heads of households who resided in 1 of 3 multiunit buildings managed by a Colorado public housing authority were administered before and after implementation of a no-smoking policy that prohibited smoking in all resident apartments and all indoor common areas. A matched-pairs analysis of initial surveys and 15-month post-policy implementation surveys for 115 respondents was conducted. Results Decreases were found in the number and percentage of smokers who smoked every day and the number of cigarettes smoked per day, and 30% had quit smoking 15 months after policy implementation. The percentage of residents who smelled secondhand smoke indoors declined significantly. A significant decrease in breathing problems was found after policy implementation. Although decreases were found in the incidence of asthma attacks, emphysema/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eye irritation, colds, nasal congestion, and ear/sinus infections, these decreases were not significant. Conclusion Consistent findings across nearly all variables tested suggest that no-smoking policies reduce resident exposure to secondhand smoke, lower the incidence of secondhand smoke–associated breathing problems, decrease daily smoking and cigarette consumption, encourage smoking cessation, and increase quit attempts. If implemented in all multiunit housing, these policies could reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and health problems associated with secondhand smoke, promote smoking cessation, and reduce cigarette consumption. PMID:27763830

  7. Prevention of postpartum smoking relapse in mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, R M; Merritt, T A; Goldstein, M R; Deming, D D; Slater, L E; Angeles, D M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Approximately 40% of women who smoke tobacco quit smoking during pregnancy, yet up to 85% relapse after delivery. Those who resume smoking often do so by 2 to 8 weeks postpartum. Smoking mothers are more than twice as likely to quit breastfeeding by 10 weeks postpartum. The hospitalization of a newborn, while stressful, is an opportunity to emphasize the importance of a smoke-free environment for babies. Supporting maternal-infant bonding may reduce maternal stress and motivate mot...

  8. Did Nixon quit before he resigned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew N. Beckmann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available On August 9, 1974, Richard M. Nixon formally resigned the presidency; however, folklore hints Nixon informally quit fulfilling his duties well before then. As Watergate became less “a third rate burglary” than “high crimes and misdemeanors,” rumors of President Nixon’s wallowing, wandering, drinking, and mumbling swirled. Yet evidence for such assertions has been thin, and prevailing scholarship offers compelling reasons to believe Nixon’s institutional protocols overrode his individual proclivities. This study offers a new, systematic look at Nixon’s presidency by coding his public events and private interactions with top government officials during every day of his presidency. Contrary to our expectations, the results corroborate the rumors: Richard Nixon effectively quit being president well before he resigned the presidency. In fact, it turns out there was a defining moment when Nixon disengaged from his administration: on December 6, 1973, the day Gerald Ford was confirmed as Vice President.

  9. Misconceptions about smoking in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tin Kin; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee; Wong, Janet Yuen Ha; Li, William Ho Cheung; Tan, Kathryn Choon Beng; Leung, Angela Yee Man; Wong, David Chung Ngok; Leung, Doris Yin Ping; Lam, Tai Hing

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the smoking behaviours, perceptions about quitting smoking and factors associated with intention to quit in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Smoking causes type 2 diabetes mellitus. There has been limited research on the needs and concerns of smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus about quitting smoking. The study used a qualitative design. Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus who had a history of smoking were recruited at the outpatient diabetic clinics of two major local hospitals in Hong Kong for a semi-structured interview (n = 42), guided by the theory of planned behaviour. At data saturation, 22 current smokers and 20 ex-smokers with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited. The current smokers reported they had not quit smoking because of satisfaction with present health status, and misconceptions about the association between diabetes and smoking, and the perceived hazards of quitting. In contrast, ex-smokers had a positive opinion about quitting smoking, accepted advice about quitting from health professionals and received more family support than current smokers. Psychological addiction and weight gain after cessation made quitting challenging. Satisfaction with health status, inadequate knowledge about the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and smoking, and misconceptions about quitting smoking resulted in negative attitudes toward quitting by type 2 diabetes mellitus smokers. Smoking peers, psychological addiction and post-cessation weight gain hindered the quitting process. Education on the causal link between smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus and its complications is important to raise health awareness and counter misconceptions about quitting smoking. Behavioural counselling with weight control strategies should be part of a comprehensive smoking cessation intervention for type 2 diabetes mellitus smokers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Did Nixon quit before he resigned?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew N. Beckmann

    2017-01-01

    On August 9, 1974, Richard M. Nixon formally resigned the presidency; however, folklore hints Nixon informally quit fulfilling his duties well before then. As Watergate became less “a third rate burglary” than “high crimes and misdemeanors,” rumors of President Nixon’s wallowing, wandering, drinking, and mumbling swirled. Yet evidence for such assertions has been thin, and prevailing scholarship offers compelling reasons to believe Nixon’s institutional protocols overrode his individual procl...

  11. Parenting style and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Kristin Koetting; Haddock, C Keith; Poston, Walker S C

    2002-06-01

    To investigate whether parenting style is an independent risk factor of smoking initiation and experimentation among adolescents, and whether there is a relationship between parenting style and readiness to quit, or nicotine dependence among smokers. The 84-item Health and Smoking Questionnaire, which assesses demographics, smoking status and smoking history, perceptions of risk and risk reduction, risk factors for tobacco use, and parenting style, was administered to 816 adolescents in grades 7 to 12 (mean age, 15.1 years) of whom 22.6% (n = 182) were smokers. Parenting style was measured by the brief, non-retrospective version of the Family of Origin Scale (FOS). Higher scores on the FOS indicated more positive perceived parenting style with high levels of intimacy and autonomy, characteristics of healthy parent-child relationships. Data were analyzed using a model-building approach to logistic regression with demographic and other psychosocial variables in the first two steps, and with parenting style as the last step. Results from two logistic regression models indicate that although parenting style is not a significant risk factor for smoking experimentation [odds ratio (OR) =.998; confidence interval (CI) =.977-1.019; p =.820], it is a significant independent risk factor for smoking initiation (OR =.950; CI =.930-.970; p =.000). Smokers who were more ready to quit had higher parenting style scores than those who were not ready to quit, and smokers who had made a serious quit attempt (an indicator of nicotine addiction) had higher parenting style scores than those who had not made a quit attempt. Moreover, nonsmokers who reported they would smoke a cigarette if their best friend offered had significantly lower parenting style scores than those who reported they would not smoke a cigarette. Additional research on parenting style and its impact on adolescent smoking with a more economically and ethnically diverse sample is warranted. If future research confirms

  12. Weight concerns, mood, and postpartum smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D; Marcus, Marsha D; Kalarchian, Melissa A; Houck, Patricia R; Cheng, Yu

    2010-10-01

    The majority of women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy will resume smoking during the first 6 months postpartum. Evidence suggests that changes in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and concerns about weight may relate to postpartum smoking relapse. This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the relationship of mood and weight concerns to postpartum smoking among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Pregnant women who had quit smoking (N=183) were recruited between February 2003 and November 2006. Women completed assessments of mood (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, positive and negative affect) and weight concerns during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. Self-reported smoking status was verified by expired-air carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine at each assessment. Cox regression analyses in which mood and weight concerns were treated as time-dependent covariates were conducted in 2007 and 2009. By 24 weeks postpartum, 65% of women had resumed smoking. Smoking-related weight concerns increased risk of relapse, and positive affect and self-efficacy for weight management without smoking decreased risk of relapse postpartum. Moreover, after controlling for variables previously related to postpartum relapse, weight concerns remained significantly related to smoking relapse. Smoking-related weight concerns and positive affect increase the likelihood that a woman will resume smoking postpartum. Moreover, weight concerns appear to be salient even in the context of other factors shown to affect postpartum smoking. This study suggests that interventions may need to address women's weight concerns and mood to help sustain smoking abstinence after childbirth. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Essential Components for Success: A Smoking Cessation Programme in a Group Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Carol; Sell, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess long-term quit rates of a comprehensive smoking cessation group programme and identify factors that may influence outcomes. Design: Data from 199 patients who participated in the programme from June 2009 through June 2010 were evaluated regarding smoking history, nicotine dependence and attitudes toward smoking and quitting.…

  14. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  15. Risk perception and intention to quit among a tri-ethnic sample of nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Elaine; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Agarwal, Mohit; Mathur, Charu; Choi, Won S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-10-01

    Although the relationship between risk perceptions and quit intentions has been established, few studies explore the potential impact of smoking level on these associations, and none have done so among diversely-aged samples of multiple ethnicities. Participants, ranging in age from 25 to 81, were 1133 nondaily smokers (smoked ≥1 cigarette on 4 to 24days in the past 30days), 556 light daily smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day), and 585 moderate to heavy daily smokers (>10 cigarettes per day). Each smoking level comprised approximately equal numbers of African Americans, Latinos, and Whites. A logistic regression analysis, adjusted for sociodemographics, self-rated health, time to the first cigarette of the day and smoking level, was used to examine the association between risk perception (perceived risk of acquiring lung cancer, lung disease, and heart disease) and intention to quit (≤6months versus >6months/never). A second adjusted model tested moderation by smoking level with an interaction term. Greater risk perception was associated with a higher odds of planning to quit within 6months (AOR=1.34, CI.95=1.24, 1.45). Smoking level did not moderate this association (p=.85). Results suggest that educating all smokers, irrespective of their smoking level, about increased risk of developing smoking-related diseases might be a helpful strategy to enhance their intention to make a smoking quit attempt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  17. Smoking Use and Cessation Among People with Serious Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Aniyizhai; Singh, Noreen; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Smoking rates in people with serious mental illness (SMI) are disproportionately high compared to the general population. It is a leading contributor to the early mortality in this population. Smoking cessation rates are low in this group, though patients are motivated to quit. Unfortunately, health care providers do not always prioritize smoking cessation for this population. This review provides an overview of prevalence rates, biological effects that maintain smoking, and evidence-based treatments for smoking cessation in SMI. In addition, objective and qualitative data from a chart review of 78 patients with SMI prescribed smoking cessation treatment at one community mental health center are described. Of these, 30 (38.5 percent) were found to either quit (16/78) or reduce (14/78) smoking. Varenicline appeared to be particularly effective. Review of the literature and results of this study suggest that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies are effective for SMI patients and should be offered to those who smoke. PMID:26339210

  18. Epidemiological Study of Smoking Prevalence among Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Fialkovskaia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to clarify the prevalence and status of smoking among today’s teenagers according to the survey. Materials and methods. There was carried out the study of the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in the Dnipro (n = 2299 individuals. Results. According to the results of the survey, there were 20.8 % active smokers among adolescents, among them 89.1 % adolescents smoked every day, including 24.9 % boys and 14.6 % girls. On average, adolescents begin smoking regularly at the age of 14.4 ± 0.1 year. The average length of smoking in adolescents was to 3.4 ± 0.1. The average number of cigarettes adolescents smoked per day made up of 9.1 ± 0.3 units. Studying the type of tobacco products 48.6 % of adolescents were found to smoke light cigarettes. The average index of smoker was 109.1 ± 3.3 and was significantly higher in boys (125.5 ± 4.9 than in girls (91.9 ± 4.0 (p < 0.001. Study of the motivation to quit smoking found that only 20.3 % of teenagers are highly motivated to quit, whereas about 31.7 % of adolescents have no motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions. The study showed that the problem of tobacco use remains highly relevant: in the city every fifth teenager smokes. The findings necessitate widespread introduction of antismoking programs among adolescents, which should be directed first to reduce the intensity of smoking and increase motivation to quit smoking, promote healthy lifestyles, as well as thorough clinical examination of adolescent smokers with the aim of identifying risk groups for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  19. Smoking prevalence, attitudes, and perceived smoking prevention and control responsibilities and practices among nurses in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Madanat, Hala; Kelley, Alan T

    2010-12-01

    This study assesses smoking prevalence, attitudes, and perceived patient counselling responsibilities among practicing nurses in Amman, Jordan. It also identifies whether their smoking status or training in counselling patients about smoking is associated with their smoking-related attitudes and counselling practices. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of 266 (n = 266) nurses at four public and private hospitals in Amman. Smoking prevalence was 42% for male nurses and 13% for female nurses. Nurses strongly favoured enforcement of anti-smoking policy, but did not strongly agree that nurses should be involved in counselling patients about smoking. Approximately 41% of nurses indicated that they had received training on counselling patients about smoking. Nurse training with respect to counselling patients about smoking was positively associated with the nurses' belief that their counselling could help patients stop or never start smoking. In addition, nurses with counselling training about smoking felt significantly better prepared to assist patients to quit smoking. Nurses who smoked were significantly less likely to believe their counselling of patients about smoking could be effective. Finally, smoking status was not significantly associated with how well prepared the nurses felt to assist patients to quit smoking. These findings identify a need for more extensive and better-tailored training programmes for nurses on patient counselling about smoking. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Changes in smoking during a community-based cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in smoking during a community-based cardiovascular disease intervention programme - The Coronary Risk Factor Study. ... South African Medical Journal ... Smoking quit rates were strongly " associated with initial smoking level, with light smokers being significanty more successful quitters than heavy smokers.

  1. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing: Cessation Induction Among Smokers With Low Desire to Quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Delwyn; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Richter, Kimber P; Williams, Karen; Patten, Christi; Resnicow, Ken; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Bradley-Ewing, Andrea; Lee, Hyoung S; Moreno, Jose L; Grobe, James E

    2016-05-01

    Despite limitations in evidence, the current Clinical Practice Guideline advocates Motivational Interviewing for smokers not ready to quit. This study evaluated the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing for inducing cessation-related behaviors among smokers with low motivation to quit. Randomized clinical trial. Two-hundred fifty-five daily smokers reporting low desire to quit smoking were recruited from an urban community during 2010-2011 and randomly assigned to Motivational Interviewing, health education, or brief advice using a 2:2:1 allocation. Data were analyzed from 2012 to 2014. Four sessions of Motivational Interviewing utilized a patient-centered communication style that explored patients' own reasons for change. Four sessions of health education provided education related to smoking cessation while excluding elements characteristic of Motivational Interviewing. A single session of brief advice consisted of brief, personalized advice to quit. Self-reported quit attempts; smoking abstinence (biochemically verified); use of cessation pharmacotherapies; motivation; and confidence to quit were assessed at baseline and 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Unexpectedly, no significant differences emerged between groups in the proportion who made a quit attempt by 6-month follow-up (Motivational Interviewing, 52.0%; health education, 60.8%; brief advice, 45.1%; p=0.157). Health education had significantly higher biochemically verified abstinence rates at 6 months (7.8%) than brief advice (0.0%) (8% risk difference, 95% CI=3%, 13%, p=0.003), with the Motivational Interviewing group falling in between (2.9% abstinent, 3% risk difference, 95% CI=0%, 6%, p=0.079). Both Motivational Interviewing and health education groups showed greater increases in cessation medication use, motivation, and confidence to quit relative to brief advice (all pmotivation relative to Motivational Interviewing (Cohen's d=0.36, 95% CI=0.12, 0.60). Although Motivational Interviewing was generally

  2. Past Year Quit Attempts and Use of Cessation Resources Among Cigarette-Only Smokers and Cigarette Smokers Who Use Other Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Pederson, Linda L; Malarcher, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear how use of other tobacco products impacts cigarette-smoking cessation. We assessed differences in past year cigarette smoking quit attempts and use of counseling and medication among current cigarette-only users, cigarette and cigar users, and cigarette and smokeless tobacco (SLT) users. Data came from 24 448 current cigarette-only, 1064 cigarette and cigar only, and 508 cigarette and SLT only users who responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Demographic, smoking, and cessation characteristics were computed by group. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models assessed the relationship of tobacco use group to making a past year quit attempt, and use of counseling or medication during the last quit attempt. Dual users of cigarettes and cigars or SLT had similar interest in quitting and prevalence of reported past year quit attempts compared to cigarette-only users. In unadjusted analyses, cigarette and SLT users had higher odds of trying to quit in the past year compared to cigarette-only users (odds ratio [OR] = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05, 1.64); no differences were found for cigarette and cigar users. However, adjusting for demographic and cigarette smoking variables, both groups of dual users had similar odds as cigarette-only users for having made a past year cigarette smoking quit attempt, and to have used counseling or medication during the last quit attempt. Dual tobacco use was not associated with decreased attempts to quit smoking cigarettes; however, use of evidence-based treatment was sub-optimal among cigarette-only and dual users, and should be increased. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Applying a new theory to smoking cessation: case of multi-theory model (MTM) for health behavior change

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Manoj; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Nahar, Vinayak K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smoking continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Smoking and tobacco use are associated with cardiovascular diseases that include coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Programs for quitting smoking have played a significant role in reduction of smoking in the United States. The smoking cessation interventions include counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion therapy, and varenicline t...

  4. Medicinal smokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Younes

    2006-11-24

    All through time, humans have used smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. To the best of our knowledge, the ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care have not been studied. Mono- and multi-ingredient herbal and non-herbal remedies administered as smoke from 50 countries across the 5 continents are reviewed. Most of the 265 plant species of mono-ingredient remedies studied belong to Asteraceae (10.6%), followed by Solanaceae (10.2%), Fabaceae (9.8%) and Apiaceae (5.3%). The most frequent medical indications for medicinal smoke are pulmonary (23.5%), neurological (21.8%) and dermatological (8.1%). Other uses of smoke are not exactly medical but beneficial to health, and include smoke as a preservative or a repellent and the social use of smoke. The three main methods for administering smoke are inhalation, which accounts for 71.5% of the indications; smoke directed at a specific organ or body part, which accounts for 24.5%; ambient smoke (passive smoking), which makes up the remaining 4.0%. Whereas inhalation is typically used in the treatment of pulmonary and neurological disorders and directed smoke in localized situations, such as dermatological and genito-urinary disorders, ambient smoke is not directed at the body at all but used as an air purifier. The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about medicinal smoke and that a lot of natural products have potential for use as medicine in the smoke form. Furthermore, this review argues in favor of medicinal smoke extended use in modern medicine as a form of drug delivery and as a promising source of new active natural ingredients.

  5. Unplanned quitting in a triethnic sample of U.S. smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, Ken; Zhou, Yan; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Nollen, Nicole L; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-06-01

    Smokers who report quitting without prior planning have been shown to report longer abstinence compared with those who planned. Little is known about unplanned quitting (UQ) among U.S. smokers, minorities, or nondaily and light smokers. Using an online panel, we recruited equal numbers of Black, White, and Latino nondaily, light daily, and moderate/heavy daily smokers. Of the 1,127 who reported a past-year quit attempt, we queried whether it was planned and the maximum number of days abstinent. Overall, 38% reported that their last quit attempt was unplanned. The impact of planned versus unplanned quitting interacted with smoking level and race. Among White moderate/heavy smokers, mean days abstinent was 99 for those who reported an unplanned quit attempt compared with 60 days for those who reported a planned attempt (p = .02). Among Black moderate/heavy smokers, the mean days abstinent was higher among those whose last attempt was planned, 92 days, compared with 56 days among those whose last attempt was unplanned (p = .09). The pattern among Latinos resembled Whites but was not significant. Results remained after adjusting for confounds such as age, gender, education, income, time to first cigarette, and menthol use. There were no significant differences in abstinence by quit type for light or nondaily smokers. Future studies are needed to elucidate why UQ appears to have differential effectiveness across racial/ethnic groups and different levels of cigarette use. Research examining the impact of UQ on long-term quitting, which is not addressed here, is needed.

  6. [Multicenter case-control study of the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Qi-Shan; He, Hui-Chan; Cai, Chao; Chen, Jia-Hong; Han, Zhao-Dong; Qin, Guo-Qiang; Liang, Yu-Xiang; Zhong, Wei-de

    2011-09-13

    To explore the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer in China. A multicenter case-control study was conducted from September 2005 to June 2008. A total of 432 bladder cancer patients, matched with 392 control cases, received a questionnaire including the type of exposure (active vs. passive smoking), the age of beginning and/or quitting smoking, smoking amount and time and depth of smoke inhalation. Both active smoking and passive smoking increased the incidence of bladder cancer (P Smoke amount and time were significantly correlated with bladder cancer risk (P smoking did not affect the bladder cancer risk (P > 0.05). Inhaling smoke into mouth or throat was also a risk factor for bladder cancer (P smoking and bladder cancer. Active and passive smoking, smoke amount and time, and the depth of smoke inhalation are risk factors for bladder cancer. The best way of preventing bladder cancer is never smoking.

  7. Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes and Intentions to Quit Among Electronic Cigarette Users in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Mohamad Shakir, Sharina Mahavera; Alias, Haridah; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Hoe, Victor Cw

    2016-12-01

    The rapidly increasing uptake of e-cigarettes in Malaysia as of late demands a study to identify factors leading to its increased popularity and user intentions to quit smoking e-cigarettes. A convenience sample of e-cigarette smokers visiting e-cigarette retail shops in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was recruited. The majority of e-cigarette smokers were youth in colleges or universities (39 %), and young professionals and managers (36 %). The main reasons for using e-cigarettes were to help the user quit tobacco cigarettes (88 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes (85 %) and can be used in public areas (70 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes (85 %), and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes (65 %). A total of 65.3 % of respondents expressed intentions to quit e-cigarettes. In a multivariate analysis, the respondents who earned monthly income of RM1000 or less were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.551; 95 % CI 1.022-2.355; p = 0.015] compared to the respondents who earned a monthly income of more than RM2000. The respondents who disagreed with the statement 'Smoking e-cigs is relatively cheaper compared to tobacco cigarettes' were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.548; 95 % CI 1.045-2.293; p = 0.027] compared to respondents who did not agree. e-cigarette preventive interventions should target areas related to the identified main reasons for using e-cigarettes, namely as an aid for quitting tobacco cigarettes, the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes and can be used in public areas, the idea that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes, and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes.

  8. Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. “It’s my business, it’s my body, it’s my money”: experiences of smokers who are not planning to quit in the next 30 days and their views about treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YK Bartlett

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence-based smoking cessation treatments in the UK are only offered to smokers ready to quit within 30 days. This study reports the experiences of smokers who are not ready to quit and explores the types of intervention approaches that might engage them. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with smokers who had no plans to quit within 30 days (n = 32, 44 % female. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed thematically using Nvivo 10 software. Results Participants were ambivalent towards their own smoking, but the majority indicated they would like to quit someday. Smoking was seen both to hinder and facilitate social interactions, depending on the social norms of the participant’s social circle. Participants reported that, when they perceive pressure to quit smoking, they respond defensively; concurrently, existing approaches to encouraging smoking cessation were seen as unappealing. In contrast, the importance of intrinsic motivation to quit was emphasized, and interventions that were tailored, increased intrinsic motivation and kept the smoker engaged in activities incompatible with smoking were preferred. Conclusions Despite not planning to quit in the next 30 days, the majority of participants wanted to quit smoking at some point. Even if existing services were offered to smokers not planning to quit in the next 30 days, it is unlikely that these services would meet the needs of this population. Future research should explore novel approaches to appeal specifically to smokers not planning to quit in the next 30 days, such as encouraging engagement with activities incompatible with smoking and fostering non-smoking habits.

  10. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Parental smoking, closeness to parents, and youth smoking. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2007;31:261. Guide to ... cigarette use with initiation of combustible tobacco product smoking in early adolescence. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2015;314:700. ...

  11. Do time perspective and sensation-seeking predict quitting activity among smokers? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sansone, Genevieve; Borland, Ron; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2012-12-01

    Personality factors such as time perspective and sensation-seeking have been shown to predict smoking uptake. However, little is known about the influences of these variables on quitting behavior, and no prior studies have examined the association cross-nationally in a large probability sample. In the current study it was hypothesized that future time perspective would enhance - while sensation-seeking would inhibit - quitting activity among smokers. It was anticipated that the effects would be similar across English speaking countries. Using a prospective cohort design, this cross-national study of adult smokers (N=8845) examined the associations among time perspective, sensation-seeking and quitting activity using the first three waves of data gathered from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey (ITC-4), a random digit dialed telephone survey of adult smokers from the United Kingdom, United States, Canada and Australia. Findings revealed that future time perspective (but not sensation-seeking) was a significant predictor of quitting attempts over the 8-month follow-up after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, factors known to inhibit quitting (e.g., perceived addiction, enjoyment of smoking, and perceived value of smoking), and factors known to enhance quitting (e.g., quit intention strength, perceived benefit of quitting, concerns about health effects of smoking). The latter, particularly intention, were significant mediators of the effect of time perspective on quitting activity. The effects of time perspective on quitting activity were similar across all four English speaking countries sampled. If these associations are causal in nature, it may be the case that interventions and health communications that enhance future-orientation may foster more quit attempts among current smokers. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A qualitative analysis of messages to promote smoking cessation among pregnant women

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, Janet; Gifford, Heather; Maubach, Ninya; Newcombe, Rhiannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Although aware that smoking while pregnant presents serious risks to their unborn children, some women continue to smoke and rationalise their dissonance rather than quit. We explored metaphors women used to frame smoking and quitting, then developed cessation messages that drew on these metaphors and examined the perceived effectiveness of these. Participants We used a two-phase qualitative study. Phase one involved 13 in-depth interviews with women who were smoking (or who had sm...

  13. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was estimated using multiple linear regression adjusted for time and the presence of smoke-free legislation. The immediate as well as the longer-term impact of the 2006 smoke-free law on quit-ratio was estimated using segmented linear regression analysis. The analyses were performed separately in men and women with high and low education, respectively. No relationship was observed between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio, except in women having a low educational level, among whom a rise in price was associated with a decrease in quit-ratio. The smoke-free law altered the smoking quit-ratio in the short term and altered also pre-existing trends. Smoking quit-ratio increased immediately after the ban - though this increase was significant only among women with a low educational level - and then decreased in subsequent years except among men with a high educational level. A clear relationship between tobacco prices and smoking quit-ratio was not observed in a recent period. After the implementation of smoke-free legislation the trend in the quit ratio in most of the socio-economic groups was different from the trend observed before implementation, so existing inequalities in smoking quit-ratio were not widened or narrowed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    wide to infer equivalence. We have not shown that hypnotherapy has a greater effect on six-month quit rates than other interventions or no treatment. There is not enough evidence to show whether hypnotherapy could be as effective as counselling treatment. The effects of hypnotherapy on smoking cessation claimed by uncontrolled studies were not confirmed by analysis of randomized controlled trials.

  15. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Introduction During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. Methods We conducted a pretest–posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers’ indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F 1,144 = 22.69, P secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F 1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F 1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Conclusions Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing. PMID:27536903

  16. Clearing the Air: Smoke-Free Housing Policies, Smoking, and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Affordable Housing Residents in Minnesota, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, John H; Reckinger, Dawn

    2016-08-18

    During the past 30 years, local and state tobacco use control laws in the United States have helped reduce smoking prevalence and exposure to secondhand smoke, but progress among low socioeconomic populations has been slow. Implementing smoke-free housing policies in affordable housing may help address this issue. The purpose of our study was to assess how such policies affect smoking rates and exposure to secondhand smoke among residents of affordable housing. We conducted a pretest-posttest longitudinal study of 180 residents from 8 affordable housing properties in Minnesota. Participating properties agreed to adopt a smoke-free housing policy covering indoor grounds, and 3 of these properties also prohibited smoking on all outdoor grounds. Policies were implemented with assistance from local public health departments and the Statewide Health Improvement Program. Participants completed surveys one month before policy implementation and 6 months postimplementation. Surveys assessed smoking, quit attempts, and indoor and outdoor secondhand smoke exposure. Results indicated a significant reduction in nonsmokers' indoor exposure to secondhand smoke (F1,144 = 22.69, P exposure to secondhand smoke from Time 1 (pretest) to Time 2 (posttest) (F1,140 = 2.17, P = .14). However, when examining sites that only prohibited smoking indoors, we observed an increase in outdoor secondhand smoke exposure that approached significance (F1,118 = 3.76, P = .055). Results showed no change in quit attempts over time, but 77% of residents who smoked at pretest reported reducing the amount that they smoked at posttest, and an additional 5% reported that they had quit. Smoke-free housing policies may be an effective strategy to reduce exposure to indoor secondhand exposure and promote decreased cigarette smoking among residents of affordable housing.

  17. Non-specific psychological distress, smoking status and smoking cessation: United States National Health Interview Survey 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubrick Stephen R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that smoking rates in people with common mental disorders such as anxiety or depressive disorders are much higher than in people without mental disorders. It is less clear whether people with these mental disorders want to quit smoking, attempt to quit smoking or successfully quit smoking at the same rate as people without such disorders. Methods We used data from the 2005 Cancer Control Supplement to the United States National Health Interview Survey to explore the relationship between psychological distress as measured using the K6 scale and smoking cessation, by comparing current smokers who had tried unsuccessfully to quit in the previous 12 months to people able to quit for at least 7 to 24 months prior to the survey. We also used data from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing to examine the relationship between psychological distress (K6 scores and duration of mental illness. Results The majority of people with high K6 psychological distress scores also meet diagnostic criteria for mental disorders, and over 90% of these people had first onset of mental disorder more than 2 years prior to the survey. We found that people with high levels of non-specific psychological distress were more likely to be current smokers. They were as likely as people with low levels of psychological distress to report wanting to quit smoking, trying to quit smoking, and to have used smoking cessation aids. However, they were significantly less likely to have quit smoking. Conclusions The strong association between K6 psychological distress scores and mental disorders of long duration suggests that the K6 measure is a useful proxy for ongoing mental health problems. As people with anxiety and depressive disorders make up a large proportion of adult smokers in the US, attention to the role of these disorders in smoking behaviours may be a useful area of further investigation for tobacco

  18. Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Kizilova, Kseniya; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  19. Smoking patterns and stimulus control in intermittent and daily smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Shiffman

    Full Text Available Intermittent smokers (ITS - who smoke less than daily - comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4-27 days per month compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5-30 cigarettes daily who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n=21,539 smoking episodes; parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n=26,930 non-smoking occasions. Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or "indulgent" smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS.

  20. Smoking Patterns and Stimulus Control in Intermittent and Daily Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Dunbar, Michael S.; Li, Xiaoxue; Scholl, Sarah M.; Tindle, Hilary A.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent smokers (ITS) – who smoke less than daily – comprise an increasing proportion of adult smokers. Their smoking patterns challenge theoretical models of smoking motivation, which emphasize regular and frequent smoking to maintain nicotine levels and avoid withdrawal, but yet have gone largely unexamined. We characterized smoking patterns among 212 ITS (smoking 4–27 days per month) compared to 194 daily smokers (DS; smoking 5–30 cigarettes daily) who monitored situational antecedents of smoking using ecological momentary assessment. Subjects recorded each cigarette on an electronic diary, and situational variables were assessed in a random subset (n = 21,539 smoking episodes); parallel assessments were obtained by beeping subjects at random when they were not smoking (n = 26,930 non-smoking occasions). Compared to DS, ITS' smoking was more strongly associated with being away from home, being in a bar, drinking alcohol, socializing, being with friends and acquaintances, and when others were smoking. Mood had only modest effects in either group. DS' and ITS' smoking were substantially and equally suppressed by smoking restrictions, although ITS more often cited self-imposed restrictions. ITS' smoking was consistently more associated with environmental cues and contexts, especially those associated with positive or “indulgent” smoking situations. Stimulus control may be an important influence in maintaining smoking and making quitting difficult among ITS. PMID:24599056

  1. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  2. Motivational Interviewing for encouraging quit attempts among unmotivated smokers: study protocol of a randomized, controlled, efficacy trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catley Delwyn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the current Clinical Practice Guideline recommend Motivational Interviewing for use with smokers not ready to quit, the strength of evidence for its use is rated as not optimal. The purpose of the present study is to address key methodological limitations of previous studies by ensuring fidelity in the delivery of the Motivational Interviewing intervention, using an attention-matched control condition, and focusing on unmotivated smokers whom meta-analyses have indicated may benefit most from Motivational Interviewing. It is hypothesized that MI will be more effective at inducing quit attempts and smoking cessation at 6-month follow-up than brief advice to quit and an intensity-matched health education condition. Methods/Design A sample of adult community resident smokers (N = 255 who report low motivation and readiness to quit are being randomized using a 2:2:1 treatment allocation to Motivational Interviewing, Health Education, or Brief Advice. Over 6 months, participants in Motivational Interviewing and Health Education receive 4 individual counseling sessions and participants in Brief Advice receive one brief in-person individual session at baseline. Rigorous monitoring and independent verification of fidelity will assure the counseling approaches are distinct and delivered as planned. Participants complete surveys at baseline, week 12 and 6-month follow-up to assess demographics, smoking characteristics, and smoking outcomes. Participants who decide to quit are provided with a self-help guide to quitting, help with a quit plan, and free pharmacotherapy. The primary outcome is self-report of one or more quit attempts lasting at least 24 hours between randomization and 6-month follow-up. The secondary outcome is biochemically confirmed 7-day point prevalence cessation at 6-month follow-up. Hypothesized mediators of the presumed treatment effect on quit attempts are greater perceived autonomy support and

  3. Smoking cessation affects the natural history of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiu-Wu Bai,1 Xiao-xin Chen,2 Shengsheng Liu,3 Li Yu,1 Jin-Fu Xu11Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Peoples Hospital of Nantong, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, 3Department of Tuberculosis, Anhui Chest Hospital, Hefei, Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered and readily identifiable risk factor for COPD. However, it is not clear which quantitative factors related to smoking influence the prognosis of COPD patients.Methods: A total of 204 patients with a long-term history of smoking were enrolled into this study and followed up for 5 years. Patients were divided into “death” or “survival” groups based on follow-up results and “quitting-smoking” or “continuing-smoking” groups based on whether they gave up smoking.Results: Patients in the death group had a longer smoking time, lower prevalence of quitting smoking, later onset of COPD symptoms, older age at quitting smoking, lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 % predicted, and lower ratio of FEV1/forced vital capacity. Age, age at quitting smoking, and FEV1% predicted were independently associated with mortality from COPD. Compared to the continuing-smoking group, the quitting-smoking group had a lower mortality rate, longer course of COPD, earlier onset of COPD symptoms, and lower residual volume percent predicted. During the 5-year follow-up, 113 deaths were recorded (quitting-smoking group: n=92; 40 deaths; continuing-smoking group: n=112; 73 deaths. The mortality risk remained significantly higher in the continuing-smoking group than the quitting-smoking group (log-rank test, 13.59; P=0.0002.Conclusion: Smoking time may be related to the mortality rate from COPD. Smoking cessation has the greatest capacity to influence the natural history of COPD.Keywords: chronic

  4. Concurrent nicotine and tobacco product use among homeless smokers and associations with cigarette dependence and other factors related to quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisler, Julie; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Garey, Lorra; Kenzdor, Darla E; Hébert, Emily T; Vijayaraghavan, Maya; Businelle, Michael S

    2018-02-07

    Cigarette smoking rates among homeless adults are exceptionally high, contributing to health disparities experienced by this disadvantaged population. Concurrent nicotine and tobacco product use have been shown to result in greater health problems than cigarette smoking alone, and little is known about the rates, motives, and perceived impacts of concurrent use in this group. The purpose of this study is to explore concurrent use rates and constructs of interest among homeless adult daily smokers and to examine differences between concurrent users and non-concurrent users on cigarette dependence, perceived risk of smoking, readiness to quit, and the receipt of recent cessation intervention. Participants (N = 396) were recruited from six homeless-serving agencies and/or shelters in Oklahoma City. Enrolled participants completed self-report questionnaires. The rate of concurrent use was high -67.2%. Participants most frequently endorsed lower cost and a desire to cut down on cigarette smoking as motives for concurrent product use. Concurrent users indicated both a greater likelihood of developing a smoking-related disease if they did not quit for good and a greater number of past year quit attempts relative to non-concurrent users. There was no significant difference between concurrent users and non-concurrent users on readiness to quit or having received recent smoking cessation intervention. The need for cessation efforts that account for concurrent use for homeless adult smokers is great. Study findings indicate that concurrent users are commonly pursuing the reduction or elimination of cigarette usage and should be specifically targeted for cessation intervention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung Cancer: Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation for patients who smoke should be a top priority for physicians. Nicotine dependence should be considered a chronic disease, with the expectation that relapse is normal. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians screen all adults for tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to adults who use tobacco. It also recommends use of the 5 As (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in discussing tobacco use with patients. All smokers should be offered behavioral and pharmacotherapy assistance in quitting. Pregnant women who smoke should be offered behavioral methods first. However, if these methods are unlikely to be effective, pharmacotherapy can be offered after a discussion about risks and benefits. The behavioral method with the most evidence of efficacy is group therapy. Nicotine replacement therapy (eg, gums, lozenges, transdermal patches, inhalers, nasal sprays), bupropion SR, and varenicline are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for management of nicotine withdrawal during smoking cessation. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  6. Smoking cessation and response to periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridi, F; Tsantila, S; Pepelassi, E

    2017-09-16

    Smoking has detrimental oral effects. The aim of this study was to review the literature related to the impact of smoking cessation on periodontal health, periodontal disease and periodontal treatment outcome as well as to review the smoking cessation strategies and the dentist's role in the smoking cessation effort. Smoking cessation seems to have a positive effect on the periodontium, to decrease the risk for incidence and progression of periodontitis and to lead to a non-significant trend for greater mean probing depth reductions after non-surgical treatment over a 12-month period. Smoking cessation effect on the periodontium should be further investigated. Dentists should inform their patients on the harmful effect of smoking and the beneficial effect of smoking cessation on oral health. They should advise, motivate and support their patients to quit smoking. Smoking-control strategies should be incorporated in dental practise. The dentist's role in the smoking cessation effort is important. Guidelines on smoking-control strategies applied in the dental office are required. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  7. TControl: A mobile app to follow up tobacco-quitting patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifarré, Marc; Carrera, Adrián; Vilaplana, Jordi; Cuadrado, Josep; Solsona, Sara; Abella, Francesc; Solsona, Francesc; Alves, Rui

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for a wide range of respiratory and circulatory diseases in active and passive smokers. Well-designed campaigns are raising awareness to the problem and an increasing number of smokers seeks medical assistance to quit their habit. In this context, there is the need to develop mHealth Apps that assist and manage large smoke quitting programs in efficient and economic ways. Our main objective is to develop an efficient and free mHealth app that facilitates the management of, and assistance to, people who want to quit smoking. As secondary objectives, our research also aims at estimating the economic effect of deploying that App in the public health system. Using JAVA and XML we develop and deploy a new free mHealth App for Android, called TControl (Tobacco-quitting Control). We deploy the App at the Tobacco Unit of the Santa Maria Hospital in Lleida and determine its stability by following the crashes of the App. We also use a survey to test usability of the app and differences in aptitude for using the App in a sample of 31 patients. Finally, we use mathematical models to estimate the economic effect of deploying TControl in the Catalan public health system. TControl keeps track of the smoke-quitting users, tracking their status, interpreting it, and offering advice and psychological support messages. The App also provides a bidirectional communication channel between patients and clinicians via mobile text messages. Additionally, registered patients have the option to interchange experiences with each other by chat. The App was found to be stable and to have high performances during startup and message sending. Our results suggest that age and gender have no statistically significant effect on patient aptitude for using TControl. Finally, we estimate that TControl could reduce costs for the Catalan public health system (CPHS) by up to € 400M in 10 years. TControl is a stable and well behaved App, typically operating near

  8. Graphic and Arousing? Emotional and Cognitive Reactions to Tobacco Graphic Health Warnings and Associated Quit-Related Outcomes Among Low SEP Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Ramanadhan, Shoba; Bigman, Cabral A; Nagler, Rebekah H; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2018-02-01

    Research on graphic health warnings (GHWs) indicates that beyond changing cognitions about the health effects of smoking, GHWs evoke emotional reactions that can influence quit-related outcomes. Emotions can be classified based on valence (positive or negative) and arousal (calm or excited). However, although considerable research has examined the differential effectiveness of positive versus negative GHW-evoked emotions, research investigating the role of arousal activation in quit-related behaviors is scarce. This study examined associations between quit-related outcomes (intention and attempt to quit) and GHWs-evoked negative emotions classified as high and low in arousal activation as well as cognitive reactions among smokers of low socioeconomic position (SEP). It also examined whether perceived health risks of smoking moderate the relationship between emotional and cognitive reactions to GHWs and quit-related outcomes. Data were collected from low SEP smokers in three Massachusetts communities. Participants were screened and randomized to view one of the nine GHWs initially proposed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and answered pre- and post-exposure questions. Results showed that GHW-evoked negative emotions high in arousal activation and cognitive reactions were both significantly associated with intention to quit during immediate post-test, controlling for age, warning label difference, and prior quit intention. However, these associations did not hold for quit attempts at follow-up. Perceived health risks of smoking moderated the association between cognitive reactions to GHWs and quit attempts at follow-up. The findings suggest that not all negative emotions evoked by GHWs are effective. Negative emotions high in arousal activation may be more effective in influencing quit-related behavioral intentions in low SEP groups. Additionally, unlike emotional reactions, cognitive reactions to GHWs may have effects that last relatively

  9. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete

    2005-01-01

    Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases.......Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases....

  11. Smoking and mental illness. An update for psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelsohn, Colin P; Kirby, Dianne P; Castle, David J

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to review research on smoking and mental illness and provide evidence-based guidelines for psychiatrists to help smoking patients quit. We undertook a narrative review of the literature with a special focus on the Australian context. Although one in three people with mental illness smoke tobacco, smoking is often neglected in psychiatric practice. Smoking is a significant contributor to the health gap between people with mental illness and the general population. Smokers with mental illness are motivated to quit and are able to do so, albeit with lower quit rates. Quitting can lead to substantial improvements in mental wellbeing and physical health and does not exacerbate pre-existing mental illness. Psychiatrists should advise all smokers to quit and provide counselling, medication and support, based on the 5As framework. Approved pharmacotherapy - nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline and bupropion - is recommended for nicotine-dependent smokers. Smoking induces the metabolism of certain psychotropic drugs such as clozapine and olanzapine and dose reductions may be necessary after cessation. Psychiatrists have a duty of care to identify the smoking status of their patients and to provide evidence-based support to quit. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  12. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  13. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  14. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  15. Smoking cessation and stress among teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkin, Gregory P; Fryer, Craig S; Mahadeo, Madhuvanti

    2007-07-01

    The authors describe the experience of quitting smoking, focusing on the obstacles youth struggle with, based on individual interviews and focus groups with 54 teenagers in New York City. A major obstacle was the belief that people should stop smoking forever. The youth had to cope with temptation, frequent and often intense urges or cravings for cigarettes, and lack of social support from their family and friends. The young participants not only had to cope with general life stresses without being able to use cigarettes to reduce tensions but also had to contend with new stressful situations, such as friends who put them down for not smoking. In addition, the teens had to give up things that were important to them, such as friendships, during their quit attempts. The study describes how quitting can be a much more stressful experience for youth than research typically acknowledges. The authors discuss public health implications.

  16. Hemoperitoneum secondary to an spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicking a duodenal perforated ulcera: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tovar, Jaime; Díaz, Gustavo; Alias, David; Jiménez-Fuertes, Montiel; Durán, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the spleen without traumatic cause is an unfrequent entity, usually related with pathologic spleens. We present a case of spontaneous rupture of an histologically normal spleen with splenomegalia secondary to smoking habit. The hemoperitoneum caused by the spontaneous rupture of the spleen mimmicked a hollow viscera perforation.

  17. Correlates of smoking cessation among Filipino immigrant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel M; Romero, Romina A; Maxwell, Annette E

    2010-04-01

    A survey on tobacco use among 318 Filipino immigrant men aged 40-75 years was conducted in Los Angeles, California. Those who reported more English language use with their family, friends and neighbors (OR = 1.31) and who lived in households with complete smoking prohibition (OR = 3.82) were more likely to be successful in quitting smoking. Those who endorsed more positive beliefs on physical and social consequences of smoking (OR = 0.69) and who had mostly smoking friends (OR = 0.37) were less likely to be successful in quitting smoking. Our findings suggest that prohibiting smoking in households, creating social networks of non-smokers, and education or counseling are important components of a smoking cessation intervention for Filipino immigrant men.

  18. a comparative study on cigarette smoking control strategies used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    further reductions in tobacco smuggling; Further improvements to National Health Services, Stop. Smoking Services and increased availability of. Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) to help smokers quit; Reducing tobacco promotion including further restrictions on tobacco advertising; Regulating tobacco - for example,.

  19. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  20. The influence of discrimination on smoking cessation among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Castro, Yessenia; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Mazas, Carlos A; Cinciripini, Paul M; Lam, Cho Y; Adams, Claire E; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Wetter, David W

    2014-03-01

    Although studies have shown a cross-sectional link between discrimination and smoking, the prospective influence of discrimination on smoking cessation has yet to be evaluated. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of everyday and major discrimination on smoking cessation among Latinos making a quit attempt. Participants were 190 Spanish speaking smokers of Mexican Heritage recruited from the Houston, TX metropolitan area who participated in the study between 2009 and 2012. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations of everyday and major discrimination with smoking abstinence at 26 weeks post-quit. Most participants reported at least some everyday discrimination (64.4%), and at least one major discrimination event (56%) in their lifetimes. Race/ethnicity/nationality was the most commonly perceived reason for both everyday and major discrimination. Everyday discrimination was not associated with post-quit smoking status. However, experiencing a greater number of major discrimination events was associated with a reduced likelihood of achieving 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence, OR=.51, p=.004, and continuous smoking abstinence, OR=.29, p=.018, at 26 weeks post-quit. Findings highlight the high frequency of exposure to discrimination among Latinos, and demonstrate the negative impact of major discrimination events on a smoking cessation attempt. Efforts are needed to attenuate the detrimental effects of major discrimination events on smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Design Considerations for mHealth Programs Targeting Smokers Not Yet Ready to Quit: Results of a Sequential Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Jennifer B; Heffner, Jaimee; Hohl, Sarah; Klasnja, Predrag; Catz, Sheryl L

    2017-03-10

    Mobile health (mHealth) smoking cessation programs are typically designed for smokers who are ready to quit smoking. In contrast, most smokers want to quit someday but are not yet ready to quit. If mHealth apps were designed for these smokers, they could potentially encourage and assist more people to quit smoking. No prior studies have specifically examined the design considerations of mHealth apps targeting smokers who are not yet ready to quit. To inform the user-centered design of mHealth apps for smokers who were not yet ready to quit by assessing (1) whether these smokers were interested in using mHealth tools to change their smoking behavior; (2) their preferred features, functionality, and content of mHealth programs addressing smoking; and (3) considerations for marketing or distributing these programs to promote their uptake. We conducted a sequential exploratory, mixed-methods study. Qualitative interviews (phase 1, n=15) were completed with a demographically diverse group of smokers who were smartphone owners and wanted to quit smoking someday, but not yet. Findings informed a Web-based survey of smokers from across the United States (phase 2, n=116). Data were collected from April to September, 2016. Findings confirmed that although smokers not yet ready to quit are not actively seeking treatment or using cessation apps, most would be interested in using these programs to help them reduce or change their smoking behavior. Among phase 2 survey respondents, the app features, functions, and content rated most highly were (1) security of personal information; (2) the ability to track smoking, spending, and savings; (3) content that adaptively changes with one's needs; (4) the ability to request support as needed; (5) the ability to earn and redeem awards for program use; (6) guidance on how to quit smoking; and (7) content specifically addressing management of nicotine withdrawal, stress, depression, and anxiety. Results generally did not vary by stage of

  2. Brief meditation training induces smoking reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Rongxiang; Posner, Michael I

    2013-08-20

    More than 5 million deaths a year are attributable to tobacco smoking, but attempts to help people either quit or reduce their smoking often fail, perhaps in part because the intention to quit activates brain networks related to craving. We recruited participants interested in general stress reduction and randomly assigned them to meditation training or a relaxation training control. Among smokers, 2 wk of meditation training (5 h in total) produced a significant reduction in smoking of 60%; no reduction was found in the relaxation control. Resting-state brain scans showed increased activity for the meditation group in the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, brain areas related to self-control. These results suggest that brief meditation training improves self-control capacity and reduces smoking.

  3. Adult tobacco cessation in Cambodia: I. Determinants of quitting tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Job, Jayakaran S; Batech, Michael; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    This study determined factors associated with quitting tobacco in Cambodia, a country with a high prevalence of men who smoke and women who use smokeless tobacco. As part of a nationwide survey, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 5145 current and 447 former tobacco users who had quit for ≥ 2 years. Determinants of quitting in multivariate analyses were age >48 years, age at initiation >25 years, ≥ 7 years of education, income ≥ 1 US dollar per day, professional (odds ratio [OR] = 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-5.01) or labor (OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.10-3.56) occupations, and heart disease (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.10, 3.42). Smokeless tobacco users were 10-fold less likely to quit (OR = 0.10; 95% = CI 0.05-0.20) than smokers. In conclusion, tobacco cessation among Cambodians was lower than in nations with decades of comprehensive tobacco control policies. Tobacco cessation programs and policies should include all forms of tobacco and target young to middle-aged users before onset of disease and premature death.

  4. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 (43.2%) nonsmokers who lived below the poverty level were exposed to secondhand smoke. Occupation 10 Differences in secondhand smoke exposure related to people’s jobs decreased over the past 20 years, but large differences still exist. Some groups continue to have high levels of ...

  5. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on health-related quality of life in women in the Nurses’ Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda; Bialous, Stella A.; Cooley, Mary E.; Jun, Hee-Jin; Feskanich, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between smoking and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the impact of quitting smoking on changes in HRQOL among women in the two Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) cohorts (n = 158,736) who were 29 to 71 years of age in 1992/1993 when they reported data on smoking status and completed the Short Form-36® version 1 (SF-36®). Methods At baseline, the SF-36® physical component scores (SF-PCS) and mental component scores (SF-MCS) were examined by smoking status (never, 56%, former, 32%, and current, 13%) within 10-year age groups. Smoking characteristics were analyzed as correlates of SF-36®. Changes in smoking status and SF-PCS and SF-MCS, adjusted for comorbid disease and other covariates, were reassessed at 4-year intervals among current smokers in 1992/1993 and those who either continued smoking after 4 and 8 years or reported not smoking at both intervals. Results Smokers had lower HRQOL (SF-PCS and SF-MCS) as compared to never and former smokers. Current smoking, cigarettes per day and time since quitting were associated with significantly lower SF-PCS and SF-MCS. Continuing smokers and those who quit had significant declines in SF-PCS over time and significant improvements in SF-MCS at 8 years. There was minimal difference between groups, with some greater improvements in SF-MCS among those reporting non-smoking at 8 years. These findings support the lower ratings of HRQOL by smokers, but quitting alone, after an average of 21 years of smoking, did not improve HRQOL. Further study focused on the HRQOL impact of quitting smoking is needed. PMID:18931942

  6. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David

    2013-01-01

    Background We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Methods Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only w...

  7. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  8. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  9. Socio-economic variations in tobacco consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia: results from the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahpush, Mohammad; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Kin, Foong; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2008-03-01

    Aim To examine the association of socio-economic position (education, income and employment status) with cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit among male smokers in Thailand and Malaysia. Design and setting The data were based on a survey of adult smokers conducted in early 2005 in Thailand and Malaysia as part of the International Tobacco Control-South-East Asia (ITC-SEA) project. Participants A total of 1846 men in Thailand and 1906 men in Malaysia. Measurement Participants were asked questions on daily cigarette consumption, intention to quit and self-efficacy to quit in face-to-face interviews. Findings Analyses were based on multivariate regression models that adjusted for all three socio-economic indicators. In Thailand, higher level of education was associated strongly with not having self-efficacy, associated weakly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, associated weakly with high cigarette consumption and was not associated with having an intention to quit. Being employed was associated strongly with having an intention to quit and was not associated with cigarette consumption or self-efficacy. In Malaysia, higher level of education was not associated with any of the outcomes. Higher income was associated strongly with having self-efficacy, and was not associated with the other outcomes. Being employed was associated moderately with higher cigarette consumption and was not associated with the other outcomes. Conclusion Socio-economic and cultural conditions, as well as tobacco control policies and tobacco industry activities, shape the determinants of smoking behaviour and beliefs. Existing knowledge from high-income countries about disparities in smoking should not be generalized readily to other countries.

  10. Smoking cessation research via the internet: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jacqueline; Delucchi, Kevin; Muñoz, Ricardo; Collins, Noah; Stable, Eliseo Pérez; Augustson, Erik; Lenert, Leslie

    2005-01-01

    To reverse the present stagnation in progress toward reduced smoking rates, new widely accessible treatment methods for smoking cessation must be developed and evaluated with large groups of smokers. We tested the feasibility of conducting a smoking cessation study over the Internet using a brief, self-help educational intervention. Through a direct e-mail sent from a large health information web site (WebMD), and with our presence on the Internet, we recruited 538 adult smokers to the study. Most participants (90.5%) completed all baseline questionnaires. Questionnaires showed acceptable to good reliability and were comparable with studies using paper-and-pencil methods. Participants appeared to be highly dependent on nicotine. Forty-two percent indicated being ready to quit smoking at baseline. At 1-month follow-up, 42.8% of baseline participants returned a complete follow-up questionnaire, 40% of whom indicated having made a serious quit attempt, and 8.3% of whom indicated 7-day abstinence. Most follow-up participants rated the site as at least somewhat helpful to quitting (74.9%) and reported at least a slight increased intention to quit smoking over baseline (67.3%). While Internet-enabled self-help interventions for smoking cessation are able to reach large numbers of smokers interested in quitting smoking, additional procedures are needed to retain these users for treatment and follow-up assessments.

  11. Subjective social status predicts long-term smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Li, Yisheng; Cao, Yumei; Castro, Yessenia; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2011-02-25

    The relationship between subjective social status (SSS), a person's perception of his/her relative position in the social hierarchy, and the ability to achieve long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence among 421 racially/ethnically diverse smokers undergoing a specific quit attempt, as well as the interactive effects of race/ethnicity and sex. The main effects and moderated relationships of SSS on biochemically-confirmed, continuous smoking abstinence through 26 weeks post-quit were examined using continuation ratio logit models adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking characteristics. Even after adjusting for the influence of socioeconomic status and other covariates, smokers endorsing lower SSS were significantly less likely to maintain long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt than those with higher SSS (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.28; p = 0.044). The statistical significance of this relationship, however, did not vary by race/ethnicity or sex. SSS independently predicts long-term smoking abstinence during a specific quit attempt. SSS may be a useful screener to identify smokers at elevated risk of relapse who may require additional attention to facilitate long-term abstinence. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying the relationship between SSS and long-term smoking abstinence in order to appropriately tailor treatment to facilitate abstinence among lower SSS smokers.

  12. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  13. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Smoking during pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... smoking, tell your health care provider. Why is smoking during pregnancy harmful? Smoking during pregnancy is bad ...

  14. Adolescent Social Networks: General and Smoking-Specific Characteristics Associated With Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E.; Nargiso, Jessica E.; Gaitonde, Linda Brazil; Stanton, Cassandra A.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Converging lines of research suggest that adolescents’ smoking behaviors are strongly influenced by the characteristics of their social network and the social processes their network facilitates. The primary goal of this study was to conduct a detailed comparison of the social networks of adolescent smokers and nonsmokers to determine what aspects relate the most to smoking status. A secondary goal was to conduct within-group analyses to examine relationships between key measures of behavior-specific social support and (a) smoking susceptibility among nonsmokers, and (b) readiness to quit smoking among smokers. Method: A matched sample of 190 adolescent smokers and nonsmokers (Mage = 16.8 years; 51% female) completed a questionnaire in which they nominated and reported on up to 10 important people in their lives. This measure allowed us to examine adolescents’ overall networks (both peers and family) and to investigate numerous aspects, including general network characteristics (e.g., size of network, average contact with network members), social support (e.g., importance of people in the network), and the pervasiveness of smoking in the network (e.g., percentage of smoking peers). Results: The pervasiveness of smoking in adolescents’ social network was the strongest distinguisher of smokers versus nonsmokers. In addition, behavior-specific social support was strongly associated with susceptibility to initiate smoking among nonsmokers and readiness to quit among smokers. Conclusions: This research offers insight into potential targets for prevention and early intervention by demonstrating how social networks can both promote and attenuate risk for smoking. PMID:25785800

  15. Women and Smoking: Global Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taru Kinnunen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Global tobacco control has led to a reduction in smoking prevalence and mortality in men, while the rates among women have not followed the same declining rates or patterns. Tobacco-induced diseases, including those unique to women (reproductive complications, cervical and breast cancer are becoming increasingly prevalent among women. Unfortunately, many tobacco control policies and cessation programs have been found to be less effective for women than men. This is alarming as disease risk for lung cancer, CVD, osteoporosis, and COPD, associated with smoking, is higher among women. Women are also more likely to be exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke and subsequent morbidity. Finally, quitting smoking appears to be harder for women than men. Current tobacco control and surveillance data come primarily from high resource countries. WHO estimates that in 2030, in low and medium resource countries, 7 out of 10 deaths will be smoking-related. While the prevalence of smoking in women is relatively low in these countries, more information is needed regarding their patterns of tobacco use uptake, and subsequent health outcomes, as theirs differ from men. Tobacco use in women is greatly influenced by social, cultural and political determinants, and needs to be conceptualized within an intersectional framework.

  16. HIV Care Initiation: A Teachable Moment for Smoking Cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Frank, Summer G; Savin, Micah J; Waters, Andrew J; Li, Yisheng; Chen, Sixia; Fletcher, Faith E; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-09-25

    Tobacco use among persons living with HIV represents an important risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Thus, efforts designed to inform the development of appropriate smoking cessation programs for this population remains a public health priority. To address this need, a study was conducted to longitudinally assess the relationship between intention to quit smoking and cessation over the 12 month period following initiation of HIV care. Patients initiating HIV care at a large inner city safety net clinic were enrolled (n=378) in a 12-month prospective study. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month post enrollment, and HIV-related clinical data were collected from participants' electronic medical records. Variables of interest included intention to quit smoking, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), and stage of HIV. Data were collected in Houston, Texas from 2009 to 2015. The sample was 75% male and 62% Black. Findings indicated that intention to quit smoking increased between baseline and 3 months, and subsequently trended downward from 3 to 12 months. Results from linear and generalized linear mixed models indicated that participants with advanced HIV disease (vs. not advanced) reported significantly (p<.05) higher intention to quit smoking at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post study enrollment. A similar though non-significant pattern was observed in the smoking abstinence outcome. HIV treatment initiation appears to be associated with increases in intention to quit smoking thus serves as a potential teachable moment for smoking cessation intervention. This study documents significant increases in intention to quit smoking in the 3-month period following HIV care initiation. Moreover, quit intention trended downward following the 3-month follow-up until the 12-month follow-up. In addition, a marked effect for HIV disease stage was observed, whereby

  17. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  18. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Hearing Loss: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Nagahama, Satsue; Akter, Shamima; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kashino, Ikuko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kentaro; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2018-03-14

    We aimed to determine the prospective association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of hearing loss in a large Japanese cohort. The cohort study included 50195 employees, who were aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 8 years. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and hearing loss. During follow-up, 3532 individuals developed high-frequency hearing loss, and 1575 developed low-frequency hearing loss. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with current smokers was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 1.7) and 1.2 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.4) for high- and low-frequency hearing loss, respectively, as compared with never smokers. The risk of high- and low-frequency hearing loss increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (both p for trend hearing loss, respectively. The analysis by quitting years showed a decline in risk of hearing loss after quitting smoking, even among those who quitted less than 5 years before baseline. Smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss, especially at the high frequency, in a dose-response manner. The excess risk of hearing loss associated with smoking disappears in a relatively short period after quitting. The prospective association between smoking and hearing loss has not been well studied. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the largest to date investigating the association between smoking and incident hearing loss. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in a dose-response manner. Quitting smoking virtually eliminates the excess risk of hearing loss, even among quitters with short duration of cessation. These results suggest that smoking may be a causal factor for hearing loss, although further research would

  19. The role of participants' self-selected future smoking goals in adolescent smoking cessation interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Stemmler, Mark; Bühler, Anneke; Goecke, Michaela

    2014-08-01

    There is an implicit assumption that abstinence is the treatment goal of young smokers that deliberately participate in cessation interventions, but this may not always be the case. To gain information on subgroups of adolescent intervention participants, we compare participants who want to achieve smoking abstinence (Abst) with those stating a non-abstinence future smoking goal (NAbst), with regard to baseline characteristics, reasons for participation, quit motivation, retention, goal attainment, and smoking abstinence. The sample consisted of 202 adolescent smokers (49.5% female). At baseline, 118 (58.4%) indicated abstinence as future smoking goal and 84 (41.6%) indicated non-abstinence. All participants received a behavioral smoking cessation intervention. Assessments took place before, during, and after treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Regression analyses were conducted. Abst and NAbst participants reported similar baseline characteristics. Abst participants, however, were more likely to report a previous quit attempt and indicated a higher quit motivation before and during treatment. Abst participants were more likely to participate based on own initiative and NAbst participants because of participating friends. Both groups attended a similar number of intervention sessions and were equally likely to attain their self-selected smoking goal. However, more Abst participants reported a successful quit attempt during treatment and abstinence at post-treatment and follow-up. NAbst participants may represent a substantial subgroup in smoking cessation interventions for adolescents. Results indicate that future smoking goals can influence treatment outcomes. NAbst participants in treatment may benefit from additional information on the negative health consequences of light smoking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Effect of a Pilot Pediatric In-Patient Department-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention on Parental Smoking and Children's Secondhand Smoke (SHS) Exposure in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liang, Xia; Liang, Gang; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-11-08

    Children's exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home has numerous adverse health effects. This study evaluated the effects of a pediatric in-patient department-based pilot smoking cessation intervention for household members to reduce children's SHS exposure and encourage smoking cessation. A pre-post test design study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a telephone counseling intervention on household members of hospitalized children in pediatric departments. Data were collected with a standardized Chinese language questionnaire. At the three-month follow-up survey, the proportions of household members who reported adopting complete smoking restriction at home (55%), did not smoke at home at all (37%), did not allow others to smoke in the car (70%), or did not allow others to smoke around the child (57%) were significantly higher than the self-reported responses at the baseline survey. The proportions of household members who reported smoking at home (49%) and in the car (22%) were significantly lower than the baseline survey. Overall, 7% of the participants had reported quitting smoking after three months. Pediatric in-patient department-based telephone counseling for smoking cessation was found to be acceptable to Chinese parents. The intervention encouraged few parents to quit smoking, but encouraged more parents to take measures to reduce children's SHS exposure.

  1. Comparing abrupt and gradual smoking cessation: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2011-11-01

    To compare abrupt and gradual smoking cessation. Randomized trial and observational study, Internet, 2007-2010. Smokers with no strong preference for abrupt or gradual quitting were randomly assigned to quitting immediately (n=472), or to gradually reducing their cigarette consumption over 2 weeks and then quit (n=502). Smokers who strongly preferred to quit abruptly were instructed to do so immediately (n=2456), those who strongly preferred gradual were instructed to reduce their cigarette consumption over 2 weeks, then quit (n=1801). Follow-up was conducted 4 weeks after target quit dates. Those who preferred abrupt quitting were the most motivated to quit and the most confident in their ability to quit. At follow-up, quit rates were 16% in those who preferred abrupt cessation, 7% in those who preferred gradual cessation and 9% in those who had no preference (pmotivation to quit and confidence in ability to quit: those who had low levels of motivation or low levels of confidence were more likely to quit at follow-up if they preferred and used abrupt rather than gradual. In those who had no strong preference for either method, abrupt and gradual produced similar results. Those who preferred and used the abrupt method were more likely to quit than those who preferred and used the gradual method, in particular when they had low motivation and confidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking Cessation (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-23

    Smoking remains a leading cause of major health problems and is linked to nearly a half a million deaths each year. This podcast discusses the importance of quitting smoking to significantly reduce your risk for serious health problems.  Created: 1/23/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/23/2014.

  3. Smoking Cessation (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-23

    Cigarette smoking remains a leading cause of major health problems and is linked to nearly a half million deaths each year. In this podcast, Dr. Brian King discusses the health risks of smoking and the importance of quitting.  Created: 1/23/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 1/23/2014.

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Teenagers Who Smoke Different Cigarette Brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Carl E.

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes and compares the survey responses of teenagers who smoke different cigarette brands, specifically Marlboro, Camel, and Newport. Differences were seen across brands but teen smokers had similar opinions about quitting. Given the differences across brands, more flexible approaches may be needed to address teenage smoking. (Author/MKA)

  5. Hypnosis and Smoking: A Five-Session Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Helen H.

    An active five-session, individualized treatment approach to the stopping of smoking is described. This approach emphasized the following: (a) the feedback, in and out of hypnosis, of the client's own reasons for quitting, (b) the visualization of both positive and negative smoking experiences meaningful to the client, (c) maintaining contact with…

  6. Perceptions of health risk and smoking decisions of young people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerking, S.D.; Khaddaria, R.

    2012-01-01

    Using the Annenberg Perception of Tobacco Risk Survey 2, this paper finds that perceived risk deters smoking among persons aged 14–22 years who think that it is relatively difficult to quit smoking and that onset of deleterious health effects occurs relatively quickly. Perceived health risk,

  7. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    situations, the risk of relapse increased when returning to everyday life. Conclusions: The smoking and alcohol cessation intervention was well received by the participants. Cancer surgery served as a kind of refuge and was a useful cue for motivating patients to quit smoking and to reconsider...

  8. Great American Smokeout Highlights the Importance of Smoking Cessation | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Health Services (OHS) recently took part in the 41st Great American Smokeout, an event that highlights the dangers of smoking and encourages smokers to make a plan to quit. Tobacco smoking is the single most preventable cause of chronic disease and death.

  9. Effect of smoking reduction on lung cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva; Osler, Merete

    2005-01-01

    Many smokers are unable or unwilling to completely quit smoking. A proposed means of harm reduction is to reduce the number of cigarettes smoked per day. However, it is not clear whether this strategy decreases the risk for tobacco-related diseases....

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Habits (2): Some Studies on Perception and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and ex-smokers and no significant interaction between gender and being a smoker/ex-smoker. Students know that smoking is very bad and dangerous to their health. They do know that stopping smoking will improve their health, but once they are hooked on it, it is very hard to quit. Journal of Science and Technology Vol.

  11. Smoking in urban pregnant women in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tobacco use during their pregnancy. Of the pregnant women, 70% lived with at least one smoker in the house. Conclusions. Few black and Indian pregnant women in. South Africa smoke, while coloured pregnant women smoke heavily. QUitting programmes should be targeted at them when they attend antenatal services.

  12. Smoking Prevalence and Attitudes Regarding its Control Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Tobacco use is one of the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality globally; about 70% of smokers see physicians each year. Health care professionals have a very unique role in motivating people to quit smoking. Aim: The aims of this study were to document the smoking prevalence and attitudes ...

  13. Environmental tobacco smoke: health policy and focus on Italian legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldi, G; Fovi De Ruggiero, G; Marsella, L T; De Luca d'Alessandro, E

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide tobacco smoking kills nearly 6 million people each year, including more than 600,000 non-smokers who die from smoke exposure. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, also called secondhand smoke, involuntary smoke, or passive smoke) is the combination of sidestream smoke, the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and mainstream smoke, the smoke exhaled by smokers. People may be exposed to ETS in homes, cars, workplaces, and public places, such as bars, restaurants, and recreational settings. In addition, there is another type of smoke which until now has not been recognized: the so-called thirdhand smoke, that comes from the reaction of mainstream smoke and environmental nitrous acid (HNO2) making carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs). The effects of ETS on human health are well-known, passive smoking is harmful to those who breathe the toxins and it is a serious problem for public health. The smoking ban in Italy had reduced ETS pollution, as in the United States and in other countries all over the world. However, the implementation of comprehensive legislation on smoking policy will necessitate other tobacco control measures for its successful fulfillment: increased media awareness, telephone smoking cessation helplines and smoking cessation support services could be an opportunity to ensure awareness, comprehension and support to those who want to quit smoking. The effectiveness of legislative efforts will also depend on successful enforcement of smoking bans and compliance with the legislation. This review summarizes the evidences about the effect of ETS and provides an overview of smoke-free laws and policies.

  14. Smoke-free legislation and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Timor; Been, Jasper V; Reiss, Irwin K; Mackenbach, Johan P; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-11-17

    In this paper, we aim to present an overview of the scientific literature on the link between smoke-free legislation and early-life health outcomes. Exposure to second-hand smoke is responsible for an estimated 166 ,000 child deaths each year worldwide. To protect people from tobacco smoke, the World Health Organization recommends the implementation of comprehensive smoke-free legislation that prohibits smoking in all public indoor spaces, including workplaces, bars and restaurants. The implementation of such legislation has been found to reduce tobacco smoke exposure, encourage people to quit smoking and improve adult health outcomes. There is an increasing body of evidence that shows that children also experience health benefits after implementation of smoke-free legislation. In addition to protecting children from tobacco smoke in public, the link between smoke-free legislation and improved child health is likely to be mediated via a decline in smoking during pregnancy and reduced exposure in the home environment. Recent studies have found that the implementation of smoke-free legislation is associated with a substantial decrease in the number of perinatal deaths, preterm births and hospital attendance for respiratory tract infections and asthma in children, although such benefits are not found in each study. With over 80% of the world's population currently unprotected by comprehensive smoke-free laws, protecting (unborn) children from the adverse impact of tobacco smoking and SHS exposure holds great potential to benefit public health and should therefore be a key priority for policymakers and health workers alike.

  15. A clinical trial to examine disparities in quitting between African-American and White adult smokers: Design, accrual, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollen, Nicole L; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Yu, Qing; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F; Mayo, Matthew S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2016-03-01

    African-Americans smoke fewer cigarettes per day than Whites but experience greater smoking attributable morbidity and mortality. African-American-White differences may also exist in cessation but rigorously designed studies have not been conducted to empirically answer this question. Quit2Live is, to our knowledge, the first head-to-head trial designed with the primary aim of examining African-American-White disparities in quitting smoking. Secondary aims are to identify mechanisms that mediate and/or moderate the relationship between race and quitting. The study is ongoing. Study aims are accomplished through a 5-year prospective cohort intervention study designed to recruit equal numbers of African-Americans (n=224) and Whites (n=224) stratified on age (White disparities in quitting smoking exist but, more importantly, will examine mechanisms underlying the difference. Attention to proximal, modifiable mechanisms (e.g., adherence, response to treatment, depression, stress) maximizes Quit2Live's potential to inform practice. Findings will provide an empirically-derived approach that will guide researchers and clinicians in identifying specific factors to address to improve cessation outcomes and reduce tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in African-American and White smokers. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01836276. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. What accounts for the association of education and smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, David W; Cofta-Gunn, Ludmila; Irvin, Jennifer E; Fouladi, Rachel T; Wright, Kelli; Daza, Patricia; Mazas, Carlos; Cinciripini, Paul M; Gritz, Ellen R

    2005-04-01

    Education has been identified as a potent sociodemographic predictor of smoking cessation and the Healthy People 2010 goals include the elimination of health disparities attributable to education. The current study prospectively examined the association of education with smoking cessation as well variables that might account for that association among employed adults residing in the southeastern United States. A strong educational gradient in cessation was evident. Only 6% of smokers with less than a high school (HS) degree quit smoking during the 4-year study period, whereas 17% of smokers with a HS degree but no college degree and 28% of smokers with at least a college degree quit smoking. Education appeared to uniquely contribute to the prediction of smoking abstinence over and above the effects of demographic, environmental, tobacco dependence, transtheoretical model, and job-related variables. Obtaining a better understanding of how or why education influences smoking cessation could contribute to reducing the educational gradient in abstinence and warrants further research attention.

  17. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  18. So you want to quit smoking : have you tried a mobile phone ?

    OpenAIRE

    Labonne, Julien; Chase, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco use, which is rising quickly in developing countries, kills 5.4 million people a year worldwide. This paper explores the impacts of mobile phone ownership on tobacco consumption. Indeed, mobile phone ownership could affect tobacco consumption because individuals might pay for their communication with money they would have spent on tobacco. Using panel data from 2,100 households in ...

  19. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Complementary Health Approaches for Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other mind and body practices, including acupuncture and hypnosis, show little evidence of benefit. A 2010 systematic review of the scientific literature concluded that hypnotherapy did not provide any greater effect on the ...

  20. Can smoking initiation contexts predict how adult Aboriginal smokers assess their smoking risks? A cross-sectional study using the 'Smoking Risk Assessment Target'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; West, Robert; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2016-07-07

    Smoking prevalence is slow to reduce among Indigenous Australians of reproductive age. We analysed the relationships between age of smoking initiation, recalled initiation influences and self-assessment of smoking risks in Aboriginal smokers. A community-based cross-sectional survey of Aboriginal smokers aged 18-45 years (N=121; 58 men) was undertaken, using single-item measures. The Smoking Risk Assessment Target (SRAT) as the primary outcome measure enabled self-assessment of smoking risks from 12 options, recategorised into 3 groups. Participants recalled influences on their smoking initiation. Multinomial logistic regression modelling included age, gender, strength of urges to smoke, age at initiation (regular uptake) and statistically significant initiation influences on χ(2) tests ('to be cool', alcohol and cannabis). Frequent initiation influences included friends (74%; SD 0.44), family (57%; SD 0.5) and alcohol (40%; SD 0.49). 54% (n=65) of smokers had the highest risk perception on the SRAT, selected by those who cared about the smoking risks and intended to quit soon. On multivariate analyses, compared with the highest level of SRAT, male gender, lower age of uptake and strong urges to smoke were significantly associated with the lowest level of SRAT, selected by those who refuted risks or thought they could not quit. Lower age of uptake and alcohol were associated with mid-level of SRAT, selected by those who cared about smoking risks, but did not consider quitting as a priority. Characteristics of smoking initiation in youth may have far-reaching associations with how smoking risks are assessed by adults of reproductive age, and their intentions to quit smoking. Becoming a regular smoker at under the age of 16 years, and influences of alcohol on smoking uptake, were inversely associated with high-level assessment of smoking risks and intention to quit in regional Aboriginal smokers. The SRAT may help tailor approaches to Indigenous smoking

  1. Intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anecia Robyn

    2013-11-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics in HEIs. Motivation for the study: Higher education institutions are more dependent on the abilities and commitment of their staff than most other organisations. More than 4000 academics will retire and need to be replaced by 2018, providing justification for the study of intention to quit of academics. Research design, approach and method: An ex post facto quantitative research design was followed. Academics at six HEIs in South Africa were sampled. Measurement instruments included abridged versions of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, Arnold and Feldman Intention to Quit Scale, Job Descriptive Scale and Chew’s reward scale. Main findings: Employee engagement, job satisfaction, remuneration, reward, recognition and transformational leadership were significantly related to intention to quit. In the partial model, three of these variables explained 45% of the variance in intention to quit. Partial least square path modelling revealed that employee engagement and job satisfaction have significant negative impacts on intention to quit. Practical/managerial implications: The findings serve as input for the development of efficacious strategies to retain Generation Y academics at HEIs in South Africa. Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to our knowledge of intention to quit amongst Generation Y academics. It provides evidence of the complexity and inter-relatedness of variables in the phenomenological network of intention to quit.

  2. Motivational interviewing and the decisional balance procedure for cessation induction in smokers not intending to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigel, Susan W; Grobe, James E; Goggin, Kathy; Harris, Kari Jo; Moreno, Jose L; Catley, Delwyn

    2017-01-01

    The decisional balance (DB) procedure examines the pros and cons of behavior change and was considered a component in early formulations of Motivational Interviewing (MI). However, there is controversy and conflicting findings regarding the use of a DB exercise within the treatment of addictions and a need to clarify the role of DB as a component of MI. College tobacco smokers (N=82) with no intentions on quitting were randomly assigned to receive a single counseling session of either Motivational Interviewing using only the decisional balance component (MIDB), or health education around smoking cessation (HE). Assessments were obtained at baseline, immediately post-treatment, 1week, and 4weeks. Compared to HE, the MIDB sessions scored significantly higher on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) scale (all standardized differences d>1, pCons of smoking and therapeutic alliance were predictive of better cessation outcomes. The decisional balance exercise as formulated by earlier versions of MI may be counter-productive and cautions around its use are warranted. Instead, improved cessation outcomes appear associated with increasing perceived benefits of quitting and positive therapeutic alliance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stronger pack warnings predict quitting more than weaker ones: finding from the ITC Malaysia and Thailand surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathelrahman, Ahmed I; Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Omar, Maizurah; Awang, Rahmat; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Fong, Geoffrey T; Hammond, David

    2013-09-18

    We examined the impact of cigarette pack warning labels on interest in quitting and subsequent quit attempts among adult smokers in Malaysia and Thailand. Two overlapping cohorts of adults who reported smoking factory- made cigarettes from Malaysia and Thailand were interviewed face-to-face (3189 were surveyed at baseline and 1781 re-contacted at Wave 2; 2361 current smokers were surveyed at Wave 2 and 1586 re-contacted at Wave 3). In Thailand at baseline, large text only warnings were assessed, while at Wave 2 new large graphic warnings were assessed. In Malaysia, during both waves small text only warnings were in effect. Reactions were used to predict interest in quitting, and to predict making quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Multivariate predictors of "interest in quitting" were comparable across countries, but predictors of quit attempts varied. In both countries, cognitive reactions to warnings (adjusted ORs; 1.57 & 1.69 for Malaysia at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively and 1.29 & 1.19 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), forgoing a cigarette (except Wave 2 in Malaysia) (adjusted ORs; 1.77 for Malaysia at wave 1 and 1.54 & 2.32 for Thailand at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), and baseline knowledge (except wave 2 in both countries) (adjusted ORs; 1.71 & 1.51 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively) were positively associated with interest in quitting at that wave. In Thailand only, "cognitive reactions to warnings" (adjusted ORs; 1.12 & 1.23 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively), "forgoing a cigarette" (adjusted OR = 1.55 at wave 2 only) and "an interest in quitting" (adjusted ORs; 1.61 & 2.85 at wave 1 and wave 2 respectively) were positively associated with quit attempts over the following inter-wave interval. Salience was negatively associated with subsequent quit attempts in both Malaysia and Thailand, but at Wave 2 only (adjusted ORs; 0.89 & 0.88 for Malaysia and Thailand respectively). Warnings appear to have common

  4. Reasons for failure to quit: a cross-sectional survey of tobacco use in major cities in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, M; Haque, A S; Shahzad, H; Samani, Z A; Awan, S; Khan, J A

    2016-05-01

    Tobacco dependence has been defined as a chronic relapsing disease. Around 5 million annual tobacco-related deaths have been reported worldwide. The majority of smokers want to quit but are not successful. To screen our population for tobacco use, gauge the baseline demographics of tobacco users and assess factors associated with failed attempts to quit. Free health camps supervised by a physician were held across two major cities of Pakistan. All consenting participants were administered a questionnaire and had their exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) levels measured. Of 12 969 participants successfully enrolled, the mean age was 31.4 ± 10.0 years. More than three quarters were aged 20-40 years (n = 10 168, 78.4%). The overall average CO level was 12.0 ± 8.0 ppm. The majority of the participants wanted to quit, and nearly everyone had received advice about quitting. The majority had tried smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Friends/peer pressure (n = 1554, 12%), anxiety (n = 681, 5.3%), tobacco dependence (n = 1965, 15.2%) and stress/mood changes (n = 390, 3.0%) were the most widely observed reasons for failure to quit in study participants. The information provided by this study can guide the development of more targeted intervention programmes for smokers who wish to quit.

  5. Anxiety sensitivity and cannabis use problems, perceived barriers for quitting, and fear of quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Rogers, Andrew H; Manning, Kara; Hogan, Julianna B D; Paulus, Daniel J; Buckner, Julia D; Mayorga, Nubia A; Hallford, Gerald; Schmidt, Norman B

    2018-03-05

    Cannabis is among the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States, and rates of cannabis use and cannabis-related problems are increasing. Anxiety sensitivity, or the fear of aversive interoceptive sensations, may be relevant to better understanding cannabis use problems and other significant cannabis use processes (e.g., beliefs about quitting). Previous research has primarily focused on the global anxiety sensitivity construct; however, anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets (Cognitive Concerns, Physical Concerns, and Social Concerns) tend to be differentially related to substance use processes in non-cannabis specific studies. The current study therefore explored anxiety sensitivity lower-order facets in relation to cannabis use problems, perceived barriers for cannabis cessation, and abstinence phobia (fear of not using cannabis) among a community sample of 203 cannabis-using adults. Results indicated that anxiety sensitivity Cognitive Concerns were significantly associated with each of the dependent measures and these effects were not explained by shared variance with the other lower-order factors or a range of other covariates (e.g., tobacco use). The present findings suggest future work may benefit from focusing on the role of anxiety sensitivity Cognitive Concerns in the maintenance of cannabis use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Augusto Oviedo Tejada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  7. Factors associated with smoking cessation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Cesar Augusto Oviedo; Ewerling, Fernanda; Santos, Anderson Moreira Aristides dos; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Menezes, Ana Maria

    2013-08-01

    Tobacco has been identified as the drug with the highest addiction rate and the leading cause of avoidable deaths. The current study thus aimed to identify the determinants of smoking cessation in a Brazilian population sample based on data from the National Household Sample Survey for 2008. The study analyzed socioeconomic, residential, and health-related data as well as individual habits. Data analysis used Poisson regression. The following factors were associated with smoking cessation: age 45 years or older, higher income, medical consultation in the previous 12 months, private health plan, physical exercise, believing that smoking is bad for one's health and that cigarette smoke is harmful to passive smokers, and Internet access in the household. Subjects with heart conditions, diabetes, and cancer were also more prone to quit smoking.

  8. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  9. Evaluation of smoking cessation services in disadvantaged areas of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, F.E.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A socioeconomic gradient exists in both smoking prevalence and cessation; individuals of low socioeconomic status (SES) smoke more and successfully quit less frequently than their high SES peers. Smoking cessation behavioural therapy (SCBT) with/without pharmacotherapy, offered free in

  10. The effectiveness of interventions for primary care physicians to assist in smoking cessation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Stoyka

    2017-05-01

    Implementation of standards for health care professionals to aid to quit smoking is extremely important for public health in Ukraine. Creating a system of antismoking education of health workers - the only way of forming their professional relationship to smoking cessation- and one of the most effective measures to protect people from illness and death associated with smoking.

  11. Determining smoking level of hospital employees and the evaluation of the smoke-free air zone applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Meltem Koç

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The aim of this study is to define the health knowledge, cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts and successes to quit smoking and obstacles indicated by the ones who still smoke among a Training and Research Hospital staff four years after the application of the law “Smoke Free Air Zone”. Methods: A questionnaire developed by the researchers is used for this cross sectional research. It questions the sociodemographic features and thoughts and attitudes about the “Smoke Free Air Zone” and “Smoke Free Hospital” applications. Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test is also applied to the smoking attendants to define the level of dependence. Results:It was found that 29.6% of the participants still smoke. Among the still smoking ones; 29.4% did not ever attempt to quit, 28.2% attempted before starting work in the hospital, 20% attempted after starting work in the hospital and 22.4% attempted on both periods. Regarding the questions about application of “Smoke Free Hospital” it was found that 70.7% of the hospital staff support the application, 53.3% think that violators should be punished with a penalty, 48.1% think that it should be punished by the administration, 30.1% think that passive smoking is an intrusion to the personal rights and 59.1% think that quitters increased with this application. Conclusion: Reducing the smoking rates among healthcare staff is extremely important in the struggle against smoking. Establishment of applications with institutional education programs and easing access to the related services may be helpful for healthcare personnel quit smoking. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (1: 33-39

  12. Impact of a smoking cessation educational program on nurses' interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Linda P; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Kraliková, Eva; Kmetova, Alexandra; Felbrová, Vladislava; Kulovaná, Stanislava; Malá, Katerina; Roubicková, Eva; Wells, Marjorie J; Brook, Jenny K

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate a brief educational program about smoking cessation on the frequency of nurses' interventions with smokers, and impact of nurses' smoking status on outcomes. Prospective, single group design with prestudy and 3 months post-study data. Nurses in the Czech Republic attended hospital-based 1-hr educational programs about helping smokers quit. They completed surveys about the frequency (i.e., always, usually, sometimes, rarely, never) of their smoking cessation interventions with patients using the five A's framework (i.e., ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange), and their attitudes prior to and 3 months after the course. Demographic data included smoking status. Among the 98 nurses with prestudy and post-study data, all were female, mean age was 43 years, 33% were current smokers, and 64% worked in a medical or surgical or oncology settings. At 3 months, compared to baseline, significantly (p < .05) more nurses assessed patients' interest in quitting, assisted with quit attempts, and recommended the use of the quitline for cessation. At 3 months after the program, nurses who smoked were less likely to ask about smoking status (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI; 1.71, 10.53]), advise smokers to quit (OR = 3.03, 95% CI [1.24,7.45]), and refer patients to a quitline (OR = 2.92, 95% CI [0.99, 8.63]) compared to nonsmokers, despite no differences in delivery of interventions at baseline. Three months after attendance at an educational program focused on the nurses' role in supporting smoking cessation efforts, more nurses engaged in interventions to help smokers quit. However, the program was less effective for nurses who smoked. This program demonstrated promise in building capacity among Czech nurses to assist with smoking cessation, but nurses' smoking poses a challenge. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  13. Feasibility of computerized scheduled gradual reduction for adolescent smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William; Jerome, Albert; Behar, Albert; Zack, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to modify a smoking cessation program that uses computerized scheduled gradual reduction for use with adolescent smokers and to test the feasibility of this cessation approach in group support and minimal contact modalities. Utilizing a lesson plan approach with high school marketing students in five high schools and student survey feedback, the LifeSign program was modified to be an acceptable smoking cessation program for adolescent smokers. In the first study, 17 adolescent smokers used the modified program with seven associated weekly group support sessions. At the end of treatment, 29% had quit smoking, and over half of those who continued to smoke reduced their smoking rate by 50%. In the second study, the LifeSign for Teens program was evaluated with 18 adolescent smokers in a minimal contact format. At the end of treatment, 17% had quit smoking, and mean smoking rate reductions of 43% were found among those who continued smoking. At 1-year follow-up, all subjects who had quit at posttreatment reported continuous abstinence. The results of these two small trials suggest that a computerized scheduled gradual reduction approach may be an accepted and potentially efficacious approach for smoking cessation among adolescent smokers.

  14. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. This two-group experimental study was conducted on 60 clients (30 clients in test group and 30 in control group) referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. The study tools were demographic and addiction-quitting self-efficacy questionnaires. After gathering demographic data and conducting pretest, the intervention was carried out based on Bandura's social cognitive theory for the test group and post-test was taken 1 month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS using related tests. According to the results, test group was more successful than the control group in addiction quitting. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of recurrence; it was less in the test group. A significant difference was also found between self-efficacy scores before and after the intervention in the test group. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory was effective on addiction quitting. So, it is recommended to apply it for clients referring to addiction quitting clinics.

  15. “It’s my business, it’s my body, it’s my money”: Experiences of smokers who are not planning to quit in the next 30 days and their views about treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Kiera; Gartland, Nicola; Wearden, Alison; Armitage, C J; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current evidence-based smoking cessation treatments in the UK are only offered to smokers ready to quit within 30 days. This study reports the experiences of smokers who are not ready to quit and explores the types of intervention approaches that might engage them. Methods: Five focus groups were conducted with smokers who had no plans to quit within 30 days (n = 32, 44% female). Verbatim transcripts were analyzed thematically using Nvivo 10 software. Results: Participants were am...

  16. Smoking and women: tragedy of the majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, J E

    1987-11-19

    fertility, increases the rate of spontaneous abortion of chromosomally normal fetuses, and increases the incidence of abruptio placentae, placenta previa, bleeding during pregnancy, and premature rupture of the membranes. A growing body of evidence also suggests that smoking during pregnancy has longterm effects on children. Those organizations at work to promote the rights of women might consider devoting some attention to help women stop smoking.

  17. Smoking Policy Change Within Permanent Supportive Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Stewart, Holly C; Walters, Jon; Vijayaraghavan, Maya

    2018-04-01

    Smoke-free policies effectively reduce secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smokers, and reduce consumption, encourage quit attempts, and minimize relapse to smoking among smokers. Such policies are uncommon in permanent supportive housing (PSH) for formerly homeless individuals. In this study, we collaborated with a PSH provider in San Diego, California to assess a smoke-free policy that restricted indoor smoking. Between August and November 2015, residents completed a pre-policy questionnaire on attitudes toward smoke-free policies and exposure to secondhand smoke, and then 7-9 months after policy implementation residents were re-surveyed. At follow-up, there was a 59.7% reduction in indoor smoking. The proportion of residents who identified as current smokers reduced by 13% (95% CI: -38, 10.2). The proportion of residents who reported never smelling SHS indoors (apartment 24.2%, 95% CI: 4.2, 44.1; shared areas 17.2%, 95% CI: 1.7, 32.7); in outdoor areas next to the living unit (porches or patio 56.7%, 95% CI: 40.7, 72.8); and in other outdoor areas (parking lot 28.6%, 95% CI: 8.3, 48.9) was lower post-policy compared with pre-policy. Overall, resident support increased by 18.7%; however, the greatest increase in support occurred among current smokers (from 14.8 to 37.5%). Fewer current smokers reported that the policy would enable cessation at post-policy compared to pre-policy. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of implementing smoke-free policies in PSH for formerly homeless adults. However, policy alone appears insufficient to trigger change in smoking behavior, highlighting the need for additional cessation resources to facilitate quitting.

  18. Momentary smoking context as a mediator of the relationship between SES and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnel, Tina; Ferguson, Stuart G; Shiffman, Saul; Thrul, Johannes; Schüz, Benjamin

    2017-12-15

    There is a well-established socioeconomic gradient in smoking behavior: those with lower socioeconomic status smoke more. However, much less is known about the mechanisms explaining how SES is linked to smoking. This study takes a social-ecological perspective by examining whether socioeconomic status affects smoking behavior by differential exposure to places where smoking is allowed. Exposure to smoking restrictions was assessed in real-time using Ecological Momentary Assessment methods. A sample of 194 daily smokers, who were not attempting to quit, recorded their smoking and information about situational and contextual factors for three weeks using an electronic diary. We tested whether a smoker's momentary context mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (educational attainment) and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD). Momentary context was operationalized as the proportion of random assessments answered in locations where smoking was allowed versus where smoking was not allowed. Data were analysed using multilevel regression (measurements nested within participants) with a lower level mediation model (2-1-1 mediation). Although no significant direct effect of SES on CPD were observed, there was a significant indirect effect of SES on CPD via the momentary context. Compared to participants with higher education, lower educated participants were more likely to encounter places where smoking was allowed, and this in turn, was associated with a higher number of CPD. These findings suggest that SES is associated with smoking at least partially via differential exposure to smoking-friendly environments, with smokers from lower SES backgrounds accessing more places where smoking is allowed. Implications for current smoke-free legislation are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Assessing the impact of a respiratory diagnosis on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of respiratory diagnoses on smoking cessation. A total of 229 current and former smokers, with and without respiratory diagnoses completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing how their smoking habit changed when diagnosed with various respiratory conditions. Among all participants the most common reason for quitting smoking was to reduce the risk of health problems in general. In those with a chronic respiratory diagnosis, this was their most common reason for quitting. Motivation to quit smoking, scored by participants on a scale of 0-10, increased at the time of diagnosis then further increased after diagnosis of a chronic respiratory condition but declined after diagnosis of an acute respiratory condition. The research had a small sample size so further research is required. However, important themes are highlighted with the potential to influence clinical practice. All clinicians should receive training to promote cessation at the time of diagnosing respiratory conditions.

  20. Smoking Patterns and Smoking Cessation Willingness—A Study among Beneficiaries of Government Welfare Assistance in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Milcarz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence and tobacco use patterns among adult social assistance beneficiaries and their interest in quitting. The results are based on data collected in a cross-sectional survey conducted among adults in the Piotrkowski district. A sample of 3636 social assistance beneficiaries produced a total of 1817 respondents who completed face-to-face questionnaires. Overall, 37.1% of the respondents, including 52.8% men and 29.6% women, were current smokers. Over one third of the smokers reported their willingness to quit. In the study population, several characteristics were significantly associated with the current daily smoking: male gender, low educational attainment, unemployment or temporary employment, lack of awareness of smoking-associated health risks, use of e-cigarettes, and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS. The intention to quit smoking among the daily smokers was positively correlated with their awareness of smoking-associated health risks, lack of previous quit attempts, and low exposure to ETS. Smoking prevalence among social assistance recipients tends to be higher than in the general population, but more than half of the smokers are willing to quit. There is an urgency to develop policies tailored to the needs of these disadvantaged population groups.

  1. Women who quit maquiladora work on the U.S.-Mexico border: assessing health, occupation, and social dimensions in two transnational electronics plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S; Samuels, S; Ramirez, M

    1998-05-01

    This cohort study of 725 women examined the health, occupational, and social factors that contribute to quitting work in two transnational electronics maquiladoras (assembly plants) in Tijuana, Mexico. The estimated cumulative probabilities of quitting were 68% and 81% by 1 and 2 years of employment. After adjusting for other factors, women who had a history of smoking or surgery and those who returned to work after a paid leave due to illness were more likely to quit. In contrast, women with a history of chronic illness had lower quitting rates. The nationality of the company and the work shift also significantly influenced quitting rates, but demographic characteristics and health care visits did not have a significant effect. Women selectively leave maquiladora employment, often due to health-related events. The healthy worker effect is difficult to measure in a mobile population with high turnover.

  2. Effects of Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation and Motivation to Quit in Tobacco Smokers: A Randomized, Sham Controlled, Double-Blind Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C. Vitor de Souza Brangioni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC has been shown to reduce cravings in tobacco addiction; however, results have been somewhat mixed. In this study, we hypothesized that motivation to quit smoking is a critical factor of tDCS effects in smokers. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of both tDCS and motivation to quit on cigarette consumption and the relationship between these two factors. DLPFC tDCS was applied once a day for 5 days. Our primary outcome was the amount of cigarettes smoked per day. We collected this information at baseline (d1, at the end of the treatment period (d5, 2 days later (d7 and at the 4-week follow-up (d35. Visual Analog Scale (VAS for motivation to quit was collected at the same time-points. 36 subjects (45 ± 11 years old; 24.2 ± 11.5 cigarettes daily smoked, 21 women were randomized to receive either active or sham tDCS. In our multivariate analysis, as to take into account the mediation and moderation effects of motivation to quit, we found a significant main effect of tDCS, showing that tDCS was associated with a significant reduction of cigarettes smoked per day. We also showed a significant interaction effect of motivation to quit and treatment, supporting our hypothesis that tDCS effects were moderated by motivation to quit, indicating that higher levels of motivation were associated with a larger tDCS response. We found that the participants' motivation to quit alone, both at baseline and at follow-up, does not explain the decrease in the average cigarette consumption. Repetitive prefrontal tDCS coupled with high motivation significantly reduced cigarette consumption up to 4-weeks post-intervention.Clinical Trial Registration: http://ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02146014.

  3. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  4. Smoke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  5. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  6. Evaluation of a Pharmacist and Nurse Practitioner Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zubair; Pogge, Elizabeth; Boomershine, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a smoking cessation program led by a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. During a 6-month period, patients attended 7 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a pharmacist and 1 to 2 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a nurse practitioner. The primary outcome was smoking cessation point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, nicotine dependence at baseline versus program end, and patient satisfaction. Nine (47%) of 19 total participants completed the program. Seven of the 9 patients who completed the program were smoke-free upon study completion. Point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date were 66%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, based on patients who completed the program. Medication adherence rates were 88.6%, 54.6%, and 7